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Sample records for age metamorphic history

  1. High-precision UPb ages of metamorphic rutile: application to the cooling history of high-grade terranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mezger, K.; Hanson, G.N.; Bohlen, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Metamorphic rutiles occurring in granulite and upper amphibolite facies metapelitic rocks of the Archean Pikwitonei granulite domain (Manitoba) and the Proterozoic Adirondack terrane (New York) give concordant and near concordant UPb ages. The Pb concentrations in rutile range from 2.85 to 168 ppm, U concentrations range from 10.9 to 390 ppm and the measured 206Pb 204Pb ratios range from 182 to 22,100 corresponding to 238U 204Pb ratios of 398-75,100. The proportions of radiogenic 208Pb are very low, ranging from 0.0 to 6.9% of total radiogenic Pb. The habits of the rutile crystals range from stubby to acicular, the physical properties vary from opaque/black to transparent/reddish-brown. Separate batches of black and reddish-brown rutile grains from the same samples have similar U and Pb concentrations, Pb-isotope ratios, and yield the same U Pb ages within analytical uncertainty. No correlation of U concentration and 206Pb 204Pb ratios with morphology or color of the rutiles was observed among the samples analyzed. Most rutiles yield concordant UPb ages which are reproducible within analytical uncertainty, i.e. generally ??2 Ma. The UPb ages for prograde rutile are younger than the time of peak metamorphism given by UPb ages for garnet and zircon, and also younger than UPb ages for sphene and monazite, and 40Ar 39Ar and KAr ages for hornblende but older than 40Ar 39Ar and KAr ages for biotite from the same area. This suggests that the rutile ages reflect cooling below closure temperatures. Within a single hand-specimen, and thus for an identical thermal history, larger rutile grains give older ages than do smaller grains. This suggests that volume diffusion is the most probable mechanism responsible for the ages being younger than the time of peak metamorphism. It also suggests that the dimensions for such diffusion are directly related to the dimensions of the rutile crystal and not to the dimensions of sub-grain domains, as is the case for Ar diffusion in

  2. Tectonic evolution of forearc nappes of the active Banda arc-continent collision: Origin, age, metamorphic history and structure of the Lolotoi Complex, East Timor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Standley, Carl E.; Harris, Ron

    2009-12-01

    An integrated multidisciplinary investigation of the Lolotoi Complex of East Timor (Timor Leste) indicates that it is part of the Banda forearc that was metamorphosed and rapidly exhumed during the Eocene and accreted to the NW Australian continental margin during Late Miocene to present arc-continent collision. Greenschist, graphitic phyllite, quartz-mica schist, amphibolite and pelitic schist dominate metamorphic rock types. Mineral, whole rock, and trace element geochemical analyses of metabasites indicate protolith compositions consistent with tholeiitic basalt and basaltic andesite with mixed MORB and oceanic arc affinities. Metapelite schist is mostly composed of metasedimentary units derived from mafic to intermediate rocks with oceanic to continental volcanic arc provenance. Thermobarometric calculations show peak metamorphic conditions of 530 °C to 680 °C for garnet-biotite pairs and amphibole, and peak pressures of 5 to 10 kbar for garnet-aluminosilicate-quartz-plagioclase assemblages. Peak metamorphism occurred at 45.36 ± 0.63 Ma, as indicated by Lu-Hf analyses of garnet. Detrital zircon grains have a U/Pb age distribution with spikes at 663, 120 and 87 Ma, which is typical of detrital zircon ages throughout the Great Indonesian Arc of Asia, but is distinct from Australian affinity units. These data indicate deposition and later metamorphism occurred after 87 Ma. Structural analyses of the metamorphic rocks and their sedimentary and volcanic cover units reveals 5-6 deformational phases of alternating shortening and extension. There is little to no evidence of strike-slip deformation. Phases 1-4 are inferred as pre-Oligocene from age determinations. Phases 5 and 6 are most likely related to latest Miocene to Pliocene nappe emplacement and Pliocene to present collisional deformation. Kinematic indicators show mostly top to the SE directed shortening and top to the south and SE extension. Structural mapping indicates that the Lolotoi Complex and some of

  3. Metamorphic and age constraints on the Alakeçi shear zone: Implications for the extensional exhumation history of the northern Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Nikolay; Beccaletto, Laurent; Robyr, Martin; Monié, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    The Kazdağ Massif exposes an extensional metamorphic dome in the Biga Peninsula of northwest Turkey, bounded on both flanks by detachments and/or shear zones. The northern flank is marked by the extensional Alakeçi shear zone (ASZ), with poorly known P-T-t path. We therefore focus on metamorphic conditions and temporal history of the ASZ to determine its tectono-metamorphic evolution. ASZ mylonites were derived from both the footwall Kazdağ Massif core metamorphic rocks and the hanging wall Çetmi mélange lithologies. The mylonitic fabrics in the ASZ depict a top-to-the NNE shearing, parallel to the NNE-plunging stretching lineation and NNW-dipping mylonitic foliation. This geometry implies normal sense movement i.e. north-side down-dip extensional displacement along this flank of the Kazdağ Massif. The northward transition from ductile to brittle-ductile shear regime through the ASZ shows that the non-coaxial deformation occurred at decreasing temperatures and degree of metamorphism. The paragenesis in equilibrium of the mylonitic gneisses and schists contains quartz + feldspar + muscovite + biotite + garnet ±staurolite, with late retrogressive chlorite after biotite and garnet. Calculated thermo-barometric conditions for ASZ rocks yielded pressures between 6.9 and 5.7 kbar and temperatures between 706 and 587 °C, which constrain the peak metamorphism. The mylonitic rocks supplied isochron 39Ar/ 40Ar mica ages between 26.97 and 24.19 Ma, which we interpret to date the cooling of the mylonites following the P-T decrease across the ASZ. The metamorphic data support the structural record and strengthen the extensional character of the ASZ. The transition from sillimanite-bearing footwall Kazdağ Massif core gneisses in the deeper structural levels to chlorite schists towards the shallow structural levels at the top of the ASZ, is consistent with an extensional exhumation of the metamorphic pile. These data allow us to determine the peak P-T conditions and the

  4. U-Pb garnet, sphene, monazite, and rutile ages: Implications for the duration of high-grade metamorphism and cooling histories, Adirondack Mts. , New York

    SciTech Connect

    Mezger, K.; Rawnsley, C.M.; Hanson, G.N. ); Bohlen, S.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Garnet ages for the Lowlands range from 1,168-1,127 Ma, those from the central and southern Highlands from 1,154-1,013 Ma. Metamorphism in the Highlands may not have occurred as a single event but rather in several discrete thermal pulses. An age of 1,153 {plus minus} 3 Ma was determined for garnets in the syn-regional metamorphic contact aureole of the Diana syenite, consistent with that of the syenite intrusion, 1 155 {plus minus} 4 Ma. Garnets just outside the contact aureole give an age of 1,168 {plus minus} 6 Ma. In the Lowlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,161 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 1,005 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 953 {plus minus} 4 Ma, and sphene ages range from 1,156 to 1,103 Ma. In the Highlands, monazite yielded an age of 1,033 {plus minus} 1 Ma, rutiles yielded ages of 911 {plus minus} 2 Ma and 885 {plus minus} 2 and sphenes from 1,033 Ma to 991 Ma. The rutile and monazite ages indicate that both terranes cooled at time-integrated rates of ca. 1.5C/Ma for at least 150 Ma following the last phase of high-grade metamorphism. The Lowlands cooled to ca. 400C by ca. 1,000 Ma and the Highlands by ca. 900 Ma. The mineral ages indicate that metamorphic pressures and temperatures recorded by thermobarometry correspond to conditions attained polychronically over 150 Ma or more. Mineral ages combined with temperature estimates for peak metamorphism indicate that the closure temperature for the U-Pb system is >800C in garnet, 640-730C in monazite, and 500-670C in sphene.

  5. Cathodoluminescence of diamond as an indicator of its metamorphic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylova, Maya; Bruce, Loryn; Longo, Micaela; Ryder, John; Dobrzhinetskaya, Larissa

    2010-05-01

    Diamond displays a supreme resistance to chemical and mechanical weathering, ensuring its survival through complex and prolonged crustal processes, including metamorphism and exhumation. For these reasons, volcanic sources and secondary and tertiary collectors for detrital placer diamonds, like Ural or Bingara diamonds, may be difficult to determine. If metamorphic processes leave their marks on diamond, they can be used to reconstruct crustal geologic processes and ages of primary diamondiferous volcanics. Four diamond suites extracted from metamorphic rocks have been characterized using optical CL, infrared and CL spectroscopy, and photoluminescence at the liquid nitrogen temperature. The studied diamonds are from the ~2.7 Ga sedimentary conglomerate and lamprophyric breccia metamorphosed in the greenschist facies (Wawa, Northern Ontario, Canada) during the 2.67 Ga Kenoran orogeny, and from the ultra-high pressure (UHP) terranes of Kokchetav (Kazakhstan) and Erzgebirge (Germany) exhumated in the Paleozoic. Wawa diamonds (Type IaAB and Type II) displayed green, yellow, orange, and red CL colours controlled by the CL emittance at 520, 576 nm, and between 586 and 664 nm. The UHP terranes diamonds show much weaker CL; few luminescent stones display CL peaks at 395, 498, 528 nm and a broad band at 580-668 nm. In contrast, most common diamonds found in unmetamorphosed rocks, i.e. octahedrally grown Type IaAB stones, luminescence blue emitting light at ~415-440 nm and 480-490 nm. There is a noticeable difference between cathodoluminescence of these diamonds and diamonds in metamorphic rocks. The studied diamonds that experienced metamorphism show a shift of CL emission to longer wavelengths (above 520 nm) and to green, yellow and red CL colours. Photoluminescence has the high resolution necessary to assign luminescence to specific optical centers of diamond. Diamonds in metamorphic rocks contain H3 (pairs of substitutional nitrogen atoms separated by a vacancy) and NVo

  6. Thermal history of a metamorphic core complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dokka, R. K.; Mahaffie, M. J.; Snoke, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission track (FT) thermochronology studies of lower plate rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humbolt Range metamorphic core complex provide important constraints on the timing an nature of major middle Tertiary extension of northeast Nevada. Rocks analyzed include several varieties of mylonitic orthogneiss as well as amphibolitic orthognesses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Oligocene-age porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Harrison Pass pluton was also studied. The minerals dated include apatite, zircon, and sphene and were obtained from the same rocks that have been previously studied. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 26.4 Ma to 23.8 Ma, with all showing overlap at 1 sigma between 25.4 to 23.4 Ma. Concordancy of all FT ages from all structural levels indicates that the lower plate cooled rapidly from temperatures above approx. 285 C (assumed sphene closure temperature (2)) to below approx. 150 C (assumed apatite closure temperature) near the beginning of the Miocene. This suggests that the lower plate cooled at a rate of at least approx. 36 deg C/Ma during this event. Rapid cooling of the region is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), the vertical complement to intense crustal extension. FT data firmly establish the upper limit on the timing of mylonitization during detachment faulting and also coincide with the age of extensive landscape disruption.

  7. Age of metamorphic events : petrochronology and hygrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Valerie; Villa, Igor M.

    2017-04-01

    Geodynamic models of the lithosphere require quantitative data from natural samples. Time is a key parameter: it allows to calculate rates and duration of geological processes and provides informations about the involved physical processes (Vance et al. 2003). Large-scale orogenic models require linking geochronological data with other parameters: structures, kinematics, magmatic and metamorphic petrology (P-T-A-X conditions), thermobarometric evolution of the lithosphere, chemical dynamics (Muller, 2003). This requires geochronometers that are both powerful chemical and petrological tracers. In-situ techniques allow dating a mineral in its petrological-microstructural environment. Getting a "date" has become quite easy... But what do we date in the end ? What is the link between the numbers obtained from the mass spectrometer and the age of the metamorphic event we are trying to date ? How can we transform the date into a geological meaningful age ? What do we learn about the behavior of the geochronometer minerals? Now that we can perform precise dating on very small samples directly in the studied rock, it is important to improve the way we interpret the ages to give them more pertinence in the geodynamic context. We propose to discuss the Th/U/Pb system isotopic closure in various metamorphic contexts using our published examples of in situ dating on monazite and zircon (Bosse et al. 2009; Didier et al. 2014, 2015). The studied examples show that (i) fluid assisted dissolution-precipitation processes rather than temperature-dependent solid diffusion predominantly govern the closure of the Th/U/Pb system (ii) monazite and zircon are sensitive to the interaction with fluids of specific composition (F, CO2, K ...), even at low temperature (iii) in the absence of fluids, monazite is able to record HT events and to retain this information in poly-orogenic contexts or during partial melting events (iv) complex chemical and isotopic zonations, well known in monazite

  8. Lunar anorthosite 15415 - Texture, mineralogy, and metamorphic history.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, O. B.

    1972-01-01

    Lunar anorthosite 15415 consists almost entirely of anorthite (homogeneous anorthite 96.6 molecule percent), with accessory diopsidic augite and traces of hypersthene, ilmenite, and a silica mineral. The rock has had a complex metamorphic history. The texture reflects at least two episodes of shearing (followed by intense and partial recrystallization, respectively), one episode of cataclastic deformation, and one or more episodes of shattering and fragmentation.

  9. Lunar anorthosite 15415: texture, mineralogy, and metamorphic history.

    PubMed

    James, O B

    1972-01-28

    Lunar anorthosite 15415 consists almost entirely of anorthite (homogeneous anorthite 96.6 molecule percent), with accessory diopsidic augite and traces of hypersthene, ilmenite, and a silica mineral. The rock has had a complex metamorphic history. The texture reflects at least two episodes of shearing (followed by intense and partial recrystallization, respectively), one episode of cataclastic deformation, and one or more episodes of shattering and fragmentation.

  10. Lunar anorthosite 15415: Texture, mineralogy, and metamorphic history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, O.B.

    1972-01-01

    Lunar anorthosite 15415 consists almost entirely of anorthite (homogeneous anorthite 96.6 molecule percent), with accessory diopsidic augite and traces of hypersthene, ilmenite, and a silica mineral. The rock has had a complex metamorphic history. The texture reflects at least two episodes of shearing (followed by intense and partial recrystallization, respectively), one episode of cataclastic deformation, and one or more episodes of shattering and fragmentation.

  11. Geospeedometry and the metamorphic history of the Late Cretaceous Chiwaukum Schist, west central Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.A. . Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences); Lasaga, A.C.; Ague, J.J.; Brandon, M.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Chiwaukum Schist on the NE side of the Late Cretaceous Mount Stuart batholith (MSB) shows evidence of a low-P contact metamorphism, followed by a higher-P amphibolite-facies regional metamorphism (Evans and Berti, 1986). Samples were collected from this contact zone in order to quantify the time-temperature history of the schist using the geospeedometry method of Lasaga (1983). Pseudomorphic textures and garnet-aluminosilicate-plagioclase (GASP) geobarometry within some samples show an increase in pressure during crystal growth, consistent with the interpretation of Evans and Berti (1986), that regional metamorphism followed intrusion of the MSB. Geospeedometry exploits the kinetics of diffusion associated with the thermo-barometric exchange reactions in order to determine the retrograde cooling history of a metamorphic rock. This technique was applied using Fe-Mg diffusion between garnet and biotite as defined by that geothermometer. Modeling results indicate that the region was exhumed and cooled from about 22 km and 610 C to about 8 km and 525 C, in a period of about 2.5 Myr. The average exhumation rate is 5.6 km/Myr. These results are consistent with existing isotopic ages, which indicate that the northeast MSB was intruded at about 95 Ma (K/Ar hornblende and U/Pb zircon) and that the Chiwaukum Schist cooled through temperatures of about 350 C at 86 to 83 Ma (K/Ar muscovite). Rapid unroofing appears to follow shortly after the climax of crustal thickening within the Cascade metamorphic core and may be related to erosional and/or tectonic denudation within a mountainous collisional orogen.

  12. Metamorphic History of the Eucritic Crust of 4 Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, A.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.

    1995-09-01

    Eucrites are crustal rocks from asteroid 4 Vesta. They cooled rapidly during initial crystallization (0.01-100 degrees C/hr) [1] in lava flows less than about 5 m thick. Most eucrites experienced an extended period of thermal metamorphism after crystallization [2]. We have developed a model that explains the rapid cooling of eucrites during crystallization as well as subsequent thermal metamorphism. We suggest that eucrites formed in lava flows that were metamorphosed through burial by successive lava flows as volcanism built up the crust [3]. The heat for the metamorphism was internally-derived, not from impact events. This model can be examined quantitatively and the results compared to the thermal histories determined from petrologic studies of eucrites [4, 5]. Estimates of the thickness of Vesta's eucritic crust range from 10 [6] to 25 km [7]. For our model, we assume a 20 km thick crust, resulting in a volume of ~1.6x10^7 km^3. If all this basalt erupted during a period of only 1 My, and ignoring the portion of the basaltic magma that would be intrusive, the average mass effusion rate would be ~16 km^3/y, an average accumulation rate of lava of ~0.02 m/yr. The initial temperature gradient in Vesta is problematic. We assume that the temperature of Vesta was uniform throughout the body at the eucrite liquidus about 1200 degrees C, when volcanism began, and that the surface temperature was 0 degrees C. The effect of regolith insulation is important [8], but may be negligible during the short duration of volcanism. Therefore, we use the thermal diffusivity of solid rock of 7x10^-7 m^2/s. Using a diffusion equation, we estimate the thermal histories of basalts that formed at time t (My) after the beginning of volcanism (t=0 My). Fig. 1 shows that the earliest formed basalts, which end up the most deeply buried (20 km), could be heated up almost to their melting temperatures. Even near the end of volcanism (t=0.9 My), the basalts that end up buried only 2 km heat up

  13. Proterozoic metamorphism and uplift history of the north-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patel, S.C.; Frost, B.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Snyder, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Laramie Mountains of south-eastern Wyoming contain two metamorphic domains that are separated by the 1.76 Ga. Laramie Peak shear zone (LPSZ). South of the LPSZ lies the Palmer Canyon block, where apatite U-Pb ages are c. 1745 Ma and the rocks have undergone Proterozoic kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphism. In contrast, in the Laramie Peak block, north of the shear zone, the U-Pb apatite ages are 2.4-2.1 Ga, the granitic rocks are unmetamorphosed and supracrustal rocks record only low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism that is Archean in age. Peak mineral assemblages in the Palmer Canyon block include (a) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-garnet-staurolite-kyanite in the pelitic schists; (b) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-low-Ca amphiboles-kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists, and locally (c) hornblende-plagioclase-garnet in amphibolites. All rock types show abundant textural evidence of decompression and retrograde re-equilibration. Notable among the texturally late minerals are cordierite and sapphirine, which occur in coronas around kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists. Thermobarometry from texturally early and late assemblages for samples from different areas within the Palmer Canyon block define decompression from > 7 kbar to < 3 kbar. The high-pressure regional metamorphism is interpreted to be a response to thrusting associated with the Medicine Bow orogeny at c. 1.78-1.76 Ga. At this time, the north-central Laramie Range was tectonically thickened by as much as 12 km. This crustal thickening extended for more than 60 km north of the Cheyenne belt in southern Wyoming. Late in the orogenic cycle, rocks of the Palmer Canyon block were uplifted and unroofed as the result of transpression along the Laramie Peak shear zone to produce the widespread decompression textures. The Proterozoic tectonic history of the central Laramie Range is similar to exhumation that accompanied late-orogenic oblique convergence in many Phanerozoic orogenic belts.

  14. Radiometric ages related to the timing of Paleozoic metamorphism and deformation in the Blue Ridge of northwestern North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, S.A. . Dept. of Geology); Dallmeyer, R.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Thrust sheets within the Blue Ridge (BR) of northwestern NC record different Paleozoic tectonic histories, recognized on the basis of detailed field and petrographic studies. Ar-40/Ar-39, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, and U-Pb data are reported on mineral separates, part of an ongoing study to define the ages of Paleozoic metamorphism and deformation within various segments of the Blue Ridge. East of the Gossan Lead fault in vicinity of the Grandfather Mountain window, the BR consists mainly of amphibolite and pelitic schist. These rocks record ordovician Sm-Nd ages, Devonian Rb-Sr ages, and Mississippian Ar-40/Ar-39 ages. A Sm-Nd mineral isochron based on hornblende, plagioclase, and sphene from an amphibolite defines an age of 465 [+-] 35 Ma. Rb-Sr data from an amphibolite of similar metamorphic grade yields Devonian mineral ages ranging from 365--408 Ma. Muscovite separates in associated pelitic schists record Ar-40/Ar-39 plateau ages of 324 [+-] 1 and 329 [+-] 1 Ma. The ages are interpreted to reflect extensive Paleozoic tectonothermal activity in eastern Blue Ridge sequences, commencing with high-grade Ordovician metamorphism, isotopic resetting in the Devonian associated with granitic intrusions, followed by further re-equilibration associated with Alleghanian thrusting. In contrast, thrust sheets from the westernmost BR exhibit low metamorphic grades and record mainly Taconic ages of metamorphism. Preliminary analysis suggests that only the easternmost thrust sheets of northwestern NC experienced thermal resetting during the Devonian.

  15. Mesoproterozoic syntectonic garnet within Belt Supergroup metamorphic tectonites: Evidence of Grenville-age metamorphism and deformation along northwest Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesheim, T.O.; Vervoort, J.D.; McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Lang, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Idaho contains Belt-Purcell Supergroup equivalent metamorphic tectonites that underwent two regional deformational and metamorphic events during the Mesoproterozoic. Garnet-bearing pelitic schists from the Snow Peak area of northern Idaho yield Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock ages of 1085??2. Ma, 1198??79. Ma, 1207??8. Ma, 1255??28. Ma, and 1314??2. Ma. Garnet from one sample, collected from the Clarkia area, was micro-drilled to obtain separate core and rim material that produced ages of 1347??10. Ma and 1102??47. Ma. The core versus rim ages from the micro-drilled sample along with the textural and spatial evidence of the other Lu-Hf garnet ages indicate two metamorphic garnet growth events at ~. 1330. Ma (M1) and ~. 1080. Ma (M2) with the intermediate ages representing mixed ages. Some garnet likely nucleated and grew M1 garnet cores that were later overgrown by younger M2 garnet rims. Most garnet throughout the Clarkia and Snow Peak areas are syntectonic with a regional penetrative deformational fabric, preserved as a strong preferred orientation of metamorphic matrix minerals (e.g., muscovite and biotite). The syntectonic garnets are interpreted to represent one regional, coeval metamorphic and deformation event at ~. 1080. Ma, which overlaps in time with the Grenville Orogeny. The older ~. 1330. Ma ages may represent an extension of the East Kootenay Orogeny described in western Canada. These deformational and metamorphic events indicate that western Laurentia (North America) was tectonically active in the Mesoproterozoic and during the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Deciphering the tectonometamorphis history of the Anarak Metamorphic Complex, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchetta, Stefano; Malaspina, Nadia; Zanchi, Andrea; Martin, Silvana; Benciolini, Luca; Berra, Fabrizio; Javadi, Hamid Reza; Koohpeyma, Meysam; Ghasemi, Mohammad R.; Sheikholeslami, Mohammad Reza

    2014-05-01

    The Cimmerian orogeny shaped the southern margin of Eurasia during the Late Permian and the Triassic. Several microplates, detached from Gondwana in the Early Permian, migrated northward to be accreted to the Eurasia margin. In the reconstruction of such orogenic event Iran is a key area. The occurrence of several "ophiolites" belt of various age, from Paleozoic to Cretaceous, poses several questions on the possibility that a single rather than multiple Paleotethys sutures occur between Eurasia and Iran. In this scenario the Anarak region in Central Iran still represents a conundrum. Contrasting geochronological, paleontological, paleomagnetic data and reported field evidence suggest different origins for the Anarak Metamorphic Complex (AMC). The AMC is either interpreted to be part of microplate of Gondwanan affinity, a relic of an accretionary wedge developed at the Eurasia margin during the Paleothetys subduction or part of the Cimmerian suture zone, occurring in NE Iran, displaced to central Iran by counterclockwise rotation of the central Iranian blocks from the Triassic. Our field structural data, petrographic and geochemical data, carried out in the frame of the DARIUS PROGRAMME, indicate that the AMC is not a single coherent block, but it consists of several units (Morghab, Chah Gorbeh, Patyar, Palhavand Gneiss, Lakh Marble, Doshak and dismembered "ophiolites") which display different tectonometamorphic evolutions. The Morghab and Chah Gorbeh units share a common history and they preserve, as a peculiar feature within metabasites, a prograde metamorphism with sin- to post-deformation growth of blueschists facies assemblages on pre-existing greenschist facies mineralogical associations. LT-HP metamorphism responsible for the growth of sodic amphibole has been recognized also within marble lenses at the southern limit of the Chah Gorbeh unit. Finally, evidence of LT-HP metamorphism also occur in the metabasites and possibly also in the serpentinites that form

  17. Quantitative determination of metamorphic reaction history : mass balance relations between groundmass and mineral inclusion assemblages in metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Donna L.; Lang, Helen M.; Ghent, Edward D.

    1995-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative information about metamorphic reaction history and PT paths may be obtained from mineral inclusions in garnet by comparing the mineralogy, distribution, and compositions of paragenetically-related inclusions with minerals in the groundmass assemblage. Using the algebraic technique of singular value decomposition (SVD), we document mass balance relations between inclusion and groundmass assemblages in metapelitic rocks from two metamorphic terranes that experienced different peak metamorphic conditions, and whose transition from inclusion to groundmass assemblage records different PT path segments relative to peak conditions. We calculate mass balances relating an inclusion assemblage consisting in part of armored relics of chloritoid to groundmass mineral assemblages in a kyanite-staurolite mica schist from the Solitude Range, British Columbia, and an inclusion assemblage of kyanite, staurolite, and rutile to groundmass minerals in a sillimanite-cordierite gneiss from the Skagit Gneiss, North Cascade Range, Washington. Mass balances for each rock are consistent with reaction histories inferred from petrographic observations. In the Solitude Range schist, the results of mass balance calculations are consistent with the growth of staurolite and garnet at the expense of chloritoid during prograde metamorphism and suggest that chlorite, although not preserved as an inclusion, was involved in initial staurolite growth. In the Skagit sillimanite gneiss, mass balance relations exist between the inclusion suite, which formed during high pressure metamorphism, and the associated groundmass assemblage, which equilibrated at high temperature but much lower pressure. Mass balance does not exist between the groundmass of the Skagit sillimanite gneiss and the groundmass of a nearby kyanite-staurolite schist that has been proposed as a possible lower-grade equivalent of the sillimanite-bearing rocks. These results indicate that, although compositional

  18. Age of granites of Wrangel Island metamorphic complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, Marina; Sergeev, Sergey; Sokolov, Sergey; Tuchkova, Marianna

    2014-05-01

    Within huge arctic shelf of Eastern-Siberian and Chukchi seas the metamorphic basement (Wrangel complex, Berri Formation) is exposed only on the Wrangel Island. There are different points of views on the age of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex (Berri Formation): (1) Neoproterozoic (Kameneva, 1970; Ageev, 1979; Kos'ko et al., 1993, 2003), (2) Devonian (Til'man et al., 1964, 1970; Ganelin, 1989). Metamorphic basement is represented by stratified complex, composed of dislocated metavolcanic, metavolcaniclastic and metasedimentary rocks (schists, metasandstones, metaconglomerated) with single lenses and layers of carbonate rocks (Wrangel Island…, 2003). Among basement rocks in the central part of Wrangel Island there are felsic intrusive bodies. They form small tabular bodies from tens centimeters to 70-80 meters in thickness, rarely dikes and small stocks (up to 20 x 30 m) and are composed of granite-porphyres, rarely muscovite porphyr-like granites and granosyenites (Wrangel Island…, 2003). The age of intrusions allow to determine the age of basement formation. Earlier the age of intrusions was determined by different methods and correlated to the boundary between Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic: K-Ar 570-603 Ma, Pb-Pb 590±50 Ma (S.M. Pavlov, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), Rb-Sr 475±31 Ma (I.M.Vasil'eva, Institute of Precambrian Geology and Geochronology, USSR Academy of Sciences), U-Pb 609, 633, 677 Ma (Geological Survey of Canada) (Wrangel Island…, 2003; Kos'ko et al., 1993; Cecile et al., 1991). In the lower part of metamorphic rocks of Wrangel complex there are conformable tabular bodies of gneissosed and foliated granitoides. The latter are meramorphosed and transformed in biotite-muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite and muscovite-feldspar-quartz-sericite gneisses and schists, where relics of primary minerals (quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, rarely biotite and muscovite) and equigranular granitic

  19. Linking monazite geochronology with fluid infiltration and metamorphic histories: Nature and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shazia, J. R.; Harlov, D. E.; Suzuki, K.; Kim, S. W.; Girish-Kumar, M.; Hayasaka, Y.; Ishwar-Kumar, C.; Windley, B. F.; Sajeev, K.

    2015-11-01

    Migmatised metapelites from the Kodaikanal region, central Madurai Block, southern India have undergone ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism (950-1000 °C; 7-8 kbar). In-situ electron microprobe Th-U-Pb isochron (CHIME) dating of monazites in a leucosome and surrounding silica-saturated and silica-poor restites from the same outcrop indicates three principal ages that can be linked to the evolutionary history of these rocks. Monazite grains from the silica-saturated restite have well-defined, inherited cores with thick rims that yield an age of ca. 1684 Ma. This either dates the metamorphism of the original metapelite or is a detrital age of inherited monazite. Monazite grains from the silica-poor restite, thick rims from the silica-saturated restite, and monazite cores from the leucosome have ages ranging from 520 to 540 Ma suggesting a mean age of 530 Ma within the error bars. In the leucosome the altered rim of the monazite gives an age of ca. 502 Ma. Alteration takes the form of Th-depleted lobes of monazite with sharp curvilinear boundaries extending from the monazite grain rim into the core. We have replicated experimentally these altered rims in a monazite-leucosome experiment at 800 °C and 2 kbar. This experiment, coupled with earlier published monazite-fluid experiments involving high pH alkali-bearing fluids at high P-T, helps to confirm the idea that alkali-bearing fluids, in the melt and along grain boundaries during crystallization, were responsible for the formation of the altered monazite grain rims via the process of coupled dissolution-reprecipitation.

  20. Amphibole zonation as a tool for tracing metamorphic histories: examples from Lavrion and Penteli metamorphic core complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baziotis, Ioannis; Proyer, Alexander; Mposkos, Evripides; Marsellos, Antonios; Leontakianakos, George

    2014-05-01

    The amphiboles represent the predominant minerals in high pressure/low temperature metamafic rocks. Amphibole composition (e.g. cations Si, Al, Na) depends on the bulk composition, the solid solution's gaps and the P-T conditions during metamorphism. The AlIV , NaA and Ti increase with temperature, whereas AlV I and NaB with pressure (Triboulet, 1992). Increase of Si+4 and decrease of AlV I and (NaA+NaB) in clinoamphibole is concurrent with pressure decrease. We focus on Na- and Ca-amphiboles from greenschists and blueschists from Lavrion (upper tectonic unit-UTU) and Penteli (lower tectonic unit-LTU) metamorphic complexes (Baziotis et al. 2009; Baziotis & Mposkos, 2011) in order to unravel the relation of zonation with: (1) the physicochemical conditions and (2) the P-T stages during metamorphic evolution. Amphiboles in Lavrion metabasites are the dominant rock constituents: (ferro)-glaucophane in the blueschists and actinolite in the greenschists. Blue-amphiboles occur in various textural modes: parallel to the foliation, replacing omphacite, rimmed by Ca-amphibole, as inclusions in albite and epidote or in calcitic veinlets. The blue-amphibole composition varies from glaucophane to ferro-glaucophane with the NaB ranging from 1.617 to 1.979 a.p.f.u., whereas the green-amphiboles are actinolites. In the blueschists, actinolite has higher R3+ at a given NaB compared to the greenschists, attributed to Fe+3-rich bulk composition of the blueschists. Three types of zoning were observed in these amphiboles: glaucophane rimming actinolite, glaucophane with increasing AlIV , AlV I and NaB values towards the rim, and actinolite mantling glaucophane. The zoning patterns in the blue-amphiboles are characterized by increasing Tschermak and glaucophane components towards the rim, consistent with increasing temperature and pressure during prograde metamorphism. Two different modes of actinolite represent different stages of the metamorphic history. The actinolite inclusions

  1. The age and petrography of two Luna 20 fragments and inferences for widespread lunar metamorphism.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Huneke, J. C.; Gancarz, A. J.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    Ages were determined by the Ar-40/Ar-39 method on two metaclastic rocks returned from the lunar highlands north of Mare Fecunditatis by the Luna 20 probe. Both samples gave very well-defined argon retention ages of 3.90 plus or minus 0.04 AE which are indistinguishable from each other within a resolution of 0.02 AE. Both fragments, 22006 and 22007, are highly recrystallized polymict breccias; there is no evidence of radiogenic Ar-40, and the age almost surely dates the time of recrystallization. The cosmic ray exposure ages of these fragments are similar and high: 900 million years for 22006, 1300 million years for 22007. 22007 also contains substantial trapped argon with a high Ar-40/Ar-36. The Luna 20 results greatly extend the area of the moon's surface exhibiting a well-defined record of metamorphism at 3.9 AE. So far, lunar history in the interval from 4.6 to 3.9 AE is not preserved in the ages of surface rocks. This obliteration suggests lunar-wide metamorphic conditions occurring or terminating at this time as a result of major impacts.

  2. Isotope and chemical age of the Greater Caucasus basement metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konilov, A. N.; Somin, M. L.; Mukhanova, A. A.

    2009-04-01

    complexes independently of baric type seem to be formed roughly synchronously during Variscan epoch. References: Gamkrelidze I.P., Shengelia D.M. ( 2005).The Precambrian-Paleozoic Regional Metamorphism, Granitoid Magmatism, and Geodynamics of the Caucasus. M: Nauchnyi Mir [in Russian]. Pyle J.M., Frank S. Spear F.S. et al. (2001). Monazite-Xenotime-Garnet Equilibrium in Metapelites and a New Monazite-Garnet Thermometer. Journal of Petrology, , 42, 2083-2107. Slagstad T. (2006).Chemical (U-Th-Pb) dating of monazite: Analytical protocol for a LEO 1450VP scanning electron microscope and examples from Rogaland and Finnmark, Norway. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Bulletin, 446, 11-18. Somin M.L. (2007a). Pre-Alpine basement of the Greater Caucasus: main features. In: Alpine history of the Greater Caucasus (Yu.G. Leonovб Ed.). GEOS. Moscow. P.15-38. Somin M.L., Lepekhina E.N., Konilov A.N. ( 2007b). Age of the High-Temperature Gneiss Core of the Central Caucasus. Doklady Earth Sciences, 415, 690-694. Somin M.L., Levchenkov O.A., Kotov A.B. et al. (2007c). The Paleozoic Age of High-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks in the Dakhov Salient, North-Western Caucasus: Results of U-Pb Geochronological Investigations. Doklady Earth Sciences, 416, 1018-1021. Suzuki K., Adachi M. (1991). Precambrian provenance and Silurian metamorphism of the Tsunosava paragneiss in South Kitakami terrane, northeast Japan, revealed by the chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron ages of monazite, zircon and xenotime. Journal of Geochemistry, 25, 357-376.

  3. Precursor lithologies and metamorphic history of granulitic breccias from North Ray crater, Station 11, Apollo 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostertag, R.; Stoffler, D.; Borchardt, R.; Palme, H.; Spettel, B.; Wanke, H.

    1987-01-01

    Two distinctly different types of granulitic breccias in the ejecta of North Ray crater, Station 11, Apollo 16 have been analyzed for their modal and chemical composition. Samples 67485, 67488, 67615, 67749, 67947, and 67566 are characterized by a fine-grained granoblastic to poikiloblastic matrix and abundant lithic and mineral clasts predominantly derived from ferroan anorthosites. The mineral clasts in sample 67566 were derived from ferroan anorthosites and Mg-rich lithologies. The fine-grained granulitic breccias are compositionally almost identical to the feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias (fmmbs) of Station 11, Apollo 16 which are older than, and therefore are possible precursors of, the fine-grained granulitic breccias. The second type of granulitic lithology (67746) is medium-grained, anorthositic-noritic in composition, and contains well equilibrated minerals derived from Mg-rich rocks. The precursors of both granulitic lithologies were KREEP-free and according to their Ir/Au ratio were old lunar highland rocks. A comparison of major, minor, and trace element contents shows that the two types of granulites are unrelated. The different recrystallization textures of the two types of granulitic lithologies imply different metamorphic histories. Metamorphism of the fine-grained granulitic breccias occurred near the lunar surface and the heat source was probably a superheated impact melt. The texture and degree of equilibration in the minerals of 67746 require a much more intense metamorphism with slow cooling. Metamorphism of lunar rocks and breccias was a wide-spread process that occurred several times in lunar history.

  4. Post-metamorphic change in activity metabolism of anurans in relation to life history.

    PubMed

    Pough, F Harvey; Kamel, Suzanne

    1984-12-01

    Newly-metamorphosed individuals of some species of frogs and toads differ from adults in behavior, ecology, and physiology. These differences may be related to broader patterns of the life histories of different species of frogs. In particular, the length of larval life and the size of a frog at metamorphosis appear to be significant factors in post-metamorphic ontogenetic change. These changes in performance are associated with rapid post-metamorphic increases in oxygen transport capacity. Bufo americanus (American toads) and Rana sylvatica (wood frogs) spend only 2-3 months as tadpoles and metamorphose at body masses of 0.25 g or less. Individuals of these species improve endurance and aerobic capacity rapidly during the predispersal period immediately following metamorphosis. Increases in hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, and heart mass relative to body mass are associated with this improvement in organismal performance. Rana clamitans (green frogs) spend from 3 to 10 months as larvae and weigh 3 g at metamorphosis. Green frogs did not show immediate post-metamorphic increases in performance. Rana palustris (pickerel frogs) are intermediate to wood frogs and green frogs in length of larval life and in size at metamorphosis, and they are intermediate also in their post-metamorphic physiological changes.American toads and wood frogs appear to delay dispersal from their natal ponds while they undergo rapid post-metamorphic growth and development, whereas green frogs disperse as soon as they leave the water, even before they have fully absorbed their tails. The very small body sizes of newly metamorphosed toads and wood frogs appear to limit the scope of their behaviors. The brief larval periods of these species permit them to exploit transient aquatic habitats, but impose costs in the form of a period of post-metamorphic life in which their activities are restricted in time and space compared to those of adults.

  5. Peak metamorphic temperature and thermal history of the Southern Alps (New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyssac, O.; Cox, S. C.; Vry, J.; Herman, F.

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Alps orogen of New Zealand results from late Cenozoic convergence between the Indo-Australian and Pacific plates and is one of the most active mountain belts in the world. Metamorphic rocks carrying a polymetamorphic legacy, ranging from low-greenschist to high-grade amphibolites, are exhumed in the hanging wall of the Alpine Fault. On a regional scale, the metamorphic grade has previously been described in terms of metamorphic zones and mineral isograds; application of quantitative petrology being severely limited owing to unfavorable quartzofeldspathic lithologies. This study quantifies peak metamorphic temperatures (T) in a 300 × 20 km area, based on samples forming 13 transects along-strike from Haast in the south to Hokitika in the north, using thermometry based on Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). Peak metamorphic T decreases across each transect from ≥ 640 °C locally in the direct vicinity of the Alpine Fault to less than 330 °C at the drainage divide 15-20 km southeast of the fault. Thermal field gradients exhibit a degree of similarity from the southernmost to the northernmost transects, are greater in low-grade semischist than high-grade schist, are affected by folding or discontinuous juxtaposition of metamorphic zones, and contain limited information on crustal-scale geothermal gradients. Temperatures derived by RSCM thermometry are slightly (≤ 50 °C) higher than those derived by traditional quantitative petrology using garnet-biotite thermometry and THERMOCALC modeling. The age of RSCM T appears to be mostly pre-Cenozoic over most of the area except in central Southern Alps (Franz Josef-Fox area), where the amphibolite facies schists have T of likely Cenozoic age. The RSCM T data place some constraints on the mode of exhumation along the Alpine Fault and have implications for models of Southern Alps tectonics.

  6. 40Ar/39Ar and K-Ar data bearing on the metamorphic and tectonic history of western New England.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sutter, J.F.; Ratcliffe, N.M.; Mukasa, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar ages of coexisting biotite and hornblende from Proterozoic Y gneisses of the Berkshire and Green Mt massifs, as well as 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar mineral and whole-rock ages from Palaeozoic metamorphic rocks, suggest that the thermal peaks for the dominant metamorphic recrystallization in western New England occurred 465 + or - 5 m.y. (Taconian). 40Ar/39Ar age data from a poorly-defined terrain along the eastern strip of the area suggests that the area has been retrograded during a metamorphism that peaked at least 376 + or - 5 m.y. (Acadian). Available age and petrological data from western New England indicate the presence of at least three separate metamorphic-structure domains of Taconic age: 1) a small area of relict high-P and low-T metamorphism, 2) a broad area of normal Barrovian metamorphism from chlorite to garnet grade characterized by a gentle metamorphic gradient and, 3) a rather narrow belt of steep-gradient, Barrovian series metamorphic rocks. Areas of maximum metamorphic intensity within the last domain coincide with areas of maximum crustal thickening in the later stage of Taconic orogeny. -L.di H

  7. Thermoluminescence constraints on the metamorphic, shock, and brecciation history of basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, J. D.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1991-01-01

    The metamorphic, shock, and brecciation history of 18 eucrites, 13 howardites, 6 diogenites, and 15 mesosiderites is investigated via induced thermoluminescence measurements performed on them. The eucrites show a 15-fold range of TL sensitivities, which correlate with petrographic indicators of metamorphic intensity. The temperature of the dominant TL peak observed for basaltic meteorites, and experiments in which four eucrites with diverse petrographic properties were annealed at various temperatures in the laboratory, suggests that the metamorphic equilibration temperatures for most basaltic meteorites were not more than 800 C. Assuming this temperature was typical of conditions during metamorphism, then burial depths for type-above-5 eucrites were greater than 350 m and less than 50 m for type-2 eucrites. Since TL peak temperatures are related to the degree of disorder in the Al, Si chain in feldspar, the present data provide independent evidence for very slow cooling rates for mesosiderites and for the slower cooling rates for some cumulate eucrites relative to equilibrated noncumulate eucrites.

  8. Thermoluminescence constraints on the metamorphic, shock, and brecciation history of basaltic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batchelor, J. D.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1991-01-01

    The metamorphic, shock, and brecciation history of 18 eucrites, 13 howardites, 6 diogenites, and 15 mesosiderites is investigated via induced thermoluminescence measurements performed on them. The eucrites show a 15-fold range of TL sensitivities, which correlate with petrographic indicators of metamorphic intensity. The temperature of the dominant TL peak observed for basaltic meteorites, and experiments in which four eucrites with diverse petrographic properties were annealed at various temperatures in the laboratory, suggests that the metamorphic equilibration temperatures for most basaltic meteorites were not more than 800 C. Assuming this temperature was typical of conditions during metamorphism, then burial depths for type-above-5 eucrites were greater than 350 m and less than 50 m for type-2 eucrites. Since TL peak temperatures are related to the degree of disorder in the Al, Si chain in feldspar, the present data provide independent evidence for very slow cooling rates for mesosiderites and for the slower cooling rates for some cumulate eucrites relative to equilibrated noncumulate eucrites.

  9. Determining age of Pan African metamorphism using Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology and phase equilibria modeling in the Tasriwine ophiolite, Sirwa, Anti-Atlas Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglis, Jeremy D.; Hefferan, Kevin; Samson, Scott D.; Admou, Hassan; Saquaque, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock geochronology and phase equilibria modeling have been used to determine the age and conditions of regional metamorphism within the Tasriwine ophiolite complex, Sirwa, Morocco. Pressure and temperature estimates obtained using a NaCaKFMASHT phase diagram (pseudosection) and garnet core and rim compositions predict that garnet growth began at ∼0.72 GPa and ∼615 °C and ended at ∼0.8 GPa and ∼640 °C. A bulk garnet Sm-Nd age of 647.2 ± 1.7 Ma, calculated from a four point isochron that combines whole rock, garnet full dissolution and two successively more aggressive partial dissolutions, provides a precise date for garnet formation and regional metamorphism. The age is over 15 million years younger than a previous age estimate of regional metamorphism of 663 ± 13 Ma based upon a SHRIMP U-Pb date from rims on zircon from the Iriri migmatite. The new data provide further constraints on the age and nature of regional metamorphism in the Anti-Atlas mountains and emphasizes that garnet growth during regional metamorphism may not necessarily coincide with magmatism/anatexis which predominate the signature witnessed by previous U-Pb studies. The ability to couple PT estimates for garnet formation with high precision Sm-Nd geochronology highlights the utility of garnet studies for uncovering the detailed metamorphic history of the Anti-Atlas mountain belt.

  10. Nd isotopic ages of crust formation and metamorphism in the Precambrian of eastern and southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patchett, P. Jonathan; Ruiz, Joaquin

    1987-12-01

    Sm-Nd ages for garnets in the three Precambrian exposures of eastern and southern Mexico demonstrate that they belong to the Grenville tectonothermal event. The Sm-Nd garnet ages of 0.95 Ga for the Oaxacan Complex and 0.90 Ga for the Huiznopala Gneiss, Molango and the Novillo Gneiss, Ciudad Victoria, are postdated 75 Ma by Rb-Sr ages on biotites. Both sets of data document a cooling history following Grenville metamorphism at or before 1.0 Ga ago. Our garnet data are consistent with a blocking temperature for Sm-Nd in that mineral around 600° C suggested by Humphries and Cliff (1982). The three Precambrian occurrences have Nd chemical ages of separation from depleted mantle (TDM) grouped in the range 1.40 1.60 Ga. This may result from derivation of the rocks from actual crustal protoliths which had been separated from the mantle 0.5 Ga before the Grenville Orogeny. It is much more likely, however, that crustal materials of 1.7 Ga or older age were mixed with mantle-derived products during Grenville events to produce intermediate TDM ages and ɛ Nd values around zero 1.0 Ga ago.

  11. 40Ar/ 39Ar mineral ages from the Oki metamorphic complex, Oki-Dogo, southwest Japan: implications for regional correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmeyer, R. D.; Takasu, A.

    1998-08-01

    The Oki metamorphic complex exposed in the Oki-Dogo islands consists predominantly of psammitic and pelitic gneisses with subordinate amphibolite and rare calcareous gneiss. The Oki gneisses were regionally metamorphosed to general amphibolite facies conditions, with local development of granulite facies assemblages. Peak metamorphic conditions of c. 800°C have been suggested. Hornblende concentrates from amphibolites collected within the Oki metamorphic complex record 40Ar/ 39Ar isotope correlation ages of 199-192 Ma. These are interpreted to date the post metamorphic cooling through temperatures required for intracrystalline retention of argon (c. 500°C). Muscovite concentrates record 40Ar/ 39Ar plateau ages of 167-168 Ma. These are interpreted to date post metamorphic cooling through appropriate closure temperature of muscovite (c. 400-375°C). Combined with the previously reported geochronological data, the Oki metamorphic complex appears to have experienced peak metamorphic conditions at c. 250 Ma. Subsequently, it cooled and was exhumed at the earth's surface at c. 90 Ma with cooling rate of c. 5°C/Ma. The Oki metamorphic complex records a similar prograde metamorphic event as the Hida metamorphic complex exposed in central Japan. The cooling and exhumation rates of the Hida metamorphic complex were significantly more rapid compared with the Oki metamorphic complex, and they were exhumed with extensively intruded Jurassic granites (Funatsu granites).

  12. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  13. Annealing studies of the thermoluminescence of meteorites and implications for their metamorphic history

    SciTech Connect

    Guimon, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of thermoluminescence to study metamorphism in the type 3 ordinary chondrites and five CAI from the Allende meteorite is explored. It has been found that the changes in the shape of the TL curve provide insight into the thermal history of the meteorites and meteoritic components. It is also shown that for ordinary chondrites, the TL sensitivity depends on the amount of feldspar present which, in turn, is governed by the intensity of metamorphism experienced. A type 3.4 ordinary chondrite shows changes in the peak temperature and width occurred upon annealing. These parameters showed a discontinuous increase after annealing at 800/sup 0/C; the peak temperature jumped from 130 to 200/sup 0/C and peak width increased from 90 to 150/sup 0/C. These changes in the TL emission characteristics suggest that type 3.3-3.5 ordinary chondrites have a low-feldspar as the dominant TL phosphor and > 3.5 have high feldspar as the phosphor. Thermoluminescence therefore provides a means of paleothermometry. In addition, experiments were performed aimed at causing the crystallization of feldspar in mesostasis glass in an attempt to reproduce the trends of increasing TL sensitivity with metamorphism. At high temperatures and longer annealing times, increases in TL sensitivity by factors of up to 40 were observed.

  14. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  15. Petrology and metamorphic history of metapelites in the Boehls Butte quadrangle, northern Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J.W.; Rice, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Metapelitic rocks in the Goat Mountain area record a pre-Beltian anatectic event and two later metamorphic events correlated to the M2 and M3 events observed by Lang and Rice. The co-occurrence of all three aluminosilicates is the result of M2 kyanite-sillimanite growth and M3 andalusite growth. The conditions of M2 metamorphism are estimated at 675 +/- 50/sup 0/C and 9.3 +/- 1.5 kb as determined from a variety of geothermo/barometers. M2 AFM mineral assemblages include Grt-Bt-Ky+/-Sil+/-Str and Crd-Bt-Ky+/-Sil. Partitioning of Mg and Fe in garnet and staurolite is normal (K/sub D/ > 1) for relict staurolite enclosed by aluminosilicate or muscovite and reversed (K/sub D/ < 1) for apparently stable staurolite and staurolite occurring as inclusions in garnet. Cordierite occurs as an overgrowth of kyanite; a texture which cannot be explained by reactions among the coexisting minerals. The texture may be explained by prograde consumption of chlorite or consumption of garnet upon decompression. The M3 event had limited effect on M2 mineral assemblages but resulted in crenulation and brittle deformation of M2 fabrics. The M3 event occurred during uplift and cooling following the M2 event. The M3 event is correlated to uplift of the Idaho batholith implying a Cretaceous age of M2 metamorphism.

  16. Coupling thermodynamic modeling and high-resolution in situ LA-ICP-MS monazite geochronology: evidence for Barrovian metamorphism late in the Grenvillian history of southeastern Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarron, Travis; Gaidies, Fred; McFarlane, Christopher R. M.; Easton, R. Michael; Jones, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The Flinton Group is a greenschist to upper amphibolite facies package of metasediments in southeastern Ontario that was metamorphosed during the Ottawan Orogeny. Thermodynamic modeling of metapelitic mineral assemblages suggests an increase in peak conditions of metamorphism across the 40 km wide study area from 3.5 to 7.9 kbar and 540 to 715 °C. Garnet isopleth thermobarometry applied to the cores of compositionally zoned porphyroblasts reveals remarkably similar P-T conditions of initial crystallization at approximately 3.7-4.0 kbar and 512-520 °C, corresponding to a relatively high geothermal gradient of ca. 34-45 °C km-1. It is inferred from modeling and reaction textures that metamorphism was along Barrovian P-T paths. Major and trace element zoning in garnet from one sample records a complex growth history as evidenced by major and trace element zoning and the distribution of xenotime, allanite and monazite inclusions. High-resolution (6 μm) LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology performed on monazite in the rock matrix and included in the outer 150 μm of garnet rim-ward of a Y annulus revealed an age of 976 ± 4 Ma. The age is interpreted to reflect monazite growth at the expense of allanite and apatite late in garnet's growth history over the P-T interval 4.5-6.8 kbar and 540-640 °C. This new age estimate for near peak metamorphism fits well into the regional framework but is significantly younger than previously reported ages for Ottawan metamorphism. Based on microstructures this new age suggests that compressional tectonics were operating much later in the history of the Grenville of southeastern Ontario than previously thought.

  17. High-gradient metamorphism and anatexis in the Teletsk-Chulyshman metamorphic belt (Gornyi Altai): New data on the age and estimate of P-T parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargopolov, S. A.; Polyansky, O. P.; Reverdatto, V. V.; Novikov, I. S.; Vysotsky, E. M.

    2016-11-01

    Estimates of the P- T parameters of metamorphism, the first results of U-Pb dating of zircons from migmatites of the Teletsk-Chulyshman metamorphic belt, are reported. The age of migmatites from the southern block of the Teletsk-Chulyshman belt is 483.9 ± 5.7 Ma. As is evident from the pressure estimate (≤3-4 kbar), the Chulyshman migmatite-gneiss complex could be an apical part of the thermal-dome structure formed during the Early Ordovician thermal impact of a shallow magmatic basic thermal source, later displaced to the appropriate depth along the thrust at the collisional stage.

  18. Resetting of RbSr ages of volcanic rocks by low-grade burial metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asmeroma, Y.; Damon, P.; Shafiqullah, M.; Dickinson, W.R.; Zartman, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report a nine-point RbSr whole-rock isochron age of 70??3 Ma (MSWD 3.97) for Mid-Jurassic volcanic rocks. The same rocks have also been dated by the UThPb method on zircon, giving a crystallization age of 166 ?? 11 Ma, over twice as old as the RbSr age. The data demonstrate that whole-rock RbSr ages of volcanic rocks, even lava flows with SiO2 content as low as 57 wt.%, are susceptible to complete resetting. The rocks range in composition from rhyodacite tuffs to andesite lavas. The complete breakdown of all major minerals that contain Rb and Sr resulted in an alteration mineral assemblage consisting of phengite, albite, secondary quartz, and minor amounts of chlorite and epidote. Phengite is the K-bearing product of the breakdown of biotite and K-feldspar. Pressure during low-grade metamorphism of the volcanic rocks, estimated from phengite composition to have been in the range of 4 to 6 kbar, points to thrust-related burial as the main cause of resetting. Consequently, such reset isochrons may date large-scale events such as regional thrusting and metamorphism. The coherent resetting of the RbSr isochron suggests large-scale pervasive fluid movement during thrust-related burial metamorphism. ?? 1991.

  19. Thermal history of the H-chondrite parent body: Implications for metamorphic grade and accretionary time-scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnereau, Marc; Toplis, Michael J.; Baratoux, David; Guignard, Jérémy

    2013-10-01

    Multiple temperature-age constraints for eight H-chondrite samples have been used to provide insight into the thermal history of their parent-body through combination with numerical models of thermal evolution assuming internal heating by 26Al and conductive cooling. The effect of spreading accretion out over time is the principal focus of this work. A wide range of body size and date of accretion is systematically tested for different values of accretion rate in order to quantify and illustrate the parameter space that is consistent with the available thermo-chronological data. We conclude that the H-chondrite samples considered have a thermal history consistent with a parent body that at some stage had a concentric 'onion-shell' internal structure. That body had a radius no larger than 130 km, and accretion most probably took place over a time interval on the order of 0.0-0.2 Myr, approximately 2 Myr after CAI condensation. In any case, the time interval of accretion is unlikely to have been more than 0.5 Myr supporting evidence in favour of rapid accretion, possibly through reassembly of the fragments of an earlier generation of bodies. Furthermore, the H-chondrites studied here are inferred to have come from a wide depth range within the body where they experienced metamorphism, indicating that preservation of the onion-shell structure is unlikely. The presence of an insulating regolith does not modify this conclusion, as appropriate thermal histories for the three H6 samples considered cannot be reproduced at depths near the surface. Asteroid 6-Hebe may be the parent body of the H-chondrites, but the high bulk density of the latter is difficult to reconcile with a 'rubble-pile' structure of pure H-chondrite material. Finally, optimized thermal histories are used to constrain the temperatures characterizing boundaries between petrological types (800, 1000, and 1140 K for the H3/4, H4/5, and H5/6 boundaries respectively). In detail, the type 6 samples studied

  20. Age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean: Insight from rutile and minute zircon inclusions in a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst (Edough Massif, NE Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruguier, Olivier; Bosch, Delphine; Caby, Renaud; Vitale-Brovarone, Alberto; Fernandez, Laure; Hammor, Dalila; Laouar, Rabah; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Abdallah, Nachida; Mechati, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    Diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks witness for subduction of lithospheric slabs into the mantle and their return to shallow levels. In this study we present U-Pb and trace elements analyses of zircon and rutile inclusions from a diamond-bearing garnet megacryst collected in a mélange unit exposed on the northern margin of Africa (Edough Massif, NE Algeria). Large rutile crystals (up to 300 μm in size) analyzed in situ provide a U-Pb age of 32.4 ± 3.3 Ma interpreted as dating the prograde to peak subduction stage of the mafic protolith. Trace element analyses of minute zircons (≤30 μm) indicate that they formed in equilibrium with the garnet megacryst at a temperature of 740-810 °C, most likely during HP retrograde metamorphism. U-Pb analyses provide a significantly younger age of 20.7 ± 2.3 Ma attributed to exhumation of the UHP units. This study allows bracketing the age of UHP metamorphism in the Western Mediterranean Orogen to the Oligocene/early Miocene, thus unambiguously relating UHP metamorphism to the Alpine history. Exhumation of these UHP units is coeval with the counterclockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia block and most likely resulted from subduction rollback that was driven by slab pull.

  1. U-Pb ages for sphene in a contact metamorphic zone.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, G. N.; Catanzaro, E. J.; Anderson, D. H.

    1971-01-01

    U-Pb ages have been determined on sphene concentrates from the 2700 my old Giants Range Granite at varying distances from the contact with the 1100 my old Duluth gabbro. As the contact is approached the sphene ages become more discordant and plot along a chord between 1100 and 2700 my on a concordia diagram. The U-Pb ages for sphene in the contact aureole are more resistant to thermal metamorphism than are K-Ar ages for hornblende and biotite. The resistance relative to U-Pb ages for zircon is more difficult to interpret because the zircon U-Pb ages may have become discordant prior to or after 1100 my ago, whereas the U-Pb ages for sphene appear to have had episodic discordance only at 1100 my ago.

  2. Ediacaran ( 620 Ma) high grade regional metamorphism in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield: U/Th-Pb monazite ages of the Elat schist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisha, Bar; Katzir, Yaron; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Ediacaran times witnessed a hemisphere-scale orogenesis forming the extensive Pan-African mountain ranges and resulting in the final assembly of Gondwana supercontinent. The Elat metamorphic basement (S Israel) located at the northernmost tip of a major Pan-African orogenic suture, the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS), comprises amphibolite facies schists and gneisses and was most likely shaped by this major continental collision. However the timing, number and duration of metamorphic events in Elat and elsewhere in the ANS are non-conclusive and a major emphasis was given to pre-Ediacaran island-arc related tectonics. This is mostly because U-Pb dating of zircon, widely used in Elat and elsewhere, is very successful in constraining the ages of the igneous and sedimentary protoliths, but is 'blind' to metamorphism at grades lower than granulite. Here U/Th-Pb dating of monazite, a precise chronometer of metamorphic mineral growth, is systematically applied to the Elat schist and unveils the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Elat basement. Previous U-Pb dating of detrital zircon has shown that the sedimentary protoliths of the Elat schist are the oldest basement components (≥800 Ma), and detailed structural observations of the schists portrayed a complex deformation history including four successive phases (Shimron, 1972). The earliest three phases were defined as ductile and penetrative, but some of the available geochronological data apparently contradict field relations. In-situ analysis of metamorphic monazites by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) involves simultaneous measurement of U/Th-Pb isotope ratios and REE contents in a single 10 μm sized grain or domain, thus allowing determining the age of specific texture and metamorphic assemblage. Monazite dating of the Elat schist yielded two concordant age clusters at 712±6 and 613±5 Ma. The corresponding REE patterns of the dated monazite grains indicate that porphyroblast growth, either garnet or staurolite

  3. Metamorphic conditions and CHIME monazite ages of Late Eocene to Late Oligocene high-temperature Mogok metamorphic rocks in central Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maw Maw Win; Enami, Masaki; Kato, Takenori

    2016-03-01

    The high temperature (T)/pressure (P) regional Mogok metamorphic belt is situated in central Myanmar, and is mainly composed of pelitic gneisses, amphibolites, marbles, and calc-silicate rocks. The garnet-biotite-plagioclase-sillimanite-quartz assemblage and its partial system suggest equilibrium P/T conditions of 0.6-1.0 GPa/780-850 °C for the peak metamorphic stage, and 0.3-0.5 GPa/600-680 °C for the exhumation and hydration stage. Monazite grains show complex compositional zoning consisting of three segments-I, II, and III. Taking into consideration the monazite zoning and relative misfit curves, the calculated chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method (CHIME) monazite age data (284 spot analyses) indicated four age components: 49.3 ± 2.6-49.9 ± 7.9, 37.8 ± 1.0-38.1 ± 1.7, 28.0 ± 0.8-28.8 ± 1.6, and 23.7 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ level). The ages of the Late Eocene and Late Oligocene epochs were interpreted as the peak metamorphic stage of upper-amphibolite and/or granulite facies and the postdated hydration stage, respectively.

  4. Protolith, metamorphic history and tectonic implications of newly discovered Triassic eclogites in the east-central Qiangtang: Evidences from mineralogy, geochemistry, Sr-Nd isotope, and geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Liu, J. M.; Zhou, X. Y.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Triassic west-central Qiangtang metamorphic belt, consisting of blueschist- and eclogite-bearing mélange, whereas there are no eclogites reported in the east-central Qiangtang. In this study, geochemical, Sr-Nd isotopic, and geochronological methods, together with geothermobarometers, are used to reveal the protolith, metamorphic conditions, and tectonic implications of newly discovered (U)HP eclogites in east-cental Qiangtang, central Tibetan Plateau. These eclgites are mainly composed of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite, and amphibole. According to the Sr-Nd isotopic ratios [(87Sr/86Sr)i value: 0.7078 0.7086; ɛNd(t) value: -0.58 +1.96], the protoliths of eclogites were originated from depleted mantle and experienced continental crustal contamination. The REEs and HFSEs are immobile, so they are employed to discriminate the protolith and tectonic environments. In the Hf/3-Th-Ta diagram, most samples are ploted in island arc basalts and E-MORB fields. These eclogites also display arc-related features (Nb, Ta negative anomalies, high LREE/HREE ratios), and enriched MORB-like geological characteristics (flat REE patterns without Nb, Ta negative anomalies), respectively. In addition, compared with the north Anduo backarc basin basalts (BABB), and the Qilian eclogites (BABB as protolith), the protoliths are suggested to form in backarc basin for the similarity. Zircons in eclogite show no oscillatory zoning, possibly due to the high grade metamorphic conditions of 2.7 GPa / 742 °, which are acquired by Grt-Omp-Phe geothermobarometers. Subsequently, it experienced retragrade metamorphism, characterized by the decomposition of rutile, garnet, and omphacite. The coesite pseudomorph in garnet is also consistent with the peak metamorphic conditions. Eight zircons with low Th/U ratios defined concordant age of 223 ± 11 Ma, representing the age of peak metamorphism. In conclusion, the newly discovered eclogites formed in backarc basin, and consequently subducted

  5. Thermal histories of CO3 chondrites - Application of olivine diffusion modelling to parent body metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Rhian H.; Rubie, David C.

    1991-01-01

    The petrologic sequence observed in the CO3 chondrite group has been suggested to be the result of thermal metamorphism on a parent body. A model developed to examine the possibility that chondrule and matrix olivines equilibrated in situ, during parent body metamorphism is presented. The model considers Fe-Mg interdiffusion between chondrule and matrix olivines. Zoning profiles comparable to those observed in chondrule olivines from partially equilibrated members of the series are reproduced successfully. Metamorphism of CO3 chondrites on a parent body is therefore a viable model for the observed equilibration. Results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures experienced by the CO3 chondrites were around 500 C, and that the range of peak temperatures between unequilibrated and equilibrated subtypes was relatively narrow, around 100 C.

  6. Tectono-metamorphic history of southern New Hampshire and southeastern Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Chamberlain, C.P.; Lyons, J.B.; Thompson, J.B. Jr.; Rosenfeld, J.L.; Downie, E.

    1985-01-01

    A major boundary between two Acadian metamorphic terranes is marked by a band of low-grade rocks in the Connecticut River valley coinciding with the Monroe Line (ML) and separating higher-grade rocks in two distinct lithostratigraphic terranes. To the west, Cambro-Devonian rocks in the Vermont sequence overlie Grenvillian basement, whereas to the east a different Cambro-Dev. sequence rests upon Hadrynian basement. These terranes were assembled no later than the early Devonian. The eastern terrane, consisting of the Bronson Hill Anticlinorium(BHA) and Merrimack Synclinorium (MS), is bounded on the east by the older Massabesic Gneiss (650-480 my) and Ord (.) Merrimack Group. This southeastern terrane was in contact with the MS by the early Devonian because there is no break in metamorphism across the terrane boundary. Metamorphism in the western terrane (Vermont) is synkinematic and peaks in the Staur-Ky zone. The earliest metamorphism is believed to be Taconian and represents the thermal decay of relict blueschist metamorphism observed to the northwest and the accretion of an island-arc. The earliest metamorphism in the eastern terrane (BHA-MS) is Acadian and is associated with nappe formation and synkinematic plutons. Continued Acadian crustal shortening in the MS resulted in a pressure increase (from 3.8 to 7 kb), with rocks reaching peak metamorphism in the Sil-Mus up to Kspar-Cord zones. The authors suggest that this high-grade metamorphism was the result of a high transient heat flux initiated by crustal stretching in the MS during the Silurian and early Devonian when 8 km of clastics were deposited in a rapidly subsiding trough.

