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Sample records for age methods participants

  1. Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Debora C; Brillant, Martha G S; Clovis, Joanne B; McNally, Mary E; Filiaggi, Mark J; Kotzer, Robert D; Lawrence, Herenia P

    2012-01-01

    Assessing the oral health of an ageing population: methods, challenges and predictors of survey participation Objectives To examine predictors of participation and to describe the methodological considerations of conducting a two-stage population-based oral health survey. Methods An observational, cross-sectional survey (telephone interview and clinical oral examination) of community-dwelling adults aged 45–64 and ≥65 living in Nova Scotia, Canada was conducted. Results The survey response rate was 21% for the interview and 13.5% for the examination. A total of 1141 participants completed one or both components of the survey. Both age groups had higher levels of education than the target population; the age 45–64 sample also had a higher proportion of females and lower levels of employment than the target population. Completers (participants who completed interview and examination) were compared with partial completers (who completed only the interview), and stepwise logistic regression was performed to examine predictors of completion. Identified predictors were as follows: not working, post-secondary education and frequent dental visits. Conclusion Recruitment, communications and logistics present challenges in conducting a province-wide survey. Identification of employment, education and dental visit frequency as predictors of survey participation provide insight into possible non-response bias and suggest potential for underestimation of oral disease prevalence in this and similar surveys. This potential must be considered in analysis and in future recruitment strategies. PMID:21916953

  2. Participative AIDS Education Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    Since assuring quality health care delivery to patients suffering from Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and those who test positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a priority, development of effective staff training methods is imperative. This pilot study assessed the effect on staff attitudes of a participative AIDS/HIV staff…

  3. Occupational competence strategies in old age: a mixed-methods comparison between Hispanic women with different levels of daily participation.

    PubMed

    Orellano, Elsa M; Mountain, Gail; Varas, Nelson; Labault, Nirzka

    2014-01-01

    In this pilot study, we explored the difference in the use of occupational competence strategies for daily participation between more active and less active older Hispanic women. Twenty-nine women who were 70 and older and lived alone participated in this study. We used a mixed-methods design by which the principal investigator administered a tool to measure participation restrictions during the quantitative phase and conducted in-depth interviews with a subsample in the qualitative phase. More active women predominantly used transportation resources, emotional social support, and spirituality to support participation in life activities. Less active women used more practical social support, assistive technology, and environmental modifications. Personal facilitators seemed to directly modify these strategies. These results suggest that older women with different activity levels use distinct internal and external resources to maintain or enhance daily participation. Future studies should explore whether these resources remain consistent across gender, living status, and ethnicity.

  4. Minority Participation in Administration on Aging Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-15

    testimony today, we will present information on (1) the methodology AoA uses to collect data on minority participation and (2) data collection methods ...GeneralD Program Evaluation and Ak’-’iIbiity o0,;es Methodology Division Before the Dist Avpibor Subcommittee on Aging I Senate Committee on Labor .11...reasons. First, changes in states’ reporting methods and in AoA requirements made it impossible to compare data collected before 1981 with that

  5. Assessment and Age 16+ Education Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises our research into the relationship between pupil assessment at age 14 (Key Stage 3) and participation in age 16+ education. We question whether a systematic gap between teacher-based assessment and externally marked tests indicates assessment bias or uncertainty, either in testing procedures or through teachers' perceptions…

  6. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    PubMed

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  7. Age-adjusted Labor Force Participation Rates, 1960-2045.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szafran, Robert F.

    2002-01-01

    A proposed new age-adjusted measure for calculating labor force participation rate eliminates the effect of changes in the age distribution. According to the new criterion, increases in women's labor force participation from 1960-2000 would have been even greater of shifts in the age distribution had not occurred. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)

  8. Voluntary Group Participation by Third Age Australians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayhew, Claire; Swindell, Rick

    A study investigated characteristics of retirees and types of voluntary groups they joined after retirement. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and completed questionnaires of 206 Australians over age 50. Five categories of voluntary organizations were studied: intellectually challenging, sporting/exercise, social, helping others,…

  9. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  10. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  11. An Exploration of the Participation of Kindergarten-Aged Hong Kong Children in Extra Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Cheng, Doris Pui Wah

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we used a mixed-methods research design to investigate the extra curricular participation of kindergarten-aged Hong Kong children, based on reports provided by 1260 parents, and parents' perceptions of their children's extra curricular participation, through nine individual interviews. The results of the survey indicated that…

  12. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation... Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General rule. A plan is... excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an age specified by the...

  13. Differentiated effects of social participation components on suicidal ideation across age groups in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide among adults in the Korean population merits study to improve the understanding of the salient risk and protective factors because suicide rates in Korea have increased dramatically over the past 20 years. However, the association between social participation and suicidal ideation is poorly understood. Thus, this study aimed to identify the components of social participation in Korean society and to examine the processes through which the components of social participation influence the degree of suicidal ideation people experience across age groups. Methods This study used survey data from the 2010 Seoul Welfare Panel Study. The sample population was restricted to adults aged 20 or older and was categorised into three groups by respondents’ ages. The groups were defined as 'young adults’ (aged 20–39), 'middle-aged adults’ (aged 40–64) and 'the elderly’ (age 65 or more). Three dimensions of social participation were identified by factor analysis – friendship network and hobby group, religious involvement, and instrumental social participation. Results In the young adult group, only instrumental participation was statistically significant (-0.10, p = 0.06). In the middle-aged adult group, only friendship network and hobby group had a strong association with suicidal ideation (-0.11, p = 0.01). Interestingly, for the elderly, religious involvement was related to suicidal ideation, but in a positive way (0.26, p = 0.02). Conclusion The study results supported the theory that different components of social participation are associated with a lower risk of suicidal ideation in different stages of adulthood. PMID:24067075

  14. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an...

  15. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an...

  16. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-4 - Maximum age conditions and time of participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum age conditions and time of participation.... § 1.410(a)-4 Maximum age conditions and time of participation. (a) Maximum age conditions—(1) General...) if the plan excludes from participation (on the basis of age) an employee who has attained an...

  17. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  18. [Investigating work, age, health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany].

    PubMed

    Ebener, M; Hasselhorn, H M

    2015-04-01

    Working life in Germany is changing. The work force is ageing and the number of people available to the labour market will - from now on - shrink considerably. Prospectively, people will have to work longer; but still today, most people leave employment long before reaching official retirement age. What are the reasons for this? In this report, a conceptual framework and the German lidA Cohort Study are presented. The "lidA conceptual framework on work, age, health and work participation" visualises determinants of employment (11 "domains") in higher working age, e. g., "work", "health", "social status" and "life style". The framework reveals 4 key characteristics of withdrawal from work: leaving working life is the result of an interplay of different domains (complexity); (early) retirement is a process with in part early determinants in the life course (processual character); retirement has a strong individual component (individuality); retirement is embedded in a strong structural frame (structure). On the basis of this framework, the "lidA Cohort Study on work, age, health and work participation" (www.lida-studie.de) investigates long-term effects of work on health and work participation in the ageing work force in Germany. It is the only large study in Germany operationalising the concept of employability in a broad interdisciplinary approach. Employees subject to social security and born in 1959 or in 1965 will be interviewed (CAPI) every 3 years (N[wave 1]=6 585, N[wave 2]=4 244) and their data will be linked (where consented) with social security data covering employment history and with health insurance data. The study design ("Schaie's most efficient design") allows for a tri-factor model that isolates the impact of age, cohort and time. In 2014, the second wave was completed. In the coming years lidA will analyse the association of work, health and work participation, and identify age as well as generation differences. lidA will investigate the

  19. [Age(ing) and participative neighbourhood development. Obstacles and perspectives for social sustainability].

    PubMed

    Heite, E; Rüßler, H; Stiel, J

    2015-07-01

    Ageing urban societies face the challenge of enabling a "good" life for older people in their neighbourhood areas. This article focuses on potential obstacles and required preconditions for processes of neighbourhood development, based on results from the research and development project "Quality of life of older people in their neighbourhood" (LiW). Preconditions and obstacles include political and organizational requirements, differing understandings of participation of local experts, as well as the organization of the process and the access to the process. Furthermore, problems and social conflicts, which have to be dealt with on the local level, are examined. An example for such conflicts are statements of group-focused enmity. The paper aims to point out the significials of such processes as well as potential barriers and limits in order to inform academics as well as practitioners and to contribute to the sustainable integration of participative neighbourhood development.

  20. Barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise among middle-aged and elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Justine, Maria; Azizan, Azliyana; Hassan, Vaharli; Salleh, Zoolfaiz; Manaf, Haidzir

    2013-10-01

    INTRODUCTION Although the benefits of physical activity and exercise are widely acknowledged, many middle-aged and elderly individuals remain sedentary. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation among middle-aged and elderly individuals, as well as identify any differences in these barriers between the two groups. METHODS Recruited individuals were categorised into either the middle-aged (age 45-59 years, n = 60) or elderly (age ≥ 60 years, n = 60) group. Data on demographics, anthropometry, as well as external and internal barriers to participation in physical activity and exercise were collected. RESULTS Analysis showed no significant differences in the total scores of all internal barriers between the two groups (p > 0.05). The total scores for most external barriers between the two groups also showed no significant differences (p > 0.05); only 'cost' (p = 0.045) and 'exercise interferes with social/family activities' (p = 0.011) showed significant differences. The most common external barriers among the middle-aged and elderly respondents were 'not enough time' (46.7% vs. 48.4%), 'no one to exercise with' (40.0% vs. 28.3%) and 'lack of facilities' (33.4% vs. 35.0%). The most common internal barriers for middle-aged respondents were 'too tired' (48.3%), 'already active enough' (38.3%), 'do not know how to do it' (36.7%) and 'too lazy' (36.7%), while those for elderly respondents were 'too tired' (51.7%), 'lack of motivation' (38.4%) and 'already active enough' (38.4%). CONCLUSION Middle-aged and elderly respondents presented with similar external and internal barriers to physical activity and exercise participation. These factors should be taken into account when healthcare policies are being designed and when interventions such as the provision of facilities to promote physical activity and exercise among older people are being considered.

  1. [Social inequality and participation in aging urban societies].

    PubMed

    Rüssler, H; Köster, D; Heite, E; Stiel, J

    2013-06-01

    The social and political participation of elderly people is characterized by social inequality. Participation processes normally consolidate and intensify the exclusion of senior citizens having low incomes and low educational qualifications. In the research and development project "Quality of Life of Elderly People in Living Quarters" being conducted by Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts, one of the questions being examined is whether and to what extent socially disadvantaged elderly people in a social space typical of the Ruhr region (reference area Gelsenkirchen-Schalke) can be included in the shaping of their quarter. This paper is based on the results of a quantitative, written survey (cross-section) on the subjects of quality of life and participation, and on a trend analysis measuring the effects of participation processes initiated on the elderly persons involved. The results of the study show that it is possible to involve socially disadvantaged elderly people in participation processes geared to the specific social space. They also indicate that elderly people from different income groups increase their social capital in the context of enabling structures.

  2. Mixed-method Exploration of Social Network Links to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Consuelo M.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Mann, William C.; Young, Mary Ellen; McCarty, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The people who regularly interact with an adolescent form that youth's social network, which may impact participation. We investigated the relationship of social networks to participation using personal network analysis and individual interviews. The sample included 36 youth, age 11 – 16 years. Nineteen had diagnoses of learning disability, attention disorder, or high-functioning autism and 17 were typically developing. Network analysis yielded 10 network variables, of which 8 measured network composition and 2 measured network structure, with significant links to at least one measure of participation using the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). Interviews from youth in the clinical group yielded description of strategies used to negotiate social interactions, as well as processes and reasoning used to remain engaged within social networks. Findings contribute to understanding the ways social networks are linked to youth participation and suggest the potential of social network factors for predicting rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:26594737

  3. Participant Anonymity in the Internet Age: From Theory to Practice

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Benjamin; Kitzinger, Jenny; Kitzinger, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative researchers attempting to protect the identities of their research participants now face a multitude of new challenges due to the wealth of information once considered private but now readily accessible online. We will draw on our research with family members of people with severe brain injury to discuss these challenges in relation to three areas: participant engagement with the mass media, the availability of court transcripts online, and participants’ use of social media. We suggest strategies for managing these challenges via disguise, refining informed consent, and discussion with interviewees. In the context of a largely theoretical literature on anonymization, this article offers concrete examples of the dilemmas we faced and will be of illustrative use to other researchers confronting similar challenges. PMID:25866484

  4. Cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults participating in synchronized swimming-exercise

    PubMed Central

    Maeshima, Etsuko; Okumura, Yuka; Tatsumi, Juri; Tomokane, Sayaka; Ikeshima, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults regularly engaging in synchronized swimming-exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three female synchronized swimmers ranging in age from 49 to 85 years were recruited for the present study. The duration of synchronized swimming experience ranged from 1 to 39 years. The control group consisted of 36 age- and gender-matched community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults (age range: 49 to 77 years). Cognitive function was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) and compared between the synchronized swimmers and control participants. [Results] No significant differences in mean total MoCA-J scores were observed between the synchronized swimmers and control participants (23.2 ± 3.1 and 22.2 ± 3.6, respectively). Twenty-nine subjects in the control group and 17 in the synchronized swimming group scored below 26 on the MoCA-J, indicative of mild cognitive impairment. Significant differences in delayed recall—but not in visuospatial/executive function, naming, attention, language, abstraction, or orientation—were also observed between the two groups. [Conclusion] The results of the present study suggest that synchronized swimming has beneficial effects on cognitive function, particularly with regard to recent memory. PMID:28210062

  5. Development of the Conversation Participation Rating Scale: Intervention Planning Implications for Two School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timler, Geralyn R.; Boone, William J.; Bergmann, Amelia A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: School-age children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have pervasive challenges in social interactions with peers. This study examined the feasibility of eliciting children's perceptions of their conversation participation with peers for the purposes of assessment and intervention planning. Methods: Two school-age children with ASD…

  6. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-01-01

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults’ preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public ‘third’ places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults. PMID:26343690

  7. Locations that Support Social Activity Participation of the Aging Population.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Pauline; Kemperman, Astrid; de Kleijn, Boy; Borgers, Aloys

    2015-08-26

    Social activities are an important aspect of health and quality of life of the aging population. They are key elements in the prevention of loneliness. In order to create living environments that stimulate older adults to engage in social activities, more insight is needed in the social activity patterns of the aging population. This study therefore analyzes the heterogeneity in older adults' preferences for different social activity location types and the relationship between these preferences and personal and mobility characteristics. This is done using a latent class multinomial logit model based on two-day diary data collected in 2014 in Noord-Limburg in the Netherlands among 213 respondents aged 65 or over. The results show that three latent classes can be identified among the respondents who recorded social activities in the diary: a group that mainly socializes at home, a group that mainly socializes at a community center and a group that is more likely to socialize at public 'third' places. The respondents who did not record any interactions during the two days, are considered as a separate segment. Relationships between segment membership and personal and mobility characteristics were tested using cross-tabulations with chi-square tests and analyses of variance. The results suggest that both personal and mobility characteristics play an important role in social activity patterns of older adults.

  8. A case study on the perception of aging and participation in physical activities of older Chinese immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Koo, Fung Kuen

    2011-10-01

    This qualitative study explores how older Hong Kong ChineseAustralians perceive aging and to what extent this perception affects their participation in physical activities. The main methods used were in-depth interviews with 22 participants ranging in age from 60 to 91 years. Interviews were translated from Chinese (Cantonese) and transcribed into English. Content analysis was used to find recurring themes from the interview data. The main findings indicate that the perception of aging is to some extent influenced by culture. Some participants defined aging as being measured in years, and others defined it by the state of one's physical health, appearance, and capacity to continue fulfilling one's social roles. These perceptions strongly influenced their preferences for and participation in physical activities. Acknowledging the fact that Chinese-speaking people are not culturally homogeneous, this article makes some recommendations to health service providers with regard to the development of appropriate physical activity programs.

  9. Participation and Enjoyment of Leisure Activities in School-Aged Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Law, Mary; Birnbaum, Rena; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Rosenbaum, Peter; Poulin, Chantal

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize participation in leisure activities in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and identify determinants of greater involvement. Ninety-five children of school age (9y 7mo [SD 2y 1mo]) with CP were recruited, and participation was evaluated with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment in a…

  10. Age and Arts Participation, with a Focus on the Baby Boom Cohort. Research Division Report #34.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Richard A.; And Others

    Using data taken from the National Endowment for the Arts' Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) which were conducted in 1982 and 1992, this report looks at the effect of age on adult arts participation in seven benchmark or core art forms: classical music, opera, ballet, musicals, jazz, plays, and art museums. The report examines the…

  11. Will Raising the Participation Age in England Solve the NEET Problem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the rationale for introducing the raising of the participation age (RPA) in learning in England from 2013 and assesses how, if fully implemented, it could contribute to improving the outcomes for young people who do not participate in any form of post-16 education, employment or training, and are currently defined as not in…

  12. Can Regular Sports Participation Slow the Aging Process? Data on Masters Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Terence; Shephard, Roy J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of age and sports participation on functional loss. Data on 756 adults who underwent maximal exercise testing during the 1985 World Masters Games indicate even moderate sports participation may enhance functional capacity. Older people may maintain independence in later life by increasing physical…

  13. Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

  14. Public participation GIS: a method for identifying ecosystems services

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Greg; Montag, Jessica; Lyon, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of an Internet-based public participation geographic information system (PPGIS) to identify ecosystem services in Grand County, Colorado. Specific research objectives were to examine the distribution of ecosystem services, identify the characteristics of participants in the study, explore potential relationships between ecosystem services and land use and land cover (LULC) classifications, and assess the methodological strengths and weakness of the PPGIS approach for identifying ecosystem services. Key findings include: (1) Cultural ecosystem service opportunities were easiest to identify while supporting and regulatory services most challenging, (2) participants were highly educated, knowledgeable about nature and science, and have a strong connection to the outdoors, (3) some LULC classifications were logically and spatially associated with ecosystem services, and (4) despite limitations, the PPGIS method demonstrates potential for identifying ecosystem services to augment expert judgment and to inform public or environmental policy decisions regarding land use trade-offs.

  15. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  16. Lifecourse Activity Participation From Early, Mid, and Later Adulthood as Determinants of Cognitive Aging: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921

    PubMed Central

    Pattie, Alison; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine potential sensitive periods for activity participation across adulthood to reduce cognitive decline and to determine whether associations persist after accounting for the lifetime stability of cognitive ability. Method: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 is a longitudinal study of cognitive aging. Participants were born in 1921 and most completed a mental ability test at the age of 11 years. Cognitive assessments were completed at mean ages 79 (N = 550), 83 (N = 321), 87 (N = 235), and 90 years (N = 129). Participants provided retrospective details of their activity participation for young (20–35 years), mid (40–55 years), and later adulthood (60–75 years), and contemporaneously at age 79. Results: Associations between activity and the level of, and change in, cognitive ability in old age were examined with latent growth curve models. Accounting for demographics and childhood cognitive ability, engagement in leisure activities in midlife was positively associated with cognitive ability level (path coefficient = .32), whereas higher physical activity in later adulthood was associated with less cognitive decline (.27). Discussion: The findings support a lifecourse approach in identifying determinants of cognitive aging; leisure and physical activity during different periods of adulthood may enhance cognitive abilities or reduce decline. PMID:27974473

  17. As the Baby Boom Ages: Adult Participation in Postsecondary Education, 1960-2010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knop, Sheila A.

    Focusing on national enrollment trends and projections from 1960 through 2010, this study examined two scenarios: that age-specific postsecondary participation rates will be the same in the future as they were in 1980, and secondly, that because of enrollment "catch-up" and "saturation" factors that there will be minor age-specific enrollment…

  18. Physical activity (PA) among middle-aged women: initial and current influences and patterns of participation.

    PubMed

    Codina, Nuria; Pestana, José V; Armadans, Immaculada

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the initial and current influences for doing physical activity (PA), current levels of PA participation, and future plans for it. Participants were 200 women aged 45 to 64 years old. Factor loadings of influences were explored using Principal Components Analysis. Pearson bivariate correlations, t-test, and ANOVA were used to show the differences among the influences, sociodemographic characteristics, and present/future PA participation. Personal fulfillment was the main initial influence, while health benefits/self-care, and outdoor/family activities were the most important current influences. The results highlight the factors that best explain present PA participation and also plans for activity in the future.

  19. Theory and Methods of Research on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner, Ed.

    The document reports the proceedings of a conference on "Theory and Methods of Research on Aging" held under the auspices of the Division of Maturity and Old Age of the American Psychological Association, the Department of Psychology and the Human Resources Research Institute of West Virginia University, May 17-19, 1967. The summaries of four…

  20. America's School-Age Children Fight the War: Political Socialization, Participation, and Patriotism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, William M., Jr.

    U.S. children who were of school age during World War II underwent a socialization process that led them to have great pride in their country, to believe in the moral certainty of U.S. victory, and to feel united in their participation on the homefront. Excerpts from letters of individuals who were school-aged during the War are used to illustrate…

  1. Healthy ageing, narrative method and research ethics.

    PubMed

    Sarvimäki, Anneli

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe research and teaching activities related to healthy ageing, narrative methods and research ethics at the Nordic School of Public Health NHV during 1999 - 2012. Healthy ageing was conceived in terms of The World Health Organization's (WHO) model of active ageing and of quality of life defined as a sense of well-being, meaning and value. Qualitative research on ageing and health conducted at NHV showed how elderly people themselves experience health and what they perceive to be health promoting. Narrative method was one the qualitative methods used in research at NHV. By adopting holistic and categorical content analysis the life stories of elderly Finnish migrants, the stories of home-dwelling persons about falls, and working persons' stories of alcohol use were studied. The courses on research ethics took their point of departure in a model that describes the role of scientific, economic, aesthetic and ethical values in research.

  2. The Relationship between Attractiveness and Social Participation in Preschool Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gregory J.

    A total of 42 middle-class preschool children (23 boys and 19 girls) ranging in age from 33 to 68 months were studied to determine whether facial attractiveness was related to level of social participation (i.e., the degree to which children played near and interacted with each other). According to a time-sampling procedure, each child was…

  3. Social participation and depression in old age: a fixed-effects analysis in 10 European countries.

    PubMed

    Croezen, Simone; Avendano, Mauricio; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-07-15

    We examined whether changes in different forms of social participation were associated with changes in depressive symptoms in older Europeans. We used lagged individual fixed-effects models based on data from 9,068 persons aged ≥50 years in wave 1 (2004/2005), wave 2 (2006/2007), and wave 4 (2010/2011) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). After we controlled for a wide set of confounders, increased participation in religious organizations predicted a decline in depressive symptoms (EURO-D Scale; possible range, 0-12) 4 years later (β = -0.190 units, 95% confidence interval: -0.365, -0.016), while participation in political/community organizations was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms (β = 0.222 units, 95% confidence interval: 0.018, 0.428). There were no significant differences between European regions in these associations. Our findings suggest that social participation is associated with depressive symptoms, but the direction and strength of the association depend on the type of social activity. Participation in religious organizations may offer mental health benefits beyond those offered by other forms of social participation.

  4. Social Participation and Depression in Old Age: A Fixed-Effects Analysis in 10 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Croezen, Simone; Avendano, Mauricio; Burdorf, Alex; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether changes in different forms of social participation were associated with changes in depressive symptoms in older Europeans. We used lagged individual fixed-effects models based on data from 9,068 persons aged ≥50 years in wave 1 (2004/2005), wave 2 (2006/2007), and wave 4 (2010/2011) of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). After we controlled for a wide set of confounders, increased participation in religious organizations predicted a decline in depressive symptoms (EURO-D Scale; possible range, 0–12) 4 years later (β = −0.190 units, 95% confidence interval: −0.365, −0.016), while participation in political/community organizations was associated with an increase in depressive symptoms (β = 0.222 units, 95% confidence interval: 0.018, 0.428). There were no significant differences between European regions in these associations. Our findings suggest that social participation is associated with depressive symptoms, but the direction and strength of the association depend on the type of social activity. Participation in religious organizations may offer mental health benefits beyond those offered by other forms of social participation. PMID:26025236

  5. Relationship of depression in participants with nonspecific acute or subacute low back pain and no-pain by age distribution

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Lobo, Cesar; Vilar Fernández, Juan Manuel; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Rodríguez-Sanz, David; Palomo López, Patricia; López López, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Nonspecific low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculoskeletal condition in various age ranges and is associated with depression. The aim of this study was to determine the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores in participants with nonspecific LBP and no-pain by age distribution. Methods A case–control study was carried out following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria. A sample of 332 participants, divided into the following age categories: 19–24 (n=11), 25–39 (n=66), 40–64 (n=90), 65–79 (n=124), and ≥80 (n=41) years was recruited from domiciliary visits and an outpatient clinic. The BDI scores were self-reported in participants with nonspecific acute or subacute (≤3 months) LBP (n=166) and no-pain (n=166). Results The BDI scores, mean ± standard deviation, showed statistically significant differences (p<0.001) between participants with nonspecific acute or subacute LBP (9.590±6.370) and no-pain (5.825±5.113). Significantly higher BDI scores were obtained from participants with nonspecific acute and subacute LBP in those aged 40–64 years (p<0.001; 9.140±6.074 vs 4.700±3.777) and 65–79 years (p<0.001; 10.672±6.126 vs 6.210±5.052). Differences were not significant in younger patients aged 19–24 (p=0.494; 5.000±2.646 vs 8.250±7.498), 25–39 (p=0.138; 5.440±5.245 vs 3.634±4.397), and in those aged ≥80 years (p=0.094; 13.625±6.1331 vs 10.440±5.591). Conclusion Participants with nonspecific acute and subacute LBP present higher BDI depression scores, influenced by age distribution. Specifically, patients in the age range from 40 to 80 years with LBP could require more psychological care in addition to any medical or physical therapy. Nevertheless, physical factors, different outcomes, and larger sample size should be considered in future studies. PMID:28138263

  6. Evaluation of participant recruitment methods to a rare disease online registry.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Mueller, Nancy L; Williams, Katherine; Gutmann, David H

    2014-07-01

    Internet communication advances provide new opportunities to assemble individuals with rare diseases to online patient registries from wide geographic areas for research. However, there is little published information on the efficacy of different recruitment methods. Here we describe recruitment patterns and the characteristics of individuals with the self-identified autosomal dominant genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) who participated in an online patient registry during the 1-year period from 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012. We employed four main mechanisms to alert potential participants to the registry: (1) Facebook and Google advertising, (2) government and academic websites, (3) patient advocacy groups, and (4) healthcare providers. Participants reported how they first heard about the registry through an online questionnaire. During the 1-year period, 880 individuals participated in the registry from all 50 U.S. States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 39 countries. Facebook and Google were reported as referral sources by the highest number of participants (n=550, 72% Facebook), followed by healthcare providers (n=74), and government and academic websites (n=71). The mean participant age was 29±18 years and most participants reported White race (73%) and female sex (62%) irrespective of reported referral source. Internet advertising, especially through Facebook, resulted in efficient enrollment of large numbers of individuals with NF1. Our study demonstrates the potential utility of this approach to assemble individuals with a rare disease from across the world for research studies.

  7. [Comparative characteristic of the formation of stereotype of aging in participants of current war conflicts and World War II].

    PubMed

    Iakymets', V M

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine participants of current war conflicts and World War II in order to compare the development of the formation of stereotype of old age. It was established that participants of World War II have higher level of the formation of pessimistic stereotype of old age than participants of current war conflicts have.

  8. Teaching medical ethics to experienced staff: participants, teachers and method

    PubMed Central

    Nilstun, T.; Cuttini, M.; Saracci, R.

    2001-01-01

    Almost all articles on education in medical ethics present proposals for or describe experiences of teaching students in different health professions. Since experienced staff also need such education, the purpose of this paper is to exemplify and discuss educational approaches that may be used after graduation. As an example we describe the experiences with a five-day European residential course on ethics for neonatal intensive care personnel. In this multidisciplinary course, using a case-based approach, the aim was to enhance the participants' understanding of ethical principles and their relevance to clinical and research activities. Our conclusion is that working with realistic cases encourages practising nurses and physicians to apply their previous knowledge and new concepts learnt in the course, thus helping them to bridge the gap between theory and practice. Key Words: Case method • medical ethics education • neonatal intensive care personnel PMID:11731606

  9. Association Between Self-efficacy and Participation in Community-Dwelling Manual Wheelchair Users Aged 50 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, Brodie M.; Routhier, François; Backman, Catherine L.; Eng, Janice J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-efficacy with using a wheelchair is an emerging construct in the wheelchair-use literature that may have implications for the participation frequency in social and personal roles of wheelchair users. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the direct and mediated effects of self-efficacy on participation frequency in community-dwelling manual wheelchair users aged 50 years or older. Design A cross-sectional study was conducted. Methods Participants were community-dwelling wheelchair users (N=124), 50 years of age or older (mean=59.7 years), with at least 6 months of experience with wheelchair use. The Late-Life Disability Instrument, the Wheelchair Use Confidence Scale, the Life-Space Assessment, and the Wheelchair Skills Test–Questionnaire Version measured participation frequency, self-efficacy, life-space mobility, and wheelchair skills, respectively. Multiple regression analyses with bootstrapping were used to investigate the direct and mediated effects. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used to guide the analyses. Results Self-efficacy was a statistically significant determinant of participation frequency and accounted for 17.2% of the participation variance after controlling for age, number of comorbidities, and social support. The total mediating effect by life-space mobility, wheelchair skills, and perceived participation limitations was statistically significant (point estimate=0.14; bootstrapped 95% confidence interval=0.04, 0.24); however, the specific indirect effect by the wheelchair skills variable did not contribute to the total effect above and beyond the other 2 mediators. The mediated model accounted for 55.0% of the participation variance. Limitations Causality cannot be established due to the cross-sectional nature of the data, and the self-report nature of our data from a volunteer sample may be influenced by measurement bias or social desirability, or both. Conclusion Self

  10. Incidence of Dementia Among Participants and Nonparticipants in a Longitudinal Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Knopman, David S.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Cha, Ruth H.; Rocca, Walter A.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Tangalos, Eric G.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Geda, Yonas E.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Although rates of incident dementia have been reported from several populations, the impact of nonparticipation on dementia incidence in studies of cognitive aging is unknown. In 2004, investigators with the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging selected persons aged 70–89 years from an enumeration of all Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents (age- and sex-stratified random sample). Of 4,398 potential participants, 2,050 agreed to undergo an in-person health assessment. Those participants were reevaluated in person using standard diagnostic procedures approximately every 15 months over a median follow-up period of 5.7 years (through September 15, 2013). There were 1,679 persons who refused any participation. A trained nurse abstractor reviewed the medical records of nonparticipants using the Rochester Epidemiology Project's medical record linkage system a median of 3.9 years after refusal. Nonparticipants had a higher prevalence of dementia than participants evaluated in person (6.5% vs. 3.3%; P < 0.0001). The standardized incidence of dementia was not significantly higher among the nonparticipants (23.2 per 1,000 person-years) than in those evaluated in person (19.6 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.43 (P = 0.13); adjusted for education and sex, with age as the time scale). The small, nonsignificant impact of nonparticipation on rates of incident dementia is reassuring for future studies based on incident dementia cases. PMID:24859276

  11. Independence, well-being, and social participation in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Alpass, Fiona; Towers, Andy; Stephens, Christine; Fitzgerald, Eljon; Stevenson, Brendan; Davey, Judith

    2007-10-01

    In 2005 the Health, Work, and Retirement (HWR) Longitudinal Study was established at Massey University in order to identify the later-midlife factors that lay the basis for community participation, independence, and health in later life. Information was collected via postal questionnaire on physical and mental health, psychosocial factors, work and retirement attitudes, and socioeconomic and demographic indicators of a sample of 6662 community-dwelling adults aged 55-70 years. This report provides an overview of these results, and highlights the impact that the transition from work to retirement has on the health and retirement adjustment of older people with respect to independence, well-being, and social participation.

  12. Involuntary Capture and Voluntary Reorienting of Attention Decline in Middle-Aged and Old Participants

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Jaraba, Kenia S.; Cid-Fernández, Susana; Lindín, Mónica; Díaz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of aging on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) associated with the automatic detection of unattended infrequent deviant and novel auditory stimuli (Mismatch Negativity, MMN) and with the orienting to these stimuli (P3a component), as well as the effects on ERPs associated with reorienting to relevant visual stimuli (Reorienting Negativity, RON). Participants were divided into three age groups: (1) Young: 21–29 years old; (2) Middle-aged: 51–64 years old; and (3) Old: 65–84 years old. They performed an auditory-visual distraction-attention task in which they were asked to attend to visual stimuli (Go, NoGo) and to ignore auditory stimuli (S: standard, D: deviant, N: novel). Reaction times (RTs) to Go visual stimuli were longer in old and middle-aged than in young participants. In addition, in all three age groups, longer RTs were found when Go visual stimuli were preceded by novel relative to deviant and standard auditory stimuli, indicating a distraction effect provoked by novel stimuli. ERP components were identified in the Novel minus Standard (N-S) and Deviant minus Standard (D-S) difference waveforms. In the N-S condition, MMN latency was significantly longer in middle-aged and old participants than in young participants, indicating a slowing of automatic detection of changes. The following results were observed in both difference waveforms: (1) the P3a component comprised two consecutive phases in all three age groups—an early-P3a (e-P3a) that may reflect the orienting response toward the irrelevant stimulation and a late-P3a (l-P3a) that may be a correlate of subsequent evaluation of the infrequent unexpected novel or deviant stimuli; (2) the e-P3a, l-P3a, and RON latencies were significantly longer in the Middle-aged and Old groups than in the Young group, indicating delay in the orienting response to and the subsequent evaluation of unattended auditory stimuli, and in the reorienting of

  13. Age and education in moral judgment of participants in team sports.

    PubMed

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2006-02-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p < .001) and amounts of education (F4.511 = 6.24, p < .001). Generally, with more education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.

  14. Organizational Responsibility for Age-Friendly Social Participation: Views of Australian Rural Community Stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Winterton, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study critically explores the barriers experienced by diverse rural community stakeholders in facilitating environments that enable age-friendly social participation. Twenty-six semi-structured interviews were conducted across two rural Australian communities with stakeholders from local government, health, social care, and community organizations. Findings identify that rural community stakeholders face significant difficulties in securing resources for groups and activities catering to older adults, which subsequently impacts their capacity to undertake outreach to older adults. However, in discussing these issues, questions were raised in relation to whose responsibility it is to provide resources for community groups and organizations providing social initiatives and whose responsibility it is to engage isolated seniors. These findings provide a much-needed critical perspective on current age-friendly research by acknowledging the responsibilities of various macro-level social structures-different community-level organizations, local government, and policy in fostering environments to enable participation of diverse rural older adults.

  15. The influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs.

    PubMed

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T; Bhatt, Suraj K; Calixte, Rose E; Cnaan, Avital

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child's age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the test of functional health literacy in adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs [Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), child care subsidy, and public housing] was self-reported at child's birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR = 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age.

  16. [Demographic aging and participation of the elderly in the financing of health and social expenses].

    PubMed

    Rochon, M

    1999-01-01

    The classical indicators typically used to understand the consequences of population aging upon the ability to finance social services fail to consider the active participation of older individuals. But such participation and contribution is not negligible in countries where the financing of social programs is mainly assured through governments¿ general funds. This paper considers the actual and future importance of the participation of the elderly in funding public expenditures in Quebec, Canada. Specifically, the author attempts to determine the contribution of the elderly to the public financing of health and social expenditures taking into account overall government revenues, how that contribution will change over time and which related factors could be influenced, and up to what point can this contribution offset the projected growth in the financial burden of countries caused by an aging population. Governments¿ revenue sources and indexes related to people¿s contributions are discussed with regard to taxation on consumption and income. The contribution of the elderly to the financing of public expenditures is then considered, followed by sections on the contribution of the elderly to government revenues and the financing of social expenses, and future trends in the contribution. Demographic and health factors such as the population¿s health status and the aging of the active population also affect expenditure trends and the ability of a population to finance them.

  17. Dynamic cortical participation during bilateral, cyclical ankle movements: effects of aging

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Takashi; Masani, Kei; Zabjek, Karl; Chen, Robert; Popovic, Milos R.

    2017-01-01

    The precise role of the human primary motor cortex in walking is unknown. Our previous study showed that the primary motor cortex may contribute to specific requirements of walking (i.e., maintaining a constant movement frequency and bilaterally coordinating the feet). Because aging can impair (i) the ability to fulfill the aforementioned requirements and (ii) corticomuscular communication, we hypothesized that aging would impair the motoneuronal recruitment by the primary motor cortex during bilateral cyclical movements. Here, we used corticomuscular coherence (i.e., coherence between the primary motor cortex and the active muscles) to examine whether corticomuscular communication is affected in older individuals during cyclical movements that shared some functional requirements with walking. Fifteen young men and 9 older men performed cyclical, anti-phasic dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the feet while seated. Coherence between the midline primary motor cortex and contracting leg muscles cyclically increased in both age groups. However, the coherence of older participants was characterized by (i) lower magnitude and (ii) mediolaterally broader and more rostrally centered cortical distributions. These characteristics suggest that aging changes how the primary motor cortex participates in the cyclical movements, and such change may extend to walking. PMID:28300175

  18. [Perspectives of work, age, health, and labor market participation in Germany].

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, H M; Rauch, A

    2013-03-01

    The German population is aging and shrinking. This will have a significant impact on the labor market, because labor supply will start to shrink. Consequently, there is a need to develop additional labor market resources. In this setting, a crucial issue is the health and employment of the older working population. This article discusses--on the basis of nine articles in this special issue--the health of the working population in the context of work, age, and labor participation. It shows the diversity of morbidity in the work force in general and particularly in older age, and it identifies older labor force groups with good health and those with bad health. The latter shows that "working while having a bad state of health" is today's reality. Labor market participation is less dependent on health than on the "work ability" and/or the "motivation to work" of older workers. The employment dynamics of an aging population will be a key issue in future political debate. A reliable knowledge base is needed for proper discussion, judgment, and action in the economic, political, and social fields. Current research is often focused on subtopics or on subgroups; however, a network of all the related scientific disciplines and the establishment of new comprehensive research approaches are needed in this area.