  7. Garnet Sm-Nd and Zircon U-Pb Ages Track Pluton Emplacement, Granulite Facies Metamorphism, Partial Melting, and Extension in the Lower Crust, Fiordland New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stowell, H. H.; Klepeis, K. A.; Odom Parker, K.

    2011-12-01

    Extensional collapse of over thickened magmatic arc crust depends on crustal thickness variations and architecture. The structural architecture of the lower- and mid-crustal at the onset of extension may be complex due to lithologic variation resulting from structural juxtaposition of pre-arc lithologies, intrusion of plutons, and local partial melting. Additional complexity is introduced by the dynamic nature of arcs. Thus, robust ages for deformation, metamorphism, intrusion, and partial melting are essential for unraveling arc evolution and discerning the role of arc plutonism and metamorphism in strain localization during both contraction and extension. Eclogite and granulite facies metamorphic minerals indicate that Mesozoic arc crust in Fiordland was ≥ 50 km thick ca. 130 Ma prior to extensional collapse. This mid- to lower-crust records a history of mafic to intermediate magmatism, high-grade metamorphism, lower crustal melting, and the formation of extensional detachments that border eclogite- and granulite-cored gneiss domes. U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd garnet ages indicate that intrusion of voluminous plutons, including the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO), and subsequent metamorphism occurred sequentially from north to south. Pluton emplacement occurred at 0.6-1.1 GPa in the north to 1.0-1.2 GPa in the south. In northern Fiordland [Milford Sound], intrusion of 135-128 Ma gabbroic magma was followed by 0.6-1.1 GPa 2-pyroxene granulite metamorphism at 126-135 Ma, and then 1.2-1.4 GPa garnet granulite metamorphism and partial melting ca. 126-123 Ma. To the south, WFO plutons have a similar history from north to south: the low-P 125-120.1 Ma Worsley was metamorphosed to garnet granulite at 1.2-1.4 GPa, ca. 115 Ma; the low-P ca. 120 Ma Misty was metamorphosed to garnet granulite at 1.2 GPa, ca. 115 Ma; the high-P 117.8-113.2 Ma Malaspina was metamorphosed to garnet granulite at 1.0-1.4 GPa, ca. 113 Ma along Doubtful Sound and 111.9±1.6 Ma to the south on

  8. Empirical Constraints on Extrusion Mechanisms Derived From Pressure-Temperature-Time Histories From the Himalayan Metamorphic Core (Sutlej Valley, NW India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambers, J.; Caddick, M.; Argles, T.; Horstwood, M.; Harris, N.; Parrish, R.; Ahmad, T.

    2007-12-01

    The exhumed Himalayan core in the Sutlej Valley comprises the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS), bounded by the Main Central Thrust and the South Tibetan Detachment, and tectonically distinct metamorphosed units above (the Haimanta Group) and below (the Jutogh Group). While pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) data from the GHS are broadly compatible with predictions of the channel flow model presented by Jamieson et al. (2004), corresponding data for the units bounding the putative channel are not: The underlying Jutogh Group experienced a tightly closed P-T path featuring upper-amphibolite prograde metamorphism at c. 11 Ma, followed by rapid cooling and exhumation. These data are consistent with a) prograde metamorphism during overthrusting (along the Main Central Thrust) and b) subsequent exhumation via accretion to the extruding GHS channel above. However, muscovite cooling ages from the GHS pre-date those from the Jutogh Group by at least 10 Ma, clearly indicating decoupled exhumation of the two crystalline units. Alongside evidence that motion on the Main Central Thrust had ceased by c. 16 Ma, concomitant extrusion of the Jutogh Group as part of a single widening GHS `channel' seems impossible. The Haimanta Group, considered uppermost in the GHS sequence and/or basal to the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence, also reached upper-amphibolite grade during the Himalayan orogeny. As for the Jutogh Group, exhumation and cooling rapidly followed peak metamorphism. Coupled U-Pb monazite data and detailed textural and pseudosection analyses constrain prograde metamorphism at c. 35 to 30 Ma, the timing of which is compatible with channel flow model predictions. Importantly, however, P-T paths do not match numerical simulations, which imply shallower burial, lower peak temperatures and a distinct phase of isobaric heating. We conclude that the Sutlej Valley presents a tectonically complex metamorphic core for which a single, widening channel flow model does not accurately predict

  9. Formation of monazite via prograde metamorphic reactions among common silicates: implications for age determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, Matthew J.; Malloy, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Three lines of evidence from schists of the Great Smoky Mountains, NC, indicate that isogradic monazite growth occurred at the staurolite-in isograd at ˜600°C: (1) Monazite is virtually absent below the staurolite-in isograd, but is ubiquitous (several hundred grains per thin section) in staurolite- and kyanite-grade rocks. (2) Many monazite grains are spatially associated with biotite coronas around garnets, formed via the reaction Garnet + Chlorite + Muscovite = Biotite + Plagioclase + Staurolite + H 2O. (3) Garnets contain high-Y annuli that result from prograde dissolution of garnet via the staurolite-in reaction, followed by regrowth, and rare monazite inclusions occur immediately outside the annulus and in the matrix, but not in the garnet core. Larger monazite grains also exhibit quasi-continuous Th zoning with high Th cores and low Th rims, consistent with monazite growth via a single reaction and fractional crystallization during prograde growth. Common silicates may host sufficient P and LREEs that reactions among them can produce observable LREE phosphate. Specifically phosphorus contents of garnet and plagioclase are hundreds of parts per million, and dissolution of garnet and recrystallization of plagioclase could form thousands of phosphate grains several micrometers in diameter per thin section. LREEs may be more limiting, but sheet silicates and plagioclase can contain tens to ˜100 (?) ppm LREE, so recrystallization of these silicates to lower LREE contents could produce hundreds of grains of monazite per thin section. Monazite ages, determined via electron and ion microprobes, are ˜400 Ma, directly linking prograde Barrovian metamorphism of the Western Blue Ridge with the "Acadian" orogeny, in contrast to previous interpretations that metamorphism was "Taconian" (˜450 Ma). Interpretation of ages from metamorphic monazite grains will require prior chemical characterization and identification of relevant monazite-forming reactions, including

  10. The Sutter's Mill meteorite: Thermoluminescence data on thermal and metamorphic history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W.; Beauford, Robert

    2014-11-01

    A piece of the Sutter's Mill meteorite, fragment SM2-1d, has been examined using thermoluminescence techniques to better understand its thermal and metamorphic history. The sample had very weak but easily measureable natural and induced thermoluminescence (TL) signals; the signal-to-noise ratio was better than 10. The natural TL was restricted to the high-temperature regions of the glow curve suggesting that the meteorite had been heated to approximately 300 °C within the time it takes for the TL signal to recover from a heating event, probably within the last 105 years. It is possible that this reflects heating during release from the parent body, close passage by the Sun, or heating during atmospheric passage. Of these three options, the least likely is the first, but the other possibilities are equally likely. It seems that temperatures of approximately 300 °C reached 5 or 6 mm into the meteorite, so that all but one of the small Sutter's Mill stones have been heated. The Dhajala normalized induced TL signal for SM2-1d is comparable to that of type 3.0 chondrites and is unlike normal CM chondrites, the class it most closely resembles, which do not have detectable TL sensitivity. The shape of the induced TL curve is comparable to other low-type ordinary, CV, and CO chondrites, in that it has a broad hummocky structure, but does not resemble any of them in detail. This suggests that Sutter's Mill is a unique, low-petrographic-type (3.0) chondrite.

  11. Dramatic mica porphyroblast development history revealed by joint metamorphic and chronological constraints, and implications on kinematics of the active Taiwan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. T.; Lo, C. H.; Chan, Y. C.; Lu, C. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Mica porphyroblasts, a common metamorphic microstructure, are analyzed in the slate belt of northern Taiwan where large fish-like growths are found within a meta-pyroclastics. A complete rock time-temperature history is deduced from formation/deposition by zircon U-Pb dating, peak metamorphic temperature by Raman spectrometry of carbonaceous materials (RSCM), exhumation by apatite fission track, and growth history by in-situ 40Ar/39Ar laser microprobe dating. directly on muscovite and corrensite fibers of the mm-scale mica porphyroblasts grown on a pressure-solution seam. As the peak state and the porphyroblast formation condition ( 250°C) remained far below the closure temperature of the K-Ar radioisotope system in muscovite, and the absence of muscovite in the mafic protolith, the Ar-Ar ages document the growth of the mica porphyroblast fabrics. The area mapping of the Ar-Ar ages across the porphyroblasts suggests that syntaxial crack-seal following tensile micro-boudinage was chiefly responsible for the development of the fish-like microstructures, and the host rock underwent continuous deformation during the earlier two-thirds of the Taiwan Orogeny.

  12. Metamorphic facies map of Southeastern Alaska; distribution, facies, and ages of regionally metamorphosed rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brew, D.A.; Douglass, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the bedrock in Southeastern Alaska has been metamorphosed, much of it under medium-grade conditions during metamorphic episodes that were associated with widespread plutonism. The oldest metamorphisms affected probable arc rocks near southern Prince of Wales Island and occurred during early and middle Paleozoic orogenies. The predominant period of metamorphism and associated plutonism occurred during Early Cretaceous to early Tertiary time and resulted in the development of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex that extends along the inboard half of Southeastern Alaska. Middle Tertiary regional thermal metamorphism affected a large part of Baranof Island.

  13. Preservation of old (prograde metamorphic) U-Th-Pb ages in unshielded monazite from the high-pressure paragneisses of the Variscan Ulten Zone (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langone, Antonio; Braga, Roberto; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Tiepolo, Massimo

    2011-11-01

    Three samples of garnet-kyanite paragneiss from the Variscan Ulten Zone (Northern Italy) were studied in detail for U-Th-Pb monazite dating. Monazite in these gneisses is abundant, shows highly variable grain size and occupies different textural positions: within the matrix, as inclusion in garnet and kyanite, within apatite aggregates. Monazite shows different deformation features as a function of the textural position: enclosed (shielded) monazite is generally more fractured than matrix (unshielded) monazite. The integration of textural information with deformation features and in situ U-Th-Pb analyses by LA-ICP-MS indicates that there is no direct correlation between textural site and monazite ages. Old ages of 351-343 Ma, determined on portions of large matrix (unshielded) monazite and on rare domains of monazite shielded by garnet, have been related to a prograde stage of the Variscan metamorphic evolution of the Ulten Zone. Ages of 330-326 Ma, which are related to the thermal peak, are recorded by small matrix monazite, external domains of large matrix monazite, and by (domains of) fractured monazite enclosed in garnet and kyanite. Large, old unshielded grains formed as blasts during the prograde metamorphic history and survived the peak metamorphism during which crystallisation/re-crystallisation partially occurred.

  14. The West African Mauritanid metamorphic suite of Proterozoic age in the subsurface of peninsular Florida and environs

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, G.O.

    1993-03-01

    A high and low-grade Gondwanan metamorphic terrane is revealed by 14 wells in Florida and environs. Two high-grade metamorphics (gneiss and schist) are located in central Florida and are probably Early Proterozoic in age. The 12 other wells contain low-grade metamorphic suites, principally composed of inter-bedded argillites, acid volcanics and quartzites belonging to the Mauritanid sequence of West Africa. These suites are present in south Georgia, north Florida and offshore; a 3,975-foot section was penetrated in one well. These widespread metamorphic rocks are probably the terrane into which the Cambrian Osceola granite of central Florida was intruded. The two grades of metamorphics represent Early and Late Proterozoic episodes of sedimentation, each followed by metamorphism and erosion. Lower Ordovician to Devonian sediments were deposited on this terrane in southern Georgia and northern Florida. In the Early Jurassic, volcanics completely covered southern Florida, concealing the nature of the old underlying surface. Younger Mesozoic sediments eventually buried the entire Pre-Cambrian-Lower Jurassic terrane.

  15. Modelling of the thermal history of metamorphic zoning in the Connemara region (western Ireland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdatto, V. V.; Polyansky, O. P.

    2004-02-01

    The Connemara region of the Irish Caledonides is a classic example of regional-scale metamorphism of low pressure and high temperature. This terrane is considered as part of a fold belt comprising metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks that are correlated with the Neoproterozoic-Lower Paleozoic Dalradian Supergroup of Scotland. In mid-Ordovician time, the extensive and high-temperature metamorphism was superimposed on the Dalradian rocks resulting in the Connemara zoning. The key feature of the zoning is elevated horizontal thermal gradient of ca. 14 °C/km. Geological data and geochronological evidence point to a causative link between metamorphism and associated magmatic intrusions, and a brief period of development for the metamorphic zoning. Magmatic intrusion into the middle part of continental crust is treated as a most plausible source of heat for metamorphism, and other conjectures as to the origin of the zoning (flow of hot fluid through the permeable rocks, fracture conduit flushed by flowing magma) are believed to be improbable. To examine in sufficient detail the problem of the nature of heat source, a series of appropriate calculations have been performed to reach the best agreement between the observed and simulated spatial distribution of maximum temperatures at different times. The mathematical modelling shows that the temperature-spatial structure of the Connemara zoning is best explained by the model version based on mid-crustal heating above the upper contact of magmatic intrusive body gently curved and tilted at an angle between 20° and 40°, with an initial temperature of the magma appropriate to a basaltic melt. The model estimate of total lifetime of the temperature anomaly in the crust is of the order of 5-6 Ma. In general, this is in rather good agreement with the currently available evidence of geochronological duration of metamorphism and magmatism in Connemara.

  16. Carboniferous U-Pb age of the Sebago batholith, southwestern Maine: metamorphic and tectonic implications.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.H.; Moench, R.H.; Lyons, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    Two phases (pink and white granite) of the Sebago batholith have been dated by the U/Pb zircon method. The age of both phases is 325 m.y. Zircon in the pink phase has been reset in intrusion of the Pleasant Mountain stock approx 114 m.y. ago. Zircon in the white phase lost lead only recently. Metamorphic isograds in the vicinity of the batholith approximately parallel its shape, and may be at least partly Hercynian in age. Cooling and uplift of the Sebago batholith appear to have followed a complicated path involving little or no uplift in the Middle Carboniferous to Middle Permian, rapid cooling from 275 to 225 m.y. ago, and a slow cooling since Middle Triassic. Different rates of cooling may be related to changes in the tectonic regime.-L.C.H.

  17. K-Ar ages of allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes and their metamorphic aureoles, Western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, J.L.; Turner, D.L.; Wallace, W.K.; Moore, T.E.

    1985-04-01

    New K-Ar ages from allochthonous mafic and ultramafic complexes of the western Brooks Range (Brooks Range ophiolite) show that igneous rocks yielded ages nearly identical to those of underlying metamorphic aureole rocks. Dated rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence from Tumit Creek consist of (1) hornblende gabbro with minor greenschist and lower grade alteration, hornblende age 147.2 +/- 4.4 Ma; and (2) hornblende-bearing diorite, also slightly altered, age 155.8 +/- 4.7 Ma. Both samples come from presumed higher levels of the Misheguk sequence. Dated samples of metamorphic aureole rocks come from outcrops near Kismilot Creek and lie structurally beneath the Iyikrok Mountain peridotite body. The rocks consist of amphibolite and garnet-bearing biotite-hornblende gneiss considered to be metamorphosed Copter igneous sequence and related sedimentary rocks. Hornblende ages are 154.2 +/- 4.6 Ma and 153.2 +/- 4.6 Ma. metamorphism is clearly related to the structurally overlying perioditite, as the degree of alteration decreases downward. The authors suggest that the K-Ar ages of these rocks represent the effects of thermal metamorphism post-dating igneous crystallization, and are related to tectonic emplacement of the complex. Earlier K-Ar data on igneous rocks give similar ages and have been interpreted as reflecting tectonothermal events. The age of igneous crystallization of the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Misheguk igneous sequence remains uncertain.

  18. Monazite Growth from the Eocene to the Miocene: New Interpretations of the Metamorphic History of Greater Himalayan Rocks in the Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, S. M.; Kauffman, R.; Gonzales-Clayton, B.; Long, S. P.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Across the Himalaya, mid- to lower-crustal Greater-Himalayan (GH) rocks have been exhumed during active continent-continent collision. In the eastern Himalaya within Bhutan, GH rocks are divided into an upper and lower level by an intra-GH shear zone, the Kakthang thrust (KT). To decipher the metamorphic, melt-crystallization and exhumation history of the GH rocks exposed above and below the KT, monazite from metapelites and migmatites was dated and trace elements were analyzed by laser-ablation, split-stream ICPMS. The trace elements from the monazite were used to track when the rocks were at near-peak conditions (based on the depletion of HREE and the likely presence of garnet during monazite growth) versus likely undergoing initial exhumation and garnet breakdown (based on an increase in HREE). Samples were collected from two N-S transects that cross the KT in central and eastern Bhutan. The eastern transect reveals a progressive younging of near-peak metamorphism within the GH, with dates of ca. 23-20 Ma for the structurally-highest sample versus ca. 18-16 Ma in the structurally-lowest sample. The youngest dates from all structural levels of the eastern Bhutan metapelites are 13-15 Ma; the same analyses yield higher HREE abundances, suggesting garnet breakdown during their (re)crystallization. The migmatites yield ca. 14-16 Ma melt-crystallization ages, consistent with the GH having undergone cooling and initial exhumation to cause garnet breakdown by ca. 15 Ma. In comparison, the central Bhutan transect reveals older near-peak metamorphic ages, with garnet-stable monazite populations at ca. 48­-46 Ma within the KT zone, ca. 38-30 Ma for rocks in the middle of the upper-GH, and ca. 25-22 Ma for the structurally-highest sample. Youngest monazites from the central Bhutan transect that yield growth or recrystallization at garnet-unstable conditions range from ca. 17-26 Ma. These results suggest earlier metamorphism and exhumation of GH rocks in central Bhutan

  19. Chemical and physical studies of type 3 chondrites 12: The metamorphic history of CV chondrites and their components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guimon, R. Kyle; Symes, Steven J. K.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1995-01-01

    The induced thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 16 CV and CV-related chondrites, four CK chondrites and Renazzo (CR2) have been measured in order to investigate their metamorphic history. The petrographic, mineralogical and bulk compositional differences among the CV chondrites indicate that the TL sensitivity of the approximately 130 C TL peak is reflecting the abundance of ordered feldspar, especially in chondrule mesostasis, which in turn reflects parent-body metamorphism. The TL properties of 18 samples of homogenized Allende powder heated at a variety of times and temperatures, and cathodoluminescence mosaics of Axtell and Coolidge, showed results consistent with this conclusion. Five refractory inclusions from Allende, and separates from those inclusions, were also examined and yielded trends reflecting variations in mineralogy indicative of high peak temperatures (either metamorphic or igneous) and fairly rapid cooling. The CK chondrites are unique among metamorphosed chondrites in showing no detectable induced TL, which is consistent with literature data that suggests very unusual feldspar in these meteorites. Using TL sensitivity and several mineral systems and allowing for the differences in the oxidized and reduced subgroups, the CV and CV-related meteorites can be divided into petrologic types analogous to those of the ordinary and CO type 3 chondrites. Axtell, Kaba, Leoville, Bali, Arch and ALHA81003 are type 3.0-3.1, while ALH84018, Efremovka, Grosnaja, Allende and Vigarano are type 3.2-3.3 and Coolidge and Loongana 001 are type 3.8. Mokoia is probably a breccia with regions ranging in petrologic type from 3.0 to 3.2. Renazzo often plots at the end of the reduced and oxidized CV chondrite trends, even when those trends diverge, suggesting that in many respects it resembles the unmetamorphosed precursors of the CV chondrites. The low-petrographic types and low-TL peak temperatures of all samples, including the CV3.8 chondrites, indicates metamorphism

  20. Ages and origins of metamorphic fabrics and the tectonics of southeastern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attenoukon, Miriam B.

    This study examines metamorphic fabrics in rocks from the two low-grade (Merrimack and Avalon) terranes exposed in eastern Massachusetts. Polymetamorphic argillites are the principal rock types in the Merrimack terrane, where later generations of chlorite-zone cleavages regionally overprint higher grade cleavages. Truncation of deformed older minerals by younger strain free minerals; preferential precipitation of muscovite and Fe-Ti oxides at the expense of quartz, chlorite and plagioclase; and the increase in aspect ratios of quartz and plagioclase strongly suggest that pressure solution is the dominant mechanism involved in the formation of all cleavage types in these argillites. Electron microprobe analyses of muscovite, chlorite, and plagioclase reveal chemical heterogeneities at the intragranular scale, demonstrating that pressure solution operated in closed, fluid-limited systems, where local mineral assemblages internally buffer the compositions of small fluid reservoirs. Chemical equilibrium is, thus, limited to domains of microns between adjacent cleavage-forming minerals. 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovite in relict high-grade cleavages yielded Late Devonian (Acadian) cooling ages; in contrast, later muscovite generations that define overprinting chlorite-grade fabrics preserve Late Paleozoic (Alleghanian) growth ages. The Merrimack terrane and other cover rocks in eastern Massachusetts are underlain by the Avalon terrane, which is comprised of variably metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary rocks. Compilation of geochronologic data together with microtextural study of Avalon terrane meta-igneous rocks reveal field gradients in 40Ar/ 39Ar cooling ages and deformation intensity. In northeastern Massachusetts, Silurian to Devonian 40Ar/39Ar magmatic cooling ages were obtained in weakly recrystallized diorites and granites that preserve primary igneous textures. In southeastern Massachusetts, orthogneisses are known to have Neo-Proterozoic to Devonian magmatic

  1. Geology and geochronology of granitoid and metamorphic rocks of late Archean age in northwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Peterman, Z.E.; Zartman, R.E.; Benedict, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Granitoid rocks of the Puritan Quartz Monzonite and associated biotite gneiss and amphibolite in northwestern Wisconsin compose the southwestern part of the Puritan batholith of Late Archean age. They differ from rocks in the Michigan segment of the batholith in having been deformed by brittle-ductile deformation and partly recrystallized during shearing accompanying development of the midcontinent rift system of Keweenawan (Middle Proterozoic) age. Granitoid rocks ranging in composition from granite to tonalite are dominant in the Wisconsin part of the batholith. To the north of the Mineral Lake fault zone, they are massive to weakly foliated and dominantly of granite composition, whereas south of the fault zone they are more strongly foliated and mainly of tonalite composition. Massive granite, leucogranite, and granite pegmatite cut the dominant granitoid rocks. Intercalated with the granitoid rocks in small to large conformable bodies are biotite gneiss, amphibolite, and local tonalite gneiss. Metagabbro dikes of probable Early Proterozoic age as much as 15 m thick cut the Archean rocks. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock data indicate a Late Archean age for the granitoids and gneisses, but data points are scattered and do not define a single isochron. Zircon from two samples of tonalitic gneiss for uranium-thorium-Iead dating define a single chord on a concordia diagram, establishing an age of 2,735?16 m.y. The lower intercept age of 1,052?70 m.y. is in close agreement with rubidium-strontium and potassium-argon biotite ages from the gneisses. Two episodes of deformation and metamorphism are recorded in the Archean rocks. Deformation during the Late Archean produced a steep west-northwest-oriented foliation and gently plunging fold axes and was accompanied by low amphibolite-facies metamorphism of the bedded rocks. A younger deformation resulting from largely brittle fracture was accompanied by retrogressive metamorphism; this deformation is most evident adjacent

  2. Early Acadian exhumation history of garnet-kyanite schists from western Massachusetts determined by LASS analysis of metamorphic monazite (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Snoeyenbos, D. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the mechanics of exhumation (e.g. steady vs. episodic processes) requires constraints on the timing and rates of metamorphism and deformation, which can be accomplished by directly dating minerals that formed along the exhumation path. This research focuses on metamorphic monazites contained in restitic high-pressure garnet-kyanite schists from the Goshen Dome in western Massachusetts that record exhumation during the early Acadian. We employ the laser ablation split stream (LASS) technique to simultaneously collect geochronological and geochemical information from the same volume of material. By measuring in situ, LASS analysis allows coordination of petrology, geochemistry and geochronology to reconstruct the timing of metamorphic mineral growth concomitant with exhumation. The gar + ky × crd schists analyzed in this study contain monazite in a variety of petrographic contexts, some of which are interpreted to represent prograde metamorphism. Because we are concerned with exhumation, this contribution focuses on matrix monazite. Matrix monazites are generally aligned with their long axes parallel to foliation. All grains have at least one metamorphic overgrowth, and many grains have multiple generations of overgrowths, thus presenting a detailed record of events. The majority of the matrix monazite cores are 378 to 374 Ma with variable Y concentrations and REE trends. From 375 to 371 Ma, monazite depleted in Y with steep HREE profiles and higher LREE concentrations overgrew pre-existing cores or formed as neoblasts. Dates from most of these monazite domains cluster around 374 to 373 Ma. Neoblasts are typically elongated parallel to the foliation. From 370 to 369 Ma, overgrowths have intermediate Y concentrations with shallower HREE trends and intermediate LREE concentrations, indicating growth during garnet breakdown; these domains are commonly overgrowths with a consistent thickness (ca. 10-15 um), but some domains are more rounded. A pulse of

  3. Exploiting Quartz to Constrain Pressure-Temperature-time-Deformation Histories in Metamorphic Rocks Through Recent Innovations in Thermobarometry and Geospeedometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Kyle; Law, Richard; Thomas, Jay; Caddick, Mark; Stahr, Donald, III

    2013-04-01

    Despite the abundance of quartz in continental crust, it has only recently been exploited for thermobarometric purposes. We are using trace element content, cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics, fabric properties, extent of recrystallization, elastic properties and chemical diffusivities of quartz to better understand the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P - T - t - D) histories of metamorphic rocks. The Ti-in-quartz thermobarometer has significant potential for unveiling important information on the metamorphic history of rocks, since quartz is commonly present in multiple microstructural settings (e.g. matrix, veins, inclusions) and zoning may be present in single crystals that reveal information about the reequilibration, recrystallization and growth histories of quartz. CL imaging provides a qualitative way to obtain such information, and provides a domainal framework for targeted quantitative analyses. We illustrate such analyses with examples from Vermont, India and Greece. A recent study in metapelites from central-eastern Vermont revealed crystals that have low Ti cores (interpreted to be preserved early prograde growth), with mantles that grade to higher Ti, attributed to temperature increase during fabric development and liberation of Si during crenulation cleavage development in the micaceous matrix. Low-Ti overgrowth rims that form sharp boundaries with these graded mantles may be later retrograde overgrowths. Forward modeling the expected volume of quartz present in the rock in P - T space may be implemented to confirm periods of quartz production/precipitation and dissolution. Rocks from the Sutlej Valley (north-west India) have matrix quartz grains with triple junction grain boundaries indicating extensive recovery. CL imaging, however, reveals high Ti ribbons that may be indicative of chemically-preserved paleo-microstructures. At the temperatures and metamorphic rates experienced by these samples, grain boundaries during recovery may not

  4. Metamorphic and age constraints on tectono-thermal reworking in the western H.U. Sverdrupfjella: A new crustal evolution model for Western Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosch, Eugene; Frimmel, Hartwig; Abu-Alam, Tamer; Košler, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Western Dronning Maud Land (WDML) of East Antarctica is argued to consist of two major crustal domains, namely the low-grade Archaean Kalahari-Grunehogna Craton and the high-grade Maud belt (e.g. Grantham et al., 1995; Jacobs et al. 2008). The geodynamic and tectono-thermal crustal evolution histories of these two proposed domains remain a debated topic in Rodinia and Gondwana reconstructions. In this study we conducted a petrological and metamorphic comparison of Mesoproterozoic metabasic rocks on the eastern margin of the Archaean Grunehogna Craton and the adjacent westernmost Maud Belt, across a major structural discontinuity known as the Pencksökket-Jutulstraumen Discontinuity (PJD). As such we evaluate to what extent the two domains of WDML represent independent crustal growth and metamorphic histories. Metamorphic constraints on low-grade rocks on the eastern Grunehogna craton record greenschist facies conditions of T = 340 ± 25oC and P = 2.9 ± 0.8 kbar. The high-grade PT-constraint of T =700 ± 30oC and P = 9.0 ± 2 kbar for the western extreme of the Maud Belt, derived from garnet-hornblende-plagioclase-quartz geothermobarometry and phase diagram modeling in PERPLEX, is very similar to that reported for the eastern Maud Belt and thus, does not support the concept of a westward decreasing metamorphic field gradient within the Maud Belt as previously proposed. Laser-ablation-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of titanite in a hornblende-plagioclase-quartz symplectite (after garnet breakdown), yielded a Pan-African age for high-grade metamorphism in the westernmost Maud belt, which overlaps with the age of tectonic decompression in the eastern Maud Belt. The new U-Pb age data argues against previous models that invoke only late-Mesoproterozoic high-grade metamorphism in the western Maud Belt. The new petrological data indicate that the inferred sub-glacial boundary (PJD) between the Grunehogna Craton and the Maud Belt, represents a major metamorphic hiatus as a Pan

  5. K-Ar ages of metamorphic rocks at the base of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.

    1981-04-10

    Hornblendes from amphiobolities in the sheet of metamorphic rocks beneath the peridotite member of the Samail ophiolite and phyllites farther from the peridotite contact have weighted mean /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar total fusion ages of 90.0 +- 3.0 m.y. and 79.5 +- 3.0 m.y., respectively. The amphibolities represent the first tectonic slice welded to the base of the Samail ophiolite after it was detached from the Tethyan oceanic crust. Formation of the amphiobolities occurred no more than 3 to 7 m.y. after crystallization of plagiogranite in the ophiolite. The phyllites represent another tectonic slice of ocean floor sediments welded to the ophiolite as it was transported further from the Tethyan spreading axis. The K-Ar ages suggest, assuming a half-spreading rate of 2 to 5 cm/yr, that detachment of the Samail ophiolite and formation of amphibolite facies rocks occurred no more than 60 to 350 km from spreading center. Using the same spreading rate, one can calculate a minimum half width of 300 to 750 km for the Tethyan Ocean during the Late Cretaceous.

  6. Mesozoic thermal history and timing of structural events for the Yukon-Tanana Upland, east-central Alaska: 40Ar/39Ar data from metamorphic and plutonic rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; Lanphere, M.A.; Sharp, W.D.; Layer, P.W.; Hansen, V.L.

    2002-01-01

    We present new 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende, muscovite, and biotite from metamorphic and plutonic rocks from the Yukon-Tanana Upland, Alaska. Integration of our data with published 40Ar/39Ar, kinematic, and metamorphic pressure (P) and temperature (T) data confirms and refines the complex interaction of metamorphism and tectonism proposed for the region. The oldest metamorphic episode(s) postdates Middle Permian magmatism and predates the intrusion of Late Triassic (215-212 Ma) granitoids into the Fortymile River assemblage (Taylor Mountain assemblage of previous papers). In the eastern Eagle quadrangle, rapid and widespread Early Jurassic cooling is indicated by ???188-186 Ma 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages for hornblende from plutons that intrude the Fortymile River assemblage, and for metamorphic minerals from the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Nasina assemblage. We interpret these Early Jurassic ages to represent cooling resulting from northwest-directed contraction that emplaced the Fortymile River assemblage onto the Nasina assemblage to the north as well as the Lake George assemblage to the south. This cooling was the final stage of a continuum of subduction-related contraction that produced crustal thickening, intermediate- to high-P metamorphism within both the Fortymile River assemblage and the structurally underlying Lake George assemblage, and Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutonism in the Fortymile River and Nasina assemblages. Although a few metamorphic samples from the Lake George assemblage yield Jurassic 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages, most yield Early Cretaceous 40Ar/39Ar ages: hornblende ???135-115 Ma, and muscovite and biotite ???110-108 Ma. We interpret the Early Cretaceous metamorphic cooling, in most areas, to have resulted from regional extension and exhumation of the lower plate, previously tectonically thickened during Early Jurassic and older convergence.

  7. Microstructural, geothermobarometric and geochronological constraints on the complex Alpine collisional history recorded on the low-grade "Psunj Complex" metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balen, Dražen

    2014-05-01

    Metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. (NE Croatia) cropping out on the SW edge of the Pannonian Basin belong to the Bihor nappe system of Tisia Mega-Unit i.e. of the lithospheric fragment broken off from the southern margin of the European plate. The present-day position of this Unit resulted from complex regional-scale Mesozoic and Cenozoic movements during the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system geodynamic evolution. Usually, the metamorphic rocks of the Slavonian Mts. are interpreted as a part of igneous-metamorphic complex belonging to metamorphic belt formed during or even prior to the Variscan orogeny. Until recently, the Alpine metamorphic evolution was considered insignificant and often neglected or described just in general terms due to considerable lack of geothermobarometric, phase equilibrium, fossil and/or geochronological age constraints. The chlorite schists are widely distributed lithology in the area, comprising simple peak metamorphic mineral assemblage chlorite + plagioclase (albite) + muscovite + quartz ± garnet and are associated to the local complex called Psunj complex (PsC). Metamorphic conditions for non-garnetiferous chlorite schists are obtained with chlorite (Al(IV)) thermometry and white mica barometry are 300 °C and 2.4±0.6 kbar. The chlorite schists are thrusted over (~ to the NE) microtectonically similar chloritoid-bearing schists that reached peak P-T values of 3.5-4 kbar and 340-380 °C. At least two distinct penetrative low-grade metamorphic foliations recorded in the chlorite schists are accompanied by existence of different populations of small (~3.5 µm) low-Th monazites, giving an average age 99±15 Ma. Histogram of obtained ages shows two peaks at 120 and 80 Ma while age modelling recognized two peaks at 113±20 and 82±23 Ma. First Alpine (113±20 Ma) event represents a rare record of late Early Cretaceous thermal event that affected Bihor nappe system. The age contradicts common opinion that Bihor nappe

  8. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-08-01

    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  9. Metamorphic history of LP/HT migmatites from the Bavarian Unit (Bohemian Massif)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Dominik; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Linner, Manfred; Iglseder, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Granulite facies migmatites are commonly observed in the Bavarian Unit which were formed during a late Variscan (post 330 Ma) LP-HT overprint. This event is related to a delamination of mantle lithosphere and subsequent asthenospheric upwelling. Most of these rocks underwent high degrees of melting forming meta- and diatexites. Former work in the Sauwald area, Upper Austria, by Tropper et al. (2006) determined metamorphic conditions of 700-800°C and 0.4-0.5 Gpa. In this study samples were taken along the (1) Danube valley (west of Linz), from the (2) Lichtenberg area (north of Linz), the (3) Bad Leonfelden area (west of the Rodl Fault) and the (4) Sauwald area (south of the river Danube). Biotite and plagioclase bearing migmatite is very common and occurs all over the investigated area. These rocks are the product of intensive melting (anatexite) and formed at conditions of ~650-700°C and 0.25-0.45 Gpa. Scarce outcrops of garnet bearing Al-rich migmatitic metapelites occur along the Danube valley. The formation of the migmatitc texture with well-developed leucosomes (K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz) and melanosomes (garnet, cordierite, sillimanite, spinel, ilmenite, ± biotite) indicate high temperature metamorphism. Most of the garnet grains show a homogenous iron-rich composition and form generally an almandine-pyrope (Xalm=0.78-0.80, Xprp=0.16-0.18) solid solution with minor contents of grossular and spessartine (Xgrs=0.028-0.032, Xsps=0.020-0.024). Large garnet porphyroblasts (up to 1cm in size) display a distinct chemical zoning, especially in grossular component. Elevated homogeneous grossular content in the core is followed discontinously by low grossular content at the rim indicating a two stage growth. Garnet core and rim also display different mineral inclusions. Thermobarometric calculations using garnet core compositions with inclusions and garnet rim compositions with matrix phases as well as pseudosection calculations allow the reconstruction of a P

  10. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of tectonic and metamorphic histories at active continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Stöckhert, Bernhard

    2006-04-01

    : (a) an accretionary complex of low-grade metamorphic sedimentary material; (b) a wedge of mainly continental crust, with medium-grade HP metamorphic overprint, wound up and stretched in a marble cake fashion to appear as nappes with alternating upper and lower crustal provenance, and minor oceanic or hydrated mantle interleaved material; (c) a megascale melange composed of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic oceanic and continental crust, and hydrated mantle, all extruded from the subduction channel; (d) zone represents the upward tilted frontal part of the remaining upper plate lid in the case of a weak upper crust. The shape of the P T paths and the time scales correspond to those typically recorded in orogenic belts. Comparison of the numerical results with the European Alps reveals some similarities in their gross structural and metamorphic pattern exposed after collision. A similar structure may be developed at depth beneath the forearc of the Andes, where the importance of subduction erosion is well documented, and where a strong upper crust forms a stable lid.

  11. Protracted tectono-metamorphic history of the SE Superior Province : contribution of 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology in the Abitibi-Opatica contact zone, Québec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoudene, Yannick; Tremblay, Alain; Ruffet, Gilles; Leclerc, François; Goutier, Jean

    2015-04-01

    of an important sub-vertical shearing deformation as expected if it was a major upper plate-lower plate boundary. Furthermore, the contact does not present significant metamorphic break between the two domains, but a progressive increasing of metamorphism toward the OSP, from greenschist- to amphibolite-facies conditions. Based on these structural and metamorphic characteristics, we suggest that the OSP exposes the deepest rocks at outcrop of an ASP-OSP crust in the study area. Regionally, the 40Ar/39Ar ages acquired during this study indicate that the ASP-OSP contact records a protracted metamorphic history that started around 2685 Ma. The structural and isotopic age data suggest that, from ~2685 Ma to ~2632 Ma, the deepest level of the ASP and the underlying OSP reached amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions and that regional deformation was accommodated by an overall horizontal shortening and sub-vertical transfers of crustal material. Subsequently, the cooling of these crustal rocks was accompanied by strain localisation, which led to the development of oblique strike-slip shear zones from ~2600 Ma, when the lateral flowing of crustal material became predominant. Our 40Ar/39Ar data compared with metamorphic ages documented in adjacent areas of the Superior Province suggests that the peak and duration of regional metamorphism might have been coeval over a large region. This rather favours a mode of pervasive deformation as expected in vertical tectonics.

  12. Ages of Sevier thrusting from dating of metamorphic garnet using the Lu-Hf method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Hoisch, T. D.; Wells, M. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    Combined thermodynamic modeling of garnet growth zoning and Lu-Hf dating of garnet yield well-constrained pressure-temperature-time (PTt) paths. Here we present PTt paths from amphibolite-facies pelitic garnet from the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex that constrain the timing of thrusting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt. Three general times of thrust burial are indicated: 150, 138, and 85 Ma. Lu-Hf garnet dating of burial-related garnet growth in the Raft River Mountains yielded a Late Jurassic age of 149.9 ± 1.2 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 1.1) based on three garnet fractions and a whole rock. A PT path from the schist of Mahogany Peaks in the Albion Range, Idaho, records an isothermal pressure increase indicating growth during thrusting. Lu-Hf dating of garnet from the same rock yielded an Early Cretaceous age of 138.7 ± 0.7 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 1.6) based on seven garnet fractions. An additional PT path from a nearby outcrop also records an isothermal pressure increase and a similar Lu-Hf garnet age of 132.1 ± 5.1 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 9.5) based on three garnet fractions and a whole rock. PT paths of multiple garnet grains from the schist of Stevens Spring in the Grouse Creek Mountains, Utah, exhibit isothermal pressure increases and yielded a Lu-Hf garnet age of 85.5 ± 1.9 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 3.9) based on five garnet fractions and a whole rock. The Late Jurassic burial event recorded in the Raft River Mountains is older than the ages of inception of thrusting of the western thrusts of the Sevier fold-thrust belt including the Canyon Range and Paris - Willard thrusts, but consistent with an eastward progression in initial shortening in the orogenic wedge and development of an inferred thrust load responsible for the retroarc Morrison Formation basin. Early Cretaceous hinterland burial recorded in the Albion Range is permissively coeval with activity on the Willard and Canyon Range thrusts. Finally, renewed hinterland thrust burial during the Late

  13. Timing of mid-crustal ductile extension in the northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada: Evidence from U/Pb zircon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Blackburn, T.; Johnston, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Metamorphic core complexes (Mccs) within the western U.S. record a history of Cenozoic ductile and brittle extensional deformation, metamorphism, and magmatism, and exhumation within the footwall of high-angle Basin and Range normal faults. Documenting these histories within Mccs have been topics of research for over 40 years, yet there remains disagreement about: 1) whether the detachment fault formed and moved at low angles or initiated at high angles and rotated to a low angle; 2) whether brittle and ductile extensional deformation were linked in space and time; and 3) the temporal relationship of both modes of extension to the development of the detachment fault. The northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex (NSR), Nevada has been central to this debate. To address these issues, we report new U/Pb dates from zircon in deformed and undeformed rhyolite dikes emplaced into ductilely thinned and horizontally stretched lower plate rocks that provide tight bounds on the timing of ductile extension at between 38.2 ± 0.3 Ma and 22.50 ± 0.36 Ma. The maximum age constraint is from the Northern dike swarm (NDS), which was emplaced in the northwest part of the range pre- to syn-tectonic with ductile extension. The minimum age constraint is from the Silver Creek dike swarm (SDS) that was emplaced in the southern part of the range post ductile extensional deformation. Our field observations, petrography, and U/Pb zircon ages on the dikes combined with published data on the geology and kinematics of extension, moderate and low temperature thermochronology on lower plate rocks, and age and faulting histories of Cenozoic sedimentary basins adjacent to the NSR are interpreted as recording an episode of localized upper crustal brittle extension during the Eocene that drove upward ductile extensional flow of hot middle crustal rocks from beneath the NSR detachment soon after, or simultaneous with, emplacement of the NDS. Exhumation of the lower plate continued in a rolling

  14. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages from southwestern Penobscot Bay, Maine: Evidence for Silurian metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.P. Jr.; Guidotti, C.V.; Lux, D.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The nature and timing of metamorphic events in the Coastal Lithotectonic Block of Maine remain poorly understood. Immediately west and southwest of Penobscot Bay the rocks are polymetamorphic showing evidence for at least two episodes of amphibolite facies metamorphism and later, perhaps regionally extensive, retrograde events. Hornblende mineral separates from two amphibolites din the Port Clyde area have identical Ar-40/Ar-39 plateau ages of 414.0 [+-] 3.3 and 414.0 [+-] 3.9 Ma. These ages are interpreted to reflect the time of cooling following the last significant thermal event in this area. Biotite from an amphibolite in the Port Clyde area gives a total gas age of 346.5 [+-] 3.2 Ma. Hornblende from an amphibolite 7 km to the west near Friendship gives a nearly concordant release spectrum with a plateau age of 369.0 [+-] 3.7 Ma. Coexisting biotite from this amphibolite gives a total gas age of 289.2 [+-] 2.7 Ma. Muscovite from the Waldoboro pluton has a nearly concordant release spectrum with a plateau age of 306.3 [+-] 2.2 Ma. Biotite from this sample gives a total gas age of 288.9 [+-] 2.2 Ma. The 414.0 Ma hornblende cooling ages from the Port Clyde area reflect cooling following a significant high grade Silurian thermal event. This Silurian metamorphism is the same age as tectonothermal events in the Nashoba Terrane in eastern Massachusetts, the Kingston Complex in southern New Brunswick, the Aspy Terrane in Cape Breton island, Nova Scotia, and the Hermitage Flexure in southern Newfoundland.d Thus a distinctive Silurian tectonothermal province located along the western edge of the Avalon Zone appears to extend discontinuously from Massachusetts to Newfoundland.

  15. Mineral inclusions in zircons of S-type granite: implications for high pressure metamorphism history of meta-sedimentary rocks in the Huai'an terrain, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haozheng; Zhang, Huafeng; Zhai, Mingguo; Cui, Xiahong

    2016-04-01

    The Paleoproterozoic evolution of North China Craton (NCC) arises many argument as geologists have different viewpoints on the distribution and metamorphic history of mafic granulites and granulite facies meta-sedimentary rocks. To provide more evidence of constraining the metamorphic history of granulite facies meta-sedimentary rocks, we select granulite facies meta-sedimentary rocks and co-existing S-type granite in the Huai'an terrain to make a deep research. Magmatic zircons derived from the S-type granite reveal the magmatic age of ˜1.95 Ga and metamorphic age of ˜1.85 Ga with ɛHf(t) value of -4.5 - -0.5. The ɛHf(t) value of S-type granite and relict of garnet-sillimanite gneiss suggest that the S-type granite is generated by melting of meta-sedimentary rocks. Zircons with ages of ˜1.95 Ga and ˜1.85 Ga have the mineral inclusions of Ky + Qz + Ru + Pl and these mineral inclusions are determined by method of Laser-Raman. The ˜1.95 Ga magmatic zircons with inclusions of Ky + Qz + Ru + Pl suggest that meta-sedimentary rocks have mineral assemblages Ky + Qz + Ru + Pl. However, previous studies in the Huai'an terrain showed that almost granulite facies metamorphic condition of meta-sedimentary rocks were regarded as medium pressure by considering the Sill + Grt + Bt + Pl + Qz + Ru + Kf. Presence of kyanite instructs that meta-sedimentary rocks may experience high pressure granulite facies metamorphism. According to pseudosection calculation by using effective bulk composition of garnet-sillimanite gneiss, mineral assemblage of Grt + Ky + Pl + Bt + Qz + Ru + Kf is regarded as the peak stage of high pressure metamorphism. This mineral assemblage is occurred at field of 1033 - 1123 K and 9 - 15 Kbar and the peak pressure is around 11 - 13 Kbar, determined by the XMg and XCa isopleths of garnet. This P-T result is consistent with peak condition of high pressure mafic granulite. Considering the ˜1.95 Ga magmatic age of S-type granite generated by decompression

  16. Zircon U?Pb ages in Myanmar: Magmatic?metamorphic events and the closure of a neo-Tethys ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Andrew; Chung, Sun-Lin; Oo, Thura; Lin, Te-Hsien; Hung, Chien-Hui

    2012-08-01

    Previous isotopic age studies have concluded that the main metamorphism in the Mogok Metamorphic belt (MMB) in Myanmar was Tertiary and caused by collision with or underthrusting by India. We present here results of zircon U-Pb age determinations on 18 samples from Myanmar, largely on intrusive rocks from the north-trending 550 km long Shan Scarps segment of the sickle-shaped MMB. The oldest determination is 491 Ma on orthogneiss north of Mandalay, interpreted as a protolith age and similar to the stratigraphic age of the Bawdwin Volcanics. Augen gneiss at Kyaukse has a 114 Ma protolith age. Our zircon U-Pb ages on undeformed intrusive rocks in the MMB range from Cretaceous to Miocene; the oldest (128 Ma), on a diorite near Yebokson, implies an earliest Cretaceous minimum age for regional metamorphism here. Younger ages on undeformed intrusions include 91 Ma on diorite at Mokpalin, 72 Ma on the weakly foliated garnet-bearing Nattaung granite, 44 and 48 Ma respectively on the MEC and Sedo granites, and 17-20 Ma on granite dykes. For the 128 Ma diorite, Sr and Nd isotopes indicative of a continental crust component, and mapped continuity of metamorphic host rocks, suggest correlation with mid early Cretaceous plutons in the eastern Transhimalayas. Zircon U-Pb ages for the MEC, Sedo and other granites within the MMB and Slate belt help to define a late Cretaceous to early Eocene age range for mostly ilmenite series peraluminous granites within the Western Granite belt and more restricted Western tin belt of Myanmar and southern Thailand. In the Wuntho-Popa arc west of the dextral Sagaing Fault, our new U-Pb zircon age of 105 Ma on diorite at Salingyi supports previous K-Ar ages (106-93 Ma) for pre-Tertiary intrusions. In the Cretaceous this arc may have occupied the Andaman Sea and continued northwards through the Mokpalin diorites and west of the MMB to the 103-80 Ma I-type plutons in the Gandise batholith of southern Tibet. We interpret the MMB and Slate belt as

  17. Different radiation and metamorphic history of the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashkarov, L. L.; Kalinina, G. V.

    1993-01-01

    Track and thermoluminescence parameters in chondrules from the Kainsaz CO 3.2 chondrite have been studied. Obtained results elucidate their individual shock-thermal history and the early pre-accretion stage of the meteorite parent body formation.

  18. A Petrographic History of Martian Meteorite ALH84001: Two Shocks and an Ancient Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1995-01-01

    ALH84001 is an igneous meteorite, an orthopyroxenite of martian origin. It contains petrographic evidence of two shock metamorphic events, separated by thermal and chemical events. The evidence for two shock events suggests that ALH84001 is ancient and perhaps a sample of the martian highlands. From petrography and mineral chemistry, the history of ALH84001 must include: crystallization from magma, a first shock (impact) metamorphism, thermal metamorphism, low-temperature chemical alteration, and a second shock (impact) metamorphism. Originally, ALH84001 was igneous, an orthopyroxene-chromite cumulate. In the first shock event, the igneous rock was cut by melt-breccia or cataclastic veinlets, now bands of equigranular fine-grained pyroxene and other minerals (crush zones). Intact fragments of the cumulate were fractured and strained (now converted to polygonized zones). The subsequent thermal metamorphism (possibly related to the first shock) annealed the melt-breccia or cataclastic veinlets to their present granoblastic texture and permitted chemical homogenization of all mineral species present. The temperature of metamorphism was at least 875 C, based on mineral thermometers. Next, Mg-Fe-Ca carbonates and pyrite replaced plagioclase in both clasts and granular bands, producing ellipsoidal carbonate globules with sub-micron scale compositional stratigraphy, repeated identically in all globules, The second shock event produced microfault offsets of carbonate stratigraphy and other mineral contacts, radial fractures around chromite and maskelynite, and strain birefringence in pyroxene. Maskelynite could not have been preserved from the first shock event, because it would have crystallized back to plagioclase. The martian source area for ALH84001 must permit this complex, multiple impact history. Very few craters on young igneous surfaces are on or near earlier impact features. It is more likely that ALH84001 was ejected from an old igneous unit (Hesperian or

  19. Age mapping and dating of monazite on the electron microprobe: Deconvoluting multistage tectonic histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael L.; Jercinovic, Michael J.; Terry, Michael P.

    1999-11-01

    High-resolution X-ray mapping and dating of monazite on the electron microprobe are powerful geochronological tools for structural, metamorphic, and tectonic analysis. X-ray maps commonly show complex Th, U, and Pb zoning that reflects monazite growth and overgrowth events. Age maps constructed from the X-ray maps simplify the zoning and highlight age domains. Microprobe dating offers a rapid, in situ method for estimating ages of mapped domains. Application of these techniques has placed new constraints on the tectonic history of three areas. In western Canada, age mapping has revealed multiphase monazite, with older cores and younger rims, included in syntectonic garnet. Microprobe ages show that tectonism occurred ca. 1.9 Ga, 700 m.y. later than mylonitization in the adjacent Snowbird tectonic zone. In New Mexico, age mapping and dating show that the dominant fabric and triple-point metamorphism occurred during a 1.4 Ga reactivation, not during the 1.7 Ga Yavapai-Mazatzal orogeny. In Norway, monazite inclusions in garnet constrain high-pressure metamorphism to ca. 405 Ma, and older cores indicate a previously unrecognized component of ca. 1.0 Ga monazite. In all three areas, microprobe dating and age mapping have provided a critical textural context for geochronologic data and a better understanding of the complex age spectra of these multistage orogenic belts.

  20. Age constraints on felsic intrusions, metamorphism and gold mineralisation in the Palaeoproterozoic Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt, NE Bahia State, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mello, E.F.; Xavier, R.P.; McNaughton, N.J.; Hagemann, S.G.; Fletcher, I.; Snee, L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb sensitive high resolution ion microprobe mass spectrometer (SHRIMP) ages of zircon, monazite and xenotime crystals from felsic intrusive rocks from the Rio Itapicuru greenstone belt show two development stages between 2,152 and 2,130 Ma, and between 2,130 and 2,080 Ma. The older intrusions yielded ages of 2,152??6 Ma in monazite crystals and 2,155??9 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Trilhado granodiorite, and ages of 2,130??7 Ma and 2,128??8 Ma in zircon crystals derived from the Teofila??ndia tonalite. The emplacement age of the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome as indicated by a 2,080??2-Ma xenotime age for a granite dyke probably marks the end of the felsic magmatism. This age shows good agreement with the Ar-Ar plateau age of 2,080??5 Ma obtained in hornblendes from an amphibolite and with a U-Pb SHRIMP age of 2,076??10 Ma in detrital zircon crystals from a quartzite, interpreted as the age of the peak of the metamorphism. The predominance of inherited zircons in the syntectonic Ambro??sio dome suggests that the basement of the supracrustal rocks was composed of Archaean continental crust with components of 2,937??16, 3,111??13 and 3,162??13 Ma. Ar-Ar plateau ages of 2,050??4 Ma and 2,054??2 Ma on hydrothermal muscovite samples from the Fazenda Brasileiro gold deposit are interpreted as minimum ages for gold mineralisation and close to the true age of gold deposition. The Ar-Ar data indicate that the mineralisation must have occurred less than 30 million years after the peak of the metamorphism, or episodically between 2,080 Ma and 2,050 Ma, during uplift and exhumation of the orogen. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  1. Chondrite thermal histories from Low-CA pyroxene microstructures: Autometamorphism versus prograde metamorphism revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, Adrian J.; Jones, Rhian H.; Papike, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    In order to constrain the thermal histories of chondritic meteorites, a detailed study of the microstructures of low-Ca pyroxenes produced experimentally and in types 4 and 5 ordinary chondrites was carried out. Cooling experiments on synthetic MgSiO3 at cooling rates between 2 and 10000 C/hr from the protopyroxene stability field into that of orthopyroxene (OPX) were performed and the products of these experiments were annealed for a variety of annealing times. There are clear microstructural differences between samples which were cooled and those which were subsequently annealed. A comparison of the microstructures observed in the experimental samples with those in H4-5 ordinary chondrites shows that they cannot have experienced a single stage cooling history, as proposed for the autometamorphism model.

  2. The effect of thermal resetting and recrystallisation on white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages during retrograde metamorphism on Syros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uunk, Bertram; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2015-04-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar dating is a proven powerful tool for constraining timing of metamorphism, deformation and exhumation. However, in high-pressure metamorphic rocks, dating often results in wide age ranges which are not in agreement with constraints from other isotopic systems, indicating that geological and chemical processes complicate straightforward 40Ar/39Ar dating. In this research project, white mica ages from rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece with contrasting rheology and strain mechanisms are compared, in order to better understand the role of deformation, recrystallization and fluid flow on 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica during retrograde metamorphism. Resulting ages vary along different sections on the island, inconsistent with other isotopic constraints on eclogite-blueschist metamorphism (55-50 Ma) and greenschist overprinting (41-30 Ma). Two end-member models are possible: 1) Results represent continuous crystallization of white mica while moving from blueschist to greenschist conditions in the metamorphic P-T loop, or 2) white mica equilibrated in eclogite-blueschist conditions and their diffusion systematics were progressively perturbed during greenschist overprinting. The single grain fusion analyses yielded contrasting age distributions, which indicate contrasts in degree of re-equilibration during retrograde metamorphism. Step wise heating of larger grain populations resulted in flat plateau shapes, providing no evidence for partial resetting. Electron microprobe measurements of Si per formula unit, as a proxy for pressure during crystallisation, do not explain age variation within sections or on the island scale. The previously unreported north-south age trend and age ranges per sample, as shown only in the 40Ar/39Ar system of the metapelitic and marble lithologies, contains key information that will allow us to test between different scenarios for age formation. Excess argon infiltration at this stage seems to have been of

  3. On the timing of high-pressure metamorphism in Alpine Corsica: the first Lu-Hf garnet and lawsonite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale Brovarone, A.; Herwartz, D.; Castelli, D.; Malavieille, J.

    2012-04-01

    Timing of HP metamorphism in Alpine Corsica is highly debated. Controversial biostratigraphic and radiometric constraints results in a poor understanding of the evolution of Alpine Corsica and its meaning in the Western Mediterranean dynamics. Age estimates provided by means of several techniques (e.g. Ar-Ar, Sa-Nd, U-Pb) vary form Late Cretaceous to Late Eocene. Some authors favor a Late Cretaceous peak metamorphism under HP conditions followed by Late Eocene and Early Oligocene blueschist and greenschist retrogression, respectively. Others favor a Late Eocene peak metamorphism and consider the older estimates as affected by analytical inaccuracy. In order to unravel this debate, we provide new Lu-Hf constraints on garnet and lawsonite from the lawsonite-eclogite and lawsonite-blueschist units of Alpine Corsica, which represent a part of the so-called Schistes Lustrés complex. The two investigated units are interpreted to represent remnants of the former Corsican ocean-continent transition zone [2]. As Lu concentrates in the cores of the selected minerals during the early stages of growth and blocking temperatures are high, this method provides robust insight on the timing of prograde/peak metamorphism [1]. Garnet and lawsonite separated form three lawsonite-eclogite samples yield systematic Late Eocene ages at ~ 34 Ma, while lawsonite from the lawsonite-blueschist unit yields a slightly older age at ~ 37 Ma. These data are in agreement with U-Pb data on zircon from the lawsonite-eclogite unit (~ 34 Ma) [3], but are in contrast with a recent U-Pb estimate on the Corsican continental margin unit metamorphosed under blueschist condition, yielding an age of ~ 55 Ma [4]. These discrepancies indicate a complex paleogeographic setting and a diachronous metamorphic evolution along the Corsican ocean-continent transition zone. The Late Eocene HP metamorphism in the Schistes Lustrés of Alpine Corsica also provides important constraints in the evolution of the Alps

  4. Shock Metamorphism in Northwest Africa 8159, Tissint and Elephant Moraine A79001: Implications for Thermal Histories and Geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Walton, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    Shock metamorphic effects in martian meteorites provide a record of recent impact events on Mars. We examined the textures and mineralogy associated with shock melting in three highly shocked martian basalts: NWA 8159, Tissint and EET A79001.

  5. Extensional versus compressional settings for metamorphism: Garnet chronometry and pressure-temperature-time histories in the Moine Supergroup, northwest Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, D.; Strachan, R. A.; Jones, K. A.

    1998-10-01

    Identification of the tectonic setting for metamorphism is often extremely difficult in complex polymetamorphic terranes where individual tectonothermal events are obscured by later thermal and structural reorganizations. The traditional approach is to use mineral parageneses to outline the nature of the pressure-temperature-time path, but assigning an age to that path remains a challenge. In this case study, pressure-temperature data show that garnet in pelites of the polymetamorphic Moine Supergroup of northwest Scotland grew during compressional tectonics. In addition, the Sm-Nd systematics of these garnets demonstrate that growth occurred in the interval 820 790 Ma and was thus coeval with crustal melting documented as ca. 800 Ma. The heat source for the latter event has previously been postulated to be related to extension, but here we provide the first substantive evidence for a collisional orogeny at this time. These data further demonstrate the utility of garnet chronometry in identifying the timing and nature of particular tectonothermal events in polymetamorphic settings. In addition, the data show that the period between Grenville collision and supercontinent assembly in the North Atlantic region ca. 1000 1100 Ma, and rifting and continental breakup ca. 750 Ma was not as quiescent as previously envisaged. Late Proterozoic orogenesis is likely to have resulted from the closure of aborted continental rifts and/or minor oceanic tracts within the Grenville supercontinent prior to final rifting and supercontinent dispersal.

  6. Aging Hematopoietic Stem Cells Make Their History.

    PubMed

    Fast, Eva Maria; Zon, Leonard Ira

    2016-11-21

    A major hallmark of aging is a decline in tissue regeneration. In a recent issue of Cell, Bernitz and colleagues (2016) determine the divisional history of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to be a key player of regenerative potential in the aging mouse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Metamorphic P-T conditions and CO2 influx history of medium-grade metapelites from Karakorum, Trans-Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachan, Himanshu K.; Santosh, M.; Prakash, Divya; Kharya, Aditya; Chandra Singh, P.; Rai, Santosh K.

    2016-07-01

    The medium grade metapelites of Pangong-Tso area in the trans-Himalayan region underwent sillimanite-grade metamorphism initiated during the Cretaceous, associated with the collision of the Kohistan arc and the Indian plate with Asia. This paper present results from a petrological and fluid inclusion study to understand the metamorphic P-T conditions and fluid history of these rocks. The calculated phase equilibria in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 (NCKFMMnASHT) system suggest P-T conditions of 8 kbar and 650 °C for the peak metamorphic event. Primary fluid inclusions occur in staurolite and garnet, whereas quartz carries mostly secondary fluid inclusions. The trapped fluids in primary inclusions show initial melting temperatures in the range of -56.9 to -56.6 °C, suggesting nearly pure CO2 composition. The secondary fluids are of mixed carbonic-aqueous nature. The re-equilibrated inclusions show annular morphology as well as necking phenomena. The CO2 isochores for the primary inclusions indicate pressures of 6.1-6.7 kbar, suggesting that the CO2-rich fluids were trapped during post-peak exhumation of the rocks, or that synmetamorphic carbonic fluids underwent density reversal during isothermal decompression. The secondary CO2-H2O fluids must have been trapped during the late exhumation stage, as their isochores define further lower pressures of 4.8 kbar. The morphology of re-equilibrated fluid inclusions and the rapid decrease in pressure are consistent with a near-isothermal decompression trajectory following the peak metamorphism. The carbonic fluids were probably derived locally from decarbonation reactions of the associated carbonate rocks during metamorphism or from a deep-seated reservoir through Karakorum fault.

  8. Miocene slip history of the Eagle Eye detachment fault, Harquahala Mountains metamorphic core complex, west-central Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prior, Michael G.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Singleton, John S.

    2016-08-01

    The structural and thermal evolution of major low-angle normal faults in the Colorado River extensional corridor has been a controversial topic since the pioneering studies of metamorphic core complexes in the early 1980s. We present new geo-thermochronometry data from the Harquahala Mountains in west-central Arizona to determine the timing of extension, displacement magnitude, and slip rates along the Eagle Eye detachment fault (EED) during large-magnitude Miocene extension. Zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He data (ZHe and AHe, respectively) from 31 samples along a 55 km extension-parallel transect indicate active slip along the EED occurred between 21 ± 1 Ma and 14 Ma. The spatial extent of ZHe ages and exhumation of the zircon partial retention zone indicated 44 ± 2 km of total displacement, whereas lithologic similarity and identical U-Pb ages between correlated footwall rocks in the Little Harquahala Mountains and breccia clasts at Bullard Peak in the NE Harcuvar Mountains indicated 43-45 km of displacement across the EED. AHe and ZHe data indicated slip rates of 6.7 + 7.8/-2.3 km/Myr, and 6.6 + 7.1/-2.0 km/Myr, respectively, both consistent with the duration and displacement estimates. The EED initiated as a listric fault with an 34 ± 9° dip that decreased to 13 ± 5° below 7 km depth. Secondary breakaway development and footwall exposure occurred by 17 Ma, during active EED slip. Lithologic and geo-thermochronometric offset constraints show excellent agreement and provided a rare opportunity to fully resolve the timing, rates, and total displacement magnitudes along a major continental detachment fault.

  9. Contrast in stress-strain history during exhumation between high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic units in the Western Alps: Microboudinage analysis of piemontite in metacherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omori, Yasutomo; Barresi, Antonello; Kimura, Nozomi; Okamoto, Atsushi; Masuda, Toshiaki

    2016-08-01

    Our analyses of microboudinage structures of piemontite grains embedded within six samples of metachert, one collected from an ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic unit at Lago di Cignana in Italy of the Western Alps, and the other five from surrounding high-pressure (HP) metamorphic units in Italy and France, have revealed that the structures are all symmetrical in type, and were presumably produced in coaxial strain fields. Stress-strain analyses of the microboudinaged grains revealed significant contrasts in the stress and strain histories of the UHP and HP metamorphic units, with the differential stress recorded by the UHP sample being unequivocally lower than that recorded by the five HP samples. In addition, our analyses showed that the UHP sample underwent stress-relaxation during microboudinage, whereas the five HP samples did not. On the basis of these observations and analyses we discuss the mechanical decoupling of the UHP and HP units that led to different histories in differential stress between the units during exhumation of the Western Alps.

  10. Metamorphic fluids and uplift-erosion history of a portion of the Kapuskasing structural zone, Ontario, as deduced from fluid inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; Ashwal, L. D.; Henry, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Fluid inclusions can be used to determine the compositional evolution of fluids present in high grade metamorphic rocks (Touret, 1979) along with the general P-T path followed by the rocks during uplift and erosion (Hollister et al., 1979). In this context, samples of high grade gneisses from the Kapuskasing structural zone (KSZ, Fig. 1) of eastern Ontario were studied in an attempt to define the composition of syn- and post-metamorphic fluids and help constrain the uplift and erosion history of the KSZ. Recent work by Percival (1980), Percival and Card (1983) and Percival and Krogh (1983) shows that the KSZ represents lower crustal granulites that form the lower portion of an oblique cross section through the Archean crust, which was up faulted along a northeast striking thrust fault. The present fluid inclusion study places constraints upon the P-T path which the KSZ followed during uplift and erosion.