  19. The influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs

    PubMed Central

    Pati, Susmita; Siewert, Elizabeth; Wong, Angie T.; Bhatt, Suraj K.; Calixte, Rose E.; Cnaan, Avital

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of maternal health literacy and child’s age on participation in social welfare programs benefiting children. Methods In a longitudinal prospective cohort study of 560 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads recruited in Philadelphia, maternal health literacy was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Participation in social welfare programs (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families [TANF], Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program [SNAP], Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children [WIC], child care subsidy, and public housing) was self-reported at child’s birth, and at the 6, 12, 18, 24 month follow-up interviews. Generalized estimating equations quantified the strength of maternal health literacy as an estimator of program participation. Results The mothers were primarily African-Americans (83%), single (87%), with multiple children (62%). Nearly 24% of the mothers had inadequate or marginal health literacy. Children whose mothers had inadequate health literacy were less likely to receive child care subsidy (adjusted OR= 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34–0.85) than children whose mothers had adequate health literacy. Health literacy was not a significant predictor for TANF, SNAP, WIC or housing assistance. The predicted probability for participation in all programs decreased from birth to 24 months. Most notably, predicted WIC participation declined rapidly after age one. Conclusions During the first 24 months, mothers with inadequate health literacy could benefit from simplified or facilitated child care subsidy application processes. Targeted outreach and enrollment efforts conducted by social welfare programs need to take into account the changing needs of families as children age. PMID:23990157

  20. Mars Public Mapping Project: Public Participation in Science Research; Providing Opportunities for Kids of All Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, L. D.; Valderrama Graff, P.; Bandfield, J. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Klug, S. L.; Deva, B.; Capages, C.

    2007-12-01

    build a mappable database that can be used by researchers (and the public in general) to quickly access image based data that contains particular feature types. 3) It builds a searchable database of images containing specific geologic features that the public deem to be visually appealing. Other education and public outreach programs at the Mars Space Flight Facility, such as the Rock Around the World and the Mars Student Imaging Project, have shown an increase in demand for programs that allow "kids of all ages" to participate in authentic scientific research. The Mars Public Mapping Project is a broadly accessible program that continues this theme by building a set of activities that is useful for both the public and scientists.

  1. Participation in health impact assessment: objectives, methods and core values.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, John; Parry, Jayne; Mathers, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a multidisciplinary aid to decision-making that assesses the impact of policy on public health and on health inequalities. Its purpose is to assist decision-makers to maximize health gains and to reduce inequalities. The 1999 Gothenburg Consensus Paper (GCP) provides researchers with a rationale for establishing community participation as a core value of HIA. According to the GCP, participation in HIA empowers people within the decision-making process and redresses the democratic deficit between government and society. Participation in HIA generates a sense that health and decision-making is community-owned, and the personal experiences of citizens become integral to the formulation of policy. However, the participatory and empowering dimensions of HIA may prove difficult to operationalize. In this review of the participation strategies adopted in key applications of HIA in the United Kingdom, we found that HIA's aim of influencing decision-making creates tension between its participatory and knowledge-gathering dimensions. Accordingly, researchers have decreased the participatory dimension of HIA by reducing the importance attached to the community's experience of empowerment, ownership and democracy, while enlarging its knowledge-gathering dimension by giving pre-eminence to "expert" and "research-generated" evidence. Recent applications of HIA offer a serviceable rationale for participation as a means of information gathering and it is no longer tenable to uphold HIA as a means of empowering communities and advancing the aims of participatory democracy. PMID:15682250

  2. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  3. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  4. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  5. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  6. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  7. 2 CFR 2867.332 - What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom the participant intends to do business? 2867.332... § 2867.332 What method must a participant use to pass requirements down to participants at lower...

  8. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-12-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP(-)/NG2-DsRed(+)) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP(+)/NG2-DsRed(+)), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation.

  9. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva

    2013-01-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP−/NG2-DsRed+) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation. PMID:24067916

  10. 29 CFR 4050.3 - Method of distribution for missing participants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of distribution for missing participants. 4050.3 Section 4050.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS MISSING PARTICIPANTS § 4050.3 Method of distribution for missing participants. The plan administrator of a terminating plan...

  11. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  12. Neighborhood Physical Disorder, Social Cohesion and Insomnia: Results from Participants Over Age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P.; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Augustinavicius, Jura L.; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Wennberg, Alexandra M. V.; Smith, Michael T.; Spira, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    Background We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g., vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g., friendliness of people, availability of help when needed); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, feeling unrested). Results After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR)=1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04–1.14), waking too early (OR=1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR=1.11, 95% CI 1.02–1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01–1.11) and feeling unrested (OR=1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). Conclusions Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population. PMID:25222023

  13. Neighborhood physical disorder, social cohesion, and insomnia: results from participants over age 50 in the Health and Retirement Study.

    PubMed

    Chen-Edinboro, Lenis P; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Mojtabai, Ramin; Parisi, Jeanine M; Wennberg, Alexandra M V; Smith, Michael T; Spira, Adam P

    2014-09-15

    ABSTRACT Background: We determined the association between neighborhood socio-environmental factors and insomnia symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults aged >50 years. Methods: Data were analyzed from two waves (2006 and 2010) of the Health and Retirement Study using 7,231 community-dwelling participants (3,054 men and 4,177 women) in the United States. Primary predictors were neighborhood physical disorder (e.g. vandalism/graffiti, feeling safe alone after dark, and cleanliness) and social cohesion (e.g. friendliness of people, availability of help when needed, etc.); outcomes were insomnia symptoms (trouble falling asleep, night awakenings, waking too early, and feeling unrested). Results: After adjustment for age, income, race, education, sex, chronic diseases, body mass index, depressive symptoms, smoking, and alcohol consumption, each one-unit increase in neighborhood physical disorder was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.14), waking too early (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.00-1.10), and, in adults aged ≥69 years (adjusting for all variables above except age), feeling unrested in the morning (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.02-1.22 in 2006). Each one-unit increase in lower social cohesion was associated with a greater odds of trouble falling asleep (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) and feeling unrested (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15). Conclusions: Neighborhood-level factors of physical disorder and social cohesion are associated with insomnia symptoms in middle-aged and older adults. Neighborhood-level factors may affect sleep, and consequently health, in our aging population.

  14. Participant Interaction in Asynchronous Learning Environments: Evaluating Interaction Analysis Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchette, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this empirical study was to determine the extent to which three different objective analytical methods--sequence analysis, surface cohesion analysis, and lexical cohesion analysis--can most accurately identify specific characteristics of online interaction. Statistically significant differences were found in all points of…

  15. Factors affecting the benefits of a six-month supervised exercise program on community-dwelling older adults: interactions among age, gender, and participation

    PubMed Central

    Hulya, Tuna Donat; Sevi, Yeşilyaprak Subasi Sevgi; Serap, Acar; Ayse, Ozcan Edeer

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of age, gender, and participation on the benefits of a 6-month supervised exercise program on older adults. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-five (37 women, 48 men) community-dwelling older adults participated. The chair sit-and-reach test, the 8-foot up-and-go test, the 6-minute walk test, the Berg Balance Scale, lower-body flexibility, dynamic balance, aerobic endurance, balance, metabolic rate, muscle strength, and position sense were evaluated. Repeated-measures of analysis of variance was performed including dependent variables of age, gender, and participation in the exercise program as dependent inter-subject factors and time of assessment as an intra-subject factor. [Results] Mean exercise participation was 29.88 ± 1.29 sessions. Flexibility, balance, position sense, and strength showed a significant main effect of time. There was a significant gender interaction for right shoulder flexion strength and knee extension strength, a significant gender-participation interaction for pre-/post-intervention measures of functional mobility, and a significant age-participation interaction for flexibility. [Conclusion] Exercise training improved outcomes after 6 months of supervised exercise, but the changes were similar regardless of participation level. Changes in strength were more pronounced in men than women. PMID:26157233

  16. Analysis of participation and performance in athletes by age group in ultramarathons of more than 200 km in length

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends for athletes by age group have been investigated for marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races up to 161 km, but not for longer distances of more than 200 km. Methods Participation and performance trends in athletes by age group in the Badwater (217 km) and Spartathlon (246 km) races were compared from 2000 to 2012. Results The number of female and male finishers increased in both races across years (P < 0.05). The age of the annual five fastest men decreased in Badwater from 42.4 ± 4.2 years to 39.8 ± 5.7 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04). For women, the age remained unchanged at 42.3 ± 3.8 years in Badwater (P > 0.05). In Spartathlon, the age of the annual five fastest finishers was unchanged at 39.7 ± 2.4 years for men and 44.6 ± 3.2 years for women (P > 0.05). In Badwater, running speed increased in men from 7.9 ± 0.7 km/hour to 8.7 ± 0.6 km/hour (r2 = 0.51, P < 0.01) and in women from 5.4 ± 1.1 km/hour to 6.6 ± 0.5 km/hour (r2 = 0.61, P < 0.01). In Spartathlon, running speed remained unchanged at 10.8 ± 0.7 km/hour in men and 8.7 ± 0.5 km/hour in women (P > 0.05). In Badwater, the number of men in age groups 30–34 years (r2 = 0.37, P = 0.03) and 40–44 years (r2 = 0.75, P < 0.01) increased. In Spartathlon, the number of men increased in the age group 40–44 years (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04). Men in age groups 30–34 (r2 = 0.64, P < 0.01), 35–39 (r2 = 0.33, P = 0.04), 40–44 (r2 = 0.34, P = 0.04), and 55–59 years (r2 = 0.40, P = 0.02) improved running speed in Badwater. In Spartathlon, no change in running speed was observed. Conclusion The fastest finishers in ultramarathons more than 200 km in distance were 40–45 years old and have to be classified as “master runners” by definition. In contrast to reports of marathoners and ultramarathoners competing in races of 161 km in distance, the increase in participation and the improvement in performance by age group were less pronounced in

  17. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of throwing by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A; Loovis, E M

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of throwing by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 381 boys and 338 girls (ages 4-14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed in throwing development and static and dynamic balance. In addition, all subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school- or community-sponsored sports. To determine the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis, which indicated that mature throwing development was influenced by sport participation and sex. Boys performed better at all grades.

  18. Who has undiagnosed dementia? A cross-sectional analysis of participants of the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Savva, George M.; Arthur, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Background: delays in diagnosing dementia may lead to suboptimal care, yet around half of those with dementia are undiagnosed. Any strategy for case finding should be informed by understanding the characteristics of the undiagnosed population. We used cross-sectional data from a population-based sample with dementia aged 71 years and older in the United States to describe the undiagnosed population and identify factors associated with non-diagnosis. Methods: the Aging, Demographics and Memory Study (ADAMS) Wave A participants (N = 856) each underwent a detailed neuropsychiatric investigation. Informants were asked whether the participant had ever received a doctor's diagnosis of dementia. We used multiple logistic regression to identify factors associated with informant report of a prior dementia diagnosis among those with a study diagnosis of dementia. Results: of those with a study diagnosis of dementia (n = 307), a prior diagnosis of dementia was reported by 121 informants (weighted proportion = 42%). Prior diagnosis was associated with greater clinical dementia rating (CDR), from 26% (CDR = 1) to 83% (CDR = 5). In multivariate analysis, those aged 90 years or older were less likely to be diagnosed (P = 0.008), but prior diagnosis was more common among married women (P = 0.038) and those who had spent more than 9 years in full-time education (P = 0.043). Conclusions: people with dementia who are undiagnosed are older, have fewer years in education, are more likely to be unmarried, male and have less severe dementia than those with a diagnosis. Policymakers and clinicians should be mindful of the variation in diagnosis rates among subgroups of the population with dementia. PMID:25758406

  19. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of kicking by children in grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, S A; Loovis, E M

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of kicking by children in Grades K-8. The subjects were 379 boys and 337 girls (ages 4 to 14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on kicking development and static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey on their participation in school or community-sponsored soccer. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple regression analysis. Development of mature form was significantly related to sex (Grade 6: boys outperformed girls), static and dynamic balance (Grade 7), and age (Grade 6).

  20. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  1. Anti-aging cosmetics and its efficacy assessment methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms of skin aging, the active ingredients used in anti-aging cosmetics and evaluation methods for anti-aging cosmetics were surmised in this paper. And the mechanisms of skin aging were introduced in the intrinsic and extrinsic ways. Meanwhile, the anti-aging cosmetic active ingredients were classified in accordance with the mechanism of action. Various evaluation methods such as human evaluation, in vitro evaluation were also summarized.

  2. Inventory and Analysis of Definitions of Social Participation Found in the Aging Literature: Proposed Taxonomy of Social Activities

    PubMed Central

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Richard, Lucie; Gauvin, Lise; Raymond, Émilie

    2012-01-01

    Social participation is a key determinant of successful and healthy aging and therefore an important emerging intervention goal for health professionals. Despite the interest shown in the concept of social participation over the last decade, there is no agreement on its definition and underlying dimensions. This paper provides an inventory and content analysis of definitions of social participation in older adults. Based on these results, a taxonomy of social activities is proposed. Four databases (Medline, CINAHL, AgeLine and PsycInfo) were searched with relevant keywords (Aging OR Ageing OR Elderly OR Older OR Seniors AND Community involvement/participation OR Social engagement/involvement/participation) resulting in the identification of 43 definitions. Using content analysis, definitions were deconstructed as a function of who, how, what, where, with whom, when, and why dimensions. Then, using activity analysis, we explored the typical contexts, demands and potential meanings of activities (main dimension). Content analysis showed that social participation definitions (n=43) mostly focused on the person’s involvement in activities providing interactions with others in society or the community. Depending on the main goal of these social activities, six proximal to distal levels of involvement of the individual with others were identified: 1) doing an activity in preparation for connecting with others, 2) being with others, 3) interacting with others without doing a specific activity with them, 4) doing an activity with others, 5) helping others, and 6) contributing to society. These levels are discussed in a continuum that can help distinguish social participation (levels 3 through 6) from parallel but different concepts such as participation (levels 1 through 6) and social engagement (levels 5 and 6). This taxonomy might be useful in pinpointing the focus of future investigations and clarifying dimensions specific to social participation. PMID:21044812

  3. Investigating Discontinuity of Age Relations in Cognitive Functioning, General Health Status, Activity Participation, and Life Satisfaction between Young-Old and Old-Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S.; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals’ eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals’ eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood. PMID:27827960

  4. Characteristics and Perceptions of 4-H Participants: Gender and Age Differences across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartoszuk, Karin; Randall, Brandy A.

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here examined 367 adolescent 4-H participants in terms of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and relational characteristics, as well as their perceptions and experiences in 4-H. Overall, participants scored high on all outcome variables except having a diverse population in their club. Older participants were more…

  5. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development reaches age 70: maintaining participation at older ages in a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Shah, Imran; Moore, Adam; Popham, Maria; Curran, Philip; Davis, Daniel; Sharma, Nikhil; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    A life course approach to ageing relies on maintaining participation rates in national birth cohorts and other long-term longitudinal studies. This reduces the risk of selective attrition biasing associations between lifetime risk factors and health outcomes in later life and ensures the studies remain as representative as possible of the original population. We report the participation patterns for a postal questionnaire and home visit at 68-69 years of study members in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, the oldest and longest-running British birth cohort study. We investigated how participation varied by lifetime and recent contact, health status, previous clinical feedback and study engagement, taking account of prior socioeconomic and cognitive characteristics. Overall participation and home visit participation remained high (94 and 80%, respectively) and there were no gender differences. Participation was higher in those with higher levels of prior contact and lower in those with the poorest health status. Having previously received clinical feedback on actionable blood results was associated with reduced home visit participation but other forms of clinical feedback were not associated with subsequent participation. Activities that fostered study engagement were associated with increased home visit participation. These findings inform strategies to maintain participation in life course studies.

  6. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm striking by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1995-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of sidearm-striking by children in Grades K through 8. Each of 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4-14 years), enrolled in a medium-size school system in southeastern Maine, was individually assessed on side-arm-striking and on static and dynamic balance. All subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and sport participation within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Development of mature striking was associated with sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 5 where the percentage of girls showing a mature sidearm-striking pattern approximated that of boys.

  7. Influence of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of catching by children grades K-8.

    PubMed

    Loovis, E M; Butterfield, S A

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contributions of age, sex, balance, and sport participation on development of catching by children in Grades K to 8. The subjects were 380 boys and 337 girls (ages 4 to 14) enrolled in a medium-sized school system in southeastern Maine. Each subject was individually assessed on catching and static and dynamic balance. In addition, all subjects completed a survey relative to their participation in school or community-sponsored sports. To assess the independent effects of age, sex, static balance, dynamic balance, and participation in sports within each grade, data were subjected to multiple-regression analysis. Mature catching development was influenced by sex; boys performed better at all grades except in Grade 8 all girls and boys showed mature catching patterns.

  8. Older Adults' Participation in Education and Successful Aging: Implications for University Continuing Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Representatives from Manitoba seniors' organizations and the University of Manitoba collaborated on a proposal to examine the participation of older adults in learning activities. The initiative led to a series of studies on this theme, including an exploration of participation at a seniors' centre (Sloane-Seale & Kops, 2004), a comparison of…

  9. Participation Patterns of School-Aged Children with and without DCD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarus, Tal; Lourie-Gelberg, Yael; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Bart, Orit

    2011-01-01

    Participation is recognized as a key to one's health and well-being and is considered to be a vital part of the development of children and youth. The purpose of this study was to examine the participation patterns of children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) in their out-of-school-time (OST) activities, and to see…

  10. Experiences of violence across life course and its effects on mobility among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Dimitri Taurino; Vafaei, Afshin; Alvarado, Beatriz Eugenia; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Guralnik, Jack M; Zunzunegui, María Victoria; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Background Life course exposure to violence may lead to disability in old age. We examine associations and pathways between life course violence and mobility disability in older participants of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Methods A cross-sectional study using IMIAS 2012 baseline. Men and women aged 65–74 years were recruited at 5 cities (n=1995): Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Mobility was assessed by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and by 2 questions on difficulty in walking and climbing stairs. Childhood physical abuse history and the HITS instrument were used to gather information on childhood exposure to violence and violence by intimate partners or family members. Multivariate logistic regression and mediation analysis models were constructed to explore the significance of direct and indirect effects of violence on mobility. Interaction effects of gender on violence and on each of the mediators were tested. Results Experiences of physical violence at any point of life were associated with mobility disability (defined as SPPB<8 or limitation in walking/climbing stairs) while psychological violence was not. Chronic conditions, C reactive protein, physical activity and depression mediated the effect of childhood exposure to violence on both mobility outcomes. Chronic conditions and depression were pathways between family and partner violence and both mobility outcomes. Physical activity was a significant pathway linking family violence to mobility. Gender interactions were not significant. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the detrimental effects of life course exposure to violence on mobility in later life. PMID:27737884

  11. Predicting VO[subscript 2max] in College-Aged Participants Using Cycle Ergometry and Perceived Functional Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielson, David E.; George, James D.; Vehrs, Pat R.; Hager, Ron L.; Webb, Carrie V.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict treadmill VO[subscript 2max] scores using both exercise and non-exercise data. One hundred five college-aged participants (53 male, 52 female) successfully completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test and a maximal graded exercise test on a motorized treadmill.…

  12. Environmental Restrictors to Occupational Participation in Old Age: Exploring Differences across Gender in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M.; Mountain, Gail A.; Rosario, Marlene; Colón, Zahira M.; Acevedo, Sujeil; Tirado, Janiliz

    2015-01-01

    Many older adults face challenges that prevent them from accomplishing common daily activities such as moving around, home maintenance, and leisure activities. There is still a need to examine and understand how environmental factors impact daily participation across gender. This study sought to make a qualitative comparison of gender differences regarding environmental barriers to participation in daily occupations from the perspectives of older adults who live alone in Puerto Rico. Twenty-six Hispanic older adults, 70 years or older participated in this study. We used a descriptive qualitative research design in which researchers administered an in-depth interview to each participant. The results elucidated that women were more likely than men to experience restricted participation due to lack of accessibility of the built environment and transportation systems. The findings could help with the development of tailored, occupation-based, preventive interventions that address gender specific environmental barriers and promote greater participation among both women and men. Further research is required to explore whether these environmental barriers to occupational participation remain consistent across living situations, socioeconomic status and ethnicity. PMID:26378554

  13. Psychosocial determinants of participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity among Hispanic and Latina middle school-aged girls.

    PubMed

    Foran, Amanda C; Cermak, Sharon A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2013-01-01

    We examined physical activity (PA)-related psychosocial factors, weight status, and self-reported participation in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in Latina middle school-aged girls. Baseline data from a middle school-based health behavior study (N = 326) was used. Contrasting activity-level groups were identified (81 most active, 144 least active) and compared. More active girls had significantly greater social support for PA, motivation to exercise, and positive meanings of PA than their less active peers. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI) percentile, barriers to PA, or negative meanings of PA between groups. Less active girls reported more screen time activities than the highly active girls. Positive psychosocial factors may be predictive of participation in MVPA for middle school-aged Latina youth. However, BMI may not be directly related to PA participation in this population.

  14. Aging and low back pain among exercise participants: a follow-up study with psychological adaptation factors.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.

  15. Ageing and brain white matter structure in 3,513 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Liewald, David C.; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Davies, Gail; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Gale, Catharine R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the microstructural properties of the human brain's connections is necessary for understanding normal ageing and disease. Here we examine brain white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 3,513 generally healthy people aged 44.64–77.12 years from the UK Biobank. Using conventional water diffusion measures and newer, rarely studied indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we document large age associations with white matter microstructure. Mean diffusivity is the most age-sensitive measure, with negative age associations strongest in the thalamic radiation and association fibres. White matter microstructure across brain tracts becomes increasingly correlated in older age. This may reflect an age-related aggregation of systemic detrimental effects. We report several other novel results, including age associations with hemisphere and sex, and comparative volumetric MRI analyses. Results from this unusually large, single-scanner sample provide one of the most extensive characterizations of age associations with major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:27976682

  16. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2014-01-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school—including consistent participants and latecomers—was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process. PMID:26279615

  17. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…

  18. Negotiations of the Ageing Process: Older Adults' Stories of Sports Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the talk of older athletes, with particular focus on how the context of sport helps them negotiate the ageing process. It draws on personal stories provided by 44 World Masters Games competitors (23 women; 21 men; aged 56-90 years; "M" = 72). Four themes emerged: "There's no such thing as…

  19. Social Participation and Health among Ageing People in East-Central Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makai, Alexandra; Prémusz, Viktória; Füge, Kata; Figler, Mária; Lampek, Kinga

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examined the health of the ageing population of East-Central Europe. Data derived from the 6th round of the European Social Survey. The aim of our research was to examine the most important factors that determine ageing people's health status. We paid particular attention to the social ties of our target group.

  20. Adaptations of Homemaking Skills for the Aged: Nutritional Needs. Teacher's Manual and Participant's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestle, Ruth E.; Wilcox, Catherine F.

    This manual is designed for use with adults or secondary school home economics students to help them become more aware of: (1) the nutritional needs of the aged; (2) the physical and social limitations affecting aged homemakers; and (3) the adaptations in individual dietary habits that will meet nutritional needs. The special nutritional needs of…

  1. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population.

    PubMed

    Berkman, Lisa F; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the "younger elderly," our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work's beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the "lump of labor" fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall.

  2. Labor-Force Participation, Policies & Practices in an Aging America: Adaptation Essential for a Healthy & Resilient Population

    PubMed Central

    Berkman, Lisa F.; Börsch-Supan, Axel; Avendano, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Population aging in the United States poses challenges to societal institutions while simultaneously creating opportunities to build a more resilient, successful, and cohesive society. Work organization and labor-force participation are central to both the opportunities and challenges posed by our aging society. We argue that expectations about old age have not sufficiently adapted to the reality of aging today. Our institutions need more adaptation in order to successfully face the consequences of demographic change. Although this adaptation needs to focus especially on work patterns among the “younger elderly,” our society has to change its general attitudes toward work organization and labor-force participation, which will have implications for education and health care. We also show that work’s beneficial effects on well-being in older ages are often neglected, while the idea that older workers displace younger workers is a misconception emerging from the “lump of labor” fallacy. We conclude, therefore, that working at older ages can lead to better quality of life for older people and to a more productive and resilient society overall. PMID:28042166

  3. Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation

    PubMed Central

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-01-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

  4. Cohort profile: the lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.

    PubMed

    Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

    2014-12-01

    The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx).

  5. [A new method of determining ages: chronological classification].

    PubMed

    Gubry, P

    1983-01-01

    Two methods of determining ages, the historical calendar method and the classification method, are compared using data for Chad from the UDEAC-TCHAD demographic survey. Complementary processing shows that the classification method is more accurate for those born in villages, while the historical method is more accurate for those born elsewhere. (summary in ENG)

  6. Young School-Aged Children's Behaviour and Their Participation in Extra-Curricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoncini, Kym; Caltabiono, Nerina

    2012-01-01

    While research has repeatedly shown the benefits of participation in extracurricular activities for adolescents, few studies have focused on very young children. Extra-curricular activities afford children opportunities for development and can also influence their behaviour. Children's behaviour is an important predictor of their future successes…

  7. Labor Force Participation Rates among Working-Age Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyzes four consecutive years of monthly labor force participation rates reported by the Current Population Survey that included nationally representative samples of the general U.S. population and nationally representative samples of the U.S. population with specifically identified disabilities. Visual impairment is one of the…

  8. Citizen Participation and the Internet: Prospects for Civic Deliberation in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    Posits a skeptical critique of the early claims of increased and efficient citizen participation in government due to information technology. Recent experiments have been costly and only marginally successful. Further research suggests that advanced information technology will have little effect on voter apathy. (MJP)

  9. Patterns of leisure-time physical activity participation in a British birth cohort at early old age.

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathryn R; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60-64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥ 2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index.

  10. Patterns of Leisure-Time Physical Activity Participation in a British Birth Cohort at Early Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathryn R.; Cooper, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Brage, Soren; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative British birth cohort we characterized the type and diversity of leisure-time physical activity that 2,188 participants (age 60–64 years) engaged in throughout the year by gender and obesity. Participants most commonly reported walking (71%), swimming (33%), floor exercises (24%) and cycling (15%). Sixty-two percent of participants reported ≥2 activities in the past year and 40% reported diversity on a regular basis. Regular engagement in different types of activity (cardio-respiratory, balance/flexibility and strength) was reported by 67%, 19% and 11% of participants, respectively. We found gender differences, as well as differences by obesity status, in the activities reported, the levels of activity diversity and activity type. Non-obese participants had greater activity diversity, and more often reported activities beneficial for cardio-respiratory health and balance/flexibility than obese participants. These findings may be used to inform the development of trials of physical activity interventions targeting older adults, and those older adults with high body mass index. PMID:24911018

  11. Which older people decline participation in a primary care trial of physical activity and why: insights from a mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is of vital importance to older peoples’ health. Physical activity intervention studies with older people often have low recruitment, yet little is known about non-participants. Methods Patients aged 60–74 years from three UK general practices were invited to participate in a nurse-supported pedometer-based walking intervention. Demographic characteristics of 298 participants and 690 non-participants were compared. Health status and physical activity of 298 participants and 183 non-participants who completed a survey were compared using age, sex adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals). 15 non-participants were interviewed to explore perceived barriers to participation. Results Recruitment was 30% (298/988). Participants were more likely than non-participants to be female (54% v 47%; p = 0.04) and to live in affluent postcodes (73% v 62% in top quintile; p < 0.001). Participants were more likely than non-participants who completed the survey to have an occupational pension OR 2.06 (1.35-3.13), a limiting longstanding illness OR 1.72 (1.05-2.79) and less likely to report being active OR 0.55 (0.33-0.93) or walking fast OR 0.56 (0.37-0.84). Interviewees supported general practice-based physical activity studies, particularly walking, but barriers to participation included: already sufficiently active, reluctance to walk alone or at night, physical symptoms, depression, time constraints, trial equipment and duration. Conclusion Gender and deprivation differences suggest some selection bias. However, trial participants reported more health problems and lower activity than non-participants who completed the survey, suggesting appropriate trial selection in a general practice population. Non-participant interviewees indicated that shorter interventions, addressing physical symptoms and promoting confidence in pursuing physical activity, might increase trial recruitment and uptake of practice-based physical activity

  12. Precision of two methods for estimating age from burbot otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, W.H.; Stapanian, M.A.; Stoneman, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Lower reproductive success and older age structure are associated with many burbot (Lota lota L.) populations that are declining or of conservation concern. Therefore, reliable methods for estimating the age of burbot are critical for effective assessment and management. In Lake Erie, burbot populations have declined in recent years due to the combined effects of an aging population (&xmacr; = 10 years in 2007) and extremely low recruitment since 2002. We examined otoliths from burbot (N = 91) collected in Lake Erie in 2007 and compared the estimates of burbot age by two agers, each using two established methods (cracked-and-burned and thin-section) of estimating ages from burbot otoliths. One ager was experienced at estimating age from otoliths, the other was a novice. Agreement (precision) between the two agers was higher for the thin-section method, particularly at ages 6–11 years, based on linear regression analyses and 95% confidence intervals. As expected, precision between the two methods was higher for the more experienced ager. Both agers reported that the thin sections offered clearer views of the annuli, particularly near the margins on otoliths from burbot ages ≥8. Slides for the thin sections required some costly equipment and more than 2 days to prepare. In contrast, preparing the cracked-and-burned samples was comparatively inexpensive and quick. We suggest use of the thin-section method for estimating the age structure of older burbot populations.

  13. Recall order determines the magnitude of directed forgetting in the within-participants list method.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jonathan M; Gottlob, Lawrence R

    2005-06-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effect of recall order on directed forgetting when the within-participants list method is used. Experiment 1 showed that participants tend to recall to-be-remembered (R) items before to-be-forgotten (F) items when they can recall items in any order. In Experiment 2, recall order was manipulated (F-R or R-F). The results showed that only the R-F order led to directed forgetting. Finally, in Experiment 3, recall order was also manipulated, and half of the participants were explicitly instructed to use a relational strategy when both F and R items were presented. Again, only the R-F order led to directed forgetting. These results demonstrate that directed forgetting under the list method hinges on the output order in which participants recall the F and R information. Thus, output order should be taken into account by researchers investigating specific mechanisms that lead to directed forgetting.

  14. SNAP Participation in Preschool-Aged Children and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Shannon; Alexander, Jeffrey L.; Ewing, Helen; Whetzel, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Background: An increased prevalence of overweight and obesity for adults on government-funded nutrition assistance, such as the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), has been observed; however, this association among preschool-aged children is not well understood. Longitudinal research designs tracking changes in body mass…

  15. The Influence of Task Difficulty and Participant Age on Balance Control in ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sarah A.; Abbott, Angela E.; Nair, Aarti; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel; Goble, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in sensorimotor integration are reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Poor control of balance in challenging balance tasks is one suggested manifestation of these impairments, and is potentially related to ASD symptom severity. Reported balance and symptom severity relationships disregard age as a potential covariate, however,…

  16. Age-dating of rockslides: Methods and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, M.; Sanders, D.; Prager, C.

    2009-04-01

    Age-dating of deposits of catastrophic rockslides is prerequisite to unravel the potential relation between the frequency of mass-wasting events with climatic change or earthquakes. In the Alps, about 250 rockslides exceeding 106 m3 in volume are known, but the age as yet is determined only for a comparatively small number of events. For age determination of rockslide events, different methods are available (e. g. Lang et al., 1999). Radiocarbon Dating In the past few decades, rockslide deposits commonly were proxy-dated by 14C age determination of organic remnants preserved (a) in glacial, fluvio-glacial sediments overridden by the rockslide, (b) within the rockslide mass, or (c) in rockslide-dammed backwater deposits or lakes situated atop the rockslide mass. In each case, the 14C age provides a different constraint on the age of the rockslide event: in case (a), the 14C age represents a maximum age of the event; in case (b), which is quite rare, the 14C age is generally considered as a good proxy of the event age; in case (c) the 14C age represents a minimum age for the rockslide event. Unfortunately, radiocarbon dating often cannot be applied because of absence of suited deposits or exposures thereof, lack of organic remnants or of remnants suited for age-dating, and/or because determined 14C ages are substantially biased. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) Proxy-dating of rockslide events by OSL can be applied to silt- to sand-sized quartzose sediments present (a) directly below, (b) within, or (c) above/laterally aside a rockslide mass. For each case (a) to (c), the determined ages are subject to the same constraints as outlined for radiocarbon dating. Unfortunately, situations allowing for application of OSL to rockslide event dating are comparatively rare, and the resulting ages tend to have a wide error range. Surface Exposure Dating with cosmogenic radionuclides Surface exposure ages can be determined for rock samples taken from the sliding planes at

  17. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  18. Motives and methods of under-age casino gamblers.

    PubMed

    Giacopassi, David; Stitt, B Grant; Nichols, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented that under-age gambling is quite common. The present study employs interviews of 48 university students who gambled under-age to determine the motives and methods associated with casino gambling by minors. The information gathered in these interviews indicates that access to casinos is easily attained, that the risk of exposure once gambling is minimal, and the motivations of under-age gamblers differ in important ways from that of adults, as access to alcohol, accompanying parents, and the desire to experience the "forbidden fruit" of casino gambling are commonly mentioned motivations by under-age gamblers.

  19. Verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between elderly users’ participation in exercise rehabilitation program and their successful aging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-soo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to verify the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between Senior Citizen Community Center (SCCC) elderly users’ participation in exercise rehabilitation programs and their successful aging. Toward that end, 400 65-yr or older participants and non-participants in SCCCs’ exercise rehabilitation programs, living in Incheon, were sampled. Of their answered questionnaires, 35 copies which were deemed low-reliability, duplicated, and inadequately specified were excluded from the analysis. And, the other data were coded through computers, and underwent a descriptive statistical analysis (DSA) and a standard multiple regression analysis (SMRA) using Windows SPSS/PC+21.0 Version statistical program. Thus it was firstly found that elderly people’s participation or non-participation in exercise rehabilitation programs partially influenced their recovery resilience and successful aging. The participants group, compared with the non-participants group, had greater recovery resilience and experienced successful aging. Second, the relation between the degree of participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, recovery resilience and successful aging revealed that the longer and the more frequent the participation in exercise rehabilitation programs was, the greater the recovery resilience was and the more successful aging was. Third, the verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience in the relation between the program participation degree and the successful aging revealed that, compared with those of the model of direct effects of independent variables and dependent variables, the recovery resilience-mediated model’s verification power and explanation power were greater. PMID:25426471

  20. Verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between elderly users' participation in exercise rehabilitation program and their successful aging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min-Soo

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to verify the mediation effect of recovery resilience according to the relation between Senior Citizen Community Center (SCCC) elderly users' participation in exercise rehabilitation programs and their successful aging. Toward that end, 400 65-yr or older participants and non-participants in SCCCs' exercise rehabilitation programs, living in Incheon, were sampled. Of their answered questionnaires, 35 copies which were deemed low-reliability, duplicated, and inadequately specified were excluded from the analysis. And, the other data were coded through computers, and underwent a descriptive statistical analysis (DSA) and a standard multiple regression analysis (SMRA) using Windows SPSS/PC+21.0 Version statistical program. Thus it was firstly found that elderly people's participation or non-participation in exercise rehabilitation programs partially influenced their recovery resilience and successful aging. The participants group, compared with the non-participants group, had greater recovery resilience and experienced successful aging. Second, the relation between the degree of participation in exercise rehabilitation programs, recovery resilience and successful aging revealed that the longer and the more frequent the participation in exercise rehabilitation programs was, the greater the recovery resilience was and the more successful aging was. Third, the verification of the mediation effect of recovery resilience in the relation between the program participation degree and the successful aging revealed that, compared with those of the model of direct effects of independent variables and dependent variables, the recovery resilience-mediated model's verification power and explanation power were greater.

  1. Methods to identify, study and understand End-user participation in HIT development

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Experience has shown that for new health-information-technology (HIT) to be suc-cessful clinicians must obtain positive clinical benefits as a result of its implementation and joint-ownership of the decisions made during the development process. A prerequisite for achieving both success criteria is real end-user-participation. Experience has also shown that further research into developing improved methods to collect more detailed information on social groups participating in HIT development is needed in order to support, facilitate and improve real end-user participation. Methods A case study of an EHR planning-process in a Danish county from October 2003 until April 2006 was conducted using process-analysis. Three social groups (physicians, IT-professionals and administrators) were identified and studied in the local, present perspective. In order to understand the interactions between the three groups, the national, historic perspective was included through a literature-study. Data were collected through observations, interviews, insight gathered from documents and relevant literature. Results In the local, present perspective, the administrator's strategy for the EHR planning process meant that there was no clinical workload-reduction. This was seen as one of the main barriers to the physicians to achieving real influence. In the national, historic perspective, physicians and administrators have had/have different perceptions of the purpose of the patient record and they have both struggled to influence this definition. To date, the administrators have won the battle. This explains the conditions made available for the physicians' participation in this case, which led to their role being reduced to that of clinical consultants - rather than real participants. Conclusion In HIT-development the interests of and the balance of power between the different social groups involved are decisive in determining whether or not the end-users become real

  2. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, design, methods, and participant characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Beane Freeman, Laura E.; Lynch, Charles F.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W.; Sandler, Dale P.; Savage, Sharon A.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, a total of 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%) and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk. PMID:26555155

  3. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Lynch, Charles F; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W; Sandler, Dale P; Savage, Sharon A; Alavanja, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures are reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, in total, 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%), and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk.

  4. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  6. 21 CFR 1404.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 1404.440 Section 1404.440 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug...

  7. 34 CFR 85.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 85.440 Section 85.440 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of ED Officials Regarding...

  8. 34 CFR 85.440 - What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What method do I use to communicate those requirements to participants? 85.440 Section 85.440 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of ED Officials Regarding...

  9. Firefighter willingness to participate in a stem cell clinical trial for burns: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Horch, Jenny D; Carr, Eloise C J; Harasym, Patricia; Burnett, Lindsay; Biernaskie, Jeff; Gabriel, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Adult stem cells represent a potentially renewable and autologous source of cells to regenerate skin and improve wound healing. Firefighters are at risk of sustaining a burn and potentially benefiting from a split thickness skin graft (STSG). This mixed methods study examined firefighter willingness to participate in a future stem cell clinical trial, outcome priorities and factors associated with this decision.

  10. Be(ing) prepared: Guide and Scout participation, childhood social position and mental health at age 50—a prospective birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dibben, Chris; Playford, Chris; Mitchell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Background Mental health is a major concern in many countries. We explore whether youth participation in the Scouts and Guides could protect mental health in later life and in particular whether it might reduce inequalities in mental health associated with early life socioeconomic position. Methods Using the 1958 birth cohort National Child Development Study, we tested whether Scouts–Guide attendance was associated with mental health (SF-36, Mental Health Index (MHI-5)) controlling for childhood risk factors and interacted with social class. Results Of the 9603 cohort members, 28% had participated in the Scouts–Guides. The average MHI-5 score was 74.8 (SD 18.2) at age 50. After adjustment, for potential childhood confounders, participation in Scouts–Guides was associated with a better MHI-5 score of 2.22 (CI 1.32 to 3.08). Among those who had not been a Scout–Guide, there was a gradient in mental health at age 50 by childhood social position, adjusting for other childhood risk factors. This gradient was absent among those who had been a Scout–Guide. Scout–Guides had an 18% lower odds of an MHI-5 score indicative of mood or anxiety disorder. The findings appeared robust to various tests for residual confounding. Conclusions Participation in Guides or Scouts was associated with better mental health and narrower mental health inequalities, at age 50. This suggests that youth programmes that support resilience and social mobility through developing the potential for continued progressive self-education, ‘soft’ non-cognitive skills, self-reliance, collaboration and activities in natural environments may be protective of mental health in adulthood. PMID:27834224

  11. Age group athletes in inline skating: decrease in overall and increase in master athlete participation in the longest inline skating race in Europe – the Inline One-Eleven

    PubMed Central

    Teutsch, Uwe; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated in endurance and ultraendurance races in swimming, cycling, running, and triathlon, but not in long-distance inline skating. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in participation, age, and performance in the longest inline race in Europe, the Inline One-Eleven over 111 km, held between 1998 and 2009. Methods The total number, age distribution, age at the time of the competition, and race times of male and female finishers at the Inline One-Eleven were analyzed. Results Overall participation increased until 2003 but decreased thereafter. During the 12-year period, the relative participation in skaters younger than 40 years old decreased while relative participation increased for skaters older than 40 years. The mean top ten skating time was 199 ± 9 minutes (range: 189–220 minutes) for men and 234 ± 17 minutes (range: 211–271 minutes) for women, respectively. The gender difference in performance remained stable at 17% ± 5% across years. Conclusion To summarize, although the participation of master long-distance inline skaters increased, the overall participation decreased across years in the Inline One-Eleven. The race times of the best female and male skaters stabilized across years with a gender difference in performance of 17% ± 5%. Further studies should focus on the participation in the international World Inline Cup races. PMID:23690697

  12. Age-Disparate Partnerships and Risk of HIV-1 Acquisition Among South African Women Participating in the VOICE Trial.

    PubMed

    Balkus, Jennifer E; Nair, Gonasagrie; Montgomery, Elizabeth T; Mishra, Anu; Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Ramjee, Gita; Panchia, Ravindre; Selepe, Pearl; Richardson, Barbra A; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    2015-10-01

    A recent analysis from South Africa reported no association between age-disparate relationships and HIV-1 acquisition. We assessed the association between male partner age and HIV-1 acquisition among South African women participating in the VOICE trial. Of 4077 women enrolled, 3789 had complete data; 26% and 5% reported having a partner >5 and >10 years older at enrollment, respectively. Reporting a partner >5 years older (hazard ratio = 1.00; 95% confidence interval: 0.74 to 1.35) or >10 older (hazard ratio = 0.92; 95% confidence interval: 0.49 to 1.74) was not associated with HIV-1 acquisition. These data corroborate recent reports and may suggest a shift in local epidemiology of heterosexual HIV-1 transmission.

  13. Dental age estimation in Brazilian HIV children using Willems' method.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Rafael Boschetti; da Silva Assunção, Luciana Reichert; Franco, Ademir; Zaroni, Fábio Marzullo; Holderbaum, Rejane Maria; Fernandes, Ângela

    2015-12-01

    The notification of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Brazilian children was first reported in 1984. Since that time more than 21 thousand children became infected. Approximately 99.6% of the children aged less than 13 years old are vertically infected. In this context, most of the children are abandoned after birth, or lose their relatives in a near future, growing with uncertain identification. The present study aims to estimate the dental age of Brazilian HIV patients in face of healthy patients paired by age and gender. The sample consisted of 160 panoramic radiographs of male (n: 80) and female (n: 80) patients aged between 4 and 15 years (mean age: 8.88 years), divided into HIV (n: 80) and control (n: 80) groups. The sample was analyzed by three trained examiners, using Willems' method, 2001. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to test intra- and inter-examiner agreement, and Student paired t-test was used to determine the age association between HIV and control groups. Intra-examiner (ICC: from 0.993 to 0.997) and inter-examiner (ICC: from 0.991 to 0.995) agreement tests indicated high reproducibility of the method between the examiners (P<0.01). Willems' method revealed discrete statistical overestimation in HIV (2.86 months; P=0.019) and control (1.90 months; P=0.039) groups. However, stratified analysis by gender indicate that overestimation were only concentrated in male HIV (3.85 months; P=0.001) and control (2.86 months; P=0.022) patients. The significant statistical differences are not clinically relevant once only few months of discrepancy are detected applying Willems' method in a Brazilian HIV sample, making this method highly recommended for dental age estimation of both HIV and healthy children with unknown age.

  14. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. Design and Method: The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. Results: This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Implications: Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  15. A new test method for young age strength of shotcrete

    SciTech Connect

    Teramoto, Shozo

    1995-12-31

    As a method for testing the young-age strength of shotcrete used as tunnel supports, use of the Parotester, which is designed to measure the hardness of paper rolls at printing factories, has been considered. This paper reports the results of laboratory tests conducted to establish this method as a means of strength testing.

  16. An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biological processes ofaging and susceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. Methods to evaluate health ofaging animals over time are needed, especially efficient methods for...

  17. Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    PubMed

    Doulougou, B; Gomez, F; Alvarado, B; Guerra, R O; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J; Zunzunegui, M V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control, in the elderly populations of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Approximately 200 men and 200 women aged 65-74 years were recruited at each site (n=1995) during IMIAS' 2012 baseline survey at five cities: Kingston (Canada), Saint-Hyacinthe (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia) and Natal (Brazil). Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken at participants' homes. Hypertension prevalence ranged from 53.4% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 83.5% in Tirana. Diabetes and obesity were identified as risk factors in all cities. More than two-thirds of hypertensive participants were aware of their condition (from 67.3% in Saint-Hyacinthe to 85.4% in Tirana); women were more aware than men. Awareness was positively associated with diabetes in Kingston, Manizales and Natal. Though most of those aware of their hypertensive condition were being treated pharmacologically, associations between awareness and physical activity and refraining from smoking were weak. Control among treated hypertensive participants was low, especially in Tirana and Natal. Diabetes and physical inactivity were associated with poor hypertension control. Hypertension is common in the older populations of IMIAS. Diabetes is strongly associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness and lack of control of hypertension. The fact that awareness is not strongly associated with healthy behaviours suggests that antihypertensive medication is not accompanied by non-pharmacological therapies. Improved health behaviours could strengthen hypertension control. Efforts should be made to increase men's awareness of hypertension. Hypertension control in diabetic patients is a challenge.

  18. Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Krishnamraju, P. V.; Prasanth, P. S.; Sanghvi, Praveen; Lata Reddy, M. Asha; Jyotsna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant) development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88). The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P < 0.001) while for females, it was 0.08 ± 1.34 years (P > 0.05). Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. PMID:25191076

  19. Analysis of transport of collimated radiation in a participating media using the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Subhash C.; Vernekar, Rohan Ranganath

    2012-11-01

    Application of the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) recently proposed by Asinari et al. [Asinari P, Mishra SC, Borchiellini R. A lattice Boltzmann formulation to the analysis of radiative heat transfer problems in a participating medium. Numer Heat Transfer B 2010; 57:126-146] is extended to the analysis of transport of collimated radiation in a planar participating medium. To deal with azimuthally symmetric radiation in planar medium, a new lattice structure for the LBM is used. The transport of the collimated component in the medium is analysed by two different, viz., flux splitting and direct approaches. For different angles of incidence of the collimated radiation, the LBM formulation is tested for the effects of the extinction coefficient, the anisotropy factor, and the boundary emissivities on heat flux and emissive power distributions. Results are compared with the benchmark results obtained using the finite volume method. Both the approaches in LBM provide accurate results.

  20. [Methods of radiological bone age assessment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fendel, H

    1976-09-01

    An assessment of the bone age can be made in different manners. Numerical methods calculating the number of existing ossification centers are to inaccurate. The use of "age-of-appearance" tables gives a more accurate evaluation. In both methods, however, x-ray films of several body parts must be made. Therefore, they are complicated and lead to a higher patient radiation exposure. Methods using hand and wrist as a representative area of the whole skeleton are of greater value for routine bone-age assessments. There is a wide-spread use of the Greulich-Pyle atlas. The atlas-method is fully sufficient in the great majority of cases when certain rules are considered. A more detailed information can be achieved by using the so-called "bone-by-bone" evaluation. A score system was introduced by Tanner and Whitehouse which should be used to a greater extent than is done up to now. Metrical methods give no real information about the bone age but additional informations which can be helpful in following examinations with short intervals.

  1. Clinical Trial Participation and Time to Treatment Among Adolescents and Young Adults With Cancer: Does Age at Diagnosis or Insurance Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Helen M.; Harlan, Linda C.; Seibel, Nita L.; Stevens, Jennifer L.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer. Methods Using the National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care Study, we used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate demographic and provider characteristics associated with clinical trial enrollment and time to treatment among 1,358 AYA patients with cancer (age 15 to 39 years) identified through the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Results In our study, 14% of patients age 15 to 39 years had enrolled onto a clinical trial; participation varied by type of cancer, with the highest participation in those diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (37%) and sarcoma (32%). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that uninsured, older patients and those treated by nonpediatric oncologists were less likely to enroll onto clinical trials. Median time from pathologic confirmation to first treatment was 3 days, but this varied by race/ethnicity and cancer site. In multivariate analyses, advanced cancer stage and outpatient treatment alone were associated with longer time from pathologic confirmation to treatment. Conclusion Our study identified factors associated with low clinical trial participation in AYA patients with cancer. These findings support the continued need to improve access to clinical trials and innovative treatments for this population, which may ultimately translate into improved survival. PMID:21931022

  2. Application of spectral methods for high-frequency financial data to quantifying states of market participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aki-Hiro

    2008-06-01

    Empirical analysis of the foreign exchange market is conducted based on methods to quantify similarities among multi-dimensional time series with spectral distances introduced in [A.-H. Sato, Physica A 382 (2007) 258-270]. As a result it is found that the similarities among currency pairs fluctuate with the rotation of the earth, and that the similarities among best quotation rates are associated with those among quotation frequencies. Furthermore, it is shown that the Jensen-Shannon spectral divergence is proportional to a mean of the Kullback-Leibler spectral distance both empirically and numerically. It is confirmed that these spectral distances are connected with distributions for behavioural parameters of the market participants from numerical simulation. This concludes that spectral distances of representative quantities of financial markets are related into diversification of behavioural parameters of the market participants.

  3. 2 CFR 2000.330 - What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? 2000.330 Section 2000.330 Grants and Agreements Federal... be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? A participant in a...

  4. 2 CFR 2000.330 - What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? 2000.330 Section 2000.330 Grants and Agreements Federal... be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? A participant in a...

  5. 2 CFR 2000.330 - What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? 2000.330 Section 2000.330 Grants and Agreements Federal... be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? A participant in a...

  6. 2 CFR 2000.330 - What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What method must be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? 2000.330 Section 2000.330 Grants and Agreements Federal... be used to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers? A participant in a...

  7. Association of Cognitive Function With Cause-Specific Mortality in Middle and Older Age: Follow-up of Participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Deary, Ian J.; Zaninotto, Paola

    2016-01-01

    We examined the little-tested associations between general cognitive function in middle and older age and later risk of death from chronic diseases. In the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (2002–2012), 11,391 study participants who were 50–100 years of age at study induction underwent a battery of cognitive tests and provided a range of collateral data. In an analytical sample of 9,204 people (4,982 women), there were 1,488 deaths during follow-up (mean duration, 9.0 years). When we combined scores from 4 cognition tests that represented 3 acknowledged key domains of cognitive functioning (memory, executive function, and processing speed), cognition was inversely associated with deaths from cancer (per each 1-standard-deviation decrease in general cognitive function score, hazard ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.33), cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio = 1.71, 95% CI: 1.55, 1.89), other causes (hazard ratio = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.79, 2.40), and respiratory illness (hazard ratio = 2.48, 95% CI: 2.12, 2.90). Controlling for a range of covariates, such as health behaviors and socioeconomic status, and left-censoring to explore reverse causality had very little impact on the strength of these relationships. These findings indicate that cognitive test scores can provide relatively simple indicators of the risk of death from an array of chronic diseases and that these associations appear to be independent of other commonly assessed risk factors. PMID:26803665

  8. Evaluation of Bias Correction Methods for "Worst-case" Selective Non-participation in NAEP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Don; Gallagher, Larry; Stancavage, Fran

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the context for NAEP participation is changing. Whereas in the past participation in NAEP has always been voluntary, participation is now mandatory for some grade and subjects among schools receiving Title I funds. While this will certainly raise school-level participation rates in the mandated…

  9. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  10. 2 CFR 417.332 - What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered transactions with whom I intend to do business? 417.332... § 417.332 What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier...

  11. 2 CFR 417.332 - What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered transactions with whom I intend to do business? 417.332... § 417.332 What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier...

  12. 2 CFR 417.332 - What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered transactions with whom I intend to do business? 417.332... § 417.332 What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier...

  13. 2 CFR 417.332 - What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier covered transactions with whom I intend to do business? 417.332... § 417.332 What methods must I use to pass down requirements to participants in lower tier...

  14. Methods for evaluating educational programs: does Writing Center participation affect student achievement?

    PubMed

    Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J; Otten, Sebastian

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the introduction of a Writing Center at a university, which aims at improving students' scientific writing abilities. In order to deal with the presumed limited utility of student feedback surveys for evaluating the effectiveness of educational programs, we use students' actual learning outcomes as our quality measure. Based on this objective measure, different statistical evaluation methods established in the labor market treatment literature are applied. We present and discuss the validity of these methods to evaluate educational programs and compare the results of these approaches to implications obtained using corresponding student surveys. Although almost all students reported the writing courses to be helpful, we find no significant effect of course participation on students' grades. This result highlights the need for institutions not to rely solely on student course evaluations for evidence-based policy decisions.

  15. Targeted Facebook Advertising is a Novel and Effective Method of Recruiting Participants into a Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Wark, John D; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M

    2016-01-01

    Background Targeted advertising using social networking sites (SNS) as a recruitment strategy in health research is in its infancy. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of targeted Facebook advertisements to increase recruitment of unvaccinated women into a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectiveness study. Methods Between September 2011 and November 2013, females aged 18 to 25 years, residing in Victoria, Australia, were recruited through Facebook advertisements relating to general women’s health. From November 2013 to June 2015, targeted advertising campaigns were implemented to specifically recruit women who had not received the HPV vaccine. Consenting participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire and those who had ever had sexual intercourse were asked to provide a self-collected vaginal swab. The HPV vaccination status of participants was confirmed from the National HPV Vaccination Program Register (NHVPR). Results The campaign comprised 10 advertisements shown between September 2011 and June 2015 which generated 55,381,637 impressions, yielding 23,714 clicks, at an overall cost of AUD $22,078.85. A total of 919 participants were recruited. A greater proportion of unvaccinated women (50.4%, 131/260) were recruited into the study following targeted advertising, compared with those recruited (19.3%, 127/659) prior to showing the modified advertisement (P<.001). A greater proportion of the total sample completed tertiary education and resided in inner regional Victoria, compared with National population census data (P<.001), but was otherwise representative of the general population. Conclusions Targeted Facebook advertising is a rapid and cost-effective way of recruiting young unvaccinated women into a HPV vaccine effectiveness study. PMID:27450586

  16. Social role participation and the life course in healthy adults and individuals with osteoarthritis: are we overlooking the impact on the middle-aged?

    PubMed

    Gignac, Monique A M; Backman, Catherine L; Davis, Aileen M; Lacaille, Diane; Cao, Xingshan; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2013-03-01

    Little is known about life course differences in social role participation among those with chronic diseases. This study examined role salience (i.e., importance), role limitations, and role satisfaction among middle- and older-aged adults with and without osteoarthritis (OA) and its relationship to depression, stress, role conflict, health care utilization and coping behaviours. Participants were middle- and older-aged adults with OA (n = 177) or no chronic disabling conditions (n = 193), aged ≥40 years. Respondents were recruited through community advertising and clinics in Ontario, Canada (2009-2010). They completed a 45-50 min telephone interview and 20 min self-administered questionnaire assessing demographics (e.g., age, gender); health (e.g., pain, functional limitations, health care utilization); the Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) (role salience, limitations, satisfaction in 12 domains), and psychological variables (e.g., depression, stress, role conflict, behavioural coping). Analyses included two-way ANOVAs, correlations, and linear regression. Results indicated that middle-aged adults (40-59 years) reported greater role salience than older-aged adults (60 + years). Middle-aged adults with OA reported significantly greater role limitations and more health care utilization than all other groups. Middle-aged adults and those with OA also reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping efforts than older adults or healthy controls. Controlling for age and OA, those with higher role salience and greater role limitations reported more health care utilization. Those with greater role limitations and lower role satisfaction reported greater depression, stress, role conflict, and behavioural coping. This study has implications for research and interventions, highlighting the need to characterize role participation as multidimensional. It points to the importance of taking into account the meaning of roles at

  17. HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) is Not Associated with Increased Fibrillar Amyloid Deposits Using 11C-PiB in Middle-Aged HIV+ Participants

    PubMed Central

    Ances, Beau M.; Benzinger, Tammie L.; Christensen, Jon J.; Thomas, Jewell; Venkat, Rohit; Teshome, Mengesha; Aldea, Patricia; Fagan, Anne M.; Holtzman, David M.; Morris, John C.; Clifford, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Diagnostic challenges exist for differentiating HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) from symptomatic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in HIV+ participants. Both disorders have cerebral amyloid containing plaques associated with abnormalities in amyloid beta protein 1–42 (Aβ42) metabolism. We evaluated if the amyloid-binding agent 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (11C-PiB) could discriminate AD from HAND in middle-aged HIV+ participants. Design 11C-PiB scanning, clinical assessment, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis were performed. χ2 and t-tests assessed differences in clinical and demographic variables between HIV+ participants and community-living individuals followed by Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) assessed for regional differences in Aβ42 using 11C-PiB. Setting ADRC and HIV clinic Participants 16 HIV+ participants (11 cognitively normal, 5 with HAND) and 19 ADRC participants (8 cognitively normal, 11 with symptomatic AD). Main Outcome Measure(s) Mean and regional 11C-PiB binding potentials Results Symptomatic AD were older (p < 0.001), had lower CSF Aβ42 (p < 0.001), and had higher CSF tau levels (p < 0.001) than other groups. Regardless of degree of impairment, HIV+ participants did not have increased 11C-PiB. Mean and regional binding potentials were elevated for symptomatic AD participants (p <0.0001). Conclusions Middle-aged HIV+ participants, even with HAND, do not exhibit increased 11C-PiB while symptomatic AD individuals have increased fibrillar Aβ42 deposition in cortical and subcortical regions. Observed dissimilarities between HAND and AD may reflect differences in Aβ42 metabolism. 11C-PiB may provide a diagnostic biomarker for distinguishing symptomatic AD from HAND in middle-aged HIV+ participants. Future cross sectional and longitudinal studies are required to assess utility of 11C-PiB in older HAND individuals. PMID:22232345

  18. Participant Observation as a Method for Evaluating a Mental Health Promotion Program with Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindale, Joseph A.

    1993-01-01

    A researcher observed older adults participating in planning meetings and a Search Conference to identify community needs. Participants were successfully engaged in addressing important health and social needs. Participant observation was validated as a flexible, effective means of collecting data on older persons whose circumstances might make…

  19. Community Participation in Schools in Developing Countries: Characteristics, Methods and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how communities participate in schools across diverse contexts in developing countries and the results attributed to community participation. It reviews evaluations of participatory approaches to education in developing countries to answer two basic questions: 1) How do communities participate in school in developing countries?…

  20. Methods for meta-analysis of individual participant data from Mendelian randomisation studies with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Stephen; Thompson, Simon G

    2016-02-01

    Mendelian randomisation is an epidemiological method for estimating causal associations from observational data by using genetic variants as instrumental variables. Typically the genetic variants explain only a small proportion of the variation in the risk factor of interest, and so large sample sizes are required, necessitating data from multiple sources. Meta-analysis based on individual patient data requires synthesis of studies which differ in many aspects. A proposed Bayesian framework is able to estimate a causal effect from each study, and combine these using a hierarchical model. The method is illustrated for data on C-reactive protein and coronary heart disease (CHD) from the C-reactive protein CHD Genetics Collaboration (CCGC). Studies from the CCGC differ in terms of the genetic variants measured, the study design (prospective or retrospective, population-based or case-control), whether C-reactive protein was measured, the time of C-reactive protein measurement (pre- or post-disease), and whether full or tabular data were shared. We show how these data can be combined in an efficient way to give a single estimate of causal association based on the totality of the data available. Compared to a two-stage analysis, the Bayesian method is able to incorporate data on 23% additional participants and 51% more events, leading to a 23-26% gain in efficiency.

  1. Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: a comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

    2013-09-01

    Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50.

  2. Are the new automated methods for bone age estimation advantageous over the manual approaches?

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Soliman, Ashraf T; Di Maio, Salvatore; Bedair, Said

    2014-12-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) is performed worldwide for the evaluation of endocrine, genetic and chronic diseases, to monitor response to medical therapy and to determine the growth potential of children and adolescents. It is also used for consultation in planning orthopedic procedures, for determination of chronological age for adopted children, youth sports participation and in forensic settings. The main clinical methods for skeletal bone age estimation are the Greulich and Pyle (GP) and the Tanner and Whitehouse (TW) methods. Seventy six per cent (76%) of radiologists or pediatricians usually use the method of GP, 20% that of TW and 4% other methods. The advantages of using the TW method, as opposed to the GP method, are that it overcomes the subjectivity problem and results are more reproducible. However, it is complex and time consuming; for this reason its usage is just about 20% on a world-wide scale. Moreover, there are some evidences that bone age assignments by different physicians can differ significantly. Computerized and Quantitative Ultrasound Technologies (QUS) for assessing skeletal maturity have been developed with the aim of reducing many of the inconsistencies associated with radiographic investigations. In spite of the fact that the volume of automated methods for BAA has increased, the majotity of them are still in an early phase of development. QUS is comparable to the GP based method, but there is not enough established data yet for the healthy population. The Authors wish to stimulate the attention on the accuracy, reliability and consistency of BAA and to initiate a debate on manual versus automated approaches to enhance our assessment for skeletal matutation in children and adolescents.

  3. Application of age estimation methods based on teeth eruption: how easy is Olze method to use?

    PubMed

    De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Merelli, V; Botto, M; Ventura, F; Cattaneo, C

    2014-09-01

    The development of new methods for age estimation has become with time an urgent issue because of the increasing immigration, in order to estimate accurately the age of those subjects who lack valid identity documents. Methods of age estimation are divided in skeletal and dental ones, and among the latter, Olze's method is one of the most recent, since it was introduced in 2010 with the aim to identify the legal age of 18 and 21 years by evaluating the different stages of development of the periodontal ligament of the third molars with closed root apices. The present study aims at verifying the applicability of the method to the daily forensic practice, with special focus on the interobserver repeatability. Olze's method was applied by three different observers (two physicians and one dentist without a specific training in Olze's method) to 61 orthopantomograms from subjects of mixed ethnicity aged between 16 and 51 years. The analysis took into consideration the lower third molars. The results provided by the different observers were then compared in order to verify the interobserver error. Results showed that interobserver error varies between 43 and 57 % for the right lower third molar (M48) and between 23 and 49 % for the left lower third molar (M38). Chi-square test did not show significant differences according to the side of teeth and type of professional figure. The results prove that Olze's method is not easy to apply when used by not adequately trained personnel, because of an intrinsic interobserver error. Since it is however a crucial method in age determination, it should be used only by experienced observers after an intensive and specific training.

  4. Spatial and angular finite element method for radiative transfer in participating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Rafael O.; Trelles, Juan Pablo

    2015-05-01

    A computational approach for the modeling of multi-dimensional radiative transfer in participating media, including scattering, is presented. The approach is based on the sequential use of angular and spatial Finite Element Methods for the discretization of the Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The angular discretization is developed with an Angular Finite Element Method (AFEM) based on the Galerkin approach. The AFEM leads to a counterpart of the RTE consisting of a coupled set of transient-advective-reactive equations that are continuously dependent on space and time. The AFEM is ideally suited for so-called h- and/or p-refinement for the discretization of the angular domain: h-refinement is obtained by increasing the number of angular elements and p-refinement by increasing the order of the angular interpolating functions. The spatial discretization of the system of equations obtained after the angular discretization is based on a Variational Multi-Scale Finite Element Method (VMS-FEM) suitable for the solution of generic transport problems. The angularly and spatially discretized system is solved with a second-order accurate implicit predictor multi-corrector time stepper together with a globalized inexact Newton-Krylov nonlinear solver. The overall approach is designed and implemented to allow the seamless inclusion of other governing equations necessary to solve coupled fluid-radiative systems, such as those in combustion, high-temperature chemically reactive, and plasma flow models. The combined AFEM and VMS-FEM for the solution of the RTE is validated with two- and three-dimensional benchmark problems, each solved for 3 levels of angular partitioning (h-refinement) and for 2 orders of angular basis functions (p-refinement), i.e. piecewise constant (P0) and piecewise linear (P1) basis over spherical triangles. The overall approach is also applied to the simulation of radiative transfer in a parabolic concentrator with participating media, as encountered in

  5. Screening Internet forum participants for depression symptoms by assembling and enhancing multiple NLP methods.

    PubMed

    Karmen, Christian; Hsiung, Robert C; Wetter, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Depression is a disease that can dramatically lower quality of life. Symptoms of depression can range from temporary sadness to suicide. Embarrassment, shyness, and the stigma of depression are some of the factors preventing people from getting help for their problems. Contemporary social media technologies like Internet forums or micro-blogs give people the opportunity to talk about their feelings in a confidential anonymous environment. However, many participants in such networks may not recognize the severity of their depression and their need for professional help. Our approach is to develop a method that detects symptoms of depression in free text, such as posts in Internet forums, chat rooms and the like. This could help people appreciate the significance of their depression and realize they need to seek help. In this work Natural Language Processing methods are used to break the textual information into its grammatical units. Further analysis involves detection of depression symptoms and their frequency with the help of words known as indicators of depression and their synonyms. Finally, similar to common paper-based depression scales, e.g., the CES-D, that information is incorporated into a single depression score. In this evaluation study, our depressive mood detection system, DepreSD (Depression Symptom Detection), had an average precision of 0.84 (range 0.72-1.0 depending on the specific measure) and an average F measure of 0.79 (range 0.72-0.9).

  6. Testing Direct and Indirect Effects of Sports Participation on Perceived Health in Spanish Adolescents between 15 and 18 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; Garcia-Merita, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M AGE=16.31, S. D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson,…

  7. The Consequences of Age at First Childbirth: Labor Force Participation and Earnings. Working Paper: 1146-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; And Others

    The primary focus of this paper is on the impact an early birth has on later labor force participation and earnings of women. Variables affecting the participation of women in a given year and factors affecting the total work experience are discussed in detail. These include: hours worked, annual earnings, hourly wages, occupational status, race,…

  8. Beyond the NIMBY (not-in-my-backyard) impasse II: Public participation in an age of distrust

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    1988-01-01

    With the intensification of not-in-my-backyard (NIMBY) responses to both nuclear and chemical waste management and facility siting, we revisit public participation goals, processes, mechanisms and results to evaluate the uses and limits of public participation for achieving legitimate siting decisions. The deepening loss of trust of the American public in most institutions jeopardizes all preemptive nuclear and hazardous waste facility siting decisions, and carefully structured public participation efforts including some form of power sharing offer the best hope of devising legitimate and durable decisions. We review the key factors in the general siting milieu as well as the thickets of public participation-public involvement. Outcomes of six public participation (PP) case studies are presented and analyzed for problems as well as common factors contributing to their success or failure. The uses as well as the limits of PP in complex nuclear and hazardous waste management and siting processes are considered. 38 refs., 1 tab.

  9. A practical method of estimating standard error of age in the fission track dating method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, N.M.; McGee, V.E.; Naeser, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A first-order approximation formula for the propagation of error in the fission track age equation is given by PA = C[P2s+P2i+P2??-2rPsPi] 1 2, where PA, Ps, Pi and P?? are the percentage error of age, of spontaneous track density, of induced track density, and of neutron dose, respectively, and C is a constant. The correlation, r, between spontaneous are induced track densities is a crucial element in the error analysis, acting generally to improve the standard error of age. In addition, the correlation parameter r is instrumental is specifying the level of neutron dose, a controlled variable, which will minimize the standard error of age. The results from the approximation equation agree closely with the results from an independent statistical model for the propagation of errors in the fission-track dating method. ?? 1979.

  10. The Comparative Impacts of Social Justice Educational Methods on Political Participation, Civic Engagement, and Multicultural Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krings, Amy; Austic, Elizabeth A.; Gutiérrez, Lorraine M.; Dirksen, Kaleigh E.

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional, repeated measures, quasi-experimental study evaluates changes in college students' commitment toward, and confidence in, political participation, civic engagement, and multicultural activism. Our sample (n = 653) consisted of college students in a Midwestern university who participated in one of three social justice education…

  11. A Mixed Methods Study of Participant Reaction to Domestic Violence Research in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Cari Jo; Shahrouri, Manal; Halasa, Louma; Khalaf, Inaam; Spencer, Rachael; Everson-Rose, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Research on domestic violence against women has increased considerably over the past few decades. Most participants in such studies find the exercise worthwhile and of greater benefit than emotional cost; however, systematic examination of participant reaction to research on violence is considerably lacking, especially in the Middle East region.…

  12. Insider-Outsider-Inbetweener? Researcher Positioning, Participative Methods and Cross-Cultural Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milligan, Lizzi

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on the use of participative techniques with final-year secondary school students in one rural community in Western Kenya as an enabling tool for an outsider to both gain insider perspectives and develop a more insider role in that community by privileging and legitimating participant-driven data. Conclusions put forward the…

  13. Development and Validation of Videotaped Scenarios: A Method for Targeting Specific Participant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Johnson, James D.; Jackson, Lee A., Jr.; Goings, Christopher D.; Hagman, Brett T.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers using scenarios often neglect to validate perceived content and salience of embedded stimuli specifically with intended participants, even when such meaning is integral to the study. For example, sex and aggression stimuli are heavily influenced by culture, so participants may not perceive what researchers intended in sexual aggression…

  14. Everyday life in the suburbs of Berlin: consequences for the social participation of aged men and women.

    PubMed

    Giesel, Flemming; Rahn, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change, mobility issues are becoming crucial. Especially for the elderly, daily outdoor activities are essential for participation in social life. This article addresses the question of what extent older people, especially women, are threatened by limited social participation in Berlin's suburbia. The mobility of older women (70+) is characterized by the least number of trips, the shortest distances, and more than 50% walking trips. Besides, many older women are dissatisfied with their residential area. Given the lack of essential facilities, older women have to be considered as disadvantaged in terms of limited social participation.

  15. Assessment of perception of morphed facial expressions using the Emotion Recognition Task: normative data from healthy participants aged 8-75.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Montagne, Barbara; Hendriks, Angelique W; Perrett, David I; de Haan, Edward H F

    2014-03-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional facial expressions is an important aspect of social cognition. However, existing paradigms to examine this ability present only static facial expressions, suffer from ceiling effects or have limited or no norms. A computerized test, the Emotion Recognition Task (ERT), was developed to overcome these difficulties. In this study, we examined the effects of age, sex, and intellectual ability on emotion perception using the ERT. In this test, emotional facial expressions are presented as morphs gradually expressing one of the six basic emotions from neutral to four levels of intensity (40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%). The task was administered in 373 healthy participants aged 8-75. In children aged 8-17, only small developmental effects were found for the emotions anger and happiness, in contrast to adults who showed age-related decline on anger, fear, happiness, and sadness. Sex differences were present predominantly in the adult participants. IQ only minimally affected the perception of disgust in the children, while years of education were correlated with all emotions but surprise and disgust in the adult participants. A regression-based approach was adopted to present age- and education- or IQ-adjusted normative data for use in clinical practice. Previous studies using the ERT have demonstrated selective impairments on specific emotions in a variety of psychiatric, neurologic, or neurodegenerative patient groups, making the ERT a valuable addition to existing paradigms for the assessment of emotion perception.

  16. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment.

    PubMed

    Manton, Kenneth G; Lowrimore, Gene R; Ullian, Arthur D; Gu, Xiliang; Tolley, H Dennis

    2007-06-26

    The proportion of the United States labor force >/=65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25-44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth.

  17. Labor force participation and human capital increases in an aging population and implications for U.S. research investment

    PubMed Central

    Manton, Kenneth G.; Lowrimore, Gene R.; Ullian, Arthur D.; Gu, XiLiang; Tolley, H. Dennis

    2007-01-01

    The proportion of the United States labor force ≥65 years of age is projected to increase between 2004 and 2014 by the passing of age 65 of the large post-World War II baby boom cohorts starting in 2010 and their greater longevity, income, education, and health [Toossi M (2005) Mon Labor Rev 128(11):25–44]. The aging of the U.S. labor force will continue to at least 2034, when the largest of the baby boom cohorts reaches age 70. Thus, the average health and functional capacity of persons age 65+ must improve for sufficient numbers of elderly persons to be physically and cognitively capable of work. This will require greater investments in research, public health, and health care. We examine how disability declines and improved health may increase human capital at later ages and stimulate the growth of gross domestic product and national wealth. PMID:17573526

  18. Evaluation of the Applicability of Different Age Determination Methods for Estimating Age of the Endangered African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus)

    PubMed Central

    Steenkamp, Gerhard; Groom, Rosemary J.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are endangered and their population continues to decline throughout their range. Given their conservation status, more research focused on their population dynamics, population growth and age specific mortality is needed and this requires reliable estimates of age and age of mortality. Various age determination methods from teeth and skull measurements have been applied in numerous studies and it is fundamental to test the validity of these methods and their applicability to different species. In this study we assessed the accuracy of estimating chronological age and age class of African wild dogs, from dental age measured by (i) counting cementum annuli (ii) pulp cavity/tooth width ratio, (iii) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown height) (iv) tooth wear (measured by tooth crown width/crown height ratio) (v) tooth weight and (vi) skull measurements (length, width and height). A sample of 29 African wild dog skulls, from opportunistically located carcasses was analysed. Linear and ordinal regression analysis was done to investigate the performance of each of the six age determination methods in predicting wild dog chronological age and age class. Counting cementum annuli was the most accurate method for estimating chronological age of wild dogs with a 79% predictive capacity, while pulp cavity/tooth width ratio was also a reliable method with a 68% predictive capacity. Counting cementum annuli and pulp cavity/tooth width ratio were again the most accurate methods for separating wild dogs into three age classes (6–24 months; 25–60 months and > 60 months), with a McFadden’s Pseudo-R2 of 0.705 and 0.412 respectively. The use of the cementum annuli method is recommended when estimating age of wild dogs since it is the most reliable method. However, its use is limited as it requires tooth extraction and shipping, is time consuming and expensive, and is not applicable to living individuals. Pulp cavity/tooth width ratio is a

  19. Experiences from active membership and participation in decision-making processes and age in moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees.

    PubMed

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of experiences of active membership and participation in decision-making processes and age on moral reasoning and goal orientations of referees in sport. The sample consisted of 148 referees of whom 56 judged soccer, 55 basketball, and 37 handball. Their ages ranged from 17 to 50 years (M=36.6, SD=7.4). Of the total number of referees, 8.3% have no experiences from active membership and participation in decision-making processes in organizations (social, athletic, political), 53.1% were simply active members, and 38.6% were involved in decision-making in their respective organizations. A two-way multivariate analysis of variance showed an interaction between experiences and age on moral reasoning and goal orientation of referees.

  20. Is there an influence of relative age on participation in non-physical sports activities? The example of shooting sports.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas; Raspaud, Michel

    2009-08-01

    The aims of this study were to test for the presence of a relative age effect among male (n = 119,715) and female (n = 12,823) members of the shooting sports federation, and to determine whether any such effect has an impact on dropout from the sport. For the boys and girls, the results show a uniform distribution of dropout. A relative age effect was not found for the girls, showing that in female shooting sports there is no such effect. For the males, a significant statistical relative age effect was not detected in the 18-20 and 13-14 year categories. However, a relative age effect was found among adults and the 11-12 and under 11 year categories. A significant "inverse" relative age effect was found for the 15-17 year group. Further qualitative research is needed to clarify which factors contribute to this asymmetric distribution of birth dates in French male shooting sports.

  1. The association between sports participation and athletic identity with eating pathology among college-aged males and females.

    PubMed

    Fay, K; Economos, C; Lerner, R M; Becker, A E; Sacheck, J

    2011-06-01

    The current study examined associations among sports participation (SP), athletic identity (AI), weight status, and eating pathology, and whether these relations differed by gender. Data come from male and female first-year college students who participated in the Tufts Longitudinal Health Study (TLHS) between 1999-2007 (N=712). Relations among SP, AI, actual and perceived weight statuses, Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI) subscale scores, and indices of body shape concern and restrictive eating were examined with hierarchical ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Associations between SP and eating pathology among females were moderated by perceived weight status. By contrast, relations between males' EDI subscales scores and SP were moderated by ethnicity, as well as by actual weight status. Our findings support that sports participation alone neither promotes nor protects against eating pathology among males and females.

  2. Does Participation in Citizen Science Improve Scientific Literacy? A Study to Compare Assessment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronje, Ruth; Rohlinger, Spencer; Crall, Alycia; Newman, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of a contextually sensitive instrument to assess the effect of invasive species monitoring training on the scientific literacy of citizen volunteers. The authors measured scientific literacy scores before and after 57 citizens participated in a 2-day event to learn to monitor invasive species with an instrument…

  3. Where Are All the Males?: A Mixed Methods Inquiry into Male Study Abroad Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Study abroad represents a powerful tool for internationalizing students' higher education experience; however, current participation numbers indicate that male students go on study abroad programs at half the rate of female students. This rate reflects broader engagement trends for male college students, who have fallen behind female participation…

  4. An independent method for determining the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, D. E.; Hansen, C. J.; Liebert, James; Van Horn, H. M.; Fontaine, G.

    1987-01-01

    An age of 9.3 + or - 2.0 Gyr is derived for the Galactic disk on the basis of comparisons between the sudden drop in the observed luminosity distribution and theoretical evolutionary white dwarf models and allowance for a mean prewhite-dwarf lifetime of 0.3 Gyr. To obtain the age of the universe, the time between the big bang and the first appearance of stars in the Galactic disk is added. The age of the universe is estimated to be 10.3 + or - 2.2 Gyr.