  11. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  12. The CO chondrites: Major recent Antarctic finds, their thermal and radiation history, and describing the metamorphic history of members of the class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2016-09-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) properties of 29 CO chondrites from the Miller Range (MIL) and five chondrites from the Dominion Range (DOM) have been measured. MIL has a relatively strong natural TL signal (19.6 ± 14.7 krad), while some of the DOM samples have a very weak natural TL signal (<1 krad) whereas others resemble the MIL meteorites. I argue that MIL and some of the DOM samples had a normal perihelion (∼1.0 AU) and terrestrial age of ∼450-700 ka, while some of the DOM samples have a terrestrial age of ∼100 ka but a perihelion of ∼0.8 AU. The DOM meteorites also show considerable heterogeneity in their induced TL properties, also suggesting that the DOM fragments represent more than one fall. The induced TL data for the MIL samples studied here are consistent with them all being from a single fragmented meteorite. Small (50 mg) chips have TL properties similar to 500 mg chips, so that the smaller chips are representative, although samples taken from original masses less than ∼2 g have low natural TL suggesting that they were heated during atmospheric fall. The properties of CO chondrites are reviewed in terms of their petrologic types. Correlations between TL sensitivity, the most quantitative technique for evaluating metamorphic alteration in CO chondrites, and data for olivine composition and heterogeneity, matrix composition, inert gas content, metal composition (Ni, Co, and Cr in the kamacite), bulk carbon, C and O isotopes, graphite ordering, spectral reflectance at 0.8 μm, and textural characteristics of the ameboid olivine and Ca-rich inclusions are examined. The petrographic types appear to be largely metamorphic in origin with perhaps a minor role for metasomatism. Contrary to recent proposals it is here argued that petrologic type definitions should (1) be specific enough to be meaningful, but broad enough to be simple in application and robust to new developments, (2) be descriptive and not interpretative, (3) should not oversimplify and

  13. The metamorphic and kinematic history of a subduction channel analogue - the subgreenschist Chrystalls Beach Complex, New Zealand - and effects of metamorphic fluid pressure generation on dominant deformation style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.

    2010-12-01

    dehydration of subducting sediments, releasing fluid of increasing δ18O into the subduction channel with increasing depth and metamorphic grade. Formation of a fault-fracture mesh comprising hydrothermal shear and extension veins requires fluid pressures locally in excess of the least compressive stress. The quartz veins in the Chrystalls Beach Complex are therefore inferred to have precipitated as a result of progressive fluid pressure increase along the prograde P-T path, leading to hydrofracture and fault-fracture mesh generation. At subgreenschist conditions, the subduction channel shear zone may therefore deform by a mixture of continuous deformation by dissolution-precipitation creep and frictional sliding and extension fracture within a fault-fracture mesh. As mesh generation requires high fluid overpressure, the onset of of such deformation will only occur when sufficient fluid has been generated and contained within the subduction channel. Thus, fluid generation along the prograde P-T path, and the permeability of the subduction channel rock assemblage, are likely critical controls on subduction channel deformation style.

  14. Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism and low pressure overprint in the Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran: Additional temperature estimates for eclogites, geological significance of U-Pb zircon ages and Rb-Sr constraints on the timing of exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzawa, Timon; Bröcker, Michael; Fotoohi Rad, Gholamreza; Berndt, Jasper; Lisker, Frank

    2017-10-01

    The Sistan Suture Zone, eastern Iran, includes blocks and lenses of eclogite-, blueschist- and/or epidote amphibolite-facies rocks that provide an excellent opportunity to examine the exhumation history of oceanic HP/LT rocks and their retrograde derivatives. Zr-in-rutile thermometry of eclogites corroborates previous interpretations suggesting metamorphic temperatures of ca. 550-600 °C during the HP stage in the Sistan area. Flat HREE distribution patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperatures of ca. 500-600 °C document that zircon in eclogite is of metamorphic origin. REE patterns of zircon from felsic meta-igneous rocks do not allow to distinguish between a magmatic or metamorphic origin, but relatively low temperatures indicated by Ti-in-zircon thermometry (ca. 500-600 °C) and the close similarity of zircon (U-Pb) and white mica (Rb-Sr, Ar-Ar) ages favor a metamorphic zircon origin. Previously published isotopic ages of the felsic rocks cannot unambiguously be linked to the eclogite- and/or blueschist-facies P-T conditions due to the absence of unequivocal mineralogical and petrological evidence. Instead, these rocks may record contemporaneous metamorphic processes that took place at a different depth within the subduction complex, or may indicate active ridge subduction and/or melt formation in the subduction zone at relatively low pressures. Biotite-based internal Rb-Sr isochrons of newly dated epidote amphibolite and biotite-albite gneisses indicate ages of ca. 74-80 Ma, either dating fluid-infiltration-induced formation of biotite during relatively fast uplift, or the time of final passage through the effective biotite closure temperature. Rb-Sr ages of phengite from both an epidote amphibolite and a biotite-albite gneiss yield ages that correspond to the HP/LT stage. This outcome, combined with textural evidence for derivation from eclogitic precursors documents that white mica ages of some strongly overprinted Sistan rocks are compromised by inheritance and do

  15. New U-Pb ages from dykes cross-cutting the Demirci metamorphics, NW Turkey: Implications for multiple orogenic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Fatih; Koral, Hayrettin; Peytcheva, Irena

    2016-04-01

    A high-grade metamorphic sequence in the Sünnice Mountains, Bolu, NW Turkey, is represented by migmatitic quartzo-feldspathic gneisses in amphibolite facies called the Demirci metamorphics/paragneisses, and a sequence of low-grade meta-volcanics containing meta-andesites with minor meta-rhyolites and meta-sedimentary rocks called the Yellice meta-volcanics. They are intruded by the Dirgine granite with an age of Upper Ediacaran (576-565 Ma) and are considered a part of the İstanbul-Zonguldak Tectonic Unit. The Demirci paragneisses are also intruded by a number of dykes in various directions, traditionally considered without radiometric dating to have been emplaced in a single magmatic phase in the Eocene related to post-collision regime of the Anatolide-Tauride platform. Mafic-intermediate-felsic dykes cross-cutting the Demirci paragneisses have been investigated in maps of 1/1000 scale, and their U-Pb zircon age, major-trace element and kinematic data have been obtained. The mafics dykes cross-cutting the Yellice meta-volcanics, equivalents of those in the Demirci paragneisses, occur in N400-500E orientations and have calc-alkaline basalt compositions with a subduction signature. The intermediate dykes occur in N650W, N800W orientations and have calc-alkaline basaltic andesite to andesitic compositions with a subduction signature. Some felsics occur in N150W and N800E orientations and have calc-alkaline dacitic compositions with a collisional tectonic setting. Other calc-alkaline granitic dykes occur in N750E orientation and calc-alkaline granitic compositions with a subduction signature. U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating of zircons yield ages from 485.7±3.6 Ma (i.e. Cambro-Ordovician) for N800E trending dacite dykes; 443.0±5.4 Ma (i.e. Ordovician-Silurian) for N150W trending dacite dykes; 301.0±1.6 Ma (i.e. Upper Pennsylvanian-Carboniferous) for N650W trending basaltic andesite dykes; 268.2±2.4 Ma (i.e. Guadalupian-Permian) for N40-500E trending basalt dykes; 262.9±3

  16. Review of metamorphic and kinematic data from Internal Crystalline Massifs (Western Alps): PTt paths and exhumation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasco, Ivano; Gattiglio, Marco; Borghi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Detailed geological mapping combined with micro-structural and petrological investigation allowed to clarify the tectono-metamorphic relationships between continental and oceanic units transition in the Penninic domain of the Western Alps. The three study areas (Gressoney, Orco and Susa sections) take into consideration the same structural level across the axial metamorphic belt of the Western Italian Alps, i.e., a geological section across the Internal Crystalline Massifs vs Piedmont Zone boundary. The units outcropping in these areas can be grouped into two Tectonic Elements according to their tectono-metamorphic evolution. The Lower Tectonic Element (LTE) consists of the Internal Crystalline Massifs and the Lower Piedmont Zone (Zermatt-Saas like units), both showing well preserved eclogite facies relics. Instead, the Upper Tectonic Element (UTE) consists of the Upper Piedmont Zone (Combin like units) lacking evidence of eclogite facies relics. In the Lower Tectonic Element two main Alpine tectono-metamorphic stages were identified: M1/D1 developed under eclogite facies conditions and M2/D2 is related to the development of the regional foliation under greenschist to epidote-albite amphibolite facies conditions. In the Upper Tectonic Element the metamorphic stage M1/D1 developed under bluschist to greenschist facies conditions and M2/D2 stage under greenschist facies conditions. These two Tectonic Elements are separated by a tectonic contact of regional importance generally developed along the boundary between the Lower and the Upper Piedmont zone under greenschist facies conditions. PT data compared to geochronology indicate that the first exhumation of ICM can be explained by buoyancy forces acting along the subduction channel that occurred during the tectonic coupling between the continental and oceanic eclogite units. These buoyancy forces vanished at the base of the crust where the density difference between the subducted crustal units and the surroundings

  17. Stenian - Tonian and Ediacaran metamorphic imprints in the southern Paleoproterozoic Ubendian Belt, Tanzania: Constraints from in situ monazite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniface, Nelson; Appel, Peter

    2017-09-01

    In situ monazite geochronological data yield the timing of migmatitic metamorphism in southern Ubendian Belt. The mineral assemblage of garnet-biotite- sillimanite- K-feldspar- plagioclase-quartz- ilmenite, in migmatitic metapelitic gneisses was achieved during the Ediacaran metamorphic episode between 565 ± 4 Ma and 559 ± 8 Ma as manifested by dating of monazite grains that include garnet. The Ediacaran metamorphic event in the southern Ubendian Belt overprinted the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic event established at 1808 ± 9 Ma and the Mesoproterozoic metamorphic event at 944 ± 4 Ma (Tonian Period). The Stenian - Tonian and Ediacaran metamorphic imprints in the southern Ubendian Belt fall within the time window of metamorphism and deformation of the neighboring Irumide, southern Irumide, and Unango/Marrupa Complexes. The ca. 560 Ma old granulite facies imprinting in the southern Ubendian Belt is coeval with shear zone patterns in the neighboring Nyika Terrane in NE Malawi the event that was followed by eclogite facies metamorphism during the last stage of Gondwana amalgamation.

  18. High-pressure metamorphic age and significance of eclogite-facies continental fragments associated with oceanic lithosphere in the Western Alps (Etirol-Levaz Slice, Valtournenche, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassmer, Kathrin; Obermüller, Gerrit; Nagel, Thorsten J.; Kirst, Frederik; Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Sandmann, Sascha; Miladinova, Irena; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Münker, Carsten

    2016-05-01

    The Etirol-Levaz Slice in the Penninic Alps (Valtournenche, Italy) is a piece of eclogite-facies continental basement sandwiched between two oceanic units, the blueschist-facies Combin Zone in the hanging wall and the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas Zone in the footwall. It has been interpreted as an extensional allochthon from the continental margin of Adria, emplaced onto ultramafic and mafic basement of the future Zermatt-Saas Zone by Jurassic, rifting-related detachment faulting, and later subducted together with the future Zermatt-Saas Zone. Alternatively, the Etirol-Levaz Slice could be derived from a different paleogeographic domain and be separated from the Zermatt-Saas Zone by an Alpine shear zone. We present Lu-Hf whole rock-garnet ages of two eclogite samples, one from the center of the unit and one from the border to the Zermatt-Saas Zone below. These data are accompanied by a new geological map of the Etirol-Levaz Slice and the surrounding area, as well as detailed petrology of these two samples. Assemblages, mineral compositions and garnet zoning in both samples indicate a clockwise PT-path and peak-metamorphic conditions of about 550-600 °C/20-25 kbar, similar to conditions proposed for the underlying Zermatt-Saas Zone. Prograde garnet ages of the two samples are 61.8 ± 1.8 Ma and 52.4 ± 2.1 Ma and reflect different timing of subduction. One of these is significantly older than published ages of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the Zermatt-Saas Zone and thus contradicts the hypothesis of Mesozoic emplacement. The occurrence of serpentinite and metagabbro bodies possibly derived from the Zermatt-Saas Zone inside the Etirol-Levaz Slice suggests that the latter is a tectonic composite. The basement slivers forming the Etirol-Levaz Slice and other continental fragments were subducted earlier than the Zermatt-Saas Zone, but nonetheless experienced similar pressure-temperature histories. Our results support the hypothesis that the Zermatt-Saas Zone and the

  19. The Age and Geodynamic Evolution of the Metamorphic sole rocks from Izmir-Ankara-Erzıncan suture zone (Northern-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melih Çörtük, Rahmi; Faruk Çelik, Ömer; Özkan, Mutlu; Sherlock, Sarah C.; Marzoli, Andrea; Altıntaş, İsmail Emir; Topuz, Gültekin

    2016-04-01

    The İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone in northern Turkey is one of the major tectonic zones separating the Pontides to the North from the Anatolide-Tauride block and Kı rşehir Massif to the South. The accretionary complex of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan suture zone, near Artova, is composed mainly of peridotites with varying degree serpentinization, metamorphic rocks, basalt, sandstones, pelagic and neritic limestones. The metamorphic rocks are represented by amphibolite, garnet micaschit, calc-schist and marble. The metamorphic rocks were interpreted as the metamorphic sole rocks. Because; (i) They are tectonically located beneath the serpentinized peridotites. (ii) Foliation planes of both the amphibolites and mantle tectonites are parallel to each other. (iii) The metamorphic rocks are crosscut by non-metamorphic dolerite dikes which exhibite Nb and Ta depletion relative to Th enrichment on the N-MORB normalized multi-element spider diagram. The dolerite dikes display flat REE patterns (LaN/YbN=0.85-1.24). These geochemical signatures of the dolerite dikes are indicative of subduction component during their occurrences. Geochemical observations of the amphibolites suggest E-MORB- and OIB-like signatures (LaN/SmN= 1.39-3.14) and their protoliths are represented by basalt and alkali basaltic rocks. Amphiboles from the amphibolites are represented by calcic amphiboles (magnesio-hornblende, tchermakite and tremolite) and they yielded 40Ar-39Ar ages between 157.8 ± 3.6 Ma and 139 ± 11 Ma. These cooling ages were interpreted to be the intra-oceanic subduction/thrusting time of the İzmir-Ankara-Erzincan oceanic domain. This study was funded by TÜBİTAK (Project no: 112Y123).

  20. Variation of illite/muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age spectra during progressive low-grade metamorphism: an example from the US Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Charles; van der Pluijm, Ben A.; Niemi, Nathan

    2012-09-01

    40Ar/39Ar step-heating data were collected from micron to submicron grain-sizes of correlative illite- and muscovite-rich Cambrian pelitic rocks from the western United States that range in metamorphic grade from the shallow diagenetic zone (zeolite facies) to the epizone (greenschist facies). With increasing metamorphic grade, maximum ages from 40Ar/39Ar release spectra decrease, as do total gas ages and retention ages. Previous studies have explained similar results as arising dominantly or entirely from the dissolution of detrital muscovite and precipitation/recrystallization of neo-formed illite. While recognizing the importance of these processes in evaluating our results, we suggest that the inverse correlation between apparent age and metamorphic grade is controlled, primarily, by thermally activated volume diffusion, analogous to the decrease in apparent ages with depth observed for many thermochronometers in borehole experiments. Our results suggest that complete resetting of the illite/muscovite Ar thermochronometer occurs between the high anchizone and epizone, or at roughly 300 °C. This empirical result is in agreement with previous calculations based on muscovite diffusion parameters, which indicate that muscovite grains with radii of 0.05-2 μm should have closure temperatures between 250 and 350 °C. At high anchizone conditions, we observe a reversal in the age/grain-size relationship (the finest grain-size produces the oldest apparent age), which may mark the stage in prograde subgreenschist facies metamorphism of pelitic rocks at which neo-formed illite/muscovite crystallites typically surpass the size of detrital muscovite grains. It is also approximately the stage at which neo-formed illite/muscovite crystallites develop sufficient Ar retentivity to produce geologically meaningful 40Ar/39Ar ages. Results from our sampling transect of Cambrian strata establish a framework for interpreting illite/muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age spectra at different

  1. Metamorphism of tectonic terranes in the eastern marginal zone of the Appalachian orogen, New England

    SciTech Connect

    Hepburn, J.C.; Olszewski, W.J.; Guidotti, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    Southeastern New England is subdivided into three major fault bounded tectonic terranes, each with a distinctive metamorphic history. The easternmost, the Avalon Terrane, has generally been metamorphosed no higher than the lower greenschist facies. Evidence for pre-Alleghanian metamorphism includes a Proterozoic Z(.) event, contact metamorphism adjacent to Ord.-Dev. alkaline plutons, and granulite facies crustal xenoliths in Mesozoic dikes. To the west the Nashoba Terrane has been deformed and polymetamorphosed to the sill. and 2nd sill. zones between approximately 415 and 450 m.y., based on ages of associated granitic and migmatitic rocks. 730 m.y. assumed basement gneisses (fish Brook) have likely experienced Late PC metamorphism. In the Merrimack Trough, here including the Massabesic Gneiss, the metamorphic grade ranges from the greenschist facies on the east to the 2nd sillimanite zones on the west toward the Massabesic. The two metamorphic events present here must predate the intrusion of the Exeter Diorite (473 m.y .), indicating one or both may be PC. To the east, the fault bounded Rye Formation has also experienced two pre- 470 m.y. metamorphisms (and -sill.) However, the terrane east of the Turtle Head Fault Zone (THFZ) has many similarities to the Boston Platform including general (Late PC.) lower greenschist metamorphism. Also, the area between the Norumbega FZ and the THFZ has experienced high grade metamorphism of probable Silurian age and thus may be similar to the Nashoba Terrane.

  2. The single grain fusion dating approach: Determining the factors that control white mica 40Ar/39Ar age formation during HP metamorphism of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uunk, Bertram; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar dating is a proven powerful tool for constraining the timing and rate of metamorphism, deformation and exhumation. However, for high-pressure metamorphic rocks dating often results in wide age ranges, which are not in agreement with constraints from other isotopic systems, indicating that geological and chemical processes complicate straightforward 40Ar/39Ar dating. Despite hosting one of the largest geochronological datasets in the world, the Cycladic Blueschist Unit in Greece is presently one of the focal areas in the discussion on the interpretation of metamorphic 40Ar/39Ar ages. Previous phengite multi grain step heating experiments commonly yielded undulating age spectra ranging between 20 - 60 Ma. While some studies attempt to assign geological significance to these ages, others argue the ages are geologically meaningless and the result of the interplay between partial diffusive resetting and continued crystallization. By taking an alternative approach of multiple single grain fusion experiments, this study investigates age heterogeneity between samples of contrasting metamorphic facies, rheology and strain from the Cycladic islands of Syros and Sifnos. Comparing the size and shape of single grain fusion age distributions at the grain, rock, outcrop and island scale allows determination of the scale at which different age-forming processes operate. Resulting ages show a previously unreported consistent variation between different outcrops, moving from the eclogite-blueschist facies (55-45 Ma) to greenschist overprinting (40-30 Ma). This indicates that outcrop scale homogeneous resetting is the dominant processes for age formation in the CBU. Single grain age variation at the sample and outcrop scale is only limited to 10 Ma, indicating a smaller but observable role for local age perturbing processes of incomplete resetting, continued (re)crystallization or infiltration of excess argon. Some of the partially overprinted samples show

  3. SHRIMP zircon U-Pb ages and tectonic implications of igneous events in the Ereendavaa metamorphic terrane in NE Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fochin; Baatar, Munkhtsengel; Zhu, Mingshuai; Anaad, Chimedtseren

    2017-08-01

    The Ereendavaa metamorphic terrane in NE Mongolia has long been considered as a Pre-Altaid block or a Precambrian cratonic terrane with a Paleoproterozoic basement overlain by Neoproterozoic-Cambrian rocks, but the idea has not been supported by any isotopic dating. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon U-Pb dating on gneisses, amphibolite and schists (mylonites) of the Ereendavaa terrane suggests that the terrane mainly formed during Early Paleozoic (495-464 Ma) and Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic (295-172 Ma). A minor amount of Precambrian rocks might have been involved in the formation of the protoliths of these rocks, as shown by Precambrian inherited zircons (1796-794 Ma). The new age data also suggest that the Ereendavaa terrane experienced at least two periods of magmatism: (1) Early Paleozoic (495-464 Ma) and (2) Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic (295-172 Ma), which are probably produced by the subduction of the Paleo Asian Ocean in the south and the subduction of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean in the north, respectively. The mylonitized granite (172 Ma) and undeformed pegmatite (163 Ma) are interpreted to be syn- and post-kinematic products. The new age data constrain the closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean at mid-Jurassic.

  4. Mesozoic and Cenozoic thermal history of the eastern Mojave Desert, California and western Arizona, with emphasis on the Old Woman Mountains area and the Chemehuevi metamorphic core complex

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Mesozoic thickening and Cenozoic extension resulted in the juxtaposition of upper and middle crustal rocks in the eastern Mojave Desert, southeastern California and western Arizona. The application of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermochronology and petrology/thermobarometry to rocks in this region provides information about the timing and nature of thrusting, plutonism, metamorphism, denudation, and detachment faulting. Orogenesis culminated during the Late Cretaceous when rocks exposed in the Old Woman-Piute, Chemehuevi, and Sacramento Mountains attained temperatures > 500C. High grade metamorphism of the Old Woman Mountains area was caused by the intrusion of the Old Woman-Piute batholith at 73 {plus minus} 1 Ma; Cretaceous mineral assemblages in Proterozoic pelites increase in grade from greenschist to upper amphibolite facies, and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar hornblende ages from Proterozoic amphibolites decrease in age from {approximately} 1,600 Ma to 73 {plus minus} 1 Ma, in the direction of 73 Ma plutons. Pluton emplacement and metamorphism occurred at 3 to 3.5 kbars and 400 > 600C in the Piute Mountains, and 3.5 to 4.5 kbars and 530 to > 650C in the Old Woman Mountains. Following the Cretaceous, the eastern Mojave Desert underwent a period of cooling at a rate of 2 to 10C/Ma between 65 and 25 Ma. By 30 Ma rocks exposed in the Old Woman-Piute, Marble Ship, Clipper and Turtle Mountains were below {approximately} 100C. {sup 40}/{sup 39}Ar ages from the Sacramento Mountains suggest that mylonitization caused by the onset of regional extension occurred at 23 {plus minus} 1 Ma. When extension started in the Chemehuevi Mountains, rocks exposed in the southwestern and northeastern portions of footwall to the Chemehuevi detachment fault were at {approximately} 180C and {approximately} 350C, respectively which suggests that this fault initiated at a dip of 5 to 30{degree}.

  5. Archean metamorphic sequence and surfaces, Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, East Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kays, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of Archean metamorphic surfaces and fabrics of a mapped sequence of rocks older than about 3000 Ma provide information basic to an understanding of the structural evolution and metamorphic history in Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, east Greenland. This information and the additional results of petrologic and geochemical studies have culminated in an extended chronology of Archean plutonic, metamorphic, and tectonic events. The basis for the chronology is considered, especially the nature of the metamorphic fabrics and surfaces in the Archean sequence. The surfaces, which are planar mineral parageneses, may prove to be mappable outside Kangerdlugssuaq Fjord, and if so, will be helpful in extending the events that they represent to other Archean sequences in east Greenland. The surfaces will become especially important reference planes if the absolute ages of their metamorphic assemblages can be determined in at least one location where strain was low subsequent to their recrystallization. Once an isochron is obtained, the dynamothermal age of the regionally identifiable metamorphic surface is determined everywhere it can be mapped.

  6. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of detrital zircons in metasandstones, Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt, Korea: Geochronologic vs. lithotectonic discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.; Cheong, W.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Detrital zircons in six metasandstones and one metadiamictite of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt (OMB), Korea, were analyzed using a sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) at Korea Basic Science Institute, in order to provide geochronologic constraints for the depositional age and protolith age distribution. Samples were collected primarily along ca. 10 km traverse across the strike direction of central OMB, covering the Pibanryeong and Poeun units of Cluzel et al. (1991, Tectonics, 10, 1130-1151). The U-Pb ages of detrital zircons show a spectrum of ages from Archean to Paleozoic, and their distributions permit us to subdivide the analyzed samples into two groups: (1) northwestern (NW) group consisting of three metasandstone samples (so-called Ungyori and Midongsan formations); and (2) southeastern (SE) group of metasandstone and metadiamictite (so-called Munjuri and Hwanggangri formations, respectively). The NW group shows major age concentrations at around 2.4 Ga, 1.0 Ga and 0.44 Ga. The youngest age component suggests that the sandstone protolith of the NW group was deposited after ca. 440 Ma. Thus, the basin development in the OMB has continued into the Upper Paleozoic. Overall patterns of zircon age distributions match well with those of the Taean Formation in the western Gyeonggi massif, which has been recently interpreted to be correlative with the northern Qinling-Dabie belt or the Cathaysia block (Cho et al., 2010, Geoscience Journal, 14, 99-109). On the other hand, the SE group yielded two distinct peaks at ca. 1.87 Ga and 0.75 Ga. The metadiamictite sample contains abundant Mesoproterozoic zircons, unlike the other six samples. Hence, a profound change in protolith ages is apparent between the NW and SE groups, suggesting the presence of major discontinuity such as detachment fault or suture zone. It is thus likely that the Munjuri and Hwanggangri formations belong to an identical lithotectonic unit of Neoproterozoic age (SE group), and both are

  7. 40Ar/39Ar age gradients in micas from a high-temperature-low-pressure metamorphic terrain: Evidence for very slow cooling and implications for the interpretation of age spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Kip V.; Harries, Willis E.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of the time-temperature history of geologic samples are often based on 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained through incremental-heating experiments on minerals with different Ar retentivities. Laser incre mental heating of single crystals of muscovite and biotite from an ˜1700 Ma monzogranite from a low-pressure- high-temperature metamorphic terrain in central Arizona suggested an essentially uniform distribution of radiogenic 40Ar in each crystal and yielded ages of 1412 ±5 Ma for the muscovite and 1410 ±10 Ma for the biotite. The similarity in these ages implies rapid (˜25 K/m.y.) cooling of the monzogranite after a reheating episode slightly before 1412 Ma. In contrast, detailed age mapping of single crystals from the same samples with the laser microprobe revealed large radiogenic 40Ar gradients indicative of very slow (<1 K/m.y.) cooling and a closure interval for Ar diffusion lasting >400 m.y. Evidence for such low cooling rates has important implications for the longevity of high thermal gradients in the Early-Middle Proterozoic lithosphere. In addition, inconsistency between the laser mapping and incremental-heating results for these micas suggests caution when interpreting incremental-heating data for slowly cooled samples.

  8. New age data and geothermobarometric estimates from the Apuseni Mountains (Romania); evidence for Cretaceous amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Spikings, Richard; Tropper, Peter; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    New Ar-Ar ms, Rb-Sr bt and Sm-Nd grt age data in combination with microprobe analyses and structural data from the Apuseni Mountains provide new constraints for the tectonic evolution of the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units during the Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous time interval, which is of special importance for the present day arrangement of tectonic units in the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic region. Late Jurassic obduction of Transylvanian Ophiolites (155 Ma) partially reset Ar-Ar ms ages at the top of the Biharia Nappe System in the Dacia Mega-Unit. New Sm-Nd grt ages and P-T estimates yielded amphibolite-facies conditions of 500°C and about 0.8 GPa during the Early Cretaceous (125 Ma Sm-Nd age) for the Dacia Mega-Unit and during late Early Cretaceous times (104 Ma Sm-Nd age) for the Tisza Mega-Unit. This implies that not only the Dacia Mega-Unit, but also the Tisza Mega-Unit experienced a strong regional metamorphic overprint accompanying Alpine deformation. New 95 Ma Ar-Ar ms and 81 Ma Rb-Sr bt ages from the Bihor Nappe (Tisza Mega-Unit), in combination with fission track ages constrain rapid cooling of more than 20°C/Ma after the thermal maximum. The amplitude of cooling corresponds to data from the Dacia Mega-Unit, which started cooling 20 Ma earlier, but at a rate of only about 12°C/Ma. Kinematic indicators and stretching lineations show NE-directed, in-sequence nappe stacking for the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units during "Austrian Phase" deformation (125-100 Ma). Following the Austrian Phase, the Dacia Mega-Unit was thrust over the Tisza Mega-Unit during the Turonian Phase (93-89 Ma). Constrained through NW-directed kinematic indicators and 94-80 Ma Rb-Sr bt ages, this tectonic phase is responsible for a pervasive retrograde greenschist-facies overprint and the geometry of the present-day nappe stack in the Apuseni Mountains.

  9. Integration of offshore seismic data, exploration wells, and onland outcrops as constraints on the tectonics and uplift age of metamorphic core complexes, eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitz, G. G.; Mann, P.; Campos Aguiniga, H.

    2009-12-01

    High-grade metamorphic domes of the D’Entrecasteaux Islands (DEI) of eastern Papua New Guinea are located within continental crust at the tip of the westward propagating Woodlark spreading ridge. Multi-channel seismic data collected by the RV Maurice Ewing in 1992 was integrated with seismic data from 1974 and two wells drilled by the oil industry in 1973 to understand pattern and age of faults and clastic wedges in offshore basins surrounding the 2-2.5-km high DEI. The WNW-trending line of the DEI demarcates two areas of contrasting deformational and depositional histories. In the area of the Kiribisi and Trobriand basins north of the DEI, normal faults occupy a WNW-striking basin that began to rift in the early Miocene and continued to rift sporadically until the early Pliocene when all normal faults were buried by ~650 m of undeformed Plio-Pleistocene sediments. We infer that these basins formed as sub-basins within a larger forearc basin bounded to the north by the forearc high of the Trobriand Islands and to the south by the DEI. Uplift of the forearc high and inversion of normal faults near the high during the Pleistocene and suggests the possibility of present-day, southward subduction along the Trobriand trench. To the south of the DEI in the Goodenough basin, the Pleistocene section is thicker and deformed by active, WNW-striking normal faults with seafloor scarps and high-angle dips. Wedging of the Pleistocene clastic fill in a half-graben geometry along the Owen-Stanley fault in the Southern part of the Goodenough basin along the southern coastline of the bay indicates that most normal motion has now shifted to this fault system. The shift in extension from north of the DEI to the Owen-Stanley fault zone in post-Pliocene time likely signals the arrival of the propagating rift tip of the Woodlark basin. The presence of conglomerate with high-grade metamorphic clasts in the Pliocene section north of the DEI supports the idea that the uplift and erosion

  10. How and when does argon redistribute during a metamorphic cycle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Clare; McDonald, Christopher; Kelley, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Linking metamorphic 'age' to metamorphic 'stage' is critical for accurately determining the rates and timescales of tectonic processes. 40Ar/39Ar ages of high temperature metamorphic minerals are commonly interpreted under the assumption that 40Ar produced by the decay of 40K is efficiently removed via thermally-driven diffusion at temperatures greater than the mineral 'closure temperature'. An increasing amount of age-dispersed total fusion and laser-ablation in-situ data suggests, however, that an open grain boundary system may be the exception rather than the norm during a metamorphic cycle. The Western Gneiss Region, Norway, exposes felsic gneisses that record the burial and exhumation of Baltican continental crust beneath Laurentia at ca 420-390 Ma. These gneisses record different stages of the breakdown and neo-crystallisation of K-bearing minerals; their 40Ar/39Ar ages allow the effect of processes such as diffusion, deformation, crystallization and partial melting on Ar mobility to be assessed. White mica, stable at peak metamorphic conditions of >2.6 GPa and 700°C yields total fusion and laser spot 40Ar/39Ar ages that are mostly older than and overlap the previously reported ~405-400 Ma 'peak metamorphic' U-Pb zircon age. Biotite and plagioclase that replace the white mica in symplectitic coronas, yield total fusion and laser spot 40Ar/39Ar ages that are overall younger than the white mica ages but that overlap previously reported U-Pb titanite ages interpreted as constraining the timing of the amphibolite-facies overprint at 1 GPa and 700°C. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages therefore cannot be reconciled with a simple diffusive-loss history in an open system. Instead, recrystallization, partial melting and fluid infiltration (but significantly, not deformation) appear to have played a more major role in both removing but also adding Ar from and to the local system. Overall, the data show that even when rocks experience T>700°C for several Ma, Ar may not readily

  11. New insights into the history and origin of the southern Maya block, SE Mexico: U-Pb-SHRIMP zircon geochronology from metamorphic rocks of the Chiapas massif

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, Bodo; Iriondo, Alexander; Premo, Wayne R.; Hecht, Lutz; Schaaf, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The histories of the pre-Mesozoic landmasses in southern México and their connections with Laurentia, Gondwana, and among themselves are crucial for the understanding of the Late Paleozoic assembly of Pangea. The Permian igneous and metamorphic rocks from the Chiapas massif as part of the southern Maya block, México, were dated by U–Pb zircon geochronology employing the SHRIMP (sensitive high resolution ion microprobe) facility at Stanford University. The Chiapas massif is composed of deformed granitoids and orthogneisses with inliers of metasedimentary rocks. SHRIMP data from an anatectic orthogneiss demonstrate that the Chiapas massif was part of a Permian (∼ 272 Ma) active continental margin established on the Pacific margin of Gondwana after the Ouachita orogeny. Latest Permian (252–254 Ma) medium- to high-grade metamorphism and deformation affected the entire Chiapas massif, resulting in anatexis and intrusion of syntectonic granitoids. This unique orogenic event is interpreted as the result of compression due to flat subduction and accretionary tectonics. SHRIMP data of zircon cores from a metapelite from the NE Chiapas massif yielded a single Grenvillian source for sediments. The majority of the zircon cores from a para-amphibolite from the SE part of the massif yielded either 1.0–1.2 or 1.4–1.5 Ga sources, indicating provenance from South American Sunsás and Rondonian-San Ignacio provinces.

  12. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Sanbagawa Belt in western Shikoku: Additional evidence for the prevalence of Late Cretaceous protoliths of the Sanbagawa Metamorphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, U.; Suzuki, S.; Nishizaka, N.; Kimura, K.; Tsai, W.-L.; Lu, H.-Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2014-12-01

    The Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in Japan is one of the best studied high-pressure, low temperature metamorphic belts. Recent work applying new dating techniques has challenged the previously accepted temporal framework for the evolution of the belt, as it was shown that large parts of the belt contain detrital zircons of Late Cretaceous age (younger than 100 Ma), i.e. they have protolith ages younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism at ca. 110 Ma. A 2000 m bore hole from north-western Shikoku provided an excellent opportunity to further evaluate the areal extent of Late Cretaceous protoliths as the drill hole was drilled in an area considered to be part of the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous part of the Sanbagawa Belt. Dating of single zircon grains using the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating method shows that all but one sample contain zircons younger than 100 Ma and thus the protoliths are younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism of the Sanbagawa Belt. The single sample that contains only zircons dated at 136 ± 3 Ma, apparently is of volcanic origin and could be a clast representing the source of 130-140 Ma zircons of the sample taken about 120 above this sample. In addition, three surface samples were analysed. Two of these also contain zircons younger than 100 Ma, whereas the third sample contains only zircons older than 159 Ma. The zircons from this sample also exhibit an age spectrum different from that exhibited by the other samples. The exact significance of this sample is not clear as yet.

  13. SHRIMP U–Pb and REE data pertaining to the origins of xenotime in Belt Supergroup rocks: evidence for ages of deposition, hydrothermal alteration, and metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, John N.; Lund, Karen; Fanning, C. Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Belt–Purcell Supergroup, northern Idaho, western Montana, and southern British Columbia, is a thick succession of Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks with an age range of about 1470–1400 Ma. Stratigraphic layers within several sedimentary units were sampled to apply the new technique of U–Pb dating of xenotime that sometimes forms as rims on detrital zircon during burial diagenesis; xenotime also can form epitaxial overgrowths on zircon during hydrothermal and metamorphic events. Belt Supergroup units sampled are the Prichard and Revett Formations in the lower Belt, and the McNamara and Garnet Range Formations and Pilcher Quartzite in the upper Belt. Additionally, all samples that yielded xenotime were also processed for detrital zircon to provide maximum age constraints for the time of deposition and information about provenances; the sample of Prichard Formation yielded monazite that was also analyzed. Ten xenotime overgrowths from the Prichard Formation yielded a U–Pb age of 1458 ± 4 Ma. However, because scanning electron microscope – backscattered electrons (SEM–BSE) imagery suggests complications due to possible analysis of multiple age zones, we prefer a slightly older age of 1462 ± 6 Ma derived from the three oldest samples, within error of a previous U–Pb zircon age on the syn-sedimentary Plains sill. We interpret the Prichard xenotime as diagenetic in origin. Monazite from the Prichard Formation, originally thought to be detrital, yielded Cretaceous metamorphic ages. Xenotime from the McNamara and Garnet Range Formations and Pilcher Quartzite formed at about 1160– 1050 Ma, several hundred million years after deposition, and probably also experienced Early Cretaceous growth. These xenotime overgrowths are interpreted as metamorphic–diagenetic in origin (i.e., derived during greenschist facies metamorphism elsewhere in the basin, but deposited in sub-greenschist facies rocks). Several xenotime grains are older detrital grains of igneous

  14. The origin and age of the metamorphic sole from the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar Belt: New evidence for the one-ocean model for the Balkan ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borojević Šoštarić, S.; Palinkaš, A. L.; Neubauer, F.; Cvetković, V.; Bernroider, M.; Genser, J.

    2014-04-01

    This study brings new geochronological and petrochemical data from the metamorphic sole beneath the Rogozna Mts., Western Vardar ophiolite belt. The Rogozna metamorphic sole is located at the base of a serpentinite nappe and consists of amphibolites and talc-chlorite schists. The Rogozna amphibolites are medium- to fine-grained rocks with nematoblastic texture and pronounced foliation. They consist of green amphibole (~ 70 vol.%) with variable silica contents (6.4 to 7.8 Si apfu), as well as Mg# (molMg/[Mg + Fetot]; 0.53 to 0.77) and variably albitized plagioclase (~ 30 vol.%; Ab24-Ab98). Amphibolites are overprinted by a retrograde assemblage containing actinolite, epidote, clinoclore, sericite, chlorite, and magnetite. The amphibolites formed due to metamorphism of two basaltic suites: subalkaline/tholeiitic and alkaline. Subalkaline/tholeiitic amphibolites possess low Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 values and a LREE-depleted pattern, typical for the N-MORB (normal mid ocean ridge basalt) to BAB (back-arc basalt) origin. Alkaline amphibolites show elevated concentrations of Zr, Nb, Y, Th, Hf, TiO2, and P2O5 with a LREE-enriched pattern typically displayed by OIB (ocean island basalt). Amphibolites were crystallized during intra-oceanic thrusting at temperatures between 685 °C and 765 °C and at a depth of 12-17 km. 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages of amphibole, ranging from 165 to 170 Ma, slightly postdate the sole formation. Talc-chlorite schists are related to retrograde greenschist-facies metamorphism. They consist of Fe-rich talc and Cr-rich chlorite (peninite-diabantite) pseudomorphs after amphibole and MORB-type Cr-Al spinel, surrounded by Al- and Mg-poor ferrit chromite. The occurrence of ferrit chromite is related to earlier, amphibolite facies metamorphism. Chlorite pseudomorphs after amphibole were formed at 300-410 °C.

  15. Clinopyroxene as a key for tracing a history of crystallization and recrystallization of coronitic metagabbro in high-grade metamorphic terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, Svetlana; Stepanova, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation PT-parameters of magmatic crystallization is usually complicated for metagabbros in high-grade metamorphic terranes. Sometimes intensively metamorphosed coronitic gabbronorites preserve relics of primary magmatic mineral assemblage that could give valuable information on the conditions of melt crystallization. However, to use the composition of this relict minerals one should be sure that relict magmatic minerals in coronotic metagabbros did not change their primary composition despite the fact of high-grade metamorphic overprinting. Clinopyroxene is the most important concentrator of REE in igneous and metamorphic mafic rocks because its trace element composition is a sensitive indicator of physico-chemical conditions of the clinopyroxene-bearing-rocks formation. The Belomorian mobile belt (BMB) of the eastern part of the Fennoscandian Shield is high-garde metamorphic terrane. High-Mg coronitic metagabbronorites are widespread in BMB. In spite of metamorphic alteration at high-pressure amphibolite (to eclogite) facies conditions they often preserve relicts of primary igneous mineral assemblages that consist of olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (augite) and plagioclase. Corona textures usually developed between mafic minerals and plagioclase. In general, coronas consist of orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene (Na-rich diopside), hornblende (with or without spinel inclusions) and garnet. Trace element composition of relict (primary-igneous?) and corona-forming (around magmatic orthopyroxene) clinopyroxenes from paleoproterozoic coronitic metagabbronorites of the BMB was studied using SIMS Cameca IMS 4f. Igneous clinopyroxenes from fresh olivine gabbronorites of age ca. 2.45 Ga in the Karelian craton were used as reference composition for igneous clinopyroxenes. The major element contents in relict clinopyroxenes from coronitic metagabbronorites determined using EDS EPMA is very similar to the igneous clinopyroxene from gabbronorites of the Karelian craton

  16. Protolith and metamorphic ages of the Haiyangsuo Complex, eastern China: A non-UHP exotic tectonic slab in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liou, J.G.; Tsujimori, T.; Chu, W.; Zhang, R.Y.; Wooden, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Haiyangsuo Complex in the NE Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane has discontinuous, coastal exposures of Late Archean gneiss with amphibolitized granulite, amphibolite, Paleoproterozoic metagabbroic intrusives, and Cretaceous granitic dikes over an area of about 15 km2. The U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircons indicates that theprotolith age of a garnet-biotite gneiss is >2500 Ma, whereas the granulite-facie metamorphism occurred at around 1800 Ma. A gabbroic intrusion was dated at ???1730 Ma, and the formation of amphibolite-facies assemblages in both metagabbro and granulite occurred at ???340-460 Ma. Petrologic and geochronological data indicate that these various rocks show no evidence of Triassic eclogite-facies metamorphism and Neoproterozoic protolith ages that are characteristics of Sulu-Dabie HP-UHP rocks, except Neoproterozoic inherited ages from post-collisional Jurassic granitic dikes. Haiyangsuo retrograde granulites with amphibolite-facies assemblages within the gneiss preserve relict garnet formed during granulite-facies metamorphism at ???1.85 Ga. The Paleoproterozoic metamorphic events are almost coeval with gabbroic intrusions. The granulite-bearing gneiss unit and gabbro-dominated unit of the Haiyangsuo Complex were intruded by thin granitic dikes at about 160 Ma, which is coeval with post-collisional granitic intrusions in the Sulu terrane. We suggest that the Haiyangsuo Complex may represent a fragment of the Jiao-Liao-Ji Paleoproterozoic terrane developed at the eastern margin of the Sino-Korean basement, which was juxtaposed with the Sulu terrane prior to Jurassic granitic activity and regional deformation. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  17. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping: insights into the crystallisation history of a metamorphic garnet population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Freya; Gaidies, Fred

    2017-04-01

    In comparison to our understanding of major element zoning, relatively little is known about the incorporation of trace elements into metamorphic garnet. Given their extremely slow diffusivities and sensitivity to changing mineral assemblages, the analysis of the distribution of trace elements in garnet has the potential to yield a wealth of information pertaining to interfacial attachment mechanisms during garnet crystallisation, the mobility of trace elements in both garnet and the matrix, and trace element geochronology. Due to advances in the spatial resolution and analytical precision of modern microbeam techniques, small-scale trace element variations can increasingly be documented and used to inform models of metamorphic crystallisation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in particular, can be used to rapidly quantify a wide range of elemental masses as a series of laser rasters, producing large volumes of spatially constrained trace element data. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS maps of trace element concentrations from numerous centrally-sectioned garnets representative of the crystal size-distribution of a single sample's population. The study sample originates from the garnet-grade Barrovian zone of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence in Sikkim, northeast India, and has been shown to have crystallised garnet within a single assemblage between 515 ˚C and 565˚C, with no evidence for accessory phase reaction over the duration of garnet growth. Previous models have indicated that the duration of garnet crystallisation was extremely rapid (<1 Myr), with negligible diffusional homogenisation of major divalent cations. Consequently, the trace element record likely documents the primary zonation generated during garnet growth. In spite of straightforward (i.e. concentrically-zoned) major element garnet zonation, trace elements maps are characterised by significant complexity and variability. Y and the heavy rare earth elements

  18. Multi-system geochronological and isotopic constraints on age and evolution of the Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt and shear zone system in western Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroğlu, Sümeyya; Siebel, Wolfgang; Danišík, Martin; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Chen, Fukun

    2013-09-01

    The Gaoligongshan metamorphic belt, located east of the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis (EHS) in the Yunnan province, southwestern China, is a compelling region in which to determine temporal constrains on crustal dynamic processes related to the Himalayan orogeny. We applied multi-system geo- and thermochronology (900 °C to <50 °C) to orthogneiss and mylonites from a major shear zone in the southern Gaoligongshan in order to elucidate the magmatic, cooling and exhumation history of this belt. Zircon U/Pb data reveal three magmatic events at ∼486 Ma, ∼136 Ma and ∼76 Ma. Similar ages are found in orthoderivative rocks of the neighboring Tengchong and Baoshan blocks, and the Gangdese batholith, suggesting that the southern Gaoligongshan is composed of an assemblage of Lhasa and Qiangtang terrane derived rocks. Muscovite Rb/Sr ages of 35-21 Ma are coeval with the onset of lateral crustal displacement along major shear zones in Eastern Tibet and Indochina, and with the post-collision volcanic activity in western Yunnan. Biotite Rb/Sr and mica 40Ar/39Ar ages provide evidence that mylonitization along the Gaoligongshan shear zone and crustal rotation of the Tengchong and Baoshan blocks proceeded during the Miocene, between 19 and 12 Ma, when the rocks rapidly cooled through the 350-280 °C temperature range. Almost identical 40Ar/39Ar ages reported for the Karakorum-Jiali-Parlung Fault system in Western Tibet suggest that the Gaoligongshan shear zone is the southeastern continuation of this fault, recording the eastward extrusion of Tibet and crustal movement around the EHS. The final stage of exhumation of the Gaoligongshan occurred between 8 and 5 Ma at an average exhumation rate of ∼3 km/Ma as documented by apatite fission-track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He data. This rapid exhumation was triggered by crustal root delamination and opening of the Andaman sea. Our results clearly show that the complex tectonothermal evolution of the Gaoligongshan was influenced by

  19. Constraints on Age of India-Asia Collision and Pre-Collisional Subduction Metamorphism from the Sangsang Region, South Central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borneman, N.; Hodges, K. V.; Van Soest, M. C.; Wartho, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    A common feature of continental collision zones is the entrainment of ophiolitic and subduction complex rock units. The crystallization and metamorphic ages of these units provide important constraints on both subduction zone evolution and the maximum age of ophiolite obduction. Ophiolites and subduction complexes have been well described in the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone (YTSZ), but thus far relatively few high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic assemblages from within the suture zone have been documented and successfully dated. Here we present structural, petrologic, and chronologic data from a recently discovered subduction complex occurrence of high-pressure (blueschist facies) rocks along the YTSZ in south central Tibet (29.31º N, 86.68º E). Mapping of the complex based on ASTER satellite image analysis as well as field work enabled the identification of four major lithostratigaphic units; from structurally highest to lowest, they are: 1) forarc affinity Chengdoi sandstones 2) a variably serpentinized ophiolitic fragment; 3) a structural mélange of blueschist-facies metabasic and metaclastic rocks; and 4) sandstones containing serpentinite and rutile detritus. The second and third of these tectonostratigraphic units are separated by thrust faults, whereas the Chengdoi sandstones unconformably overlie the ophiolitic fragment. We interpret the thrust separating the blueschists from the ophiolites as a paleo-subduction zone that dips northward when the entire section is rotated to restore the Chengdoi formation to horizontal. The subduction complex is further disrupted by oblique faults, including some with apparent normal sense offset that may be pre-collisional, intraoceanic normal faults. U/Pb zircon dating of the blueschist facies metavlocanic rocks implies a ca. 111 Ma protolith age, while a ca. 65 Ma 40Ar/39Ar amphibole date from one blueschist sample is interpreted as representing a close approximation of the timing of high-pressure metamorphism

  20. Thermal history of low metamorphic grade Paleoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Penokean orogen, Lake Superior region: Evidence for a widespread 1786 Ma overprint based on xenotime geochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vallini, D.A.; Cannon, W.F.; Schulz, K.J.; McNaughton, N.J.

    2007-01-01

    Paleoproterozoic strata in northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota were deposited between 2.3 and 1.75 Ga within the rifted margin and subsequent foreland basin of the Penokean orogen. These strata show evidence for multiple regional metamorphic events previously attributed entirely to the Penokean orogeny (1875-1835 Ma). Metasandstones from the Marquette Range Supergroup and the Animikie, Mille Lacs, and North Range Groups were sampled at multiple localities across Minnesota, Wisconsin and Michigan for metamorphic xenotime suitable for in situ SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. All samples are from the northern Penokean foreland basin where the metamorphic grade is greenschist to sub-greenschist and the strata are virtually undeformed. Xenotime U-Pb ages in these samples have a bimodal population with means of 1786 ?? 4 Ma (n = 32) and 1861 ?? 10 Ma (n = 9). Xenotime of both ages are contained in metasandstones from the basal Chocolay Group in Michigan and Wisconsin and the Mille Lacs Group and North Range Groups in Minnesota. The older age records a regional low-temperature thermal event that is slightly older than the overlying Menominee Group in Michigan and the Animikie Group in Minnesota and Ontario. This 1861 Ma event coincides with regional uplift that led to the formation of the unconformity between the Menominee Group and the overlying Baraga Group in Michigan; hence xenotime growth must have occurred at shallow burial depths. Younger units from the Menominee and Baraga Groups in Michigan and the Animikie Group in Minnesota, record only the 1786 Ma event. A dominant 1800-1790 Ma metamorphic monazite population that overprints Penokean-interval monazite has been documented within amphibolite- to granulite-facies rocks immediately north of the Niagara Fault Zone within the vicinity of gneiss domes and granitic plutons. In contrast, the 1786 Ma xenotime ages are from low-grade, virtually undeformed rocks 50-150 km from the high-grade zones and thus do not appear

  1. New isotopic age data constrain the depositional age and accretionary history of the Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Mona Complex (Anglesey-Lleyn, Wales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hisashi; Fujisaki, Wataru; Sato, Tomohiko; Sakata, Shuhei; Sawaki, Yusuke; Aoki, Kazumasa; Okada, Yoshihiro; Maruyama, Shigenori; Hirata, Takafumi; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Windley, Brian F.

    2017-06-01

    The Mona Complex in Anglesey-Lleyn, Wales formed by Avalonian subduction and accretion from the latest Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic. It comprises an ophiolite, high-pressure metamorphic rocks, volcaniclastic sediments and mélanges. However, understanding of the tectonic evolution has been held back by the paucity of age constraints, thus only a major geochronological study will be sufficient to decipher the subduction, accretion and exhumation history of this significant Avalonian orogen. We conducted U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in the Monian Supergroup in order to constrain the maximum depositional ages, and undertook K-Ar dating of phengites and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in the Blueschist unit, the Central Shear Zone (CSZ), and the New Harbour Group to estimate the timing and duration of the metamorphic events, and to constrain the minimum depositional ages of the Gwna Group. Our geochronological data give minimum (K-Ar) depositional ages of 578-530 Ma on phengites and maximum (U-Pb zircon) depositional ages of 878-550 Ma, which indicates that the sediments in the structurally uppermost Gwna Group were deposited earlier than those in the middle New Harbour Group (maximum depositional ages of 548-515 Ma, this study) and earlier than in the lowermost South Stack Group (maximum depositional ages of 569-522 Ma, this study). Phengite-rich schists in the Blueschist unit and the CSZ show indistinct K-Ar ages ranging from ca. 578 to 530 Ma. However, the K-Ar age of the New Harbour Group is ca. 474 Ma, which we interpret to reflect a later metamorphic event. In a larger perspective, our new ages are broadly contemporaneous with the calc-alkaline continental arc magmatism in NW Wales and Central England that formed by successive eastward subduction from ca.711 to 474 Ma.

  2. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P.; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; González Morales, Manuel R.; Straus, Lawrence G.; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A.; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J.; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G.; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P.; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-01-01

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. We analyze genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3–6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas the earliest modern humans in Europe did not contribute substantially to present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. A ~35,000 year old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe during the Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a new genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners appears in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European pre-history. PMID:27135931

  3. New constraints on the age and conditions of LPHT metamorphism in the southwestern Central Zone of the Damara Belt, Namibia and implications for tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longridge, L.; Gibson, R. L.; Kinnaird, J. A.; Armstrong, R. A.

    2017-05-01

    Orthopyroxene-bearing pelitic migmatites and associated anatectic leucogranites from the southwestern Central Zone of the Damara Belt provide revised constraints on the age and grade of LPHT metamorphism and its timing relative to deformation. Pseudosection modelling using THERMOCALC 3.33 indicates a single metamorphic event with peak temperatures of ca. 835 °C and pressures of 4.9 kbar for a garnet-cordierite-biotite-orthopyroxene schist. These temperatures confirm the attainment of true granulite facies conditions in the belt and are higher than previous estimates based on cation-exchange thermobarometry, which are likely to have been affected by retrograde re-equilibration and underestimate peak temperatures for the Central Zone by 50-150 °C. The early growth of sillimanite, consumption of sillimanite to produce cordierite, and the late development of garnet, together with modal isopleths and textural constraints on mineral reactions suggest a near-isobaric heating path for the southwestern Central Zone. Field and petrographic relationships indicate that the metamorphic peak was coeval with non-coaxial D2 deformation that produced orogen-normal, south- to SE-verging, km-scale, recumbent folds and late-D2 shear zones linked to NE-SW, orogen-parallel, extension. Weighted mean U-Pb single-grain concordia ages of 520.3 ± 4.6 Ma (zircon) and 514.1 ± 3.1 Ma (monazite) from a syn-D2 anatectic garnet-bearing granite constrain the age of metamorphism and the D2 deformation event in the southwestern Central Zone to 520-510 Ma. It is suggested that two tectonometamorphic episodes are preserved in the Central Zone. NW-verging folding and thrusting coeval with the emplacement of the Salem-type granites and mafic-dioritic Goas Suite took place at 550-530 Ma, and south- to SE-verging folding, shearing and NE-SW extension at 520-510 Ma was coeval with granulite-facies metamorphism and the emplacement of crustal melt granitoids. These events are temporally distinct and

  4. Paleoproterozoic layered PGE-bearing Monchetundra pluton, Kola Peninsula: Sm-Nd age of metamorphic alteration of mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunakkuzin, E. L.; Serov, P. A.; Bayanova, T. B.; Nerovich, L. I.; Borisenko, E. S.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is Sm-Nd study of metamorphic alteration of massive gabbronorites from the Monchetundra pluton. The mafic rocks of the pluton are unevenly metamorphosed up to amphibolite facies with the formation of garnet, hornblende, and other minerals. The presence of garnet is a distinctive feature of this pluton in comparison with other Paleoproterozoic PGE-bearing plutons of the eastern part of the Baltic shield: Mt. General'skaya, Fedorovo-Pana, Imandra lopolith, and Monchepluton [9]. The degree of metamorphic alteration of rocks increases near the faults, the largest of which is Monchetundra fault separating the studied pluton from the Monchepluton. This fault was formed about 1.9-2.0 Ga ago according to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr mineral isochrons for minerals from metagabbro-anorthosites of the M1 well.

  5. Metamorphism in Plate Boundary Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2005-12-01

    Accretionary orogenic systems (AOS) form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere; these systems dominate during supercontinent break-up and dispersal. Collisional orogenic systems (COS) form where ocean basins close and subduction ultimately ceases; these systems dominate during crustal aggregation and assembly of supercontinents. It follows that COS may be superimposed on AOS, although AOS may exist for 100s Ma without terminal collision. AOS are of two types, extensional-contractional AOS in dominantly extensional arc systems, and terrane-dominated AOS in which accretion of allochthonous elements occurs during oblique convergence. On modern Earth, regional metamorphism occurs in plate boundary zones. Blueschists are created in the subduction zone and ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks are created in collision zones due to deep subduction of continental lithosphere; granulites are created deep under continental and oceanic plateaus and in arcs and collision zones [high-pressure (HP) granulites, ultra-high temperature (UHT) granulites]. In extensional-contractional AOS, basement generally is not exposed, primitive volcanic rocks occur through the history, rift basins step oceanward with time, and a well-defined arc generally is absent. LP-HT metamorphism is dominant, with looping, CW or CCW P-T-t paths and peak metamorphic mineral growth syn-to-late in relation to tectonic fabrics. UHT and HP granulites are absent, and although rare, blueschists may occur early, but UHPM is not recorded. Short-lived contractional phases of orogenesis probably relate to interruptions in the continuity of subduction caused by features on the ocean plate, particularly plateaus. Extensive granite (s.l.) magmatism accompanies metamorphism. Examples include the Lachlan Orogen, Australia, the Acadian Orogen, NE USA and Maritime Canada, and the Proterozoic orogens of the SW USA. At plate boundaries, oblique convergence is partitioned into two components, one directed more

  6. Rock relationships in the Mogok metamorphic belt, Tatkon to Mandalay, central Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, A. H. G.; Htay, Myint Thein; Htun, Kyaw Min; Win, Myint Naing; Oo, Thura; Hlaing, Tin

    2007-03-01

    The Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB), over 1450 km long and up to 40 km wide, consists of regionally metamorphosed rocks including kyanite and sillimanite schists and granites lying along the Western margin of the Shan Plateau in central Myanmar and continuing northwards to the eastern Himalayan syntaxis. Exposures in quarries allow correlation of Palaeozoic meta-sedimentary, early Mesozoic meta-igneous and late Mesozoic intrusive rocks within a 230 km long northerly-trending segment of the MMB, from Tatkon to Kyanigan north of Mandalay, and with the Mogok gemstone district 100 km to the northeast. Relationships among the metamorphic and intrusive rocks, with sparse published radiometric age controls, indicate at least two metamorphic events, one before and one after the intrusion of Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous calc-alkaline rocks. These relationships can be explained by either of two possible tectonic histories. One, constrained by correlation of mid-Permian limestones across Myanmar, requires early Permian and early Jurassic regional metamorphic events, prior to an early Tertiary metamorphism, in the western part of but within a Shan-Thai - western Myanmar block. The second, not compatible with a single laterally continuous Permian limestone, requires pre-Upper Jurassic regional metamorphism and orogenic gold mineralization in the Mergui Group and western Myanmar, early Cretaceous collision of an east-facing Mergui-western Myanmar island arc with the Shan Plateau, and early Tertiary metamorphism in the MMB related to reversal in tectonic polarity following the arc-Plateau collision.

  7. Re-Os ages for Archean molybdenite and pyrite, Kuittila-Kivisuo, Finland and Proterozoic molybdenite, Kabeliai, Lithuania: Testing the chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, H.J.; Sundblad, K.; Markey, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Motuza, G.

    1998-01-01

    Seven 187Re-187Os ages were determined for molybdenite and pyrite samples from two well-dated Precambrian intrusions in Fennoscandia to examine the sustainability of the Re-Os chronometer in a metamorphic and metasomatic setting. Using a new 187Re decay constant (1.666 x 10-11y-1) with a much improved uncertainty (±0.31%), we determined replicate Re-Os ages for molybdenite and pyrite from the Kuittila and Kivisuo prospects in easternmost Finland and for molybdenite from the Kabeliai prospect in southernmost Lithuania. These two localities contain some of the oldest and youngest plutonic activity in Fennoscandia and are associated with newly discovered economic Au mineralization (Ilomantsi, Finland) and a Cu-Mo prospect (Kabeliai, Lithuania). Two Re-Os ages for veinhosted Kabeliai molybdenite average 1486 ± 5 Ma, in excellent agreement with a 1505 ± 11 Ma U-Pb zircon age for the hosting Kabeliai granite pluton. The slightly younger age suggests the introduction of Cu-Mo mineralization by a later phase of the Kabeliai magmatic system. Mean Re-Os ages of 2778 ± 8 Ma and 2781 ± 8 Ma for Kuittila and Kivisuo molybdenites, respectively, are in reasonable agreement with a 2753 ± 5 Ma weighted mean U-Pb zircon age for hosting Kuittila tonalite. These Re-Os ages agree well with less precise ages of 2789 ± 290 Ma for a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron and 2771 ± 75 Ma for the average of six Sm-Nd T(DM) model ages for Kuittila tonalite. Three Re-Os analyses of a single pyrite mineral separate, from the same sample of Kuittila pluton that yielded a molybdenite separate, provide individual model ages of 2710 ± 27, 2777 ± 28, and 2830 ± 28 Ma (Re = 17.4, 12.1, and 8.4 ppb, respectively), with a mean value of 2770 ± 120 Ma in agreement with the Kuittila molybdenite age. The Re and 187Os abundances in these three pyrite splits are highly correlated (r = 0.9994), and provide a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 2607 ± 47 Ma with an intercept of 21 ppt 187Os (MSWD = 1.1). It appears

  8. New U-Pb zircon age data on polyphase plutono-metamorphic complex in western Enderby Land (East Antarctica) and its implications for Neoproterozoic amalgamation of the Gondwanaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalskii, Evgenii; Krylov, Dmitriy; Rodionov, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    Western Enderby Land occupies a key position on Gondwanaland reconstructions near India - Sri Lanka - Antarctica junction and eastwards the Lützow-Holm Bay metamorphic complex commonly identified as a Cambrian suture zone. We present U-Pb zircon isotopic age determinations with SHRIMP II obtained on tonalite- to granite-gneiss samples from the Thala Hills and the Polkanova Hills. In the Thala Hills three high-temperature tectonomagmatic episodes may be distinguished at ca 980-970 Ma, ca 780-720 Ma, and ca 545-530 Ma. All of them included sin-kinematic granitic orthogneiss protolith emplacements and high-grade metamorphism. In the Polkanova Hills tonalitic to granodioritic orthogneisses, intercalated with prevailing amphibolites, were emplaced during ca 980-950 Ma episode (or at both of these ages) and subsequently metamorphosed under amphibolite facies accompanied by migmatization at ca 600-530 Ma. The ca 980-950 Ma event corresponds to the Rayner Structural Episode which affected much of East Antarctica, including Sør Rondane Mountains to the west and Kemp Land to the east of study area. The Polkanova Hills area is underlain by basic amphibolites and tonalitic to granodioritic orthogneisses characterized by LILE enrichment and Nb-Ta troughs in a primitive mantle normalized spiderdiagram suggestive of derivation in arc-related convergent palaeotectonic environments. Co-eval orthogneisses in the Thala Hills are characterized by granitic compositions and occur in intercalation with paragneisses, which points out to more in-land palaeotectonic environments. The ca 780-720 Ma episode included two events at ca 780 Ma (high-grade anatexis) and 720 Ma (sin-tectonic granitoid emplacement) and was roughly co-eval with magmatic and/or metamorphic events in Dronning Maud Land of East Antarctica as well as in other Gondwanaland regions, like Madagascar, Sri Lanka and eastern Africa. The ca 780-720 Ma episode (Thala Episode) may be correlated with the East African Orogeny

  9. Thermal metamorphism of mantle chromites and the stability of noble-metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Jiménez, José M.; Reich, Martin; Camprubí, Antoni; Gervilla, Fernando; Griffin, William L.; Colás, Vanessa; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Pearson, Norman J.; Centeno-García, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The Loma Baya complex in south-western Mexico is a volume of chromitite-bearing oceanic mantle that records a complex metamorphic history, defined by a first stage of hydrous metamorphism overprinted by a short-lived thermal event associated with an Eocene granite intrusion. During the hydrous metamorphism, the primary magmatic chromite-olivine assemblage was replaced by a secondary, porous intergrowth of Fe2+-rich chromite and chlorite. The heat supplied by an Eocene-age granite intrusion reversed the hydration reaction, producing chromite rims with perfectly developed crystal faces. This third-generation chromite is in equilibrium with highly magnesian (neoformed) olivine and defines a chemical trend analogous to the original magmatic one. The preservation of both reactions in the Loma Baya chromitite provides compelling evidence that the hydration of chromite can be reversed by either prograde metamorphism or any heating event, confirming previous thermodynamic predictions. Understanding these complex features is of particular interest due to the fact that changes in temperature and variable degrees of fluid/rock interaction during metamorphism and intrusion have also significantly affected the chromite-hosted IPGE carrier phases. Here, we propose that the metamorphic fluids involved in the hydrous metamorphism have caused the desulphurization of laurite RuS2, releasing minute particles of Ru-Os-Ir alloys <50 nm in diameter. The following short-lived thermal event that promoted dehydration in the chromitite had the opposite effect on nanoparticle stability, producing a significant coarsening of metal nanoparticles to dimensions larger than a micron. Based on such observations, we argue that IPGE nanoparticles can be exsolved and grown (or coarsen) from sulphide matrices during prograde metamorphism or heating and not exclusively upon cooling under magmatic conditions as it has been previously suggested. These results provide new insights on the relevant role of

  10. Integrating field, microstructures, magnetic fabrics, metamorphic studies to establish Yavapai-Mazatazal-aged syntectonic pluton emplacement and strain localization in the Tusas Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, P.; Kruckenberg, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in the northern Tusas Mountains of New Mexico record the conditions of deposition, deformation and tectonic processes during assembly and stabilization of these rocks to the southern margin of the Laurentian craton. Metasedimentary and metavolcanic supracrustal rocks of the Vadito and Hondo groups comprise the majority of exposures, detrital zircon from within these units constrain the age of deposition ca. 1.70 Ga. - the Yavapai-Mazatazal temporal orogenic boundary. P-T conditions are ~425-600 C and 4-6 kbars. Two pervasive fold and fabric events are regionally displayed that have been locally modified by a third deformation event. Regional constraints on tectonism timing are mixed, with recent work showing that tectonism occurred ca. 1.4 Ga. Two orthogneiss bodies, the Tres Piedras (TP) and Tusas Mountain (TM) granites, were emplaced into supracrustal host rocks at ca. 1.69 Ga. Several datasets that include mapping and characterization of metamorphic assemblages, EBSD microstructural analysis, and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility analyses suggest that emplacement was syntectonic. Metamorphic assemblages show a field-gradient that is roughly concentric to the TP and TM plutons from greenschist facies (ca. 400-425 C) in the distant country rock, to upper amphibolite facies (ca. 650 C) near the pluton contacts. This is a new discovery for the region, as most of northern New Mexico displays a regional amphibolite facies signature. Quartz and feldspar microstructures suggest that the body of both plutons record non-coaxial deformation from near solidus to high-T conditions (>600 C). Muscovite inclusions in cm-scale euhedral microcline grains are aligned with S1, and isoclinal folds in the TP lack an axial planar fabric. Measurement of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) suggest that the orientation of magmatic fabrics within these plutons are consistent with principal regional fabrics (D1) recorded in the

  11. Constraints on the metamorphic history of a mélange complex within the easternmost Himalayan orogen, northern Indo-Burma Range, based on P-T pseudosection and thermobarometric studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haproff, P. J.; Yin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Despite many petrologic and structural studies surrounding the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, P-T histories of metamorphic rocks within the northern Indo-Burman mélange of the easternmost Himalayas remain largely unknown. We present metamorphic P-T conditions of three schists from successive thrust sheets related to generation of the Himalayan orogen, based on mineral assemblage thermobarometry and pseudosection phase diagrams. Use of the garnet-muscovite-biotite-plagioclase thermobarometer and Ti-in-biotite thermometer yield peak conditions of 676 ± 78°C and 10.6 ± 1.3 kbar for schist (PH-1-8-13-26) thrust atop metavolcanics, mafic schist, and ultramafics of the Indus-Ysangpo suture zone (IYSZ). Within this sample, quartz is recrystallized along grain boundaries and garnets contain no significant compositional zoning. Pseudosections constructed from bulk-rock composition and equilibrium mineral assemblages yield a clockwise P-T path with similar peak garnet amphibolite conditions. At structurally lower levels, garnet chlorite schist (PH-1-8-13-8) from a thrust klippe of the IYSZ record peak temperatures below 650°C. Garnets display growth zoning, with increasing Mn and decreasing Fe and Mg from rim to core. Application of the Ti-in-biotite thermometer to a mafic schist (PH-1-3-13-1B) within the klippe near a southwestward-directed thrust yields a peak temperature of 679 ± 24°C. Our study reveals a complex metamorphic history throughout the northern Indo-Burman mélange zone that likely records metamorphism at deep crustal levels during thrust motion and growth of the Himalayan orogen around the northeastern corner of India.