  5. Impact of Limiting Visual Input on Gait: Individuals with Parkinson Disease, Age-matched Controls and Healthy Young Participants

    PubMed Central

    Pilgram, Laura M.; Earhart, Gammon M.; Pickett, Kristen A.

    2016-01-01

    Normal and limited vision gait was investigated in individuals with Parkinson disease (PD), healthy older and healthy young individuals. Participants walked a GAITRite mat with normal vision or vision of lower limbs occluded. Results indicate individuals with PD walked more slowly, with shorter and wider steps and spent more time in double support with limited vision as compared to full vision. Healthy young and old individuals took shorter steps but were otherwise unchanged between conditions. PMID:26987577

  6. Face Verification across Age Progression using Discriminative Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Under the MURI Grant N00014-08-10638. REFERENCES [1] “Face and gesture recognition working group,” 2000. [Online]. Available: http://www...Conference on Face & Gesture Recognition (FG), 1998, pp. 30–35. [24] A. Montillo and H. Ling, “Age regression from faces using random forests,” in IEEE...aging model.” in International Conference on Face & Gesture Recognition (FG), 2008. [26] E. Patterson, A. Sethuram, M. Albert, K. Ricanek Jr., and M

  7. Applicability of Demirjian's four methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Nursel; Yilanci, Hümeyra Özge; Göksülük, Dinçer

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of five dental methods including Demirjian's original, revised, four teeth, and alternate four teeth methods and Willems method for age estimation in a sample of Turkish children. Panoramic radiographs of 799 children (412 females, 387 males) aged between 2.20 and 15.99years were examined by two observers. A repeated measures ANOVA was performed to compare dental methods among gender and age groups. All of the five methods overestimated the chronological age on the average. Among these, Willems method was found to be the most accurate method, which showed 0.07 and 0.15years overestimation for males and females, respectively. It was followed by Demirjian's four teeth methods, revised and original methods. According to the results, Willems method can be recommended for dental age estimation of Turkish children in forensic applications.

  8. The Relationship between Starting Age of Music Instruction and Years of Participation in a String Program outside School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hsin-Yi; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    It is not uncommon for very young children to start music instruction on string instruments. Previous studies have examined the relationship between starting age of formal music instruction and years of study (Duke, Flowers & Wolfe, 1997; Hartley, 1996; Hartley & Porter, 2009). Duke et al. (1997) found that students who took more years of…

  9. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  10. Beneficiary Satisfaction Regarding Old Age Pension Scheme and Its Utilization Pattern in Urban Puducherry: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Jothi, Saravanan; Ramakrishnan, Jayalakshmy; Selvaraj, Ramya

    2016-01-01

    Introduction National Old Age Pension Scheme (NOAPS) was aimed at providing a safety net for India’s aging population in terms of social, economical and moral support by helping eligible elderly citizens with direct cash benefit. Aim To assess the beneficiary satisfaction and utilization pattern of the monetary benefit received under the old age pension scheme and to explore the perception of the stakeholders regarding delivery of the pension. Materials and Methods This is a mixed method research consisting of both quantitative surveys and qualitative in-depth interviews. The survey was conducted among 205 randomly selected beneficiaries of old age pension scheme belonging to urban Puducherry. Around 12 qualitative interviews were conducted with beneficiaries, family members and Anganwadi workers. Results The mean age of the study participants was 71 years. Almost 80% of participants avail pension from banks. Majority of participants (98%) were satisfied with the overall scheme, though half of them expressed their dissatisfaction with the amount of pension received. Among the study subjects, 65% were satisfied regarding the mechanism of delivery of old age pension. Anganwadi was the preferred mode of payment in 80% subjects. Around 85% of them spent the entire pension amount for their own use (health needs, travel, daily activities and social needs) while the remaining gave some economic support to their family. Half of them (55%) felt that they possess financial autonomy in planning their expenditure. Majority felt that receiving pension had given them economic empowerment, self-esteem and renewed confidence in life. Conclusion Financial assistance to the elderly empowers them and improves their social status, independence, self-esteem and overall quality of life. With increasing proportion of elderly in Indian population, it is important to study the effectiveness of such schemes so that corrective measures can be taken to facilitate its access to the

  11. Participation of HIV prevention programs among men who have sex with men in two cities of China—a mixed method study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although various HIV prevention programs targeting men who have sex with men (MSM) are operating in China, whether and how these programs are being utilized is unclear. This study explores participation of HIV prevention programs and influencing factors among MSM in two cities in China. Methods This is a mixed-method study conducted in Beijing and Chongqing. A qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 54 MSM, 11 key informants, and 8 focus group discussions, a cross-sectional survey using respondent-driven sampling among 998 MSM were conducted in 2009 and 2010 respectively to elicit information on MSM’s perception and utilization of HIV prevention programs. Qualitative findings were integrated with quantitative multivariate factors to explain the quantitative findings. Results Fifty-six percent of MSM in Chongqing and 75.1% in Beijing ever participated in at least one type of HIV prevention program (P=0.001). Factors related to participation in HIV prevention programs included age, ethnicity, income, HIV risk perception, living with boyfriend, living in urban area, size of MSM social network, having talked about HIV status with partners, and knowing someone who is HIV positive. Reasons why MSM did not participate in HIV prevention programs included logistical concerns like limited time for participation and distance to services; program content and delivery issues such as perceived low quality services and distrust of providers; and, cultural issues like HIV-related stigma and low risk perception. Conclusions The study shows that there is much room for improvement in reaching MSM in China. HIV prevention programs targeting MSM in China may need to be more comprehensive and incorporate the cultural, logistic and HIV-related needs of the population in order to effectively reach and affect this population’s risk for HIV. PMID:23039880

  12. Spatial contrast sensitivity - Effects of age, test-retest, and psychophysical method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, Kent E.; Jaffe, Myles J.; Caruso, Rafael C.; Demonasterio, Francisco M.

    1988-01-01

    Two different psychophysical methods were used to test the spatial contrast sensitivity in normal subjects from five age groups. The method of adjustment showed a decline in sensitivity with increasing age at all spatial frequencies, while the forced-choice procedure showed an age-related decline predominantly at high spatial frequencies. It is suggested that a neural component is responsible for this decline.

  13. A test of the revised auricular surface aging method on a modern European population.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, Konstantinos; Zorba, Eleni; Eliopoulos, Constantine; Fox, Sherry C

    2014-01-01

    The accurate age estimation of adults is an important step in the construction of the biological profile of skeletonized remains. The auricular surface of the ilium as it was developed in 1985 by Lovejoy et al., is one of the methods employed for age estimation. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface aging method developed by Buckberry and Chamberlain. A sample of 120 individuals from the Athens Collection was used to test this revised aging technique. Almost all features and composite score were positively correlated with known age-at-death. The calculation of bias demonstrated no obvious trend for either overestimation or underestimation of age when all individuals were pooled together. Inaccuracy showed that absolute errors of estimated ages against known ages are substantial. The data generated from this study suggest that the revised method can be reliable for age estimation on a modern European population.

  14. Popular Contraceptive Methods in Women Aged 35 Years and Older Attending Health Centers of 4 Cities in Khuzestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nouhjah, Sedighe; Amiri, Elham; Khodai, Azim; Yazdanpanah, Azar; Nadi Baghu, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated risks are higher in late reproductive years. Limited studies have focused on contraceptive choices in these women. The aim of the study was to identify contraceptive choices and their related factors in women 35 years or older attending health centers of Khuzestan province. Objectives Additionally, several line of evidence indicated relationship between increasing maternal age and poor pregnancy outcomes (1, 2). Pregnancies above the age of 35 are accompanied with more risks for complication related to pregnancy as compared to younger women (3-5). Risk of spontaneous abortion is 74.4% in mothers aged 45 years or more. Patients and Methods In a cross-sectional study 1584 women aged 35 years and older attending public health centers of four cities of Khuzestan were studied. We used an interviewer-administered questionnaire for data collection. Women investigators were recruited for interview and filling the questionnaire. Participants were assured of the confidentiality of their responses. Results The mean age of women was 39.8 ± 4.2 years. The most popular contraceptive methods used in this age group were oral contraceptive pills (31.4%), condom (28.1%), and tubal ligation (14.8%). Less effective contraceptive methods were used in 41.5% of women. Significant associations were found between the use of effective methods and literacy of husband (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.91), city of residence (OR = 0, 92, 95%CI: 0.87-0.97), women age (OR = 0.97, 95% CI; 0.94-0.99), and women education (OR = 0.87, 95%CI: 0.76-0.99) (P < 0.01). Conclusions In spite of risk of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy in this age group, about a half of them used less effective contraceptive methods, hence family planning education, and counseling to older women should be a priority in health centers. PMID:24693364

  15. Participant Assisted Data Collection Methods in the California Healthy Homes Indoor Air Quality Study of 2011-13

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2013-08-01

    From November 2011 to March 2013, air quality was measured over 6-day periods in 324 residences across California using a mail-out strategy. All interactions with study participants, from recruitment, to data collection, to communication of results, were conducted with remote communication methods including conventional mail, electronic mail, telephone and text messaging. Potential participants were reached primarily by sharing study information with community groups and organizations that directed interested individuals to complete an online screening survey. Pollutant concentrations were measured with sampling equipment that was mailed to participants' homes with deployment instructions. Residence and household characteristics and activity data were collected via two phone surveys and an activity log. A comparison of responses to survey questions completed online versus over the phone indicated that a substantial fraction of participants (roughly 20%) required a researcher's assistance to respond to basic questions about appliance characteristics. Using the printed instructions and telephone assistance from researchers, roughly 90% of participants successfully deployed and returned sampling materials accurately and on schedule. The mail-out strategy employed in this study was found to be a cost-effective means for collecting residential air quality data.

  16. Effects of aging and hypertension on the participation of endothelium-derived constricting factor (EDCF) in norepinephrine-induced contraction of rat femoral artery.

    PubMed

    Líšková, Silvia; Silvia, Líšková; Petrová, Miriam; Miriam, Petrová; Karen, Petr; Petr, Karen; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Jaroslav, Kuneš; Zicha, Josef; Josef, Zicha

    2011-09-30

    Endothelium-dependent contraction elicited by high concentrations of acetylcholine was described in hypertensive as well as in aged normotensive rats. The contribution of endothelium-derived constricting factor (EDCF) to norepinephrine-induced contraction is still unknown. We aimed to compare EDCF participation to norepinephrine-induced arterial contraction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and aged normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Femoral arteries from either adult (7-months-old) or aged (14-months-old) animals were placed in myograph and norepinephrine-induced concentration-response curves were recorded under control conditions and in the presence of indomethacin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor, 10(-5) mol/l) or L-NNA (NO synthase inhibitor, 10(-4) mol/l) or both. Norepinephrine-induced concentration-response curve was enhanced in SHR compared to WKY rats, but concentration-response curve of aged WKY rats was similar to those of adult SHR. Cyclooxygenase inhibition largely attenuated concentration-response curves in all groups. However, this effect was greater in aged WKY rats and adult SHR compared to adult WKY rats. NO synthase inhibition augmented norepinephrine-induced contraction in arteries of adult WKY rats, but not in arteries from aged WKY rats or adult SHR. The combined administration of L-NNA and indomethacin had no additive effects on concentration-response curves. EDCF contribution to norepinephrine-induced contractions of arteries was considerably greater in adult SHR (80±3%) and aged WKY rats (86±2%) compared to adult WKY rats (35±10%). The inhibition of NO synthase augmented EDCF contribution to norepinephrine-induced contraction only in arteries from adult WKY rats (76±9%). We conclude that EDCF contribution to norepinephrine-induced contraction of conduit arteries is similarly enhanced in adult hypertensive and aged normotensive rats.

  17. Generalized source Finite Volume Method for radiative transfer equation in participating media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Biao; Xu, Chuan-Long; Wang, Shi-Min

    2017-03-01

    Temperature monitoring is very important in a combustion system. In recent years, non-intrusive temperature reconstruction has been explored intensively on the basis of calculating arbitrary directional radiative intensities. In this paper, a new method named Generalized Source Finite Volume Method (GSFVM) was proposed. It was based on radiative transfer equation and Finite Volume Method (FVM). This method can be used to calculate arbitrary directional radiative intensities and is proven to be accurate and efficient. To verify the performance of this method, six test cases of 1D, 2D, and 3D radiative transfer problems were investigated. The numerical results show that the efficiency of this method is close to the radial basis function interpolation method, but the accuracy and stability is higher than that of the interpolation method. The accuracy of the GSFVM is similar to that of the Backward Monte Carlo (BMC) algorithm, while the time required by the GSFVM is much shorter than that of the BMC algorithm. Therefore, the GSFVM can be used in temperature reconstruction and improvement on the accuracy of the FVM.

  18. Allocation of Transaction Cost to Market Participants Using an Analytical Method in Deregulated Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyasankari, S.; Jeslin Drusila Nesamalar, J.; Charles Raja, S.; Venkatesh, P.

    2014-04-01

    Transmission cost allocation is one of the major challenges in transmission open access faced by the electric power sector. The purpose of this work is to provide an analytical method for allocating transmission transaction cost in deregulated market. This research work provides a usage based transaction cost allocation method based on line-flow impact factor (LIF) which relates the power flow in each line with respect to transacted power for the given transaction. This method provides the impact of line flows without running iterative power flow solution and is well suited for real time applications. The proposed method is compared with the Newton-Raphson (NR) method of cost allocation on sample six bus and practical Indian utility 69 bus systems by considering multilateral transaction.

  19. Using Social Network Analysis as a Method to Assess and Strengthen Participation in Health Promotion Programs in Vulnerable Areas.

    PubMed

    Hindhede, Anette Lykke; Aagaard-Hansen, Jens

    2017-03-01

    This article provides an example of the application of social network analysis method to assess community participation thereby strengthening planning and implementation of health promotion programming. Community health promotion often takes the form of services that reach out to or are located within communities. The concept of community reflects the idea that people's behavior and well-being are influenced by interaction with others, and here, health promotion requires participation and local leadership to facilitate transmission and uptake of interventions for the overall community to achieve social change. However, considerable uncertainty exists over exact levels of participation in these interventions. The article draws on a mixed methods research within a community development project in a vulnerable neighborhood of a town in Denmark. It presents a detailed analysis of the way in which social network analysis can be used as a tool to display participation and nonparticipation in community development and health promotion activities, to help identify capacities and assets, mobilize resources, and finally to evaluate the achievements. The article concludes that identification of interpersonal ties among people who know one another well as well as more tenuous relationships in networks can be used by community development workers to foster greater cohesion and cooperation within an area.

  20. Auricular surface aging: a blind test of the revised method on historic Italians from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Belcastro, M Giovanna

    2012-01-10

    Age determination from human skeletal remains is an important biological parameter in both forensic and bioarchaeological contexts. This study presents the results of a blind test of the revised auricular surface age estimation method proposed by Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 119 (2002) 321-329) on a large sample (n=404) of known sex and age from the Sassari collection, housed at the Museum of Anthropology, University of Bologna, Italy. Ilia were scored for five features: transverse organization, surface texture, microporosity, macroporosity, and apical changes, which combined for a composite score. The results indicated that all features and the composite score were positively correlated with known age. Composite scores were significantly different between the sexes, suggesting that males and females should be treated separately. Bias and inaccuracy varied across age intervals. Age tended to be overestimated in individuals under age 59 and underestimated for those over age 60 years. However, the revised method showed improvement over the original auricular surface method (Lovejoy et al., Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 68 (1985) 15-28), especially for aging older individuals. Considerable variation exists in the age ranges derived from composite scores and few significant differences were found between age stages, suggesting that fewer stages with wider age ranges may be necessary. The independent, quantitative scoring of the surface features makes the revised method substantially easier to apply and the method shows significant improvement for aging older individuals.

  1. A post-trial survey to assess the impact of dissemination of results and unmasking on participants in a 13-year randomised controlled trial on age-related cataract

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Italian-American Clinical Trial of Nutritional Supplements and Age-Related Cataract was designed to assess the impact of a multivitamin-mineral supplement on age-related cataract. Trial results showed evidence of a beneficial effect of the supplement on all types of cataract combined, opposite effects on two of the three types of cataract (beneficial for nuclear opacities and harmful for posterior sub-capsular opacities) and no statistically significant effect on cortical opacities. No treatment recommendations were made. A post-trial survey was conducted on 817 surviving elderly participants to assess their satisfaction, their understanding of treatment assignment to supplement or placebo and the success of masking. Methods Trial results were communicated by letter and the level of satisfaction and of understanding of the results was assessed by a questionnaire. Participants were offered the option of being unmasked: a second questionnaire was administered to this subset to assess their understanding of the randomisation process and the success of masking. Results 610 participants (74.7%) responded to the survey: 94.6% thought the description of the results was "very clear" or "quite clear", 5.4% "not clear" or "do not know"; 89.8% considered the results "very interesting" or "quite interesting", 10.2% "not interesting" or "do not know"; 60.3% expressed "satisfaction", 17.2% "both satisfaction and concern", 2.6% "concern", 19.9% "indifference" or "do not know". 480 participants (78.7%) accepted the offer to be unmasked to their treatment assignment: 395 (82.3%) recalled/understood the possibility of assignment to vitamins or placebo, 85 (17.7%) did not. 68 participants (17.2%) thought they had taken vitamins (79.4% were correct; p = 0.0006), 47 (11.9%) thought they had taken placebo (59.6% were correct; p = 0.46) and 280 (70.9%) declared they did not know. Conclusions The results were made difficult to explain to study participants by the

  2. Accuracy of dental age estimation in Venezuelan children: comparison of Demirjian and Willems methods.

    PubMed

    Medina, Aída C; Blanco, Lucila

    2014-01-01

    Dental age is a somatic maturity indicator with importance in clinical and forensic dentistry. The purpose of this study is to compare the applicability of the Demirjian and Willems methods for dental age estimation in a group of Venezuelan children. Panoramic radiographs of 238 Venezuelan children aged 5-13 years were used to assess dental age using the methods described by Demirjian and Willems. Children with unclear panoramic radiographs, dental agenesis, and premature loss of primary teeth were excluded. Mean differences between dental age and chronological age by gender and age groups were estimated (ANOVA, Student tests p = 0.05). For the Demirjian method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.62 +/- 0.93 years, statistically significant. The mean overestimation was lower for females than for males (females 0.56 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.67 +/- 0.93 years). For the Willems method, the mean difference between dental age and chronological age was 0.15 +/- 0.97 years, not statistically significant. Accuracy was significantly different between genders, performing best for females (females 0.01 +/- 0.96 years, males 0.29 +/- 0.96 years). The Willems method for age estimation was found to be more accurate than the Demirjian method in this sample of Venezuelan children.

  3. Factors influencing the participation of middle-aged and older Latin-American women in physical activity: a stroke-prevention behavior.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Despite the known benefits of regular physical activity for preventing stroke and cardiovascular disease, middle-aged and older Latin-American women continue to be physically inactive and demonstrate a high incidence of obesity. Ethnographic methodology was used to explore factors that influenced this health behavior in 25 Latin-American women. Perceptions of health, the health activities in which they engaged, and the factors that influenced their participation in physical activity comprised the three categories of responses. Facilitators and barriers were identified as the two primary categories and were further sorted into intrinsic or extrinsic factors. Conclusions of this study were that these Latin American women, despite multiple role demands and other barriers, participated in some form of physical activity; however, culturally sensitive strategies are needed to promote sustained physical activity in this population.

  4. GenSalt: rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics of study participants.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    Hypertension is a complex disorder influenced by genetic and environmental determinants and their interactions. The objectives of the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity (GenSalt) are to localize and identify genes related to blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium and potassium intervention. GenSalt utilizes a family feeding-study design. Each family was ascertained through a proband with untreated prehypertension or stage-1 hypertension in rural China. A medical history, lifestyle risk factors and responses to cold pressor tests, were obtained at baseline visits while BP, weight, blood and urine specimens were collected at baseline and follow-up visits. The dietary intervention included a 7-day low-sodium feeding (51.3 mmol/day), a 7-day high-sodium feeding (307.8 mmol/day) and a 7-day high-sodium feeding with an oral potassium supplementation (60 mmol/day). Microsatellite markers for genome-wide linkage scan and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in candidate genes will be genotyped. Overall, 3153 participants from 658 families were recruited for GenSalt. The mean systolic and diastolic BPs were 128.0 and 80.3, 111.6 and 71.0, 112.6 and 72.6, 106.6 and 65.3 and 136.7 and 75.0 mm Hg for probands, siblings, spouses, offspring and parents, respectively. The mean urinary excretion of sodium and potassium were 232.5 and 38.6, 222.9 and 38.2, 213.1 and 37.8 and 207.3 and 36.0 mmol/24-h for probands, siblings, spouses and offspring, respectively. Our study will identify novel genes that influence significantly the effect of dietary sodium and potassium intake on BP. This information is useful for development of targeted intervention for the prevention and treatment of hypertension.

  5. Learning by Doing: Teaching Research Methods through Student Participation in a Commissioned Research Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Sandra

    1995-01-01

    For five years, a University of Brighton (England) social policy and administration program has incorporated a student research project into a required research methods course. The sponsored research project places considerable emphasis on student contributions to the research. These features are discussed in the context of one project, a patient…

  6. Accuracy of Four Dental Age Estimation Methods in Southern Indian Children

    PubMed Central

    Sanghvi, Praveen; Perumalla, Kiran Kumar; Srinivasaraju, D.; Srinivas, Jami; Kalyan, U. Siva; Rasool, SK. Md. Iftekhar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: For various forensic investigations of both living and dead individuals, the knowledge of the actual age or date of birth of the subject is of utmost importance. In recent years, age estimation has gained importance for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement. Developing teeth are used to assess maturity and estimate age in number of disciplines; however the accuracy of different methods has not been assessed systematically. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of four dental age estimation methods. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomographs (OPGS) of South Indian children between the ages of 6 and 16 y who visited the department of Department of Oral medicine and Radiology of GITAM Dental College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India with similar ethnic origin were assessed. Dental age was calculated using Demirjian, Willems, Nolla, and adopted Haavikko methods and the difference between estimated dental age and chronological age were compared with paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: An overestimation of the dental age was observed by using Demirjian and Nolla methods (0.1±1.63, 0.47±0.83 years in total sample respectively) and an underestimation of dental age was observed by using Willems and Haavikko methods (-0.4±1.53, -2.9±1.41 years respectively in total sample). Conclusion: Nolla’s method was more accurate in estimating dental age compared to other methods. Moreover, all the four methods were found to be reliable in estimating age of individuals of unknown chronological age in South Indian children. PMID:25738008

  7. Accuracy of age estimation methods from orthopantomograph in forensic odontology: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Khorate, Manisha M; Dinkar, A D; Ahmed, Junaid

    2014-01-01

    Changes related to chronological age are seen in both hard and soft tissue. A number of methods for age estimation have been proposed which can be classified in four categories, namely, clinical, radiological, histological and chemical analysis. In forensic odontology, age estimation based on tooth development is universally accepted method. The panoramic radiographs of 500 healthy Goan, Indian children (250 boys and 250 girls) aged between 4 and 22.1 years were selected. Modified Demirjian's method (1973/2004), Acharya AB formula (2011), Dr Ajit D. Dinkar (1984) regression equation, Foti and coworkers (2003) formula (clinical and radiological) were applied for estimation of age. The result of our study has shown that Dr Ajit D. Dinkar method is more accurate followed by Acharya Indian-specific formula. Furthermore, in this study by applying all these methods to one regional population, we have attempted to present dental age estimation methodology best suited for the Goan Indian population.

  8. Aging commuter aeroplanes: Fatigue evaluation and control methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emmerson, A. J.

    1992-01-01

    The loss of reliability in aircraft is caused by two broad classes of problems. There are those problems which are self evident and hazardous rather than catastrophic. These are the problem areas where characteristically there have been multiple overhauls, repairs, and replacements, and where aging really means the results of repair ineffectiveness that accumulates. The other class of the problem is the insidious and potentially catastrophic class. It includes the progressive deterioration of items that are not maintained, and often cannot be maintained because the deterioration cannot be seen. It includes the loss of physical properties in adhesives and other organic compounds, corrosion, and the response of repeated loads. Dealt with here is a currently unnecessarily troublesome aspect of that response. Although we must remain concerned about those types of aircraft which have been certified under a design standard or operational rule which embodies the elementary fail-safe concept and which have not been subjected to a subsequent structural audit, the focus here is on types of aircraft for which fatigue and damage tolerance evaluation was not required as a condition of certification.

  9. Diagnostic efficiency of several methods of identifying socially rejected children and effect of participation rate on classification accuracy.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark; Gumbiner, Laura M; Johnson, Jason

    2011-10-01

    Social rejection is associated with a wide variety of negative outcomes. Early identification of social rejection and intervention to minimize its negative impact is thus important. However, sociometric methods, which are considered high in validity for identifying socially rejected children, are frequently not used because of (a) procedural challenges, (b) community apprehension, and (c) sensitivity to missing data. In a sample of 316 students in grades K through 8, we used receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses to compare the diagnostic efficiency of several methods for identifying socially rejected children. When not using least-liked nominations, (a) most-liked nominations yielded the greatest diagnostic efficiency (AUC=.96), (b) peer ratings were more efficient (AUC=.84 to .99) than teacher ratings (AUC=.74 to .81), and (c) teacher report of social status was more efficient (AUC=.81) than scores from teacher behavior rating scales (AUC=.74 to .75). We also examined the effects of nominator non-participation on diagnostic efficiency. At participation as low as 50%, classification of sociometric rejection (i.e., being rejected or not rejected) was quite accurate (κ=.63 to .77). In contrast, at participation as high as 70%, classification of sociometric status (i.e., popular, average, unclassified, neglected, controversial, or rejected) was significantly less accurate (κ=.50 to .59).

  10. Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Reduced Mitochondrial Oxidative Capacity Measured by 31P-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Participants Without Diabetes From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Elisa; Chia, Chee W; Spencer, Richard G; Fishbein, Kenneth W; Reiter, David A; Cameron, Donnie; Zane, Ariel C; Moore, Zenobia A; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Zoli, Marco; Studenski, Stephanie A; Kalyani, Rita R; Egan, Josephine M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Whether individuals with insulin resistance (IR) but without criteria for diabetes exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity is unclear; addressing this question could guide research for new therapeutics. We investigated 248 participants without diabetes from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) to determine whether impaired mitochondrial capacity is associated with prediabetes, IR, and duration and severity of hyperglycemia exposure. Mitochondrial capacity was assessed as the postexercise phosphocreatine recovery time constant (τPCr) by (31)P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy, with higher τPCr values reflecting reduced capacity. Prediabetes was defined using the American Diabetes Association criteria from fasting and 2-h glucose measurements. IR and sensitivity were calculated using HOMA-IR and Matsuda indices. The duration and severity of hyperglycemia exposure were estimated as the number of years from prediabetes onset and the average oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) 2-h glucose measurement over previous BLSA visits. Covariates included age, sex, body composition, physical activity, and other confounders. Higher likelihood of prediabetes, higher HOMA-IR, and lower Matsuda index were associated with longer τPCr. Among 205 participants with previous OGTT data, greater severity and longer duration of hyperglycemia were independently associated with longer τPC In conclusion, in individuals without diabetes a more impaired mitochondrial capacity is associated with greater IR and a higher likelihood of prediabetes.

  11. Testing direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health in Spanish adolescents between 15 and 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Yolanda; Balaguer, Isabel; Pons, Diana; García-Merita, Marisa

    2003-12-01

    This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of sports participation on perceived health. It is based on a representative sample of middle adolescents aged 15-18 (N=1038, M age=16.31, S.D.=0.92; 510 boys and 528 girls) from the Valencian Community (Spain). This study used two different models; Model A is an adaptation of Thorlindsson, Vilhjalmsson and Valgeirsson's (Social Science and Medicine 31 (1990) 551) model which introduces smoking, alcohol use, feelings of anxiety, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms as mediator variables; Model B is an extension of Model A with perceived physical fitness as an added mediator variable. Both models show a good fit to the data. Results showed that, in both models, sports participation affected perceived health directly and indirectly by decreasing smoking and alcohol consumption, feelings of depression and psychophysiological symptoms. In Model B, sport also affected perceived health via increased perceived physical fitness explaining almost 10% more of the variance.

  12. Tract-specific fractional anisotropy predicts cognitive outcome in a community sample of middle-aged participants with white matter lesions

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Raya, Juan José; Miralbell, Júlia; López-Cancio, Elena; Bargalló, Núria; Arenillas, Juan Francisco; Barrios, Maite; Cáceres, Cynthia; Toran, Pere; Alzamora, Maite; Dávalos, Antoni; Mataró, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) have been consistently related to cognitive dysfunction but the role of white matter (WM) damage in cognitive impairment is not fully determined. Diffusion tensor imaging is a promising tool to explain impaired cognition related to WMLs. We investigated the separate association of high-grade periventricular hyperintensities (PVHs) and deep white matter hyperintensities (DWMHs) with fractional anisotropy (FA) in middle-aged individuals. We also assessed the predictive value to cognition of FA within specific WM tracts associated with high-grade WMLs. One hundred participants from the Barcelona-AsIA Neuropsychology Study were divided into groups based on low- and high-grade WMLs. Voxel-by-voxel FA were compared between groups, with separate analyses for high-grade PVHs and DWMHs. The mean FA within areas showing differences between groups was extracted in each tract for linear regression analyses. Participants with high-grade PVHs and participants with high-grade DWMHs showed lower FA in different areas of specific tracts. Areas showing decreased FA in high-grade DWMHs predicted lower cognition, whereas areas with decreased FA in high-grade PVHs did not. The predictive value to cognition of specific WM tracts supports the involvement of cortico-subcortical circuits in cognitive deficits only in DWMHs. PMID:24549185

  13. 2 CFR 2200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2200.332 Section 2200.332 Grants... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? You as a participant...

  14. 2 CFR 2200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2200.332 Section 2200.332 Grants... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? You as a participant...

  15. 2 CFR 2200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2200.332 Section 2200.332 Grants... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? You as a participant...

  16. 2 CFR 2200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2200.332 Section 2200.332 Grants... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? You as a participant...

  17. 2 CFR 2200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2200.332 Section 2200.332 Grants... requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? You as a participant...

  18. The Exchange Factor Method: AN Alternative Zonal Formulation for Analysis of Radiating Enclosures Containing Participating Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Marvin Elwood

    The exchange factor method (EFM) is introduced and compared to the zone method (ZM). In both the EFM and the ZM the region of interest is discretized into volume and surface elements, each considered to be isothermal, which are small enough to give the required resolution. A suitable set of state variables for the system is composed of the surface element radiosities and the gas element emissive powers. The EFM defines exchange factors as dimensionless total-exchange areas for radiant interchange between volume and surface elements by all possible absorption/re-emission paths, but excluding wall reflections. In the EFM, the exchange factors replace the direct-exchange areas of the ZM and are used to write energy balances for each area and volume element in the system. As in the ZM, the radiant energy balance equations result in a set of algebraic equations linear in the system state variables. The distinguishing feature of the EFM is that exchange factors may be measurable quantities. Relationships between the EFM exchange factors and the ZM direct-exchange areas are presented. EFM conservation and reciprocity laws, analogous to those of the ZM, are also included. Temperature and heat flux distributions, predicted using the EFM, for two- and three-dimensional enclosures containing absorbing/emitting, isotropically scattering, and conducting media are included. An application of the EFM is proposed which calls for the measurement of exchange factors in a scale model of the enclosure to be analyzed. The measurement of these factors in an enclosure containing an isotropically scattering medium is discussed. The effects of isotropic scattering and absorption/re-emission processes are shown to be indistinguishable in their contribution to exchange factor paths.

  19. Exchange factor method: an alternative zonal formulation for analysis of radiating enclosures containing participating media

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The exchange factor method (EFM) is introduced and compared to the zone method (ZM). In both the EFM and ZM the region of interest is discretized into volume and surface elements, each considered to be isothermal, which are small enough to give the required resolution. A suitable set of state variables for the system is composed of the surface element radiosities and the gas element emissive powers. The EFM defines exchange factors as dimensionless total-exchange areas for radiant interchange between volume and surface elements by all possible absorption/re-emission paths, but excluding wall reflections. In the EFM, the exchange factors replace the direct-exchange areas of the ZM and are used to write energy balances for each area and volume element in the system. As in the ZM, the radiant energy balance equations result in a set of algebraic equations linear in the system state variables. The distinguishing feature of the EFM is that exchange factors may be measurable quantities. Relationships between the EFM exchange factors and the ZM direct-exchange areas are presented. EFM conservation and reciprocity laws, analogous to those of the ZM, are also included. Temperature and heat flux distributions, predicted using the EFM, for two- and three-dimensional enclosures containing absorbing/emitting, isotropically scattering, and conducting media are included. An application of the EFM is proposed which calls for the measurement of exchange factors in a scale model of the enclosure to be analyzed. The measurement of these factors in an enclosure containing an isotropically scattering medium is discussed. The effects of isotropic scattering and absorption/re-emission processes are shown to be indistinguishable in their contribution to exchange factor paths.

  20. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  1. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    PubMed

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  2. Effect of 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation on Auditory and Linguistic Perception: A Comparison among Young Controls, Sleep-Deprived Participants, Dyslexic Readers, and Aging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fostick, Leah; Babkoff, Harvey; Zukerman, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of 24 hr of sleep deprivation on auditory and linguistic perception and to assess the magnitude of this effect by comparing such performance with that of aging adults on speech perception and with that of dyslexic readers on phonological awareness. Method: Fifty-five sleep-deprived young adults were compared with 29…

  3. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  4. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  5. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  6. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana).

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Fiona J

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These 'Age Reference Lines' were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70-75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified.

  7. A Novel Objective Method of Estimating the Age of Mandibles from African Elephants (Loxodonta africana Africana)

    PubMed Central

    Stansfield, Fiona J.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of assigning an accurate estimate of age and sex to elephant carcasses found in the wild has increased in recent years with the escalation in levels of poaching throughout Africa. Irregularities identified in current ageing techniques prompted the development of a new method to describe molar progression throughout life. Elephant mandibles (n = 323) were studied and a point near the distal dental alveolus was identified as being most useful in ranking each jaw according to molar progression. These ‘Age Reference Lines’ were then associated with an age scale based on previous studies and Zimbabwean mandibles of known age. The new ranking produced a single age scale that proved useful for both male and female mandibles up to the maximum lifespan age of 70–75 years. Methods to aid in molar identification and the sexing of found jaws were also identified. PMID:25970428

  8. The Impact of Enhanced He and CNONa Abundances on Globular Cluster Relative Age-Dating Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Franch, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Aparicio, Antonio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2010-05-01

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as ~0.5 (or ~6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates—taken from the literature—of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  9. Applicability of Demirjian’s Method and Modified Cameriere’s Methods for Dental Age Assessment in Children

    PubMed Central

    Pratyusha, K; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Saujanya, Kaniti; Raviteja, Narra Venkata Krishna; Chandrasekhar, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Tooth development is extensively used for age estimation as a part of forensic science. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of Demirjian’s, Cameriere’s and modified Cameriere’s population-specific regression equation methods in the dental age estimation of West Godavari children. Materials and Methods The study included orthopantomograms (OPG) of 60 children of West Godavari district with age group between 9 to 14 years on whom all the three methods were used for age estimation. The OPG were traced with the help of a tracing paper and lead pencil and the appropriate dimensions were measured. Age estimation was done based on canine calcification stage as per Demirjian’s method and measurements of the seven permanent left mandibular teeth using Cameriere’s formula and modified population-specific regression equation obtained for the South Indian population from Cameriere’s formula. The resultant data were subjected to statistical analysis by student’s paired t-test. Results The estimated age was closer to the chronological age when the modified Cameriere’s population-specific regression equation was used (p=0.68); whereas, the difference was more in Demirjian’s method (p=0.008) followed by Cameriere’s method (p<0.001). Conclusion The method using modified Cameriere’s population-specific regression equation exhibited a least significant difference in chronological and dental age assessment in children of West Godavari district as compared to the other two methods.

  10. Rapid determination of lipid peroxidation using a novel pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid spectrophotometric method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingnan; Cai, Danqian; Zhang, Yu

    2016-11-15

    A novel method is developed to rapidly analyze lipid peroxidation in edible oils and fatty foods at room temperature, which is called the pyridoxamine-participating ferrous oxidation-sulfosalicylic acid (PFOS) method. The PFOS method evaluates the lipid peroxide value colorimetrically via detecting the pyridoxamine-mediated pigment produced by 5-sulfosalicylic acid and Fe(3+) at 500nm, while the latter is converted from Fe(2+) in the presence of lipid peroxides. The optimized formulation was ethanol (70%, v/v), Fe(2+) (4mmol/L), 5-sulfosalicylic acid (40mmol/L) and pyridoxamine (18mmol/L). The limit of quantitation is 0.087mmol Fe(3+)/L with acceptable reproducibility. In addition, current method has a significant linear correlation with both conventional thiobarbituric acid (R(2)=0.9999) and ferric thiocyanate assays (R(2)=0.9675). This method offers a rapid technique for evaluating lipid peroxidation without heating and sophisticated instrumental procedures. Besides, current method provides a new option to evaluate the lipid peroxidation state and improve the reproducibility of ferrous-oxidation.

  11. 2 CFR 901.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 901.332 Section 901.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  12. 2 CFR 2700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2700.332 Section 2700.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  13. 2 CFR 1400.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1400.332 Section 1400.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  14. 2 CFR 1532.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1532.332 Section 1532.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  15. 2 CFR 2600.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2600.332 Section 2600.332 Grants... § 2600.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  16. 2 CFR 2700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2700.332 Section 2700.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  17. 2 CFR 3254.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3254.332 Section 3254.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  18. 2 CFR 3513.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3513.332 Section 3513.332 Grants... § 3513.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  19. 2 CFR 1880.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1880.332 Section 1880.332 Grants... § 1880.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  20. 2 CFR 5800.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 5800.332 Section 5800.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  1. 2 CFR 2424.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2424.332 Section 2424.332 Grants... § 2424.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  2. 2 CFR 1326.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1326.332 Section 1326.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  3. 2 CFR 801.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 801.332 Section 801.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  4. 2 CFR 3000.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3000.332 Section 3000.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  5. 2 CFR 901.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 901.332 Section 901.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  6. 2 CFR 376.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 376.332 Section 376.332 Grants... § 376.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  7. 2 CFR 1125.332 - What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1125.332 Section 1125.332 Grants... method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  8. 2 CFR 376.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 376.332 Section 376.332 Grants... § 376.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  9. 2 CFR 1125.332 - What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1125.332 Section 1125.332 Grants... method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  10. 2 CFR 3254.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3254.332 Section 3254.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  11. 2 CFR 3485.330 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3485.330 Section 3485.330 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  12. 2 CFR 3369.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3369.332 Section 3369.332 Grants... § 3369.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  13. 2 CFR 2520.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2520.332 Section 2520.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  14. 2 CFR 2336.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2336.332 Section 2336.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  15. 2 CFR 2424.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2424.332 Section 2424.332 Grants... § 2424.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  16. 2 CFR 1326.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1326.332 Section 1326.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  17. 2 CFR 1200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1200.332 Section 1200.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  18. 2 CFR 3700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3700.332 Section 3700.332 Grants... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION § 3700.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants...