  12. Passive absolute age and temperature history sensor

    DOEpatents

    Robinson, Alex; Vianco, Paul T.

    2015-11-10

    A passive sensor for historic age and temperature sensing, including a first member formed of a first material, the first material being either a metal or a semiconductor material and a second member formed of a second material, the second material being either a metal or a semiconductor material. A surface of the second member is in contact with a surface of the first member such that, over time, the second material of the second member diffuses into the first material of the first member. The rate of diffusion for the second material to diffuse into the first material depends on a temperature of the passive sensor. One of the electrical conductance, the electrical capacitance, the electrical inductance, the optical transmission, the optical reflectance, or the crystalline structure of the passive sensor depends on the amount of the second material that has diffused into the first member.

  13. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Posth, Cosimo; Hajdinjak, Mateja; Petr, Martin; Mallick, Swapan; Fernandes, Daniel; Furtwängler, Anja; Haak, Wolfgang; Meyer, Matthias; Mittnik, Alissa; Nickel, Birgit; Peltzer, Alexander; Rohland, Nadin; Slon, Viviane; Talamo, Sahra; Lazaridis, Iosif; Lipson, Mark; Mathieson, Iain; Schiffels, Stephan; Skoglund, Pontus; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Drozdov, Nikolai; Slavinsky, Vyacheslav; Tsybankov, Alexander; Cremonesi, Renata Grifoni; Mallegni, Francesco; Gély, Bernard; Vacca, Eligio; Morales, Manuel R González; Straus, Lawrence G; Neugebauer-Maresch, Christine; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Constantin, Silviu; Moldovan, Oana Teodora; Benazzi, Stefano; Peresani, Marco; Coppola, Donato; Lari, Martina; Ricci, Stefano; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Valentin, Frédérique; Thevenet, Corinne; Wehrberger, Kurt; Grigorescu, Dan; Rougier, Hélène; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Flas, Damien; Semal, Patrick; Mannino, Marcello A; Cupillard, Christophe; Bocherens, Hervé; Conard, Nicholas J; Harvati, Katerina; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Drucker, Dorothée G; Svoboda, Jiří; Richards, Michael P; Caramelli, David; Pinhasi, Ron; Kelso, Janet; Patterson, Nick; Krause, Johannes; Pääbo, Svante; Reich, David

    2016-06-09

    Modern humans arrived in Europe ~45,000 years ago, but little is known about their genetic composition before the start of farming ~8,500 years ago. Here we analyse genome-wide data from 51 Eurasians from ~45,000-7,000 years ago. Over this time, the proportion of Neanderthal DNA decreased from 3-6% to around 2%, consistent with natural selection against Neanderthal variants in modern humans. Whereas there is no evidence of the earliest modern humans in Europe contributing to the genetic composition of present-day Europeans, all individuals between ~37,000 and ~14,000 years ago descended from a single founder population which forms part of the ancestry of present-day Europeans. An ~35,000-year-old individual from northwest Europe represents an early branch of this founder population which was then displaced across a broad region, before reappearing in southwest Europe at the height of the last Ice Age ~19,000 years ago. During the major warming period after ~14,000 years ago, a genetic component related to present-day Near Easterners became widespread in Europe. These results document how population turnover and migration have been recurring themes of European prehistory.

  14. The geochemistry of shales, siltstones and sandstones of Pennsylvanian Permian age, Colorado, USA: implications for provenance and metamorphic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullers, Robert L.

    2000-03-01

    A series of shales and sandstones found near the source of the Sangre de Cristo, Belden, and Maroon Formations from central Colorado were examined petrographically and were analyzed for major and selected trace elements, including the REE. The sandstones from the Belden Formation have higher quartz/feldspar ratios than do those from the Maroon and Sangre de Cristo Formations. Also, the alkali feldspar (i.e., orthoclase, microcline, perthite)/plagioclase ratio decreases in the order Sangre de Cristo Formation>Maroon Formation>Belden Formation, but the CIW' (chemical index of weathering=molecular [Al 2O 3/(Al 2O 3+Na 2O)]∗100) decreases in the order Belden Formation>Sangre de Cristo Formation>Maroon Formation. This suggests that the Belden Formation had a more plagioclase-rich granitoid source and more intense weathering of the source than did the Maroon and Sangre de Cristo Formations. Also, the variation in the elemental composition within the terrigenous sediment may be explained in terms of the variation in the observed minerals. Elemental ratios critical of provenance are statistically the same between the finer sediment of the Maroon and Sangre de Cristo Formations and fall within the range of a granitoid provenance, suggesting a similar granitoid source composition for the two formations. The fine sediment from the Belden Formation, however, has significantly more negative Eu anomalies and lower La/Sc and Th/Cr ratios than those of the Maroon and Sangre de Cristo Formations, suggesting a more differentiated granitoid source for the Belden than for the Maroon and Sangre de Cristo Formations. Most elemental concentrations or ratios vary by a factor of 0.12 to 60 between adjacent fine and coarse sediment (<1-m distances). Thus, it is not recommended that metasedimentary sequences similar in composition to this study be examined to determine element mobility during metamorphism as the variation due to sedimentary processes is so large.

  15. History of the Pasamonte achondrite: Relative susceptibility of the SmNd, RbSr, and UPb systems to metamorphic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.; Nakamura, N.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1977-01-01

    The RbSr, SmNd, and UPb systematics of the eucrite Pasamonte have been studied in order to investigate the relative susceptibility of the different systems to post-crystallization events and to determine the age and history of the meteorite. The RbSr and 238U-206Pb data of mineral separates do not define an isochron but the SmNd data define an internal isochron which corresponds to the formation age of 4.58 ?? 0.12 b.y. (109 years). The 207Pb-206Pb data of mineral separates define an apparent age of 4.53 ?? 0.03 b.y., however we conclude that this age, while in agreement with the SmNd age, is not strictly valid since the UPb data indicate at least three stages of evolution. The UPb data indicate that the parent body of the meteorite experienced brecciation shortly after the formation of the parent body surface (???4.2-4.45 b.y. ago) and a recent disturbance (collision?) 6 ?? 30 m.y. ago. The latter age is within the range of cosmic ray exposure ages for achondrites. ?? 1977.

  16. Structure, metamorphism, and geochronology of the Cosmos Hills and Ruby Ridge, Brooks Range schist belt, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Peter B.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    The boundary of the internal zones of the Brooks Range orogenic belt (the schist belt) is a fault contact that dips toward the hinterland (the Yukon-Koyukuk province). This fault, here referred to as the Cosmos Hills fault zone, juxtaposes oceanic rocks and unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks structurally above blueschist-to-greenschist facies metamorphic rocks of the schist belt. Near the fault contact, schist belt rocks are increasingly affected by a prominent, subhorizontal transposition foliation that is locally mylonitic in the fault zone. Structural and petrologic observations combined with 40Ar/39Ar incremental-release geochronology give evidence for a polyphase metamorphic and deformational history beginning in the Middle Jurassic and continuing until the Late Cretaceous. Our 40Ar/39Ar cooling age for Jurassic metamorphism is consistent with stratigraphic and other evidence for the onset of Brooks Range orogenesis. Jurassic metamorphism is nearly everywhere overprinted by a regional greenschist-facies event dated at 130–125 Ma. Near the contact with the Cosmos Hills fault zone, the schist belt is increasingly affected by a younger greenschist metamorphism that is texturally related to a prominent foliation that folds and transposes an older fabric. The 40Ar/39Ar results on phengite and fuchsite that define this younger fabric give recrystallization ages ranging from 103 to less than 90 Ma. We conclude that metamorphism that formed the transposition fabric peaked around 100 Ma and may have continued until well after 90 Ma. This age for greenschist metamorphism is broadly synchronous with the depositional age of locally derived, shallow-marine clastic sedimentary strata in the hanging wall of the fault zone and thus substantiates the interpretation that the fault zone accommodated extension in the Late Cretaceous. This extension unroofed and exhumed the schist belt during relative subsidence of the Yukon-Koyukuk province.

  17. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  18. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  19. Age determination in refugee children: A narrative history tool for use in holistic age assessment.

    PubMed

    Vaska, Ashish I; Benson, Jill; Eliott, Jaklin A; Williams, Jan

    2016-05-01

    To present the rationale for using a narrative history tool as part of a holistic age assessment of accompanied refugee children with age uncertainty by exploring cultural narratives of age. Seven small group, semi-structured interviews with 24 humanitarian entrants (10 male, 14 female) recruited from Afghan, Bhutanese and Burundian communities in Adelaide, Australia were conducted. Interviews were performed with interpreters present, audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. Four themes emerged: the significance of age; ways of remembering age; the refugee experience and its effect on age recall; and the reliability and permissibility of documentation. Age was significant, but understood and remembered differently with knowledge of an exact date of birth not required for functioning in participants' home societies. Information regarding age was embedded in narrative accounts, related to events and other people. Birth was not always registered, with birth and age-containing documentation obtained later in life. These documents often reflected cultural ideas regarding age, rather than recording true chronological age. The refugee experience profoundly affected the ability of people to remember their age by disrupting methods used to recall specific events, including birth. Narrative history provides valuable information regarding age in accompanied refugee children with age uncertainty, and allows for age to be located within a range that approximates true chronological age when age documentation is absent or clearly erroneous. The Age Assessment Tool questionnaire provides health professionals with a framework for conducting age assessment interviews. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Timing and duration of garnet granulite metamorphism in magmatic arc crust, Fiordland, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stowell, H.; Tulloch, A.; Zuluaga, C.; Koenig, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pembroke Granulite from Fiordland, New Zealand provides a window into the mid- to lower crust of magmatic arcs. Garnet Sm-Nd and zircon U-Pb ages constrain the timing and duration of high-P partial melting that produced trondhjemitic high Sr/Y magma. Trace element zoning in large, euhedral garnet is compatible with little post growth modification and supports the interpretation that garnet Sm-Nd ages of 126.1??2.0 and 122.6??2.0. Ma date crystal growth. Integration of the garnet ages with U-Pb zircon ages elucidates a history of intrusion(?) and a protracted period of high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting. The oldest zircon ages of 163 to 150. Ma reflect inheritance or intrusion and a cluster of zircon ages ca. 134. Ma date orthopyroxene-bearing mineral assemblages that may be magmatic or metamorphic in origin. Zircon and garnet ages from unmelted gneiss and garnet reaction zones record garnet granulite facies metamorphism at 128 to 126. Ma. Peritectic garnet and additional zircon ages from trondhjemite veins and garnet reaction zones indicate that garnet growth and partial melting lasted until ca. 123. Ma. Two single fraction garnet ages and young zircon ages suggest continued high-temperature re-equilibration until ca. 95. Ma. Phase diagram sections constrain orthopyroxene assemblages to <0.6 GPa @ 650??C, peak garnet granulite facies metamorphic conditions to 680-815??C @ 1.1-1.4. GPa, and a P-T path with a P increase of???0.5. GPa. These sections are compatible with water contents???0.28wt.%, local dehydration during garnet granulite metamorphism, and <0.3. GPa P increases during garnet growth. Results demonstrate the utility of integrated U-Pb zircon and Sm-Nd garnet ages, and phase diagram sections for understanding the nature, duration, and conditions of deep crustal metamorphism and melting. Geochronologic and thermobarometric data for garnet granulite indicate that thickening of arc crust, which caused high-pressure metamorphism in northern

  1. Contrasting geochemistry and metamorphism of pillow basalts in metamorphic complexes from Aysén, S. Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, F.; Aguirre, L.; Sepúlveda, V.; Morata, D.

    1999-07-01

    The geochemistry of pillow basalts from the Chonos Metamorphic Complex (CMC) and the Eastern Andes Metamorphic Complex of Aysén (EAMC) indicates contrasting tectonic environments for these basic lavas. They have E-MORB and continental alkaline affinities, respectively. The MORB-like basalts are metamorphosed in the pumpellyite-actinolite metamorphic facies, with mineral associations indicative of relatively high P/T metamorphism. The continental alkali basalts exhibit pumpellyite-chlorite assemblages developed in a low to intermediate P/T regime. These contrasting eruptive and metamorphic settings agree with recently established age differences between the complexes, and invalidate direct correlation between them.

  2. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data, and tectonic implications of Early-Middle Triassic granitoids in the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt of Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Junlai; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lisheng

    2017-04-01

    The Ailaoshan tectonic belt, where the effects of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean evolution and Indian-Eurasian plate collision are superimposed, is one of the most significant geological discontinuities in western Yunnan province of southeast Tibet. An Ailaoshan micro-block within the belt is bounded by the Ailaoshan suture zone to the west and the Red River Fault to the east, and consists of low- and high-grade metamorphic belts. Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids that are widely distributed to the west of the Ailaoshan suture zone and within the Ailaoshan micro-block may yield significant information on the Tethyan tectonic evolution of the Ailaoshan tectonic belt. This study reports new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data of four granitoids from the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt. Zircon grains from the Yinjie granitoid do not have inherited cores and yield a weighted mean U-Pb age of 247.1 ± 2.0 Ma. The zircon ɛ Hf( t) values range from 7.8 to 12.1, and Hf model ages from 775 to 546 Ma, indicating that the granitoid was derived from juvenile crust. The rims of zircons from the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids yield weighted mean U-Pb ages of 239.5 ± 1.8 and 237.9 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively, whereas the cores yield ages of 1608-352 Ma. The ɛ Hf( t) values of zircon rims range from -20.4 to -5.3, yielding Hf model ages from 2557 to 1606 Ma and suggesting that the source magma of the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids was derived from ancient crust. An additional granitoid located near the Majie Village yields a zircon U-Pb age of 241.2 ± 1.0 Ma. Based on our geochronological and geochemical data, combined with geological observations, we propose that the Ailaoshan micro-block was derived from the western margin of the Yangtze block, and is comparable to the Zhongzan and Nam Co micro-blocks. The presence of late Permian mafic rocks with rift-related geochemical characteristics within the Ailaoshan micro-block, together with granitoids derived

  3. Zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotope data, and tectonic implications of Early-Middle Triassic granitoids in the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt of Southeast Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wenbin; Liu, Junlai; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Lisheng

    2016-05-01

    The Ailaoshan tectonic belt, where the effects of the Paleo-Tethyan ocean evolution and Indian-Eurasian plate collision are superimposed, is one of the most significant geological discontinuities in western Yunnan province of southeast Tibet. An Ailaoshan micro-block within the belt is bounded by the Ailaoshan suture zone to the west and the Red River Fault to the east, and consists of low- and high-grade metamorphic belts. Late Permian-Middle Triassic granitoids that are widely distributed to the west of the Ailaoshan suture zone and within the Ailaoshan micro-block may yield significant information on the Tethyan tectonic evolution of the Ailaoshan tectonic belt. This study reports new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronology and Hf isotope data of four granitoids from the Ailaoshan high-grade metamorphic belt. Zircon grains from the Yinjie granitoid do not have inherited cores and yield a weighted mean U-Pb age of 247.1 ± 2.0 Ma. The zircon ɛ Hf(t) values range from 7.8 to 12.1, and Hf model ages from 775 to 546 Ma, indicating that the granitoid was derived from juvenile crust. The rims of zircons from the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids yield weighted mean U-Pb ages of 239.5 ± 1.8 and 237.9 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively, whereas the cores yield ages of 1608-352 Ma. The ɛ Hf(t) values of zircon rims range from -20.4 to -5.3, yielding Hf model ages from 2557 to 1606 Ma and suggesting that the source magma of the Majie and Yuanjiang granitoids was derived from ancient crust. An additional granitoid located near the Majie Village yields a zircon U-Pb age of 241.2 ± 1.0 Ma. Based on our geochronological and geochemical data, combined with geological observations, we propose that the Ailaoshan micro-block was derived from the western margin of the Yangtze block, and is comparable to the Zhongzan and Nam Co micro-blocks. The presence of late Permian mafic rocks with rift-related geochemical characteristics within the Ailaoshan micro-block, together with granitoids derived

  4. Upper Cretaceous exhumation of the western Rhodope Metamorphic Province (Chalkidiki Peninsula, northern Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kydonakis, Konstantinos; Gallagher, Kerry; Brun, Jean-Pierre; Jolivet, Marc; Gueydan, Frédéric; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-06-01

    The Vertiskos Unit of northern Greece is an elongated basement belt with a complex poly-metamorphic history. It extends from Greece (Chalkidiki peninsula), to the south, up to Serbia, in the north, and arguably represents the westernmost part of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (northern Greece to southern Bulgaria). The Vertiskos Unit experienced a medium pressure lower amphibolite-facies metamorphic overprint during the Alpine Orogeny. The available medium-temperature geochronology implies that it remained at temperature of approximately 300°C (or slightly higher) during Lower Cretaceous. In order to constrain its post-Lower Cretaceous thermal history, until near-surface exposure, we applied apatite fission track analysis. The central ages obtained range from 68.5 ± 3.8 to 46.6 ± 3.6 Ma (uppermost Cretaceous to Middle Eocene) and mean track lengths between 13 and 13.5 µm. We applied two inverse thermal modeling approaches using either each sample independently (high degree of freedom in the thermal history, better data fit) or all samples together interpreting them as a vertical profile (simpler thermal history, worse data fit). Irrespective of the modeling approach, we conclude that the bulk thermal history of the Vertiskos Unit crosses the high-temperature limit of the apatite partial annealing zone by the uppermost Cretaceous and reaches near-surface conditions as early as lower/middle Eocene. These results contrast with the thermal history of the other domains of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province further east (namely the Southern Rhodope Core Complex and the Northern Rhodope Complex) and establish the Vertiskos basement complex as the oldest exhumed coherent basement fragment of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province and Greece.

  5. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar thermochronology and thermobarometry of metamorphism, plutonism, and tectonic denudation in the Old Woman Mountains area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.A.; Miller, C.F.; Harrison, T.M.; Hoisch, T.D.

    1992-02-01

    Discrimination of individual tectonometamorphic events in polymetamorphosed terranes requires a comprehensive understanding of the relative timing and conditions of metamorphism and plutonism. We have applied a combination of {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39} Ar thermochronology, petrology, and thermobarometry to reconstruct the complex Early Proterozoic through early Cenozoic tectonic and metamorphic evolution of continental crust in the Old Woman Mountains area, southeastern California. Strong Mesozoic thermal events obscure the earlier history in much of the Old Woman Mountains area. In those areas where Early Proterozoic rocks underwent only lower-greenschist-facies metamorphism during the Mesozoic, thermobarometry of pelitic schists indicates that Proterozoic metamorphism occurred at 9 to 11 kbar and {approximately}700 {degrees}C. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages of hornblende from samples of interbedded Proterozoic amphibolite indicate that this high-grade metamorphism took place before 1600 Ma. The relatively high-pressure conditions of Early Proterozoic metamorphism in the Old Woman Mountains area contrast with the low-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism that occurred elsewhere in the Mojave Desert at this time. {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar analyses of hornblende from Proterozoic rocks within Mesozoic shear zones and hornblende barometry from Jurassic intrusive rocks suggest that tectonism and burial of Paleozoic strata to >10 km began between 170 and 150 Ma. This tectonism resulted in regional greenschist-facies metamorphism. Late-stage mineral assemblages in Proterozoic and Paleozoic pelitic rocks in the Old Woman Mountains area indicate an increase in metamorphic grade from greenschist to upper amphibolite facies toward Later Cretaceous Plutons of the 73 Ma Old Woman-Piute batholith. Barometric calculations from garnet-bearing metamorphic rocks suggest that this Cretaceous metamorphism took place at 3.5 to 5.0 kbar in the Old Woman Mountains. 68 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Tectonic evolution of high-grade metamorphic terranes in central Vietnam: Constraints from large-scale monazite geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Nobuhiko; Osanai, Yasuhito; Owada, Masaaki; Nam, Tran Ngoc; Charusiri, Punya; Khamphavong, Keo

    2013-09-01

    Several metamorphic complexes in Southeast Asia have been interpreted as Precambrian basement, characterized by amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism. In this paper, we re-evaluate the timing of this thermal event based on the large-scale geochronology and compositional variation of monazites from amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic terranes in central Vietnam. Most of the samples in this study are from metamorphic rocks (n = 38) and granitoids (n = 11) in the Kontum Massif. Gneisses (n = 6) and granitoids (n = 5) from the Hai Van Migmatite Complex and the Truong Son Belt, located to the north of the massif, were also studied. Two distinct thermal episodes (245-230 Ma and 460-430 Ma) affected Kontum Massif gneisses, while a single dominant event at 240-220 Ma is recorded in the gneisses from the Hai Van Complex and the Truong Son Belt. Monazites from granitoids commonly yield an age of 240-220 Ma. Mesoproterozoic ages (1530-1340 Ma) were obtained only from monazite cores that are surrounded by c. 440 Ma overgrowths. Thermobarometric results, combined with concentrations of Y2O3, Ce2O3, and heavy rare earth elements in monazite, and recently reported pressure-temperature paths suggest that Triassic ages correspond to retrograde metamorphism following decompression from high- to medium-pressure/temperature conditions. Ordovician-Silurian ages reflect low-pressure/temperature metamorphism accompanied by isobaric heating during prograde metamorphism. Some samples were affected by both metamorphic events. We conclude that high-grade metamorphism observed in so-called Precambrian basement terranes in central Vietnam occurred during both the Permian-Triassic and the Ordovician-Silurian, while peraluminous granitoid magmatism is Triassic. Additionally, our preliminary analyses for U-Pb zircon age and whole-rock chemistry of granitic gneisses from the Truong Song Belt suggests the presence of the Ordovician-Silurian volcanic arc magmatism in the region. Based

  7. Ages, Trace-Element and Hf Isotopic Compositions of the Detrital Zircons from the Metamorphic Basements in the Eastern Himalayan Syntaxis: Implications for Tectonics and Paleogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Zhang, H. F.; Harris, N.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) of the Himalaya and the paleogeographic position of the Lhasa terrane within Gondwanaland remain controversial. In the Eastern Himalayan syntaxis, the metamorphic basements of the northern Indian plate (Namche Barwa Group) and the South Lhasa terrane (Nyingchi Complex) can be studied to explore these issues. The youngest ages of detrital zircons in the metasedimentary rocks from the Pai Formation of the Namche Barwa Group (NBG) and the Nyingchi Complex suggest their maximum depositional ages are no older than 942 Ma and 1006 Ma, respectively. A granitic gneiss intruding the Pai Formation and a metarhyolite overlying the Nyingchi Complex have protolith ages of 477 ± 3 Ma and 507 ± 4 Ma, respectively, providing upper age limits for their deposition. The detrital zircons in the Pai Formation and Nyingchi Complex define four major age peaks at ~1170 Ma, ~1350 Ma, ~1565 Ma, and ~1750 Ma. Both the ~1170 Ma and ~1350 Ma zircons have large variation of eHf(t) values (-19.4 to +5.6); most ~1565 Ma zircons have positive eHf(t) values (+1.2 - +9.0), and most ~1750 Ma zircons have negative eHf(t) values (-7.1 to -1.9), which are consistent with those of the Mesoproterozoic orthogneiss in the Duoxiongla migmatite of NBG. The trace-element signatures of ~1.5-1.3 Ga detrital zircons indicate they were derived from sources characterized by bimodal magmatism. The potential sources for the metasediments in the Pai Formation and Nyingchi Complex include the Rayner-Eastern Ghats Orogen and its contact zone with the Archaean Indian cratons, the Central Indian Tectonic Zone, the northeastern India craton and Dharwar craton, South Lhasa terrane and probably Eastern Antarctic. Comparisons of detrital zircon age spectra of the coeval metasedimentary rocks from the Nyingchi Complex, the Pai Formation, the GHS and upper Lesser Himalayan Sequence in Arunachal Himalayan, and the Indian cratonic successions suggest that: (1) the NBG is the

  8. Age of the Druksiai-Polotsk deformation zone, Lithuania: a U-Pb dating of metamorphic titanite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vejelyte, Irma; Bogdanova, Svetlana; Salnikova, Ekaterina

    2010-05-01

    The studied Druksiai-Polotsk deformation zone (DPDZ) transects the East Lithuanian Domain (ELD), representing the southern margin of the major Polotsk-Kurzeme zone of faulting in the Baltic-Belarus region. The DPDZ is of 35-40 km wide, E-W trending, and marked well by linear gravity and magnetic anomalies. The crystalline rocks within the DPDZ are granulites, biotite granites, and migmatites, the latter consisting of amphibole-plagioclase paleo- and mesosomes, and plagioclase-quartz-biotite±microcline±amphibole neosomes. Because of ductile shearing gneisses, augen mylonites, mylonites and ultramylonites were produced while tectonic breccias and pseudotachyllite were formed by later brittle deformation. According to geophysical data and the surface morphology of the crystalline basement, a horst-graben structure have recognized along the DPDZ. The graben is filled with Vendian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian deposits. A U-Pb dating of titanite from an augen granitoid mylonite in the DPDZ has yielded a concordant age of 1534±9 Ma. This light brown titanite follows the folation in the host rock and was obviously formed during retrogression from amphibolite- to epidote-amphibolite facies and coeval mylonitization. Shear zones of the same age are known in southern and central Sweden and in NE Poland. These E-W trending deformation zones accommodate both mafic and granitoid intrusions and are probably related to an extensional period in the Mesoproterozoic evolution in the western part of the East European Craton. This is a contribution to the project "The Precambrian structure of Baltica as a control of its recent environment and evolution" of the Visby Programme supported by the Swedish Institute and the Lithuanian State Science and Studies Foundation.

  9. Shock Metamorphism of the Dhofar 378 Basaltic Shergottite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.

    2006-01-01

    Shock metamorphism is one of the most fundamental processes in the history of Martian meteorites, especially shergottites, which affect their mineralogy and chronology. The formation of "maskelynite" from plagioclase and shock melts is such major mineralogical effects. Dhofar 378 is one of the recently found desert shergottites that is mainly composed of plagioclase and pyroxene. This shergottite is important because of its highly shocked nature and unique plagioclase texture, and thus has a great potential for assessing a "shock" age of shergottites. We have been working on a combined study of mineralogy and chronology of the same rock chip of Dhofar 378. This abstract reports its mineralogical part.

  10. Exhuming Metamorphic Rocks: Constraints from Cooling of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasser, Deta; Bruand, Emilie; Stüwe, Kurt; Rubatto, Daniela; Foster, David; Schuster, Ralf

    2010-05-01

    Exhumation mechanisms for metamorphic rocks include (a) erosion, (b) extension, (c) extrusion by channel flow, simple or pure shear, and - recently suggested - (d) slab extraction. Distinguishing in a particular case of a metamorphic complex between the different exhumation mechanisms is a much discussed subject in modern geodynamics. In order to add to this discussion, we adopt an interdisciplinary approach combining detailed petrological and structural field work with several geochronological and thermochronological systems. The Chugach Metamorphic Complex of southern Alaska is a ~600 km long and 10-30 km wide zone of upper amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks. It lies in the outermost tectonic belt of the North American Cordillera, which is a vast and complex Phanerozoic orogen formed from the oblique collision of the Pacific, Kula and Farallon oceanic plates and the North American continent. The Chugach Complex developed in the Eocene in a Cretaceous to Paleocene accretionary prism while the Kula and Pacific plates were obliquely colliding with North America. We conducted detailed field work, U-Pb and 40Ar-39Ar geochronology and compiled all other geochronological data from the region in order to construct cooling histories for the whole metamorphic complex. These cooling histories vary along strike: The western and central parts of the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, where the metamorphic complex is wide, show very fast cooling to below ~300° C between 54-45 Ma, shortly after peak metamorphism, and then slowly cool to surface temperatures over the remaining 45 Ma. In contrast, the south-eastern part, where the metamorphic complex is very narrow, slowly and steadily cooled between 51-5 Ma only to increase its cooling rate in the last few Ma before present. Whether and how these cooling rates can be directly linked with exhumation rates and why they differ so grossly between the wide and the narrow parts of the complex is the current focus of our work.

  11. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotope data of the age of formation and metamorphic alteration of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex (Baltic Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steshenko, Ekaterina; Bayanova, Tamara; Serov, Pavel; Chashchin, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this research was to study the isotope U-Pb age of zircon and rutile and Sm-Nd (rock forming and sulphide minerals) in Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex. Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa gabbro-anorthosite complex is located in the N-E part of Baltic shield and consists of three parts. Marginal zone (mesocratic metanorite) lies at the base of the massif. Main zone is composed of leucocratic metagabbro. The upper zone is alteration of mataanorthosite and leucocratic metagabbro. All rocks were subjected to granulate metamorphism. New U-Pb and Sm-Nd isotopic and geochronological data for the rocks of the Kandalaksha-Kolvitsa Paleoproterozoic gabbro-anorthosite complex is presented. For the first time single zircon grains from metagabbros of Kolvitsa massif were dated 2448±5 Ma, using U-Pb method with an artificial 205Pb tracer. Sm-Nd isotopic age of the metamorphic minerals apatite, garnet and sulphide WR Kolvitsa array is 1985 ± 17 Ma, which is interpreted granulite metamorphism. Two fractions of single zircons from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif gave U-Pb age 2450± 3 Ma. Leucocratic gabbro-norite (Kandalaksha massif) were dated by U-Pb on single zircon, with age up to 2230±10 Ma. This age reflects the time of granulite metamorphism according to data of [1]. Two fractions of rutile from anorthosite of the Kandalaksha massif have been analyzed by U-Pb method and reflect age of 1700 ± 10 Ma. It is known that the closure temperature of U-Pb system rutile 400-450 ° C [2], thus cooling of the massif to these temperatures was about 1.7 Ga. These data suggested two stages of metamorphic transformations of the massif. Sm-Nd research Kandalaksha massif reflected the age of the high-temperature metasomatic transformations -1887 ± 37 Ma. Time of regional fluid processing - 1692 ± 71 Ma. A model Sm-Nd age metagabbros Kolvitsa massif is 3.3 Ga with a negative value ɛNd = -4.6, which corresponds to the most likely primary enriched mantle reservoir of

  12. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2015-11-01

    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  13. Color Me Metamorphic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdd, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Described are five activities using crayons to demonstrate the rock cycle including weathering, erosion and sedimentation, and sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rock formation. Discussed are materials, procedures, and probable results. (CW)

  14. Color Me Metamorphic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdd, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Described are five activities using crayons to demonstrate the rock cycle including weathering, erosion and sedimentation, and sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rock formation. Discussed are materials, procedures, and probable results. (CW)

  15. Metamorphism in mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Prinz, M.; Harlow, G. E.; Nehru, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous studies of mesosiderites have identified a metamorphic overprint in these meteorites. However, the effects and implications of this overprint have not yet been explored in detail. The present study documents several important textural and chemical features of the mesosiderites. The components of mesosiderites are examined, taking into account orthopyroxenites, olivine in clasts, mesosiderite mafic clasts, and metal. The characteristics of the silicate matrix of the mesosiderites is explored, and textural and chemical evidence of metamorphism is discussed, giving attention to coronas on olivine clasts, overgrowths on Mg-pyroxene clasts, rims on iron rich pyroxene grains, poikiloblasts of plagioclase, and resorption of clasts. Aspects of redox formation of merrillite are considered along with the causes and the implications of metamorphism. It is found that metamorphism has radically changed the texture of the silicate fraction of the mesosiderites.

  16. Plate tectonics: Metamorphic myth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenaga, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Clear evidence for subduction-induced metamorphism, and thus the operation of plate tectonics on the ancient Earth has been lacking. Theoretical calculations indicate that we may have been looking for something that cannot exist.

  17. Late Carboniferous high-pressure metamorphism of the Kassan Metamorphic Complex (Kyrgyz Tianshan) and assembly of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mühlberg, M.; Hegner, E.; Klemd, R.; Pfänder, J. A.; Kaliwoda, M.; Biske, Y. S.

    2016-11-01

    High-pressure (HP) metamorphism of the Kassan Metamorphic Complex (KMC) in the western Kyrgyz Tianshan has been related to either late Ordovician or late Carboniferous-Permian subduction processes. We report Sm-Nd ages for retrogressed eclogite samples and 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages for enclosing garnet-muscovite samples from the KMC as new age constraints on HP metamorphism and rock exhumation. These data will be used for an upgraded paleogeographic model for late Paleozoic crustal consolidation in the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The retrogressed eclogite samples have transitional alkaline to tholeiitic affinity and trace-element patterns consistent with protoliths derived from garnet-bearing mantle sources at rifting plate margins. Geothermobarometric data for a retrogressed eclogite sample indicate peak-metamorphic conditions of 540 ± 30 °C at 1.6 ± 0.1 GPa. Samples from different lithotectonic units of the KMC provide coherent Sm-Nd garnet-whole rock ages of 317 ± 4 Ma and 316 ± 3 Ma (2σ). The prograde major-element zoning in the mm-sized garnets in combination with the moderate peak-metamorphic temperature, support our interpretation of the Sm-Nd garnet ages as unambiguous evidence for late Carboniferous HP metamorphism. The Sm-Nd garnet growth ages overlap within-error with the 40Ar/39Ar mica cooling ages of 314 ± 2 Ma and 313 ± 2 Ma (2σ) indicating rapid uplift of the subduction complex after peak metamorphism. The ca. 317-313 Ma HP-exhumation event of the KMC is contemporaneous with those of the Atbashi and Akeyazi (ca. 500 km east in NW China) HP complexes and implies similar collision histories at the South Tianshan Suture to the east and west of the Talas-Fergana Fault (TFF). The exhumation of the KMC and Atbashi HP complexes overlaps with the initiation of the TFF (Rolland et al., 2013) suggesting incipient separation of the Chatkal and Atbashi complexes during rock exhumation and early plate collision.

  18. Timing and conditions of regional metamorphism and crustal shearing in the granulite facies basement of south Namibia: Implications for the crustal evolution of the Namaqualand metamorphic basement in the Mesoproterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bial, Julia; Büttner, Steffen; Appel, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Granulite facies basement gneisses from the Grünau area in the Kakamas Domain of the Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province in south Namibia show high-grade mineral assemblages, most commonly consisting of garnet, cordierite, sillimanite, alkali feldspar and quartz. Cordierite + hercynitic spinel, and in some places quartz + hercynitic spinel, indicate granulite facies P-T conditions. The peak assemblage equilibrated at 800-850 °C at 4.0-4.5 kbar. Sillimanite pseudomorphs after kyanite1 and late-stage staurolite and kyanite2 indicate that the metamorphic record started and ended within the stability field of kyanite. Monazite in the metamorphic basement gneisses shows a single-phase growth history dated as 1210-1180 Ma, which we interpret as the most likely age of the regional metamorphic peak. This time coincides with the emplacement of granitic plutons in the Grünau region. The ∼10 km wide, NW-SE striking Grünau shear zone crosscuts the metamorphic basement and overprints high-temperature fabrics. In sheared metapelites, the regional metamorphic peak assemblage is largely obliterated, and is replaced by synkinematic biotite2, quartz, alkali feldspar, sillimanite and cordierite or muscovite. In places, gedrite, staurolite, sillimanite and green biotite3 may have formed late- or post-kinematically. The mylonitic mineral assemblage equilibrated at 590-650 °C at 3.5-5.0 kbar, which is similar to a retrograde metamorphic stage in the basement away from the shear zone. Monazite cores in two mylonite samples are similar in texture and age (∼1200 Ma) to monazite in metapelites away from the shear zone. Chemically distinct monazite rims indicate a second growth episode at ∼1130-1120 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the main deformation episode along the Grünau shear zone and the retrograde metamorphic stage seen in the basement. The main episode of ductile shearing along the Grünau shear zone took place 70-80 million years after the thermal peak metamorphism

  19. Ar-39-Ar-40 Ages of Euerites and the Thermal History of Asteroid 4-Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.

    2002-01-01

    Eucrite meteorites are igneous rocks that derive from a large asteroid, probably 4 Vesta. Prior studies have shown that after eucrites formed, most were subsequently metamorphosed to temperatures up to equal to or greater than 800 C, and much later many were brecciated and heated by large impacts into the parent body surface. The uncommon basaltic, unbrecciated eucrites also formed near the surface but presumably escaped later brecciation, whereas the cumulate eucrites formed at depth where metamorphism may have persisted for a considerable period. To further understand the complex HED parent body thermal history, we determined new Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for nine eucrites classified as basaltic but unbrecciated, six eucrites classified as cumulate, and several basaltic-brecciated eucrites. Relatively precise Ar-Ar ages of two cumulate eucrites (Moama and EET87520) and four unbrecciated eucrites give a tight cluster at 4.48 +/1 0.01 Gyr. Ar-Ar ages of six additional unbrecciated eucrites are consistent with this age, within their larger age uncertainties. In contrast, available literature data on Pb-Pb isochron ages of four cumulate eucrites and one unbrecciated eucrite vary over 4.4-4.515 Gyr, and Sm-147 - Nd-143 isochron ages of four cumulate and three unbrecciated eucrites vary over 4.41-4.55 Gyr. Similar Ar-Ar ages for cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites imply that cumulate eucrites do not have a younger formation age than basaltic eucrites, as previously proposed. Rather, we suggest that these cumulate and unbrecciated eucrites resided at depth where parent body temperatures were sufficiently high to cause the K-Ar and some other chronometers to remain open diffusion systems. From the strong clustering of Ar-Ar ages at approximately 4.48 Gyr, we propose that these meteorites were excavated from depth in a single large impact event approximately 4.48 Gyr ago, which quickly cooled the samples and started the K-Ar chronometer. A large (approximately 460 km) crater

  20. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Nay Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50- 4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9 +/-0.1 Myr and 4560-4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later Ar-40 diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the post-assembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx.4560 to approx.4576 My. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and suggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration

  1. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39-Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50-4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9+/-0.1 Myr and 4560- 4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later Ar-40 diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the post-assembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx.4560 to approx.4576 Myr. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and s,uggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration

  2. Post-metamorphic brecciation in type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; McCoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1993-03-01

    Type 3.1-3.9 ordinary chondrites can be divided into two kinds: those in which the compositions of chondrule silicates are entirely consistent with metamorphism of type 3.0 material, and those in which the computational heterogeneity appears to be too extreme for in situ metamorphism. We present petrologic data for three LL3 chondrites of the second kind--Ngawi, ALH A77278 (both type 3.6), and Hamlet (type 3.9)--and compare these data with results for the first kind of LL3-4 chondrites. Given that chondrules form in the nebula and that metamorphic equilibration occurs in asteroids, our new data imply that Ngawi, A77278, Hamlet, and many other type 3 ordinary chondrites are post-metamorphic breccias containing materials with diverse metamorphic histories; they are not metamorphic rocks or special kinds of 'primitive breccias.' We infer also that metamorphism to type 3.1-3.9 levels produces very friable material that is easily remixed into breccias and lithified by mild shock. Thus, petrologic types and subtypes of chondrites indicate the mean metamorphic history of the ingredients, not the thermal history of the rock. The metamorphic history of individual type 1 or 2 porphyritic chondrules in type 3 breccias is best derived from olivine and pyroxene analyses and the data of McCoy et al. for unbrecciated chondrites. The new chondrule classification schemes of Sears, DeHart et al., appears to provide less information about the original state and metamorphic history of individual porphyritic chondrules and should not replace existing classification schemes.

  3. Post-metamorphic brecciation in type 3 ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Mccoy, T. J.; Keil, K.

    1993-01-01

    Type 3.1-3.9 ordinary chondrites can be divided into two kinds: those in which the compositions of chondrule silicates are entirely consistent with metamorphism of type 3.0 material, and those in which the computational heterogeneity appears to be too extreme for in situ metamorphism. We present petrologic data for three LL3 chondrites of the second kind--Ngawi, ALH A77278 (both type 3.6), and Hamlet (type 3.9)--and compare these data with results for the first kind of LL3-4 chondrites. Given that chondrules form in the nebula and that metamorphic equilibration occurs in asteroids, our new data imply that Ngawi, A77278, Hamlet, and many other type 3 ordinary chondrites are post-metamorphic breccias containing materials with diverse metamorphic histories; they are not metamorphic rocks or special kinds of 'primitive breccias.' We infer also that metamorphism to type 3.1-3.9 levels produces very friable material that is easily remixed into breccias and lithified by mild shock. Thus, petrologic types and subtypes of chondrites indicate the mean metamorphic history of the ingredients, not the thermal history of the rock. The metamorphic history of individual type 1 or 2 porphyritic chondrules in type 3 breccias is best derived from olivine and pyroxene analyses and the data of McCoy et al. for unbrecciated chondrites. The new chondrule classification schemes of Sears, DeHart et al., appears to provide less information about the original state and metamorphic history of individual porphyritic chondrules and should not replace existing classification schemes.

  4. Ar-Ar and I-Xe Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca, which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39- Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50-4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx.4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx.3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ages for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4557.9+/-0.1 Myr and 4557-4560 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4562.3 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar degassing ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx.4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older Ar ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later 40Ar diffusion loss. The older Ar-Ar ages for IABs are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the Ar-Ar ages and IAB cooling rates deduced from Ni concentration profiles in IAB metal (Herpfer et al., 1994) are consistent if the time of the post-assembly metamorphism was as late as approx.4.53 Gyr ago. However, I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define much older ages of approx.4558-4566 Myr, which cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages. An explanation for the difference in radiometric ages of IABs may reside in combinations of the following: a) I-Xe ages have very

  5. Ar-Ar and I-XE Ages and the Thermal History of IAB Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, Donald D.; Garrison, Daniel H.; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    Studies of several samples of the large Caddo County IAB iron meteorite reveal andesitic material, enriched in Si, Na, Al and Ca which is essentially unique among meteorites. This material is believed to have formed from a chondritic source by partial melting and to have further segregated by grain coarsening. Such an origin implies extended metamorphism of the IAB parent body. New Ar-39- Ar-40 ages for silicate from three different Caddo samples are consistent with a common age of 4.50- 4.51 Gyr ago. Less well defined Ar-Ar degassing ages for inclusions from two other IABs, EET8333 and Udei Station, are approx. 4.32 Gyr, whereas the age for Campo del Cielo varies considerably over approx. 3.23-4.56 Gyr. New I-129-Xe-129 ges for Caddo County and EET8333 are 4561.9 plus or minus 0.1 Myr and 4560-4563 Myr, respectively, relative to an age of 4566 Myr for Shallowater. Considering all reported Ar-Ar ages for IABs and related winonaites, the range is approx. 4.32-4.53 Gyr, but several IABs give similar Ar ages of 4.50-4.52 Gyr. We interpret these older ages to represent cooling after the time of last significant metamorphism on the parent body, and the younger ages to represent later 40Ar diffusion loss. These older Ar-Ar ages are similar to Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochron ages reported in the literature for Caddo County. Considering the possibility that IAB parent body formation was followed by impact disruption, reassembly, and metamorphism (e.g., Benedix et al. 2000), the time of the postassembly metamorphism may have been as late as approx. 4.53 Gyr ago. However, precise I-Xe ages reported for some IABs define a range of ages of approx. 4560 to approx. 4576 Myr. The older I-Xe ages exceed the oldest precise radiometric ages of meteorites, appear unrealistic, and suggest a bias in the calibration of all I-Xe ages. But even with such a bias, the I-Xe ages of IABs cannot easily be reconciled with the much younger Ar-Ar and Sm-Nd ages and with cooling rates deduced from Ni

  6. Petrology of metamorphic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1983-01-01

    ''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

  7. Timing of Proterozoic deformation, plutonism, and metamorphism in the Los Pinos Mountains, Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Shastri, L.L. . Dept. of Geology); Bowring, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Geochronologic, structural, and metamorphic studies within the Los Pinos Mountains (LPM), central NM provide new insights into the Proterozoic geologic history of this area. The LPM consist of a NE-trending, NW-dipping sequence of complexly deformed amphibolites and felsic schists. These have been intruded by a pervasively deformed granitic pluton. Two predominant deformational fabrics exist in the LPM. S1 is an early northwest-trending foliation, commonly parallel to compositional layering, which is folded about S2. S2 is axial planar foliation to tight to isoclinal folds and is the regional NE-trending fabric. Other fabrics and complex fold interference patterns may be related to localized strain partitioning around granitic bodies. A network of granitic dikes associated with the pluton crosscuts S2 but contains a weak foliation parallel to S2, suggesting synkinematic intrusion of the dikes. Regional metamorphism in the LPM took place at upper greenschist to lower amphibolite facies. Electron microprobe traverses of garnets show compositional variation indicative of growth zoning. No abrupt changes in composition representative of multiple metamorphic events are observed. Garnet-biotite geothermometry yields average rim temperatures of 454 [+-] 50 C. U-Pb geochronology of zircons from amphibolite, granite, and a granite dike indicates essentially the same age for all three units (1.66 Ga). The amphibolite contains abundant zircons which have complex morphologies typical of metamorphic growth; however, an igneous origin cannot yet be precluded. Spheres from the same amphibolite yield a near concordant age of 1.62 Ga. Thus, deformation, plutonism, and possibly the peak of metamorphism, were coeval at ca. 1.66 Ga, with metamorphism cooling through the blocking temperature of sphene at 1.62 Ga. The LPM are similar to other mountain ranges in south-central New Mexico where 1.66 Ga ages have been reported.

  8. Zircon U-Pb ages of the metamorphic supracrustal rocks of the Xinghuadukou Group and granitic complexes in the Argun massif of the northern Great Hinggan Range, NE China, and their tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guang; Chen, Yuchuan; Chen, Yanjing; Zeng, Qingtao

    2012-04-01

    The basement of the Argun massif in the northern Great Hinggan Range consists of the metamorphic supracrustal rocks of the Xinghuadukou Group and associated granitic complexes. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks were previously interpreted as Paleoproterozoic, while the granitic complexes were considered Mesoproterozoic in age. This paper presents new zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of biotite-plagioclase leptynite and biotite schist from the Xinghuadukou Group in the Lulin Forest area, Heilongjiang Province; zircon SHRIMP U-Pb ages of biotite-plagioclase gneiss from the Xinghuadukou Group in Lulin Forest; and quartz diorite and monzogranite from the granitic complexes in Mohe County, Heilongjiang Province. New geochronological data from the three metasedimentary rock samples of the Xinghuadukou Group can be preliminarily divided into five groups: (1) 2017-2765 Ma, (2) 1736-1942 Ma, (3) 1359-1610 Ma, (4) 749-1239 Ma, and (5) 448-716 Ma. Except for the zircons of the 448-716 Ma group belonging to a metamorphic origin, the other age groups had the youngest age of 749 ± 17 Ma, indicating that the Xinghuadukou Group formed during the Neoproterozoic era (at least <749 Ma). These detrital zircon ages cluster at ca. 2.0-1.8 Ga and ca. 1.0-0.80 Ga, suggesting that the Argun massif had connections with both Columbia and Rodinia and implying that the provenance of the Xinghuadukou Group metamorphosed sediments must be characteristic of felsic-intermediate igneous rocks with ages of ca. 2.0-1.8 Ga and ca. 1.0-0.80 Ga. The quartz diorite and monzogranite from the granitic complexes of the basement within the Argun massif yielded weighted mean ages of 516 ± 10 Ma and 504 ± 9 Ma, respectively, indicating that these rocks emplaced in the Early Paleozoic. Considering the geochemical and chronological data together, we propose that the Xinghuadukou Group was most likely deposited in a back-arc basin environment, whereas the granitic complexes emplaced in a post-collisional setting

  9. The Long History of Old Age The Long History of Old Age Thane Pat Thames & Hudson £25 320 0 500 25126 6 0500251266 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an absorbing overview of 'old age', charting the history of ageing within society. It aims to right the misconceptions of ageing throughout history by writing about topics that have been 'for too long surrounded by taboo' and by challenging some of the misconceptions associated with getting older.

  10. The timing of metamorphism in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, T. M.; Schulz, B.; Schmädicke, E.

    2017-07-01

    New in situ electron microprobe monazite and white mica 40Ar/39Ar step heating ages support the proposition that the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone, consists of at least two distinct crustal terranes that experienced different geological histories prior to their juxtaposition. The monazite ages constrain tectonothermal events at 430 ± 43 Ma, 349 ± 14 Ma, 331 ± 16 Ma and 317 ± 12 Ma/316 ± 4 Ma, and the 40Ar/39Ar analyses provide white mica ages of 322 ± 3 Ma and 324 ± 3 Ma. Granulite-facies metamorphism occurred in the western Odenwald at c. 430 and 349 Ma, and amphibolite-facies metamorphism affected the eastern Odenwald and the central Spessart basements between c. 324 and 316 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate that the Otzberg-Michelbach Fault Zone, which separates the eastern Odenwald-Spessart basement from the Western Odenwald basement, is part of the Rheic Suture, which marks the position of a major Variscan plate boundary separating Gondwana- and Avalonia-derived crustal terranes. The age of the Carboniferous granulite-facies event in the western Odenwald overlaps with the minimum age of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the adjacent eastern Odenwald. The granulite- and eclogite-facies rocks experienced contrasting pressure-temperature paths but occur in close spatial proximity, being separated by the Rheic Suture. As high-pressure and high-temperature metamorphisms are of similar age, we interpret the Odenwald-Spessart basement as a paired metamorphic belt and propose that the adjacent high-pressure and high-temperature rocks were metamorphosed in the same subduction zone system. Juxtaposition of these rocks occurred during the final stages of the Variscan orogeny along the Rheic Suture.

  11. The timing of metamorphism in the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, T. M.; Schulz, B.; Schmädicke, E.

    2016-07-01

    New in situ electron microprobe monazite and white mica 40Ar/39Ar step heating ages support the proposition that the Odenwald-Spessart basement, Mid-German Crystalline Zone, consists of at least two distinct crustal terranes that experienced different geological histories prior to their juxtaposition. The monazite ages constrain tectonothermal events at 430 ± 43 Ma, 349 ± 14 Ma, 331 ± 16 Ma and 317 ± 12 Ma/316 ± 4 Ma, and the 40Ar/39Ar analyses provide white mica ages of 322 ± 3 Ma and 324 ± 3 Ma. Granulite-facies metamorphism occurred in the western Odenwald at c. 430 and 349 Ma, and amphibolite-facies metamorphism affected the eastern Odenwald and the central Spessart basements between c. 324 and 316 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate that the Otzberg-Michelbach Fault Zone, which separates the eastern Odenwald-Spessart basement from the Western Odenwald basement, is part of the Rheic Suture, which marks the position of a major Variscan plate boundary separating Gondwana- and Avalonia-derived crustal terranes. The age of the Carboniferous granulite-facies event in the western Odenwald overlaps with the minimum age of eclogite-facies metamorphism in the adjacent eastern Odenwald. The granulite- and eclogite-facies rocks experienced contrasting pressure-temperature paths but occur in close spatial proximity, being separated by the Rheic Suture. As high-pressure and high-temperature metamorphisms are of similar age, we interpret the Odenwald-Spessart basement as a paired metamorphic belt and propose that the adjacent high-pressure and high-temperature rocks were metamorphosed in the same subduction zone system. Juxtaposition of these rocks occurred during the final stages of the Variscan orogeny along the Rheic Suture.

  12. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  13. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  14. LIFE HISTORY. Age-related mortality explains life history strategies of tropical and temperate songbirds.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas E

    2015-08-28

    Life history theory attempts to explain why species differ in offspring number and quality, growth rate, and parental effort. I show that unappreciated interactions of these traits in response to age-related mortality risk challenge traditional perspectives and explain life history evolution in songbirds. Counter to a long-standing paradigm, tropical songbirds grow at similar overall rates to temperate species but grow wings relatively faster. These growth tactics are favored by predation risk, both in and after leaving the nest, and are facilitated by greater provisioning of individual offspring by parents. Increased provisioning of individual offspring depends on partitioning effort among fewer young because of constraints on effort from adult and nest mortality. These growth and provisioning responses to mortality risk finally explain the conundrum of small clutch sizes of tropical birds.

  15. Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of newly discovered Neoproterozoic orthogneisses in the Mishan region, NE China: Constraints on the high-grade metamorphism and tectonic affinity of the Jiamusi-Khanka Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hao; Ge, Wen-chun; Zhao, Guo-chun; Bi, Jun-hui; Wang, Zhi-hui; Dong, Yu; Xu, Wen-liang

    2017-01-01

    The Jiamusi-Khanka Block, located in the easternmost segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the least understood blocks in northeastern China. The age of its basement, the timing of the high-grade metamorphism, and the tectonic affinity of this block have all been subjects of controversy. Here we describe newly discovered Neoproterozoic orthogneisses from the Mishan region in the central Jiamusi-Khanka Block. SIMS and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of the magmatic cores of zircons from three of these high-grade orthogneisses yielded weighted mean ages that range from 898 ± 4 to 891 ± 13 Ma, indicating that early Neoproterozoic magmatism did occur in the Jiamusi-Khanka Block. Twenty-two analyses of metamorphic zircons (rims as well as some grains) gave two groups of concordant ages, one at ca. 563 Ma, interpreted as the timing of the high-grade metamorphism, and the other around 518-496 Ma, interpreted as representing a subsequent retrograde metamorphism. The orthogneisses represent metamorphosed peraluminous syn-collisional syenogranites with SiO2 = 71.29-78.08 wt%, A/CNK = 1.06-1.99, and Na2O/K2O = 0.03-1.49, and they belong chemically to the high-potassium calc-alkaline series. They have low Sr (32-134 ppm) contents and Sr/Y ratios (1.6-16.9), and display strongly fractionated to nearly flat REE patterns with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.22-0.95) and depletions in Nb-Ta. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the syenogranitic rocks were derived under low pressures from a crustal source with a high proportion of sedimentary rocks, perhaps in a subduction-related setting that was undergoing transition from compression to extension. In the context of the reconstruction of Gondwana, the ca. 898-891 Ma magmatic activity and the ca. 563 Ma high-grade metamorphism in the Mishan region provide constraints on the possible linkages between the Jiamusi-Khanka Block and East Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic.

  16. Low grade metamorphism of mafic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Peter

    1995-07-01

    Through most of this past century, metamorphic petrologists in the United States have paid their greatest attention to high grade rocks, especially those which constitute the core zones of exhumed, mountain belts. The pioneering studies of the 50's through the 80's, those which applied the principles of thermodynamics to metamorphic rocks, focused almost exclusively on high temperature systems, for which equilibrium processes could be demonstrated. By the 1980's, metamorphic petrologists had developed the methodologies for deciphering the thermal and baric histories of mountain belts through the study of high grade rocks. Of course, low grade metamorphic rocks - here defined as those which form at pressures and temperatures up to and including the greenschist facies - had been well known and described as well, initially through the efforts of Alpine and Circum-Pacific geologists who recognized that they constituted an integral and contiguous portion of mountain belts, and that they underlay large portions of accreted terranes, many of oceanic origins. But until the mid 80's, much of the effort in studying low grade rocks - for a comprehensive review of the literature to that point see Frey (1987) - had been concentrated on mudstones, volcanoclastic rocks, and associated lithologies common to continental mountain belts and arcs. In the mid 80's, results of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) rather dramatically mitigated a shift in the study of low grade metamorphic rocks.

  17. Natural History of Aging in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KLINE, ANTONIE D.; GRADOS, MARCO; SPONSELLER, PAUL; LEVY, HOWARD P.; BLAGOWIDOW, NATALIE; SCHOEDEL, CHRISTIANNE; RAMPOLLA, JONI; CLEMENS, DOUGLAS K.; KRANTZ, IAN; KIMBALL, AMY; PICHARD, CARMEN; TUCHMAN, DAVID

    2016-01-01

    Observations about the natural history of aging in Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) are made, based on 49 patients from a multidisciplinary clinic for adolescents and adults. The mean age was 17 years. Although most patients remain small, obesity may develop. Gastroesophageal reflux persists or worsens, and there are early long-term sequelae, including Barrett esophagus in 10%; other gastrointestinal findings include risk for volvulus, rumination, and chronic constipation. Submucous cleft palate was found in 14%, most undetected before our evaluation. Chronic sinusitis was noted in 39%, often with nasal polyps. Blepharitis improves with age; cataracts and detached retina may occur. Decreased bone density is observed, with occasional fractures. One quarter have leg length discrepancy and 39% scoliosis. Most females have delayed or irregular menses but normal gynecologic exams and pap smears. Benign prostatic hypertrophy occurred in one male prior to 40 years. The phenotype is variable, but there is a distinct pattern of facial changes with aging. Premature gray hair is frequent; two patients had cutis verticis gyrata. Behavioral issues and specific psychiatric diagnoses, including self-injury, anxiety, attention-deficit disorder, autistic features, depression, and obsessive-compulsive behavior, often worsen with age. This work presents some evidence for accelerated aging in CdLS. Of 53% with mutation analysis, 55% demonstrate a detectable mutation in NIPBL or SMC1A. Although no specific genotype–phenotype correlations have been firmly established, individuals with missense mutations in NIPBL and SMC1A appear milder than those with other mutations. Based on these observations, recommendations for clinical management of adults with CdLS are made. PMID:17640042

  18. New Ar/Ar single grain mineral ages from Korean orogenic belts with implications for the Triassic cooling and exhumation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Koenraad; Ruffet, Gilles; Han, Seokyoung

    2013-04-01

    The Korean peninsula is located in the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent where major late Palaeozoic to early Mesozoic continental collision zones, like the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Belt, merge with circum-Pacific subduction-accretion systems. Deciphering the tectonic evolution of Korea is thus crucial for the understanding of the amalgamation of East Asia. Classically, research in Korea has focused on the search for (ultra)high-pressure metamorphic rocks and their isotopic dating, most recently applying SHRIMP on Th- and U-bearing accessory minerals, in order to substantiate links with the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Belt across the Yellow Sea in China. Instead of trying to date peak pressure conditions we focused on 40Ar/39Ar laser-probe step-heating dating of single grains of the fabric-forming minerals muscovite, biotite and amphibole, formed during retrograde recrystallisation and exhumation. This is a big advantage as their growth can be straightforwardly correlated to major phases of the tectono-metamorphic evolution of rocks. This approach helps to meet the major geochronological challenge of obtaining age estimates for the timing of specific tectono-metamorphic events in the Korean orogenic belts. The Korean peninsula comprises a number of Palaeoproterozoic high-grade gneiss terranes; only one of which has been affected by Permo-Triassic metamorphism: the Gyeonggi Massif. We concentrated on the uppermost Gyeonggi Massif and the overlying Imjingang Belt, to the North, and the ill-defined Hongseong zone to the West, both constituted by younger metamorphic rocks. Both belts contain rare lenses of mafic rocks with relics of high-pressure metamorphism. Hornblende from a corona-textured amphibolite from the lowermost part of the Imjingang Belt yielded a U-shaped age spectrum, the base of which is formed by four concordant steps with a weighted mean age of 242.8 ± 2.4 Ma (15% 39Ar release). Muscovites from strongly retrogressed and

  19. Metamorphic Geodesic Regression

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yi; Joshi, Sarang; Sanchez, Mar; Styner, Martin; Niethammer, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We propose a metamorphic geodesic regression approach approximating spatial transformations for image time-series while simultaneously accounting for intensity changes. Such changes occur for example in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the developing brain due to myelination. To simplify computations we propose an approximate metamorphic geodesic regression formulation that only requires pairwise computations of image metamorphoses. The approximated solution is an appropriately weighted average of initial momenta. To obtain initial momenta reliably, we develop a shooting method for image metamorphosis. PMID:23286131

  20. The transition zone between the Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain and the Sergipano Belt (Borborema Province, NE Brazil): Geochronological constraints on the ages of deposition, tectonic setting and metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, Sérgio P.; Rangel da Silva, José Maurício; Bruguier, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    Metasedimentary rocks in the transition zone between the Pernambuco-Alagoas Domain and the Sergipano Belt (southern Borborema Province, NE Brazil) were studied in order to place constraints on the geological evolution of this portion of West Gondwana. High-grade metamorphic conditions are recorded by the garnet-sillimanite assemblage and common anatexis in pelitic paragneisses. Two samples dated by LA-ICP-MS in the north yielded a predominance of early Neoproterozoic detrital zircons, with age peaks between 990 Ma and 827 Ma, with the youngest grain suggesting deposition after 670 Ma. Low Th/U zircons (Th/U < 0.1) in these samples display a significant spread in ages, from 691 to 568 Ma. One sample in the south is dominated by a homogenous population of Paleoproterozoic grains, with a 2200 Ma peak. The southernmost sample also contains Paleoproterozoic zircons but the most abundant population is Neoproterozoic, and characterized by age peaks at c. 670, 647 and 623 Ma. These results show that deposition of sediments in the southern PEAL Domain and in the northern Sergipano Belt occurred in the Late Neoproterozoic. The differing age spectra between samples are correlated with potential source rocks in the study area or in its proximity, reflecting variable input from local sources. The data are interpreted to indicate that during the course of an extensional event at c. 673-647 Ma, Tonian granitic intrusions and synextensional metamorphic rocks were unroofed and eroded to provide zircons for sediments deposited in the north, whereas Paleoproterozoic and synextensional magmatic rocks were the main sources for sediments in the south. Peak metamorphic conditions and contractional deformation are constrained to c. 630-600 Ma.

  1. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  2. Late Cretaceous to Paleocene metamorphism and magmatism in the Funeral Mountains metamorphic core complex, Death Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Colgan, J.P.; Metcalf, J.R.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks below the low-angle Ceno-zoic Boundary Canyon Detachment record deep crustal processes related to Meso-zoic crustal thickening and subsequent extension. A 91.5 ?? 1.4 Ma Th-Pb SHRIMP-RG (sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry) monazite age from garnet-kyanite-staurolite schist constrains the age of prograde metamorphism in the lower plate. Between the Boundary Canyon Detachment and the structurally deeper, subparallel Monarch Spring fault, prograde metamorphic fabrics are overprinted by a pervasive greenschist-facies retrogression, high-strain subhorizontal mylonitic foliation, and a prominent WNW-ESE stretching lineation parallel to corrugations on the Boundary Canyon Detachment. Granitic pegmatite dikes are deformed, rotated into parallelism, and boudinaged within the mylonitic foliation. High-U zircons from one muscovite granite dike yield an 85.8 ?? 1.4 Ma age. Below the Monarch Spring fault, retrogression is minor, and amphibolite-facies mineral elongation lineations plunge gently north to northeast. Multiple generations of variably deformed dikes, sills, and leucosomal segregations indicate a more complex history of partial melting and intrusion compared to that above the Monarch Spring fault, but thermobarometry on garnet amphibolites above and below the Monarch Spring fault record similar peak conditions of 620-680 ??C and 7-9 kbar, indicating minor (<3-5 km) structural omission across the Monarch Spring fault. Discordant SHRIMP-RG U-Pb zircon ages and 75-88 Ma Th-Pb monazite ages from leucosomal segregations in paragneisses suggest that partial melting of Proterozoic sedimentary protoliths was a source for the structurally higher 86 Ma pegmatites. Two weakly deformed two-mica leucogranite dikes that cut the high-grademetamorphic fabrics below the Monarch Spring fault yield 62.3 ?? 2.6 and 61.7 ?? 4.7 Ma U-Pb zircon ages, and contain 1.5-1.7 Ga cores. The similarity of metamorphic

  3. Complex exposure histories for meteorites with "short" exposure ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzog, G. F.; Vogt, S.; Albrecht, A.; Xue, S.; Fink, D.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Weber, H. W.; Schultz, L.

    1997-05-01

    We report measurements of 26Al and 10Be activities in nine ordinary chondrites and of the light noble gas concentrations and 36Cl and 41Ca activities in subsets of those meteorites. All but Murray have low 21Ne concentrations (<1.0 (10-8 cm3 STP/g), and have previously been used to estimate 21Ne production rates. Ladder Creek, Murchison, Sena, and Timochin have inventories of cosmogenic radionuclides compatible with a single stage of irradiation and give 21Ne production rates consistent with the standard L-chondrite value of ~0.33 ( 10-8 cm3 STP/g-My. In contrast, Cullison, Guenie, Shaw, and Tsarev experienced complex irradiation histories. They and several other meteorites with low nominal exposure ages also have lower 3He/21Ne ratios than expected based on their 22Ne/21Ne ratios. A general association between low 21Ne contents and 3He losses suggests that meteorites with short lifetimes often occupy orbits with small perihelia. Meteorites with low 21Ne contents, one-stage exposure histories, and losses of cosmogenic 3He are rare, however. Possible explanations for the scarcity are 1) statistical; 2) that it is harder for more deeply buried proto-meteoroids to lose gas in a liberating collision; and 3) that it is harder to insert more deeply buried proto-meteoroids directly into orbits with small perihelia.

  4. History of allergy in the middle ages and renaissance.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the Middle Ages little innovative medical literature came from Western Europe. The Greek-Roman tradition with the scriptures of Hippocrates and Galenos was preserved in Byzantium and then in the Middle East by Arabic medicine; it then returned to Europe in Latin translations mostly made in Italy and Spain. There were innovative developments in Arabic medicine also with regard to the history of allergy, especially with the first description of 'rose fever', which is described as very similar in symptomatology to hay fever. Under Arabic influence, the first medical university in Salerno was famous for its well-known text Tacuinum sanitatis in which a description of asthma can be found. With the beginning of renaissance new developments were also registered in Europe, with new observations and a new way of thinking.

  5. "High-grade burial metamorphism of sedimentary mélange, Shoo Fly Complex, central Sierra Nevada, California"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Y.; Wakabayashi, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Shoo Fly Complex, California is a subduction complex metamorphosed at lower greenschist facies in much of the northern Sierra Nevada. Central Sierra Nevada exposures include higher grade assemblages. Previous studies have interpreted the higher grade rocks as gneissic granitoids representing the roots of a Paleozoic arc. Recent field work in the North Fork Mokelumne River drainage, shows that high-grade and low-grade metamorphic rocks were derived from similar subduction complex protoliths. The Shoo Fly in this region consists of mostly phyllite (metasiltstone, metasandstone, metachert), with some metabasite, and metaultramafic blocks. There is a metamorphic gradient from west to east in the field area, transitioning from sub to lower greenschist facies (white mica only) to middle and upper green schist facies (biotite) within the phyllites to amphibolite/upper amphibolite/granulite grade mica schists, gneisses, and amphibolites This gradient occurs across a zone about 1.5 km wide and this gradient is about 5 km west of the contact between the Shoo Fly Complex and plutons of the Sierra Nevada batholith. The higher-grade rocks do not have an apparent west-east metamorphic gradient. Accordingly the high-grade metamorphism does not appear to be a consequence of either contact metamorphism or raised regional geothermal gradients connected with the batholith. This conclusion is consistent with the fact that published metamorphic ages from probable correlative rocks within the central Sierra are much older than the Sierra Nevada batholith. Protoliths for the higher grade rocks appear identical to the lower grade rocks, for metaclastic rocks dominate with subordinate metacherts, metabasites, and metaultramafic rocks. The latter are represented by tremolite-talc schists. In the lower grade rocks some of the metabasite and metaultramafic blocks exhibit a higher grade of metamorphism than the surrounding metaclastic rocks and metacherts. Amphibolite and tremolite schist

  6. Crustal thickening during Proterozoic metamorphism and deformation in New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grambling, Jeffrey A.

    1986-02-01

    Proterozoic rocks in northern and central New Mexico underwent simultaneous metamorphism and deformation, tentatively dated at 1410 Ma. Structural relationships record a minimum of 20% 30% shortening during the latter part of deformation, and chemical zoning in garnet and plagioclase indicates a 20% increase in depth of burial during the same interval. Locally, deformation thickened the upper continental crust by at least 20%. This crustal thickening was distributed over a broad area and caused rocks across 75 000 km2 to recrystallize at peak metamorphic conditions near 525 °C and 4 kbar. The metamorphic terrane cooled isobarically, at rates less than 5 °C/m.y. Such slow cooling may be normal at middle crustal depths. Preservation of the regionally uniform peak metamorphic conditions reflects an unusual tectonic history: heat from the metamorphic event outlasted deformation, and the terrane was not subjected to rapid uplift following its thermal peak.

  7. Metamorphic evolution of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone, Western Alps: time constraints from multi-system geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inger, S.; Ramsbotham, W.; Cliff, R. A.; Rex, D. C.

    1996-12-01

    The Sesia-Lanzo Zone is a polymetamorphic unit containing Hercynian granulite relics overprinted by eclogite and greenschist facies metamorphism and deformation during the Alpine orogeny. Different parts of the unit record different stages on the P-T-deformation evolution, allowing multi-system isotopic studies to unravel the precise timing of the metamorphic history. New Rb Sr white mica and U Pb sphene data constrain the age of eclogite facies metamorphism and deformation to 60 70 Ma. This substantially alters the common view of early- to mid-Cretaceous eclogite facies metamorphism in this unit. The new results are more consistent with the established geotectonic framework for the Alpine orogeny, since they do not require a prolonged period of depressed geothermal gradient at a time when the region was in extension. It is also more concordant with recent studies of other units that demonstrate post-Cretaceous high-pressure metamorphism. Step-heated 40Ar 39Ar analysis of phengites yields good plateaux giving ages older than the corresponding Rb Sr age. Such anomalously high ages indicate the presence of radiogenic argon-rich fluids in the grain boundary network under the fluid/pressure conditions acting during this high-pressure metamorphic event. The U Pb sphene ages are variable in polymetamorphic rocks, and show inheritance of older Pb or sphene crystals into the high-pressure event. Two monometamorphic assemblages yield concordant ages at 66±1 Ma, reflecting crystallisation of the eclogite facies assemblage. The Gneiss Minuti Complex (GMC) lies structurally below the Eclogitic Micaschists, and its pervasive greenschist facies fabric yields tightly clustered Rb Sr white mica ages at 38 39 Ma. This greenschist event did not affect the majority of the EMC. The 40Ar 39Ar ages of micas formed at this time were very disturbed, whereas micas surviving from an earlier higher pressure assemblage had their 40Ar 39Ar system reset. The greenschist event did not strongly

  8. Mesoproterozoic High-Pressure Metamorphism in the Llano Uplift, Central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, W. D.

    2009-05-01

    High-pressure (HP) terranes of Precambrian age are rare, and their rarity may reflect secular changes in the nature of subduction-zone processes. The Llano Uplift of central Texas contains evidence of HP metamorphism that dates back to the late Mesoproterozoic, documenting subduction and exhumation of the southern margin of the Laurentian continent. Collisional orogenesis in the Llano Uplift has been dated at ca. 1147-1116 Ma by U-Pb (zrc, ttn, mnz, rut) and Lu-Hf (grt-rut) geochronometry. This orogenic event drove metamorphism comprising both an initial high- pressure (HP) phase (610-775 C at 1.4-2.4 GPa) and a subsequent moderate-pressure (MP) phase (ca. 700 C at ~0.7 GPa). A low-pressure overprint (525-625 C at 0.3 GPa) took place under largely static conditions at ca. 1093-1070 Ma. Evidence for HP metamorphism is geographically widespread, but confined principally to boudins of mafic eclogite encased in felsic gneisses. The geographic distribution of P-T conditions for HP metamorphism inferred from the eclogites, combined with evidence from the relative degrees of homogenization of growth zoning in garnet, suggests a general increase from northeast to southwest in depths of burial during HP metamorphism. Exhumation of HP rocks to shallower depths prior to MP metamorphism appears to have been rapid: ages for the two phases of metamorphism overlap, on the basis of the very limited data now available. The region's early tectonometamorphic history shares numerous characteristics with well-documented examples of Phanerozoic continental-margin subduction, including: the presence of disrupted ophiolites; a paucity of coeval island-arc volcanics and plutonics; the involvement of precursors representing continental basement and supracrustal rocks; rapid exhumation to lower crustal levels with significant Barrovian-style overprinting; the preservation of the highest pressure record only in eclogitic pods and lenses within quartzofeldspathic gneisses; and the presence of

  9. Distribution and characteristics of metamorphic belts in the south- eastern Alaska part of the North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brew, D.A.; Himmelberg, G.R.; Loney, R.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The Cordilleran orogen in south-eastern Alaska includes 14 distinct metamorphic belts that make up three major metamorphic complexes, from east to west: the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex; the Glacier Bay-Chichagof plutonic-metamorphic complex; and the Chugach plutonic-metamorphic complex. Each of these complexes is related to a major subduction event. The metamorphic history of the Coast complex is lengthy and is related to the Late Cretaceous collision of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes and the Gravina overlap assemblage to the west against the Stikine terrane to the east. The metamorphic history of the Glacier Bay-Chichagof complex is relatively simple and is related to the roots of a Late Jurassic to late Early Cretaceous island arc. The metamorphic history of the Chugach is complicated and developed during and after the Late Cretaceous collision of the Chugach terrane with the Wrangellia and Alexander terranes. -from Authors

  10. One-dimensional thermal modelling of Acadian metamorphism in southern Vermont, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, T.R.; Tracy, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    One-dimensional thermal (1DT) modelling of an Acadian (Devonian) tectonothermal regime in southern Vermont, USA, used measured metamorphic pressures and temperatures and estimated metamorphic cooling ages based on published thermobarometric and geochronological studies to constrain thermal and tectonic input parameters. The area modelled lies within the Vermont Sequence of the Acadian orogen and includes: (i) a western domain containing garnet-grade pre-Silurian metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks from the eastern flank of an Acadian composite dome structure (Rayponda-Sadawga Dome); and (ii) an eastern domain containing similar, but staurolite- or kyanite-grade, rocks from the western flank of a second dome structure (Athens Dome), approximately 10 km farther east. Using reasonable input parameters based on regional geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, the thermal modelling produced plausible P-T paths, and temperature-time (T-t) and pressure-time (P-t) curves. Information extracted from P-T-t modelling includes values of maximum temperature and pressure on the P-T paths, pressure at maximum temperature, predicted Ar closure ages for hornblende, muscovite and K-feldspar, and integrated exhumation and cooling rates for segments of the cooling history. The results from thermal modelling are consistent with independently obtained pressure, temperature and Ar cooling age data on regional metamorphism in southern Vermont. Modelling results provide some important bounding limits on the physical conditions during regional metamorphism, and indicate that the pressure contemporaneous with the attainment of peak temperature was probably as much as 2.5 kbar lower than the actual maximum pressure experienced by rocks along various particle paths. In addition, differences in peak metamorphic grade (garnet-grade versus staurolite-grade or kyanite-grade) and peak temperature for rocks initially loaded to similar crustal depths, differences in calculated

  11. Thrust involvement of metamorphic rocks, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Till, A.B.; Schmidt, J.M.; Nelson, S.W. )

    1988-10-01

    Most models for the tectonic history of the western Brooks Range treat Proterozoic and lower Paleozoic metamorphic rocks exposed in the southern part of the range as passive structural basement vertically uplifted late in the Mesozoic orogenic episode. Mapping in the metamorphic rocks shows that they can de divided into two structurally and metamorphically distinct belts, both of which were folded and thrust during the orogeny. Recognition of these belts and the nature of the contact separating them is critical to construction of accurate tectonic models of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  12. Canada basin: age and history of its continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Presently available age controls suggest that the Canada basin formed during the Cretaceous Period between about 131 and 79 Ma. The opening process began with continental breakup that may have involved all parts of the North American polar margin at about the same time. The opening was completed by the formation of oceanic crust during the extended Cretaceous interval of normal geomagnetic polarity. Features characteristics of continental breakup, insofar as they are known, show systematic regional differences. From Brock to Axel Heiberg Island, continental breakup was associated with an extended (100 + Ma) stratigraphic hiatus and, northeastward from Ellef Ringnes Island, with extensive tholeiitic igneous activity. From Banks Island to northeastern Alaska, the breakup interval was abbreviated (20-30 Ma), and sparse igneous activity occurred. These differences can be produced by changes in the rate and/or amount of crustal stretching during margin formation and would imply relatively faster or more stretching northeast of Brock island. A continental margin of fixed age, exhibiting the indicated pattern of crustal stretching, could be produced along the trailing edge of a rotating block (Arctic Alaska terrane AA) with its pivot near the Mackenzie delta. When the rotation is restored, however, geological discrepancies are evident between Devonian and older rocks across the conjugate margins, suggesting an earlier history of drifting for the AA. Early Paleozoic correlations appear improved if the AA is placed, polar margin to polar margin, against northern Ellesmere Island and Greenland, where in the middle Paleozoic, it was sheared sinistrally along the Canadian margin to its pre-rotated position opposite Banks Island.

  13. Wastewater management through the ages: a history of mankind.

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Brown, Jeanette

    2010-10-15

    Although much has been written about the history of water supply systems, there is a lack of corresponding information on wastewater management. This is surprising since the lack of sanitation affects human development to the same or even greater extent as the lack of clean water. While there may be an added stigma to discussing waste treatment, sanitation is widely perceived as meriting a significant claim on financial and political resources as well on the evolution of mankind. A literature review is presented on the evolution of wastewater management through the ages and its concurrent impact on human health and environment. Hopefully this information will improve the awareness of the past with a view to impacting future policies and technical developments. The review highlights the connection of environmental contamination with the ability to measure it, as well as the ways pollution control has been changed by advances in scientific knowledge. Attention is also drawn to the effects of political and societal events on wastewater management. A sanitation timeline has been constructed pointing out significant developments in the treatment of wastewater and improvements in analytical environmental chemistry. This review has been written in the belief that historical research showing the collective experience and "philosophy of sanitation" can provide inspiration to face future challenges.

  14. Evolution of a Neoproterozoic suture in the Iberian Massif, Central Portugal: New U-Pb ages of igneous and metamorphic events at the contact between the Ossa Morena Zone and Central Iberian Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, S. B. A.; Neiva, A. M. R.; Ribeiro, M. L.; Dunning, G. R.; Tajčmanová, L.

    2015-04-01

    A Neoproterozoic suture is exposed at the contact between the Ossa Morena Zone and the Central Iberian Zone, in the Iberian Massif (Central Portugal), the westernmost segment of the European Variscides. Although, the Cadomian magmatic and tectonometamorphic events have been previously documented, their timing is still poorly constrained, particularly in the inner zones of the suture. We used geochronological (ID-TIMS U-Pb) data to establish the sequence of events, isotopic (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd) data to characterize the magmatic sources and thermodynamic modelling to determine the maximum P-T conditions attained during the Cadomian metamorphism. The first event, in the future Ossa Morena Zone, is the onset of island arc magmatism represented mainly by tholeiites with a MORB signature. Their igneous crystallization age is unknown, but they are older than ca. 539 Ma. This magmatic activity was accompanied by deposition of fine-grained sediments in a Neoproterozoic basin. The second event is the evolution of the Cadomian magmatic arc in different stages. The earliest magmatic stage occurs at ca. 692 Ma, which is the oldest igneous age known in the Ossa Morena Zone. It is followed by the generation of subalkaline and peraluminous protoliths at ca. 569 Ma, with the isotopic signature of old crustal sources. The final phase of the arc magmatism (ca. 548-544 Ma) involved mainly partial melting of continental crust. The range of the main magmatic activity must have been between ca. 569 Ma and ca. 544 Ma as mentioned for other areas in the Ossa Morena Zone. A major metamorphic event, recorded in metamorphic monazite, zircon and titanite at ca. 540 Ma, attained upper amphibolite facies conditions close to the transition to granulite facies (7-8 kbar and 640-660 °C). It represents the continental arc accretion of the Ossa Morena Zone with the Iberian Autochthon passive margin (future Central Iberian Zone). The Early Ordovician rocks (ca. 483-477 Ma) were generated from depleted and

  15. U-Pb zircon and CHIME monazite dating of granitoids and high-grade metamorphic rocks from the Eastern and Peninsular Thailand - A new report of Early Paleozoic granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, T.; Nakano, N.; Higashino, F.; Hokada, T.; Osanai, Y.; Yuhara, M.; Charusiri, P.; Kamikubo, H.; Yonemura, K.; Hirata, T.

    2014-07-01

    also share the similar plutono-metamorphic history with the Khanom and the Hub-Kapong to Pran Buri areas. This suggests that these three areas belong to the Sibumasu block, and the Sibumasu block records similar plutono-metamorphic history from Northern to Peninsular Thailand. Relative abundance of oceanic components in the Khao Chao gneiss, their Late Triassic magmatic ages, and the Early Jurassic metamorphic ages prefer the interpretation that the Khao Chao gneiss belongs to the Sukhothai Arc.

  16. The history of a continent from U-Pb ages of zircons from Orinoco River sand and Sm-Nd isotopes in Orinoco basin river sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, S.L.; Arndt, N.T.; Stallard, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    We report SHRIMP U-Pb ages of 49 zircons from a sand sample from the lower Orinoco River, Venezuela, and Nd model ages of the fine sediment load from the main river and tributaries. The U-Pb ages reflect individual magmatic or metamorphic events, the Sm-Nd model ages reflect average crustal-residence ages of the sediment sources. Together they allow delineation of the crust-formation history of the basement precursors of the sediments. The U-Pb ages range from 2.83 to 0.15 Ga, and most are concordant or nearly so. Discrete age groupings occur at ??? 2.8, ??? 2.1, and ??? 1.1 Ga. The oldest group contains only three samples but is isolated from its closest neighbors by a ??? 600 Ma age gap. Larger age groupings at ??? 2.1 and ??? 1.1 Ga make up about a third and a quarter of the total number of analyses, respectively. The remaining analyses scatter along concordia, and most are younger than 1.6 Ga. The ??? 2.8 and ??? 2.1 Ga ages correspond to periods of crust formation of the Imataca and Trans-Amazonian provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, and record intervals of short but intensive continental growth. These ages coincide with ??? 2.9 and ??? 2.1 Ga Nd model ages of sediments from tributaries draining the Archean and Proterozoic provinces of the Guyana Shield, respectively, indicating that the U-Pb ages record the geological history of the crystalline basement of the Orinoco basin. Zircons with ages corresponding to the major orogenies of the North Atlantic continents (the Superior at ??? 2.7 Ga and Hudsonian at 1.7-1.9 Ga) were not found in the Orinoco sample. The age distribution may indicate that South and North America were separated throughout their history. Nd model ages of sediments from the lower Orinoco River and Andean tributaries are ??? 1.9 Ga, broadly within the range displayed by major rivers and dusts. This age does not coincide with known thermal events in the region and reflects mixing of sources with different crust-formation ages. The

  17. Geologic and Geochronologic Studies of the Early Proterozoic Kanektok Metamorphic Complex of Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, Robert B.; Aleinikoff, John N.; McDougall, Ian; Hedge, Carl E.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Layer, Paul W.; Hults, Chad P.

    2009-01-01

    having been partially reset during the late Mesozoic thermal event. 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments suggest metamorphism occurred at least 1.2 b.y. ago but do not exhibit high temperature plateau ages significantly older than the 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages of these samples. The age spectra are much more uniform than expected from a terrane with such a complex thermal history, perhaps caused by the small grain size of the samples which may possibly be less than the effective Ar diffusion radii of the analyzed hornblendes.

  18. Ubiquitous brecciation after metamorphism in equilibrated ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, E. R. D.; Lusby, D.; Keil, K.

    1985-01-01

    Ten objects with aberrant Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios have been found in apparently unbrecciated types 4-6 H and L chondrites. Since the Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratios of these objects are incompatible with the metamorphic history of the host chondrites, it is concluded that a high proportion of ordinary chondrites are breccias that were lithified after peak metamorphism. This is consistent with the results of Scott (1984), who concluded that most type three ordinary chondrites are breccias of materials with diverse thermal histories, even though they do not show prominent brecciation. It is found that the classification scheme of Van Schmus and Wood (1967) does not identify chondrites with similar thermal histories; the petrologic type of a chondrite is only a measure of the average thermal history of its ingredients. Chondrite and achondrite breccias are also compared in order to understand how brecciation of chondrites after metamorphism is so well camouflaged.

  19. Metamorphic zirconology of continental subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ren-Xu; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2017-09-01

    Zircon is widely used to date geological events and trace geochemical sources in high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks of continental subduction zones. However, protolith zircons may be modified by three different types of metamorphic recrystallization via mechanisms of solid-state transformation, metasomatic alteration and dissolution reprecipitation; new zircon growth may be induced by dehydration reactions below the wet solidus of crustal rocks (metamorphic zircon) or peritectic reactions above the wet solidus (peritectic zircon). As a consequence, there are different origins of zircon domains in high-grade metamorphic rocks from collisional orogens. Thus, determining the nature of individual zircon domains is substantial to correct interpretation of their origin in studies of isotopic geochronology and geochemical tracing. We advocate an integrated study of zircon mineragraphy (internal structure and external morphology), U-Pb ages, mineral inclusions, trace elements, and Lu-Hf and O isotope compositions. Only in this way we are in a position to advance the simple zircon applications to metamorphic zirconology, enabling discrimination between the different origins of zircon and providing constraints on the property of fluid activity at subduction-zone conditions. The metamorphic recrystallization of protolith zircons and the new growth of metamorphic and peritectic zircons are prominent in HP to UHP metamorphic rocks of collisional orogens. These different types of recrystallized and grown zircons can be distinguished by their differences in element and isotope compositions. While the protolith nature of metamorphosed rocks dictates water availability, the P-T conditions of subduction zones dictate the property of subduction-zone fluids. The fluids of different properties may be produced at different positions of subducting and exhuming crustal slices, and they may physically and chemically mix with each other in continental

  20. 40Ar/39Ar age-spectrum data for hornblende, biotite, white mica, and K-feldspar samples from metamorphic rocks in the Great Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunk, Michael J.; McAleer, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    This report contains reduced 40Ar/39Ar data of hornblende, biotite, white mica and (or) sericite, and potassium-feldspar mineral separates and phyllite groundmass samples from metamorphic rocks of the Great Smoky Mountains in North Carolina and Tennessee. Included in this report are information on the location of the samples and a brief description of the samples. The data contained herein are not interpreted in a geological context, and care should be taken by users unfamiliar with argon isotopic data in the use of these results. No geological meaning is implied for any of the apparent ages presented below, and many of the individual apparent ages are not geologically meaningful. This report is primarily a detailed source document for subsequent publications that will integrate these data into a geological context. All the samples in this report were collected in and around the Great Smoky Mountain National Park in western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee.

  1. First evidence of the Ellesmerian metamorphism on Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Schneider, David A.

    2016-04-01

    The Ellesmerian fold-and-thrust belt is exposed in the High Arctic from Ellesmere Island in the east, through North Greenland, to Svalbard in the west (e.g. Piepjohn et al., 2015). It developed during Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous, and overprinted older (mainly Caledonian) structures. It is thought that this fold-and-thrust belt was formed due to collision of the Pearya Terrane and Svalbard with the Franklinian Basin of Laurentia. Traditionally, the Ellesmerian fold-and-thrust belt comprises a passive continental margin affected by foreland deformation processes, but the exact larger scale tectonic context of this belt is disputable. It is partly because the Eocene Eurekan deformation superimposed significantly the Ellesmerian structures, thus making the reconstruction of the pre-Eurekan history very difficult. Here we present for the first time evidence for Ellesmerian metamorphism within the crystalline basement of Svalbard. These rocks are exposed in the Pinkie unit on Prins Karls Forland (W-Svalbard), which exhibits tectonic contacts with the overlying sequences. The Pinkie unit is mainly composed of strongly deformed lithologies such as laminated quartzites, siliciclastic rocks and garnet-bearing mica schists. Detrital zircon dating yielded ages as young as Neoproterozoic (0.95-1.05 Ga), thus the Pinkie unit is considered to be Neoproterozoic (Kośmińska et al., 2015a). The M1 assemblages and D1 structures are affected by D2 mylonitization (cf. Faehnrich et al., 2016, this meeting). Petrological characterization and Th-U-total Pb chemical monazite dating have been performed on the Pinkie metapelites. These rocks exhibit an apparent inverted Barrovian metamorphic sequence, within which three metamorphic zones have been distinguished: garnet+staurolite+muscovite+biotite, garnet+staurolite+kyanite+muscovite+biotite, garnet+kyanite+muscovite+biotite. The P-T estimates using the QuiG barometry coupled with thermodynamic modelling revealed that the

  2. Modelling Metamorphism by Abstract Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalla Preda, Mila; Giacobazzi, Roberto; Debray, Saumya; Coogan, Kevin; Townsend, Gregg M.

    Metamorphic malware apply semantics-preserving transformations to their own code in order to foil detection systems based on signature matching. In this paper we consider the problem of automatically extract metamorphic signatures from these malware. We introduce a semantics for self-modifying code, later called phase semantics, and prove its correctness by showing that it is an abstract interpretation of the standard trace semantics. Phase semantics precisely models the metamorphic code behavior by providing a set of traces of programs which correspond to the possible evolutions of the metamorphic code during execution. We show that metamorphic signatures can be automatically extracted by abstract interpretation of the phase semantics, and that regular metamorphism can be modelled as finite state automata abstraction of the phase semantics.

  3. Maternal Chronological Age, Prenatal and Perinatal History, Social Support, and Parenting of Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti

    2006-01-01

    The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…

  4. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  5. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  6. Shock metamorphism of Elephant Moraine A79001: Implications for olivine-ringwoodite transformation and the complex thermal history of heavily shocked Martian meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Erin L.

    2013-04-01

    Lithology A of Martian meteorite Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001 contains fragments entrained within a 100 μm-thick shear-induced shock vein. These fragments, the shock vein matrix and walls of olivine along the vein, as well as shock deformation and transformation in rock-forming minerals in the bulk rock, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, the electron microprobe and Raman spectroscopy. The presence of ringwoodite, the spinel-structured high-pressure (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 polymorph, has been confirmed in EETA79001 for the first time. Ringwoodite occurs within and around the shock vein, exhibiting granular and lamellar textures. In both textures ringwoodite consists of ˜500 nm size distinct grains. Ringwoodite lamellae are 115 nm to 1.3 μm wide. Planar fractures in olivine provided sites for heterogeneous nucleation of ringwoodite. Analyses performed on the largest grains (⩾1 μm) show that ringwoodite is consistently higher in iron (Fa27.4-32.4) relative to surrounding olivine (Fa25.1-267.7), implying that there was Fe-Mg exchange during their transformation, and therefore their growth was diffusion-controlled. In the shock environment, diffusion takes place dynamically, i.e., with concurrent deformation and grain size reduction. This results in enhanced diffusion rates (⩾10-8 m2/s) over nm - μm distances. Shock deformation in host rock minerals including strong mosaicism, pervasive fracturing, polysynthetic twinning (pyroxene only), extensive shock melting, local transformation of olivine to ringwoodite, and complete transformation of plagioclase to maskelynite in the bulk rock, indicate that EETA79001 was strongly shocked. The short shock duration (0.01 s) combined with a complex thermal history, resulted in crystallization of the 100 μm thick shock vein in EETA79001 during the pressure release, and partial back-transformation of ringwoodite to olivine. Based on the pressure stabilities of clinopyroxene + ringwoodite, crystallization at the

  7. 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of the Day Nui Con Voi Metamorphic Complex, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Lo, C.; Yeh, M.; Chung, S.; Lee, T.

    2009-12-01

    The garnet bearing gneiss within the Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) Metamorphic Complex along the Red River Shear Zone (RRSZ) in North Vietnam, recorded a long tectonothermal history since the Indosinian orogeny. In-situ 40Ar/39Ar laserprobe study of biotite inclusions within garnet porphyroblasts and matrix biotites, combining with microstructural and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, deciphered the timing and duration of thermal events. Biotites from two matrix fabrics from different deformation events show approximately similar 40Ar/39Ar age ranges in 19-24Ma, depending grain size. These matrix biotite ages are best interpreted to record a rapid cooling event associating with the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ. Whereas, all biotite inclusions exhibit age zoning patterns with 40Ar/39Ar ages gradually increase from 17 Ma to more than 28 Ma according to their diffusion pathways. These age variations may have resultant from a combination effect of argon retention by garnet shielding, which provides a best recorder to the metamorphic event, and argon diffusion loss along the deformed cracks during the shearing event of the RRSZ. Diffusion modeling of these age zoning indicated that the total duration of argon diffusion loss may have lasted for nearly 9 Myr and argon diffusion may have occurred sometime around 24.5Ma. These results are generally in good agreement with previous interpretation, but provide better resolution of 40Ar/39Ar age data for deciphering the history of thermal event in the DNCV Metamorphic Complex and the left-lateral shearing event of the RRSZ in Vietnam, as well.

  8. Coincidence of gabbro and granulite formation and their implication for Variscan HT metamorphism in the Moldanubian Zone (Bohemian Massif), example from the Kutná Hora Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faryad, Shah Wali; Kachlík, Václav; Sláma, Jiří; Jedlicka, Radim

    2016-11-01

    Leucocratic metagabbro and amphibolite from a mafic-ultramafic body within migmatite and granulite in the Kutná Hora Complex were investigated. The mafic-ultramafic rocks show amphibolite facies metamorphism, but in the central part of the body some metagabbro preserves cumulus and intercumulus plagioclase, clinopyroxene and spinel. Spinel forms inclusions in both clinopyroxene and plagioclase and shows various degree of embayment structure, that was probably a result of reaction with melt during magmatic crystallization. In the metagabbro, garnet forms coronae around clinopyroxene at the contacts with plagioclase. Amphibolite contains garnet with prograde zoning and plagioclase. Phase relations of igneous and metamorphic minerals indicate that magmatic crystallization and subsequent metamorphism occurred as a result of isobaric cooling at a depth of 30-35 km. U-Pb dating on zircon from leucogabbro yielded a Variscan age (337.7 ± 2 Ma) that is similar or close to the age of granulite facies metamorphism (ca 340 Ma) in the Moldanubian Zone. Based on the calculated PT conditions and age data, both the mafic-ultramafic body and surrounding granulite shared the same exhumation path from their middle-lower crustal position at the end of Variscan orogeny. The coincidence of mafic-ultramafic intrusives and granulite-amphibolite facies metamorphism is explained by lithospheric upwelling beneath the Moldanubian Zone that occurred due to slab break-off during the final stages of subduction of the Moldanubian plate beneath the Teplá Barrandian Block. The model also addresses questions about the preservation of minerals and/or their compositions from the early metamorphic history of the rocks subjected to ultradeep subduction and subsequent granulite facies metamorphism.

  9. Martian Meteorite Ages and Implications for Martian Cratering History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, Laurence E.

    2006-01-01

    New radiometrically determined ages of Martian meteorites add to the growing number with crystallization ages < 1.4 Ga. The observation of mainly geologically young ages for the Martian meteorites, the only exception being the 4.5 Ga ALH84001 [1], is paradoxical when viewed in context of a Martian surface thought to be mostly much older as inferred from the surface density of meteorite craters [2]. There appears to be at least a twofold difference between the observed ages of Martian meteorites and their expected ages as inferred from the ages of Martian surfaces obtained from crater densities.

  10. Rubidium-strontium whole-rock ages of Kataragama and Pottuvil charnockites and East Vijayan gneiss: Indication of a 2 Ga metamorphism in the highlands of southeast Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    De Maesschalck, A.A.; Oen, I.S. ); Hebeda, E.H.; Verschure, R.H. ); Arps, C.E.S. )

    1990-09-01

    Highland Group granulite-facies rocks of the Kataragama klippe in southeast Sri Lanka yield a Rb-Sr whole-rock apparent age of 1,930 {plus minus} 130 Ma, MSWD = 39, and a {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr intercept of 0.715 {plus minus} 0.005, indicating a Highlandian metamorphism about 2.0 Ga ago. A charnockitic gneiss at Komari near Pottuvil, east Sri Lanka, gives a Rb-Sr whole-rock isochron age of 820 {plus minus} 70 Ma, MSWD = 0.78, initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.725 {plus minus} 0.007, suggesting a metamorphic resetting at about 0.8 Ga. The Rb-Sr whole-rock data of an East Vijayan biotite-hornblende gneiss fit a reference isochron of 800 Ma with a {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr intercept of 0.705; the low {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr intercept may be explained by a juvenile addition to the older crust. A review of available data from various isotopic dating methods suggests that the Highland Group supracrustals were deposited 2.5-2.0 Ga ago, metamorphosed in the granulite-facies about 2.0 Ga (M1) ago, and disturbed by resetting events about 1.1 Ga (M2), 0.8 Ga (M3), and 0.55 Ga (M4) ago. The East Vijayan supracrustals were deposited 2.0-1.1 Ga ago, invaded by granites and metamorphosed in the amphibolite-facies about 1.1 Ga (M2) ago, and disturbed by resetting events about 0.8 (M3) and 0.55 Ga (M4) ago. Overthrusting of the Kataragama granulites over the East Vijayan gneisses occurred post-M3.

  11. Teaching African-American History in the Age of Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    When the author proposed a spring course on major topics in African-American history, drawing a large enrollment was her chief concern. She had previously taught the course under a different title at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, a campus with a sizable African-American presence among students and faculty members. She now teaches…

  12. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  13. The History Walk: Integrated Multi-Age Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ronald V.

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a learning activity, the Texas History Walk, in which third- and seventh-grade gifted students learn about life in the 1870s on the Texas frontier. The younger students interact with the actors, seventh graders role-playing characters of the 1870s. Benefits of the activity include its interdisciplinary nature, the cross-age…

  14. Meta-Analysis at Middle Age: A Personal History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V.

    2015-01-01

    The 40-year history of meta-analysis is traced from the vantage point of one of its originators. Research syntheses leading to the first examples of meta-analysis are identified. Early meta-analyses of the literature on psychotherapy outcomes and school class size are recounted. The influence on the development of meta-analysis of several…

  15. [Active ageing and success: A brief history of conceptual models].

    PubMed

    Petretto, Donatella Rita; Pili, Roberto; Gaviano, Luca; Matos López, Cristina; Zuddas, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe different conceptual models of successful ageing, active and healthy ageing developed in Europe and in America in the 20° century, starting from Rowe and Kahn's original model (1987, 1997). A narrative review was conducted on the literature on successful ageing. Our review included definition of successful ageing from European and American scholars. Models were found that aimed to describe indexes of active and healthy ageing, models devoted to describe processes involved in successful ageing, and additional views that emphasise subjective and objective perception of successful ageing. A description is also given of critiques on previous models and remedies according to Martin et al. (2014) and strategies for successful ageing according to Jeste and Depp (2014). The need is discussed for the enhancement of Rowe and Kahn's model and other models with a more inclusive, universal description of ageing, incorporating scientific evidence regarding active ageing. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronology of paleozoic metamorphism and deformation in the Blue Ridge thrust complex, North Carolina and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, S.A.; Dallmeyer, R.D.

    1997-05-01

    The Blue Ridge province in northwestern North Carolina and northeastern Tennessee records a multiphase collisional and accretionary history from the Mesoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. To constrain the tectonothermal evolution in this region, radiometric ages have been determined for 23 regionally metamorphosed amphibolites, granitic gneisses, and pelitic schists and from mylonites along shear zones that bound thrust sheets and within an internal shear zone. The garnet ages from the Pumpkin Patch a thrust sheet (458, 455, and 451 Ma) are similar to those from the structurally overlying Spruce Pine thrust sheet (460, 456, 455, and 450 Ma). Both thrust sheets exhibit similar upper amphibolite-facies conditions. Because of the high closure temperature for garnet, the garnet ages are interpreted to date growth at or near the peak of Taconic metamorphism. Devonian metamorphic ages are recognized in the Spruce Pine thrust sheet, where Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr garnet ages of 386 and 393 Ma and mineral isochron ages of 397 {+-} 14 and 375 {+-} 27 Ma are preserved. Hornblendes record similar {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr ages of 398 to 379 Ma. Devonian {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar hornblende ages are also recorded in the structurally lower Pumpkin Patch thrust sheet. The Devonian mineral ages are interpreted to date a discrete tectonothermal event, as opposed to uplift and slow cooling from an Ordovician metamorphic event. The Mississippian mylonitization is interpreted to represent thrusting and initial assembly of crystalline sheets associated with the Alleghanian orogeny. The composite thrust stack of the Blue Ridge complex was subsequently thrust northwestward along the Linville Falls fault during middle Alleghanian orogeny (about 300 Ma).

  17. Shock metamorphism of ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoeffler, Dieter; Keil, Klaus; Scott, Edward R. D.

    1991-01-01

    This study proposes a revised petrographic classification of progressive stages of shock metamorphism of 26 ordinary chondrites. Six stages of shock (S1 to S6) are defined on the basis of shock effects in olivine and plagioclase as recognized by thin section microscopy, and the characteristic shock effects of each shock stage are described. It is concluded that shock effects and the sequence of progressively increasing degrees of shock metamorphosis are very similar in H, L, and LL groups. Differences in the frequency distribution of shock stages are relatively minor. It is suggested that the collisional histories of the H, L, and LL parent bodies were similar. Petrologic type-3 chondrites are deficient in stages S4 and S6 and, with increasing petrologic type, the frequency of stages S4 to S6 increases. It is suggested that the more porous and volatile-rich Type-3 chondrites are subject to melting at a lower shock pressure than the nonporous chondrites of higher petrologic type. Stage S3 is the most abundant in nearly all petrologic types.

  18. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  19. Petrology, chemistry, age and irradiation history of Luna 24 samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Mcculloch, M. T.; Huneke, J. C.; Dymek, R. F.; Depaolo, D. J.; Chodos, A. A.; Albee, A. L.; Radicati Di Brozolo, F.

    1978-01-01

    The results of petrological, chemical, isotopic age determination and irradiation studies of sample 24170 from the 170 cm depth of the regolith core returned from Mare Crisium by Luna 24 are presented. The sample is found to be comprised of fragments from a single igneous rock, with mineralogical evidence indicating it to be a mare basalt. The crystallization age is determined by Sm-Nd and Ar(40)-Ar(39) ages to be 3.30 AE, establishing the presence of relatively young flows. All soil samples show low trace element compositions with minimum contamination by KREEPUTh-rich materials. Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd relations reflect the absence of significant fractionation at ages younger than 4.5 AE. One soil sample shows extremely large neutron capture effects, imposing a new lower limit to the neutron production rate in the regolith and requiring the addition of irradiated materials from depth.

  20. Thermobarometric constraints on mid-Cretaceous to late Cretaceous metamorphic events in the western metamorphic belt of the Coast Mountains complex near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, Glen R.; Brew, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast Mountains Complex of southeastern Alaska and western Canada. This complex formed as a result of mid-Cretaceous through middle Eocene crustal shortening between the previously amalgamated Wrangellia and Alexander terranes (Insular superterrane) and previously accreted terranes of the North American continental margin (Intermontane superterrane). The western metamorphic belt, which ranges from a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers in width, records a complex sequence of contact-metamorphic and regional metamorphic events, the most significant of which are designated M1R, M2C-R, and M3R. The M1R regional metamorphic event ranged in grade from subgreenschist to greenschist facies and was overprinted by the M2C-R and M3R metamorphic events. The M2C-R metamorphic event is recorded in discrete contact-metamorphic aureoles and regional metamorphic-mineral assemblages related to tonalite-granodiorite plutons of the Admiralty-Revillagigedo plutonic belt. The M3R metamorphic belt, which is adjacent to the M2C-R belt, is characterized by regional Barrovian isograds of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and sillimanite. Using the THERMOCALC program, pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the M2C-R metamorphic event are estimated to be in the ranges 5.3-7.5 kbars and 525-640 deg.C and for the M3R metamorphic event in the ranges 9.4-12.6 kbars and 730-895 deg.C. The M2C-R metamorphic event occurred at approximately 90 Ma, but the timing of the M3R metamorphic event is poorly documented and uncertain. On the basis of an 40Ar/39Ar age on actinolitic amphibole and a Sm-Nd age on garnet core, the timing of metamorphism might be constrained between 90+/-1 and 80+/-9 Ma, although the Sm-Nd age of 80+/-9 m.y. possibly reflects postpeak growth. Thermobarometric data suggest that the two events occurred at different crustal levels and followed different P-T paths. No evidence exists that M2C-R metamorphic-mineral assemblages were

  1. Bushveld-aged fluid flow, peak metamorphism, and gold mobilization in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa: Constraints from in situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Birger; Fletcher, Ian R.; Muhling, Janet R.; Mueller, Andreas G.; Hall, Greg C.

    2007-10-01

    In situ U-Pb dating of monazite and xenotime in gold reefs and unmineralized greenschist facies sedimentary rocks from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa, reveals two episodes of tectonothermal activity. A major event between 2.06 and 2.03 Ga is recorded in the Wit-watersrand and Transvaal Supergroups in the northwestern and central basin, and broadly coincides with the ca. 2.06 Ga Bushveld event. In the central and southern basin, a previously unrecognized event has been dated between 2.14 and 2.12 Ga. The widespread geographic and stratigraphic occurrence of Bushveld-aged monazite and xenotime, including both auriferous reefs and unmineralized strata, indicates that metamorphism and fluid flow associated with magmatism was pervasive, affecting most of the succession (>10 km thick) in the central and northern parts of the basin. The metamorphic phosphate dates, which are younger away from the complex, indicate a lag of 20-30 m.y. between emplacement and phosphate growth in the central basin (˜100 km south), suggesting that heat related to magmatism was transferred southward at an average rate of 3-5 mm yr-1. The absence of 2.06-2.03 Ga phosphates in the Welkom goldfield at the southern end of the basin implies that Bushveld-related heating and fluid flow did not affect this part of the basin. The intergrowth of ca. 2.045 Ga monazite with gold in quartz-pebble conglomerate from the West Rand goldfield indicates that fluid flow related to the Bushveld event caused mobilization of gold in the Witwatersrand basin.

  2. Garnet zoning and metamorphism of the Barrovian type area, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, T. J.

    1985-03-01

    A microprobe investigation of the high grade metamorphic zones from the Barrovian type area in Angus, Scotland, shows the importance of local zones of retrograde cation exchange between garnet, staurolite and biotite. The interpretation of this zoning, established during a slow cooling history, is critical to any study of metamorphic reactions or conditions. The extent and intensity of these diffusion effects are dependent on a number of parameters including grainsize, fabric orientation, heating and cooling history, and the modal abundance of the phases. Increasing diffusion within garnets with metamorphic grade, and the subsequent retrograde effects are modelled using Temperature-Time-Transformation diagrams and provide information on the activation energy for Fe-Mg diffusion in garnet.

  3. Age and Thermal History of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renne, P. R.; Feinberg, J. M.; Mundil, R.; Nomade, S.; Merkle, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Bushveld Complex (BC) is one of the largest, most economically important and well-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world. Despite plentiful radioisotopic studies over the past 30 years, the age and emplacement chronology of the BC are not well-constrained. Biotite 40Ar/39Ar data from the UG-2 chromitite layer yield consistent plateau ages around 2042 Ma (IUGS 1977 constants; 28.02 Ma for FCs here and throughout), implying either a slow cooling rate or systematic error when compared with the available Pb/Pb ages of 2059 to 2061 Ma (Nomade et al., 2004, J. Geol. Soc. Lond., 161: 411-420). We are acquiring 40Ar/39Ar and U/Pb data to evaluate the rapid emplacement and cooling suggested by petrological and heat-conduction studies (Cawthorn and Walraven, 1998, J. Petrol. 39: 1669-1687). Biotite and hornblende are present as intercumulus phases in gabbros and also in ubiquitous pegmatoid veins cutting the mafic and ultramafic rocks. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar results from both the eastern and western limbs of the BC show biotite integrated ages clustering between 2030 and 2050 Ma, slightly older than hornblende plateau ages (2030-2040 Ma). Biotites are locally subject to discordance suggestive of 39Ar recoil redistribution with an interlayer alteration phase; as in other such cases the integrated ages are more consistent and sensible whereas plateau ages are in some cases impossibly old. Biotite from an Fe-rich ultramafic pegmatoid in the western limb (Karee Mine) yields duplicate ~100% concordant plateaux spectra that average 0.8% older than the average of 4 hornblende plateaux. The cause of this apparent discordance (biotite age > hornblende age) is not understood although it is possible that the biotites have unusually high closure temperatures due to large diffusion radii related to the coarse (~5 mm) grain size. Initial ID-TIMS U/Pb single-zircon analyses indicate an age of 2058 Ma for the late-stage Nebo Granite, as displayed by concordant ages on crystals pre

  4. Moderate pressure metamorphism and anatexis due to anorthosite intrusion, western Adirondack Highlands, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florence, F. P.; Darling, R. S.; Orrell, S. E.

    1995-10-01

    Garnet-sillimanite-biotite gneiss near Port Leyden, in the western Adirondack Highlands, New York, contains mineral assemblages and textures that formed during high temperature metamorphism and anatexis at mid-crustal pressures. Evidence for melting includes thin, plagioclase-rich veins, sieve textures in biotite, and the presence of small, euhedral garnet neoblasts. Hercynite-silicate equilibria in combination with the solidus for biotite dehydration melting indicate metamorphic pressure was between 4 and 6.4 kbar at the temperature of melting (ca. 735° C). The gneiss is intruded by a small, discordant Fe-Ti oxide-apatite (nelsonite) dike. Reported field occurrences of nelsonite demonstrate its common association with anorthosite plutons. Although no anorthosite bodies are exposed in the Port Leyden region, the presence of nelsonite is evidence of anorthositic magmatism in the western Adirondacks. Post-intrusion metamorphism has caused partial apatite recrystallization and produced a weak foliated texture in the dike. U-Pb ages from zircon and monazite from both the gneiss and the nelsonite dike indicate that these rocks experienced a complex, polymetamorphic history that we interpret to reflect two thermal episodes. An older event is recorded by discordant zircons in the gneiss, which indicate a minimum age of 1129±6 Ma. A linear best fit to the data yields an upper intercept at 1166±53 Ma. This range of ages coincides with anorthosite-suite magmatism in the Adirondacks. A minimum zircon age of 1104±3 Ma was obtained from the nelsonite dike. Lead-loss or late zircon crystallization at about 1020 Ma affected the U-Pb systematics of zircon in the dike. Monazite ages from both rocks also indicate high temperature metamorphism (>700° C) between 1040 and 960 Ma. The older zircon ages and textural relations in the metapelite are viewed as evidence for anatexis at ca. 1150 Ma, and the presence of nelsonite suggests that the intrusion of anorthosite was coincident

  5. Equilibrium and kinetics in metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattison, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The equilibrium model for metamorphism is founded on the metamorphic facies principle, the repeated association of the same mineral assemblages in rocks of different bulk composition that have been metamorphosed together. Yet, for any metamorphic process to occur, there must be some degree of reaction overstepping (disequilibrium) to initiate reaction. The magnitude and variability of overstepping, and the degree to which it is either a relatively minor wrinkle or a more substantive challenge to the interpretation of metamorphic rocks using the equilibrium model, is an active area of current research. Kinetic barriers to reaction generally diminish with rising temperature due to the Arrhenius relation. In contrast, the rate of build-up of the macroscopic energetic driving force needed to overcome kinetic barriers to reaction, reaction affinity, does not vary uniformly with temperature, instead varying from reaction to reaction. High-entropy reactions that release large quantities of H2O build up reaction affinity more rapidly than low-entropy reactions that release little or no H2O, such that the former are expected to be overstepped less than the latter. Some consequences include: (1) metamorphic reaction intervals may be discrete rather than continuous, initiating at the point that sufficient reaction affinity has built up to overcome kinetic barriers; (2) metamorphic reaction intervals may not correspond in a simple way to reaction boundaries in an equilibrium phase diagram; (3) metamorphic reactions may involve metastable reactions; (4) metamorphic 'cascades' are possible, in which stable and metastable reactions involving the same reactant phases may proceed simultaneously; and (5) fluid generation, and possibly fluid presence in general, may be episodic rather than continuous, corresponding to discrete intervals of reaction. These considerations bear on the interpretation of P-T-t paths from metamorphic mineral assemblages and textures. The success of the

  6. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals.

    PubMed

    Eberl, D D; Sacuterodonacute, J; Kralik, M; Taylor, B E; Peterman, Z E

    1990-04-27

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  7. Ostwald ripening of clays and metamorphic minerals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Srodon, J.; Kralik, M.; Taylor, B.E.; Peterman, Z.E.

    1990-01-01

    Analyses of particle size distributions indicate that clay minerals and other diagenetic and metamorphic minerals commonly undergo recrystallization by Ostwald ripening. The shapes of their particle size distributions can yield the rate law for this process. One consequence of Ostwald ripening is that a record of the recrystallization process is preserved in the various particle sizes. Therefore, one can determine the detailed geologic history of clays and other recrystallized minerals by separating, from a single sample, the various particle sizes for independent chemical, structural, and isotopic analyses.

  8. A case history of all-age management

    Treesearch

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Single-tree selection "works" in sugar maple stands in the Lake States. This system of all-age management has been used for 31 years on the Argonne Experimental Forest. In 1953, researchers found that cutting according to basal area guides is both a convenient and effective way to regulate a stand. Later experience showed that achieving good stand structure...

  9. Metamorphism, Plate Tectonics, and the Supercontinent Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael

    duality of thermal regimes is the hallmark of modern plate tectonics and the duality of metamorphic belts is the characteristic imprint of plate tectonics in the rock record. The occurrence of both G-UHTM and E-HPGM belts since the Neoarchean manifests the onset of a 'Proterozoic plate tectonics regime', although the style of tectonics likely involved differences. The 'Proterozoic plate tectonics regime' evolved during a Neoproterozoic transition to the 'modern plate tectonics regime' characterized by colder subduction and subduction of continental crust deep into the mantle and its (partial) return from depths of up to 300 km, as chronicled by the appearance of HPM-UHPM in the rock record. The age distribution of metamorphic belts that record extreme conditions of metamorphism is not uniform, and metamorphism occurs in periods that correspond to amalgamation of continental lithosphere into supercratons (e.g. Superia/Sclavia) or supercontinents (e.g. Nuna (Columbia), Rodinia, Gondwana, and Pangea).

  10. Bombardment History of the Galilean Satellites and Derived Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.; Wolf, U.; Head, J. W., III; Pappalardo, R.; Chapman, C. R.; Merline, W.; Belton, M. S.

    1997-07-01

    During the first seven Galileo flybys, high resolution imagery of the three Galilean moons, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have been obtained. The new imaging data allow to measure crater diameters as small as ~ 100 m. In combination with Voyager data, size-frequency distribution characteristics in the size range of ~ 100 m to ~ 100 km have been determined. Crater distributions show steep slopes (cumulative index about -3) at smaller diameters on each satellite and are shallower at larger diameters, similar to what is seen on the Moon and the asteroids Gaspra and Ida. % % At D = 1 km, crater densities differ by about a factor of 10 between % average dark terrain of Galileo Regio and youngest bright resurfaced areas % on Ganymede. % Crater densities on the most heavily cratered regions on both Ganymede and Callisto are fairly comparable. On Europa, crater densities have turned out to be about a factor of 10 lower than on the youngest bright terrain in the Uruk Sulcus region of Ganymede. The similarity to crater size-frequency distributions found in the inner solar system suggests a similar origin of the projectiles, probably mainly stemming from the asteroid belt, and the impact rate on the Galilean satellites may have had a lunar-like decay with time. Under this assumption, absolute ages may be derived making use of the idea of the ''marker horizon'', i. e. formation of the youngest basins, such as Gilgamesh on Ganymede, about 3.8 b.y. ago. Thus, the most densely cratered dark terrains on both Ganymede and Callisto have likely ages of 4.1 - 4.3 b.y. Basins such as Neith (on Ganymede) or Adlinda (on Callisto) yield likely ages of about 3.9 b.y. Some areas on Europa may be as old as 3 - 3.3 b.y. Other scenarios based on values proposed for the present-day comet impact rate in the Jovian system with non-lunar-like flux time dependences are conceivable and would result in generally younger ages, possibly as young as 10 m.y. These young ages and impact rates for Europa

  11. Metamorphic and stratigraphic constraints on the evolution of the Santa Catalina Mountains metamorphic core complex, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Palais, D.G.; Peacock, S.M. )

    1990-01-10

    Contact metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Santa Catalina Mountains metamorphic core complex constrain the emplacement depth of the metaluminous Late Cretaceous Leatherwood quartz diorite to between 7.5 and 14 km (2-3.8 kbar). The peraluminous Eocene Wilderness granite is constrained to have been emplaced at depths of less than 14 km. Stratigraphic and tectonic considerations are consistent with emplacement of both the Leatherwood quartz diorite and Wilderness granite at upper crustal levels. Published igneous thermobarometry (Anderson et al., 1988), although in approximate agreement with the metamorphic and tectonostratigraphic estimates for the depth of emplacement of the Wilderness granite, suggests that the Leatherwood quartz diorite was emplaced at depths of {approximately} 21 km (5.6 kbar) or greater. The discrepancy between the different emplacement estimates may reflect ambiguities associated with interpretations of the results from each technique. Igneous barometric assemblages may reflect conditions experienced during a period of crystallization during ascent of the magma through the crust (i.e., ponding of the magma). Alternatively, emplacement of the voluminous Wilderness granite and associated plutons may have entirely overprinted earlier Leatherwood-related contact metamorphism. The proposed upper crustal emplacement of the Leatherwood quartz diorite is consistent with the observation that Laramide-age crustal thickening in southeast Arizona probably did not exceed 8 km.

  12. Metamorphic and stratigraphic constraints on the evolution of the Santa Catalina Mountains Metamorphic Core Complex, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, David G.; Peacock, Simon M.

    1990-01-01

    Contact metamorphic mineral assemblages in the Santa Catalina Mountains metamorphic core complex constrain the emplacement depth of the metaluminous Late Cretaceous Leatherwood quartz diorite to between 7.5 and 14 km (2-3.8 kbar). The peraluminous Eocene Wilderness granite is constrained to have been emplaced at depths of less than 14 km. Stratigraphic and tectonic considerations are consistent with emplacement of both the Leatherwood quartz diorite and Wilderness granite at upper crustal levels. Published igneous thermobarometry (Anderson et al., 1988), although in approximate agreement with the metamorphic and tectonostratigraphic estimates for the depth of emplacement of the Wilderness granite, suggests that the Leatherwood quartz diortite was emplaced at depths of ˜21 km (5.6 kbar) or greater. The discrepancy between the different emplacement estimates may reflect ambiguities associated with interpretations of the results from each technique. Igneous barometric assemblages may reflect conditions experienced during a period of crystallization during ascent of the magma through the crust (i.e., ponding of the magma). Alternatively, emplacement of the voluminous Wilderness granite and associated plutons may have entirely overprinted earlier Leatherwood-related contact metamorphism. The proposed upper crustal emplacement of the Leatherwood quartz diorite is consistent with the observation that Lararrade-age crustal thickening in southeast Arizona probably did not exceed 8 km.

  13. Evolution of Himalayan Metamorphism and the Genesis of Inverted Metamorphic Gradients: Evidence From the Sutlej Valley, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddick, M.; Bickle, M.; Holland, T.; Harris, N.

    2002-12-01

    An inverted metamorphic gradient is commonly preserved where the high-grade Greater Himalayan Crystalline Sequence (GHCS) overthrusts the Lesser Himalayan foreland. This structural break (the Main Central Thrust, or MCT) is a key feature of Himalayan tectonics, generally considered to have taken up at least 200-300 km of shortening since the Early Miocene. The timing of displacement along the MCT and its relationship with inverted metamorphism is debated, with existing temperature inversion models requiring either (a) post-metamorphic faulting along young shear zones; (b) continual or episodic syn-metamorphic thrust development; or (c) single phase pre- to syn-metamorphic thrusting and subsequent thermal relaxation. Here, we use the P-T-t evolution of individual rock samples to study the contrasting histories of the GHCS and LHS units and deduce the relationship between metamorphism and thrusting. The Sutlej River Valley exposes an inverted metamorphic succession consisting of a 9-km thick amphibolite-facies core (the GHCS), structurally underlain by greenschist and amphibolite-facies Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) metapelites which preserve garnet-in, staurolite-in and kyanite/sillimanite-in isograds. The GHCS displays kyanite-in and sillimanite-in isograds, with migmatisation at the top of the sequence. A major thrust-zone (interpreted as the MCT) separates the LHS from the GHCS. The application of rim-thermobarometry to Sutlej samples identifies both the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LHS and GHCS units, and the inherent frailty of cation-exchange thermobarometers when studying high-grade rocks that have been subjected to subsequent retrograde diffusion. The construction of pseudosections and contouring of mineral composition isopleths, however, identifies the PT-paths that both units have taken, allowing a detailed reconstruction of the burial and uplift histories of the units that constitute the MCT-zone. Pseudosections in the systems KFMASH and Mn

  14. From the Axial Age to the New Age: Religion as a Dynamic of World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Carlton H.

    In order to broaden student understanding of past and contemporary situations, the world history survey course needs to consider religion as a vehicle through which history moves. The course proposal includes prehistory and paleolithic times to contemporary Islamic culture. The course is thematic and comparative in orientation, but moves through…

  15. History of a Bronze Age tell and its environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Gabriella; Füleky, György; Vicze, Magdolna

    2016-04-01

    Százhalombatta-Földvár is the most excessively researched Bronze Age tell site in Hungary. Parallel to the investigation of the settlement structure and activity patterns the changes of the landscape and the effect of human alteration is also studied. Significant changes of the landscape can be detected from the Bronze Age until the recent natural and cultural heritage protection of the area. Archaeological, soil analytical and thin section soil micromorphological methods are used to reconstruct the past 4000 years of the tell and its immediate surroundings. Prior to the Bronze Age the area was covered by forest vegetation, so the initial settling could only be realised after deforestation (2000 BC). The result of the soil corings and the prepared soil thin sections are solid proves of this action. It also became evident that at some areas - so far it seems that at locales where house floors were laid for the very first time - even the topsoil was removed so intensively that only the B horizon of the relict forest soil can be found. This observation needs to be further tested outside the habitation area to define the horizontal extension of the forest clearance and the topsoil removal. The northern side of the settlement is bordered by a natural erosion gully. At 2000 BC it was just a natural depression, but by 1500 BC it was deepened to serve as a fortification ditch. Around 1200 BC the ditch started to be filled in and by 1000 BC it was refilled to such an extent that its surface was utilised again. At about 600 BC (Late Iron Age) a smaller inner rampart was erected on the southern side of the ditch for inner separation. Not much is known about the Roman period of this area (200 AD) but the remnants of a watchtower indicate their presence. During the 18th century AD the area was used for grape cultivation and later for hobby gardens up until the protection of the area in the late 20th century. Since then species of the original vegetation started to grow back

  16. Isotopes, ice ages, and terminal Proterozoic earth history.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A J; Knoll, A H; Narbonne, G M

    1997-06-24

    Detailed correlations of ancient glacial deposits, based on temporal records of carbon and strontium isotopes in seawater, indicate four (and perhaps five) discrete ice ages in the terminal Proterozoic Eon. The close and repeated stratigraphic relationship between C-isotopic excursions and glaciogenic rocks suggests that unusually high rates of organic carbon burial facilitated glaciation by reducing atmospheric greenhouse capacity. The emerging framework of time and environmental change contributes to the improved resolution of stratigraphic and evolutionary pattern in the early fossil record of animals.

  17. Prostate cancer and consistency of reporting sexual histories in men over age 50.

    PubMed

    Dennis, L K; Ritchie, J M; Resnick, M I

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an in-person interview to examine the reliability of reported sexual histories among men over age 50 y with and without prostate cancer. Marriage and cohabitation were used as memory cues to recall sexual activity. High correlations on test-retest for questions evaluating sexual histories suggest reliable answers for most factors, and specifically for age at first sexual activity, and lifetime number of sexual partners. Low correlations were seen for ill-defined and socially undesirable items. These data suggest that men consistently report most measures of sexual activity when using marriage and cohabitation as memory cues to recall sexual histories.

  18. Baking, ageing, diabetes: a short history of the Maillard reaction.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, Michael; Henle, Thomas

    2014-09-22

    The reaction of reducing carbohydrates with amino compounds described in 1912 by Louis-Camille Maillard is responsible for the aroma, taste, and appearance of thermally processed food. The discovery that non-enzymatic conversions also occur in organisms led to intensive investigation of the pathophysiological significance of the Maillard reaction in diabetes and ageing processes. Dietary Maillard products are discussed as "glycotoxins" and thus as a nutritional risk, but also increasingly with regard to positive effects in the human body. In this Review we give an overview of the most important discoveries in Maillard research since it was first described and show that the complex reaction, even after over one hundred years, has lost none of its interdisciplinary actuality.

  19. A history of the future: the emergence of contemporary anti-ageing medicine.

    PubMed

    Everts Mykytyn, Courtney

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of anti-ageing medicine over the past 20 years has posed tremendous challenges for the understanding of ageing and the concomitant responsibilities of biomedicine. Though highly contentious and loosely organised at best, anti-ageing targets ageing for biomedical intervention. This article examines a history of anti-ageing in the United States from 1993 to 2008, outlining its evolution from a scientific 'backwater' to a field with such promise that many within and outside the field believe efficacious therapies are an inevitability. In large part, the language of anti-ageing has shifted from predictions to expectations; it has become less a question of 'if' and more a question of 'when' and 'how' this rhetorical shift is directly linked with increasing legitimacy constructed upon a complex web of factors including mounting practitioner involvement, research interest, media attention, and popular desire. In this article I briefly review this history alongside the strategic histories marshalled by the various proponents and opponents to support their claims of legitimacy. The history of anti-ageing medicine is one of an emerging scientific and clinical practice as well as a history of an idea that has very recently made its way out of science fiction and into science future.

  20. Association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P < 0.05), and the association was number-dependent. However, no significant association between history of spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).

  1. Stratigraphic and structural implications of conodont and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from metamorphic rocks of the Coldfoot terrane, Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.E.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Harris, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    New paleontologic and isotopic data from the Emma Creek and Marion Creek schists of the Coldfoot terrane, Arctic Alaska superterrane, central Brooks Range, suggest Devonian and possibly younger ages of deposition for their sedimentary protoliths. Conodonts from marble of the Emma Creek schist, intruded by a roughly 392 Ma orthogneiss, are late Lochkovian (early Early Devonian, between about 408 and 396 Ma) and Silurian to Devonian at two other locations. Spherical to oblong detrital zircons from quartz-mica schist of the overlying Marion Creek schist yield mostly discordant U-Pb data suggestive of provenance ages of 3.0, 2.0-1.8, and 1.5-1.4 Ga; however, several euhedral grains of zircon from Marion Creek quartz-mica schist have concordant U-Pb ages from 370 to 360 Ma. The Marion Creek schist in our study area therefore is at least 26 m.y. younger than the Emma Creek schist. The age data imply that the protolith of the Emma Creek schist is age correlative with Devonian carbonate rocks in the Hammond and North Slope terranes, whereas the Marion Creek schist is age correlative with Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian clastic sedimentary rocks of the Endicott Group in the Endicott Mountains terrane and shale and carbonate units in the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes. Consequently, tectonic models restoring the entire Coldfoot terrane beneath partly or wholly coeval rocks of the Hammond, Endicott Mountains, De Long Mountains, and Sheenjek River terranes of the Arctic Alaska superterrane require revision. Alternative reconstructions, including restoration of the Coldfoot terrane inboard of the Endicott Mountains terrane or outboard of the De Long Mountains and Sheenjek River terranes are plausible but require either larger amounts of shortening than previously suggested or indicate problematic facies relations. copyright. Published in 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Conditions and timing of high-pressure Variscan metamorphism in the South Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medaris, Gordon; Ducea, Mihai; Ghent, Ed; Iancu, Viorica

    2003-10-01

    High-pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks, including garnet peridotite, eclogite, HP granulite, and HP amphibolite, are important constituents of several tectonostratigraphic units in the pre-Alpine nappe stack of the Getic-Supragetic (GS) basement in the South Carpathians. A Variscan age for HP metamorphism is firmly established by Sm-Nd mineral-whole-rock isochrons for garnet amphibolite, 358±10 Ma, two samples of eclogite, 341±8 and 344±7 Ma, and garnet peridotite, 316±4 Ma. A prograde history for many HP metamorphic rocks is documented by the presence of lower pressure mineral inclusions and compositional zoning in garnet. Application of commonly accepted thermobarometers to eclogite (grt+cpx±ky±phn±pg±zo) yields a range in "peak" pressures and temperatures of 10.8-22.3 kbar and 545-745 °C, depending on tectonostratigraphic unit and locality. Zoisite equilibria indicate that activity of H 2O in some samples was substantially reduced, ca. 0.1-0.4. HP granulite (grt+cpx+hb+pl) and HP amphibolite (grt+hbl+pl) may have formed by retrogression of eclogites during high-temperature decompression. Two types of garnet peridotite have been recognized, one forming from spinel peridotite at ca. 1150-1300 °C, 25.8-29.0 kbar, and another from plagioclase peridotite at 560 °C, 16.1 kbar. The Variscan evolution of the pre-Mesozoic basement in the South Carpathians is similar to that in other segments of the European Variscides, including widespread HP metamorphism, in which P- T- t characteristics are specific to individual tectonostratigraphic units, the presence of diverse types of garnet peridotite, diachronous subduction and accretion, nappe assembly in pre-Westphalian time due to collision of Laurussia, Gondwana, and amalgamated terranes, and finally, rapid exhumation, cooling, and deposition of eroded debris in Westphalian to Permian sedimentary basins.