  19. 2 CFR 2600.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2600.332 Section 2600.332 Grants... § 2600.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  20. 2 CFR 2336.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2336.332 Section 2336.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  1. 2 CFR 1200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1200.332 Section 1200.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  2. 2 CFR 1880.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1880.332 Section 1880.332 Grants... § 1880.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  3. 2 CFR 1200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1200.332 Section 1200.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  4. 2 CFR 1532.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1532.332 Section 1532.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  5. 2 CFR 1400.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1400.332 Section 1400.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  6. 2 CFR 2520.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2520.332 Section 2520.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  7. 2 CFR 1880.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1880.332 Section 1880.332 Grants... § 1880.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  8. 2 CFR 1532.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1532.332 Section 1532.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  9. 2 CFR 1532.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1532.332 Section 1532.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  10. 2 CFR 3185.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3185.332 Section 3185.332 Grants... § 3185.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  11. 2 CFR 801.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 801.332 Section 801.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  12. 2 CFR 801.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 801.332 Section 801.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  13. 2 CFR 3254.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3254.332 Section 3254.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  14. 2 CFR 3369.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3369.332 Section 3369.332 Grants... § 3369.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  15. 2 CFR 901.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 901.332 Section 901.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  16. 2 CFR 2600.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2600.332 Section 2600.332 Grants... § 2600.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  17. 2 CFR 901.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 901.332 Section 901.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  18. 2 CFR 3000.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3000.332 Section 3000.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  19. 2 CFR 1326.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1326.332 Section 1326.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  20. 2 CFR 1400.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1400.332 Section 1400.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  1. 2 CFR 2424.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2424.332 Section 2424.332 Grants... § 2424.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  2. 2 CFR 2336.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2336.332 Section 2336.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  3. 2 CFR 1200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1200.332 Section 1200.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  4. 2 CFR 3185.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3185.332 Section 3185.332 Grants... § 3185.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  5. 2 CFR 3513.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3513.332 Section 3513.332 Grants... § 3513.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  6. 2 CFR 3513.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3513.332 Section 3513.332 Grants... § 3513.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  7. 2 CFR 3000.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3000.332 Section 3000.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  8. 2 CFR 3700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3700.332 Section 3700.332 Grants... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION § 3700.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants...

  9. 2 CFR 3000.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3000.332 Section 3000.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  10. 2 CFR 801.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 801.332 Section 801.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  11. 2 CFR 3369.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3369.332 Section 3369.332 Grants... § 3369.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  12. 2 CFR 2700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2700.332 Section 2700.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  13. 2 CFR 3513.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3513.332 Section 3513.332 Grants... § 3513.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  14. 2 CFR 2424.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2424.332 Section 2424.332 Grants... § 2424.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  15. 2 CFR 901.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 901.332 Section 901.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  16. 2 CFR 1532.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1532.332 Section 1532.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  17. 2 CFR 2336.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2336.332 Section 2336.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  18. 2 CFR 3485.330 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3485.330 Section 3485.330 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  19. 2 CFR 2700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2700.332 Section 2700.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  20. 2 CFR 1326.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1326.332 Section 1326.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  1. 2 CFR 1880.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1880.332 Section 1880.332 Grants... § 1880.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  2. 2 CFR 1400.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1400.332 Section 1400.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  3. 2 CFR 1400.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1400.332 Section 1400.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  4. 2 CFR 2520.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2520.332 Section 2520.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  5. 2 CFR 1125.332 - What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1125.332 Section 1125.332 Grants... method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  6. 2 CFR 376.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 376.332 Section 376.332 Grants... § 376.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  7. 2 CFR 3254.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3254.332 Section 3254.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  8. 2 CFR 2336.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2336.332 Section 2336.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  9. 2 CFR 3185.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3185.332 Section 3185.332 Grants... § 3185.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  10. 2 CFR 801.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 801.332 Section 801.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  11. 2 CFR 2700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2700.332 Section 2700.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  12. 2 CFR 1326.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1326.332 Section 1326.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  13. 2 CFR 3700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3700.332 Section 3700.332 Grants... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION § 3700.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants...

  14. 2 CFR 2600.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2600.332 Section 2600.332 Grants... § 2600.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  15. 2 CFR 3700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3700.332 Section 3700.332 Grants... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION § 3700.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants...

  16. 2 CFR 1125.332 - What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1125.332 Section 1125.332 Grants... method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  17. 2 CFR 2520.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2520.332 Section 2520.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  18. 2 CFR 3254.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3254.332 Section 3254.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  19. 2 CFR 2520.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 2520.332 Section 2520.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  20. 2 CFR 5800.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 5800.332 Section 5800.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  1. 2 CFR 1200.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1200.332 Section 1200.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  2. 2 CFR 3000.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3000.332 Section 3000.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  3. 2 CFR 3700.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3700.332 Section 3700.332 Grants... DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION § 3700.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants...

  4. 2 CFR 1125.332 - What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 1125.332 Section 1125.332 Grants... method must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  5. 2 CFR 376.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 376.332 Section 376.332 Grants... § 376.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  6. 2 CFR 5800.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 5800.332 Section 5800.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  7. 2 CFR 3369.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3369.332 Section 3369.332 Grants... § 3369.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  8. 2 CFR 3185.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3185.332 Section 3185.332 Grants... § 3185.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  9. 2 CFR 5800.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 5800.332 Section 5800.332 Grants... methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to...

  10. Solar disinfection of drinking water in the prevention of dysentery in South African children aged under 5 years: the role of participant motivation.

    PubMed

    Du Preez, Martella; Mcguigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronan M

    2010-11-15

    Solar disinfection (SODIS) effectively improves the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhea; however, the effect of participant motivation has not been studied. This 1-year randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of SODIS of drinking water and motivation on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in periurban communities in South Africa.We compared 383 children in 297 households using SODIS with 335 children in 267 households with no intervention. At baseline 62.4% of the study households had stored water which met World Health Organization guidelines for zero thermotolerant coliforms per 100 mL. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence of dysentery was significantly associated with higher motivation, defined as 75% or better completion of diarrhea data. Incidence rates were lower in those drinking solar disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.0, P = 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 - 0.81, P = 0.014). However, there was no significant reduction in risk at lower levels of motivation. Solar disinfection was not significantly associated with nondysentery diarrhea risk overall (P = 0.419). A statistically significant reduction in dysentery was achieved only in households with higher motivation, showing that motivation is a significant determinant for measurable health gains. Failure of three-quarters of participants to achieve a significant reduction in dysentery suggests that research into effective implementation is required.

  11. A Test of the Passalacqua Age at Death Estimation Method Using the Sacrum.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Tara

    2016-01-01

    A test of the accuracy of the Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) sacrum method in a forensic context was performed on a sample of 153 individuals from the J.C.B. Grant Skeletal Collection. The Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) method assesses seven traits of the sacrum using a 7-digit coding system. An accuracy of 97.3% was achieved using the Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) method to estimate adult skeletal age. On average each age estimate differed by 12.87 years from the known age. The method underestimated the age of individuals by an average of 4.3 years. An intra-observer error of 6.6% suggests that the method can be performed with precision. Correlation and regression analysis found that the sacral traits used in the Passalacqua (J Forensic Sci, 5, 2009, 255) method did not have a strong relationship with age or an ability to strongly predict age. Overall, the method was not practical for use in a forensic context due to the broad age ranges, despite the high accuracy and low intra-observer error.

  12. Auricular Surface Aging: Comparing Two Methods that Assess Morphological Change in the Ilium with Bayesian Analyses.

    PubMed

    Hens, Samantha M; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    Modern standards in forensic anthropology require rigorous testing and evaluation of methods used for aging skeletal remains. Age estimation has been criticized for bias, inaccuracy, and population specificity; issues which are minimized by the application of Bayesian methodology. Using Bayesian statistics, we compare the Lovejoy et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol, 68, 1985, 15) (original) and Buckberry and Chamberlain (Am J Phys Anthropol, 119, 2002, 231) (revised) auricular surface aging methods. Transition analysis parameters derived from American males (n = 372), in combination with a Thai male (N = 37) informative prior, statistically model age in Portuguese males (n = 221). Cumulative binomial tests assess the accuracy of the generated age ranges. Overall, the application of transition analysis and Bayesian statistics significantly improved age estimation with both methods (also outperforming Suchey-Brooks pubic symphysis aging). Moreover, the accuracy of the original method was low without statistical modeling, whereas the revised method can be applied accurately without further statistical analysis. Additionally, reference tables for aging Portuguese males are provided.

  13. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys.

  14. Dental age estimation: Comparison of reliability between Malay formula of Demirjian method and Malay formula of Cameriere method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alghali, R.; Kamaruddin, A. F.; Mokhtar, N.

    2016-12-01

    Introduction: The application of forensic odontology using teeth and bones becomes the most commonly used methods to determine age of unknown individuals. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of Malay formula of Demirjian and Malay formula of Cameriere methods in determining the dental age that is closely matched with the chronological age of Malay children in Kepala Batas region. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. 126 good quality dental panoramic radiographs (DPT) of healthy Malay children aged 8-16 years (49 boys and 77 girls) were selected and measured. All radiographs were taken at Dental Specialist Clinic, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia. The measurements were carried out using new Malay formula of both Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calibrated examiner. Results: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis between the chronological age with Demirjian and Cameriere has been calculated. The Demirjian method has shown a better percentage (91.4%) of ICC compared to Cameriere (89.2%) which also indicates a high association, with good reliability. However, by comparing between Demirjian and Cameriere, it can be concluded that Demirjian has a better reliability. Conclusion: Thus, the results suggested that, modified Demirjian method is more reliable than modified Cameriere method among the population in Kepala Batas region.

  15. Study Protocol – Diabetes and related conditions in urban Indigenous people in the Darwin, Australia region: aims, methods and participation in the DRUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan; O'Dea, Kerin; Dunbar, Terry; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a serious and increasing health problem in Australia and is a designated national health priority. Diabetes and related conditions represent an even greater health burden among Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), but there are critical gaps in knowledge relating to the incidence and prevalence, aetiology, and prevention of diabetes in this group, including a lack of information on the burden of disease among Indigenous people in urban areas. The DRUID Study (Diabetes and Related conditions in Urban Indigenous people in the Darwin region) was designed to address this knowledge gap. Methods/design The study was conducted in a specified geographic area in and around Darwin, Australia. Eligible participants underwent a health examination, including collection of blood and urine samples, clinical and anthropometric measurements, and administration of questionnaires, with an additional assessment for people with diabetes. The study was designed to incorporate local Indigenous leadership, facilitate community engagement, and provide employment and training opportunities for local Indigenous people. A variety of recruitment methods were used. A total of 1,004 eligible people gave consent and provided at least one measurement. When compared with census data for the Indigenous population living in the study area, there was a marked under-representation of males, but no substantial differences in age, place of residence, Indigenous group, or household income. Early participants were more likely than later participants to have previously diagnosed diabetes. Discussion Despite lower than anticipated recruitment, this is, to our knowledge, the largest study ever conducted on the health of Indigenous Australians living in urban areas, a group which comprises the majority of Australia's Indigenous population but about whose health and wellbeing relatively little is known. The study is well-placed to provide new

  16. Development of a biometric method to estimate age on hand radiographs.

    PubMed

    Remy, Floriane; Hossu, Gabriela; Cendre, Romain; Micard, Emilien; Mainard-Simard, Laurence; Felblinger, Jacques; Martrille, Laurent; Lalys, Loïc

    2017-02-01

    Age estimation of living individuals aged less than 13, 18 or 21 years, which are some relevant legal ages in most European countries, is currently problematic in the forensic context. Thus, numerous methods are available for legal authorities, although their efficiency can be discussed. For those reasons, we aimed to propose a new method, based on the biometric analysis of hand bones. 451 hand radiographs of French individuals under the age of 21 were retrospectively analyzed. This total sample was divided into three subgroups bounded by the relevant legal ages previously mentioned: 0-13, 13-18 and 18-21 years. On these radiographs, we numerically applied the osteometric board method used in anthropology, by including each metacarpal and proximal phalange of the five hand rays in the smallest rectangle possible. In that we can access their length and width information thanks to a measurement protocol developed precisely for our treatment with the ORS Visual(®) software. Then, a statistical analysis was performed from these biometric data: a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) evaluated the probability for an individual to belong to one of the age group (0-13, 13-18 or 18-21); and several multivariate regression models were tested for the establishment of age estimation formulas for each of these age groups. The mean Correlation Coefficient between chronological age and both lengths and widths of hand bones is equal to 0.90 for the total sample. Repeatability and reproducibility were assessed. The LDA could more easily predict the belonging to the 0-13 age group. Age can be estimated with a mean standard error which never exceeds 1 year for the 95% confidence interval. Finally, compared to the literature, we can conclude that estimating an age from the biometric information of metacarpals and proximal phalanges is promising.

  17. Age estimation methods using anthropological parameters on human teeth-(A0736).

    PubMed

    Brkic, H; Milicevic, M; Petrovecki, M

    2006-10-16

    The research was conducted on the 160 intact extracted human teeth with one and two roots of the known age and sex. The teeth were disinfected, dried and X-rayed. After that the section of the longitudinal cut through the teeth was performed in order to facilitate monitoring of all tissues and morphological characteristics of the teeth. The age was determined in three ways: Method 1 [G.Bang, E. Ramm, Determination of age in humans from root dentin transparency, Acta Odontol. Scand. 28 (1970) 3-35]--analysis of the translucency of the root dentine, Method 2 [S. Kvaal, T. Solheim, A non-destructive dental method for age estimation, J. Forensic Odonto-stomatol. 12 (1994) 6-11]--analysis of the root and the root canal from the X-ray, Method 3 [G. Johanson, Age determination from human teeth, Odontol. Revy. 22 (1971) 1-126]--analysis of six parameters on each teeth. All data were subject to the correlation and regression analysis which showed the following: all of the three applied methods were in the significant correlation with the real age, and the best of them proved to be Method 3 where the coefficient of correlation was 0.85, p<0.001. The teeth of the maxilla are more convenient for the age determination than the teeth of mandible. They are in the significant strong correlation with the known real age, and in Method 3, the coefficient of correlation is 0.78, p<0.001. Age determination of the teeth with two roots is in significant correlation with the known real age p<0.001 in relation to the determined age on the teeth with one root. The results show that sex too, is in significant correlation with the real age, p<0.001. In practice, the methods used and the results achieved in this research have been enabling the dental age estimation of human remains from mass graves after the 1991 war in Croatia.

  18. Body composition, physical work capacity and physical activity habits at 18-month follow-up of middle-aged women participating in an exercise intervention program.

    PubMed

    MacKeen, P C; Franklin, B A; Nicholas, W C; Buskirk, E R

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-six sedentary women (29-47 yr) participated in a 12-week, 4-d/week physical conditioning program (CP) involving 15-25 min/d of walking/jogging at a heart rate corresponding to 75 percent of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Twenty-three were classified obese (O, greater than 30 percent body fat, mean = 38 percent) and 13 normal (N, less than 30 percent body fat, mean = 25 percent). Significant post-CP changes included increased VO2max and decreased body fat. At 18 months post-CP a volunteer subgroup of the original 36 subjects (Ss) were re-evaluated, 19 being hydrostatically weighed, 21 exercise-tested and 28 interviewed to assess physical activity over the preceding eight quarterly periods. At CP termination 80 percent of N and 78 percent of O had intended to continue jogging, but by follow-up only 40 percent of N and 33 percent of O were so engaged, none at CP frequency, many at reduced duration and intensity. There was no significant difference between follow-up and pre-CP mean h/week of jogging for the entire follow-up group, even though eight of them (28 percent) increased their jogging over pre-CP levels. Follow-up VO2max and percent body fat means were also not significantly different from pre-CP values. It is suggested that the majority of middle-aged women participating in supervised walk-jog conditioning interventions may regress to pre-program physiologic status when left to exercise ad libitum.

  19. THE IMPACT OF ENHANCED He AND CNONa ABUNDANCES ON GLOBULAR CLUSTER RELATIVE AGE-DATING METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    MarIn-Franch, Antonio; Aparicio, Antonio; Cassisi, Santi; Pietrinferni, Adriano E-mail: antapaj@iac.e E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.i

    2010-05-10

    The impact that unrecognized differences in the chemical patterns of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) have on their relative age determinations is studied. The two most widely used relative age-dating methods, horizontal and vertical, together with the more recent relative MS-fitting method, were carefully analyzed on a purely theoretical basis. The BaSTI library was adopted to perform the present analysis. We find that relative ages derived using the horizontal and vertical methods are largely dependent on the initial He content and heavy element distribution. Unrecognized cluster-to-cluster chemical abundance differences can lead to an error in the derived relative ages as large as {approx}0.5 (or {approx}6 Gyr if an age of 12.8 Gyr is adopted for normalization) and even larger for some extreme cases. It is shown that the relative MS-fitting method is by far the age-dating technique for which undetected cluster-to-cluster differences in the He abundance have less impact. Present results are used in order to pose constraints on the maximum possible spread in the He and CNONa elements abundances on the basis of the estimates-taken from the literature-of the GGCs relative age dispersion obtained with the various relative age-dating techniques. Finally, it is shown that the age-metallicity relation found for young GGCs by the GC Treasury program is a real age sequence and cannot be produced by variations in the He and/or heavy element distribution.

  20. Adaptive Strategies and Person-Environment Fit among Functionally Limited Older Adults Aging in Place: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Lien, Laura L; Steggell, Carmen D; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-09-23

    Older adults prefer to age in place, necessitating a match between person and environment, or person-environment (P-E) fit. In occupational therapy practice, home modifications can support independence, but more knowledge is needed to optimize interventions targeting the housing situation of older adults. In response, this study aimed to explore the accessibility and usability of the home environment to further understand adaptive environmental behaviors. Mixed methods data were collected using objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit among 12 older adults living in community-dwelling housing. Quantitative data described objective P-E fit in terms of accessibility, while qualitative data explored perceived P-E fit in terms of usability. While accessibility problems were prevalent, participants' perceptions of usability revealed a range of adaptive environmental behaviors employed to meet functional needs. A closer examination of the P-E interaction suggests that objective accessibility does not always stipulate perceived usability, which appears to be malleable with age, self-perception, and functional competency. Findings stress the importance of evaluating both objective and perceived indicators of P-E fit to provide housing interventions that support independence. Further exploration of adaptive processes in older age may serve to deepen our understanding of both P-E fit frameworks and theoretical models of aging well.

  1. 2 CFR 601.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 601.332 Section 601.332 Grants... I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do...

  2. 2 CFR 601.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 601.332 Section 601.332 Grants... I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do...

  3. 2 CFR 601.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 601.332 Section 601.332 Grants... I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do...

  4. 2 CFR 601.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 601.332 Section 601.332 Grants... I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do...

  5. 2 CFR 601.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 601.332 Section 601.332 Grants... I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do...

  6. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  7. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  8. Focal Plant Observations as a Standardised Method for Pollinator Monitoring: Opportunities and Limitations for Mass Participation Citizen Science

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Helen E.; Baxter, Elizabeth; Saunders, Aoine; Pocock, Michael J. O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently there has been increasing focus on monitoring pollinating insects, due to concerns about their declines, and interest in the role of volunteers in monitoring pollinators, particularly bumblebees, via citizen science. Methodology / Principal Findings The Big Bumblebee Discovery was a one-year citizen science project run by a partnership of EDF Energy, the British Science Association and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology which sought to assess the influence of the landscape at multiple scales on the diversity and abundance of bumblebees. Timed counts of bumblebees (Bombus spp.; identified to six colour groups) visiting focal plants of lavender (Lavendula spp.) were carried out by about 13 000 primary school children (7–11 years old) from over 4000 schools across the UK. 3948 reports were received totalling 26 868 bumblebees. We found that while the wider landscape type had no significant effect on reported bumblebee abundance, the local proximity to flowers had a significant effect (fewer bumblebees where other flowers were reported to be >5m away from the focal plant). However, the rate of mis-identifcation, revealed by photographs uploaded by participants and a photo-based quiz, was high. Conclusions / Significance Our citizen science results support recent research on the importance of local flocal resources on pollinator abundance. Timed counts of insects visiting a lure plant is potentially an effective approach for standardised pollinator monitoring, engaging a large number of participants with a simple protocol. However, the relatively high rate of mis-identifications (compared to reports from previous pollinator citizen science projects) highlights the importance of investing in resources to train volunteers. Also, to be a scientifically valid method for enquiry, citizen science data needs to be sufficiently high quality, so receiving supporting evidence (such as photographs) would allow this to be tested and for records to be verified

  9. The influence of body size on adult skeletal age estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Catherine E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate age estimations are essential to archaeological and forensic analyses. However, reliability for adult skeletal age estimations is poor, especially for individuals over the age of 40 years. This is the first study to show that body size influences skeletal age estimation. The İşcan et al., Lovejoy et al., Buckberry and Chamberlain, and Suchey-Brooks age methods were tested on 764 adult skeletons from the Hamann-Todd and William Bass Collections. Statures ranged from 1.30 to 1.93 m and body masses ranged from 24.0 to 99.8 kg. Transition analysis was used to evaluate the differences in the age estimations. For all four methods, the smallest individuals have the lowest ages at transition and the largest individuals have the highest ages at transition. Short and light individuals are consistently underaged, while tall and heavy individuals are consistently overaged. When femoral length and femoral head diameter are compared with the log-age model, results show the same trend as the known stature and body mass measurements. The skeletal remains of underweight individuals have fewer age markers while those of obese individuals have increased surface degeneration and osteophytic lipping. Tissue type and mechanical loading have been shown to affect bone turnover rates, and may explain the differing patterns of skeletal aging. From an archaeological perspective, the underaging of light, short individuals suggests the need to revisit the current research consensus on the young mortality rates of past populations. From a forensic perspective, understanding the influence of body size will impact efforts to identify victims of mass disasters, genocides, and homicides.

  10. Recollection, not familiarity, decreases in healthy aging: Converging evidence from four estimation methods

    PubMed Central

    Koen, Joshua D.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.

    2014-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that aging is associated with recollection impairments, there is considerable disagreement surrounding how healthy aging influences familiarity-based recognition. One factor that might contribute to the mixed findings regarding age differences in familiarity is the estimation method used to quantify the two mnemonic processes. Here, this issue is examined by having a group of older adults (N = 39) between 40 and 81 years of age complete Remember/Know (RK), receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and process dissociation (PD) recognition tests. Estimates of recollection, but not familiarity, showed a significant negative correlation with chronological age. Inconsistent with previous findings, the estimation method did not moderate the relationship between age and estimations of recollection and familiarity. In a final analysis, recollection and familiarity were estimated as latent factors in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) that modeled the covariance between measures of free recall and recognition, and the results converged with the results from the RK, PD, and ROC tasks. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that episodic memory declines in older adults are primary driven by recollection deficits, and also suggest that the estimation method plays little to no role in age-related decreases in familiarity. PMID:25485974

  11. Fast method of retrieving the asymmetry factor and scattering albedo from the maximum time-resolved reflectance of participating media.

    PubMed

    Qi, Hong; Ren, Ya-Tao; Chen, Qin; Ruan, Li-Ming

    2015-06-01

    This research presents a parametric study of the time-resolved hemispherical reflectance of a semi-infinite plane-parallel slab of homogeneous, nonemitting, absorbing, and anisotropic scattering medium exposed to a collimated Gaussian pulse. The one-dimensional transient radiative transfer equation was solved by using the finite volume method. The internal reflection at the medium-air interface caused by the mismatch of the refractive indices was considered. In particular, this work focused on the maximum diffuse hemispherical reflectance. Three different optical regions were identified according to the dimensionless pulsewidth βctp. The correlation between the normalized maximum hemispherical reflectance and βctp was conformed to the Boltzmann function. The coefficients in the correlating functions of the match and mismatch refractive index cases were fitted as polynomial fitting functions of the single scattering albedo ω and Henyey-Greenstein asymmetric factor g. Thus, ω and g can be simultaneously reconstructed by the semi-empirical correlations without solving the forward model. In conclusion, the proposed method can potentially retrieve the asymmetry factor and single scattering albedo of participating media accurately and efficiently.

  12. Rates of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Youth: Age, Sex, and Behavioral Methods in a Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hankin, Benjamin L.; Young, Jami F.; Abela, John R. Z.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal was to assess the rate and behavioral methods of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in a community sample of youth and examine effects of age and sex. METHODS: Youth in the third, sixth, and ninth grades (ages 7–16) at schools in the community were invited to participate in a laboratory study. A total of 665 youth (of 1108 contacted; 60% participation rate) were interviewed about NSSI over their lifetime via the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview. RESULTS: Overall, 53 (8.0%) of the 665 youth reported engaging in NSSI; 9.0% of girls and 6.7% of boys reported NSSI engagement; 7.6% of third-graders, 4.0% of sixth-graders, and 12.7% of ninth-graders reported NSSI engagement. There was a significant grade by gender interaction; girls in the ninth grade (19%) reported significantly greater rates of NSSI than ninth-grade boys (5%). Behavioral methods of NSSI differed by gender. Girls reported cutting and carving skin most often, whereas boys reported hitting themselves most often. Finally, 1.5% of youth met some criteria for the proposed fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) diagnosis of NSSI. CONCLUSIONS: Children and adolescents engage in NSSI. Ninth-grade girls seem most at risk, as they engage in NSSI at 3 times the rate of boys. Behavioral methods of NSSI also vary by grade and gender. As possible inclusion of an NSSI diagnosis in the fifth edition of the DSM-5 draws near, it is essential to better understand NSSI engagement across development and gender. PMID:22689875

  13. Accuracy of the estimation of dental age in comparison with chronological age in a Spanish sample of 2641 living subjects using the Demirjian and Nolla methods.

    PubMed

    Melo, María; Ata-Ali, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect. According to data from the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), the number of people seeking refugee status continued to increase in the last years, driven by the wars in Syria and Iraq, as well as by conflict and instability in Afghanistan, Eritrea and elsewhere. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of estimating dental age versus chronological age using the Nolla and Demirjian methods in a Spanish population. A final sample of 2641 panoramic X-rays corresponding to Spanish patients (1322 males and 1319 females) between 7-21 years of age was analyzed. Dental age was assessed using the Nolla and Demirjian methods, establishing comparisons with mean chronological age based on the Student t-test for paired samples, followed by the generation of a linear regression model. Both methods showed slight discrepancy between dental and chronological age. On examining the reproducibility of the Nolla and Demirjian methods, technical errors of 0.84% and 0.62%, respectively, were observed. On average, the Nolla method was found to estimate an age 0.213years younger than the chronological age, while the Demirjian method estimated an age 0.853years older than the chronological age. Linear combination of the mean Nolla and Demirjian estimates increased the predictive capacity to 99.2%. In conclusion the Nolla and Demirjian methods were found to be accurate in estimating chronological age from dental age in a Spanish population. The error

  14. 2 CFR 376.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 376.332 Section 376.332 Grants... § 376.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  15. 2 CFR 3513.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 3513.332 Section 3513.332 Grants... § 3513.332 What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom...

  16. 2 CFR 3369.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  17. 2 CFR 2600.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  18. 2 CFR 1880.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  19. 2 CFR 3185.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  20. 2 CFR 2424.332 - What methods must I use to pass requirements down to participants at lower tiers with whom I...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

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  1. Proposition of an Accelerated Ageing Method for Natural Fibre/Polylactic Acid Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandvliet, Clio; Bandyopadhyay, N. R.; Ray, Dipa

    2015-10-01

    Natural fibre composite based on polylactic acid (PLA) composite is of special interest because it is entirely from renewable resources and biodegradable. Some samples of jute/PLA composite and PLA alone made 6 years ago and kept in tropical climate on a shelf shows too fast ageing degradation. In this work, an accelerated ageing method for natural fibres/PLA composite is proposed and tested. Experiment was carried out with jute and flax fibre/PLA composite. The method was compared with the standard ISO 1037-06a. The residual flexural strength after ageing test was compared with the one of common wood-based panels and of real aged samples prepared 6 years ago.

  2. A mixed methods study of age at diagnosis and diagnostic odyssey for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Siaw H; McClaren, Belinda J; Archibald, Alison Dalton; Weeks, Alice; Langmaid, Tess; Ryan, Monique M; Kornberg, Andrew; Metcalfe, Sylvia A

    2015-01-01

    The delayed diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) may be an ongoing problem internationally. We aimed to ascertain age at diagnosis and explore parents' experiences of the diagnosis of DMD in Australia. Using mixed methods, data were collected from laboratory and clinical record audits of testing for DMD in Victoria and Tasmania, interviews and a national survey of parents regarding their experiences from first noticing symptoms to receiving a diagnosis. The audits revealed that the median age at diagnosis for DMD was 5 years (n=49 during 2005–2010); this age had not changed substantially over this period. Fourteen parents interviewed reported age at diagnosis ranging from 2 to 8 years with a 6 month to 4 year delay between initial concerns about their child's development and receiving the DMD diagnosis. Sixty-two survey respondents reported the median age at diagnosis was 3 years and 9 months, while the median age when symptoms were noticed was 2 years and 9 months. Parents experienced many emotions in their search for a diagnosis and consulted with a wide range of health professionals. Half the survey respondents felt that their child could have been diagnosed earlier. Despite advances in testing technologies and increasing awareness of DMD, the age at diagnosis has remained constant in Australia. This mixed methods study shows that this diagnostic delay continues to have a negative impact on parents' experiences, places families at risk of having a second affected child and may have a deleterious effect on affected children's treatment. PMID:25626706

  3. Human Age Estimation Method Robust to Camera Sensor and/or Face Movement

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Cho, So Ra; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    Human age can be employed in many useful real-life applications, such as customer service systems, automatic vending machines, entertainment, etc. In order to obtain age information, image-based age estimation systems have been developed using information from the human face. However, limitations exist for current age estimation systems because of the various factors of camera motion and optical blurring, facial expressions, gender, etc. Motion blurring can usually be presented on face images by the movement of the camera sensor and/or the movement of the face during image acquisition. Therefore, the facial feature in captured images can be transformed according to the amount of motion, which causes performance degradation of age estimation systems. In this paper, the problem caused by motion blurring is addressed and its solution is proposed in order to make age estimation systems robust to the effects of motion blurring. Experiment results show that our method is more efficient for enhancing age estimation performance compared with systems that do not employ our method. PMID:26334282

  4. Methods for diagnosing perceived age on the basis of an ensemble of phenotypic features

    PubMed Central

    Coma, Mireia; Valls, Raquel; Mas, José Manuel; Pujol, Albert; Herranz, Miquel Angel; Alonso, Vicente; Naval, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Perceived age has been defined as the age that a person is visually estimated to be on the basis of physical appearance. In a society where a youthful appearance are an object of desire for consumers, and a source of commercial profit for cosmetic companies, this concept has a prominent role. In addition, perceived age is also an indicator of overall health status in elderly people, since old-looking people tend to show higher rates of morbidity and mortality. However, there is a lack of objective methods for quantifying perceived age. Methods In order to satisfy the need of objective approaches for estimating perceived age, a novel algorithm was created. The novel algorithm uses supervised mathematical learning techniques and error retropropagation for the creation of an artificial neural network able to learn biophysical and clinically assessed parameters of subjects. The algorithm provides a consistent estimation of an individual’s perceived age, taking into account a defined set of facial skin phenotypic traits, such as wrinkles and roughness, number of wrinkles, depth of wrinkles, and pigmentation. A nonintervention, epidemiological cross-sectional study of cases and controls was conducted in 120 female volunteers for the diagnosis of perceived age using this novel algorithm. Data collection was performed by clinical assessment of an expert panel and biophysical assessment using the ANTERA 3D® device. Results and discussion Employing phenotype data as variables and expert assignments as objective data, the algorithm was found to correctly classify the samples with an accuracy of 92.04%. Therefore, we have developed a method for determining the perceived age of a subject in a standardized, consistent manner. Further application of this algorithm is thus a promising approach for the testing and validation of cosmetic treatments and aesthetic surgery, and it also could be used as a screening method for general health status in the population. PMID

  5. Effects of Participation in a STEM Camp on STEM Attitudes and Anticipated Career Choices of Middle School Girls: A Mixed Methods Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kager, Elisabeth

    Middle school is a critical time for the development of girls' attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Existing research has indicated declining positive attitudes toward these fields among girls throughout adolescence. This study investigated how, to what extent, and for whom participation in a summer STEM Camp at a Midwestern college in the United States affected the STEM attitudes and career aspirations of 23 female participants, ages 10-14 years. Using a concurrent triangulation design, the researcher collected pre- and post-questionnaire data (N = 20), interviewed participants (N = 9), read journal entries (N = 22), and wrote field notes. The researcher adapted the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales (FSAS) to measure five of the original nine attitude scales concerning STEM: Male Domain, Confidence, Usefulness, Success, and Motivation. In addition to these standardized, Likert-type scale questions, the questionnaire included demographic items to gauge participants' anticipated career choices and the level of STEM motivation (e.g., extracurricular activities and guardians' STEM involvement). The interview questions elicited information about the participants' Camp experiences and the Camp's influence on participants' attitudes and career aspirations. The journal prompts provoked participants to think about their perceptions of, and relationship with, science and mathematics as well as how supportive their parents and peers had been regarding these two fields. Participants' incoming STEM attitudes were positive. Accordingly, there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-scores of attitudes toward STEM. Nevertheless, qualitative results showed that the Camp did strengthen participants' positive attitudes through enthusiastic instructors, STEM-motivated peers, and hands-on activities that allowed for creative freedom. Participating in the STEM Camp challenged participants' prior career aspirations by

  6. Setting the light conditions for measuring root transparency for age-at-death estimation methods.

    PubMed

    Adserias-Garriga, Joe; Nogué-Navarro, Laia; Zapico, Sara C; Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2017-03-30

    Age-at-death estimation is one of the main goals in forensic identification, being an essential parameter to determine the biological profile, narrowing the possibility of identification in cases involving missing persons and unidentified bodies. The study of dental tissues has been long considered as a proper tool for age estimation with several age estimation methods based on them. Dental age estimation methods can be divided into three categories: tooth formation and development, post-formation changes, and histological changes. While tooth formation and growth changes are important for fetal and infant consideration, when the end of dental and skeletal growth is achieved, post-formation or biochemical changes can be applied. Lamendin et al. in J Forensic Sci 37:1373-1379, (1992) developed an adult age estimation method based on root transparency and periodontal recession. The regression formula demonstrated its accuracy of use for 40 to 70-year-old individuals. Later on, Prince and Ubelaker in J Forensic Sci 47(1):107-116, (2002) evaluated the effects of ancestry and sex and incorporated root height into the equation, developing four new regression formulas for males and females of African and European ancestry. Even though root transparency is a key element in the method, the conditions for measuring this element have not been established. The aim of the present study is to set the light conditions measured in lumens that offer greater accuracy when applying the Lamendin et al. method modified by Prince and Ubelaker. The results must be also taken into account in the application of other age estimation methodologies using root transparency to estimate age-at-death.

  7. Acceptance of Home-Based Telehealth Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed, Low-Income Homebound Older Adults: Qualitative Interviews With the Participants and Aging-Service Case Managers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Hegel, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report low-income homebound older adults’ experience of telehealth problem-solving therapy (tele-PST) and aging-service case managers’ (CMs’) experience/perception of client-level personal barriers to accessing psychotherapy in general and PST specifically. Design and Methods: The study sample consisted of 42 homebound older adults who participated in the feasibility and efficacy trial of tele-PST and completed 36-week follow-up assessments and 12 CMs of a large home-delivered meals program who referred their clients to the tele-PST trial. In-depth interviews with the older adults and written feedback and focus group discussions with the CMs provided the data. Results: Older adults reported a high rate of approval of PST procedures and acknowledged its positive treatment effect. Tele-PST participants were satisfied with videoconferenced sessions because they were convenient and allowed them to see their therapist. However, CMs reported that only about 10%–20% of potentially eligible older adults gave oral consent for PST. Significant treatment engagement barriers were the older adults’ lack of motivation, denial of depression, perceived stigma, and other personal attitudinal factors. Implications: The real-world implementation of tele-PST or other psychotherapies needs to include educating and motivating depressed homebound elders to recognize their depression and accept treatment. PMID:23929664

  8. Social Mobility and Mental Disorders at 30 Years of Age in Participants of the 1982 Cohort, Pelotas, Rio Grande Do Sul – RS

    PubMed Central

    de Quadros, Lenice de Castro Muniz; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Motta, Janaína Vieira dos Santos; Carraro, André; Ribeiro, Felipe Garcia; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental disorders at 30 years of age and social mobility by formally testing three hypotheses: Risk Accumulation; Critical Period; and Social Mobility. The study was performed using data from the 30-year follow-up of the Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, conducted in 1982, and data from previous follow-ups. The tool used to evaluate mental health was the Self Report Questionnaire (SRQ-20). For the statistical analysis, the chi-square test with the Yates correction was used to estimate the prevalence of mental disorder, and the Poisson regression with robust variance was used to formally test the hypotheses according to the Risk Accumulation, Critical Period and Social Mobility Models. The analyses were stratified by gender. The prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs) was 24.3% (95% CI 22.9–25.7) when the whole sample was considered. The highest prevalence, 27.1% (95% CI 25.1–29.2), was found in women, and the difference between genders was significant (p < 0.001). CMDs were more frequent in participants who remained “poor” in the three follow-ups. In both men and women, the best fit was obtained with the Risk Accumulation Model, with p = 0.6348 and p = 0.2105, respectively. The results indicate the need to rethink public income maintenance policies. Finally, we suggest further studies to investigate the role of different public policies in decreasing the prevalence of mental disorders and thus contribute proposals of new policies that may contribute to the prevention of these disorders. PMID:26448480

  9. A Method for Assessing the Use of First Person Verb Forms by Preschool-Aged Children with SLI.

    PubMed

    Polite, Elgustus J; Leonard, Laurence B

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have extraordinary difficulty in the use of tense and agreement morphemes. Because spontaneous speech samples may not provide a sufficient number of obligatory contexts for these morphemes, structured probe items are often employed. However, these usually emphasize actions that can be readily illustrated through drawings, which tend to have third person subjects. In this paper we describe a method that has been successful in creating obligatory contexts for a first person morpheme - auxiliary am - that heretofore has been assessed exclusively through spontaneous speech samples. Participants were 32 mainstream American English-speaking children comprising three diagnostic subgroups: children with SLI, typically developing age-matched peers, and younger typically developing peers matched for mean length of utterance (MLU). The children participated in a task in which they described their actions for an audience; these descriptions required the use of auxiliary am. The results revealed that the children with SLI used auxiliary am with significantly smaller percentages than both groups of typically developing children, a finding that is consistent with findings that employ other tense and agreement morphemes. Clinical applications of this method are discussed.