  3. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  4. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  5. Alpine metamorphic evolution of Ligurian Alps (North-West Italy): chemography and petrological constraints inferred from metamorphic climax assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messiga, B.

    1987-03-01

    The up-to-date petrological and microtextural information on the Ligurian Alps indicates that the metamorphic rocks from the oceanic lithosphere and the paleo-European continental margin underwent an alpine-type metamorphic evolution characterized by low dT/dP gradients. In particular, rocks from the Ligurian-Piedmontese oceanic lithosphere underwent an alpine metamorphism typical of alpine-type blueschist rocks. The distribution of the alpine metamorphic facies in paleo-European continental margin is closely related to the structural position of the different tectonic units. The prograde evolution frequently preserves paragenetic and textural relics of the earlier parageneses. If relics of the earlier parageneses are preserved, the rock exhibits continuous prograde reactions confirmed by strong compositional zoning of the metamorphic minerals. Therefore, these reactions lead to chemical and microtextural equilibrium relations, between the minerals, in limited domains of the rocks (microtextural sites). The main compositional aspect of coronitic textures is the mineral zoning, particularly when the minerals of the coronas are the consequence of a wide range of solid solutions. In such cases, the reacting minerals are armored and the kinetics are lowered. The prograde metamorphic evolution, which involved the rocks from the oceanic lithosphere and the paleo-European continental margin, is quite consistent with a subduction-type geodynamic process in different ages during alpine times.

  6. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (≥60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  7. Metamorphic evolution of the northwestern Ogcheon metamorphic belt, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kyoungwon; Cho, Moonsup

    1998-05-01

    The Ogcheon metamorphic belt (OMB) comprises Late Proterozoic to Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic sequences which are intruded by Mesozoic granitoid plutons. To delineate the metamorphic evolution of the OMB, we have investigated mineral parageneses, metamorphic reactions and P-T conditions of pelitic and mafic schists in the Chungju area, northwestern part of the OMB. The regional metamorphic grade increases north-westward from biotite to garnet zones, although low-pressure assemblages have developed in contact aureoles around Jurassic granites. Garnet crystals show chemical zoning, typical for prograde metamorphism, with decreasing Mn, and increasing Fe and Mg from core to rim. Compositions of amphiboles constituting the common assemblage in the mafic schist are consistent with those of biotite- and garnet-zones documented in the medium-pressure metabasites. P-T conditions of the garnet zone, estimated from garnet-biotite, garnet-chlorite and amphibole-plagioclase geothermometers together with garnet-plagioclase-biotite-muscovite/quartz geobarometers, are in the range of 5-8 kbar and 520-590°C. Retrograde P-T path based on fluid inclusion studies suggests that the exhumation of the OMB has passed through the P-T range of 1-3 kbar and 350-500°C, following the isochore curves of the CO 2 inclusions. In conjunction with structural and geochronologic data, we conclude that the OMB has experienced a polycyclic P-T evolution characterized by (1) crustal thickening during the Middle Paleozoic time and (2) regional retrograde metamorphism in the Triassic. Our result further suggests that the Triassic collision belt in east-central China does not pass through the OMB.

  8. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  9. Alcohol expectancies: effects of gender, age, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.

  10. Evolution of male life histories and age-dependent sexual signals under female choice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection theory models evolution of sexual signals and preferences using simple life histories. However, life-history models predict that males benefit from increasing sexual investment approaching old age, producing age-dependent sexual traits. Age-dependent traits require time and energy to grow, and will not fully mature before individuals enter mating competition. Early evolutionary stages pose several problems for these traits. Age-dependent traits suffer from strong viability selection and gain little benefit from mate choice when rare. Few males will grow large traits, and they will rarely encounter choosy females. The evolutionary origins of age-dependent traits therefore remain unclear. I used numerical simulations to analyze evolution of preferences, condition (viability) and traits in an age-structured population. Traits in the model depended on age and condition (“good genes”) in a population with no genetic drift. I asked (1) if age-dependent indicator traits and their preferences can originate depending on the strength of selection and the size of the trait; (2) which mode of development (age-dependent versus age-independent) eventually predominates when both modes occur in the population; and (3) if age-independent traits can invade a population with age-dependent traits. Age-dependent traits evolve under weaker selection and at smaller sizes than age-independent traits. This result held in isolation and when the types co-occur. Evolution of age-independent traits depends only on trait size, whereas evolution of age-dependent traits depends on both strength of selection and growth rate. Invasion of age-independence into populations with established traits followed a similar pattern with age-dependence predominating at small trait sizes. I suggest that reduced adult mortality facilitates sexual selection by favoring the evolution of age-dependent sexual signals under weak selection. PMID:24392289

  11. Grampian high-pressure-granulite-facies metamorphism of the Slishwood Division, NW Ireland and its enigmatic eclogite-facies precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, J. S.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The Slishwood Division of NW Ireland is located along the SW margin of the Grampian belt, whose metamorphism and deformation is generally attributed to the collision of outboard magmatic arcs with the Laurentian continental margin during the c. 470 Ma Grampian Orogeny. The unusual metamorphic history of the Slishwood Division (with eclogite-facies and later high-pressure-granulite-facies assemblages) is a unique feature of the Grampian belt and has long been regarded as evidence for pre-Caledonian tectonism, possibly of Grenvillian age. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating of Slishwood Division metasediments shows that they were deposited after c. 926 Ma, ruling out a Grenville event. A maximum age for the eclogite-facies event is provided by a U-Pb zircon age of 596 ± 6 Ma for a suite of metabasite intrusives, which exhibit varying degrees of decompression from eclogite- to high pressure granulite-facies or amphibolite-facies assemblages accompanied by the development of migmatitic leucosomes. Zircons in these leucosomes yield U-Pb zircon ages of c. 470 Ma identical to metamorphic zircons in a relatively dry partially decompressed eclogite. Following polyphase deformation, migmatitic leucosomes in metasediments crystallized under high pressure granulite-facies conditions during sinistral transtension. Dating these leucosomes has been challenging because the majority of zircons within them are inherited and generally only thin (< 15 μm) euhedral magmatic zircon overgrowths are present. Careful targeting with the ion microprobe yields U-Pb ages of c. 470 Ma, consistent with a U-Pb zircon age of c. 470 Ma from a cross-cutting granite pegmatite. In addition the high pressure granulite facies mineral fabrics are cut by tonalite bodies also dated at 470 Ma (ref. 1). Based on these results, we interpret the Slishwood Division as a Neoproterozoic metasedimentary sequence deposited after c. 926 Ma on what became a microcontinental fragment that detached from Laurentia during the

  12. Mid-Late Triassic metamorphic event for Changhai meta-sedimentary rocks from the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton: Evidence from monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite Ar-Ar dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fulai; Wang, Fang; Liou, J. G.; Meng, En; Liu, Jianhui; Yang, Hong; Xiao, Lingling; Cai, Jia; Shi, Jianrong

    2014-11-01

    The precise constraints on the timing of metamorphism of the Changhai metamorphic complex is of great importance considering the prolonged controversial issue of the north margin and the extension of the Sulu-Dabie HP-UHP Belt. While the monazite U-Th-Pb and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar techniques are widely accepted as two of the most powerful dating tools for revealing the thermal histories of medium-low grade metamorphic rocks and precisely constraining the timing of metamorphism. The Changhai metamorphic complex at the SE Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt, North China Craton consists of a variety of pelitic schist and Grt-Ky-bearing paragneiss, and minor quartzite and marble. Analyses of mineral inclusions and back-scattered electric (BSE) images of monazites, combined with LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb ages for monazites and 40Ar/39Ar ages for muscovites, provide evidence of the origin and metamorphic age of the Changhai metamorphic complex. Monazites separates from various Grt-Mus schists and Grt-Ky-St-Mus paragneisses exhibit homogeneous BSE images from cores to rims, and contain inclusion assemblages of Grt + Mus + Qtz ± Ctd ± Ky in schist, and Grt + Ky + St + Mus + Pl + Kfs + Qtz inclusions in paragneiss. These inclusion assemblages are very similar to matrix minerals of host rocks, indicating they are metamorphic rather than inherited or detrital in origin. LA-ICP-MS U-Th-Pb dating reveals that monazites of schist and paragneiss have consistent 206Pb/238U ages ranging from 228.1 ± 3.8 to 218.2 ± 3.7 Ma. In contrast, muscovites from various schists show slightly older 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 236.1 ± 1.5 to 230.2 ± 1.2 Ma. These geochronological and petrological data conclude that the pelitic sediments have experienced a metamorphic event at the Mid-Late Triassic (236.1-218.2 Ma) rather than the Paleoproterozoic (1950-1850 Ma), commonly regarded as the Precambrian basement for the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt. Hence, the Changhai metamorphic complex should be considered as a discrete

  13. Using quantitative phase petrology to understand metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative phase petrology has become one of the mainstay methods for interpreting metamorphic rocks and processes. Its increased utility has been driven by improvements to end-member thermodynamics, activity-composition relationships and computer programs to undertake calculations. Such improvements now allow us to undertake calculations in increasingly complex chemical systems that more closely reflect those of rocks. Recent progress in activity-composition (a-x) relationships is aimed at developing suites of a-x relationships in large chemical systems that are calibrated together, which will allow a more direct application of the method to metamorphic rocks. In addition, considerable progress has been made in how quantitative phase diagrams can be used to understand features, including chemical potential diagrams for reaction textures, methods for fractionating bulk compositions and methods for modelling open system processes. One feature of calculated phase diagrams is that they present us with a great amount of information, such as mineral assemblages, mineral proportions, phase compositions, volume or density etc. An important aspect to using this information is to understand the potential uncertainties associated with these, which are significant. These uncertainties require that calculated phase diagrams be used with caution to interpret observed features in rocks. Features such as mineral zoning and reaction textures should still be interpreted in a semi-quantitative way, even if based on a fully quantitative diagram. Exercises such as the interpretation of reaction overstepping based on relating phase diagrams to observed mineral core compositions are likely to give spurious results given the infelicities in existing a-x models. Despite these limitations, quantitative phase petrology remains the most useful approach to interpreting the metamorphic history of rocks in that it provides a theoretical framework in which to interpret observed features rather

  14. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  15. Low pressure regional metamorphism in the Mahneshan area, western Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazzen, M.; Droop, G. T. R.; Saki, A.

    2003-04-01

    LOW PRESSURE REGIONAL METAMORPHISM IN THE MAHNESHAN AREA, WESTERN IRAN M. Moazzen(1), G.T.R. Droop(2) and A. Saki(1) (1) Department of Geology, Tabriz University, 51664, Tabriz Iran, (2) Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK moazzen@tabrizu.ac.ir/Fax:+98-411-3341244 The Mahneshan metamorphic complex is a part of the central Iran geological unit. Pelitic, calc-silicate and basic rocks have experienced polyphase deformation, metamorphism and partial melting producing a variety of mica schists, andalusite-staurolite-garnet schist, amphibolite and scapolite-, garnet- and phlogopite-bearing marbles. S-and I-type granitoids are spatially associated with the metamorphic rocks. Fossiliferous Cambrian sediments in the area are not metamorphosed, suggesting a Precambrian age for the metamorphism. Two main deformational phases D1 and D2 are recognised on the basis of field geology and micro-structural studies. The D1 deformational phase produced a slaty cleavage while D2 produced a crenulation cleavage, folding the D1 fabric. D2 was the major deformational phase in the area. Two metamorphic phases, M1 and M2, occurred during D1 and D2 respectively. M2 was stronger, causing moderate to high temperature/low pressure metamorphism and partial melting of the (semi)pelitic rocks. Conventional garnet-biotite thermometry yields temperatures of ca. 500°C for the andalusite-bearing pelites. Barometry of the pelitic rocks using petrogenetic grids and the GASP (garnet-aluminosilicate-quartz-plagioclase) barometer gives a pressure of ca. 3.5 kbar indicating low-pressure regional metamorphism. The data imply an average upper crustal geothermal gradient of ca. 40°/km. The S-type, garnet-bearing granitoids are believed to be products of partial melting of the (semi)pelitic rocks. Mineral parageneses and pressure-temperature estimates indicate a Buchan-type metamorphism during Precambrian of the Iranian crust. The intrusion of the I

  16. Fission track studies of xenolithic chondrites - Implications regarding brecciation and metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kothari, B. K.; Rajan, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Fission tracks in phosphates from one gas-poor chondrite and three gas-rich ones are studied to determine their thermal history and brecciation time scales. Model fission track ages are calculated for given track densities due to Pu-244 and U-238; track densities and uranium measurements for whitlockite are shown, and possible sources of the tracks are mentioned. Details of track density and uranium measurements are discussed for each meteorite separately. Whitlockites from all the meteorites give model fission track ages of 4.4 Gyr assuming a Pu/U ratio at 4.55 Gyr of 0.045. The final brecciation event definitely did not reset the track clock in phosphates of one meteor and probably not in another two. It is concluded that the observed fission track ages date the end of metamorphic cooling in the meteorite parent bodies and support the planetesimal model for the formation of xenolithic chondrites.

  17. Growth of mica porphyroblasts under low-grade metamorphism - A Taiwanese case using in-situ40Ar/39Ar laser microprobe dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Tung; Chan, Yu-Chang; Lo, Ching-Hua; Lu, Chia-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Mica porphyroblasts, a common metamorphic microstructure, are analyzed in the slate belt of northern Taiwan where large fish-like growths are found within a meta-pyroclastics. With constraints on the time-temperature history from deposition through peak metamorphic state to exhumation, in-situ40Ar/39Ar laser microprobe dating was carried out on muscovite and corrensite fibers of mm-scale mica porphyroblasts grown on a pressure-solution seam. Because the peak metamorphic temperature and the porphyroblast formation condition (∼250 °C) remained far below the closure temperature of the K-Ar radioisotope system in muscovite, and the absence of muscovite in the mafic protolith, the dating results likely document the growth of the mica porphyroblast fabrics. The syn-kinematic nature of the analyzed porphyroblasts is confirmed by the ∼6 to ∼2.5 Ma growth ages, suggesting that the host rock was continuously deformed during the earlier two-thirds of the Taiwan Orogeny. The pattern of fiber growth, in contrast to outward-decreasing ages normally observed in peripheral recrystallization, appears random and resembles void fills in boudin openings. We postulate that syntaxial crack-seal following tensile micro-boudinage, along with slips on sub-grain boundaries, as a viable mechanism for the development of mica porphyroblasts and fish especially in lower-grade metamorphic rocks.

  18. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages, Ar-Ar Ages, and the Origin and History of Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar ages (and some Rb-Sr ages) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 ages for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar ages argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) exposure ages for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE ages of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE ages of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.

  19. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages, Ar-Ar Ages, and the Origin and History of Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar ages (and some Rb-Sr ages) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 ages for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar ages argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) exposure ages for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE ages of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE ages of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.

  20. Slab dehydration and fluid-producing metamorphic reactions in early subduction stages: the record of the metamorphic sole of the Mont Albert ophiolite (Quebec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewison, Ella; Soret, Mathieu; Dubacq, Benoït; Agard, Philippe; Labrousse, Loïc

    2015-04-01

    Metamorphic soles found at the base of obducted ophiolites provide valuable information on the early history of the subduction / obduction system. Metamorphic soles are characterised by rocks originating from the ocean floor (basalts and sediments in variable proportions) metamorphosed up to granulite facies, where the intensity of metamorphism increases to the top of the unit, towards the contact with peridotite. Their mafic and less frequently pelitic lithologies make them sensitive recorders of their pressure-temperature conditions of crystallization and allow radiometric dating. In addition, metamorphic soles have directly witnessed slab dehydration as they underwent similar fluid-producing metamorphic reactions before being accreted to the mantle wedge peridotites (i.e. before "underplating"). The mechanisms of underplating remain uncertain, because of the somewhat obscure link between weakening through fluid production and hardening via garnet crystallization, with direct consequences on the rheology of the plate interface. In this study, we document fluid-producing reactions occurring during the prograde history of the metamorphic sole of the Taconian (ca. 460 Ma) ophiolite from Mont Albert (Quebec, Canada). This metamorphic sole shows variably metamorphosed mafic and pelitic rocks with metamorphic gradients over the scale of 10 metres, with clinopyroxene-garnet-amphibole granulite facies mafic rocks at the contact with the overlying peridotites. Evidences of melting of pelitic lithologies increase towards the contact, and no remains of metapelites have been found within about 20 m from the contact. Fluid channelization and melt migration is evidenced by decimetric dykes and veins. Away from the contact, metamorphism intensity gradually decreases to greenschist facies with abundant hydrated silicates. The aim of the study is to provide constraints (i) on the nature of the fluids produced (aqueous versus melt), (ii) on their composition and (iii) on the

  1. Formation Ages of the Apollo 16 Regolith Breccias: Implications for Accessing the Bombardment History of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, K. H.; Kring, D. A.; Bogard, D. D.; Zolensky, M. E.; McKay, D. S.

    2010-01-01

    Regolith breccias are lithified samples of the regolith that have been fused together by impact shock and thermal metamorphism. In lunar regolith samples, the ratio of trapped 40Ar/36Ar is a useful indicator of antiquity and can be used to model the closure age/lifithication event of the regolith (i.e. the apparent time when Ar became trapped [1]), thus providing an important insight into specific times when that regolith was interacting with the the dynamic inner solar system space environment [2-4].

  2. Traumatic brain injury history is associated with earlier age of onset of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    LoBue, Christian; Wadsworth, Hannah; Wilmoth, Kristin; Clem, Matthew; Hart, John; Womack, Kyle B; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lacritz, Laura H; Rossetti, Heidi C; Cullum, C Munro

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with earlier onset of Alzheimer disease (AD), independent of apolipoprotein ε4 status (Apoe4) and gender. Participants with a clinical diagnosis of AD (n = 7625) were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set, and categorized based on self-reported lifetime TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) (TBI+ vs. TBI-) and presence of Apoe4. ANCOVAs, controlling for gender, race, and education were used to examine the association between history of TBI, presence of Apoe4, and an interaction of both risk factors on estimated age of AD onset. Estimated AD onset differed by TBI history and Apoe4 independently (p's < .001). The TBI+ group had a mean age of onset 2.5 years earlier than the TBI- group. Likewise, Apoe4 carriers had a mean age of onset 2.3 years earlier than non-carriers. While the interaction was non-significant (p = .34), participants having both a history of TBI and Apoe4 had the earliest mean age of onset compared to those with a TBI history or Apoe4 alone (MDifference = 2.8 and 2.7 years, respectively). These results remained unchanged when stratified by gender. History of self-reported TBI can be associated with an earlier onset of AD-related cognitive decline, regardless of Apoe4 status and gender. TBI may be related to an underlying neurodegenerative process in AD, but the implications of age at time of injury, severity, and repetitive injuries remain unclear.

  3. UHP metamorphic evolution and SHRIMP geochronology of a coesite-bearing meta-ophiolitic gabbro in the North Qaidam, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guibin; Zhang, Lifei; Song, Shuguang; Niu, Yaoling

    2009-07-01

    We have for the first-time observed the well-preserved coesite inclusions in a kyanite-eclogite from the Shaliuhe terrane of the North Qaidam ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, NW China. This provides convincing evidence for UHP metamorphism for the North Qaidam eclogite. Detailed petrography indicates that the kyanite-eclogite records complex metamorphic histories that can be broadly described in terms of three stages: (1) a pre-peak metamorphic stage characterized by the mineral assemblage of Grt + Amp + Pl + Qtz at P = 0.49-0.67 GPa and T = 410-490 °C; (2) a peak eclogite-facies stage with a mineral assemblage of Grt + Omp + Ky + Phn + Rt ± Qtz/Coe at P = 2.7-3.4 GPa and T = 610-700 °C; (3) a retrograde "stage" represented by reaction texture which includes the garnet reaction rims, the breakdown of omphacite, the symplectitic breakdown of kyanite, the retrograded garnet amphibolite assemblage and the latest greenschist-facies overprint. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP dating shows the peak UHP metamorphic age of the kyanite-eclogite to be ˜440 Ma. These data indicate that the kyanite-eclogite had ever been subducted to mantle depth of ˜100 km in the end of the Ordovician. All these observations allow the construction of a P-T path for the kyanite-eclogite, suggesting a cold geothermal gradient and rapid subduction, ultimately followed by rapid exhumation in response to continental collision in Shaliuhe terrane and throughout the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt.

  4. Crystal Histories and Crustal Magmas: Insights into Magma Storage from U-Series Crystal Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, K. M.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamic processes operating within crustal magma reservoirs control many aspects of the chemical composition of erupted magmas, and crystals in volcanic rocks can provide a temporally-constrained archive of these changing environments. A new compilation of 238U-230Th ages of accessory phases and 238U-230Th-226Ra ages of bulk mineral separates of major phases documents that crystals in individual samples often have ages spanning most of the history of a volcanic center. Somewhat surprisingly, this observation holds for surface analyses as well as interior analyses, indicating that the latest stages of growth took place at different times for different grains. Nevertheless, average ages of surfaces are younger than interiors (as expected), and the dominant surface age population is often within error of eruption age. In contrast to accessory phase ages, less than half of the bulk separate 238U-230Th-226Ra ages for major phases are more than 10 kyr older than eruption. This suggests that major phases may in general reflect a later stage of development of an eruptible magma body than do accessory phases, or that the extent of discordance between ages of major and accessory phases reflects the extent to which a crystal mush was remobilized during processes leading to eruption. Crystal ages are most useful for illuminating magmatic processes when combined with crystal-scale trace-element or isotopic data, and I will present several case studies where such combined data sets exist. For example, at Yellowstone and at Okataina Caldera Complex, New Zealand, the combination zircon surface and interior analyses (of age, Hf isotopic, and trace-element data) with bulk dating and in-situ trace-element and isotopic compositions of feldspar allows a comparison of the early history of storage in a crystal mush with the later history of melt extraction and further crystallization prior to eruption, thus tracking development of erupted magma bodies from storage through eruption.

  5. Colonoscopy screening among US adults aged 40 or older with a family history of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Han; Xirasagar, Sudha; Li, Yi-Jhen; de Groen, Piet C

    2015-05-21

    Colonoscopy screening reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. CRC screening is recommended at age 50 for average-risk people. Screening of first-degree relatives of CRC patients is recommended to begin at age 40 or 10 years before the age at diagnosis of the youngest relative diagnosed with CRC. CRC incidence has increased recently among younger Americans while it has declined among older Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether first-degree relatives of CRC patients are being screened according to recommended guidelines. We studied colonoscopy screening rates among the US population reporting a CRC family history using 2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey data. Of 26,064 study-eligible respondents, 2,470 reported a CRC family history; of those with a family history, 45.6% had a colonoscopy (25.2% in 2005 and 65.8% 2010). The colonoscopy rate among first-degree relatives aged 40 to 49 in 2010 (38.3%) was about half that of first-degree relatives aged 50 or older (69.7%). First-degree relatives were nearly twice as likely as nonfirst-degree relatives to have a colonoscopy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9), but those aged 40 to 49 were less likely to have a colonoscopy than those in older age groups (AOR, 2.6 for age 50-64; AOR, 3.6 for age ≥65). Interactions with age, insurance, and race/ethnicity were not significant. Having health insurance tripled the likelihood of screening. Despite a 5-fold increase in colonoscopy screening rates since 2005, rates among first-degree relatives younger than the conventional screening age have lagged. Screening promotion targeted to this group may halt the recent rising trend of CRC among younger Americans.

  6. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  7. The eastern limit of Acadian high grade metamorphism in northern New England: Implications for the location of the Acadian Suture''

    SciTech Connect

    West, D.P. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Identifying the eastern limit of Acadian high grade metamorphism in New England is complicated by the presence of pre-Devonian high grade relics, locally intense Late Paleozoic thermal overprints, and post-metamorphic faults. New [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar mineral ages from along the eastern margin of high grade metamorphism in Maine and New Hampshire help delineate the eastern limit of Devonian amphibolite facies metamorphism thereby placing constraints on the location of the Acadian suture. In New Hampshire, Acadian high grade metamorphism extends southeast at least as far as the Campbell Hill fault and perhaps as far as the Flint Hill fault. New [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages and previously published U-Pb monazite ages from the Massabesic Gneiss Complex are Permian indicating high grade Alleghanian metamorphism. New [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages from the Rye Formation, although complicated by excess argon, are considerably older, indicating an earlier Pre-Silurian amphibolite facies metamorphism affected these rocks. North of Portland, [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages east of the Norumbega Fault Zone from high grade rocks of the Casco Bay Group have ages that range from Middle Devonian to Early Carboniferous, consistent with diachronous cooling following Acadian metamorphism. Further northeast, in upper amphibolite facies rocks of the Passagassawakeag Gneiss, new [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar hornblende ages range from 385--395 Ma suggesting that these rocks were also affected by high grade Acadian metamorphism.

  8. Quality of occupational history assessments in working age adults with newly diagnosed asthma.

    PubMed

    Shofer, Scott; Haus, Brian M; Kuschner, Ware G

    2006-08-01

    Approximately 10 to 15% of new-onset asthma in adults is attributable to occupational exposure. The occupational history is the most important instrument in the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA). To assess the quality of occupational histories obtained by health-care providers and to measure the prevalence of clinician-diagnosed OA in a population at elevated risk for OA. An academic US Department of Veteran Affairs medical center. One hundred ninety-seven adults (age range, 18 to 55 years) with newly diagnosed asthma who had completed pulmonary function testing (PFT) and a structured respiratory health questionnaire. We conducted a structured retrospective comparison of occupational respiratory health history documented by clinicians with data documented by patients on a structured questionnaire. We analyzed PFT results to assess physiologic impairment. We also conducted a structured examination of the actions taken by health-care providers based on their occupational history assessments. Patient self-reports of respiratory exposures and symptoms were common. A job title was documented by one or more clinicians in 75% of patient medical records. Additional occupational history data were charted much less frequently. A diagnosis of OA was made in only 2% of patients. Clinical action to address OA was documented for only one patient. Clinicians who manage adults with newly diagnosed asthma take incomplete occupational histories. We detected discordance between the occupational exposure histories documented by patients and those charted by clinicians. OA may go unrecognized and possibly undermanaged by clinicians.

  9. Evolvability of an avian life history trait declines with father's age.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-Y; Drummond, H; Torres, R; Velando, A

    2011-02-01

    Studies of laboratory organisms have suggested that parental age affects the genetic variance of offspring traits. This effect can engender age-specific variance in genetic contributions to evolutionary change in heritable traits under directional selection, particularly in age-structured populations. Using long-term population data of the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii), we tested whether genetic variance of recruiting age varies with parental age. Using robust quantitative genetic models fitted to pedigree, we found a significant genotype-by-paternal age interaction for recruiting age. Genetic potential for adaptive change in recruiting age was greater in progeny of young (age 1-6 years) fathers (males: CV(A)=6.68; females: CV(A)=7.59) than those of middle age (7-9 years) fathers (males: CV(A) = 4.64; females: CV(A)=5.08) and old (10-14 years) fathers (CV(A)=0 for both sexes). Therefore, parental age dependence of heritable variance, in addition to age-related variation in survival and fecundity, should affect the strength of natural selection for evolutionary changes. Our results provide rare evidence for the influence of parental age on the evolutionary potential of a life history trait in a wild population. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2010 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. The Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan: "Type locality" of diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.-P.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2013-02-01

    kbar at temperatures of about 950-1000 °C. Some zircon separates show inherited Proterozoic cores and 537-530 Ma UHP metamorphic mantle zones. Several Ar-Ar-ages on micas scatter around 529-528 and 521-517 Ma and reflect different stages of the exhumation history. Migmatization occurred during exhumation at about 526-520 Ma. Isotopic studies on calcsilicate rocks confirm a metasedimentary origin: δ18O values of garnet and clinopyroxene of a layered calcsilicate rock rule out the possibility having a primitive mantle protolith. Similar studies on eclogites indicate their basaltic protolith having experienced water-rock interaction prior to UHP metamorphism. A number of unique mineralogical findings have been made on Kokchetav UHP rocks. K-feldspar exsolutions in clinopyroxene demonstrate that potassium can be incorporated into the cpx-structure under upper mantle pressures. Other significant observations are coesite exsolutions in titanite, quartz-rods in cpx, the discovery of K-tourmaline as well as new minerals like kokchetavite, a hexagonal polymorph of K-feldspar and kumdykolite, an orthorhombic polymorph of albite. The Kokchetav UHP rocks represent a unique and challenging stomping ground for geoscientists of various disciplines. From crystallography, petrology and geochemistry to geophysics and geodynamics/geotectonics - it concerns all who are interested in the diverse metamorphic processes under upper mantle conditions.

  11. Geochemical, geochronological characterization and tectonic setting of the metamorphic rocks from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, F.; Tunç, Ä.°. O.; Yiǧitbaş, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Biga Peninsula in the northwest Turkey is one of the world's important natural laboratories to study geochronology due to having complex geology. The Biga Peninsula has different metamorphic basements including Kazdağ Massif, Çamlıca metamorphics, Kemer metamorphics and Karadağ Massif under cover of the Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary association. The Çamlıca metamorphic assemblage are one of the most critical regions for understanding of the geology of northwestern Turkey. The Çamlıca metamorphic association located on the westernmost part of Turkey is mainly composed of the Andıktası formation, the Dedetepe formation and the Salihler formation, from bottom to top. Metasedimentary rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphics have high SiO2 and medium Al2O3 and TiO2 values. The protolith of these metasediments is arkose-subarkose and greywacke. However, whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist within the Çamlıca metamorphics suggests that their protolith was basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. REE pattern and trace element contents of the HP eclogite/blueschist similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The metavolcanic rocks occurring on the lowest part of the Çamlıca metamorphicassociation has andesitic composition with calc-alkaline character. All metavolcanic rocks in this unit cluster within the volcanic arc field. Zircon grains from metavolcanic rocks and HP eclogite/blueschists were dated by LA-ICPMS. Zircon ages of two metavolcanic samples yielded 328.6 ± 3.5 Ma and 343.2 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively. These ages are interpreted as the time of protolith crystallization of metavolcanic rocks. Moreover, zircon ages from HP eclogite/blueschist yielded 338 ± 1.8 Ma (Early Carboniferous) which is interpreted as the age of protolith crystallization of HP eclogite/blueschist. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Early Carboniferous Variscan ages within the Sakarya Zone may form the eastern

  12. Petrology and Geochronology of High-Grade Metamorphic Rocks from Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, D.; Leech, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    High-grade metamorphic rocks exposed on Cedros Island, Baja California, Mexico, record the Mesozoic subduction history of western North America. Blocks of amphibolite, blueschist, and eclogite crop out in a serpentinite-matrix mélange on the southeast and southwestern parts of Cedros Island. Amphibolite blocks contain Amp + Ep + Ab + Chl ± Ms ± Grt ± Ttn ± Qz; blueschist blocks have the assemblage Na-Amp + Ms + Lw + Qz ± Ttn ± Grt ± Jd ± Chl; and eclogite blocks are comprised primarily of Omp + Grt with retrograde Na-Amp + Ms + Lw. Blueschists from Cedros have been dated using 40Ar/39Ar step-heating of white mica and sodic amphiboles that yield ages from 103 ± 4 Ma to 94.9 ± 1.1 Ma, respectively, that represent cooling during exhumation. Apatite fission-track dating gives ages from 32 ± 4 Ma to 22 ± 3 Ma that record exhumation through the upper crust. Related Mesozoic subduction zone rocks of the Franciscan Complex crop out in a serpentinite-matrix mélange along coastal northern California. The Franciscan rocks are older, yielding 40Ar/39Ar step-heating ages of hornblende from amphibolite ranging from 159 to 156 Ma and represent an older part of the subduction history of the oceanic Farallon plate along western North America. I will determine the prograde and peak metamorphic P-T conditions for these high-grade rocks using petrography, mineral chemistries, and isochemical phase diagram modeling with Perple_X to generate complete P-T paths. I will then supplement these data with Sm-Nd and Lu-Hf geochronology for these high-grade Cedros rocks to evaluate their subduction/exhumation history, and develop a tectonic model for these southernmost Franciscan-type rocks. Ultimately, I will compare my results to Franciscan rocks in northern California to better understand the Mesozoic subduction margin of western North America.

  13. The Western Sierras Pampeanas: Protracted Grenville-age history (1330-1030 Ma) of intra-oceanic arcs, subduction-accretion at continental-edge and AMCG intraplate magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapela, C. W.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Casquet, C.; Baldo, E.; Galindo, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Dahlquist, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages combined with geochemical and isotope investigation in the Sierra de Maz and Sierra de Pie de Palo and a xenolith of the Precordillera basement (Ullún), provides insight into the identification of major Grenville-age tectonomagmatic events and their timing in the Western Sierras Pampeanas. The study reveals two contrasting scenarios that evolved separately during the 300 Ma long history: Sierra de Maz, which was always part of a continental crust, and the juvenile oceanic arc and back-arc sector of Sierra de Pie de Palo and Ullún. The oldest rocks are the Andino-type granitic orthogneisses of Sierra de Maz (1330-1260 Ma) and associated subalkaline basic rocks, that were part of an active continental margin developed in a Paleoproterozoic crust. Amphibolite facies metamorphism affected the orthogneisses at ca. 1175 Ma, while granulite facies was attained in neighbouring meta-sediments and basic granulites. Interruption of continental-edge magmatism and high-grade metamorphism is interpreted as related to an arc-continental collision dated by zircon overgrowths at 1170-1230 Ma. The next event consisted of massif-type anorthosites and related meta-jotunites, meta-mangerites (1092 ± 6 Ma) and meta-granites (1086 ± 10 Ma) that define an AMCG complex in Sierra de Maz. The emplacement of these mantle-derived magmas during an extensional episode produced a widespread thermal overprint at ca. 1095 Ma in neighbouring country rocks. In constrast, juvenile oceanic arc and back-arc complexes dominated the Sierra de Pie de Palo-Ullún sector, that was fully developed ca. 1200 Ma (1196 ± 8 Ma metagabbro). A new episode of oceanic arc magmatism at ˜1165 Ma was roughly coeval with the amphibolite high-grade metamorphism of Sierra de Maz, indicating that these two sectors underwent independent geodynamic scenarios at this age. Two more episodes of arc subduction are registered in the Pie de Palo-Ullún sector: (i) 1110 ± 10 Ma orthogneisses and

  14. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II.

    PubMed

    Artan, Murat; Hwang, Ara B; Lee, Seung V; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-06-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age-associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, includingC. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016.

  15. Subsidence in Gorontalo Bay, Sulawesi (Indonesia) and metamorphic core complex exhumation on land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzati, Giovanni; Hennig, Juliane; Advokaat, Eldert; Hall, Robert; Burgess, Peter; Perez-Gussinye, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Gorontalo Bay is a semi-enclosed sea between the North and East Arms of Sulawesi. It is surrounded by land on three sides, separating a northern volcanic province from metamorphic rocks to the south and west, and ophiolites to the southeast. In the western part of Gorontalo Bay there are two sub-basins: the northern Tomini Basin and the southern Poso Basin, which have different histories. This study presents a new geological interpretation of western Gorontalo Bay, based on recent multibeam and 2D seismic data and field observations on land. In Tomini Basin six major seismic sequences (Units A to F) have a total thickness of more than 5 sec TWT. Ages are based on correlation with events on land. A major unconformity above Basement Unit A is interpreted to be the result of an Early Miocene collision. Unit A subsided from the Early Miocene, with deposition of Units B and C largely in a deep marine environment. There was regional uplift in the Middle Miocene followed by renewed subsidence resulting in shallow marine depositional environments in which carbonate platforms developed (Units D-E). Subsidence accelerated during the deposition of Unit E, causing back-stepping of the shelf edge, formation of pinnacle reefs and then drowning of the carbonate platforms, leading to the present depths of 2 km in the basin centre with a thin clastic cover (Unit F). North of Tomini Basin, the Malino Metamorphic Complex exposes strongly deformed mid-crustal rocks which record Middle Miocene extension accommodated by low angle shear zones. A second phase of rapid uplift and extension recorded in these rocks occurred in the Pliocene-Pleistocene, and was accommodated by high angle normal faulting. Poso Basin is younger than Tomini Basin and it occupies the southern part of western Gorontalo Bay. The deeper part of its sedimentary sequence is probably the time equivalent of Unit D in Tomini Basin. Immediately south of Poso Basin, on land, is a large metamorphic core complex. Seismic

  16. A 30 Myr record of retrograde metamorphism and multiple generations of monazite and garnet in western MA revealed by coordinated LASS and EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterman, E. M.; Burton, Z. F. M.; Rubel, J. N.; Snoeyenbos, D. R.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Garnet-kyanite-cordierite pelitic schists with relict phosphatic garnets thought to record ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism (e.g., Snoeyenbos and Koziol, 2008) crop out along the western margin of the Goshen Dome in western Massachusetts. These schists contain monazite inclusions within Grt, Ky, Crd, Bt, Pl, Qz, and Chl. Compositional maps via EPMA-WDS show overgrowths on each monazite grain, indicating that each grain records multiple metamorphic events. We analyzed monazite in situ using laser-ablation split-stream (LASS) ICPMS to correlate the geochemical and age domains and to reconstruct the polyphase metamorphic history. We used WDS compositional maps of Y and Th, and ICPMS Gd/Yb ratios and U/Pb ages to define the timing of major garnet growth and breakdown processes, and melting and/or fluid-rich metamorphism. For example, decreasing Gd/Yb and high Y concentrations are consistent with garnet breakdown; highly variable Gd/Yb indicate melting and/or fluid-rich metamorphism (e.g., Stearns et al., 2013). The following cumulative histories are interpreted from two samples (B and G). In both samples, decreasing Gd/Yb in monazite suggest garnet breakdown from c. 398 to 387 Ma. Data from sample B (n = 644 analyses) indicate two additional phases of garnet growth: 382 to 377 Ma and 375 to 369 Ma (see figure). Data from sample G (n = 231 analyses) also indicate two additional phases of garnet growth: 387 to 381 Ma and 379 to 369 Ma. The final garnet growth event affecting both samples is marked by the most variable Gd/Yb ratios in monazite from all petrographic contexts and is consistent with melting or a fluid-rich metamorphic event. These data are most consistent with metamorphism during emplacement to crustal levels in the early Acadian, and a substantial overprint during the regional thermal maximum. This complex record can only be unraveled by collecting geochronologic and geochemical data in situ to preserve the petrographic context of each grain, thus

  17. A method for evaluating basement exhumation histories from closure age distributions of detrital minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Lovera, Oscar M.; Grove, Marty; Kimbrough, David L.; Abbott, Patrick L.

    1999-12-10

    We have developed a two-dimensional, thermokinetic model that predicts the closure age distributions of detrital minerals from pervasively intruded and differentially exhumed basement. Using this model, we outline a method to determine the denudation history of orogenic regions on the basis of closure age distributions in synorogenic to postorogenic forearc strata. At relatively high mean denudation rates of 0.5 km m.y.-1 sustained over millions of years, magmatic heating events have minimal influence upon the age distributions of detrital minerals such as K-feldspar that are moderately retentive of radiogenic Ar. At lower rates, however, the effects of batholith emplacement may be substantial. We have applied the approach to detrital K-feldspars from forearc strata derived from the deeply denuded Peninsular Ranges batholith (PRB). Agreement of the denudation history deduced from the detrital K-feldspar data with thermochronologic constraints from exposed PRB basement lead us to conclude that exhumation histories of magmatic arcs should be decipherable solely from closure age distributions of detrital minerals whose depositional age is known. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  18. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth; Ybarra, Jason; Fleming, Scott

    2010-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 5 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  19. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.; Marinas, Naibi; Levine, Joanna L.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 7 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  20. Inter-relationships between British drivers' visual abilities, age and road accident histories.

    PubMed

    Davison, P A

    1985-01-01

    Statistical analysis is described of data on 1000 British drivers' accident histories and their performance on a vision screening instrument. Significant positive associations are evident between various accident variables and tests of hyperphoria, right eye visual acuity, left eye acuity and binocular acuity. The clustering of associations is strongest for older drivers. The significance of hyperphoria has received little attention previously. The age-related associations with accidents parallel the decline with age of other visual abilities. Statutory re-testing of drivers' vision at about the age of 50 is recommended.

  1. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  2. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanan, B. B.; Tilton, G. R.

    1985-07-01

    The record of early events in the solar system is presently sought, together with information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead, in the lead isotope relations of whole rock and separated phases of Mezo-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites; the respective ages of 4.48 and 4.47 billion years are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. The 4.48 billion year age, which is younger than the well established 4.54-4.56 billion years of the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites.

  3. Meeting Report: International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History II

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung‐Jae V.; Nam, Hong Gil

    2015-01-01

    The second International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History was held at the campus of Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST), Daegu, South Korea, from May 14 to 16, 2014. Many leading scientists in the field of aging research from all over the world contributed to the symposium by attending and presenting their recent work and thoughts. The aim of the symposium was to stimulate international collaborations and interactions among scientists who work on the biology of aging. In the symposium, the most recent and exciting work on aging research was presented, covering a wide range of topics, including the genetics of aging, age‐associated diseases, and cellular senescence. The work was conducted in various organisms, including C. elegans, mice, plants, and humans. Topics covered in the symposium stimulated discussion of novel directions for future research on aging. The meeting ended with a commitment for the third International Symposium on the Genetics of Aging and Life History, which will be held in 2016. PMID:26115541

  4. Penecontemporaneous metamorphism, fragmentation, and reassembly of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimm, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal histories of ordinary chondrites and the canonical internal heating or onion shell models, which predict an inverse relation between the petrologic type of chondrites and the metallographic cooling rate, are reviewed. The thermal and accretional requirements of the 'metamorphosed planetesimal' model proposed by Scott and Rajan (1981) are analyzed, and an alternative model consistent with the metallographic cooling rate constraints is suggested in which ordinary chondrite parent bodies are collisionally fragmented and then rapidly reassembled before metamorphic heat has been dissipated.

  5. Prolonged Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From Geochronology and Trace Element Geochemistry, North Qaidam UHP Terrane, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattinson, C. G.; Wooden, J. L.; Mazdab, F. K.; Liou, J. G.; Bird, D. K.; Wu, C.

    2006-12-01

    Amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor (<10 vol%) eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism. Field relations, and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449--422 Ma; REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate that these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. Trace element variations in zircon are similar to core-to-rim trace element zoning of coexisting garnet revealed by LA-ICP-MS analysis. The coherent field relations, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ~25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results show considerable spread, but may suggest cooling from 650-700°C (442--449 Ma) to 600-650°C (433--422 Ma). One group of zircons yields 770--810°C temperatures, possibly related to granulite-facies overprinting during exhumation. In contrast to Ti-in-zircon, Zr- in-rutile thermometry yields tightly clustered results of 590°C for all four eclogites and one 426 ± 4 Ma paragneiss. The ~25 m.y. duration as well as possible cooling during eclogite-facies metamorphism suggests the UHP rocks decoupled from the downgoing plate, and were refrigerated by continued, structurally deeper subduction. In the Lüliang Shan (350 km NW) in the North Qaidam terrane, eclogite and garnet peridotite ages of 414-- 495 Ma suggest that this locality also records a protracted eclogite-facies history. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in other HP/UHP localities (Greenland, Norway, Alps, Dabie-Sulu) suggests that eclogite-facies residence times of >15--25 m.y. may be globally significant in

  6. Family history of gynaecological cancers: relationships to the incidence of breast cancer prior to age 55.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Schildkraut, J M

    1991-09-01

    As part of a multi-centre epidemiological study of cancer in women between the ages of 20 and 54, data were collected concerning family history of gynaecological cancers in the female relatives of 4730 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and the relatives of 4688 women from the general population. Women who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45 were more likely than controls to have a mother or sister with ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.50), endometrial cancer (1.29), and cervical cancer (1.53), although none of these elevations achieved statistical significance. The corresponding odds ratios for women diagnosed with breast cancer between the ages of 45 and 54 were 1.88, 0.84 and 0.93. The association with ovarian cancer was statistically significant in this group (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.19). In this latter group, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer was associated approximately as strongly with breast cancer as was having a first degree relative with breast cancer. The results suggest that there may be a shared genetic basis for some cancers of the breast and ovary. From a clinical perspective, the results indicate that in setting appropriate levels of screening for breast cancer and in establishing an appropriate age at which to begin such screening for a particular woman, her family history of ovarian cancer should be considered in addition to her family history of breast cancer.

  7. Metamorphism in the Martian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, Harry Y.; Labotka, Theodore C.; Viviano-Beck, Christina E.

    2015-04-01

    Compositions of basaltic and ultramafic rocks analyzed by Mars rovers and occurring as Martian meteorites allow predictions of metamorphic mineral assemblages that would form under various thermophysical conditions. Key minerals identified by remote sensing roughly constrain temperatures and pressures in the Martian crust. We use a traditional metamorphic approach (phase diagrams) to assess low-grade/hydrothermal equilibrium assemblages. Basaltic rocks should produce chlorite + actinolite + albite + silica, accompanied by laumontite, pumpellyite, prehnite, or serpentine/talc. Only prehnite-bearing assemblages have been spectrally identified on Mars, although laumontite and pumpellyite have spectra similar to other uncharacterized zeolites and phyllosilicates. Ultramafic rocks are predicted to produce serpentine, talc, and magnesite, all of which have been detected spectrally on Mars. Mineral assemblages in both basaltic and ultramafic rocks constrain fluid compositions to be H2O-rich and CO2-poor. We confirm the hypothesis that low-grade/hydrothermal metamorphism affected the Noachian crust on Mars, which has been excavated in large craters. We estimate the geothermal gradient (>20 °C km-1) required to produce the observed assemblages. This gradient is higher than that estimated from radiogenic heat-producing elements in the crust, suggesting extra heating by regional hydrothermal activity.

  8. Metamorphic P-T-t path retrieved from metapelites in the southeastern Taihua metamorphic complex, and the Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the southern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun-Sheng; Zhai, Ming-Guo; Lu, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Hao Y. C.; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Wu, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Tai-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The Taihua metamorphic complex in the southern part of the North China Craton is composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, amphibolites, metapelitic gneisses, marbles, quartzites, and banded iron formations (BIFs). The protoliths of the complex have ages ranging from ∼2.1 to ∼2.9 Ga and was metamorphosed under the upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions with NWW-SEE-striking gneissosity. Metapelitites from the Wugang area have three stages of metamorphic mineral assemblages. The prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage (M1) includes biotite + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite preserved as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts. The peak mineral assemblage (M2) consists of garnet porphyroblasts and matrix minerals of sillimanite + biotite + plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + ilmenite + rutile + pyrite. The retrograde mineral assemblage (M3), biotite + plagioclase + quartz, occurs as symplectic assemblages surrounding embayed garnet porphyroblasts. Garnet porphyroblasts are chemically zoned. Pseudosection calculated in the NCKFMASHTO model system suggests that mantles of garnet porphyroblasts define high-pressure granulites facies P-T conditions of 12.2 kbar and 830 °C, whereas garnet rims record P-T conditions of 10.2 kbar and 840 °C. Integrating the prograde mineral assemblages, zoning of garnet porphyroblasts with symplectic assemblages, a clockwise metamorphic P-T path can be retrieved. High resolution SIMS U-Pb dating and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements of the metamorphic zircons demonstrate that metapelites in Wugang possibly record the peak or near peak metamorphic ages of ∼1.92 Ga. Furthermore, 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite in metapelites suggests that the cooling of the Taihua complex may have lasted until ∼1.83 Ga. Therefore, a long-lived Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic event may define a slow exhumation process. Field relationship and new metamorphic data for the Taihua metamorphic complex does not support the previous

  9. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on precedingly accretionary and collisional orogens. The UHT metamorphic rocks have occurred since the Archean, suggesting that the hot underplating has operated very early in the Earth's history. In contrast, the UHP metamorphic rocks primarily occur in the Phanerozoic, indicating that the thermal regime of many subduction zones has changed since the Neoproterozoic for the cold subduction.

  10. Age and zircon inheritance of eastern Blue Ridge plutons, southwestern North Carolina and northeastern Georgia, with implications for magma history and evolution of the southern Appalachian origin

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.F.; Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Ayers, J.C.; Coath, C.D.; Harrison, T.M.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution ion microprobe analysis of zircon has provided ages for previously undated plutons of the high-grade eastern Blue Ridge of northeastern Georgia and southwestern North Carolina. These data, together with backscattered electron imaging, reveal the presence of nearly ubiquitous inherited cores of highly variable age and magmatic rims that have experienced variable Pb loss, thus making interpretation of conventional U-Pb analyses very difficult. Ion probe rim analyses indicate that the plutons were emplaced during both the mod-Ordovician and mid-Devonian. Zircons from all intrusions have predominantly 1.0 to 1.25 Ga cores (Grenvillian). In addition, both Devonian and Ordovician plutons have smaller populations of Late Proterozoic-early Paleozoic (0.5--0.75 Ga), Middle Proterozoic (1.4 Ga), and Late Archean (2.6--2.9 Ga) cores. The ubiquitous, round cores and thick magmatic rims suggest significant resorption and then protracted growth within the melts. Zircon saturation temperatures based on whole-rock ({approximately}melt) Zr concentrations are lower than expected for magma generation (710--760 C). Zirconium concentrations may not reflect saturation at maximum temperature, if melting was very rapid (<{approximately}10{sup 5} yrs), or if zircon cores represent grains that were shielded from melt inside host grains for much of the magmatic history. Ages of magmatic and inherited zones of zircon from the plutons demonstrate that similar crust underlay the eastern Blue Ridge during both Taconian and Acadian orogenies, that there was no single episode of voluminous magmatism, and that metamorphism and deformation began before 470 Ma and continued after 370 Ma. These plutons do not constitute a significant convergence-related arc, though it is possible that they represent a displaced part of an arc that lies primarily to the east (in the Inner Piedmont?).

  11. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mohammad Reza; Najafi, Mohammad Amin; Safaei, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients' demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME.

  12. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  13. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history.

    PubMed

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-19

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain.

  14. Iron Age and Anglo-Saxon genomes from East England reveal British migration history

    PubMed Central

    Schiffels, Stephan; Haak, Wolfgang; Paajanen, Pirita; Llamas, Bastien; Popescu, Elizabeth; Loe, Louise; Clarke, Rachel; Lyons, Alice; Mortimer, Richard; Sayer, Duncan; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Cooper, Alan; Durbin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    British population history has been shaped by a series of immigrations, including the early Anglo-Saxon migrations after 400 CE. It remains an open question how these events affected the genetic composition of the current British population. Here, we present whole-genome sequences from 10 individuals excavated close to Cambridge in the East of England, ranging from the late Iron Age to the middle Anglo-Saxon period. By analysing shared rare variants with hundreds of modern samples from Britain and Europe, we estimate that on average the contemporary East English population derives 38% of its ancestry from Anglo-Saxon migrations. We gain further insight with a new method, rarecoal, which infers population history and identifies fine-scale genetic ancestry from rare variants. Using rarecoal we find that the Anglo-Saxon samples are closely related to modern Dutch and Danish populations, while the Iron Age samples share ancestors with multiple Northern European populations including Britain. PMID:26783965

  15. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones.

  16. Zircon Messengers Reveal the Age and History of Great Basin Crust, Kern Mountains, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, E. S.; Miller, E. L.; Wooden, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Results of SHRIMP-RG analyses of complexly zoned zircons from muscovite-bearing granitic rocks exposed in the Kerns Mountains of East-Central Nevada constrain the timing, duration, and loci of zircon growth within the interior of the U.S. Cordillera during Late Cretaceous through Eocene time. The Kern Mountains are an exhumed block of greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphosed miogeoclinal rocks that were pervasively intruded by the Late Cretaceous Tungstonia granite pluton and the Eocene Skinner Canyon and Uvada plutons (Best et al., 1974). Euhedral zircons separated from a coarse-grained (2-3 cm) muscovite-bearing phase of the Tungstonia pluton exhibit complex cathodeluminescence (CL) zonation. Sub-angular to sub-rounded cores with highly variable CL are overgrown by oscillatory-zoned zircon which in turn is rimmed by dark CL zircon (U>5000 ppm). A weighted mean Pb/U age of 70.2±0.9 Ma (n=20, MSWD=2.5) obtained from the oscillatory-zoned zircon coincides with the end of Cretaceous peak metamorphism at shallow crustal levels. Pb/U ages from core zones (n=18) predominantly are 0.9-1.4 Ga (n=11; 7 of which <15% discordant) or 2.4-2.7 Ga (n=5; 1 of which <15% discordant), consistent with ages of detrital zircons within the Late Proterozoic McCoy Creek Group exposed in adjacent ranges. A previously undated muscovite-bearing dike in Skinner Canyon yielded a texturally complex population of subhedral zircon grains. CL imaging of these grains reveals fragmental, ghost-like cores surrounded by irregularly shaped overgrowth zones with diffuse boundaries which are rimmed by oscillatory-zoned zircon. Both oscillatory zoned and gradational rim areas (n=32) yielded Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages. Twelve spots define the age of intrusion at 41.7±0.3 Ma (MSWD=1.8), consistent with the local onset of Eocene magmatism. An older period of zircon growth from ~75-45 Ma, coincident with the proposed duration of the Laramide shallow slab, is defined by zircon with flat to

  17. High-P metamorphic rocks from the Himalaya and their tectonic implication ? a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jan, M. Qasim

    The suture zones bordering the Indian subcontinent on the E, N and W are characterized in several places by the occurrence of ophiolitic complexes and tectonic melanges. High-P metamorphic rocks have recently been discovered in the melanges in Burma, Naga Hills, southern Tibet, eastern and western Ladakh, Kohistan (Jijal, Allai, Shangla) and Khost (Afghanistan). The development of these rocks has an important bearing on the plate tectonics of the Himalaya. The High-P metamorphic rocks belong to prehnite-pumpellyite, blueschist and high-P greenschist facies but extensive garnet-granulites have developed at 35 km depth in Jijal. In the Indus-Zangbo suture zone (IZS) the high-P metamorphism is complemented to the N by low- or medium-P metamorphism and calc-alkaline magmatism in Tibet, Ladakh as well as Kohistan. High-P metamorphism in Jijal has been dated at 104 Ma, in Shangla at 70-100 Ma and in western Ladakh during mid-Cretaceous. Elsewhere, the timing of the high-P metamorphism is not known but a Cretaceous age is inferred. Since collision along the IZS occurred during Eocene, the high-P metamorphism is therefore related to the northwards subduction of the neo-Tethyan lithosphere under Tibet or late Mesozoic magmatic arcs. The timing of high-P metamorphism coincides with the breakup of India from Gondwanaland and its rapid northwards movement, whereas the tectonic melanges may principally have formed during Eocene collision and obduction.

  18. Stratigraphic and metamorphic inversions in the central Menderes Massif: a new structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Aral I.

    2001-04-01

    The Menderes Massif is a large area of dominantly Tertiary metamorphic rocks in western Turkey. It is bordered in the west by the Cycladic Metamorphic Complex with Eocene high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism. In the Central Menderes the Aydın mountains are made up of a thrust stack of Eocene age. At the base of the thrust stack, greenschist-facies Paleozoic metasediments of the Menderes Massif form an inverted stratigraphic sequence. The Barrovian-type metamorphism is also inverted with garnet-bearing metapelites lying over the lower-grade biotite-bearing metapelites. The P-T conditions in the garnet zone are estimated as 530°C and 8 kbar. This schist sequence of the central Menderes Massif is interpreted as the inverted lower limb of a major southward closing recumbent fold, with the southern Menderes Massif representing a section from the near hinge of this fold. The Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the central Menderes Massif are tectonically overlain by gneiss klippen possibly originating from the sheared and southward translated core of the Menderes fold. Lying also tectonically over the Paleozoic metamorphic rocks is a major thrust sheet belonging to the Cycladic metamorphic complex. It consists of garnet micaschist, Mesozoic marble, serpentinite and amphibolitised eclogite. Although it has a highly sheared internal structure, it probably represents an initially coherent sequence that has undergone HP/LT metamorphism during the Eocene. The Aydın mountains are dominated by contractional structures with subordinate extensional structures.

  19. Role of Family Resources and Paternal History of Substance Use Problems in Psychosocial Adjustment among School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2009-01-01

    The present study examines the role of family resources (parenting style and family cohesion) and paternal history of substance abuse on the psychosocial adjustment of their school-aged children. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 (72 of fathers with history of substance use disorder, 76 children of fathers with no substance use…

  20. Zircon and monazite response to prograde metamorphism in the Reynolds Range, central Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Williams, Ian S.; Buick, Ian S.

    2001-01-01

    We report an extensive field-based study of zircon and monazite in the metamorphic sequence of the Reynolds Range (central Australia), where greenschist- to granulite-facies metamorphism is recorded over a continuous crustal section. Detailed cathodoluminescence and back-scattered electron imaging, supported by SHRIMP U-Pb dating, has revealed the different behaviours of zircon and monazite during metamorphism. Monazite first recorded regional metamorphic ages (1576 ± 5 Ma), at amphibolite-facies grade, at ˜600 °C. Abundant monazite yielding similar ages (1557 ± 2 to 1585 ± 3 Ma) is found at granulite-facies conditions in both partial melt segregations and restites. New zircon growth occurred between 1562 ± 4 and 1587 ± 4 Ma, but, in contrast to monazite, is only recorded in granulite-facies rocks where melt was present (≥700 °C). New zircon appears to form at the expense of pre-existing detrital and inherited cores, which are partly resorbed. The amount of metamorphic growth in both accessory minerals increases with temperature and metamorphic grade. However, new zircon growth is influenced by rock composition and driven by partial melting, factors that appear to have little effect on the formation of metamorphic monazite. The growth of these accessory phases in response to metamorphism extends over the 30 Ma period of melt crystallisation (1557-1587 Ma) in a stable high geothermal regime. Rare earth element patterns of zircon overgrowths in leucosome and restite indicate that, during the protracted metamorphism, melt-restite equilibrium was reached. Even in the extreme conditions of long-lasting high temperature (750-800 °C) metamorphism, Pb inheritance is widely preserved in the detrital zircon cores. A trace of inheritance is found in monazite, indicating that the closure temperature of the U-Pb system in relatively large monazite crystals can exceed 750-800 °C.

  1. Association of age and family history with supplement use in pediatric patients with allergy.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masaru; Mori, Nagisa; Hamada, Shoko; Nagai, Ayako; Seto, Shiro; Suehiro, Yutaka; Kusunoki, Takashi; Wakazono, Yoshihiro; Kiyomasu, Takahiro

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the frequency and characteristics of supplement use in pediatric patients with allergic disorders in Japan. A total of 229 patients with various allergic disorders aged between 0 and 15 years were enrolled. Supplements were defined as preparations that provided nutritional content in the form of a tablet, capsule, powder, liquid, or jelly. The parents of each subject were asked to complete a questionnaire on their child's use of supplements over the previous year. Demographic information, parents' perceived view of the child's health status over the previous month, and family history of both allergic disorders, and supplement use were collected. Four hundred eight age- and sex-matched healthy children served as the controls. Twenty-nine (12.7%) patients had used supplements. This frequency was not significantly different from that in the control group (15.0%). The types of supplements most commonly used were vitamins, followed by minerals, probiotics, and chlorella. Univariate analysis revealed that older age and a positive family history of supplement use were associated with patients' supplement use. The types of allergic disorders, health status from the point of view of the parents, and a family history of allergic disorders did not show any significant association. To our knowledge, this is the first cross-sectional study to demonstrate the frequency and the factors affecting supplement use in pediatric patients with allergic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic basis of aging and life-history evolution in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Remolina, Silvia C; Chang, Peter L; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V; Hughes, Kimberly A

    2012-11-01

    Natural diversity in aging and other life-history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore, the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation.

  3. Age at first molar emergence in Lufengpithecus lufengensis and its implications for life-history evolution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingxia; Lu, Qingwu; Zhang, Wending

    2008-02-01

    The late Miocene hominoid Lufengpithecus from Yunnan Province, China, is crucial for understanding hominoid evolution in Asia. Given that age at first permanent molar emergence is a key life-history trait in primates, the present study determined the age at death of the Lufengpithecus lufengensis juvenile PA868, which was in the process of erupting its first molar. Using a perikymata periodicity of 7-11 days, along with estimation of cusp formation time and the postnatal delay of crown mineralization, perikymata counts obtained from the permanent central incisor and canine germs indicate that the age at death of PA868 was 2.4-4.5 years based on the central incisor germ, and 2.5-4.7 years based on the canine germ. The age at the first molar emergence was actually slightly younger (by about 0.3 years), as demonstrated by tiny wear facets on this tooth, which indicate that gingival emergence had occurred sometime before death. The average age at first molar emergence of Lufengpithecus lufengensis PA868 is estimated to be 3.2-3.3 years, with a range of 2.1-4.4 years. In comparison to extant primates and other fossil hominoids, the life history of Lufengpithecus lufengensis is similar to that of extant great apes and the Miocene hominoids Afropithecus turkanensis and Sivapithecus parvada, as well as Plio-Pleistocene Australopithecus, and different from monkeys, gibbons, and modern humans.

  4. Effects of age, size, and mating history on sex role decision of a simultaneous hermaphrodite.

    PubMed

    Nakadera, Yumi; Swart, Elferra M; Maas, Jeroen P A; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Ter Maat, Andries; Koene, Joris M

    2015-01-01

    Contrasting with separate-sexed animals, simultaneous hermaphrodites display unique reproductive strategies as they are male and female at the same time. Simultaneous hermaphrodites that copulate unilaterally, for instance, make a decision to mate as a male or female. Previous studies have demonstrated that sex role preference in hermaphrodites is flexible and is controlled by several, often confounding, factors. We examined the relationship between sex role decisions and 3 life-history traits (age, size, and mating history) in the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Based on our field observations, which indicate that adult individuals show overlapping generations and large variation in body size during the breeding season, we performed a sex role choice experiment in the laboratory. We found that young and small snails mate as males first. Both age and size significantly affected sex role decision, with age having a stronger effect. Furthermore, we tested whether L. stagnalis becomes reluctant to inseminate a mate after being inseminated because it is known that after insemination, male investment substantially reduces. Contrary to expectations, our results indicate that the receipt of seminal fluid does not seem to reduce male motivation. In sum, sex role decisions in L. stagnalis are largely determined by age and size but not by having received seminal fluid. This mating pattern, however, does not fully support the size-advantage model because large or old individuals did not perform better as females in our experiment. These results imply a conflicting mating interest, rather than harmonious agreement, between age- and size-different hermaphrodites.

  5. Dental visiting history between ages 13 and 30 years and oral health-related impact.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A John

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to assess the role of visit history factors between the age of 13 and 30 years on oral health-related impact. In 1988-89, n=7,673 South Australian school children aged 13 years were sampled with n=4,604 children (60.0%) and n=4,476 parents (58.3%) returning questionnaires. In 2005-06, n=632 baseline study participants responded (43.0% response of those traced and living in Adelaide). Oral health impact was measured at age 30 years using OHIP-14. Multivariate regression showed that OHIP scores were significantly higher (P<0.05) for those with episodes of relief of pain visits once (β=1.487) or two or more times (β=2.883), and episodes of extraction once (β=1.301) or two or more times (β=3.172). Higher positive dental visit attitude scores were associated with lower OHIP scores (β=-1.265), as were being male (β=-0.637), having a job (β=-1.555) and being tertiary educated (β=-0.632). History of adverse dental events between the age of 13 and 30 years such as episodes of relief of pain visits and episodes of extraction was associated with higher impact of oral health problems at age 30 suggesting a cumulative effect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Age and cooling history of the Manaslu granite: implications for Himalayan tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, Peter; Mark Harrison, T.; Le Fort, Patrick

    1990-12-01

    The Manaslu granite is one of the High Himalayan leucogranites which are believed to be derived by partial melting of quartzofeldspathic gneissess of the High Himalayan Crystallines (HHC) and emplaced at the contact between the HHC and the Tethyan Sedimentary Series. We have analyzed a suite of muscovite (15), biotite (3), and alkali feldspar (10) by the 40Ar/ 39Ar method to help constrain the age and cooling history of the granite. 40Ar/ 39Ar ages ranges are 18.4 to 13.3 Ma, 17.0 to 14.7, and 16.4 to 3.4 for muscovite, biotite, and K-feldspar, respectively. Based on the muscovite analyses and a re-interpretation of a previously published U-Pb monazite age we conclude that the crystallization age of the Manaslu granite is everywhere — 20 Ma. The postcrystallization cooling history given by the micas and the feldspars suggests the presently exposed parts of the pluton were emplaced at depths of 8 to 15 km. These data place a minimum age of movement on the MCT in this area of 20 Ma. We estimate the time of magma segregation and transport to be no more than - 5 Ma.

  7. GENOMIC BASIS OF AGING AND LIFE HISTORY EVOLUTION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Remolina, Silvia C.; Chang, Peter L.; Leips, Jeff; Nuzhdin, Sergey V.; Hughes, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural diversity in aging and other life history patterns is a hallmark of organismal variation. Related species, populations, and individuals within populations show genetically based variation in life span and other aspects of age-related performance. Population differences are especially informative because these differences can be large relative to within-population variation and because they occur in organisms with otherwise similar genomes. We used experimental evolution to produce populations divergent for life span and late-age fertility and then used deep genome sequencing to detect sequence variants with nucleotide-level resolution. Several genes and genome regions showed strong signatures of selection, and the same regions were implicated in independent comparisons, suggesting that the same alleles were selected in replicate lines. Genes related to oogenesis, immunity, and protein degradation were implicated as important modifiers of late-life performance. Expression profiling and functional annotation narrowed the list of strong candidate genes to 38, most of which are novel candidates for regulating aging. Life span and early-age fecundity were negatively correlated among populations; therefore the alleles we identified also are candidate regulators of a major life-history trade-off. More generally, we argue that hitchhiking mapping can be a powerful tool for uncovering the molecular bases of quantitative genetic variation. PMID:23106705

  8. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  9. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  10. Three Dimensional Petrography of Kernouve: A Story of Vein Formation, Compaction, and Metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, J.M.; Ruzicka, A.; Ebel, D.S.; Thostenson, J.; Rudolph, R.A.; Rivers, M.L.; Macke, R.J.; Britt, D.T.

    2012-03-26

    Metallic veins in ordinary chondrites, like those found in Kernouve (H5, S1), have been attributed to impact or shock processes on the parent body. However, Kernouve is widely known to exhibit few traditional signs of shock loading and has a very old {sup 39}Ar-{sup 40}Ar age (4.46 Ga), making the significance of vein formation in Kernouve unclear. One possibility is early vein formation followed by partial obliteration due to thermal metamorphism. We examine this scenario here. The metal vein in Kernouve can be explained as a pre-metamorphic shock-induced structure, given the evidence for current weak compaction and low shock stage. However, it is not clear how one explains high porosity and low shock stage if the meteorite experienced early shock sufficiently strong to mobilize metal into a vein-like structure. Some combination of unusual conditions during shock (e.g. high temperatures) or mobility of metal during metamorphism may be needed. One possible mechanism occurring early on the H chondrite parent body follows: blocks of slightly indurated but porous material were disturbed by an impact which caused a physical concentration of metallic phases akin to slickensides. Shearing of these materials caused the warm, ductile metal grains to be concentrated on rock surfaces. This process would have imparted the rocks with indicators cited by as shock induced. This event happened early in the history of the chondrite otherwise shearing forces would have imparted a preferred orientation upon the metal grains. Subsequent annealing due to radiogenic heating erased any preferential orientation and further coalesced the vein metal. The final compaction of the material occurred yielding the porosity seen in the samples today. The material escaped other major shock episodes.

  11. Metamorphic evolution of pelitic-semipelitic granulites in the Kon Tum massif (south-central Vietnam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tích, Vu Van; Leyreloup, Andrey; Maluski, Henry; Lepvrier, Claude; Lo, Chinh-hua; Vượng, Nguyễn V.

    2013-09-01

    Pelitic and semipelitic anatectic granulites form one of the major lithological units in Kan Nack complex of the Kon Tum massif (in south-central Vietnam), which comprises HT metamorphic and magmatic rocks including granulites and charnockites is classically regarded as the older part of the Gondwana-derived Indosinia terrain. Metamorphic evolution study of pelitic granulite, the most abundant among granulites exposed in this massif, facilitates to understand that tectonic setting take place during the Indosinian time. The paragenetic assemblages, mineral chemistry, thermobarometry and P-T evolution path of pelitic-semipelitic granulites from Kon Tum massif has been studied in detail. Petrographic feature demonstrates that the pelitic granulite experienced prograde history, from pregranulitic conditions in the amphibolite facies up to the peak granulitic assemblages. Successive prograde reactions led to the temperature-climax giving rise to assemblages with cordierite-hercynite and cordierite-hercynite-K-feldspar. Then, as attested by the mineralogic association occurring in cordieritic coronas, these rocks have been affected by retrograde conditions coeval with a decrease of the pressure. Thermobarometic results show that the highest temperature obtained by ksp/pl thermometry is 850 °C and the highest pressure obtained by GASP (Garnet Alumino-Silicate Plagioclase) is 7.8 kbar. The obtained clockwise P-T evolution path involving heating decompression, then nearly isothermal decompression and nearly isobar cooling conditions shows that high temperature-low pressure metamorphism of the studied pelitic anatectic granulites of Kan Nack complex occurred possibly in extensional setting during the Indosinian orogeny of 260-240 Ma in age.

  12. The confounded effects of age and exposure history in response to influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Höpping, Ana Mosterín; McElhaney, Janet; Fonville, Judith M.; Powers, Douglas C.; Beyer, Walter E.P.; Smith, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have explored whether the antibody response to influenza vaccination in elderly adults is as strong as it is in young adults. Results vary, but tend to indicate lower post-vaccination titers (antibody levels) in the elderly, supporting the concept of immunosenescence – the weakening of the immunological response related to age. Because the elderly in such studies typically have been vaccinated against influenza before enrollment, a confounding of effects occurs between age, and previous exposures, as a potential extrinsic reason for immunosenescence. We conducted a four-year study of serial annual immunizations with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in 136 young adults (16 to 39 years) and 122 elderly adults (62 to 92 years). Compared to data sets of previously published studies, which were designed to investigate the effect of age, this detailed longitudinal study with multiple vaccinations allowed us to also study the effect of prior vaccination history on the response to a vaccine. In response to the first vaccination, young adults produced higher post-vaccination titers, accounting for pre-vaccination titers, than elderly adults. However, upon subsequent vaccinations the difference in response to vaccination between the young and elderly age groups declined rapidly. Although age is an important factor when modeling the outcome of the first vaccination, this term lost its relevance with successive vaccinations. In fact, when we examined the data with the assumption that the elderly group had received (on average) as few as two vaccinations prior to our study, the difference due to age disappeared. Our analyses therefore show that the initial difference between the two age groups in their response to vaccination may not be uniquely explained by immunosenescence due to ageing of the immune system, but could equally be the result of the different pre-study vaccination and infection histories in the elderly. PMID:26667611

  13. The confounded effects of age and exposure history in response to influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mosterín Höpping, Ana; McElhaney, Janet; Fonville, Judith M; Powers, Douglas C; Beyer, Walter E P; Smith, Derek J

    2016-01-20

    Numerous studies have explored whether the antibody response to influenza vaccination in elderly adults is as strong as it is in young adults. Results vary, but tend to indicate lower post-vaccination titers (antibody levels) in the elderly, supporting the concept of immunosenescence-the weakening of the immunological response related to age. Because the elderly in such studies typically have been vaccinated against influenza before enrollment, a confounding of effects occurs between age, and previous exposures, as a potential extrinsic reason for immunosenescence. We conducted a four-year study of serial annual immunizations with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines in 136 young adults (16 to 39 years) and 122 elderly adults (62 to 92 years). Compared to data sets of previously published studies, which were designed to investigate the effect of age, this detailed longitudinal study with multiple vaccinations allowed us to also study the effect of prior vaccination history on the response to a vaccine. In response to the first vaccination, young adults produced higher post-vaccination titers, accounting for pre-vaccination titers, than elderly adults. However, upon subsequent vaccinations the difference in response to vaccination between the young and elderly age groups declined rapidly. Although age is an important factor when modeling the outcome of the first vaccination, this term lost its relevance with successive vaccinations. In fact, when we examined the data with the assumption that the elderly group had received (on average) as few as two vaccinations prior to our study, the difference due to age disappeared. Our analyses therefore show that the initial difference between the two age groups in their response to vaccination may not be uniquely explained by immunosenescence due to ageing of the immune system, but could equally be the result of the different pre-study vaccination and infection histories in the elderly.

  14. Complex temporal-spatial metamorphic relationships, Feather River ultramafic belt, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masutsubo, N.; Wakabayashi, J.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional tectonic models cannot explain the spatial-temporal distribution of the metamorphic grade of the Feather River ultramafic belt (FRB) of the northern Sierra Nevada, California. In the North Yuba River area, thin slabs of ilmenite-bearing, redbrown-amphibole (high Ti, low Al) amphibolites, apparently formed by high-temperature, low to medium pressure (LP-HT) metamorphism, structurally underlie ultramafic rocks, and structurally overlie the high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) blueschist facies Red Ant schist. The Red Ant schist includes a mélange zone with blocks of rutile-bearing, green-amphibole (low Ti, high Al) amphibolite, indicative of high-pressure, high-temperature metamorphism (HP-HT) that have been heavily overprinted with sodic amphibole and lawsonite consistent with mineral assemblages in metabasites in the Red Ant schist coherent units. In the Alleghany and Forest City areas, directly south of the North Yuba River, Red Ant schist, amphibolites, and serpentinites are interleaved as a result of isoclinal folding. In the Alleghany area and the North Fork Feather River areas (roughly 50 km to the north), HP-HT garnet amphibolites occur beneath ultramafic rocks, and the Ar-Ar ages of the latter are about 100 m.y. younger. (ca. 240 vs 340 Ma). In the Forest City area, most of the HP-HT assemblages in amphibolites are almost completely overprinted or erased by later LP-HT metamorphism with red-brown hornblende, diopside, and presumed plagioclase (altered, no fresh plagioclase found), and the only hint of HP-HT metamorphic history was recorded by rutile cores in ilmenite. In the Alleghany area, serpentinite structurally overlies HP-HT amphibolites (rutile-bearing, green amphibole, locally garnet-bearing) that overlie LP-HT (red brown amphibole, ilmenite-bearing) amphibolites, that in turn overlie HP-LT Red Ant schist. These units are repeated in map view by isoclinal folding. The HP-HT rocks may have formed at subduction initiation as a

  15. Neoarchean high-pressure metamorphism from the northern margin of the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone, southern India: Petrology and zircon SHRIMP geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Yohsuke; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.; Chetty, T. R. K.; Horie, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    We report the metamorphic pressure-temperature ( P- T) history of mafic granulites from two localities in southern India, one from Kanja Malai in the northern margin and the other from Perundurai in the central domain of the Palghat-Cauvery Suture Zone (PCSZ). The PCSZ is described in recent models as the trace of the suture along which crustal blocks were amalgamated within the Gondwana supercontinent during Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian. The mafic granulite from Kanja Malai yields P- T conditions of 750-800 °C and 8-12 kbar reflecting the partially retrograded conditions following a peak high-pressure (HP) metamorphic event. The common Grt + Cpx + Qtz assemblage in these rocks and lack of decompression texture suggest that peak metamorphism was probably buffered by Grt + Cpx + Opx + Pl + Qtz assemblage, following which the rocks were exhumed through a gradual P- T decrease. The mafic granulite from Perundurai (Grt + Cpx + Pl) contains Opx + Pl symplectite commonly occurring between garnet and clinopyroxene, suggesting the progress of reaction: Grt + Cpx + Qtz → Opx + Pl, with the Grt + Cpx + Qtz representing the peak metamorphic assemblage. The reaction microstructures and calculated P- T conditions suggest that the mafic granulites from Perundurai underwent peak HP metamorphism at P > 12 kbar and T = 800-900 °C and subsequent isothermal decompression along a clockwise P- T path, in contrast to the P- T path inferred for Kanja Malai. The contrasting P- T paths obtained from the two localities suggest that whereas Perundurai is a part of the metamorphic orogen developed within the PCSZ during Gondwana assembly, the high-pressure granulites of Kanja Malai belong to a different orogenic regime. In order to evaluate this aspect further, we analyzed zircons in a charnockite and garnet-bearing quartzo-feldspathic gneiss associated with the HP granulites from Kanja Malai which yielded mean 207Pb/ 206Pb magmatic protolith emplacement ages of 2536.1 ± 1.4 Ma and 2532

  16. Oxidation during metamorphism of the ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Labotka, Theodore C.

    1993-01-01

    It is suggested that some current concepts about the conditions of metamorphism in ordinary chondrites may be flawed. These meteorites display small systematic variations in the oxidation state of Fe. Evidence is presented that oxidation of Fe is linked to metamorphic grade in types 4-6 ordinary chondrites. This conclusion is at variance with a commonly accepted model for chondrite metamorphism that assumes Fe reduction by graphite.

  17. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  18. Organic nitrogen chemistry during low-grade metamorphism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boudou, J.-P.; Schimmelmann, A.; Ader, M.; Mastalerz, Maria; Sebilo, M.; Gengembre, L.

    2008-01-01

    Most of the organic nitrogen (Norg) on Earth is disseminated in crustal sediments and rocks in the form of fossil nitrogen-containing organic matter. The chemical speciation of fossil Norg within the overall molecular structure of organic matter changes with time and heating during burial. Progressive thermal evolution of organic matter involves phases of enhanced elimination of Norg and ultimately produces graphite containing only traces of nitrogen. Long-term chemical and thermal instability makes the chemical speciation of Norg a valuable tracer to constrain the history of sub-surface metamorphism and to shed light on the subsurface biogeochemical nitrogen cycle and its participating organic and inorganic nitrogen pools. This study documents the evolutionary path of Norg speciation, transformation and elimination before and during metamorphism and advocates the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to monitor changes in Norg speciation as a diagnostic tool for organic metamorphism. Our multidisciplinary evidence from XPS, stable isotopes, traditional quantitative coal analyses, and other analytical approaches shows that at the metamorphic onset Norg is dominantly present as pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen. The relative abundance of nitrogen substituting for carbon in condensed, partially aromatic systems (where N is covalently bonded to three C atoms) increases exponentially with increasing metamorphic grade, at the expense of pyridinic and pyrrolic nitrogen. At the same time, much Norg is eliminated without significant nitrogen isotope fractionation. The apparent absence of Rayleigh-type nitrogen isotopic fractionation suggests that direct thermal loss of nitrogen from an organic matrix does not serve as a major pathway for Norg elimination. Instead, we propose that hot H, O-containing fluids or some of their components gradually penetrate into the carbonaceous matrix and eliminate Norg along a progressing reaction front, without causing nitrogen

  19. Implications of structural analysis, P-T pseudosection modelling and white mica 40Ar/39Ar age distributions for the interpretation of the tectonometamorphic history of Syros (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Manuel Ignacio de Paz; Uunk, Bertram; Brouwer, Fraukje; Wijbrans, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The island of Syros, in the Cycladic region of Greece, remains a key location for investigations aiming to understand tectonic and metamorphic subduction processes of fluid-rock interaction and metasomatism, channel flow, extrusion wedges and back-arc extension in syn-collisional environments. The present ongoing research is based on newly obtained 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages, P-T modelling of eclogite, blueschist and greenschist facies samples, and structural analysis and mapping. It provides new insights in order to unravel the complex Eocene-Miocene history of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) in Syros. Numerous previous contributions provide a wide variety of interpretations for similar observations. An agreement on a basic input such as the peak metamorphic conditions achieved by the different identified units within the island, needed for the proposition of geological sound models, is still lacking despite considerable efforts. This research aims to estimate peak metamorphic conditions for several of them. Preliminary data suggests that they experienced peak metamorphic conditions varying between 20-25kbar and temperatures ranging 500-600°C: this supports a recent trend in literature towards higher peak pressure conditions for eclogite metamorphism. Moreover, it suggests that the different units reached similar metamorphic conditions. Structural observations on the island scale support previous research with respect to the preservation of at least two ductile deformation events. The first, mostly recorded in the northern part of the island associated to preserved lawsonite pseudomorphs, is interpreted to record prograde burial and top-to-the-S thrusting in blueschist facies. The second, pervasively found across the island, is associated to a continuum of top-to-the-E extensional shearing that started in eclogite facies, being the blueschist structures the dominant ones. Continued greenschist overprint is found as both static and deformation-driven. It is

  20. Genetic modifiers and subtypes in schizophrenia: investigations of age at onset, severity, sex and family history.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Sarah E; O'Dushlaine, Colm T; Lee, Phil H; Fanous, Ayman H; Ruderfer, Douglas M; Ripke, Stephan; Sullivan, Patrick F; Smoller, Jordan W; Purcell, Shaun M; Corvin, Aiden

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. Genetic risk factors for the disorder may differ between the sexes or between multiply affected families compared to cases with no family history. Additionally, limited data support a genetic basis for variation in onset and severity, but specific loci have not been identified. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic influences on age at onset (AAO) and illness severity as well as specific risk by sex or family history status using up to 2762 cases and 3187 controls from the International Schizophrenia Consortium (ISC). Subjects with a family history of schizophrenia demonstrated a slightly lower average AAO that was not significant following multiple testing correction (p=.048), but no differences in illness severity were observed by family history status (p=.51). Consistent with prior reports, we observed earlier AAO (p=.005) and a more severe course of illness for men (p=.002). Family history positive analyses showed the greatest association with KIF5C (p=1.96×10(-8)), however, genetic risk burden overall does not differ by family history. Separate association analyses for males and females revealed no significant sex-specific associations. The top GWAS hit for AAO was near the olfactory receptor gene OR2K2 (p=1.52×10(-7)). Analyses of illness severity (episodic vs. continuous) implicated variation in ST18 (p=8.24×10(-7)). These results confirm recognized demographic relationships but do not support a simplified genetic architecture for schizophrenia subtypes based on these variables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Life history evolution, reproduction, and the origins of sex-dependent aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Robert C; Garratt, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Males and females in many species differ in how they age and how long they live. These differences have motivated much research, concerning both their evolution and the underlying mechanisms that cause them. We review how differences in male and female life histories have evolved to shape patterns of aging and some of the mechanisms and pathways involved. We pay particular attention to three areas where considerable potential for synergy between mechanistic and evolutionary research exists: (1) the role of estrogens, androgens, the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 pathway, and the mechanistic target of rapamycin signaling pathway in sex-dependent growth and reproduction; (2) sexual conflict over mating rate and fertility, and how mate presence or mating can become an avenue for males and females to directly affect each other's life span; and (3) the link between dietary restriction and aging, and the emerging understanding that only the restriction of certain nutrients is involved and that this is linked to reproduction. We suggest that ideas about life histories, sex-dependent selection, and sexual conflict can inform and be informed by the ever more refined and complex understanding of the mechanisms that cause aging. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Shock metamorphism in lunar samples.

    PubMed

    von Engelhardt, W; Arndt, J; Müller, W F; Stöffler, D

    1970-01-30

    Indications of shock metamorphism produced by pressures up to the megabar region have been observed in the fine material and the breccias, but very rarely in the coarser fragments of crystalline rocks. These indications are deformation structures in plagioclase and pyroxene, diaplectic plagioclase glasses, and glasses formed by shock-induced melting of lunar rocks. Two sources of shock waves have been distinguished: primary impact of meteorites and secondary impact of crater ejecta. There are two major chemical types of shock-induced melts. The differences in chemistry may be related to impact sites in mare and highland areas.

  3. Verification of phylogenetic inference programs using metamorphic testing.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Md Shaik; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ho, Joshua W K; Charleston, Michael A; Chen, T Y

    2011-12-01

    Many phylogenetic inference programs are available to infer evolutionary relationships among taxa using aligned sequences of characters, typically DNA or amino acids. These programs are often used to infer the evolutionary history of species. However, in most cases it is impossible to systematically verify the correctness of the tree returned by these programs, as the correct evolutionary history is generally unknown and unknowable. In addition, it is nearly impossible to verify whether any non-trivial tree is correct in accordance to the specification of the often complicated search and scoring algorithms. This difficulty is known as the oracle problem of software testing: there is no oracle that we can use to verify the correctness of the returned tree. This makes it very challenging to test the correctness of any phylogenetic inference programs. Here, we demonstrate how to apply a simple software testing technique, called Metamorphic Testing, to alleviate the oracle problem in testing phylogenetic inference programs. We have used both real and randomly generated test inputs to evaluate the effectiveness of metamorphic testing, and found that metamorphic testing can detect failures effectively in faulty phylogenetic inference programs with both types of test inputs.

  4. The Axial Age and the Problems of the Twentieth Century: Du Bois, Jaspers, and Universal History.

    PubMed

    Boy, John D

    The axial age debate has put big questions of social and cultural change back on the agenda of sociology. This paper takes this development as an occasion to reflect on how social thought works with (and against) nineteenth-century intellectual traditions in its efforts to understand history on a macro scale. Karl Jaspers, who initially formulated the axial age thesis in The Origin and Goal of History, revised the Hegelian account of world history by broadening the scope of the narrative to encompass all civilizations participating in the events of the first millennium BCE that saw the rise of major philosophical and religious traditions. However, his account, like the earlier philosophical accounts he seeks to improve upon, privileges cognitive developments over material practices and social interactions, and as such offers little to those seeking to make sense of how cultural patterns interact with others and spread. Here another social theorist engaging with Hegel, W. E. B. Du Bois, provides a helpful contrast. His account of the development of double-consciousness in "Of Our Spiritual Strivings," the opening chapter of The Souls of Black Folk, helps us to understand experiences of encounter and the perduring historical effects they may have. Du Bois' relational theory reminds us of the importance of unpacking abstractions and understanding processes in terms of social interactions.

  5. Family history of alcohol and drug abuse, childhood trauma, and age of first drug injection.

    PubMed

    Taplin, Chris; Saddichha, Sahoo; Li, Kathy; Krausz, Michael R

    2014-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment may lead to development of future substance use; however the contributions of a family history of substance use is unclear. To better understand the relationship between childhood abuse, family history of alcohol and drug abuse, and injecting drug use initiation in a cohort of chronic opioid users. A cross-sectional survey of long-term and difficult to treat intravenous opiate users of the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) cohort was conducted in two Canadian cities (Vancouver and Montreal). For the analysis, we selected a subsample (n = 87) of the population reported experiencing childhood abuse and completed a 12-month follow up. The sample was 41.4% female and 14.9% First Nations, with a mean age of 38 years. This sample then completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) beside others. Maternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and physical neglect. Paternal alcohol and drug use was significantly associated with childhood physical abuse. Increased severity of all types of childhood trauma was related to an earlier age of first injection. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Family history of drug and alcohol use is strongly associated with childhood trauma, which may, in turn, lead to an earlier initiation to the dangerous routes of drug injection.

  6. Age-dependent flea (Siphonaptera) parasitism in rodents: a host's life history matters.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Stanko, Michal; Morand, Serge

    2006-04-01

    We studied age-dependent patterns of flea infestation in 7 species of rodents from Slovakia (Apodemus agrarius, A. flavicollis, A. sylvaticus, A. uralensis, Clethrionomys glareolus, Microtus arvalis, and M. subterraneus). We estimated the age of the host from its body mass and expected the host age-dependent pattern of flea abundance, the level of aggregation, and prevalence to be in agreement with theoretical predictions. We expected that the mean abundance and the level of aggregation of fleas would be lowest in hosts of smallest and largest size classes and highest in hosts of medium size classes, whereas pattern of variation of prevalence with host age would be either convex or asymptotic. In general, mean abundance and species richness of fleas increased with an increase in host age, although the pressure of flea parasitism in terms of number of fleas per unit host body surface decreased with host age. We found 2 clear patterns of the change in flea aggregation and prevalence with host age. The first pattern demonstrated a peak of flea aggregation and a trough of flea prevalence in animals of middle age classes (Apodemus species and C. glareolus). The second pattern was an increase of both flea aggregation and flea prevalence with host age (both Microtus species). Consequently, we did not find unequivocal evidence for the main role of either parasite-induced host mortality or acquired resistance in host age-dependent pattern of flea parasitism. Our results suggest that this pattern can be generated by various processes and is strongly affected by natural history parameters of a host species such as dispersal pattern, spatial distribution, and structure of shelters.

  7. [Medicine, aging, masculinity: towards a cultural history of the male climacterium].

    PubMed

    Hofer, Hans-Georg

    2007-01-01

    Most historical studies on aging, gender and medicine have hitherto focused on menopausal women. There is comparatively little work on aging men and the contested idea of climacteric or "menopausal" men. This paper seeks to examine the male climacterium as a culturally and historically shaped idea in twentieth-century medicine. In the first part I shall map historical changes in understanding and defining the subject. In the second and third part, my main emphasis is put on answering the question: "What does it mean to write a cultural history of the male climacterium?" Drawing upon positions from cultural, gender and men's studies, I argue that the production of medical knowledge about the aging process of men is inevitably embedded in a cultural universe constituted by narratives, symbols, metaphors and images.

  8. Metamorphic zircon formation at the transition from gabbro to eclogite in Trollheimen-Surnadalen, Norwegian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckman, Victoria; Möller, Charlotte; Söderlund, Ulf; Corfu, Fernando; Chamberlain, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    A transition zone from gabbro to eclogite via coronitic stages has been investigated at Vindøldalen in south central Norway, with the aim of linking reaction textures to metamorphic zircon growth and obtaining a direct U-Pb zircon age of the metamorphic process. Different rocks from the transition zone contain various types of zircon: I) as igneous prismatic grains; II) metamorphic polycrystalline rims and pseudomorphs after baddeleyite, and III) tiny (> 10µm) bead-like zircon grains associated with a) oxidation and b) resorption of Ti-Fe oxides. During progressive transformation from gabbro to eclogite, titanomagnetite (magnetite with ilmenite lamellae) was oxidised to titanohematite (hematite + ilmenite); at advanced stages of recrystallization to eclogite, rutile was produced at the expense of Fe-Ti oxide. Textural relations suggests that the FeTi-oxides were the main source of Zr. Subsolidus liberation of Zr and formation of zircon beads took place by oxidation of titanomagnetite during fluid-assisted metamorphism in undeformed corona gabbro, and by resorption of FeTi-oxide in undeformed and strongly deformed rock domains that were recrystallized to eclogite. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) were used to obtain U-Pb ages of zircon and baddeleyite. Magmatic baddeleyite yields a TIMS age of 1.46 Ga dating igneous crystallisation, whereas the SIMS age for baddeleyite and magmatic zircon from the same gabbro is slightly younger. Bead-type metamorphic zircon from eclogite gives an age of 425±10 Ma (TIMS), and dates directly the metamorphic transition from gabbro to eclogite in the upper basement of the Lower Allochthon in the south-central Scandinavian Caledonides. The metamorphic zircon age does not necessarily date the peak metamorphic temperature, but reflects fluid-induced reactions and oxidation of primary phases.

  9. The longevity of Neotethyan metamorphic soles from Lu-Hf garnet chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Kalijn; Smit, Matthijs; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; van Roermund, Herman; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2017-04-01

    Supra-subduction zone (SSZ) ophiolites typically have a few-hundred-meters thick sequence of metamorphic rocks below their mantle section: a so-called metamorphic sole. Metamorphic soles are derived from oceanic crustal rocks, and they typically show an inverted metamorphic field gradient, ranging from greenschist-facies at the bottom to upper-amphibolite or granulite facies near the contact with the overlying peridotite. The soles are interpreted to represent the top of a nascent subducting slab that accreted to the base of the hot overriding plate. Studying the formation and exhumation of metamorphic soles is key to characterizing the inception of subduction in oceanic settings. Chronology is an important research tool in this regard and is typically done using 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology on amphibolite-hosted hornblende. The 40Ar/39Ar dates of metamorphic soles invariably overlap with the ages of the crust of SSZ ophiolites, suggesting that spreading and sole cooling are causally linked. The time between the inception of subduction and sole cooling is generally assumed to be short, but unquantified. In this study, we shed light on this aspect of ophiolite evolution by petrological analysis and multi-mineral chronology on the Late Cretaceous Pιnarbaşι metamorphic sole, central Turkey, and the Jurassic metamorphic soles of the Pindos and Vourinos ophiolites, northern Greece. These Tethyan SSZ ophiolites show, with the exception of Vourinos, well-exposed sole sections, of which the different metamorphic levels were subjected to our integrated analytical approach. In this presentation we show the results from Lu-Hf dating of garnet from the highest grade garnet-amphibolites of the Pιnarbaşι and Vourinos ophiolites and the lower grade garnet-micaschists of the sole at Pindos. The Lu-Hf system in garnet enables reliable age constraints on the growth of this important prograde index mineral, allowing better approximation of the timing of subduction initiation than

  10. Impact of early personal-history characteristics on the Pace of Aging: implications for clinical trials of therapies to slow aging and extend healthspan.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Caspi, Avshalom; Cohen, Harvey J; Kraus, William E; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2017-08-01

    Therapies to extend healthspan are poised to move from laboratory animal models to human clinical trials. Translation from mouse to human will entail challenges, among them the multifactorial heterogeneity of human aging. To inform clinical trials about this heterogeneity, we report how humans' pace of biological aging relates to personal-history characteristics. Because geroprotective therapies must be delivered by midlife to prevent age-related disease onset, we studied young-adult members of the Dunedin Study 1972-73 birth cohort (n = 954). Cohort members' Pace of Aging was measured as coordinated decline in the integrity of multiple organ systems, by quantifying rate of decline across repeated measurements of 18 biomarkers assayed when cohort members were ages 26, 32, and 38 years. The childhood personal-history characteristics studied were known predictors of age-related disease and mortality, and were measured prospectively during childhood. Personal-history characteristics of familial longevity, childhood social class, adverse childhood experiences, and childhood health, intelligence, and self-control all predicted differences in cohort members' adulthood Pace of Aging. Accumulation of more personal-history risks predicted faster Pace of Aging. Because trials of anti-aging therapies will need to ascertain personal histories retrospectively, we replicated results using cohort members' retrospective personal-history reports made in adulthood. Because many trials recruit participants from clinical settings, we replicated results in the cohort subset who had recent health system contact according to electronic medical records. Quick, inexpensive measures of trial participants' early personal histories can enable clinical trials to study who volunteers for trials, who adheres to treatment, and who responds to anti-aging therapies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Age-dependent genetic variance in a life-history trait in the mute swan

    PubMed Central

    Charmantier, Anne; Perrins, Christopher; McCleery, Robin H; Sheldon, Ben C

    2005-01-01

    Genetic variance in characters under natural selection in natural populations determines the way those populations respond to that selection. Whether populations show temporal and/or spatial constancy in patterns of genetic variance and covariance is regularly considered, as this will determine whether selection responses are constant over space and time. Much less often considered is whether characters show differing amounts of genetic variance over the life-history of individuals. Such age-specific variation, if present, has important potential consequences for the force of natural selection and for understanding the causes of variation in quantitative characters. Using data from a long-term study of the mute swan Cygnus olor, we report the partitioning of phenotypic variance in timing of breeding (subject to strong natural selection) into component parts over 12 different age classes. We show that the additive genetic variance and heritability of this trait are strongly age-dependent, with higher additive genetic variance present in young and, particularly, old birds, but little evidence of any genetic variance for birds of intermediate ages. These results demonstrate that age can have a very important influence on the components of variation of characters in natural populations, and consequently that separate age classes cannot be assumed to be equivalent, either with respect to their evolutionary potential or response. PMID:16555791

  12. Age-dependent genetic variance in a life-history trait in the mute swan.

    PubMed

    Charmantier, Anne; Perrins, Christopher; McCleery, Robin H; Sheldon, Ben C

    2006-01-22

    Genetic variance in characters under natural selection in natural populations determines the way those populations respond to that selection. Whether populations show temporal and/or spatial constancy in patterns of genetic variance and covariance is regularly considered, as this will determine whether selection responses are constant over space and time. Much less often considered is whether characters show differing amounts of genetic variance over the life-history of individuals. Such age-specific variation, if present, has important potential consequences for the force of natural selection and for understanding the causes of variation in quantitative characters. Using data from a long-term study of the mute swan Cygnus olor, we report the partitioning of phenotypic variance in timing of breeding (subject to strong natural selection) into component parts over 12 different age classes. We show that the additive genetic variance and heritability of this trait are strongly age-dependent, with higher additive genetic variance present in young and, particularly, old birds, but little evidence of any genetic variance for birds of intermediate ages. These results demonstrate that age can have a very important influence on the components of variation of characters in natural populations, and consequently that separate age classes cannot be assumed to be equivalent, either with respect to their evolutionary potential or response.

  13. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Progressive low pressure metamorphism of metapelitic rocks from the Casco Bay area, southwestern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, T.W. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics); Lang, H.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geography); Gordon, T.M. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-03-01

    A prograde sequence of metapelitic rocks occurs in the Casco Bay area, southwestern Maine. Excellent exposure along the coast of Orrs Island, Harpswell Neck, and Small Point have allowed for the delineation of several metamorphic zones which show an increase in metamorphic grade from west to east across the area. These zones are, in order of increasing metamorphic grade, a garnet zone, a staurolite zone, a staurolite + andalusite zone and a sillimanite [plus minus] andalusite [plus minus] staurolite zone. The widespread occurrence of coexisting andalusite + sillimanite in the highest grade portion of the area, along with the presence of andalusite [plus minus] sillimanite veins on Hermit Island suggest peak metamorphism was near the andalusite-sillimanite transition. Staurolite is also found in apparent textural equilibrium in many of the sillimanite-bearing samples. Metamorphic pressures and temperatures were determined using the approach of Gordon. Peak temperatures range from [approx] 440C in garnet zone rocks to [approx] 510C in sillimanite [plus minus] andalusite zone rocks. Metamorphic pressures are [approx] 3-3.5 kbars. These P-T estimates are consistent with those determined using GeO-Calc. In contrast with the static style of metamorphism reported in central and western Maine, metamorphism in the Casco Bay area, located east of the Norumbega Fault, was synchronous with deformation. The same sequence of porphyroblast growth reported for the Orrs Island-Harpswell Neck area is also found in the Small Point area, suggesting the same metamorphic event affected the entire region. However, coarse grained muscovite pseudomorphs after andalusite or staurolite in rocks with stable andalusite and staurolite are found in the Small Point area suggesting these rocks have a polymetamorphic history. Evidence for polymetamorphism is not found elsewhere in the area.

  15. The assessment of multifocal ERG responses in school-age children with history of prematurity.

    PubMed

    Michalczuk, Marta; Urban, Beata; Chrzanowska-Grenda, Beata; Oziębło-Kupczyk, Monika; Bakunowicz-Łazarczyk, Alina; Krętowska, Małgorzata

    2016-02-01

    The authors examined macular function in preterm-born children, using multifocal ERG (mfERG). Possible alterations in P1 amplitudes, P1 amplitudes density and P1 implicit time between school-age children with history of prematurity and their peers were researched. The correlations between parameters of mfERG responses and birth weight, gestational age, macular volume and central macular thickness were verified. A group of 18 preterm-born school-age children were analyzed (mean age 10.18 ± 1.21 years). The study group was compared to the group of 15 peers born appropriate for gestational age (mean age 10.8 ± 1.52 years). The mfERG was evaluated in all children. There were statistically significant differences for P1 amplitudes from ring 1 (p = 0.0001) and P1 amplitudes density from ring 1 (p = 0.0001). Calculating the correlation coefficients, we receive significant results for P1 amplitudes from ring 1 versus gestational age (r = 0.54; p = 0.026), birth weight (r = 0.54; p = 0.026) and central macular thickness (r = -0.62; p = 0.008), and for P1 amplitudes density from ring 1 versus central macular thickness (r = -0.51; p = 0.034). The study suggests that P1 amplitudes and P1 amplitudes density vary in preterm-born children in comparison with their peers born appropriate for gestational age, which might suggest discreet macular dysfunction. The correlation between low birth weight, early gestational age, central macular thickness and mFERG components from ring 1 might evidence that decreased bipolar cells density caused by premature birth is the result of altered development of central retina reflecting in structural anomalies of the fovea.

  16. Associations Between Family History of Substance Use, Childhood Trauma, and Age of First Drug Use in Persons With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    PubMed

    Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.

  17. Age-velocity dispersion relations and heating histories in disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aumer, Michael; Binney, James; Schönrich, Ralph

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the heating of stellar discs by non-axisymmetric structures and giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in N-body simulations of growing disc galaxies. The analysis resolves long-standing discrepancies between models and data by demonstrating the importance of distinguishing between measured age-velocity dispersion relations (AVRs) and the heating histories of the stars that make up the AVR. We fit both AVRs and heating histories with formulae ∝tβ and determine the exponents βR and βz derived from in-plane and vertical AVRs and tilde{β }_R and tilde{β }_z from heating histories. Values of βz are in almost all simulations larger than values of tilde{β }_z, whereas values of βR are similar to or mildly larger than values of tilde{β }_R. Moreover, values of βz (tilde{β }_z) are generally larger than values of βR (tilde{β }_R). The dominant cause of these relations is the decline over the life of the disc in importance of GMCs as heating agents relative to spiral structure and the bar. We examine how age errors and biases in solar neighbourhood surveys influence the measured AVR: they tend to decrease β values by smearing out ages and thus measured dispersions. We compare AVRs and velocity ellipsoid shapes σz/σR from simulations to solar neighbourhood data. We conclude that for the expected disc mass and dark halo structure, combined GMC and spiral/bar heating can explain the AVR of the Galactic thin disc. Strong departures of the disc mass or the dark halo structure from expectation spoil fits to the data.

  18. Effects of age, size, and mating history on sex role decision of a simultaneous hermaphrodite

    PubMed Central

    Swart, Elferra M.; Maas, Jeroen P.A.; Montagne-Wajer, Kora; Ter Maat, Andries; Koene, Joris M.

    2015-01-01

    Contrasting with separate-sexed animals, simultaneous hermaphrodites display unique reproductive strategies as they are male and female at the same time. Simultaneous hermaphrodites that copulate unilaterally, for instance, make a decision to mate as a male or female. Previous studies have demonstrated that sex role preference in hermaphrodites is flexible and is controlled by several, often confounding, factors. We examined the relationship between sex role decisions and 3 life-history traits (age, size, and mating history) in the great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. Based on our field observations, which indicate that adult individuals show overlapping generations and large variation in body size during the breeding season, we performed a sex role choice experiment in the laboratory. We found that young and small snails mate as males first. Both age and size significantly affected sex role decision, with age having a stronger effect. Furthermore, we tested whether L. stagnalis becomes reluctant to inseminate a mate after being inseminated because it is known that after insemination, male investment substantially reduces. Contrary to expectations, our results indicate that the receipt of seminal fluid does not seem to reduce male motivation. In sum, sex role decisions in L. stagnalis are largely determined by age and size but not by having received seminal fluid. This mating pattern, however, does not fully support the size-advantage model because large or old individuals did not perform better as females in our experiment. These results imply a conflicting mating interest, rather than harmonious agreement, between age- and size-different hermaphrodites. PMID:25713474

  19. Metamorphic geology: Why should we care?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajcmanova, Lucie; Moulas, Evangelos; Vrijmoed, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of pressure-temperature (P-T) from petrographic observations in metamorphic rocks has become a common practice in petrology studies during the last 50 years. This data then often serves as a key input in geodynamic reconstructions and thus directly influences our understanding of lithospheric processes. Such an approach might have led the metamorphic geology field to a certain level of quiescence. Obtaining high-quality analytical data from metamorphic rocks has become a standard part of geology studies. The numerical tools for geodynamic reconstructions have evolved to a great extend as well. Furthermore, the increasing demand on using the Earth's interior for sustainable energy or nuclear waste disposal requires a better understanding of the physical processes involved in fluid-rock interaction. However, nowadays, metamorphic data have apparently lost their importance in the "bigger picture" of the Earth sciences. Interestingly, the suppression of the metamorphic geology discipline limits the potential for understanding the aforementioned physical processes that could have been exploited. In fact, those phenomena must be considered in the development of new generations of fully coupled numerical codes that involve reacting materials with changing porosity while obeying conservation of mass, momentum and energy. In our contribution, we would like to discuss the current role of metamorphic geology. We will bring food for thoughts and specifically touch upon the following questions: How can we revitalize metamorphic geology? How can we increase the importance of it? How can metamorphic geology contribute to societal issues?

  20. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  1. Oman metamorphic sole formation reveals early subduction dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soret, Mathieu; Agard, Philippe; Dubacq, Benoît; Plunder, Alexis; Ildefonse, Benoît; Yamato, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Metamorphic soles correspond to m to ~500m thick tectonic slices welded beneath most of the large-scale ophiolites. They typically show a steep inverted metamorphic structure where the pressure and temperature conditions of crystallization increase upward (from 500±100°C at 0.5±0.2 GPa to 800±100°C at 1.0±0.2 GPa), with isograds subparallel to the contact with the overlying ophiolitic peridotite. The proportion of mafic rocks in metamorphic soles also increases from the bottom (meta-sediments rich) to the top (approaching the ophiolite peridotites). These soles are interpreted as the result of heat transfer from the incipient mantle wedge toward the nascent slab (associated with large-scale fluid transfer and possible shear heating) during the first My of intra-oceanic subduction (as indicated by radiometric ages). Metamorphic soles provide therefore major constraints on early subduction dynamics (i.e., thermal structure, fluid migration and rheology along the nascent slab interface). We present a detailed structural and petrological study of the metamorphic sole from 4 major cross-sections along the Oman ophiolite. We show precise pressure-temperature estimates obtained by pseudosection modelling and EBSD measurements performed on both the garnet-bearing and garnet-free high-grade sole. Results allow quantification of the micro-scale deformation and highlight differences in pressure-temperature-deformation conditions between the 4 different locations, showing that the inverted metamorphic gradient through the sole is not continuous in all locations. Based on these new constraints, we suggest a new tectonic-petrological model for the formation of metamorphic soles below ophiolites. This model involves the stacking of several homogeneous slivers of oceanic crust leading to the present-day structure of the sole. In this view, these thrusts are the result of rheological contrasts between the sole and the peridotite as the plate interface progressively cools down

  2. Life history context of reproductive aging in a wild primate model

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Jeanne; Gesquiere, Laurence; Galbany, Jordi; Onyango, Patrick O.; Alberts, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The pace of reproductive aging has been of considerable interest, especially in regard to the long postreproductive period in modern women. Here we use data for both sexes from a 37-year longitudinal study of a wild baboon population to place reproductive aging within a life history context for this species, a primate relative of humans that evolved in the same savannah habitat as humans did. We examine the patterns and pace of reproductive aging, including birth rates and reproductive hormones for both sexes, and compare reproductive aging to age-related changes in several other traits. Reproductive senescence occurs later in baboon females than males. Delayed senescence in females relative to males is also found in several other traits, such as dominance status and body condition, but not in molar wear or glucocorticoid profiles. Survival, health, and well-being are the product of risk factors in morphological, physiological, and behavioral traits that differ in rate of senescence and in dependence on social or ecological conditions; some will be very sensitive to differences in circumstances and others less so. PMID:20738283

  3. Settlement and landscape history of the Northern Franconian Jura during the Bronze and Iron Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothieringer, Katja; Lambers, Karsten; Seregély, Timo; Schäfer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes the results of initial archaeological and geoarchaeological fieldwork in the Northern Franconian Jura between the cities of Bayreuth and Bamberg. Our research aims at the reconstruction of settlement patterns and strategies of land use during the Metal Ages (Bronze Age and Iron Age) in the catchment area of the river Weismain. The project is designed as a case study for research into the settlement and landscape history of a rural region of the Central German Uplands during the last two millennia before our era. During the Bronze Age and Iron Age (about 2.100 BC to 30 BC), the Northern Franconian Jura must have been densely populated, as evidenced by numerous burial monuments, prominent hillforts like the Staffelberg, and ritual places on the Jurassic plateau. However, little is known about small rural settlements and hamlets which would have accounted for most of the settlement activity in the region. Thus, we lack the most important element for understanding the cultural history and development of the region as well as the consequences of human impact on the landscape. This impact must have induced changes in vegetation and subsequent erosion processes, leading to the formation of geoarchives like colluvial layers. During our initial fieldwork we identified such colluvial layers in depressions on the Jurassic plateau or at footslope positions. As radiocarbon datings of charcoal fragments showed, some of them date from the Metal Ages. The type is wood of these charcoal fragments is oak, which recently only occurs sporadically in mixed forests with beeches. The quantification of the shift of sediments from the plateau to the valleys will be the next important step of geoarchaeological research. Thus, investigations both on the plateau and in the river valleys will accompany archaeological survey. Apart from landscape reconstruction, they will also provide information on the state of preservation and the conditions for identifying archaeological

  4. Metamorphic Epitaxy for Multijunction Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    France, Ryan M.; Dimroth, Frank; Grassman, Tyler J.; King, Richard R.

    2016-03-01

    Multijunction solar cells have proven to be capable of extremely high efficiencies by combining multiple semiconductor materials with bandgaps tuned to the solar spectrum. Reaching the optimum set of semiconductors often requires combining high-quality materials with different lattice constants into a single device, a challenge particularly suited for metamorphic epitaxy. In this article, we describe different approaches to metamorphic multijunction solar cells, including traditional upright metamorphic, state-of-the-art inverted metamorphic, and forward-looking multijunction designs on silicon. We also describe the underlying materials science of graded buffers that enables metamorphic subcells with low dislocation densities. Following nearly two decades of research, recent efforts have demonstrated high-quality lattice-mismatched multijunction solar cells with very little performance loss related to the mismatch, enabling solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies over 45%.

  5. Chronology, geochemistry, and petrology of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from Descartes breccia 67215: Clues to the age, origin, structure, and impact history of the lunar crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. D.; Borg, L. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.

    2003-04-01

    The petrology, major and trace element geochemistry, and Nd-Ar-Sr isotopic compositions of a ferroan noritic anorthosite clast from lunar breccia 67215 have been studied in order to improve our understanding of the composition, age, structure, and impact history of the lunar crust. The clast (designated 67215c) has an unusually well preserved igneous texture. Mineral compositions are consistent with classification of 67215c as a member of the ferroan anorthositic suite of lunar highlands rocks, but the texture and mineralogy show that it cooled more rapidly and at shallower depths than did more typical ferroan anorthosites (FANs). Incompatible trace element concentrations are enriched in 67215c relative to typical FANs, but diagnostic signatures such as Ti/Sm, Sc/Sm, plagiophile element ratios, and the lack of Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta fractionation show that this cannot be due to the addition of KREEP. Alternatively, 67215c may contain a greater fraction of trapped liquid than is commonly present in lunar FANs. 147Sm-143Nd isotopic compositions of mineral separates from 67215c define an isochron age of 4.40 ± 0.11 Gyr with a near-chondritic initial 143Nd of +0.85 ± 0.53. The 40Ar-39Ar composition of plagioclase from this clast records a post-crystallization thermal event at 3.93 ± 0.08 Gyr, with the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in this age deriving from a poorly constrained correction for lunar atmosphere 40Ar. Rb-Sr isotopic compositions are disturbed, probably by the same event recorded by the Ar isotopic compositions. Trace element compositions of FANs are consistent with crystallization from a moderately evolved magma ocean and do not support a highly depleted source composition such as that implied by the positive initial 143Nd of the ferroan noritic anorthosite 62236. Alternatively, the Nd isotopic systematics of lunar FANs may have been subject to variable degrees of modification by impact metamorphism, with the plagioclase fraction being more strongly

  6. Large impact crater histories of Mars: The effect of different model crater age techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, Stuart J.; Hynek, Brian M.; Lillis, Robert J.; Bottke, William F.

    2013-07-01

    Impact events that produce large craters primarily occurred early in the Solar System's history because the largest bolides were remnants from planetary formation. Determining when large impacts occurred on a planetary surface such as Mars can yield clues to the flux of material in the early inner Solar System which, in turn, can constrain other planetary processes such as the timing and magnitude of resurfacing and the history of the martian core dynamo. We have used a large, global planetary database in conjunction with geomorphologic mapping to identify craters superposed on the rims of 78 larger craters with diameters D ⩾ 150 km on Mars, ≈78% of which have not been previously dated in this manner. The densities of superposed craters with diameters larger than 10, 16, 25, and 50 km, as well as isochron fits were used to derive model crater ages of these larger craters and basins from which we derived an impact flux. In discussing these ages, we point out several internal inconsistencies of crater-age modeling techniques and chronology systems and, all told, we explain why we think isochron-fitting is the most reliable indicator of an age. Our results point to a mostly obliterated crater record prior to ˜4.0 Ga with the oldest preserved mappable craters on Mars dating to ˜4.3-4.35 Ga. We have used our results to constrain the cessation time of the martian core dynamo which we found to have occurred between the formation of Ladon and Prometheus basins, approximately 4.06-4.09 Ga. We also show that, overall, surfaces on Mars older than ˜4.0-4.1 Ga have experienced >1 km of resurfacing, while those younger than ˜3.8-3.9 Ga have experienced significantly less.

  7. MEAN AGE GRADIENT AND ASYMMETRY IN THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF THE SMALL MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Cignoni, M.; Cole, A. A.; Tosi, M.; Gallagher, J. S.; Sabbi, E.; Anderson, J.; Nota, A.; Grebel, E. K.

    2013-10-01

    We derive the star formation history (SFH) in four regions of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) using the deepest VI color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) ever obtained for this galaxy. The images were obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and are located at projected distances of 0.°5-2° from the SMC center, probing the main body and the wing of the galaxy. We derived the SFHs of the four fields using two independent procedures to fit synthetic CMDs to the data. We compare the SFHs derived here with our earlier results for the SMC bar to create a deep pencil-beam survey of the global history of the central SMC. We find in all the six fields observed with HST a slow star formation (SF) pace from 13 to 5-7 Gyr ago, followed by a ≈2-3 times higher activity. This is remarkable because dynamical models do not predict a strong influence of either the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) or the Milky Way at that time. The level of the intermediate-age SF rate enhancement systematically increases toward the center, resulting in a gradient in the mean age of the population, with the bar fields being systematically younger than the outer ones. SF over the most recent 500 Myr is strongly concentrated in the bar, the only exception being the area of the SMC wing. The strong current activity of the latter is likely driven by interaction with the LMC. At a given age, there is no significant difference in metallicity between the inner and outer fields, implying that metals are well mixed throughout the SMC. The age-metallicity relations we infer from our best-fitting models are monotonically increasing with time, with no evidence of dips. This may argue against the major merger scenario proposed by Tsujimoto and Bekki in 2009, although a minor merger cannot be ruled out.

  8. Natural history of stuttering to 4 years of age: a prospective community-based study.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Sheena; Onslow, Mark; Packman, Ann; Cini, Eileen; Conway, Laura; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Bavin, Edith L; Prior, Margot; Eadie, Patricia; Block, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    To document the natural history of stuttering by age 4 years, including (1) cumulative incidence of onset, (2) 12-month recovery status, (3) predictors of stuttering onset and recovery, and (4) potential comorbidities. The study cohort was a prospective community-ascertained cohort (the Early Language in Victoria Study) from Melbourne, Australia, of 4-year-old children (n = 1619; recruited at age 8 months) and their mothers. Outcome was stuttering onset by age 4 years and recovery within 12 months of onset, defined using concurrent monthly parent and speech pathologist ratings. Potential predictors: child gender, birth weight, birth order, prematurity, and twinning; maternal mental health and education; socioeconomic status; and family history of stuttering. Potential comorbidities: preonset and concurrent temperament, language, nonverbal cognition, and health-related quality of life. By age 4 years, the cumulative incidence of stuttering onset was 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.7% to 12.8%). Higher maternal education (P = .004), male gender (P = .02), and twinning (P = .005) predicted stuttering onset. At outcome, stuttering children had stronger language (mean [SD]: 105.0 [13.0] vs 99.6 [14.6]; mean difference 5.5, 95% CI: 3.1 to 7.8; P < .001) and nonverbal cognition (mean [SD]: 106.5 [11.4] vs 103.9 [13.7], mean difference 2.6, 95% CI: 0.4 to 4.8; P = .02) and better health-related quality of life but were otherwise similar to their nonstuttering peers. Only 9 of 142 children (6.3%; 95% CI: 2.9% to 11.7%) recovered within 12 months of onset. Although stuttering onset is common in preschoolers, adverse affects are not the norm in the first year after onset.

  9. Women in American History: A Series. Book Two, Women in the Ages of Expansion and Reform 1820-1860.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Beverly

    The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses women in the ages of expansion and reform (1820-1860). Designed to supplement U.S. history textbooks, the book is presented in six chapters. Chapter I describes the "true woman," an ideal cultivated by women writers, educators, and magazine editors. The four virtues were…

  10. Different origins of garnet in high pressure to ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Qiong-Xia; Zhou, Li-Gang

    2017-09-01

    Garnet in high-pressure (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in subduction zone commonly shows considerable zonation in major and trace elements as well as mineral inclusions, which bears information on its growth mechanism via metamorphic or peritectic reactions in coexistence with relic minerals and metamorphic fluids or anatectic melts at subduction-zone conditions. It provides an important target to retrieve physicochemical changes in subduction-zone processes, including those not only in pressure and temperature but also in the durations of metamorphism and anatexis. Garnet from different compositions of HP to UHP metamorphic rocks may show different types of major and trace element zonation, as well as mineral inclusions. Discrimination between the different origins of garnet provides important constraints on pressure and temperature and the evolution history for the HP to UHP metamorphic rocks. Magmatic garnet may occur as relics in granitic gneisses despite metamorphic modification at subduction-zone conditions, with spessartine-increasing or flat major element profiles from inner to outer core and exceptionally higher contents of trace elements than metamorphic mantle and rim. Metamorphic garnet can grow at different metamorphic stages during prograde subduction and retrograde exhumation, with spessartine-decreasing from core to rim if the intracrystalline diffusion is not too fast. The compositional profiles of metamorphic garnet in the abundances of grossular, almandine and pyrope are variable depending on the composition of host rocks and co-existing minerals. Peritectic garnet grows through peritectic reactions during partial melting of HP to UHP rocks, with the composition of major elements to be controlled by anatectic P-T conditions and the compositions of parental rocks and anatectic melts. Trace element profiles in garnet with different origins are also variable depending on the coexisting mineral assemblages, the garnet

  11. Parity History Determines a Systemic Inflammatory Response to Spread of Ovarian Cancer in Naturally Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Urzua, Ulises; Chacon, Carlos; Lizama, Luis; Sarmiento, Sebastián; Villalobos, Pía; Kroxato, Belén; Marcelain, Katherine; Gonzalez, María-Julieta

    2017-10-01

    Aging intersects with reproductive senescence in women by promoting a systemic low-grade chronic inflammation that predisposes women to several diseases including ovarian cancer (OC). OC risk at menopause is significantly modified by parity records during prior fertile life. To date, the combined effects of age and parity on the systemic inflammation markers that are particularly relevant to OC initiation and progression at menopause remain largely unknown. Herein, we profiled a panel of circulating cytokines in multiparous versus virgin C57BL/6 female mice at peri-estropausal age and investigated how cytokine levels were modulated by intraperitoneal tumor induction in a syngeneic immunocompetent OC mouse model. Serum FSH, LH and TSH levels increased with age in both groups while prolactin (PRL) was lower in multiparous respect to virgin mice, a finding previously observed in parous women. Serum CCL2, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, TNF-α, IL1-β and IL-12p70 levels increased with age irrespective of parity status, but were specifically reduced following OC tumor induction only in multiparous mice. Animals developed hemorrhagic ascites and tumor implants in the omental fat band and other intraperitoneal organs by 12 weeks after induction, with multiparous mice showing a significantly extended survival. We conclude that previous parity history counteracts aging-associated systemic inflammation possibly by reducing the immunosuppression that typically allows tumor spread. Results suggest a partial impairment of the M2 shift in tumor-associated macrophages as well as decreased stimulation of regulatory B-cells in aged mice. This long term, tumor-concurrent effect of parity on inflammation markers at menopause would be a contributing factor leading to decreased OC risk.

  12. Exposure age and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene age. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene age for the surface. To assess exposure age and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum exposure age of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield exposure ages of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene age and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) exposure ages based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  13. P-T-time evolution of the Mejillones Metamorphic Complex: Insights into Late Triassic to Early Jurassic orogenic processes in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón, M.; Massonne, H.-J.; Hervé, F.; Theye, T.

    2017-10-01

    Better constrained pressure-temperature (P-T) histories of metamorphic complexes along the Andean continental margin are important for understanding the late Paleozoic and Mesozoic tectonic evolution of the southwestern margin of Gondwana. The Mejillones Metamorphic Complex of the northern Chilean Coastal Cordillera is composed of two tectonic units, the Morro Mejillones and Morro Jorgiño blocks. These units are bound by the NW-trending Caleta Herradura fault and show distinctly metamorphic ages and thermal evolution. The Morro Mejillones block was metamorphosed at low pressure conditions (andalusite-sillimanite series) during the intrusion of tonalitic plutons at ca. 208 Ma, as indicated by available geochronological data. In contrast, the Morro Jorgiño block comprises amphibolite-facies schists, gneisses and foliated metabasites with characteristic garnet-bearing mineral assemblages. For garnet-bearing pelitic gneisses, a clockwise P-T path has been determined from pseudosection modelling in the MnNCKFMASHTO system. The proposed evolution is characterized by a pressure increase from 7.5 to 8.5 kbar at increasing temperatures from 585 to 615 °C. Decompression to 6 kbar followed, accompanied by heating to 630-640 °C. Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb in-situ dating of high-Y monazite grains yielded a weighted average age of ca. 190 ± 4 Ma, which is interpreted as the age of tectonic burial of metamorphic rocks of the Morro Jorgiño tectonic unit. We infer that the block was buried to 25 km depth through contractional deformation of the continental edge in a subduction zone, likely linked to the docking of the Mejillonia terrane. Rapid exhumation followed and the ensuing juxtaposition of both tectonic units was controlled by Jurassic transtensional activity of the Atacama Fault System.

  14. Combustion metamorphism in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bentor, Y K; Kastner, M

    1976-08-06

    In several places in Southern California bituminous sediments of the Monterey Formation-siliceous shales, phosphatic rocks, dolomites, and arkoses-were affected during the Pleistocene and as late as the l9th century by spontaneous subsurface combustion of organic matter, during which temperatures up to 1600 degrees C were reached. This oxidative heating (combustion metamorphism) affected rock complexes over areas of tens of square kilometers that tend to occur in clusters. As a result of these processes, the rocks recrystallized and partially melted to form pseudomagmas which intruded the country rocks. The chemical compositions of these melts differ from those of igneous magmas. Acid and intermediate siliceous melts as well as phosphatic melts have formed. These two types are generally immiscible. The following high-temperature minerals were determined: alpha- and beta-cristobalite, quartz, calcic plagioclase, diopsidic pyroxene, wollastonite, cordierite, graphite, fluorapatite, and fluorite; at lower temperature pyrite, gypsum, aragonite, calcite, jarosite, and hexahydrite crystallized.

  15. Shock metamorphism of carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Keil, Klaus; Stoeffler, Dieter

    1992-01-01

    Shock effects were studied in 69 carbonaceous chondrites, including CM2, CO3, CV3, ungrouped C2-C4, and CK4-6 chondrites, using optical microscopy of thin sections. It is shown that the classification scheme of Stoeffler et al. (1991) for the progressive stages of shock metamorphism in ordinary chondrites is also applicable to carbonaceous chondrites. On the basis of shock effects in olivine, the 69 carbonaceous chondrites could be assigned to four shock stage, S1 to S4. The CM2 and CO3 groups were found to be the least shocked chondrite groups, whereas the CK4-6 and CV3 were the most strongly shocked groups.

  16. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Angela R; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L; Buys, Saundra S; Frost, Caren J; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia A; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M; Daly, Mary B

    2015-11-01

    Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH-), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer-specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH- peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer-specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH- peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer-specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer-specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Urban neighbourhood unemployment history and depressive symptoms over time among late middle age and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wight, Richard G; Aneshensel, Carol S; Barrett, Christopher; Ko, Michelle; Chodosh, Joshua; Karlamangla, Arun S

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about how a neighbourhood’s unemployment history may set the stage for depressive symptomatology. This study examines the effects of urban neighbourhood unemployment history on current depressive symptoms and subsequent symptom trajectories among residentially stable late middle age and older adults. Contingent effects between neighbourhood unemployment and individual-level employment status (ie, cross-level interactions) are also assessed. Methods Individual-level survey data are from four waves (2000, 2002, 2004 and 2006) of the original cohort of the nationally representative US Health and Retirement Study. Neighbourhoods are operationalised with US Census tracts for which historical average proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 and change in proportion unemployed between 1990 and 2000 are used to characterise the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Hierarchical linear regressions estimate three-level (time, individual and neighbourhood) growth models. Results Symptoms in 2000 are highest among those residing in neighbourhoods characterised by high historical average unemployment beginning in 1990 and increasing unemployment between 1990 and 2000, net of a wide range of socio-demographic controls including individual-level employment status. These neighbourhood unemployment effects are not contingent upon individual-level employment status in 2000. 6-year trajectories of depressive symptoms decrease over time on average but are not significantly influenced by the neighbourhood’s unemployment history. Conclusions Given the current US recession, future studies that do not consider historical employment conditions may underestimate the mental health impact of urban neighbourhood context. The findings suggest that exposure to neighbourhood unemployment earlier in life may be consequential to mental health later in life. PMID:22918896

  18. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  19. Short-lived thermal peak from garnet geospeedometry in the inverted metamorphic gradient of the Nestos Thrust in the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex (RMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Pressure, temperature and time (P-T-t) are among the most common variables that can be deduced from the study of metamorphic rocks. Although metamorphic recrystallization is mostly due to changes in pressure and temperature, the time of residence or the rate of change of P-T is commonly assessed by geochronological studies. In this work we attempt to link information from isotopic systems, petrological determination and diffusion kinetics in order to assess the activity of the major syn-metamorphic Nestos Thrust of the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex (RMC). The RMC, in Northern-Greece and South Bulgaria, includes a synmetamorphic thrust complex that juxtaposes high-grade imbricate units on top of a medium-to-low grade unit. The metamorphic rocks exhibit an inverted metamorphic gradient with peak-metamorphic temperatures that increase upwards. Syn-kinematic migmatites occur in the immediate hanging wall of the thrust zone. U-Pb Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP) zircon geochronology on leucosomes from these migmatites yield Early Cretaceous crystallization ages (160-120 Ma), which are interpreted to date anatexis. The duration of the high-temperature peak has been estimated with forward numerical modelling of garnet fractionation and diffusion. Garnets that display chemical zoning in their four major elements (Fe-Ca-Mg-Mn) have been investigated. Their chemical composition was compared to numerically generated compositions of garnet that grow and diffuse in a given P-T-t path. The duration of the peak-temperature conditions was found to be between 2 and 5 Ma. The short thermal peak and the spatial distribution of the high grade rocks along the major shear zone suggests that the heat source of metamorphism is most probably related to the viscous heating of this major shear zone.

  20. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (<1 kbar) that typify thermal metamorphism, several compositional variables are good thermometers. Although those based on Fe-Mg exchange are likely to have been reset during slow cooling, those based on coupled substitution, in particular Ca and Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, are less susceptible to retrograde diffusion and are potentially more faithful recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic

  1. CARBONACEOUS MATTER PRECURSORS AND METAMORPHIC CONDITIONS IN THERMALLY PROCESSED CHONDRITES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirico, E.; Montagnac, G.; Rouzaud, J.; Bonal, L.; Bourot-Denise, M.; Duber, S.; Reynard, B.