  10. Chemiluminescence as a condition monitoring method for thermal aging and lifetime prediction of an HTPB elastomer.

    SciTech Connect

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Minier, Leanna M. G.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Trujillo, Ana B.

    2007-03-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) has been applied as a condition monitoring technique to assess aging related changes in a hydroxyl-terminated-polybutadiene based polyurethane elastomer. Initial thermal aging of this polymer was conducted between 110 and 50 C. Two CL methods were applied to examine the degradative changes that had occurred in these aged samples: isothermal 'wear-out' experiments under oxygen yielding initial CL intensity and 'wear-out' time data, and temperature ramp experiments under inert conditions as a measure of previously accumulated hydroperoxides or other reactive species. The sensitivities of these CL features to prior aging exposure of the polymer were evaluated on the basis of qualifying this method as a quick screening technique for quantification of degradation levels. Both the techniques yielded data representing the aging trends in this material via correlation with mechanical property changes. Initial CL rates from the isothermal experiments are the most sensitive and suitable approach for documenting material changes during the early part of thermal aging.

  11. No evidence for age-related differences in item-method directed forgetting of emotional words.

    PubMed

    Berger, Natalie; Crossman, Margot; Brandt, Karen R

    2016-12-13

    Research indicates that people can intentionally forget, but it is less clear how ageing and emotion interact with this ability. The present research investigated item-method directed forgetting of negative, neutral, and positive words in young (20-35 years), young-old (60-74 years), and old-old (75-89 years) adults. Although old-old adults showed overall reduced memory compared to young and young-old adults, all three age groups showed intentional forgetting. Moreover, intentional forgetting was not affected by the valence of the word in any of the three age groups. These findings suggest that younger and older adults can intentionally forget information that is neutral or emotional in nature. The present study's results extend previous research by showing that this ability is preserved in very old age.

  12. Forensic age estimation by the Schmeling method: computed tomography analysis of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Sayin, Ibrahim; Solmaz, Dilek; Bilgili, Mustafa Gokhan; Can, Ismail Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The variability of anthropometric measures, such as the degree of ossification, among societies should be taken into account when estimating age. The degree of ossification of the medial clavicle can be determined with thin-section computed tomography (CT), which is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the applicability of thin-section CT analysis of the degree of ossification of the medial clavicle in a Turkish population. We evaluated the CT images (1-mm slice thickness) of 503 patients (362 male, 141 female; age, 10-35 years) using the Schmeling five-stage method. The Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female patients (total group: rho = 0.838, p < 0.001; male: rho = 0.831, p < 0.001; female: rho = 0.856, p < 0.001). The linear regression analysis results indicated that the ossification stage of the medial clavicle is a good predictor when estimating age (r (2) = 0.735 for all patients, 0.734 for male patients, 0.741 for female patients). Sex differences in ossification stages were observed only for stage 1 and 4 ossification. We believe that future research could expand the database on this topic and contribute to improvements in this measurement method.

  13. Development of Evaluation Methods for Lower Limb Function between Aged and Young Using Principal Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomoto, Yohei; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Ohya, Tetsuya; Koyama, Hironori; Kawasumi, Masashi

    There is the increasing concern of the society to prevent the fall of the aged. The improvement in aged people's the muscular strength of the lower-limb, postural control and walking ability are important for quality of life and fall prevention. The aim of this study was to develop multiple evaluation methods in order to advise for improvement and maintenance of lower limb function between aged and young. The subjects were 16 healthy young volunteers (mean ± S.D: 19.9 ± 0.6 years) and 10 healthy aged volunteers (mean ± S.D: 80.6 ± 6.1 years). Measurement items related to lower limb function were selected from the items which we have ever used. Selected measurement items of function of lower are distance of extroversion of the toe, angle of flexion of the toe, maximum width of step, knee elevation, moving distance of greater trochanter, walking balance, toe-gap force and rotation range of ankle joint. Measurement items summarized by the principal component analysis into lower ability evaluation methods including walking ability and muscle strength of lower limb and flexibility of ankle. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.6 greater the assessment score of walking ability compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.4 greater the assessment score of muscle strength of lower limb compared with the aged group. The young group demonstrated the factor of 1.2 greater the assessment score of flexibility of ankle compared with the aged group. The results suggested that it was possible to assess the lower limb function of aged and young numerically and to advise on their foot function.

  14. Towards a method for determining age ranges from faces of juveniles on photographs.

    PubMed

    Cummaudo, M; Guerzoni, M; Gibelli, D; Cigada, A; Obertovà, Z; Ratnayake, M; Poppa, P; Gabriel, P; Ritz-Timme, S; Cattaneo, C

    2014-06-01

    The steady increase in the distribution of juvenile pornographic material in recent years strongly required valid methods for estimating the age of the victims. At the present in fact forensic experts still commonly use the assessment of sexual characteristics by Tanner staging, although they have proven to be too subjective and deceiving for age estimation. The objective of this study, inspired by a previous EU project involving Italy, Germany and Lithuania, is to verify the applicability of certain anthropometric indices of faces in order to determine age and to create a database of facial measurements on a population of children in order to improve face ageing techniques. In this study, 1924 standardized facial images in frontal view and 1921 in lateral view of individuals from 7 age groups (3-5 years, 6-8 years, 9-11 years, 12-14 years, 15-17 years, 18-20 years, 21-24 years) underwent metric analysis. Individuals were all of Caucasoid ancestry and Italian nationality. Eighteen anthropometric indices in the frontal view and five in the lateral view were then calculated from the obtained measurements. Indices showing a correlation with age were ch-ch/ex-ex, ch-ch/pu-pu, en-en/ch-ch and se-sto/ex-ex in the frontal view, se-prn/se-sn, se-prn/se-sto and se-sn/se-sto in the lateral view. All the indices increased with age except for en-en/ch-ch, without relevant differences between males and females. These results provide an interesting starting point not only for placing a photographed face in an age range but also for refining the techniques of face ageing and personal identification.

  15. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  16. Segmentation of bone pixels from EROI Image using clustering method for bone age assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakthula, Rajitha; Agarwal, Suneeta

    2016-03-01

    The bone age of a human can be identified using carpal and epiphysis bones ossification, which is limited to teen age. The accurate age estimation depends on best separation of bone pixels and soft tissue pixels in the ROI image. The traditional approaches like canny, sobel, clustering, region growing and watershed can be applied, but these methods requires proper pre-processing and accurate initial seed point estimation to provide accurate results. Therefore this paper proposes new approach to segment the bone from soft tissue and background pixels. First pixels are enhanced using BPE and the edges are identified by HIPI. Later a K-Means clustering is applied for segmentation. The performance of the proposed approach has been evaluated and compared with the existing methods.

  17. Accuracy of Cameriere, Haavikko, and Willems radiographic methods on age estimation on Bosnian-Herzegovian children age groups 6-13.

    PubMed

    Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Cameriere, Roberto; Nakaš, Enita; Galić, Elizabeta; Selimović, Edin; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare the accuracy of the Cameriere European formula (Cameriere), adopted Haavikko method from 1974 (Haavikko), and revisited Demirjian method by Willems (Willems) for age estimation on orthopantomograms (OPGs) of Bosnian-Herzegovian (BH) children age groups 6-13 years. The accuracy was determined as difference between estimated dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) and the absolute accuracy (absolute difference) was assessed by analyzing OPGs of 591 girls and 498 boys. The Cameriere method overestimated the mean age by 0.09 year for girls and underestimated by -0.02 year for boys. The Haavikko method underestimated the mean age by -0.29 year for girls and -0.09 year for boys. The Willems method overestimated the mean age by 0.24 year in girls and by 0.42 year in boys. The absolute accuracies were 0.53 year for girls and 0.55 year for boys for Cameriere method; for Haavikko method, 0.59 year for girls and 0.62 year for boys; and for Willems method 0.69 year for girls and 0.67 year for boys. In conclusion, Cameriere method is the most accurate for estimating the age of BH children age groups 6-13 years using OPGs, following adopted Haavikko method and Willems method.

  18. Increased participation and improved performance in age group backstroke master swimmers from 25-29 to 100-104 years at the FINA World Masters Championships from 1986 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Unterweger, Chiara M; Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Participation and performance trends in age group athletes have been investigated for different sport disciplines, but not for master swimmers. The knowledge on this topic is still missing for a particular stroke such as backstroke. Changes in participation and performance of male and female age group backstroke swimmers (≥25 years) competing in 50, 100 and 200 m pool swimming at the FINA World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2014 were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses. The overall participation was n = 26,217 including n = 13,708 women and n = 12,509 men. In 50 m, female (age groups 85-89 years; p = 0.002) and male participation (age groups 55-59; p = 0.030 and 80-84 years; p = 0.002) increased, while female participation decreased in age groups 55-59 (p = 0.010) and 60-64 years (p = 0.050). In 100 and 200 m, participation increased in age groups 45-49, 50-54, 65-69, 70-74, 80-84 years. Swimmers in age groups 25-29 to 95-99 years improved performance over all distances. Women were slower than men in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years, but not in age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years over all distances. In 50 m and 100 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.007 and p = 0.005), 45-49 (p = 0.017 and p = 0.034), 50-54 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.040), to 55-59 years (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004). In 200 m, the sex difference decreased in age groups 40-44 (p = 0.044) and 90-94 (p = 0.011), but increased in age group 25-29 years (p = 0.006). In summary, in age group backstroke swimmers, (1) participation increased or remained unchanged (except women in age groups 55-59 and 60-64 years in 50 m), (2) swimming performance improved in all age groups from 25-29 to 95-99 years over all distances, (3) men were faster than women in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years (except age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years) over time and all distances.

  19. Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes by sex and age group for five regions of Canada. DESIGN: Prevalence survey. SETTING: Community and institutional settings in Canada, excluding those in the two territories, Indian reserves and military units. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of people aged 65 and over interviewed between February 1991 and May 1992. Those in the community (9008 subjects) were chosen randomly from medicare lists in nine provinces or from the Enumeration Composite Record in Ontario. People in institutions (1255) were randomly selected from residents in stratified random samples of institutions in each region. INTERVENTIONS: Screening with the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination to identify cognitive impairment. Clinical examination of all those in institutions, those in the community with a 3MS score of less than 78 and a sample of those in the community with a 3MS score of 78 or more to diagnose dementia. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease were defined according to established criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of dementia of all types, by region, sex and age group, the estimated number of cases in the population by type of dementia and the age-standardized rate per 1000 population. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates suggested that 252,600 (8.0%) of all Canadians aged 65 and over met the criteria for dementia (95% confidence interval [CI] 236,800 to 268,400). These were divided roughly equally between the community and institutional samples; the female:male ratio was 2:1. The age-standardized rate ranged from 2.4%, among those aged 65 to 74 years, to 34.5%, among those aged 85 and over. The corresponding figures for Alzheimer's disease were 5.1% overall (161,000 cases; 95% CI 148,100 to 173,900), ranging from 1.0% to 26.0%; for vascular dementia it was 1.5% overall, ranging from 0.6% to 4.8%. If the prevalence estimates remain constant, the number of Canadians with dementia will rise to 592,000 by

  20. Pediatric and Teen Ovarian Tissue Removed for Cryopreservation Contains Follicles Irrespective of Age, Disease Diagnosis, Treatment History, and Specimen Processing Methods

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Francesca E.; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Gunn, Alexander H.; Badawy, Sherif; Gracia, Clarisa; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Lockart, Barbara; Gosiengfiao, Yasmin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Fertility preservation in a pediatric and teen female population is challenging because standard technologies of egg and embryo freezing may not be possible due to premenarcheal status. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) with the intent of future ovarian tissue transplantation or in vitro follicle growth may be the only option to preserve fertility. The purpose of this study was to add to the general understanding of primordial follicle dynamics in young patients. Methods: First, the unique infrastructure of the Oncofertility Consortium National Physicians Cooperative (OC-NPC) is described, which simultaneously drives clinical fertility preservation and basic research to explore and expand the reproductive options for those in need. Then, the OC-NPC research resource is used to perform a histological evaluation of ovarian tissue from 24 participants younger than 18 years of age. Results: Primordial follicles, which comprise the ovarian reserve, were observed in all participant tissues, irrespective of variables, including age, diagnosis, previous treatment history, tissue size, and tissue processing methods. Primordial follicles were present in ovarian tissue, even in participants who had a previous history of exposure to chemotherapy and/or radiation treatment regimens, which placed them at risk for iatrogenic infertility or premature ovarian failure. Conclusion: Primordial follicles were observed in ovarian tissue from all participants examined, despite population and tissue heterogeneity. These results increase the understanding of human follicle dynamics and support OTC as a promising fertility preservation modality in the young female population. Future studies to evaluate follicle quality within these tissues are warranted. PMID:26697267

  1. Experiences of Participants in a Self-Management Program for Employees with Complaints of the Arm, Neck or Shoulder (CANS): A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Hutting, Nathan; Detaille, Sarah I; Heerkens, Yvonne F; Engels, Josephine A; Staal, J Bart; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To investigate the experiences of participants of a self-management program for employees with complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (CANS). The program consisted of six group sessions combined with an eHealth module. Methods Semi-structured interviews with the first 31 consecutive participants of the intervention group participating in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were interviewed after their last group session. Semi-structured interviews were guided by an interview guide and audio-recorded. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis and the emerging themes were discussed. All participants in the intervention group were asked about their experiences with a questionnaire at three (n = 58) and 12-months (n = 53) follow-up. Results Most participants appreciated the diversity of the program and benefited from the interaction with their peers. The eHealth module, although not used by everyone, was generally experienced as positive, especially the section with the physical exercises. Participants obtained more insight into their complaints and increased awareness, which contributed to the acceptance of and coping with the complaints. There was also criticism about the content of the program and the lack of a follow-up session. Results of the questionnaires showed that participants had a high level of satisfaction. Conclusions In general, the intervention fitted the needs of employees with CANS. Participants obtained more knowledge and insight into their complaints, as well as increased awareness; all this contributed to a behavioral change and improved coping. Many participants made changes at work and during their leisure time, whereas some felt that continuing their 'changed' behavior would be a challenge.

  2. Dental age assessment in 7-14-year-old Chinese children: comparison of Demirjian and Willems methods.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiuxia; Jiang, Fan; Sheng, Xiaoyang; Huang, Hong; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-11-01

    Several approaches have proven be valuable in estimating dental age in children. The Demirjian method, based on crown and root calcification, is the most frequently used tool. The Willems method is a modification of the Demirjian method. There are few studies regarding to compare the application of the two methods in China. This study aims to apply the two methods in a Han population as well as identify if there are some differences between two methods in estimating dental age versus chronological age. Nine hundred forty-one orthopantomograms of 410 boys and 531 girls between seven and 14 years of age were selected from our patient records database with defined standard, and the Demirjian and Willems methods of dental age estimation were applied. The seven left mandibular teeth were scored and calculated in order to obtain the Demirjian and Willems estimated dental ages. It is suggested that the Demirjian method overestimated chronological age by 1.68 years for boys and 1.28 years for girls. The discrepancy between the Demirjian estimate and the chronological age was most frequently observed between 1 and 3.5 years for boys and between 1 and 2 years for girls. While it is indicted that the Willems method overestimated chronological age by 0.35 years for boys and underestimated the age by 0.02 years for girls. The discrepancy between chronological age and Willems estimated age was most frequently observed between -0.5 and 0.5 years for boys and between -1 and 0.5 years for girls. It is demonstrated that the Willems method was more accurate in estimating dental age than the Demirjian method, with a mean absolute error of 0.98 years for boys and 0.93 years for girls. As a result, it is highly recommended that the Willems method should be applied when estimating dental age in Chinese Han population, further modifications to the method are suggested.

  3. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  4. Age determination of fish from scales; method and application to fish cultural problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hile, Ralph

    1936-01-01

    THE SCIENCE of "scale reading", or determination of the age of fish from the examination of their scales, is less than 40 years old. Yet today the publications on the subject are to be numbered by the hundreds, and there is scarcely any phase of fish and fishery work that has not been benefited by this powerful tool for investigation. Fish culture is no exception to this rule. It is because of the increasing interest of fish culturists in scale reading and their numerous requests for information on the subject, that I have been asked to prepare a brief discussion of the method of age determination in fishes.

  5. Assessment of gestational age in the Cameroonian newborn infant: a comparison of four scoring methods.

    PubMed

    Sunjoh, F; Njamnshi, A K; Tietche, F; Kago, I

    2004-10-01

    A clinical assessment of gestational age using four different methods was performed in the same population of 358 Cameroonian newborn infants with the aim of determining the most applicable in the local context. Method applicability was compared in terms of validity, accuracy, reliability, and ease of administration. The gestational age ranged from 25 to 44 weeks. The infants were evaluated within 72 h from birth, using the scoring methods of Farr (FSM), Dubowitz (DSM), Ballard (New Ballard Score--NBS) and Eregie (ESM). The DSM was the most valid with a 93 per cent agreement within +/-2 weeks of gestational age by dates followed by the ESM with 92.4 per cent. The NBS and the FSM showed lower validity of 85.6 per cent and 78.3 per cent respectively. The ESM was the most accurate with a mean difference (MD) in weeks (+/-1 SD) between gestational age by method and gestational age by dates of 0.259+/-1.376, followed by the NBS with 0.355+/-1.51. The DSM was fairly accurate with a MD of 0.500+/-1.31, and the FSM the least accurate with a MD of 1.228+/-1.495. The DSM was the most reliable with a high correlation coefficient (r) of 0.94. The NBS and the ESM had comparable reliability with correlation coefficient of 0.93 each. The easiest to administer was the ESM, completed in an average of 41 s, followed by the FSM in 1 min 22 s. The NBS was completed in 2 min 48 s and the DSM in 4 min 28 s. We concluded that the Eregie model has comparable validity and reliability to the Dubowitz score but is more accurate, simple, and very easy to administer. It is therefore recommended where the workload is heavy and health personnel limited, as is the case in developing countries.

  6. Repeated dose titration versus age-based method in electroconvulsive therapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aten, Jan Jaap; Oudega, Mardien; van Exel, Eric; Stek, Max L; van Waarde, Jeroen A

    2015-06-01

    In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a dose titration method (DTM) was suggested to be more individualized and therefore more accurate than formula-based dosing methods. A repeated DTM (every sixth session and dose adjustment accordingly) was compared to an age-based method (ABM) regarding treatment characteristics, clinical outcome, and cognitive functioning after ECT. Thirty-nine unipolar depressed patients dosed using repeated DTM and 40 matched patients treated with ABM were compared. Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the index course, as well as the total number of ECT sessions. Both groups were similar regarding age, sex, psychotic features, mean baseline MADRS, and median baseline MMSE. At the end of the index course, the two methods showed equal outcome (mean end MADRS, 11.6 ± 8.3 in DTM and 9.5 ± 7.6 in ABM (P = 0.26); median end MMSE, 28 (25-29) and 28 (25-29.8), respectively (P = 0.81). However, the median number of all ECT sessions differed 16 (11-22) in DTM versus 12 (10-14.8) in ABM; P = 0.02]. Using regression analysis, dosing method and age were independently associated with the total number of ECT sessions, with less sessions needed in ABM (P = 0.02) and in older patients (P = 0.001). In this comparative cohort study, ABM and DTM showed equal outcome for depression and cognition. However, the median ECT course duration in repeated DTM appeared longer. Additionally, higher age was associated with shorter ECT courses regardless of the dosing method. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Reaching the Hard-to-reach: The Use of Participant Group Methods with Mothers of Culturally Disadvantaged Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wohlford, Paul; Stern, Harris W.

    Thirteen Negro mothers of preschool children who attended a day care program participated in a series o f six weekly meetings led by an educator and devoted to (1) discussion and demonstration o f ways the mothers could expand their children's learning skills and (2) discussion of aspects of the mother-child relationship. The reason for these…

  8. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  9. Method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not apparent from observed data.

  10. A method for projecting age-specific mortality rates for certain causes of death

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, R.W.; Crawford, D.J.

    1981-09-01

    A method is presented for projecting mortality rates for certain causes on the basis of observed rates during past years. This method arose from a study of trends in age-specific mortality rates for respiratory cancers, and for heuristic purposes it is shown how the method can be developed from certain theories of cancer induction. However, the method is applicable in the more common situation in which the underlying physical processes cannot be modeled with any confidence but the mortality rates are approximable over short time intervals by functions of the form a exp(bt), where b may vary in a continuous, predictable fashion as the time interval is varied. It appears from applications to historical data that this projection method is in some cases a substantial improvement over conventional curve-fitting methods and often uncovers trends which are not from observed data.

  11. A prognosis method using age-dependent hidden semi-Markov model for equipment health prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ying; Dong, Ming

    2011-01-01

    Health monitoring and prognostics of equipment is a basic requirement for condition-based maintenance (CBM) in many application domains. This paper presents an age-dependent hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM) based prognosis method to predict equipment health. By using hazard function (h.f.), CBM is based on a failure rate which is a function of both the equipment age and the equipment conditions. The state values of the equipment condition considered in CBM, however, are limited to those stochastically increasing over time and those having non-decreasing effect on the hazard rate. The previous HSMM based prognosis algorithm assumed that the transition probabilities are only state-dependent, which means that the probability of making transition to a less healthy state does not increase with the age. In the proposed method, in order to characterize the deterioration of equipment, three types of aging factors that discount the probabilities of staying at current state while increasing the probabilities of transitions to less healthy states are integrated into the HSMM. With an iteration algorithm, the original transition matrix obtained from the HSMM can be renewed with aging factors. To predict the remaining useful life (RUL) of the equipment, hazard rate is introduced to combine with the health-state transition matrix. With the classification information obtained from the HSMM, which provides the current health state of the equipment, the new RUL computation algorithm could be applied for the equipment prognostics. The performances of the HSMMs with aging factors are compared by using historical data colleted from hydraulic pumps through a case study.

  12. Comparison of the diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of four odontological methods for age evaluation in Italian children at the age threshold of 14 years using ROC curves.

    PubMed

    Pinchi, Vilma; Pradella, Francesco; Vitale, Giulia; Rugo, Dario; Nieri, Michele; Norelli, Gian-Aristide

    2016-01-01

    The age threshold of 14 years is relevant in Italy as the minimum age for criminal responsibility. It is of utmost importance to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of every odontological method for age evaluation considering the sensitivity, or the ability to estimate the true positive cases, and the specificity, or the ability to estimate the true negative cases. The research aims to compare the specificity and sensitivity of four commonly adopted methods of dental age estimation - Demirjian, Haavikko, Willems and Cameriere - in a sample of Italian children aged between 11 and 16 years, with an age threshold of 14 years, using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). In addition, new decision criteria are developed to increase the accuracy of the methods. Among the four odontological methods for age estimation adopted in the research, the Cameriere method showed the highest AUC in both female and male cohorts. The Cameriere method shows a high degree of accuracy at the age threshold of 14 years. To adopt the Cameriere method to estimate the 14-year age threshold more accurately, however, it is suggested - according to the Youden index - that the decision criterion be set at the lower value of 12.928 for females and 13.258 years for males, obtaining a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% in females, and a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 92% in males. If a specificity level >90% is needed, the cut-off point should be set at 12.959 years (82% sensitivity) for females.

  13. Graphical method for forecasting radiation exposure from multi-aged fallout from nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, C.M.

    1986-06-01

    After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation exposure of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation exposures both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the age of fallout and future exposure rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-aged fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.

  14. A graphical method for forecasting radiation exposure from multi-aged fallout from nuclear weapons.

    PubMed

    Haaland, C M

    1986-06-01

    After a nuclear attack it may be necessary for emergency workers, such as firemen, utility workers and medical personnel, to perform urgent tasks in areas highly contaminated by radioactive fallout. To assist the control of radiation exposure of these workers, it will be useful to provide means to forecast radiation exposures both inside and outside the fallout shelter. The method described in this paper is intended for use during the first few days to weeks after the attack, after which time more sophisticated methods may become available. This method requires only a radiation-rate meter, special graph paper, and a timepiece. Communications with Emergency Operating Centers or other sources of information are not necessary. The method permits the determination of the age of fallout and future exposure rates for a location that might be subjected to a number of different fallout clouds, without requiring knowledge of the weapon yields or times of detonation. This method will provide results with less accuracy if different-aged fallout clouds arrive simultaneously. The method is self-correcting so that if the actual decay rate is different than that which is assumed, the forecasted rates will have less error than results obtained by previous methods.

  15. Absolute age Determinations on Diamond by Radioisotopic Methods: NOT the way to Accurately Identify Diamond Provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.

    2002-05-01

    Gem-quality diamond contains such low abundances of parent-daughter radionuclides that dating the diamond lattice directly by isotopic measurements has been and will be impossible. Absolute ages on diamonds typically are obtained through measurements of their syngenetic mineral inclusions: Rb-Sr in garnet; Sm-Nd in garnet and pyroxene; Re-Os and U-Th-Pb in sulfide; K-Ar in pyroxene; and U-Pb in zircon. The application of the first two isotope schemes in the list requires putting together many inclusions from many diamonds whereas the latter isotope schemes permit ages on single diamonds. The key limitations on the application of these decay pairs are the availability and size of the inclusions, the abundance levels of the radionuclides, and instrumental sensitivity. Practical complications of radioisotope dating of inclusions are fatal to the application of the technique for diamond provenance. In all mines, the ratio of gem-quality diamonds to stones with datable inclusions is very high. Thus there is no way to date the valuable, marketable stones that are part of the conflict diamond problem, just their rare, flawed cousins. Each analysis destroys the diamond host plus the inclusion and can only be carried out in research labs by highly trained scientists. Thus, these methods can not be automated or applied to the bulk of diamond production. The geological problems with age dating are equally fatal to its application to diamond provenance. From the geological perspective, for age determination to work as a tool for diamond provenance studies, diamond ages would have to be specific to particular kimberlites or kimberlite fields and different between fields. The southern African Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe Craton and Limpopo Mobile Belt is the only cratonic region where age determinations have been applied on a large enough scale to a number of kimberlites to illustrate the geological problems in age measurements for diamond provenance. However, this southern African example

  16. Difficulties experienced in setting and achieving goals by participants of a falls prevention programme: a mixed-methods evaluation.

    PubMed

    Haas, Romi; Mason, Wendy; Haines, Terry P

    2014-01-01

    Objectif : Évaluer la capacité des participants d'un programme de prévention des chutes d'établir et d'atteindre des buts. Méthodes : L'étude a utilisé un concept longitudinal prospectif et une stratégie mixte de collecte de données. Ont participé à l'étude (1) 220 adultes âgés participant à un programme de prévention des chutes combinant exercice et éducation d'une durée de 15 semaines et (2) 9 professionnels (3 infirmières en soins à domicile, 5 travailleuses communautaires et 1 spécialiste de la physiologie de l'exercice) participant à la prestation du programme. On a analysé les données tirées des formulaires d'établissement des buts et utilisé des statistiques descriptives pour déterminer le nombre de buts appropriés fixés et atteints. On a analysé les données en fonction du contexte du programme (à domicile ou en groupe) et du classement des participants comme provenant d'un milieu culturellement et linguistiquement divers (CCLD) dans le contexte australien. Des entrevues semi-structurées avec des professionnels du programme ont été analysées sur le plan thématique. Résultats : Au total, 144 répondants (n=75 groupe CCLD, n=41 groupes non CCLD, n=6 soins à domicile CCLD, n=22 soins à domicile non CCLD) ont fixé 178 buts. Il a été possible d'en évaluer 101 (57%) seulement en fonction de l'atteinte parce que les participants ont fixé des buts portant avant tout sur l'état de santé plutôt que sur le comportement, ont fixé des buts qui n'étaient pas pertinents à la prévention des chutes, ont utilisé des postulats inappropriés pour mesurer l'atteinte des buts et n'ont pas revu leurs buts ou ont abandonné le programme avant l'examen des buts. Sur ces 101 buts, 64 ont été atteints. Les professionnels ont décrit leur propre difficulté à comprendre le processus d'établissement de buts liés aux comportements santé, ainsi que des difficultés sur les plans de la communication, de la culture et de la

  17. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized study sample can be recruited. Objective To compare the ability and cost-effectiveness of several direct-to-participant advertising methods for the recruitment of pregnant participants into a study of self-reported gestational exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Methods The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) pregnancy study is a non-interventional, prospective pilot study of self-reported medication use and obstetric outcomes provided by a cohort of pregnant women that was conducted in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Direct-to-participant advertisements were provided via websites, emails, leaflets, television, and social media platforms. Results Over a 70-week recruitment period direct-to-participant advertisements engaged 43,234 individuals with the study website or telephone system; 4.78% (2065/43,234) of which were successfully enrolled and provided study data. Of these 90.4% (1867/2065) were recruited via paid advertising methods, 23.0% (475/2065) of whom were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The overall costs per active recruited participant were lowest for email (€23.24) and website (€24.41) advertisements and highest for leaflet (€83.14) and television (€100.89). Website adverts were substantially superior in their ability to recruit participants during their first trimester of pregnancy (317/668, 47.5%) in comparison with other advertising methods (P<.001). However, we identified international variations in both the cost-effectiveness of the various advertisement methods used and in their ability to recruit participants in early pregnancy. Conclusions Recruitment of a

  18. Participants' use of enacted scenes in research interviews: A method for reflexive analysis in health and social care.

    PubMed

    James, Deborah Michelle; Pilnick, Alison; Hall, Alex; Collins, Luke

    2016-02-01

    In our study of a workforce intervention within a health and social care context we found that participants who took part in longitudinal research interviews were commonly enacting scenes from their work during one-to-one interviews. Scenes were defined as portions of the interviews in which participants directly quoted the speech of at least two actors. Our analysis in this paper focuses on these enacted scenes, and compares the content of them before and after the intervention. We found that, whilst the tensions between consistency and change, and change management, were common topics for scene enactment in both pre and post-intervention data, following the intervention participants were much more likely to present themselves as active agents in that change. Post-intervention enacted scenes also showed participants' reports of taking a service user perspective, and a focus on their interactions with service users that had been absent from pre-intervention data. In addition, descriptions of positive feeling and emotions were present in the post-intervention enacted scenes. We suggest that this analysis confirms the importance of enacted scenes as an analytic resource, and that this importance goes beyond their utility in identifying the impact of this specific intervention. Given the congruence between the themes prominent in enacted scenes, and those which emerged from a more extensive qualitative analysis of these data, we argue that enacted scenes may also be of wider methodological importance. The possibility of using scene enactment as an approach to the validation of inductive analysis in health and social care settings could provide a useful methodological resource in settings where longitudinal ethnographic observation of frontline care staff is impossible or impractical.

  19. Effect of horticultural therapy on wellbeing among dementia day care programme participants: A mixed-methods study (Innovative Practice).

    PubMed

    Hall, Jodi; Mitchell, Gary; Webber, Catherine; Johnson, Karen

    2016-04-11

    Fourteen people attending an adult day programme were recruited to a structured horticultural therapy programme which took place over 10 weeks. The effects were assessed using Dementia Care Mapping and questionnaires completed by family carers. High levels of wellbeing were observed while the participants were engaged in horticultural therapy, and these were sustained once the programme was completed. This study adds to the growing evidence on the benefits of horticultural therapy for people with dementia who have enjoyed gardening in the past.

  20. On the Use of Accelerated Aging Methods for Screening High Temperature Polymeric Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Grayson, Michael A.

    1999-01-01

    A rational approach to the problem of accelerated testing of high temperature polymeric composites is discussed. The methods provided are considered tools useful in the screening of new materials systems for long-term application to extreme environments that include elevated temperature, moisture, oxygen, and mechanical load. The need for reproducible mechanisms, indicator properties, and real-time data are outlined as well as the methodologies for specific aging mechanisms.

  1. Improving age constraints on Patagonian glaciations using a new luminescence dating method for feldspars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, R. K.; Glasser, N. F.; Duller, G. A.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple moraine ridges are preserved in the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Pueyrrédon valleys, east of the Northern Patagonian Icefield and offer a unique perspective on understanding past environmental change in the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. Previous age constraints provided for the moraine ridges relies on cosmogenic isotope dating and constraining radiocarbon and 40Ar/36Ar ages. Providing age constraints using luminescence dating of the glaciofluvial landforms associated with the moraine ridges offers great potential to contribute towards improving the accuracy and precision of age constraints in such challenging glacial settings. This is the first study to use a new luminescence dating method recently developed for feldspars (Thomsen et al. 2008) to constrain the ages of moraine deposition. A range of sediments were sampled from the outwash plains and glaciofluvial channels that are associated with moraine deposition in the Lago Buenos Aires and Lago Pueyrrédon valleys. Elevation measurements and the geomorphological context of the outwash plains and glaciofluvial channels are used to relate the sampled material to the associated moraine ridges, and therefore constrain the ages of moraine deposition in the valleys. Moraine ridges dated using cosmogenic isotope dating to the Last Glacial Maximum are the main focus of this study, but the overall aim is to provide a new dating technique that can be used to understand the temporal and spatial extent of terrestrial environmental change during past glaciations of the mid-latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Thomsen, K.J., Murray, A.S., Jain, M. and Bøtter-Jensen, L. 2008. Laboratory fading rates of various luminescence signals from feldspar-rich sediment extracts. Radiation Measurements 43, 1474 - 1486.

  2. A Structured, Interactive Method for Youth Participation in a School District-University Partnership to Prevent Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meininger, Janet C.; Reyes, Lisa R.; Selwyn, Beatrice J.; Upchurch, Sandra L.; Brosnan, Christine A.; Taylor, Wendell C.; Villagomez, Evangelina; Quintana, Vianey; Pullis, Bridgette; Caudill, Denise; Sterchy, Sharon; Phillips, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Background: The involvement of school-age children in participatory research is described in the context of a school district-university partnership to prevent obesity in children. The purpose of this study was to elicit, from children in kindergarten (K) through sixth grade, perceptions of foods and activities that would inform the design of…

  3. 2 CFR 3700.437 - What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB guidance at 2 CFR 180.435? 3700.437 Section 3700.437 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements PEACE CORPS...

  4. 2 CFR 3700.437 - What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB guidance at 2 CFR 180.435? 3700.437 Section 3700.437 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements PEACE CORPS...

  5. A mixed-methods investigation of successful aging among older women engaged in sports-based versus exercise-based leisure time physical activities.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Kathryn; Kruger, Tina; Klenosky, David B

    2016-12-29

    This mixed-methods study compares active older women in different physically based leisure activities and explores the difference in subjective ratings of successful aging and quantifiable predictors of success. A survey was administered to 256 women, 60-92 years of age, engaged in a sports- or exercise-based activity. Quantitative data were analyzed through ANOVA and multiple regression. Qualitative data (n = 79) was analyzed using the approach associated with means-end theory. While participants quantitatively appeared similar in terms of successful aging, qualitative interviews revealed differences in activity motivation. Women involved in sports highlighted social/psychological benefits, while those involved in exercise-based activities stressed fitness outcomes.

  6. A method for identifying research priorities for health systems research on health and aging.

    PubMed

    Sivananthan, Saskia N; Chambers, Larry W

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and feasible priority-setting method conducted within a limited budget was used to identify research topics that would have an influence on health services for older adults. Health and aging researchers, policy makers, and caregivers were recruited to complete Delphi surveys that generated and ranked topics and identified other potential researchers. An interdisciplinary team of researchers was selected to produce and submit a proposal to a peer-review-granting agency. This method can be adapted by organizations to determine the focus of their research agenda and to engage individuals for collaboration on future research projects.

  7. Bulk Electrical Cable Non-Destructive Examination Methods for Nuclear Power Plant Cable Aging Management Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Samuel W.; Jones, Anthony M.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Hartman, Trenton S.

    2016-09-01

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory milestone report describes progress to date on the investigation of nondestructive test methods focusing particularly on bulk electrical test methods that provide key indicators of cable aging and damage. The work includes a review of relevant literature as well as hands-on experimental verification of inspection capabilities. As nuclear power plants consider applying for second, or subsequent, license renewal to extend their operating period from 60 years to 80 years, it is important to understand how the materials installed in plant systems and components will age during that time and develop aging management programs to assure continued safe operation under normal and design basis events (DBE). Normal component and system tests typically confirm the cables can perform their normal operational function. The focus of the cable test program, however, is directed toward the more demanding challenge of assuring the cable function under accident or DBE. The industry has adopted 50% elongation at break (EAB) relative to the un-aged cable condition as the acceptability standard. All tests are benchmarked against the cable EAB test. EAB, however, is a destructive test so the test programs must apply an array of other nondestructive examination (NDE) tests to assure or infer the overall set of cable’s system integrity. Assessment of cable integrity is further complicated in many cases by vendor’s use of dissimilar material for jacket and insulation. Frequently the jacket will degrade more rapidly than the underlying insulation. Although this can serve as an early alert to cable damage, direct test of the cable insulation without violating the protective jacket becomes problematic. This report addresses the range of bulk electrical NDE cable tests that are or could be practically implemented in a field-test situation with a particular focus on frequency domain reflectometry (FDR). The FDR test method offers numerous advantages

  8. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and…

  9. The Sex, Age, and Me study: recruitment and sampling for a large mixed-methods study of sexual health and relationships in an older Australian population.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline

    2017-02-21

    Older people are often excluded from large studies of sexual health, as it is assumed that they are not having sex or are reluctant to talk about sensitive topics and are therefore difficult to recruit. We outline the sampling and recruitment strategies from a recent study on sexual health and relationships among older people. Sex, Age and Me was a nationwide Australian study that examined sexual health, relationship patterns, safer-sex practices and STI knowledge of Australians aged 60 years and over. The study used a mixed-methods approach to establish baseline levels of knowledge and to develop deeper insights into older adult's understandings and practices relating to sexual health. Data collection took place in 2015, with 2137 participants completing a quantitative survey and 53 participating in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. As the feasibility of this type of study has been largely untested until now, we provide detailed information on the study's recruitment strategies and methods. We also compare key characteristics of our sample with national estimates to assess its degree of representativeness. This study provides evidence to challenge the assumptions that older people will not take part in sexual health-related research and details a novel and successful way to recruit participants in this area.