    2009-12-01

    Unravelling the origin of carbonaceous matter in pristine chondrites requires the understanding of the effect of post-accretion processes. In chondrites of petrologic type 3, thermal metamorphism modified to various extents the composition and structure of carbonaceous matter. Interestingly, this process controls the degree of structural order of carbonaceous matter, and clues on the thermal history of the parent body may be recovered from the physico-chemical study of carbonaceous matter. Following this framework, geothermometers based on Raman spectrometry of carbonaceous matter and covering a wide range of temperatures (100-650 °C) have been developed over recent years, both on terrestrial rocks and chondrites. While Raman data have been largely interpreted in terms of temperature, they are also the fingerprint of certain metamorphic conditions, especially in the low temperature range relevant to poorly ordered carbonaceous matter. This study investigates the Raman spectra of two series of chondritic carbonaceous matter and coal samples formed from different precursors and under different metamorphic conditions. The Raman spectra of Polyaromatic Carbonaceous Matter (PCM) from 42 chondrites and 27 coal samples, measured with visible (514 nm) and ultra-violet (244 nm) excitation wavelengths, are analyzed. The Raman spectra of low rank coals and chondrites of petrologic types 1 and 2, which contain the more disordered PCM, reflect the distinct carbon structures of their precursors. The 514 nm Raman spectra of high rank coals and chondrites of petrologic type 3 exhibit continuous and systematic spectral differences reflecting different carbon structures present during the metamorphism event. They result from differences in the chemical structures of the precursors concerning for instance the reticulation of polyaromatic units or an abundance of ether functional groups, or possibly from a lack of carbonization processes to efficiently expel oxygen heteroatoms, due

  2. Effects of magmatic and metamorphic volatiles on the evolution of fluid-rock interactions and fluid pressure during contact metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R.B. )

    1992-01-01

    Finite difference models of hydrothermal flow around a cooling intrusion that include fluid production from the magma during crystallization and from wall rocks during heating are used to investigate the evolution of fluid pressure and fluid-rock interactions during the contact metamorphism. For a granodiorite intrusion with a width of 9 km and releasing just 1: H[sub 2]O linearly during crystallization, fluid production elevates fluid pressures to lithostatic values above and adjacent to the intrusion when permeabilities are less than 1 [mu]D (10[sup [minus]18] m[sup 2]). Alternatively, hydrofracturing resulting from fluid production would be sufficient to create and maintain a time-averaged permeability of 1 [mu]D for 50,000 years: permeability decreases gradually with time afterward until the magma crystallizes (350,000 years). In detail, the history depends strongly on how fluids are released from the crystallizing magma. The effect is comparable to that obtained for devolatilization of 5% H[sub 2]O by weight over heating of 400 C in adjacent wall rocks. Fluid production dominates other mechanisms for elevating fluid pressures such as thermal expansion of pore fluids or ductile strain. In models with both magmatic and metamorphic fluids, fluid flow is outward from the inner aureole for much of the cooling history at wall-rock permeabilities of [le]100 [mu]D. Extensive up-temperature flow is not predicted. The evolution of flow is such that magmatic fluids can initially dominate fluid-rock interactions in a plume above the intrusion, although the timing of interaction of magmatic and metamorphic waters is sensitive to the detailed devolatilization histories. Initial pore fluids rapidly become insignificant in the overall fluid budget. Surface or external fluids infiltrate only late in the cooling history, as rocks within a few kilometers of the intrusion are cooling.

  3. The Kokchetav Massif, Kazakhstan: "Type locality" of diamond-bearing UHP metamorphic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertl, H.; Sobolev, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    Since the first discovery of in situ metamorphic diamond in the Kokchetav Massif in 1990, numerous scientists from different disciplines paid special attention to petrological and geochemical features, geodynamics and the mechanism of deep subduction and exhumation of UHP rocks. This discovery was a trigger for an intense search of further possible diamondiferous UHP terranes worldwide, successfully documented by numerous new findings. Thus far, more than 350 papers have been published on various aspects of the Kokchetav UHP rocks. A compilation of the most important and far-reaching implications are outlined here. PT-estimates yield peak metamorphic conditions of at least 43 kbar at temperatures of about 950-1000°C. Zircon separates show inherited Proterozoic cores and mantle with the peak of UHP metamorphism at about 537-530 Ma. Several Ar-Ar-ages on micas scatter around 529-528 and 521-517 Ma and reflect different stages of the exhumation history. Migmatization occurred during exhumation at about 526-520 Ma. Microdiamonds which reach a grain size of 300 micrometers, contain highly potassic fluid inclusions as well as solid inclusions like carbonates, different silicates and metal sulfides, which favours the idea of a diamond formation from a C-O-H bearing fluid. Nitrogen isotope data and negative δ13C values of Kokchetav diamonds indicate a metasedimentary origin. δ18O studies on garnet and clinopyroxene of a layered calcsilicate are ruling out a primitive mantle protolith; similar studies on eclogite indicate their basaltic protolith to have experienced water-rock interaction prior to UHP metamorphism. A number of unique mineralogical findings have been made. K-feldspar exsolutions in clinopyroxene demonstrate that potassium can be incorporated into the clinopyroxene structure under upper mantle pressures. Other significant observations are coesite exsolutions in titanite, quartz-rods in clinopyroxene, the discovery of K-tourmaline as well as new minerals

  4. Ages, irradiation history, and chemical composition of lunar rocks from the sea of tranquillity.

    PubMed

    Albee, A L; Burnett, D S; Chodos, A A; Eugster, O J; Huneke, J C; Papanastassiou, D A; Podosek, F A; Russ, G P; Sanz, H G; Tera, F; Wasserburg, G J

    1970-01-30

    The (87)Rb-(87)Sr internal isochrons for five rocks yield an age of 3.65 +/-0.05 x 10(9) years which presumably dates the formation of the Sea of Tranquillity. Potassium-argon ages are consistent with this result. The soil has a model age of 4.5 x10(9) years, which is best regarded as the time of initial differentiation of the lunar crust. A peculiar rock fragment from the soil gave a model age of 4.44 x 10(9) years. Relative abundances of alkalis do not suggest differential volatilization. The irradiation history of lunar rocks is inferred from isotopic measurements of gadolinium, vanadium, and cosmogenic rare gases. Spallation xenon spectra exhibit a high and variable (131)Xe/(126)Xe ratio. No evidence for (129)I was found. The isotopic composition of solar-wind xenon is distinct from that of the atmosphere and of the average for carbonaceous chondrites, but the krypton composition appears similar to average carbonaceous chondrite krypton.

  5. Natural history of age-related lobular involution and impact on breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Radisky, Derek C; Visscher, Daniel W; Frank, Ryan D; Vierkant, Robert A; Winham, Stacey; Stallings-Mann, Melody; Hoskin, Tanya L; Nassar, Aziza; Vachon, Celine M; Denison, Lori A; Hartmann, Lynn C; Frost, Marlene H; Degnim, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Age-related lobular involution (LI) is a physiological process in which the terminal duct lobular units of the breast regress as a woman ages. Analyses of breast biopsies from women with benign breast disease (BBD) have found that extent of LI is negatively associated with subsequent breast cancer development. Here we assess the natural course of LI within individual women, and the impact of progressive LI on breast cancer risk. The Mayo Clinic BBD cohort consists of 13,455 women with BBD from 1967 to 2001. The BBD cohort includes 1115 women who had multiple benign biopsies, 106 of whom had developed breast cancer. Within this multiple biopsy cohort, the progression of the LI process was examined by age at initial biopsy and time between biopsies. The relationship between LI progression and breast cancer risk was assessed using standardized incidence ratios and by Cox proportional hazards analysis. Women who had multiple biopsies were younger age and had a slightly higher family history of breast cancer as compared with the overall BBD cohort. Extent of LI at subsequent biopsy was greater with increasing time between biopsies and for women age 55 + at initial biopsy. Among women with multiple biopsies, there was a significant association of higher breast cancer risk among those with involution stasis (lack of progression, HR 1.63) as compared with those with involution progression, p = 0.036. The multiple biopsy BBD cohort allows for a longitudinal study of the natural progression of LI. The majority of women in the multiple biopsy cohort showed progression of LI status between benign biopsies, and extent of progression was highest for women who were in the perimenopausal age range at initial biopsy. Progression of LI status between initial and subsequent biopsy was associated with decreased breast cancer risk.

  6. Regional Tectonic Evolution of the Pioneer Metamorphic Core Complex, South-Central Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, R.; Leech, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    The Pioneer core complex (PCC) is one of lesser-studied Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) that is located north of Snake River Plain in Rocky Mountains. The PCC resides in a transitional zone separating Eocene MCCs to the north and Miocene MCCs to the south which is a key location to understand processes of subduction and continental rifting in western US. The project applied thermodynamic modeling, zircon U-Pb dating, and Ti-in-zircon and Ti-in-biotite thermometry to study the pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) history of the PCC. Zircon ages from gneiss, granitic dike and quartzite are in Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene. The age of 109±4 Ma suggests that NE-SW D1 compression was on going 109 Ma. The ages of 83.9±5 and 85.6±1 Ma indicate that D2 compression was >86-84 Ma. The younger ages fall into 3 groups, 52 Ma, 48 Ma and 44 Ma. They indicate that NW-SE D3 extension and magmatism was ongoing 52 Ma and ceased 44 Ma; the emplacement of intrusive granodiorite at 48 Ma gave peak metamorphism of the PCC in upper amphibolite-facies. Ti-in-zircon thermometry calculated peak T of the PCC at 1100°C. Ti-in-biotite thermometry calculated peak T of biotite at 895°C and retrograde metamorphism following the path from 895°C down to 500°C finally. Thermodynamic modeling generated pseudosections of gneiss and phyllite on which the P-T-t-d path of the PCC follows a clockwise path that progrades to peak condition at 4 kbar, 850-900°C at 52-48 Ma, and followed by retrograde stage to 2 kbar, 500°C at 44 Ma. The metamorphic history of PCC started at >109 Ma (D1) in Late Cretaceous during the initiation of Sevier orogeny as the Farallon plate subducted at a shallow angle. Then the PCC underwent D2 Sevier compression 86-84 Ma when the Farallon plate became flat-subducting. However, due to lack of ages between 109 and 86 Ma, it is uncertain if D1 and D2 were one continuous event or two separate episodes in Pioneer region. Following the compression

  7. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (P<0.001) and all three respiratory symptoms (P<0.001) after adjusting for smoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  8. Jurassic to Miocene magmatism and metamorphism in the Mogok metamorphic belt and the India-Eurasia collision in Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barley, M. E.; Pickard, A. L.; Zaw, Khin; Rak, P.; Doyle, M. G.

    2003-06-01

    Situated south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis at the western margin of the Shan-Thai terrane the high-grade Mogok metamorphic belt (MMB) in Myanmar occupies a key position in the tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. The first sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe U-Pb in zircon geochronology for the MMB shows that strongly deformed granitic orthogneisses near Mandalay contain Jurassic (˜170 Ma) zircons that have partly recrystallized during ˜43 Ma high-grade metamorphism. A hornblende syenite from Mandalay Hill also contains Jurassic zircons with evidence of Eocene metamorphic recrystallization rimmed by thin zones of 30.9 ± 0.7 Ma magmatic zircon. The relative abundance of Jurassic zircons in these rocks is consistent with suggestions that southern Eurasia had an Andean-type margin at that time. Mid-Cretaceous to earliest Eocene (120 to 50 Ma) I-type granitoids in the MMB, Myeik Archipelago, and Western Myanmar confirm that prior to the collision of India, an up to 200 km wide magmatic belt extended along the Eurasian margin from Pakistan to Sumatra. Metamorphic overgrowths to zircons in the orthogneiss near Mandalay date a period of Eocene (˜43 Ma) high-grade metamorphism possibly during crustal thickening related to the initial collision between India and Eurasia (at 65 to 55 Ma). This was followed by emplacement of syntectonic hornblende syenites and leucogranites between 35 and 23 Ma. Similar syntectonic syenites and leucogranites intruded the Ailao Shan-Red River shear belt in southern China and Vietnam during the Eocene-Oligocene to Miocene, and the Wang Chao and Three Pagodas faults in northern Thailand (that most likely link with the MMB) were also active at this time. The complex history of Eocene to early Miocene metamorphism, deformation, and magmatism in the MMB provides evidence that it may have played a key role in the network of deformation zones that accommodated strain during the northwards movement of India and resulting extrusion or

  9. Contrasting Metamorphic Record of Heat Production Anomalies in the Penokean Orogen of Northern Michigan.

    PubMed

    Attoh

    2000-05-01

    It is proposed that the contrasting metamorphic mineral assemblages of the isolated amphibolite facies metamorphic highs in the Penokean orogen of northern Michigan may be caused by different heat production rates in the Archean basement. This hypothesis is based on concentrations of K, U, and Th in the Archean basement gneisses and Paleoproterozoic metasediments that indicate significant contribution of radiogenic heating during Penokean metamorphism. Heat production was anomalously high ( approximately 10.6 µWm-3) where andalusite-bearing mineral assemblages indicate that high temperatures were attained at shallow crustal levels ( approximately 550 degrees -600 degrees C at approximately 3 kbar). In contrast, where exposed metamorphic rocks indicate peak temperatures of 600 degrees -650 degrees C at 6-7 kbar, heat production in the Archean basement was lower ( approximately 3.7 µWm-3). The effect of heat production rates on the metamorphic pressure-temperature paths was tested with numerical thermal models. The calculations show (1) that if the heat production rate, where andalusite-bearing assemblages formed, was significantly <6.0 µWm-3, the estimated pressure at peak temperatures (PTmax) would be much higher and lie in the sillimanite or kyanite stability fields; and (2) differences between PTmax estimates for the metamorphic highs based on thermobarometry can be reproduced if thermal history involved significant crustal thickening as well as moderate unroofing rates.

  10. Accessing probable thermal histories through dispersed, partially-reset zircon (U-Th)/He ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Jeremy; Schneider, David

    2016-04-01

    exhibited by the datasets. We do not recommend selecting only the youngest dates from samples or averaging (U-Th)/He dates, as these methods do not acknowledge the complexity of the (U-Th)/He system and potentially exclude non-obvious, but equally probable, geologic scenarios. To this extent, using the vertical profile approach to assess exhumation rates from cooling age data may also provide an inaccurate result if the strata have not been buried to sufficient temperatures to completely reset any prior thermal history. As an alternative, we analyzed more grains from individual samples and combine data from similar structural regions to assess regional trends in thermal history. We believe that this approach does an appropriate job of acknowledging the errors and assumptions involved in the technique while providing meaningful information on thermal history of a region. Thermal modeling of the Mackenzie Mountains data reveals that (1) a substantial sedimentary package was deposited following the Devonian and removed during Permo-Triassic cooling, and (2) the Cordilleran deformation front propagated through the study area from the Albian to the Paleocene, with a moderate increase in cooling rates between 75-67 Ma in the southwest, and 60-55 Ma at the deformation front.

  11. Sexual dimorphism in life history: age, survival, and reproduction in male and female field crickets Teleogryllus commodus under seminatural conditions.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Felix; Bonduriansky, Russell; Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Brooks, Robert C

    2009-06-01

    Males and females differ in their reproductive strategies. Accordingly, sexually dimorphic optima in the allocation of resources to reproduction should select for sex-specific life histories, including sex-specific resolution of the key trade-off between reproduction and longevity. While males are expected to increase reproductive effort with increasing age under sexual selection theory, female reproductive effort should rather decrease after maturity, due to waning selection pressure at older ages. Sex differences in reproductive trade-offs and in the external mortality hazards experienced during the population's evolutionary history are both likely to shape sex differences in reproductive and actuarial (age-specific mortality) aging. Despite the importance of small-bodied, short-lived animals as laboratory models for life-history and aging studies, very little is known about sex differences in life-history patterns under natural conditions. Here, we tested for sex-specific patterns of reproductive and actuarial aging in field crickets under near-natural conditions. Both males and females showed actuarial senescence, with females exhibiting more rapid aging than males but with a later onset. Female and male reproductive effort showed a senescent decrease, with the peaks at different ages. Our findings provide the first demonstration of sexual dimorphism in age-dependent patterns of both survival and reproduction in an insect under near-natural conditions.

  12. Thermal metamorphism. [of chondrite parent bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Sears, Derek W. G.; Dodd, Robert T.

    1988-01-01

    Most chondrites have experienced thermal metamorphism, resulting in changes in texture, mineralogy and possibly chemical composition. The physical conditions for metamorphism range from approximately 400 to 1000 C at low lithostatic pressure. Metamorphism may have resulted from decay of short-lived radionuclides, electromagnetic induction or accretion of hot materials. Several thermal models for chondrite parent bodies have been proposed. The least metamorphosed type-3 chondrites probably carry the most information about the early solar system, but even these have been affected to some degree by thermal processing.

  13. Potential contributions of metamorphic petrology studies in an ultra-deep drillhole in the southern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Speer, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The proposed, ultra-deep hole in the southeast U.S. will penetrate allochthonous, medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Inner Piedmont and Blue Ridge thrust sheets. It is anticipated that the hole will then encounter autochthonous low-grade, metasedimentary cover rocks before bottoming out in crystalline Precambrian basement rocks. Metamorphic petrology in the recent past has concentrated on unraveling the physical and chemical history (P, T, X/sub fluid/, etc.) of metamorphic rocks. The techniques that have been developed are ideally suited to the study of relatively limited samples from drill core. Detailed studies of the allochthonous and autochthonous rocks from the drillhole, combined with comparable studies of the surface rocks, by metamorphic petrologists experimented with these approaches, would give a 3-dimensional picture of the PTX evolution in the region of the ultra-deep hole, and thus an idea of the geometrical, chemical, and physical changes the rocks experienced. This would place constraints on conditions of the rocks before and after thrusting and thus any tectonic models of thrusting in the southern Appalachians. With limited sampling this could be a problem, with more complete sampling it will be an advantage. The metamorphic petrology of the rocks will provide basic support for the other studies of the drill core and drillhole, most notably geochronology and stable isotopes. It should not be forgotten that in addition to the historical metamorphism, the expected, present-day conditions in the drillhole are those of burial metamorphism. The hole will present an excellent opportunity to study such active metamorphic conditions.

  14. Demographic patterns of Ferocactus cylindraceus in relation to substrate age and grazing history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowers, Janice E.

    1997-01-01

    Three subpopulations of Ferocactus cylindraceus, a short-columnar cactus of the Sonoran and Mojave deserts, were sampled in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA, at sites representing a range of substrate ages and different grazing histories. Age-height relations were determined from annual growth, then used to estimate probable year of establishment for each cohort. Eight years between 1944 and 1992 were especially favorable for establishment. Six of these 8 years coincided with El Nino-Southern Oscillation conditions, indicating that as for many woody plants in arid regions, somewhat unusual climatic conditions are necessary if populations are to replace themselves. Comparison of age structures showed that established and developing populations have somewhat different dynamics in that the rate of population increase was slowest on the youngest terrace. On the ancient terraces, about half the plants were less than 25 years old. Plants older than 40 years were few; however the oldest plants in the study (about 49 years) grew on the ancient terraces. On the recent terrace, 76% of the subpopulation was 25 years or younger, and the oldest living plant was about 36 years of age. The age structures of subpopulations on grazed and ungrazed sites also differed markedly. On ungrazed sites, subpopulations were more or less at equilibrium, with enough young plants to replace old ones as they died. In contrast, the subpopulation on the grazed site was in a state of marked disequilibrium. Grazing before 1981 largely extirpated a palatable subshrub that was probably an important nurse plant. Until the shrub population at Indian Canyon recovers from decades of burro grazing, a rebound in E cylindraceus establishment is not to be expected.

  15. Resolving the Youngest Episode of Zircon Rim Growth with High-Spatial Resolution SIMS: U-Pb Ages and Trace Element Analyses from <1 um Thick Metamorphic Zircon Rims from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coble, M. A.; Leech, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Dating the youngest phase of metamorphic or magmatic zircon growth by in-situ techniques on sectioned zircons can be challenging when rims are only a few microns thick; in the worst case, geologically meaningless measurements result from mixing between different age and/or compositional growth domains. This is especially true for zircons from the Zanskar Shear Zone and Tso Morari UHP Complex, NW Himalaya, which contain Eocene to Miocene rims that grew over Paleozoic and Proterozoic protolith cores during peak and retrograde metamorphism. These metamorphic rims are typically only 0.5 to 3.0 microns thick and require high-spatial resolution to resolve. We used the SHRIMP-RG ion-microprobe to perform new U-Pb depth-profiling analyses on zircon surfaces (non-polished) pressed into indium metal. Zircons from a leucogranite dike from Malung Tokpo along the Zanskar Shear Zone, which have 2000-5000 ppm U rims, were selected for detailed depth-profiling to evaluate the depth-resolution by SIMS for U-Pb and trace element analyses. Due to the high U concentration, we were able to decrease the primary beam intensity (sputter rate) and the count times for U and Pb isotopes, and increase the number of cycles through the run-table (45 peak-hopping scans). As a result, each cycle yielded a 0.04 micron depth-resolved zircon age and trace element composition. The youngest 13 scans yielded a U-Pb age of 21.3 ± 0.5 Ma, representing a 0.6 micron rim with uniform U, Th, and Hf concentrations. At 1.15 microns, the primary beam sputtered into a ~600 Ma core; this older age is complicated by the fact that it reflects mixing between the bottom of the sputter volume and the Miocene ages of the pit margins and rim, because the diameter of the spot tends to increase with time. Trace element analyses on zircon surfaces from the Tso Morari UHP Complex are highly reproducible, showing enriched HREE profiles with negative Eu anomalies - a result that is difficult to reproduce by analyses of

  16. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands

    PubMed Central

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth’s surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity. PMID:25684855

  17. Controlling for Landform Age When Determining the Settlement History of the Kuril Islands.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Breanyn; Fitzhugh, Ben; Holman, Darryl

    2014-01-01

    Archaeological investigations of settlement patterns in dynamic landscapes can be strongly biased by the evolution of the Earth's surface. The Kuril Island volcanic arc exemplifies such a dynamic landscape, where landscape-modifying geological forces were active during settlement, including sea-level changes, tectonic emergence, volcanic eruptive processes, coastal aggradation, and dune formation. With all these ongoing processes, in this paper we seek to understand how new landscape formation in the Holocene might bias archaeological interpretations of human settlement in the Kurils. Resolving this issue is fundamental to any interpretation of human settlement history derived from the distribution and age of archaeological sites from the region. On the basis of a comparison of landform ages and earliest archaeological occupation ages on those landforms, we conclude that landform creation did not significantly bias our aggregate archaeological evidence for earliest settlement. Some sections of the archipelago have larger proportions of landform creation dates closer to archaeological evidence of settlement and undoubtedly some archaeological sites have been lost to geomorphic processes. However, comparisons between regions reveal comparable archaeological establishment patterns irrespective of geomorphic antiquity.

  18. Genetic History of Xinjiang's Uyghurs Suggests Bronze Age Multiple-Way Contacts in Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qidi; Lu, Yan; Ni, Xumin; Yuan, Kai; Yang, Yajun; Yang, Xiong; Liu, Chang; Lou, Haiyi; Ning, Zhilin; Wang, Yuchen; Lu, Dongsheng; Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Ying; Shi, Meng; Tian, Lei; Wang, Xiaoji; Zhang, Xi; Li, Jing; Khan, Asifullah; Guan, Yaqun; Tang, Kun; Wang, Sijia; Xu, Shuhua

    2017-10-01

    The Uyghur people residing in Xinjiang, a territory located in the far west of China and crossed by the Silk Road, are a key ethnic group for understanding the history of human dispersion in Eurasia. Here we assessed the genetic structure and ancestry of 951 Xinjiang's Uyghurs (XJU) representing 14 geographical subpopulations. We observed a southwest and northeast differentiation within XJU, which was likely shaped jointly by the Tianshan Mountains, which traverses from east to west as a natural barrier, and gene flow from both east and west directions. In XJU, we identified four major ancestral components that were potentially derived from two earlier admixed groups: one from the West, harboring European (25-37%) and South Asian ancestries (12-20%), and the other from the East, with Siberian (15-17%) and East Asian (29-47%) ancestries. By using a newly developed method, MultiWaver, the complex admixture history of XJU was modeled as a two-wave admixture. An ancient wave was dated back to ∼3,750 years ago (ya), which is much earlier than that estimated by previous studies, but fits within the range of dating of mummies that exhibited European features that were discovered in the Tarim basin, which is situated in southern Xinjiang (4,000-2,000 ya); a more recent wave occurred around 750 ya, which is in agreement with the estimate from a recent study using other methods. We unveiled a more complex scenario of ancestral origins and admixture history in XJU than previously reported, which further suggests Bronze Age massive migrations in Eurasia and East-West contacts across the Silk Road. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  20. Exhumation history of the NW Indian Himalaya revealed by fission track and 40Ar/39Ar ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlup, M.; Steck, A.; Carter, A.; Cosca, M.; Epard, J.-L.; Hunziker, J.

    2011-01-01

    New fission track and Ar/Ar geochronological data provide time constraints on the exhumation history of the Himalayan nappes in the Mandi (Beas valley) - Tso Morari transect of the NW Indian Himalaya. Results from this and previous studies suggest that the SW-directed North Himalayan nappes were emplaced by detachment from the underthrusted upper Indian crust by 55. Ma and metamorphosed by ca. 48-40. Ma. The nappe stack was subsequently exhumed to shallow upper crustal depths (<10. km) by 40-30. Ma in the Tso Morari dome (northern section of the transect) and by 30-20. Ma close to frontal thrusts in the Baralacha La region. From the Oligocene to the present, exhumation continued slowly.Metamorphism started in the High Himalayan nappe prior to the Late Oligocene. High temperatures and anatexis of the subducting upper Indian crust engendered the buoyancy-driven ductile detachment and extrusion of the High Himalayan nappe in the zone of continental collision. Late extrusion of the High Himalayan nappe started about 26. Ma ago, accompanied by ductile extensional shearing in the Zanskar shear zone in its roof between 22 and 19. Ma concomitant with thrusting along the basal Main Central Thrust to the south. The northern part of the nappe was then rapidly exhumed to shallow depth (<10. km) between 20 and 6. Ma, while its southern front reached this depth at 10-5. Ma. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Validity of self-reported history of endodontic treatment in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Maximiliano Schünke; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Padilha, Dalva Maria Pereira; Simonsick, Eleanor Marie; Ferrucci, Luigi; Reynolds, Mark Allan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-reported history of endodontic treatment (SRHET) has been used as a simplified method to estimate history of endodontic disease and treatment. This study aimed to quantify the validity of SRHET, as reported in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), as a method to: 1- identify individuals who experienced endodontic treatment (ET); and 2- identify individuals who present with apical periodontitis (AP). Methods SRHET was collected through the BLSA questionnaire in 247 participants. Data on ET and AP were determined from panoramic radiographs. The total number of ET, AP and missing teeth were recorded for each individual. Validity of SRHET was determined based on ET and AP, separately. Accuracy, efficiency, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (+PV, −PV) and positive and negative likelihood ratios (+LR, −LR) were calculated according to standard methods. Results After exclusions, 229 participants were available for ET analysis and 129 for AP analysis. The SRHET validity values were: sensitivity (ET=0.915; AP=0.782), specificity (ET=0.891; AP=0.689), +PV (ET=0.824; AP=0.353), −PV (ET=0.949; AP=0.936), +LR (ET=8.394; AP=2.514) and −LR (ET=0.095; AP=0.316). Conclusions SRHET was found to be a highly accurate method to predict ET but a weak predictor of the presence of AP among participants in the BLSA. PMID:22515884

  2. The timing of tertiary metamorphism and deformation in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of southern Idaho and northern Utah exposes 2.56-Ga orthogneisses and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by 32-25-Ma granitic plutons. Pluton emplacement was contemporaneous with peak metamorphism, ductile thinning of the country rocks, and top-to-thewest, normal-sense shear along the Middle Mountain shear zone. Monazite and zircon from an attenuated stratigraphic section in the Middle Mountain were dated with U-Pb, using a SHRIMP-RG (reverse geometry) ion microprobe. Zircons from the deformed Archean gneiss preserve a crystallization age of 2532 ?? 33 Ma, while monazites range from 32.6 ?? 0.6 to 27.1 ?? 0.6 Ma. In the schist of the Upper Narrows, detrital zircons lack metamorphic overgrowths, and monazites produced discordant U-Pb ages that range from 52.8 ?? 0.6 to 37.5 ?? 0.3 Ma. From the structurally and stratigraphically highest unit sampled, the schist of Stevens Spring, narrow metamorphic rims on detrital zircons yield ages from 140-110 Ma, and monazite grains contained cores that yield an age of 141 ??2 Ma, whereas rims and some whole grains ranged from 35.5 ?? 0.5 to 30.0 ?? 0.4 Ma. A boudinaged pegmatite exposed in Basin Creek is deformed by the Middle Mountains shear zone and yields a monazite age of 27.6 ?? 0.2 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate two periods of monazite and metamorphic zircon growth: a poorly preserved Early Cretaceous period (???140 Ma) that is strongly overprinted by Oligocene metamorphism (???32-27 Ma) related to regional plutonism and extension. ?? 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  3. Effects of birth weight, gestational age, and maternal obstetric history on birth prevalence of cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Pharoah, P O; Cooke, T; Rosenbloom, L; Cooke, R W

    1987-01-01

    A register of children with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the Mersey region from 1966 to 1977 was compiled from health service records. Frequency distributions and prevalences of birth weight and gestational age differed for those with hemiplegia, diplegia, and quadriplegia. In particular, the children with diplegia showed a bimodal frequency distribution. Children of normal birth weight with diplegia had a higher prevalence of severe mental retardation than those of low birth weight. These differences may be due to survival bias and may not be of aetiological importance. Furthermore, the mothers of diplegic infants had a significantly higher proportion of spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and low birthweight infants in their obstetric history. This suggests that prenatal factors predominate in the aetiology of diplegia. PMID:3674922

  4. Metamorphic conditions and structural evolution of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome: Rhodope metamorphic complex (Greece-Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulas, Evangelos; Schenker, Filippo Luca; Burg, Jean-Pierre; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios

    2017-03-01

    The synmetamorphic nappe system of the Rhodope Metamorphic Complex has been deformed into dome-and-basin structures attributed to syn- to post-convergent exhumation. We document the deformation style and present new thermobarometric and geochronological constraints for the Kesebir-Kardamos dome in southern Bulgaria and northern Greece. The dome consists of a migmatitic core overlain by high-grade thrust sheets. Kinematic indicators indicate a continuum from ductile to brittle conditions during exhumation. Thermodynamic modeling applied to the high-grade, intermediate thrust sheets yielded peak conditions of 1.2 GPa and ca 730 °C. New U-Pb SHRIMP-II dating of zircons from rocks of the same unit revealed Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous (145 Ma) as the time of metamorphic crystallization; some zircon rims yielded Eocene ages (53 and 44 Ma) interpreted as having been thermally reset owing to coeval granitoid magmatism. The high-grade rocks were covered by Lutetian-Priabonian marine sediments after exhumation. Slumps suggest that sedimentation took place in a tectonically active environment. Our new structural, petrological and geochronological results suggest that the major shear zone in the core of the Kesebir-Kardamos dome is equivalent to the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Nestos Shear Zone. Post-Jurassic metamorphic ages recorded in the Rhodope most likely represent crustal rather than deep subduction geodynamic processes.

  5. Extremely short-duration peak metamorphism in the Barrovian zones, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ague, J. J.; Baxter, E. F.

    2006-12-01

    Barrovian metamorphic sequences are recognized in most of the major mountain belts of the world. Traditional models of Barrovian terranes based on conductive thermal relaxation of tectonically-overthickened crust predict that metamorphic episodes should typically last 40-50 million years. At the Barrovian type locality in Scotland, however, it has been shown that the overall metamorphic episode lasted only 10-15 million years (Oliver et al., 2000), and that the peak of metamorphism probably spanned less than a few million years (Baxter et al., 2002). We use the record of elemental diffusion preserved in apatite and garnet to put precise new constraints on the timescale of peak metamorphism in the Barrovian zones, Scotland. Such diffusion histories are a powerful, but rarely used means to determine timescales of prograde thermal processes. Fluor- apatite crystals commonly contain relic, detrital cores and metamorphic overgrowths with differing Sr contents. Electron microprobe traverses across grains reveal increasing degrees of diffusional equilibration across core- rim boundaries with increasing metamorphic grade. We estimated the timescales needed to produce the observed diffusion profiles in samples from the garnet and staurolite zones using known metamorphic temperatures and the Sr diffusion data of Watson et al. (1985) and Cherniak and Ryerson (1993). A well- defined diffusion profile in garnet from the sillimanite zone was also modeled, using the diffusion data of Ganguly et al. (1998). Uncertainties on timescale estimates were assessed using Bootstrap Monte Carlo methods that take full account of uncertainties on temperature and experimental diffusion coefficient determinations. Importantly, the Bootstrap errors include the covariance between the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy for diffusion. Our results indicate that peak metamorphic temperatures could have persisted for only several hundred thousand years, a factor of 10 to 100 shorter than

  6. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of mesoproterozoic metamorphism in the Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shaw, C.A.; Snee, L.W.; Selverstone, J.; Reed, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A low-pressure metamorphic episode in the Colorado Front Range has been identified by the presence of staurolite, andalusite, cordierite, and garnet porphyroblasts overprinting earlier assemblages. The overprinting assemblages and reaction textures are most consistent with porphyroblast growth on a prograde metamorphic path with peak temperatures exceeding ~525??C. Twenty-eight 40Ar/39Ar dates on hornblende, muscovite, biotite, and microcline were used to infer the age and thermal conditions of metamorphism. Muscovite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages fall mainly in the interval 1400-1340 Ma, consistent with cooling through the closure temperature interval of micas (~400??-300??C) after about 1400 Ma. In contrast, hornblende apparent ages (T(c)~500??-550??C) between 1600 and 1390 Ma reflect variable retention of radiogenic argon. Forward modeling of argon diffusion shows that the distribution of hornblende and mica ages is consistent with the partial resetting of argon systematics ca. 1400 Ma by a thermal pulse reaching maximum temperatures around 550??C and decaying within <20 m.yr. These temperatures match the conditions inferred from the overprinting assemblage; thus, muscovite and biotite ages are interpreted to date the cooling phase of this metamorphic event. This late metamorphism is broadly coeval with the intrusion of ca. 1400-Ma granitic plutons in the study area and throughout the southwestern United States. However, thermal effects are observed far from pluton margins, suggesting pervasive, regional crustal heating rather than restricted contact metamorphism. Our results suggest that ca. 1400-Ma metamorphism and plutonism are manifestations of a regional thermal episode that both partially melted the lower crust and pervasively metamorphosed middle crustal rocks.

  7. Quantitative estimates of metamorphic equilibria: Tallassee synform, Dadeville belt, Alabama's Inner Piedmont

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, M.S.; Neilson, M.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Tallassee synform is the major structural feature in the western part of the Dadeville belt. This megascopic F2 structure folds amphibolite (Ropes Creek Amphibolite) and metasedimentary units (Agricola Schist, AS), as well as tonalitic (Camp Hill Gneiss, CHG), granitic (Chattasofka Creek Gneiss, CCG), and mafic-ultramafic plutons (Doss Mt. and Slaughters suites). Acadian-age prograde regional metamorphism preceded the F2 folding event, producing the pervasive S1 foliation and metamorphic recrystallization. Prograde mineralogy in the metapelites and metagraywackes of the AS includes garnet, biotite, muscovite, plagioclase, kyanite, sillimanite, and epidote. The intrusive rocks, both felsic and mafic-ultramafic, are occasionally garnetiferous and provide suitable mineral assemblages for P-T evaluation. The AS yields a range of T-P from 512--635C and 5.1--5.5 kb. Muscovite from the AS exhibits an increase in Ti content from 0.07 to 0.15 Ti/22 O formula unit with progressively increasing T's from 512 to 635C. This observation is consistent with other studies that show increasing Ti content with increasing grade. A CHG sample records an average metamorphic T-P of 604C and 5.79 kb. Hornblende-garnet pairs from a Doss Mt. amphibolite sample provides an average metamorphic T of 607C. These data are consistent with regional Barrovian-type middle to upper amphibolite facies metamorphism for the Tallassee synform. Peak metamorphism is represented by kyanite-sillimanite zone conditions and localized migmatization of the AS. The lithotectonic belts bounding the Dadeville belt to the NW and SE are the eastern Blue Ridge and Opelika belts. Studies have shown that these belts have also experienced Acadian-age amphibolite facies metamorphism with comparable P-T estimates to those presented here. These data suggest that the eastern Blue Ridge and Inner Piedmont of AL experienced the same pervasive dynamothermal Barrovian-type metamorphic episode during Acadian orogenesis.

  8. Mobilization of Pb in zircon during high-T metamorphism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, N. M.; Gorman, B.; Hinton, R. W.; Harley, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate and precise geochronology is key to effectively characterizing the event histories of high-grade terrains and placing robust constraints on the rates of deep crustal processes. Although zircon has proven to be a reliable chronometer for geochronology of high-T rocks due to its capacity to preserve evidence for multiple episodes of growth, under certain conditions zircon can be highly susceptible to alteration and recrystallization. This is particularly problematic in zircon suites from poly-metamorphic terrains, which commonly display complex age patterns. While normal discordance can be attributed to Pb loss during overprinting thermal events, the origin of reverse discordance in low-U, non-metamict zircon is less well understood. Zircon grains in felsic orthogneiss samples from the Oygarden Group, east Antarctica, display complex normal and reverse discordance patterns in U-Pb data. The Oygarden Group experienced a history of overprinting tectonothermal events extending back into the middle Archaean, culminating in high-T metamorphism and intense deformation (T≥900°C, P≈10 kbars) at ~930 Ma. Low-U (typically <40ppm) zircon grains display highly disturbed U-Pb isotope systematics characterized by extreme normal and reverse discordance. Initial dating by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) revealed a complex data set that made unambiguous age determination problematic. Time-resolved SIMS analysis for U-Pb showed that while U, Th, Hf and Si count rates remained constant with depth, count rates of all Pb isotopes fluctuated on a nanometer scale. Such fluctuations are indicative of Pb mobility that has resulted in sub-micron scale domains variably depleted or enriched in Pb. We therefore interpret that data being concordant, normally discordant or reversely discordant can be directly attributed to relative proportions of Pb-enriched or -depleted domains being sampled during ion microprobe analysis. Further analytical work using Electron Backscatter

  9. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement), i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA), a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD) during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We conclude that HA is a modulator

  10. Metamorphic history of garnet-rich gneiss at Ktiš in the Lhenice shear zone, Moldanubian Zone of the southern Bohemian Massif, inferred from inclusions and compositional zoning of garnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tomoyuki; Hirajima, Takao; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Svojtka, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Multiple equilibrium stages were identified from garnet-rich gneiss at Ktiš in the Lhenice shear zone of the southern Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic. The matrix of the rock mainly comprises cordierite (Crd), sillimanite (Sil), biotite (Bt), garnet (Grt), quartz (Qtz), K-feldspar (Kfs) and plagioclase (Pl) along with accessory minerals such as spinel (Spl), apatite (Ap), monazite (Mnz) and zircon (Zrn). Bt, Sil, kyanite (Ky) and Pl occur as inclusion phases in Grt. Crd occurs only in the matrix both as isolated grains and as reaction coronas developed around Grt. Spl is closely correlated with the Crd corona. Some coarse-grained (> 3 mm) Grts show chemical heterogeneity both in major and trace elements. Grossular (Grs)-content is homogeneous and high {Xgrs = Ca / (Ca + Mg + Fe + Mn) = 0.27} in a center of the grain and smoothly decreases towards the grain margin (Xgrs = 0.02). However, pyrope (Prp)-content shows an inverse pattern against Grs-content; i.e., Prp-content is low and constant {Xprp = Mg / (Ca + Mg + Fe + Mn) = 0.03} in the center of the grain and gradually increases towards the margin (up to Xprp = 0.28). The contours of Grs- and Prp-contents show symmetrical hexagonal shapes. The distribution pattern of phosphorus, however, shows a striking contrast against Grs-content. The core of the grain is characterized by low-phosphorus content almost below the detection limit of the EPMA analysis but it is armored by the high-phosphorus rim accompanying with local development of phosphorus-poor outermost rim. The outline of phosphorus-poor core shows a hexagonal shape, which is symmetrical to those of Grs- and Prp-content contours, but it is located outside of higher-Grs (Xgrs = 0.27)- and lower-Prp (Xprp = 0.03)-content contours. These observations suggest that the outline of phosphorus-poor core should indicate the original shape of Grs-rich garnet developed during an early stage of the metamorphism. The zoning pattern of major/trace elements in garnet and

  11. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting <50 ppm 2 sigma analytical precision on a 400pg in-house standard and continued improvement in blanks (<15pg full procedural blanks). Additionally, employing a nondestructive chemical prescreening technique (tabletop SEM) allows for grouping of multiple grains based on chemical similarity. Final Nd loads in the 450-750pg range routinely yield dates with precisions <×10Ma for two point isochrons between

  12. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  13. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-05-11

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  14. Late Miocene cooling and extension identified on Serifos, western Cyclades: Development of an Aegean metamorphic core complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, H.; Schneider, D. A.; Heizler, M.; Grasemann, B.; Iglseder, C.; ACCEL Team

    2007-12-01

    crystallization ages from Serifos reported here demonstrate the protracted nature of extensional deformation since the Eocene, commencing with probable extrusion of CBU-equivalent units. Extensional shear was localized along the site of extrusion during Late Miocene development of a metamorphic core complex, which overprinted much of the earlier metamorphic history. Our results suggest a new domain in the Western Cyclades that has been exhumed by an uncharacteristic south-directed extensional regime since the Late Miocene.

  15. Development of inverted metamorphic isograds in the western metamorphic belt, Juneau, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, G.R.; Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    An inverted metamorphic gradient is preserved in the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska. Detailed mapping of pelitic single-mineral isograds, systematic changes in mineral assemblages, and silicate geothermometry indicate that thermal peak metamorphic conditions increase structurally upward over a distance of about 8 km. Silicate geobarometry suggests that the thermal peak metamorphism occurred under pressures of 9-11 kbar. Our preferred interpretation of the cause of the inverted gradient is that it formed during compression of a thickened wedge of relatively wet and cool rocks in response to heat flow associated with the formation and emplacement of tonalite sill magma. -from Authors

  16. Association between history of abortion and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Xu, Yu; Li, Mian; Wang, Tiange; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Baihui; Sun, Jichao; Dai, Meng; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between self-reported history of abortion and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional study was performed in 5911 women aged 40 years or older in Jiading District, Shanghai, China. Reproductive histories, including miscarriage and induced abortion, were collected using a validated questionnaire by trained physicians. Abdominal B-mode ultrasound evaluation and serum liver enzymes levels were used in the diagnosis of NAFLD. The percentage reporting history of abortion in women with NAFLD was higher than in those without NAFLD (72.4% vs. 69.3%, age-adjusted P = .001). Compared with women without a history of abortion, the fully adjusted odds ratio (OR) for NAFLD in those with a history of abortion was increased by 28% (OR, 1.28 and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.55). Histories of miscarriage and induced abortion were also associated with increased risk of prevalent NAFLD in fully adjusted models (OR, 1.84 and 95% CI, 1.24-2.72; OR, 1.23 and 95% CI, 1.02-1.50, respectively). Both miscarriage and induced abortion are associated with prevalent NAFLD in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exhumation and cooling of the Serifos metamorphic core complex, western Cyclades: extensional surging or continuum since the Early Oligocene?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, H.; Schneider, D. A.; Grasemann, B.; Iglseder, Ch.; Stöckli, D.; Heizler, M.

    2009-04-01

    exhumation and cooling through mid-crustal levels that was coeval with intrusion of the granodiorite. Structurally higher but lower metamorphic grade units from northern Serifos suggest Early Oligocene cooling at 28-34 Ma. Lower temperature timing constraints from zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He analysis reveal Late Miocene cooling ages across the bulk of the dome that are between 5 and 8 Ma with little clear spatial pattern. Similar relationships present on Naxos show that magmatism has little to no influence on the cooling history if intrusion occurred into a rapidly exhuming footwall. Thus, our results demonstrate two episodes of exhumation and rapid cooling commencing in the Late Eocene or Early Oligocene initially with extrusion of Cycladic Blueschist Unit-equivalent rocks and culminating in the Late Miocene with development of a metamorphic core complex. Both exhumation events were tentatively coeval with magmatic activity. Our results suggest rapid exhumation of the western Cyclades during south-directed kinematics and illustrate the notably protracted nature of extensional deformation in this region since at least the Early Oligocene.

  18. An outline of tectonic, igneous, and metamorphic events in the Goshute-Toano Range between Silver Zone Pass and White Horse Pass, Elko County, Nevada; a history of superposed contractional and extensional deformation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketner, Keith Brindley; Day, Warren C.; Elrick, Maya; Vaag, Myra K.; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Snee, Lawrence W.; Saltus, Richard W.; Repetski, John E.; Wardlaw, Bruce R.; Taylor, Michael E.; Harris, Anita G.

    1998-01-01

    Seven kinds of fault-bounded tracts are described. One of the tracts provides a good example of Mesozoic contractional folding and faulting; six exemplify various aspects of Miocene extensional faulting. Massive landslide deposits resulting from Tertiary faulting are described. Mesozoic intrusive rocks and extensive exposures of Miocene volcanic rocks are described and dated. The age ranges of stratigraphic units were based on numerous conodont collections, and ages of igneous rocks were determined by argon/argon and fission-track methods. The geologic complexity of the Goshute-Toano Range provides opportunities for many additional productive structural studies.

  19. Ar-Ar dating of K-feldspar in low grade metamorphic rocks: Example of an exhumed Mesozoic accretionary wedge and forearc, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, N.; McLaren, S.; Dunlap, W. J.

    2012-06-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar ages from detrital K-feldspars and metamorphic white micas from the Eastern Province terranes of New Zealand have been used to investigate the thermo-tectonic history of different parts of an exhumed Mesozoic forearc basin and accretionary wedge. K-feldspars from barely metamorphosed sedimentary host rocks mainly record detrital source area ages whereas those from zeolite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies host rocks have textures and argon age spectra that indicate recrystallization during regional low-temperature metamorphism. The results contribute to a model that genetically links thermo-tectonic events across the accretionary wedge and forearc basin elements of the convergent margin, and into the Median Batholith arc probably by the Early Cretaceous and possibly by the Middle Jurassic. Thus, even though multidiffusion domain (MDD) models cannot be used to make inference on cooling histories in such situations, the K-feldspar argon thermochronometer can provide useful information on the timing of geological events in sub-greenschist facies rocks.

  20. Fluid-absent metamorphism in the Adirondacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valley, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Results on late Proterozoic metamorphism of granulite in the Adirondacks are presented. There more than 20,000 sq km of rock are at granulite facies. Low water fugacites are implied by orthopyroxene bearing assemblages and by stability of k'spar-plag-quartz assemblages. After mentioning the popular concept of infiltration of carbon dioxide into Precambrian rocks and attendent generation of granulite facies assemblages, several features of Adirondack rocks pertinent to carbon dioxide and water during their metamorphism are summarized: wollastonite occurs in the western lowlands; contact metamorphism by anorthosite preceeding granulite metamorphism is indicated by oxygen isotopes. Oxygen fugacity lies below that of the QFM buffer; total P sub water + P sub carbon dioxide determined from monticellite bearing assemblages are much less than P sub total (7 to 7.6 kb). These and other features indicate close spatial association of high- and low-P sub carbon dioxide assemblages and that a vapor phase was not present during metamorphism. Thus Adirondack rocks were not infiltrated by carbon dioxide vapor. Their metamorphism, at 625 to 775 C, occurred either when the protoliths were relatively dry or after dessication occurred by removal of a partial melt phase.

  1. Lu-Hf Garnet Geochronology Reveals the Tectonic History of Precambrian Rocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronoff, R.; Andronicos, C.; Vervoort, J. D.; Hunter, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Lu-Hf garnet dating of Proterozoic rocks of the southwestern United States provides constraints on the timing and geographic extent of metamorphism associated with the Yavapai, Mazatzal, and newly recognized Picuris orogenies. Prior work focusing on U-Pb dating of plutons and Ar geochronology has left the timing of prograde metamorphism ambiguous, particularly in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Because the Lu-Hf system dates the onset of garnet growth, it can constrain the timing of the prograde P-T path. Garnet schist samples from central and northern New Mexico exhibit garnet growth restricted to the time period between ~1460 and 1400 Ma. In the Picuris and Manzano mountains, the oldest Lu-Hf garnet ages predate the U-Pb ages of ~1.4 Ga plutons located near the dated samples. This implies that garnet growth, and therefore the onset of amphibolite facies metamorphism, cannot be driven by contact metamorphism, as has been previously inferred. Garnet-bearing samples from the Needle and Wet Mountains in southern Colorado display a range of garnet ages between ~1750 and 1470 Ma. A garnet gneiss from the Needle Mountains in southwestern Colorado yields an age of 1748 Ma, which is consistent with the Yavapai orogeny. This Lu-Hf garnet age has not been reset by contact metamorphism associated with the emplacement of the ~1.4 Ga Eolus batholith. Anatectic garnet in an orthogneiss from the northern Wet Mountains yields an age of 1601 Ma and is interpreted to date partial melting at the close of the Mazatzal orogeny. A 1476 Ma garnet age from the aureole of the 1440 Ma Oak Creek pluton is interpreted to date upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. The age distribution of these samples shows that rocks in Colorado underwent a complex, poly-metamorphic history, while rocks in New Mexico underwent a single progressive metamorphic event. This contrast implies that the boundary between rocks deformed and metamorphosed during the ~1800-1600 Ma Yavapai and Mazatzal

  2. Estimating the Ages of Selection Signals from Different Epochs in Human History

    PubMed Central

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Amato, Roberto; Howie, Bryan; Peter, Benjamin M.; Hudson, Richard R.; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variation harbors signatures of natural selection driven by selective pressures that are often unknown. Estimating the ages of selection signals may allow reconstructing the history of environmental changes that shaped human phenotypes and diseases. We have developed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to estimate allele ages under a model of selection on new mutations and under demographic models appropriate for human populations. We have applied it to two resequencing data sets: An ultra-high depth data set from a relatively small sample of unrelated individuals and a lower depth data set in a larger sample with transmission information. In addition to evaluating the accuracy of our method based on simulations, for each SNP, we assessed the consistency between the posterior probabilities estimated by the ABC approach and the ancient DNA record, finding good agreement between the two types of data and methods. Applying this ABC approach to data for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we were able to rule out an onset of selection prior to the dispersal out-of-Africa for three of them and more recent than the spread of agriculture for an additional three SNPs. PMID:26545921

  3. Goldspotted spinefoot Siganus punctatus (Siganidae) age-based reproductive life history and fisheries vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, K; Hernandez-Ortiz, D; Ioanis, M; Washington, W; Maxim, S; Olpet, K; Malakai, S

    2017-09-25

    Between February 2015 and 2016, samples of the Indo-Pacific goldspotted spinefoot Siganus punctatus were taken from local fish markets, feeding sites and nursery grounds on the main island of Pohnpei, Micronesia, to ascertain sexual pattern, reproductive seasonality, age, growth and mortality. Microscopic examinations of gonads identified two seasonal peaks in reproduction: February to May and September to December, with evidence of some spawning activity in most months. Ripe females were observed 4 days on either side of the new moon. Females first matured at c. 180 mm fork length (LF ) and 1 year of age, which coincides with their entry into the fishery. Ninety five per cent of individuals were less than 3 years and the oldest fish were 8 years. To examine the species vulnerability to fishing, a tag-and-recapture study was conducted over 4 months in 2015 in a locally managed marine area and at an unprotected site. Findings suggest high residency and high vulnerability to fishing at shallow-water feeding sites and restricted migration overall. The placement of marine protected areas within critical habitat appears to be an effective conservation strategy for this species, particularly when combined with gear and seasonal market restrictions during vulnerable life-history phases. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Estimating the Ages of Selection Signals from Different Epochs in Human History.

    PubMed

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Amato, Roberto; Howie, Bryan; Peter, Benjamin M; Hudson, Richard R; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Genetic variation harbors signatures of natural selection driven by selective pressures that are often unknown. Estimating the ages of selection signals may allow reconstructing the history of environmental changes that shaped human phenotypes and diseases. We have developed an approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) approach to estimate allele ages under a model of selection on new mutations and under demographic models appropriate for human populations. We have applied it to two resequencing data sets: An ultra-high depth data set from a relatively small sample of unrelated individuals and a lower depth data set in a larger sample with transmission information. In addition to evaluating the accuracy of our method based on simulations, for each SNP, we assessed the consistency between the posterior probabilities estimated by the ABC approach and the ancient DNA record, finding good agreement between the two types of data and methods. Applying this ABC approach to data for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we were able to rule out an onset of selection prior to the dispersal out-of-Africa for three of them and more recent than the spread of agriculture for an additional three SNPs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Resource allocation as a driver of senescence: life history tradeoffs produce age patterns of mortality.

    PubMed

    Davison, Raziel; Boggs, Carol L; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-11-07

    We investigate the effects of optimal time and resource allocation on age patterns of fertility and mortality for a model organism with (1) fixed maximum lifespan, (2) distinct juvenile and adult diets, and (3) reliance on nonrenewable resources for reproduction. We ask when it is optimal to tolerate starvation vs. conserve resources and then examine the effects of these decisions on adult mortality rates. We find that (1) age-related changes in tradeoffs partition the life cycle into as many as four discrete phases with different optimal behavior and mortality patterns, and (2) given a cost of reproduction, terminal investment can produce a signal of actuarial senescence. Also, given limitations imposed by non-replenishable resources, individuals beginning adult life with more replenishable resources do not necessarily live longer, since they can engage in capital breeding and need not defer reproduction to forage; low reproductive overheads and low costs of starvation also encourage capital breeding and may lead to earlier terminal investment and earlier senescence. We conclude that, even for species with qualitatively similar life histories, differences in physiological, behavioral and environmental tradeoffs or constraints may strongly influence optimal allocation schedules and produce variation in mortality patterns and life expectancy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T; Birdsill, Alex C; Melah, Kelsey E; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; Alexander, Andrew L; Dowling, N Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark A; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2014-01-01

    Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47-76 years). Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across all participants, age had an

  7. Familial history of cancer and leukemia in children younger than 2 years of age in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Couto, Arnaldo C; Ferreira, Jeniffer D; Koifman, Sérgio; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of a familial history of cancer (FHC) to the development of leukemia in children below 2 years of age. This is a national hospital-based case-control study of children 0-24 months of age recruited from 15 Brazilian hospitals from several regions providing oncological care and local general hospitals. Participants' FHC antecedents were obtained through face-to-face interviews with the mothers of cases and controls using a standardized questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to determine crude and adjusted (adj.) odds ratios (OR), and the respective 95% confidence intervals (CI), of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after adjustment for selected variables. FHC antecedents were obtained from 178 ALL, 51 AML, and 428 controls. FHC in second-degree relatives (grandparents, uncles, cousins) showed an adj. OR=1.66 (95% CI 1.12-2.45) for ALL. Antecedents of two or more relatives with cancer showed a statistically significant two-fold higher risk of either ALL or AML. Paternal, and joint paternal and maternal antecedents of cancer also showed statistically significant higher adj. OR, respectively: 1.80 and 1.89 for ALL, and 2.34 and 3.23 for AML. Hematological malignancies among second-degree relatives showed an adj. OR=3.48 (95% CI 1.72-7.09) for ALL. According to the anatomic site, antecedents of leukemia/lymphoma among case relatives, compared with the control ones, showed an OR=2.98 (95% CI 1.52-5.82) for ALL, whereas stomach cancer antecedents showed an OR=3.55 (95% CI 1.02-12.39) for AML. The observed results support the hypothesis that FHC antecedents are associated with leukemogenesis in children below 2 years of age.

  8. Hydrothermal alteration of a seamount complex on La Palma, Canary Islands: Implications for metamorphism in accreted terranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, P.; Staudigel, H.

    1994-02-01

    The hydrothermal metamorphism of a sequence of Pliocene-age seamount extrusive and volcaniclastic rocks on La Palma, Canary Islands, is characterized by a relatively complete low-pressure-high-temperature facies series encompassing the zeolite, prehnite-pumpellyite, and greenschist facies. The observed mineral zonations imply metamorphic gradients of 200-300 °C/km. The metamorphism of the seamount, at least in its core region, is distinct from ocean-floor metamorphism: the former is characterized by a serially continuous facies series encompassing zeolite, prehnite-pumpellyite, and greenschist assemblages, and the latter by a discontinuous metamorphic gradient in which prehnite-pumpellyite assemblages are absent. These metamorphic features, presumably reflecting fundamental thermal-tectonic differences between extending oceanic crust at mid- oceanic ridges vs. the more static crust underlying seamount volcanoes, should aid in the recognition of incoherent fragments of seamount metamorphic rocks within accreted terranes which typically have undergone subsequent higher pressure-temperature regional metamorphism, albeit to comparable grades.

  9. The history of a Bronze Age tell reconstructed from soil data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füleky, György; Kovács, Gabriella; Vicze, Magdolna

    2013-04-01

    It is a common place to say that human activity leaves an imprint not only on its environment but on the soil as well. As we all know the soil like a book, keeps a good record of all kinds of activities ever effected its structure. The understanding and interpretation of complete history of the Százhalombatta Földvár is more complex than that of the customary one layer archaeological sites. The site itself is situated on the high plateau on the right hand site of the bank of Danube River. The reconstruction of 4000 years of history - from the middle of the Early Bronze Age /c. 2000 BC/ till the present day - became possible on the tell and its environment with the co-ordination of the archaeological finds and with following the changes within the soil cover. During this period the height of the area increased by an average of 4 m compared to the original soil surface level. As the result of intensive human activities the phosphorus content of the soils rose from an initial value of 1000 mg/kg to an average of 4000 mg/kg. It can be calculated that this increase in the phosphorus content must have been derived from approximately 1 t of bones a year. Calculations based on the increase in the mass of tell indicate that at least 20 houses at a time must have stood on the area during the 600 year period. Soil drillings and analytical data have proved that considerable earthworks were carried out for various purposes at different times, from the early years of settlement up to the present day. These affected both the material of tell itself and the soil of surrounding areas.

  10. Itokawa's cratering record as observed by Hayabusa: Implications for its age and collisional history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; O'Brien, D. P.; Abe, S.; Hirata, N.

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we study cratering and crater erasure processes and provide an age estimate for the near-Earth Asteroid (25143) Itokawa, the target of the mission Hayabusa, based on its crater history since the time when it was formed in the main belt by catastrophic disruption or experienced a global resetting event. Using a model which was applied to the study of the crater history of Gaspra, Ida, Mathilde and Eros [O'Brien, D.P., Greenberg, R., Richardson, J.E., 2006. Icarus 183, 79-92], we calculate the time needed to accumulate the craters on Itokawa's surface, taking into account several processes which can affect crater formation and crater erasure on such a low-gravity object, such as seismic shaking. We use two models of the projectile population and two scaling laws to relate crater diameter to projectile size. Both models of the projectile population provide similar results, and depending on the scaling law used, we find that the time necessary to accumulate Itokawa's craters was at least ˜75 Myr, and maybe as long as 1 Gyr. Moreover, using the same model and similar parameters (scaled accordingly), we provide a good match not only to Itokawa's craters, but also to those of Eros, which has also been imaged at high enough resolution to give crater counts in a similar size range to those on Itokawa. We show that, as for Eros, the lack of small craters on Itokawa is consistent with erasure by seismic shaking, although for Itokawa, the pronounced deficiency of the smallest craters ( <10 m in diameter) requires another process or event in addition to just seismic shaking. A small body such as Itokawa is highly sensitive to specific events that may occur during its history. For example, the two parts of Itokawa, called head and body, may well have joined each other by a low-velocity impact within the last hundred thousand years [Scheeres, D.J., Abe, M., Yoshikawa, M., Nakamura, R., Gaskell, R.W., Abell, P.A., 2007. Icarus 188, 425-429]. In addition to

  11. Interspecific variation in metamorphic competence in marine invertebrates: the significance for comparative investigations into the timing of metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Cory D; Huggett, Megan J; Heyland, Andreas; Hodin, Jason; Brandhorst, Bruce P

    2006-12-01

    Metamorphosis in marine invertebrate larvae is a dynamic, environmentally dependent process that integrates ontogeny with habitat selection. The capacity of many marine invertebrate larvae to survive and maintain metamorphic competence in the absence of environmental cues has been hypothesized to be an adaptive convergence (Hadfield and others 2001). A survey of the literature reveals that a single generalized hypothesis about metamorphic competence as an adaptive convergence is not sufficient to account for interspecific variation in this character. In an attempt to capture this variation, we discuss the "desperate larva hypothesis" and propose two additional hypotheses called the "variable retention hypothesis" and the "death before dishonor hypothesis." To validate these additional hypotheses we collected data on taxa from the published literature and performed a contingency analysis to detect correlations between spontaneous metamorphosis, habitat specificity and/or larval life-history mode, three characters relevant to environmentally induced settlement and metamorphosis. In order to account for phylogenetic bias in these correlations, we also constructed a phylogeny of these taxa and again performed a character-correlation analysis. Both these tests suggest that juvenile habitat specificity is correlated to the capacity of individuals to retain the competent larval state in the absence of substrate cues and therefore validate the existence of more than one hypothesis about metamorphic competence. We provide new data from the sea urchin Lytechinus pictus that suggest that nitric oxide (NO) and thyroxine hormone signaling interact to determine the probability of settlement in response to a settlement cue. Similarly, we provide evidence that thyroxine signaling in the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus increases spontaneous metamorphosis in the absence of cues from adult conspecifics in a manner that is independent of larval age.

  12. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  13. Age distribution of passive margins through earth history and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. C.

    2007-05-01

    few margins with an unusual tectonic history such as re-rifting, the lifespan was calculated from the time between the rift-drift transition and the passive margin to foredeep transition. The present-day passive margins have a mean age of 104 m.y. and a maximum age of 180 m.y.; these are partial lifespans. Fifty-nine ancient margins have a mean lifespan of 187 m.y. and a maximum lifespan of 550 m.y. Subdivided into natural age groupings, mean lifespans are 182 m.y. for the Archean to Paleoproterozoic, 211 m.y. for the Neoproterozoic, 145 m.y. for the Cambrian to Carboniferous, and 142 m.y for the Permian to present. Of the 59 ancient margins, 20 had lifespans that were longer than that of the oldest modern margins, and all 20 are either wholly or partly Precambrian in age. Several margins in the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic are very long-lived by modern standards, though in each case, the tectonic interpretation is debatable and (or) age control is poor. The tentative world-record holder, at 550 m.y., is the Mesoproterozoic eastern margin of Siberia. The number of long-lived Precambrian margins is inconsistent with the widely held notion that the tempo of Wilson Cycles was faster in the Precambrian than at present, as has been be predicted from the long-term decline in Earth's radiogenic heat production. Thus, the duration of Wilson Cycles involving passive margins is not a good proxy for rates of plate motion. Greater heat production in the Precambrian might still be linked to faster rates of plate motion if the effect was confined to oceanic (Pacific-type) plates.

  14. Early Tertiary Anaconda metamorphic core complex, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neill, J. M.; Lonn, J.D.; Lageson, D.R.; Kunk, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A sinuous zone of gently southeast-dipping low-angle Tertiary normal faults is exposed for 100 km along the eastern margins of the Anaconda and Flint Creek ranges in southwest Montana. Faults in the zone variously place Mesoproterozoic through Paleozoic sedimentary rocks on younger Tertiary granitic rocks or on sedimentary rocks older than the overlying detached rocks. Lower plate rocks are lineated and mylonitic at the main fault and, below the mylonitic front, are cut by mylonitic mesoscopic to microscopic shear zones. The upper plate consists of an imbricate stack of younger-on-older sedimentary rocks that are locally mylonitic at the main, lowermost detachment fault but are characteristically strongly brecciated or broken. Kinematic indicators in the lineated mylonite indicate tectonic transport to the east-southeast. Syntectonic sedimentary breccia and coarse conglomerate derived solely from upper plate rocks were deposited locally on top of hanging-wall rocks in low-lying areas between fault blocks and breccia zones. Muscovite occurs locally as mica fish in mylonitic quartzites at or near the main detachment. The 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum obtained from muscovite in one mylonitic quartzite yielded an age of 47.2 + 0.14 Ma, interpreted to be the age of mylonitization. The fault zone is interpreted as a detachment fault that bounds a metamorphic core complex, here termed the Anaconda metamorphic core complex, similar in age and character to the Bitterroot mylonite that bounds the Bitterroot metamorphic core complex along the Idaho-Montana state line 100 km to the west. The Bitterroot and Anaconda core complexes are likely components of a continuous, tectonically integrated system. Recognition of this core complex expands the region of known early Tertiary brittle-ductile crustal extension eastward into areas of profound Late Cretaceous contractile deformation characterized by complex structural interactions between the overthrust belt and Laramide basement uplifts

  15. Low-grade, M1 metamorphism of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Himmelberg, G.R. . Dept. of Geology); Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B. )

    1993-04-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex of western Canada and southeastern Alaska that developed as a result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collision of the Alexander terrane and Gravina assemblage on the west against the Yukon Prong and Stikine terranes to the east. Sub-greenschist to lower greenschist facies metabasalts exposed along the west end of the western metamorphic belt near Juneau, Alaska record the earliest metamorphic event (M1). These low-grade rocks are gradational with younger, higher-grade assemblages that define an inverted metamorphic gradient (metamorphic event M5). The most common metamorphic mineral assemblages are chlorite-epidote-actinolite with or without pumpellyite and stilpnomelane. There is no systematic distribution of metamorphic mineral assemblages in the study area, and all assemblages are in the pumpellyite-actinolite facies near the transition to the lower greenschist facies. Different low-variance assemblages can be attributed to minor differences in pressure, temperature, or X[sub CO[sub 2

  16. Influence of Snowpack Metamorphism on Tropospheric Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillandier, A.; Alvarez-Aviles, L.; Domine, F.; Simpson, W.; Houdier, S.; Douglas, T.; Sturm, M.; Stolzberg, R.

    2004-12-01

    In recent years, many studies have highlighted the impact of photochemical reactions in snow on tropospheric chemistry. Snow metamorphism is another factor that affects snow-air interactions. Metamorphism consists of sublimation/condensation cycles driven by temperature gradients. It results in dramatic