  10. Ascertaining year of birth/age at death in forensic cases: A review of conventional methods and methods allowing for absolute chronology.

    PubMed

    Lynnerup, Niels; Kjeldsen, Henrik; Zweihoff, Ralf; Heegaard, Steffen; Jacobsen, Christina; Heinemeier, Jan

    2010-09-10

    Based on an actual case, where we were able to ascertain the year of birth of three dead babies found in a deep-freezer to within 1-2 years (1986, 1988 and 2004, respectively), we review the current state of forensic age determination/year of birth determination. The age of an individual (year of birth) is often a fundamental piece of data in connection with forensic identification of unidentified bodies. The methods most often used are based on determining various morphological, age-related, changes on the skeleton (or teeth, although odontological methods are not reviewed in this paper). As such, these methods are all relative, i.e. they do not furnish calendar ages or years, but an estimate of the age at death, with a rather large range, i.e. the methods rely on biological aging following the chronological aging. More recently, methods have been proposed using more direct ascertainment of age at death, e.g. protein racemisation, or, as in our case, radiocarbon methods. Especially the latter method may in fact yield absolute ages (years of birth), because (14)C activity, as measured in specific proteins in specific cells or tissues in the body, were in equilibrium with the so-called bomb-pulse, when these proteins were formed (at birth). The bomb pulse reflects a dramatic change in atmospheric (14)C content due to nuclear bomb testing, and these dramatic changes can be rather tightly related to single calendar years.

  11. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  12. Age-related changes in rat cerebellar basket cells: a quantitative study using unbiased stereological methods

    PubMed Central

    HENRIQUE, RUI M. F.; ROCHA, EDUARDO; REIS, ALCINDA; MARCOS, RICARDO; OLIVEIRA, MARIA H.; SILVA, MARIA W.; MONTEIRO, ROGÉRIO A. F.

    2001-01-01

    Cortical cerebellar basket cells are stable postmitotic cells; hence, they are liable to endure age-related changes. Since the cerebellum is a vital organ for the postural control, equilibrium and motor coordination, we aimed to determine the quantitative morphological changes in those interneurons with the ageing process, using unbiased techniques. Material from the cerebellar cortex (Crus I and Crus II) was collected from female rats aged 2, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 mo (5 animals per each age group), fixed by intracardiac perfusion, and processed for transmission electron microscopy, using conventional techniques. Serial semithin sections were obtained (5 blocks from each rat), enabling the determination of the number-weighted mean nuclear volume (by the nucleator method). On ultrathin sections, 25 cell profiles from each animal were photographed. The volume density of the nucleus, ground substance, mitochondria, Golgi apparatus (Golgi) and dense bodies (DB), and the mean surface density of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) were determined, by point counting, using a morphometric grid. The mean total volumes of the soma and organelles and the mean total surface area of the RER [s̄N (RER)] were then calculated. The results were analysed with 1-way ANOVA; posthoc pairwise comparisons of group means were performed using the Newman-Keuls test. The relation between age and each of the parameters was studied by regression analysis. Significant age-related changes were observed for the mean volumes of the soma, ground substance, Golgi, DB, and s̄N (RER). Positive linear trends were found for the mean volumes of the ground substance, Golgi, and DB; a negative linear trend was found for the s̄N (RER). These results indicate that rat cerebellar basket cells endure important age-related changes. The significant decrease in the s̄N (RER) may be responsible for a reduction in the rate of protein synthesis. Additionally, it may be implicated in a cascade of events

  13. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible.

  14. Rapid springback compensation for age forming based on quasi Newton method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong; Xiong, Shipeng; Xia, Yushan

    2014-05-01

    Iterative methods based on finite element simulation are effective approaches to design mold shape to compensate springback in sheet metal forming. However, convergence rate of iterative methods is difficult to improve greatly. To increase the springback compensate speed of designing age forming mold, process of calculating springback for a certain mold with finite element method is analyzed. Springback compensation is abstracted as finding a solution for a set of nonlinear functions and a springback compensation algorithm is presented on the basis of quasi Newton method. The accuracy of algorithm is verified by developing an ABAQUS secondary development program with MATLAB. Three rectangular integrated panels of dimensions 710 mm ×750 mm integrated panels with intersected ribs of 10 mm are selected to perform case studies. The algorithm is used to compute mold contours for the panels with cylinder, sphere and saddle contours respectively and it takes 57%, 22% and 33% iterations as compared to that of displacement adjustment (DA) method. At the end of iterations, maximum deviations on the three panels are 0.618 4 mm, 0.624 1 mm and 0.342 0 mm that are smaller than the deviations determined by DA method (0.740 8 mm, 0.740 8 mm and 0.713 7 mm respectively). In following experimental verification, mold contour for another integrated panel with 400 mm×380 mm size is designed by the algorithm. Then the panel is age formed in an autoclave and measured by a three dimensional digital measurement devise. Deviation between measuring results and the panel's design contour is less than 1 mm. Finally, the iterations with different mesh sizes (40 mm, 35 mm, 30 mm, 25 mm, 20 mm) in finite element models are compared and found no considerable difference. Another possible compensation method, Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method, is also presented based on the solving nonlinear functions idea. The Broyden-Fletcher-Shanmo method is employed to compute mold contour for the second panel

  15. REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM BY IN-LINE FILTRATION AS A FUNCTION OF OOCYST AGE AND PRESERVATION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the impacts of oocyst preservation method and age on the removal of seeded Cryptosporidium oocysts by in-line filtration. An existing study has investigated the infectivity of Cryptosporidium Parvum as a function of preservation method and oocyst age. Simila...

  16. REMOVAL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM BY IN-LINE FILTRATION AS A FUNCTION OF OOCYST AGE AND PRESERVATION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined the impacts of oocyst preservation method and age on the removal of seeded Cryptosporidium oocysts by in-line filtration. An existing study has investigated the infectivity of Cryptosporidium parvum as a function of preservation method and oocyst age. Simila...

  17. Comparison of AGE and Spectral Methods for the Simulation of Far-Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisset, D. K.; Rogers, M. M.; Kega, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Turbulent flow simulation methods based on finite differences are attractive for their simplicity, flexibility and efficiency, but not always for accuracy or stability. This report demonstrates that a good compromise is possible with the Advected Grid Explicit (AGE) method. AGE has proven to be both efficient and accurate for simulating turbulent free-shear flows, including planar mixing layers and planar jets. Its efficiency results from its localized fully explicit finite difference formulation (Bisset 1998a,b) that is very straightforward to compute, outweighing the need for a fairly small timestep. Also, most of the successful simulations were slightly under-resolved, and therefore they were, in effect, large-eddy simulations (LES) without a sub-grid-scale (SGS) model, rather than direct numerical simulations (DNS). The principle is that the role of the smallest scales of turbulent motion (when the Reynolds number is not too low) is to dissipate turbulent energy, and therefore they do not have to be simulated when the numerical method is inherently dissipative at its resolution limits. Such simulations are termed 'auto-LES' (LES with automatic SGS modeling) in this report.

  18. Comparing supervised learning methods for classifying sex, age, context and individual Mudi dogs from barking.

    PubMed

    Larrañaga, Ana; Bielza, Concha; Pongrácz, Péter; Faragó, Tamás; Bálint, Anna; Larrañaga, Pedro

    2015-03-01

    Barking is perhaps the most characteristic form of vocalization in dogs; however, very little is known about its role in the intraspecific communication of this species. Besides the obvious need for ethological research, both in the field and in the laboratory, the possible information content of barks can also be explored by computerized acoustic analyses. This study compares four different supervised learning methods (naive Bayes, classification trees, [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbors and logistic regression) combined with three strategies for selecting variables (all variables, filter and wrapper feature subset selections) to classify Mudi dogs by sex, age, context and individual from their barks. The classification accuracy of the models obtained was estimated by means of [Formula: see text]-fold cross-validation. Percentages of correct classifications were 85.13 % for determining sex, 80.25 % for predicting age (recodified as young, adult and old), 55.50 % for classifying contexts (seven situations) and 67.63 % for recognizing individuals (8 dogs), so the results are encouraging. The best-performing method was [Formula: see text]-nearest neighbors following a wrapper feature selection approach. The results for classifying contexts and recognizing individual dogs were better with this method than they were for other approaches reported in the specialized literature. This is the first time that the sex and age of domestic dogs have been predicted with the help of sound analysis. This study shows that dog barks carry ample information regarding the caller's indexical features. Our computerized analysis provides indirect proof that barks may serve as an important source of information for dogs as well.

  19. Development of self-awareness after severe traumatic brain injury through participation in occupation-based rehabilitation: mixed-methods analysis of a case series.

    PubMed

    Doig, Emmah; Kuipers, Pim; Prescott, Sarah; Cornwell, Petrea; Fleming, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We examined participation in goal planning and development of self-awareness for people with impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury. METHOD. We performed a mixed-methods study of 8 participants recently discharged from inpatient rehabilitation. Self-awareness was measured using discrepancy between self and significant other ratings on the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4) at four time points. We calculated effect size to evaluate the change in MPAI-4 discrepancy over time. RESULTS. Seven participants identified their own goals. We found a large reduction in mean MPAI-4 discrepancy (M = 8.57, SD = 6.59, N = 7, d = 1.08) in the first 6 wk and a further small reduction (M = 5.33, SD = 9.09, N = 6, d = 0.45) in the second 6 wk of intervention. Case data indicated that 7 participants demonstrated some growth in self-awareness. CONCLUSION. Engagement in occupation-based, goal-directed rehabilitation appeared to foster awareness of injury-related changes to varying extents.

  20. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    PubMed

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language.

  1. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in ageing neurons using the adult Drosophila wing

    PubMed Central

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. Studying axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, non-invasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the lifespan of an animal and thus for characterising the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal ageing and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes approximately 5 minutes, with transport typically filmed for 2–3 minutes per wing. We also document procedures for quantifying transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in ageing neurons. PMID:27560175

  2. A simple method for imaging axonal transport in aging neurons using the adult Drosophila wing.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, Alessio; Bullock, Simon L

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in the link between axonal cargo transport and age-associated neuronal dysfunction. The study of axonal transport in neurons of adult animals requires intravital or ex vivo imaging approaches, which are laborious and expensive in vertebrate models. We describe simple, noninvasive procedures for imaging cargo motility within axons using sensory neurons of the translucent Drosophila wing. A key aspect is a method for mounting the intact fly that allows detailed imaging of transport in wing neurons. Coupled with existing genetic tools in Drosophila, this is a tractable system for studying axonal transport over the life span of an animal and thus for characterization of the relationship between cargo dynamics, neuronal aging and disease. Preparation of a sample for imaging takes ∼5 min, with transport typically filmed for 2-3 min per wing. We also document procedures for the quantification of transport parameters from the acquired images and describe how the protocol can be adapted to study other cell biological processes in aging neurons.

  3. Critical period for menarche derived by the wavelet interpolation method from changes in BMI with age in South Korean girls.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsunori; Tanaka, Nozomi

    2010-12-01

    Recently, few studies regarding the changes in BMI with age have been reported. In the present study, the wavelet interpolation method (WIM) was applied to the changes in BMI with age from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school in Korean girls, and the relationship between age at the maximum peak velocity (MPV) of BMI and age at menarche was confirmed by determining the age at MPV of BMI. Age at menarche and activity status were obtained from questionnaires given to 263 second grade high school girls in the Pusan area of South Korea. Moreover, longitudinal growth data on height and weight from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school (from 1997 to 2008) were obtained from health examination records. BMI was calculated from height and weight values from the first grade of elementary school until the second year of high school, and wavelet interpolation was applied to the distances of BMI in each grade. The change curve of BMI with age was determined by wavelet interpolation, and the age at MPV of BMI was determined from the changes in the velocity curve with age as the differentiation curve. Age at MPV of BMI was found to be 12.76 +/- 1.6 years, and age at menarche to be 12.34 +/- 1.1 years. The interval in age at the two times was -0.42 +/- 1.6 years, and a significant difference was seen between age at menarche and age at MPV of BMI. The reason that the age at menarche was a little earlier than the age at MPV of BMI is hypothesized to be abnormal melatonin levels influenced by lack of sleep in Korean school girls. However, it is proposed that the age at MPV of BMI is valid as the critical period for the age at menarche.

  4. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  5. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  6. Synthesis and characterization of WO{sub 3} nanostructures prepared by an aged-hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Huirache-Acuna, R.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Albiter, M.A.; Lara-Romero, J.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2009-09-15

    Nanostructures of tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) have been successfully synthesized by using an aged route at low temperature (60 deg. C) followed by a hydrothermal method at 200 deg. C for 48 h under well controlled conditions. The material was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Specific Surface Area (S{sub BET}) were measured by using the BET method. The lengths of the WO{sub 3} nanostructures obtained are between 30 and 200 nm and their diameters are from 20 to 70 nm. The growth direction of the tungsten oxide nanostructures was determined along [010] axis with an inter-planar distance of 0.38 nm.

  7. Cycle life estimation of lithium secondary battery by extrapolation method and accelerated aging test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takei, K.; Kumai, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Miyashiro, H.; Terada, N.; Iwahori, T.; Tanaka, T.

    The testing methods to estimate the life cycles of lithium ion batteries for a short period, have been developed using a commercialized cell with LiCoO 2/hard carbon cell system. The degradation reactions with increasing cycles were suggested to occur predominantly above 4 V from the results of operating voltage range divided tests. In the case of the extrapolation method using limited cycle data, the straight line approximation was useful as the cycle performance has the linearity, but the error is at most 40% in using the initial short cycle data. In the case of the accelerated aging tests using the following stress factors, the charge and/or discharge rate, large accelerated coefficients were obtained in the high charge rate and the high temperature thermal stress.

  8. Effect of postpolymerization method on the color stability of composite resins submitted to ultraviolet aging.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paulo Henrique dos; Souza, Fernando Isquierdo de; Guedes, Ana Paula Albuquerque; Pavan, Sabrina

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of postpolymerization method on the color stability of resin-based composites. Samples of direct and indirect restorative materials were polymerized with two photo-curing units (Visio photo-curing oven system and LED Elipar Freelight 2). All samples were submitted to an initial chromatic analysis using a spectrometer and submitted to ultraviolet-accelerated artificial aging. The direct material showed less color change than the indirect material, independent of the photo-activation method used. Samples photo cured with the LED system showed less change than those photo cured with the Visio system. The postpolymerization oven did not improve the color stability of direct and indirect resin-based composites.

  9. Size separation method for absorption characterization in brown carbon: Application to an aged biomass burning sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lorenzo, Robert A.; Young, Cora J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols is derived from biomass burning (BB) and is primarily composed of extremely low volatility organic carbons. We use two chromatographic methods to compare the contribution of large and small light-absorbing BrC components in aged BB aerosols with UV-vis absorbance detection: (1) size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and (2) reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. We observe no evidence of small molecule absorbers. Most BrC absorption arises from large molecular weight components (>1000 amu). This suggests that although small molecules may contribute to BrC absorption near the BB source, analyses of aerosol extracts should use methods selective to large molecular weight compounds because these species may be responsible for long-term BrC absorption. Further characterization with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to SEC demonstrates an underestimation of the molecular size determined through MS as compared to SEC.

  10. Appraising the Role of Iron in Brain Aging and Cognition: Promises and Limitations of MRI Methods

    PubMed Central

    Daugherty, Ana M; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    Age-related increase in frailty is accompanied by a fundamental shift in cellular iron homeostasis. By promoting oxidative stress, the intracellular accumulation of non-heme iron outside of binding complexes contributes to chronic inflammation and interferes with normal brain metabolism. In the absence of direct non-invasive biomarkers of brain oxidative stress, iron accumulation estimated in vivo may serve as its proxy indicator. Hence, developing reliable in vivo measurements of brain iron content via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is of significant interest in human neuroscience. To date, by estimating brain iron content through various MRI methods, significant age differences and age-related increases in iron content of the basal ganglia have been revealed across multiple samples. Less consistent are the findings that pertain to the relationship between elevated brain iron content and systemic indices of vascular and metabolic dysfunction. Only a handful of cross-sectional investigations have linked high iron content in various brain regions and poor performance on assorted cognitive tests. The even fewer longitudinal studies indicate that iron accumulation may precede shrinkage of the basal ganglia and thus predict poor maintenance of cognitive functions. This rapidly developing field will benefit from introduction of higher-field MRI scanners, improvement in iron-sensitive and -specific acquisition sequences and post-processing analytic and computational methods, as well as accumulation of data from long-term longitudinal investigations. This review describes the potential advantages and promises of MRI-based assessment of brain iron, summarizes recent findings and highlights the limitations of the current methodology. PMID:26248580

  11. A Rapid Radiocarbon Method for Age Surveys of Southern Ocean Deep-sea Corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, A.; Robinson, L. F.; Gerlach, D. S.; Jenkins, W. J.; McNichol, A. P.

    2008-12-01

    Deep-sea corals provide a unique archive of past ocean radiocarbon because they are sessile and can be dated independently using U-series nuclides. One difficulty, however, is that using current techniques it is impractical to date large numbers of corals in order to determine which specimens have the appropriate ages for radiocarbon reconstructions. Here we present results from a quick method of making graphite for radiocarbon dating that reduces the amount of sample preparation time, thus allowing us to date a greater number of corals. In addition, these rapid age surveys provide important information on coral age populations, allowing us to examine coral distributions through time. The corals used in this study come from a sample set of about 6,000 specimens of Flabellum, Balanophyllia and Desmophyllum spp. collected from the Drake Passage area (50S -70S, 120 m-1700 m depth). Replicate samples from a single coral yielded a standard deviation of 81 years (n=9). Variations in sample mass (3 to 85 mg) have no clear effect on the Fm and furthermore, a simple cleaning using methanol yields the same results as a more involved cleaning procedure that includes an oxidizing solution and perchloric acid rinse. To improve the efficiency of the method, we assumed a delta13C = 0 per mil. This assumption is likely our largest source of uncertainty, resulting in offsets of up to 200 radiocarbon years over a reasonable range of delta13C. This level of uncertainty is sufficiently low to allow distinction between corals from different time periods over the past 35 ky (e.g. Last Glacial Maximum, Younger Dryas, etc.). To date, we have found corals from Burdwood Bank dating from the modern to the Younger Dryas and corals from the Drake Passage dating from the modern to Heinrich Event 1, which will be used in future paleo-climatic reconstructions in this important part of the ocean.

  12. Sleep spindles and rapid eye movement sleep as predictors of next morning cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged and older participants.

    PubMed

    Lafortune, Marjolaine; Gagnon, Jean-François; Martin, Nicolas; Latreille, Véronique; Dubé, Jonathan; Bouchard, Maude; Bastien, Célyne; Carrier, Julie

    2014-04-01

    Spindles and slow waves are hallmarks of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Both these oscillations are markers of neuronal plasticity, and play a role in memory and cognition. Normal ageing is associated with spindle and slow wave decline and cognitive changes. The present study aimed to assess whether spindle and slow wave characteristics during a baseline night predict cognitive performance in healthy older adults the next morning. Specifically, we examined performance on tasks measuring selective and sustained visual attention, declarative verbal memory, working memory and verbal fluency. Fifty-eight healthy middle-aged and older adults (aged 50-91 years) without sleep disorders underwent baseline polysomnographic sleep recording followed by neuropsychological assessment the next morning. Spindles and slow waves were detected automatically on artefact-free non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram. All-night stage N2 spindle density (no./min) and mean frequency (Hz) and all-night non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave density (no./min) and mean slope (μV/s) were analysed. Pearson's correlations were performed between spindles, slow waves, polysomnography and cognitive performance. Higher spindle density predicted better performance on verbal learning, visual attention and verbal fluency, whereas spindle frequency and slow wave density or slope predicted fewer cognitive performance variables. In addition, rapid eye movement sleep duration was associated with better verbal learning potential. These results suggest that spindle density is a marker of cognitive functioning in older adults and may reflect neuroanatomic integrity. Rapid eye movement sleep may be a marker of age-related changes in acetylcholine transmission, which plays a role in new information encoding.

  13. Acceptance of Commercially Available Wearable Activity Trackers Among Adults Aged Over 50 and With Chronic Illness: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Giangregorio, Lora; Schneider, Eric; Chilana, Parmit; Li, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior increase the risk of chronic illness and death. The newest generation of “wearable” activity trackers offers potential as a multifaceted intervention to help people become more active. Objective To examine the usability and usefulness of wearable activity trackers for older adults living with chronic illness. Methods We recruited a purposive sample of 32 participants over the age of 50, who had been previously diagnosed with a chronic illness, including vascular disease, diabetes, arthritis, and osteoporosis. Participants were between 52 and 84 years of age (mean 64); among the study participants, 23 (72%) were women and the mean body mass index was 31 kg/m2. Participants tested 5 trackers, including a simple pedometer (Sportline or Mio) followed by 4 wearable activity trackers (Fitbit Zip, Misfit Shine, Jawbone Up 24, and Withings Pulse) in random order. Selected devices represented the range of wearable products and features available on the Canadian market in 2014. Participants wore each device for at least 3 days and evaluated it using a questionnaire developed from the Technology Acceptance Model. We used focus groups to explore participant experiences and a thematic analysis approach to data collection and analysis. Results Our study resulted in 4 themes: (1) adoption within a comfort zone; (2) self-awareness and goal setting; (3) purposes of data tracking; and (4) future of wearable activity trackers as health care devices. Prior to enrolling, few participants were aware of wearable activity trackers. Most also had been asked by a physician to exercise more and cited this as a motivation for testing the devices. None of the participants planned to purchase the simple pedometer after the study, citing poor accuracy and data loss, whereas 73% (N=32) planned to purchase a wearable activity tracker. Preferences varied but 50% felt they would buy a Fitbit and 42% felt they would buy a Misfit, Jawbone, or

  14. Effect of age of donor on embryo production in Morada Nova (white variety) ewes participating in a conservation programme in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Júnior E S; Maia, E L M M; Paula, N R O; Teixeira, D I A; Villarroel, A B S; Rondina, D; Freitas, V J F

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate embryo production in Morada Nova (white variety) ewes superovulated with porcine follicle-stimulating hormone, 20 cycling ewes were used as embryo donors and allocated into two groups according to age: group 1 (ewes aged 1-2 years; n = 9) or group 2 (ewes aged 3-4 years; n = 11). Embryo recovery was performed by laparotomy 5-6 days after oestrus. The evaluation of embryos was made under stereomicroscope according to International Embryo Transfer Society rules. The overall recovery rate was 64.6% (5.0 +/- 0.7 structures per ewe) and 86.3% of the recovered structures were fertilized. Group 1 was superior (p < 0.05) to group 2 according to recovered (6.6 +/- 0.9 vs 3.6 +/- 0.8) and fertilized structures (5.6 +/- 1.1 vs. 3.5 +/- 0.7) per ewe. In conclusion, the ovarian response and the embryo production in Morada Nova (white variety) sheep subjected to a standard superovulation treatment were considered satisfactory. In addition, the use of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer in younger ewes ( < or = 2 years old) of this sheep breed appears to be an efficient tool to accelerate the preservation of the Morada Nova (white variety) breed, since younger ewes are as responsive as older ones.

  15. Twin's Birth-Order Differences in Height and Body Mass Index From Birth to Old Age: A Pooled Study of 26 Twin Cohorts Participating in the CODATwins Project.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshie; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Sung, Joohon; Hopper, John L; Ooki, Syuichi; Heikkilä, Kauko; Aaltonen, Sari; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C E M; Saudino, Kimberly J; Cutler, Tessa L; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H; Fisher, Abigail; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Craig, Jeffrey M; Saffery, Richard; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Vitaro, Frank; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Pedersen, Nancy L; Aslan, Anna K Dahl; Tynelius, Per; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert; Rebato, Esther; Rose, Richard J; Goldberg, Jack H; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Boomsma, Dorret I; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.

  16. Graphical and Demographic Synopsis of the Captive Cohort Method for Estimating Population Age Structure in the Wild

    PubMed Central

    Carey, James R.; Müller, Hans-Georg; Wang, Jane-Ling; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Diamantidis, Alexis; Kouloussis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to complement the literature concerned with the captive cohort method for estimating age structure including (1) graphic techniques to visualize and thus better understand the underlying life table identity in which the age structure of a stationary population equals the time-to-death distribution of the individuals within it; (2) re-derive the basic model for estimating age structure in non-stationary population in demographic rather than statistical notation; and (3) describe a simplified method for estimating changes in the mean age of a wild population. PMID:22776134

  17. Formative Evaluation of Participant Experience With Mobile eConsent in the App-Mediated Parkinson mPower Study: A Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Maguire Truong, Amy; Bot, Brian M; Wilbanks, John; Suver, Christine; Mangravite, Lara M

    2017-01-01

    Background To fully capitalize on the promise of mobile technology to enable scalable, participant-centered research, we must develop companion self-administered electronic informed consent (eConsent) processes. As we do so, we have an ethical obligation to ensure that core tenants of informed consent—informedness, comprehension, and voluntariness—are upheld. Furthermore, we should be wary of recapitulating the pitfalls of “traditional” informed consent processes. Objective Our objective was to describe the essential qualities of participant experience, including delineation of common and novel themes relating to informed consent, with a self-administered, smartphone-based eConsent process. We sought to identify participant responses related to informedness, comprehension, and voluntariness as well as to capture any emergent themes relating to the informed consent process in an app-mediated research study. Methods We performed qualitative thematic analysis of participant responses to a daily general prompt collected over a 6-month period within the Parkinson mPower app. We employed a combination of a priori and emergent codes for our analysis. A priori codes focused on the core concepts of informed consent; emergent codes were derived to capture additional themes relating to self-administered consent processes. We used self-reported demographic information from the study’s baseline survey to characterize study participants and respondents. Results During the study period, 9846 people completed the eConsent process and enrolled in the Parkinson mPower study. In total, 2758 participants submitted 7483 comments; initial categorization identified a subset of 3875 germane responses submitted by 1678 distinct participants. Respondents were more likely to self-report a Parkinson disease diagnosis (30.21% vs 11.10%), be female (28.26% vs 20.18%), be older (42.89 years vs 34.47 years), and have completed more formal education (66.23% with a 4-year college degree

  18. Strategy for the estimation of chronological age using the aspartic acid racemization method with special reference to coefficient of correlation between D/L ratios and ages.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Susumu; Yamamoto, Toshiharu

    2005-09-01

    The estimation of chronological age has been performed by various methods in forensic science. Among these, racemization methods, which are based on the age-dependent non-enzymatic changes of L-form amino acids to D-form mainly using aspartic acid, are one of the most reliable and accurate methods to date. Separation of enantiomers is generally performed by gas chromatography or high performance liquid chromatography. Various tissues with low metabolic rates have been applied for this purpose. In addition, single proteins purified from these target tissues are also applicable. In this brief review we describe this method in detail, noting points of caution, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the different target tissues. In addition, special attention is given to the correlation rates obtained between chronological age and enantiomer ratios. Currently, based on accuracy of estimated age, simplicity of the method, time required, and reproducibility, tooth dentin is considered one of the best target tissues. Alternatively, analysis of osteocalcin and elastin have also provided accurate and reproducible results.

  19. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  20. Short Report: The effect of preservation methods on predicting mosquito age by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining mosquito age is important to evaluate vector control programs because the ability to transmit diseases is age-dependent. Current age-grading techniques require dissection or DNA extraction. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been used to rapidly and nondestructively determine the age of fr...

  1. Modeling Bone Surface Morphology: A Fully Quantitative Method for Age-at-Death Estimation Using the Pubic Symphysis.

    PubMed

    Slice, Dennis E; Algee-Hewitt, Bridget F B

    2015-07-01

    The pubic symphysis is widely used in age estimation for the adult skeleton. Standard practice requires the visual comparison of surface morphology against criteria representing predefined phases and the estimation of case-specific age from an age range associated with the chosen phase. Known problems of method and observer error necessitate alternative tools to quantify age-related change in pubic morphology. This paper presents an objective, fully quantitative method for estimating age-at-death from the skeleton, which exploits a variance-based score of surface complexity computed from vertices obtained from a scanner sampling the pubic symphysis. For laser scans from 41 modern American male skeletons, this method produces results that are significantly associated with known age-at-death (RMSE = 17.15 years). Chronological age is predicted, therefore, equally well, if not, better, with this robust, objective, and fully quantitative method than with prevailing phase-aging systems. This method contributes to forensic casework by responding to medico-legal expectations for evidence standards.

  2. Comparison of three methods for the optimal allocation of hydrological model participation in an Ensemble Prediction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochero, D.; Anctil, F.; Gagné, C.

    2012-04-01

    Today, the availability of the Meteorological Ensemble Prediction Systems (MEPS) and its subsequent coupling with multiple hydrological models offer the possibility of building Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) consisting of a large number of members. However, this task is complex both in terms of the coupling of information and of the computational time, which may create an operational barrier. The evaluation of the prominence of each hydrological members can be seen as a non-parametric post-processing stage that seeks finding the optimal participation of the hydrological models (in a fashion similar to the Bayesian model averaging technique), maintaining or improving the quality of a probabilistic forecasts based on only x members drawn from a super ensemble of d members, thus allowing the reduction of the task required to issue the probabilistic forecast. The main objective of the current work consists in assessing the degree of simplification (reduction of the number of hydrological members) that can be achieved with a HEPS configured using 16 lumped hydrological models driven by the 50 weather ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), i.e. an 800-member HEPS. In a previous work (Brochero et al., 2011a, b), we demonstrated that the proportion of members allocated to each hydrological model is a sufficient criterion to reduce the number of hydrological members while improving the balance of the scores, taking into account interchangeability of the ECMWF MEPS. Here, we compare the proportion of members allocated to each hydrological model derived from three non-parametric techniques: correlation analysis of hydrological members, Backward Greedy Selection (BGS) and Nondominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA II). The last two techniques allude to techniques developed in machine learning, in a multicriteria framework exploiting the relationship between bias, reliability, and the number of members of the

  3. NASA-Langley Research Center's participation in a round-robin comparison between some current crack-propagation prediction methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.; Lewis, P. E.

    1979-01-01

    A round-robin study was conducted which evaluated and compared different methods currently in practice for predicting crack growth in surface-cracked specimens. This report describes the prediction methods used by the Fracture Mechanics Engineering Section, at NASA-Langley Research Center, and presents a comparison between predicted crack growth and crack growth observed in laboratory experiments. For tests at higher stress levels, the correlation between predicted and experimentally determined crack growth was generally quite good. For tests at lower stress levels, the predicted number of cycles to reach a given crack length was consistently higher than the experimentally determined number of cycles. This consistent overestimation of the number of cycles could have resulted from a lack of definition of crack-growth data at low values of the stress intensity range. Generally, the predicted critical flaw sizes were smaller than the experimentally determined critical flaw sizes. This underestimation probably resulted from using plane-strain fracture toughness values to predict failure rather than the more appropriate values based on maximum load.

  4. Indigenous yeast population from Georgian aged wines produced by traditional "Kakhetian" method.

    PubMed

    Capece, Angela; Siesto, Gabriella; Poeta, Cinzia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romano, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    The yeast microbiota present in wines produced by the ancient "Kakhetian" method in Georgia (EU) was studied. This technique involves the use of terracotta vessels (amphoras), during spontaneous fermentation, maceration phase and wine ageing. The analysed yeasts were collected from wines after maturation for one year in ten amphoras from a Georgian winery. The 260 isolates were all identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the majority were classified as flor yeasts by restriction analysis of ITS region. A first technological and molecular screening was used to select 70 strains for further characterization. Both genetic and metabolic characterization discriminated flor from non-flor strains. The combined results obtained by analysis of interdelta region and mtDNA-RFLP yielded 23 different biotypes; no biotype was common to flor and non-flor strains. The wines produced by flor yeasts showed a high content in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, whereas the level of other compounds was similar to wines obtained by non-flor strains. This study represents the first report on the composition of yeast microbiota involved in the maturation of this traditional wine. These flor strains represent an interesting yeast population, in possession of peculiar characteristics allowing them to survive during wine ageing, becoming the dominant flora in the final wine.

  5. Aging Degradation of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Probed by Electrochemical Method and Impact Toughness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Das, Goutam; Mahato, B.; Singh, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    The present study discriminates the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in stainless steel welds by double loop electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation method and correlates it with the degradation in toughness property. The welds produced with different heat inputs were aged up to 10,000 hours at 673 K to 723 K (400 to 450 °C) and evaluated subsequently for the degree of sensitization (DOS) and impact toughness. The DOS values obtained were attributed to the spinodal decomposition and precipitation of G-phase. Study shows that the DOS correlates well with the impact toughness of the 304LN weld. Prolonged aging at 673 K and 723 K (400 °C and 450 °C) increased the DOS values while the impact toughness was decreased. The weld fabricated at 1 kJ/mm of heat input, produced higher DOS, compared to that at 3 kJ/mm. The geometrical location along the weld is shown to influence the DOS; higher values were obtained at the root than at the topside of the weld. Vermicular and columnar microstructure, in addition to the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation, observed in the root side of the weld appear risky for the impact toughness.

  6. Aging Degradation of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Probed by Electrochemical Method and Impact Toughness Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Das, Goutam; Mahato, B.; Singh, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    The present study discriminates the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation in stainless steel welds by double loop electrochemical potentio-kinetic reactivation method and correlates it with the degradation in toughness property. The welds produced with different heat inputs were aged up to 10,000 hours at 673 K to 723 K (400 to 450 °C) and evaluated subsequently for the degree of sensitization (DOS) and impact toughness. The DOS values obtained were attributed to the spinodal decomposition and precipitation of G-phase. Study shows that the DOS correlates well with the impact toughness of the 304LN weld. Prolonged aging at 673 K and 723 K (400 °C and 450 °C) increased the DOS values while the impact toughness was decreased. The weld fabricated at 1 kJ/mm of heat input, produced higher DOS, compared to that at 3 kJ/mm. The geometrical location along the weld is shown to influence the DOS; higher values were obtained at the root than at the topside of the weld. Vermicular and columnar microstructure, in addition to the spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation, observed in the root side of the weld appear risky for the impact toughness.

  7. Age-at-death estimation based on radiological and image analysis methods in clavicle in a current Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Benito, María; Sánchez, José Antonio; Codinha, Sónia

    2014-05-01

    Age-at-death estimation in adult individuals is one of the most challenging issues in forensic anthropology, namely, due to the large age intervals provided by the current methods, which demand the development of more reliable investigations. The clavicle has been studied as an age-at-death indicator in many researches for its accessibility, low biomechanical implication in locomotion and accuracy to predict age at death when other age indicators are not available. The present study was developed on a sample of 332 clavicles from adult individuals of known sex and age from the current Spanish population. They were x-rayed and digitalized, in a standardized way, using a Sedecal X-ray generator, model SHF 415. Three indices were calculated at the mid-diaphysis point (anterior index, posterior index, and total index) which relate the cortical thickness and the total clavicle thickness to age at death. The average grey level was also calculated in a 0.5-cm(2) area of the sternal and acromial ends (sternal grey average, acromial grey average), using Image J software. The data were subjected to a statistical analysis, using SPSS, version 15.0. The results show that average grey level has a weaker correlation with age than the variables which are based on the cortical thickness. On the other hand, the regression equations, which were calculated combining all the variables, provided smaller age-at-death intervals, demonstrating the usefulness of this method for adult age-at-death estimation in forensic anthropology.

  8. The Issue of Age Estimation in a Modern Skeletal Population: Are Even the More Modern Current Aging Methods Satisfactory for the Elderly?

    PubMed

    Cappella, Annalisa; Cummaudo, Marco; Arrigoni, Elena; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The main idea behind age assessment in adults is related to the analysis of the physiological degeneration of particular skeletal structures with age. The main issues with these procedures are due to the fact that they have not been tested on different modern populations and in different taphonomic contexts and that they tend to underestimate the age of older individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability and the reliability of these methods on a contemporary population of skeletal remains of 145 elderly individuals of known sex and age. The results show that, due to taphonomic influences, some skeletal sites showed a lower survival. Therefore, the methods with the highest percentage of applicability were Lovejoy (89.6%) and Rougé-Maillart (81.3%), followed by Suchey-Brooks (59.3%), and those with the lowest percentage of applicability were Beauthier (26.2%) and Iscan (22.7%). In addition, this research has shown how for older adults the study of both acetabulum and auricular surface may be more reliable for aging. This is also in accordance with the fact that auricular surface and the acetabulum are the areas more frequently surviving taphonomic insult.

  9. How can we not 'lose it' if we still don't understand how to 'use it'? Unanswered questions about the influence of activity participation on cognitive performance in older age--a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Bielak, Allison A M

    2010-01-01

    The 'use it or lose it' hypothesis of cognitive aging predicts that engagement in intellectual, social, and physical activities offers protective benefits from age-related cognitive decline and lowers dementia risk. Although this hypothesis has not yet been supported conclusively, there is some empirical evidence in favor of the proposal. However, a number of questions surrounding the relationship between activity participation and cognitive ability in older adulthood are not yet well answered. This mini-review identifies seven key methodological and theoretical issues that are critical to our understanding and eventual possible promotion of activity participation as a way to maintain cognitive well-being. These include the mechanisms involved, the optimal ways of assessing activity engagement, which cognitive domains receive the most benefit from activity engagement, the temporal nature and the directionality of the relationship, the influence of demographic variables such as age, gender, or education, and whether one activity domain offers the most benefit to cognition. The current knowledge on each of these issues is critically evaluated, including describing what we already know about the issue, and identifying potential difficulties and opportunities that may exist in finding an answer. More studies need to take on the challenge of specifically targeting these issues, as each is essential to moving the field forward.

  10. [Study of regeneration in amphibians in age of molecular-genetic approaches and methods].

    PubMed

    Grigoryan, E N; Markitantova, Yu V; Avdonin, P P; Radugina, E A

    2013-01-01

    The results of molecular-genetic mechanisms of regeneration in amphibians are reviewed. Based on the examples of traditional and well-studied models of the restoration of the retinas and lenses of eyes, as well as limbs and tails in amphibians, we analyze the current state of regeneration problems and questions linked to cell reprogramming, growth, and generate morphogenesis. The development of the Kol'tsov school of thought in the age of molecular-genetic approaches and methods are monitored. The contemporary interpretation of organ regeneration in terms of molecular-genetic regulation and a new look at the definition of regeneration as repeated development is proposed. We also emphasize the current problems that exist in that field of developmental biology and are caused by the many difficulties of genome sequencing and the introduction oftransgenesis in Urodela, the animal species with the highest regeneration abilities.

  11. Methods for the quantitative comparison of molecular estimates of clade age and the fossil record.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia A; Boyd, Clint A

    2015-01-01

    Approaches quantifying the relative congruence, or incongruence, of molecular divergence estimates and the fossil record have been limited. Previously proposed methods are largely node specific, assessing incongruence at particular nodes for which both fossil data and molecular divergence estimates are available. These existing metrics, and other methods that quantify incongruence across topologies including entirely extinct clades, have so far not taken into account uncertainty surrounding both the divergence estimates and the ages of fossils. They have also treated molecular divergence estimates younger than previously assessed fossil minimum estimates of clade age as if they were the same as cases in which they were older. However, these cases are not the same. Recovered divergence dates younger than compared oldest known occurrences require prior hypotheses regarding the phylogenetic position of the compared fossil record and standard assumptions about the relative timing of morphological and molecular change to be incorrect. Older molecular dates, by contrast, are consistent with an incomplete fossil record and do not require prior assessments of the fossil record to be unreliable in some way. Here, we compare previous approaches and introduce two new descriptive metrics. Both metrics explicitly incorporate information on uncertainty by utilizing the 95% confidence intervals on estimated divergence dates and data on stratigraphic uncertainty concerning the age of the compared fossils. Metric scores are maximized when these ranges are overlapping. MDI (minimum divergence incongruence) discriminates between situations where molecular estimates are younger or older than known fossils reporting both absolute fit values and a number score for incompatible nodes. DIG range (divergence implied gap range) allows quantification of the minimum increase in implied missing fossil record induced by enforcing a given set of molecular-based estimates. These metrics are used

  12. Dental age estimation using Demirjian and Willems methods: cross sectional study on children from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Ambarkova, Vesna; Galić, Ivan; Vodanović, Marin; Biočina-Lukenda, Dolores; Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate applicability of Demirjian and Willems methods for calculating dental age of children in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia we analyzed panoramic radiographs of 966 children (485 female and 481 male, aged 6-13 years) treated at the University and Community Dental Clinics in Skopje using four Demirjian methods and a Willems method for determining dental ages. Intra-rater and inter-rater agreement of mineralization stages were 0.86 and 0.82, respectively. All methods significantly overestimated dental age when compared to the chronological age (p<0.001). In males, the lowest overestimation was shown using Willems method (0.52±0.87 years), followed by Demirjian methods from 1976 using PM1, PM2, M1, M2 teeth (0.69±0.92 years) and using I2, PM1, PM2, M2 teeth (0.80±0.98 years). The greatest overestimation were shown using Demirjian methods using 7 teeth from 1976 (0.92±0.99 years) and method from 1973 (1.06±1.07 years). In females, the lowest overestimation was shown using Willems method (0.33±0.83 years) than the Demirjian method using PM1, PM2, M1, M2 teeth (1.00±1.01 years), following methods from 1976 using 7 teeth (1.03±1.01 years) and I2, PM1, PM2, M2 teeth (1.12±0.96 years). The greatest overestimation was for method from 1973 using 7 teeth (1.17±0.98 years). Willems method was the most accurate while Demirjian's methods for dental age calculation are not suitable on children from the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

  13. The 1980 National Natality Survey and National Fetal Mortality Survey--methods used and PHS agency participation.

    PubMed Central

    Placek, P J

    1984-01-01

    Seven Public Health Service agencies collaborated with the National Center for Health Statistics in designing, funding, and analyzing the 1980 National Natality Survey (NNS) and 1980 National Fetal Mortality Survey (NFMS). The 1980 NNS-NFMS were nationally representative surveys based on samples of 9,941 live birth vital records and 6,386 fetal death vital records, which were weighted up to reflect U.S. estimates of 3,612,258 live births and 19,202 fetal deaths at 28 weeks' gestation or more. Four types of potential respondents who were associated with the sampled deliveries (married mothers, hospitals, attendants at delivery, and other medical providers of radiation procedures) were mailed eight-page questionnaires. The aim of the questionnaires was to expand our knowledge of the relationships of social, demographic, maternal health, infant health, and radiation characteristics to live births and late fetal deaths. The methods used in the NNS-NFMS are described in detail since seven other articles and the editorial in this issue are based on these surveys. The availability of other NNS-NFMS data is also discussed. PMID:6424159

  14. Protocol for a mixed-methods longitudinal study to identify factors influencing return to work in the over 50s participating in the UK Work Programme: Supporting Older People into Employment (SOPIE)

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Judith; Neary, Joanne; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Thomson, Hilary; McQuaid, Ronald W; Leyland, Alastair H; Frank, John; Jeavons, Luke; de Pellette, Paul; Kiran, Sibel; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Increasing employment among older workers is a policy priority given the increase in life expectancy and the drop in labour force participation after the age of 50. Reasons for this drop are complex but include poor health, age discrimination, inadequate skills/qualifications and caring roles; however, limited evidence exists on how best to support this group back to work. The Work Programme is the UK Government's flagship policy to facilitate return to work (RTW) among those at risk of long-term unemployment. ‘Supporting Older People Into Employment’ (SOPIE) is a mixed-methods longitudinal study involving a collaboration between academics and a major Work Programme provider (Ingeus). The study will investigate the relationship between health, worklessness and the RTW process for the over 50s. Methods and analysis There are three main study components. Embedded fieldwork will document the data routinely collected by Ingeus and the key interventions/activities delivered. The quantitative study investigates approximately 14 000 individuals (aged 16–64 years, with 20% aged over 50) who entered the Ingeus Work Programme (referred to as ‘clients’) in a 16-month period in Scotland and were followed up for 2 years. Employment outcomes (including progression towards work) and how they differ by client characteristics (including health), intervention components received and external factors will be investigated. The qualitative component will explore the experiences of clients and Ingeus staff, to better understand the interactions between health and (un)employment, Work Programme delivery, and how employment services can be better tailored to the needs of the over 50s. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was received from the University of Glasgow College of Social Sciences Research Ethics Committee (application number 400140186). Results Results will be disseminated through journal articles, national and international conferences

  15. A COMMUNITY-BASED SCREENING CAMPAIGN FOR THE DETECTION OF DIABETES MELLITUS AND HYPERTENSION IN THE EASTERN PROVINCE, SAUDI ARABIA: METHODS AND PARTICIPATION RATES

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ghamdi, Ageel J.; Al-Turki, Khalid A.; Al-Baghli, Nadira A.; El-Zubaier, Ahmad G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To describe a community-based diabetes and hypertension screening campaign, the percentage of screened positive individuals, identified the participation rate, and the factors affecting the participation. Campaign design and methods: A community-based screening campaign whose main objective was the screening for diabetes and hypertension was conducted in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia for three and half months in the year 2004. A structured questionnaire was used. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed on the basis of repeated detection of a fasting blood sugar equal to or more than 126 mg/dl, and hypertension when the blood pressure was 140/90 mm Hg or more. Results: Of the 650,000 target population, 214,381 (33%) participated, and 197,681 questionnaire were completed. Of the number of individuals screened, 31,711 (16%) were positive for abnormal blood pressure and /or glucose, and needed confirmation of their results. Only 17296 (54.5%) of them were referred to health facilities for confirmation of results Conclusion: Community screening campaigns for diabetes mellitus and hypertension is extremely efficient in identifying undiagnosed diabetic and hypertensive individuals. The most successful strategy for the screening and confirmation of results was through PHCCs, especially in the rural areas, where there was good organization and strict adherence to guidelines on methodology. PMID:23012153

  16. [Some notes on methods of age estimation: an attempt in a Sundanese village, West Java].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, T

    1982-09-01

    This study is concerned with the problem of age misstatement in Indonesia. The author first presents an analysis of age data that were collected directly from the population of a Sundanese village in West Java and that indicate the extent of the problem. Various approaches used to estimate age and the problems associated with their use are then described. (summary in ENG)

  17. Teaching Traditional and Non-Traditional Age Individuals: How Should Methods, Expectations, and Standards Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.

    A study examined achievement and attitudes of traditional and nontraditional age students enrolled in an undergraduate behavioral sciences statistics course. Performance and attitude data were collected from a class of 25 traditional students (average age 22) and from a class of 15 nontraditional students (average age 35). The two groups were…

  18. Physicochemical Qualities and Flavor Patterns of Traditional Chinese Vinegars Manufactured by Different Fermentation Methods and Aging Periods

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yaping; Jo, Yunhee; Chung, Namhyeok; Gu, Song-Yi; Jeong, Yong-Jin; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of Fujian Yongchun aged vinegar (FYAV) and Shanxi mature vinegar (SMV) were compared in terms of the fermentation methods applied and aging periods (3, 5, 8, and 10 years), and combined E-nose/E-tongue analyses were performed to assess their flavors. Compared with submerged fermentation-derived FYAV, solid-state fermentation-derived SMV showed higher values of pH, brix, soluble solids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity, but not total acidity or total organic acids. Aging period resulted in an increase in pH, total phenolic content, and antioxidant activity. Principal component analysis based on E-tongue/E-nose analyses was performed to distinguish between the vinegars produced by different fermentation methods and under aging periods. Solid-state fermentation and an aging process were considered good techniques for vinegar brewing, considering the various organic acids and high levels of total phenolics and antioxidant activity.

  19. A comparative assessment of the Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks pubic aging methods on a North American sample, .

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Julie M

    2013-03-01

    Accurately estimating the age-at-death of adult human skeletons is fundamental in forensic anthropology. This study evaluates the accuracy of two pubic bone age estimation methods-Chen et al. and Suchey-Brooks. Specimens were obtained from a known collection of modern pubic bones curated at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. A sample of 296 left male pubic bones of European ancestry was statistically evaluated via bias, absolute mean error, and intra- and inter-observer error. Results indicate that the two methods are similar; the Suchey-Brooks method is the most accurate for aging young adults (error c. 7 years), while the Revised Chen et al. method is most accurate for aging middle-age adults (error c. 6 years). Thus, the Chen et al. method is an important contribution to forensic anthropology for aging older adult skeletal remains. There are, however, some limitations such as subjectivity and the intricate scoring system of Chen et al. method.

  20. Statistical methods to adjust for date and age misreporting to improve estimates of vital rates in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Pullum, T W

    1991-02-01

    Misreporting of dates and ages poses serious difficulties for the estimation of the age distribution and birth and death rates in many developing countries. The pervasiveness of these problems is illustrated with data from a well-designed on-going survey in Pakistan, the Pakistan Demographic Survey. Methods for reconciling discrepancies, based on the assumptions of constant misreporting and survivorship patterns, are presented. The reasoning behind these methods could be applied much more generally. Research into the cultural interpretations of age and dates, and the nature of possible biases, is called for.

  1. A regression method including chronological and bone age for predicting final height in Turner's syndrome, with a comparison of existing methods.

    PubMed

    van Teunenbroek, A; Stijnen, T; Otten, B; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S; Naeraa, R W; Rongen-Westerlaken, C; Drop, S

    1996-04-01

    A total of 235 measurement points of 57 Dutch women with Turner's syndrome (TS), including women with spontaneous menarche and oestrogen treatment, served to develop a new Turner-specific final height (FH) prediction method (PTS). Analogous to the Tanner and Whitehouse mark 2 method (TW) for normal children, smoothed regression coefficients are tabulated for PTS for height (H), chronological age (CA) and bone age (BA), both TW RUS and Greulich and Pyle (GP). Comparison between all methods on 40 measurement points of 21 Danish TS women showed small mean prediction errors (predicted minus observed FH) and corresponding standard deviation (ESD) of both PTSRUS and PTSGP, in particular at the "younger" ages. Comparison between existing methods on the Dutch data indicated a tendency to overpredict FH. Before the CA of 9 years the mean prediction errors of the Bayley and Pinneau and TW methods were markedly higher compared with the other methods. Overall, the simplest methods--projected height (PAH) and its modification (mPAH)--were remarkably good at most ages. Although the validity of PTSRUS and PTSGP remains to be tested below the age of 6 years, both gave small mean prediction errors and a high accuracy. FH prediction in TS is important in the consideration of growth-promoting therapy or in the evaluation of its effects.

  2. New method for estimation of adult skeletal age at death from the morphology of the auricular surface of the ilium.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Yuriko; Uesu, Kagumi; Wakebe, Tetsuaki; Kanazawa, Eisaku

    2005-10-01

    A new method for estimating skeletal age at death from the morphology of the auricular surface of the ilium is presented. It uses a multiple regression analysis with dummy variables, and is based on the examination of 700 modern Japanese skeletal remains with age records. The observer using this method needs only to check for the presence or absence of nine (for a male) or seven (for a female) features on the auricular surface and to select the parameter estimates of each feature, calculated by multiple regression analysis with dummy variables. The observer can obtain an estimated age from the sum of parameter estimates. It is shown that a fine granular texture of the auricular surface is typical of younger individuals, whereas a heavily porous texture is characteristic of older individuals, and that both of these features are very useful for estimating age. Our method is shown here to be more accurate than other methods, especially in the older age ranges. Since the auricular surface allows more expedient observations than other parts of the skeleton, this new method can be expected to improve the overall accuracy of estimating skeletal age at death.

  3. [Biological Age as a Method for Systematic Assessment of Ontogenetic Changes in the State of an Organism].

    PubMed

    Dontsov, V I; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a common feature of living and nonliving systems as a disturbance of the structure of the system accumulating with age. The only cause of aging of a living system, which is capable of renewal, is the insufficiency of renewal. The latter manifests itself as two global mechanisms of aging: the genetically determined nonrenewal of a number of structures that can only die with age (stochastic aging) and the regulatory reduction in the rate of self-renewal of living structures. The regulatory reduction in cellular self-renewal (cell growth and division) is most important. At the same chronological age, the degree of aging of the organism in general, as well as individual organs, cells, and systems of the organism, may be different, reflecting the concept of biological age (BA)--an indicator of the level of development, changes, or deterioration of a structure or function of an element of the organism, a functional system, or the organism as a whole. It is expressed in units oftime by relating the values of biomarkers defining the processes of aging with the standard average statistical dependences of changes in these biomarkers with the chronological age. The concept of BA is directly related to the concept of viability of the organism, which is determined by the sum (integral) of viabilities of its parts (in practice, the residual functional resource). For quantitative characterization of aging in general, the index of integrated biological age is used. To give a detailed characterization, the partial biological ages are used, which reflect the aging of different systems of the organism, as well as a number of indices reflecting its functional and psychological possibilities. The contribution of pathological processes to BA is also taken into account. In addition, the amount of retained adaptive reserves in the physical and nervous and mental aspects, the risk factors, and the factors of longevity should be determined. For this purpose, it is necessary to take

  4. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations.

  5. Measurement of balance function and community participation in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sinae

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the relationship between balance function and community participation in stroke survivors. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-three patients diagnosed with hemiparetic stroke participated in this study (36 males, 27 females, aged 58.6 ± 15.2 years). The participants were assessed for balance function and their level of participation in the community, using activity card sorting and the Berg Balance Scale. A regression analysis was used to identify the influence of balance function on instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities. [Results] The results of the regression analysis indicated that balance function measured by using the Berg Balance Scale affected community participation of patients with hemiparetic stroke. Participation in instrumental activities of daily living and leisure and social activities was affected by balance function. [Conclusion] This study provides useful information for designing efficient programs and identifying their effectiveness for enhancement of community participation in stroke survivors.

  6. The validation of a computer-based food record for older adults: the Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method.

    PubMed

    Timon, Claire M; Astell, Arlene J; Hwang, Faustina; Adlam, Tim D; Smith, Tom; Maclean, Lin; Spurr, Daynor; Forster, Sarah E; Williams, Elizabeth A

    2015-02-28

    Dietary assessment in older adults can be challenging. The Novel Assessment of Nutrition and Ageing (NANA) method is a touch-screen computer-based food record that enables older adults to record their dietary intakes. The objective of the present study was to assess the relative validity of the NANA method for dietary assessment in older adults. For this purpose, three studies were conducted in which a total of ninety-four older adults (aged 65-89 years) used the NANA method of dietary assessment. On a separate occasion, participants completed a 4 d estimated food diary. Blood and 24 h urine samples were also collected from seventy-six of the volunteers for the analysis of biomarkers of nutrient intake. The results from all the three studies were combined, and nutrient intake data collected using the NANA method were compared against the 4 d estimated food diary and biomarkers of nutrient intake. Bland-Altman analysis showed a reasonable agreement between the dietary assessment methods for energy and macronutrient intake; however, there were small, but significant, differences for energy and protein intake, reflecting the tendency for the NANA method to record marginally lower energy intakes. Significant positive correlations were observed between urinary urea and dietary protein intake using both the NANA and the 4 d estimated food diary methods, and between plasma ascorbic acid and dietary vitamin C intake using the NANA method. The results demonstrate the feasibility of computer-based dietary assessment in older adults, and suggest that the NANA method is comparable to the 4 d estimated food diary, and could be used as an alternative to the food diary for the short-term assessment of an individual's dietary intake.

  7. Improving function in age-related macular degeneration: design and methods of a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Barry W; Casten, Robin J; Hegel, Mark T; Massof, Robert W; Leiby, Benjamin E; Tasman, William S

    2011-03-01

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in older adults and impairs the ability to read, drive, and live independently and increases the risk for depression, falls, and earlier mortality. Although new medical treatments have improved AMD's prognosis, vision-related disability remains a major public health problem. Improving Function in AMD (IF-AMD) is a two-group randomized, parallel design, controlled clinical trial that compares the efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) with Supportive Therapy (ST) (an attention control treatment) to improve vision function in 240 patients with AMD. PST and ST therapists deliver 6 one-hour respective treatment sessions to subjects in their homes over 2 months. Outcomes are assessed masked to treatment assignment at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). The primary outcome is targeted vision function (TVF), which refers to specific vision-dependent functional goals that subjects highly value but find difficult to achieve. TVF is an innovative outcome measure in that it is targeted and tailored to individual subjects yet is measured in a standardized way. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of the study treatments, and the measures used to evaluate functional and psychiatric outcomes in this population.

  8. Improving Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Design and Methods of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Tasman, William S.

    2010-01-01

    Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in older adults and impairs the ability to read, drive, and live independently and increases the risk for depression, falls, and earlier mortality. Although new medical treatments have improved AMD’s prognosis, vision-related disability remains a major public health problem. Improving Function in AMD (IF-AMD) is a two-group randomized, parallel design, controlled clinical trial that compares the efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) with Supportive Therapy (ST) (an attention control treatment) to improve vision function in 240 patients with AMD. PST and ST therapists deliver 6 one-hour respective treatment sessions to subjects in their homes over 2 months. Outcomes are assessed masked to treatment assignment at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). The primary outcome is targeted vision function (TVF), which refers to specific vision-dependent functional goals that subjects highly value but find difficult to achieve. TVF is an innovative outcome measure in that it is targeted and tailored to individual subjects yet is measured in a standardized way. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of the study treatments, and the measures used to evaluate functional and psychiatric outcomes in this population. PMID:20974293

  9. Participation in Physical Play and Leisure in Children With Motor Impairments: Mixed-Methods Study to Generate Evidence for Developing an Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Craig; McKee, Lorna; Missiuna, Cheryl; Owen, Christine; Francis, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in physical play/leisure (PPP) is an important therapy goal of children with motor impairments. Evidence for interventions promoting PPP in these children is scarce. The first step is to identify modifiable, clinically meaningful predictors of PPP for targeting by interventions. Objective The study objective was to identify, in children with motor impairments, body function and structure, activity, environmental, and personal factors related to PPP and modifiable by therapists. Design This was a mixed-methods, intervention development study. The World Health Organization framework International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used. Methods Participants were children (6–8 years old) with motor impairments, mobilizing independently with or without equipment and seen by physical therapists or occupational therapists in 6 regions in the United Kingdom, and their parents. Self-reported PPP was assessed with the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment. Modifiable-factor data were collected with therapists' observations, parent questionnaires, and child-friendly interviews. The Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment, therapist, and parent data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Interview data were analyzed for emerging themes. Results Children's (n=195) PPP (X=18 times per week, interquartile range=11–25) was mainly ‘recreational’ (eg, pretend play, playing with pets) rather than ‘active physical’ (eg, riding a bike/scooter). Parents (n=152) reported positive beliefs about children's PPP but various levels of family PPP. Therapists reported 23 unique impairments (eg, muscle tone), 16 activity limitations (eg, walking), and 3 personal factors (eg, child's PPP confidence). Children interviewed (n=17) reported a strong preference for active play but indicated that adults regulated their PPP. Family PPP and impairment in the child's movement-related body

  10. Methods and Materials for Infusing Aging Issues into the Rehabilitation Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Harley, Debra A.; Wadsworth, John S.; Smith, S. Mae

    2007-01-01

    In order to better prepare rehabilitation counselors to meet the needs of older workers, Kampfe, Wadsworth, Smith, and Harley (2005) suggested that aging issues can be infused into the curriculum of rehabilitation education programs. This article is a follow-up to the earlier publication that called for infusion of aging issues into the…

  11. A simple method for estimating informative node age priors for the fossil calibration of molecular divergence time analyses.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Michael D; Smith, Andrew B; Simpson, Carl; Zwickl, Derrick J

    2013-01-01

    Molecular divergence time analyses often rely on the age of fossil lineages to calibrate node age estimates. Most divergence time analyses are now performed in a Bayesian framework, where fossil calibrations are incorporated as parametric prior probabilities on node ages. It is widely accepted that an ideal parameterization of such node age prior probabilities should be based on a comprehensive analysis of the fossil record of the clade of interest, but there is currently no generally applicable approach for calculating such informative priors. We provide here a simple and easily implemented method that employs fossil data to estimate the likely amount of missing history prior to the oldest fossil occurrence of a clade, which can be used to fit an informative parametric prior probability distribution on a node age. Specifically, our method uses the extant diversity and the stratigraphic distribution of fossil lineages confidently assigned to a clade to fit a branching model of lineage diversification. Conditioning this on a simple model of fossil preservation, we estimate the likely amount of missing history prior to the oldest fossil occurrence of a clade. The likelihood surface of missing history can then be translated into a parametric prior probability distribution on the age of the clade of interest. We show that the method performs well with simulated fossil distribution data, but that the likelihood surface of missing history can at times be too complex for the distribution-fitting algorithm employed by our software tool. An empirical example of the application of our method is performed to estimate echinoid node ages. A simulation-based sensitivity analysis using the echinoid data set shows that node age prior distributions estimated under poor preservation rates are significantly less informative than those estimated under high preservation rates.

  12. Development of Spray Coating Methods and Materials to Replace Aluminum Cladding of Aging Aircraft for Corrosion Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Replace FA9550-06-C-0113 Aluminum Cladding of Aging Aircraft for Corrosion Protection 5b. GRANTNUMBER [AF STTR Phase I Final Technical Report] 5c. PROGRAM...development of glassy coatings is limited by non-availability of aluminum based BMG powder feedstock for spraying. 15. SUBJECT TERMS STTR Report Corrosion ... aluminum cladding of aging aircraft for corrosion protection ABSTRACT The objective of this AF STTR Phase I work was to develop spray coating methods and new

  13. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    DOE PAGES

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; ...

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50–1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. Lastly, we present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  14. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Freeburg, Eric Wilcox; Williams, Richard

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50–1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. Lastly, we present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  15. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting.

    PubMed

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Wilcox Freeburg, Eric; Williams, Richard

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, (39)Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50-1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. We present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  16. A Cross-Sectional Study on Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV: Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, Andrew; Phillips, Andrew N; Lampe, Fiona C; Miltz, Ada; Gilson, Richard; Asboe, David; Nwokolo, Nneka; Scott, Christopher; Day, Sara; Clarke, Amanda; Anderson, Jane; O'Connell, Rebecca; Apea, Vanessa; Dhairyawan, Rageshri; Gompels, Mark; Farazmand, Paymaneh; Allan, Sris; Mann, Susan; Dhar, Jyoti; Tang, Alan; Sadiq, S Tariq; Taylor, Stephen; Collins, Simon; Sherr, Lorraine; Hart, Graham; Johnson, Anne M; Miners, Alec; Elford, Jonathan; Rodger, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Background The annual number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United Kingdom among men who have sex with men (MSM) has risen, and remains high among heterosexuals. Increasing HIV transmission among MSM is consistent with evidence of ongoing sexual risk behavior in this group, and targeted prevention strategies are needed for those at risk of acquiring HIV. Objective The Attitudes to and Understanding of Risk of Acquisition of HIV (AURAH) study was designed to collect information on HIV negative adults at risk of HIV infection in the United Kingdom, based on the following parameters: physical and mental health, lifestyle, patterns of sexual behaviour, and attitudes to sexual risk. Methods Cross-sectional questionnaire study of HIV negative or undiagnosed sexual health clinic attendees in the United Kingdom from 2013-2014. Results Of 2630 participants in the AURAH study, 2064 (78%) were in the key subgroups of interest; 580 were black Africans (325 females and 255 males) and 1484 were MSM, with 27 participants belonging to both categories. Conclusions The results from AURAH will be a significant resource to understand the attitudes and sexual behaviour of those at risk of acquiring HIV within the United Kingdom. AURAH will inform future prevention efforts and targeted health promotion initiatives in the HIV negative population. PMID:27091769

  17. Enhanced methods for assessment of the trace element composition of Iron Age bone.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Martin M; Siker, Malika; Overdier, Joel T; Ramsl, Peter C; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Farrell, Philip M

    2008-08-15

    Modern, ultra-trace, analytical methods, coupled with magnetic sector ICP-MS (HR-ICP-MS), were applied to the determination of a large suite of major and trace elements in Iron Age bones. The high sensitivity and un-paralleled signal-to-noise characteristics of HR-ICP-MS enabled the accurate measurement of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Pt, Rb, Sr, U, V, and Zn in small bone sections (<75 mg). Critically, the HR-ICP-MS effectively addressed molecular interferences, which would likely have compromised data generated with quadrupole-based ICP-MS instruments. Contamination and diagenetic alteration of ancient bone are grave concerns, which if not properly addressed, may result in serious misinterpretation of data from bone archives. Analytical procedures and several chemical and statistical methods (Principal Components Analysis - PCA) were studied to assess their utility in identifying and correcting bone contamination and diagenetic alteration. Uncertainties in bone (femur) sampling were characterized for each element and longitudinal variation was found to be the dominant source of sampling variability. However the longitudinal variation in most trace elements levels was relatively modest, ranging between 9 and 17% RSD. Bone surface contamination was evaluated using sequential acid leaching. Calcium-normalized metal levels in brief, timed, dilute nitric acid leaches were compared with similarly normalized interior core metal levels to assess the degree of surface enrichment. A select group of metals (Mn, Co, Ni, Ag, Cd, and Pt) were observed to be enriched by up to a factor of 10 in the bone surface, indicating that that these elements may have a higher contamination component. However, the results of sequential acid leaching experiments indicated that the single acid leaching step was effective in removing most surface-enriched contaminants. While the leaching protocol was effective in removing contaminants associated with

  18. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  19. Methods for Structuring Scientific Knowledge from Many Areas Related to Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration. PMID:21799912

  20. Participant-Observation and Pile Sorting: Methods for Eliciting Local Understandings and Valuations of Plants as a First Step towards Informed Community Participation in Environment and Health Initiatives in Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gollin, Lisa X.; McMillen, Heather; Wilcox, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted to explore local, lay perceptions and valuations of native and nonnative flora in order to better understand and anticipate community perceptions of, and potential participation in revegetation or eradication conservation efforts in multiethnic communities of Oahu, Hawai'i. The authors detail the…

  1. Study of a laboratory-scaled new method for the accelerated continuous ageing of wine spirits by applying ultrasound energy.

    PubMed

    Delgado-González, M J; Sánchez-Guillén, M M; García-Moreno, M V; Rodríguez-Dodero, M C; García-Barroso, C; Guillén-Sánchez, D A

    2017-05-01

    During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured. With that proposal, the influence of different powers of ultrasound, and also the influence of the movement of the liquor through oak chips, was determined first. This way, the results show that higher powers of ultrasound, of nearly 40W/L, in addition with the movement of the spirit, improve the extraction of phenolic compounds in a 33.94%, after seven days of ageing. Then, applying Youden and Steiner's experimental design, eight experiments of ageing were performed, and the samples obtained by this new method were analysed to obtain information related to their physicochemical and oenological characterisation in order to determine the experimental conditions that produce the best ageing results. This way, the best spirit produced by this new method of ageing is obtained with a high alcoholic strength of the distilled wine and a high quantity of oak chips, and with room temperature and high flow rate. In addition, the presence of oxygen in the sample and the absence of light increase the quality of the produced spirit. Finally, the application of ultrasound energy in large pulses is related with the improvement of two important ageing markers: the intensity of the colour and the TPI. As a last experiment, we applied this ageing method to five varietal spirits. The sensorial

  2. Use of cognitive question testing methodologies in participant action research: implementing the Three-Step Test-Interview Method in Indian county.

    PubMed

    Pavkov, Thomas W; Priest, Jacob; Fox, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the use of cognitive question testing methods to pretest a Web-based questionnaire designed to gather information from American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth between the ages of 18 and 25. The questionnaire included items related to risk and resiliency factors as well as potentially sensitive topics of victimization and delinquency. Question testing was completed with a sample of 15 youth living in three different regions of the United States. The Three Step Test Interview Method was modified to collect information related to interface usability, cognitive response, and cultural interpretation of survey items. Data collected from the question testing process resulted in questionnaire changes that included query wording, the inclusion and exclusion of survey items based on cultural input, the reordering and rendering of survey items, and improvements in interface usability. Implications for survey research with the AI/AN youth population are discussed.

  3. Quench-age method for the fabrication of niobium-aluminum superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Pickus, Milton R.; Ciardella, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    A flexible Nb.sub.3 Al superconducting wire is fabricated from a niobium-aluminum composite wire by heating to form a solid solution which is retained at room temperature as a metastable solid solution by quenching. The metastable solid solution is then transformed to the stable superconducting A-15 phase by low temperature aging. The transformation induced by aging can be controlled to yield either a multifilamentary or a solid A-15 core surrounded by ductile niobium.

  4. Determination of the age of hydrothermal fluids by the kinetic-geochemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Reznikov, A.N.

    1995-03-01

    An estimate of the age of hydrothermal fluids at rift zones of oceans and continents, island arc regions, as well as regions of mud volcanism and occurrences of condensation and solution waters of hydrocarbon accumulations is given on the basis of the chemical, gas, and isotopic compositions and geothermobaric conditions. Correlations between the degree of accumulation of trace elements in hydrothermal fluids and their age were established.

  5. A simple method for censored age-of-onset data subject to recall bias: mothers' reports of age of puberty in male twins.

    PubMed

    Pickles, A; Neale, M; Simonoff, E; Rutter, M; Hewitt, J; Meyer, J; Crouchley, R; Silberg, J; Eaves, L

    1994-09-01

    Genetic analysis of variation in age of onset of development milestones or psychopathological behaviors has been little researched, owing largely to the computational difficulty of dealing with "censored" observations. Censored observations arise when the only information on individuals is that they have reached a particular age but without onset having occurred. This paper shows how models can be simply fitted to such data using programs that can perform genetic analysis of categorical data by maximum likelihood. The method is illustrated using the program Mx with data on maternal report of the onset of puberty in twin sons from the Virginia Twin Study of Adolescent Behavioral Development. Frequently, data on age of onset is collected by retrospective recall. This can pose a variety of measurement problems. Suggestions are made for models that account for some of these problems or are robust to their presence. Substantial evidence for "telescoping" of onset dates is found for the puberty data. If left unaccounted for, these effects can artifactually inflate estimates of common environment effects.

  6. CT evaluation of medial clavicular epiphysis as a method of bone age determination in adolescents and young adults

    PubMed Central

    Ufuk, Furkan; Agladioglu, Kadir; Karabulut, Nevzat

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the use of computed tomography (CT) staging of the medial clavicular epiphysis ossification in forensic bone age determination, and find a CT criterion to determine whether an individual is adult or not. METHODS Chest CT and pulmonary CT angiography exams of 354 patients between 10 and 30 years of age (mean, 21.4 years) were retrospectively evaluated for epiphyseal ossification phase of the bilateral medial clavicles (708 clavicles) and compared with the sex and chronologic age of the individuals. The ossification phase of the medial clavicular epiphyses was classified from stage I to stage V using a modified staging system. RESULTS Epiphyseal ossification center appeared from 11 to 21 years of age. Partial fusion occurred between 16 and 23 years of age. Complete fusion was first achieved at the ages of 18 and 19 years for male and female individuals, respectively. The probability of an individual being ≥18 years old was 70.8% in stage III A and 100% in stages III B, IV, and V in females and males. CONCLUSION CT evaluation of the medial clavicular epiphysis is helpful in forensic age determination and stage III B can be used as a criterion to make the prediction that an individual is older than 18 years. PMID:27015321

  7. Aging and service wear of electric motor-operated valves used in engineered safety-feature systems of nuclear power plants: Aging assessments and monitoring method evaluations

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1989-08-01

    Motor-operated valves (MOVs) are located in almost all plant fluid systems. Their failures have resulted in significant plant maintenance efforts. More important, the operational readiness if nuclear plant safety-related systems has often been affected by MOV degradation and failure. Thus, in recent years MOVs have received considerable attention by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear power industry and were identified as a component for study by the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. In support of the NPAR Program, a comprehensive Phase II aging assessment on MOVs was performed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the results of this study are presented in this report. An evaluation of commercially available MOV monitoring methods was carried out, as well as an assessment of other potentially useful techniques. These assessments led to the identification of an effective, nonintrusive, and remote technique, namely, motor current signature analysis (MCSA). The capabilities of monitoring methods (especially MCSA) for detecting changes in operating conditions and MOV degradation were investigated in controlled laboratory tests at ORNL, in situ MOV tests at a neighboring nuclear power plant, and the Gate Valve Flow Interruption Blowdown test in Huntsville, Alabama. 17 refs., 121 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. The CITRA Research-Practice Consensus-Workshop Model: Exploring a New Method of Research Translation in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabir, Myra; Breckman, Risa; Meador, Rhoda; Wethington, Elaine; Reid, M. Carrington; Pillemer, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: On the basis of the experience of an extensive community-based research partnership in New York City, we developed an innovative process for bridging the gap between aging-related research and practice, using a consensus-workshop model. Design and Methods: We adapted the traditional scientific consensus-workshop model to include…

  9. Conventional foods, followed by dietary supplements and fortified foods, are the key sources of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake in Dutch participants of the NU-AGE study.

    PubMed

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; van Lieshout, Lilou E L M; van den Heuvel, Ellen G H M; Matthys, Christophe; Péter, Szabolcs; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-10-01

    With aging, energy needs decrease, necessitating a more nutrient-dense diet to meet nutritional needs. To bridge this gap, the use of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements can be important. This observational study aims to describe current micronutrient intakes of Dutch elderly and to identify the contribution of nutrient-dense foods, fortified foods, and dietary supplements to the intake of micronutrients that are often inadequately consumed in Dutch elderly. Data of 245 Dutch volunteers from the NU-AGE study aged 65 to 80 years were used. Dietary intake was assessed by means of 7-day food records, and dietary supplement use was recorded with an additional questionnaire. Information on fortified foods was obtained from the Dutch Food Composition Table 2011. Nutrient density of foods was evaluated using the Nutrient Rich Food 9.3 score. The percentages of participants not meeting their average requirement were high for vitamin D (99%), selenium (41%), and vitamin B6 (54%) based on conventional foods and also when taking into account fortified foods (98%, 41%, and 27%, respectively) and vitamin and mineral supplements (87%, 36%, and 20%, respectively). Conventional foods were the main source of vitamin D, vitamin B6, and selenium intake (42%, 45%, and 82%, respectively), followed by vitamin and mineral supplements (41%, 44%, and 18%) and fortified foods (17%, 11%, and 1%). Foods with the highest nutrient density contributed most to total vitamin B6 intake only. To optimize nutrient intakes of elderly, combinations of natural food sources, fortified foods, and dietary supplements should be considered.

  10. Determining 'age at death' for forensic purposes using human bone by a laboratory-based biomechanical analytical method.

    PubMed

    Zioupos, P; Williams, A; Christodoulou, G; Giles, R

    2014-05-01

    Determination of age-at-death (AAD) is an important and frequent requirement in contemporary forensic science and in the reconstruction of past populations and societies from their remains. Its estimation is relatively straightforward and accurate (±3yr) for immature skeletons by using morphological features and reference tables within the context of forensic anthropology. However, after skeletal maturity (>35yr) estimates become inaccurate, particularly in the legal context. In line with the general migration of all the forensic sciences from reliance upon empirical criteria to those which are more evidence-based, AAD determination should rely more-and-more upon more quantitative methods. We explore here whether well-known changes in the biomechanical properties of bone and the properties of bone matrix, which have been seen to change with age even after skeletal maturity in a traceable manner, can be used to provide a reliable estimate of AAD. This method charts a combination of physical characteristics some of which are measured at a macroscopic level (wet & dry apparent density, porosity, organic/mineral/water fractions, collagen thermal degradation properties, ash content) and others at the microscopic level (Ca/P ratios, osteonal and matrix microhardness, image analysis of sections). This method produced successful age estimates on a cohort of 12 donors of age 53-85yr (7 male, 5 female), where the age of the individual could be approximated within less than ±1yr. This represents a vastly improved level of accuracy than currently extant age estimation techniques. It also presents: (1) a greater level of reliability and objectivity as the results are not dependent on the experience and expertise of the observer, as is so often the case in forensic skeletal age estimation methods; (2) it is purely laboratory-based analytical technique which can be carried out by someone with technical skills and not the specialised forensic anthropology experience; (3) it can

  11. Validation of transition analysis as a method of adult age estimation in a modern South African sample.

    PubMed

    Jooste, N; L'Abbé, E N; Pretorius, S; Steyn, M

    2016-09-01

    The use of advanced statistical methods, such as transition analysis, has transformed adult age estimation into a systematically and statistically appropriate practice. The method developed by Boldsen and colleagues (2002) uses 36 features from the cranial sutures, pubic symphysis and auricular surface to calculate maximum likelihood point estimates and 95% confidence intervals, using the ADBOU computer software. However, when using the method in a geographically and contextually distinct sample, such as South Africa, accuracy and precision is of concern. This study aimed to test the repeatability, accuracy and precision of the transition analysis method, using the ADBOU computer software, on a South African sample. Age estimations were generated, for 149 black individuals from the Pretoria Bone Collection, using three individual components as well as different combinations of components and prior distributions (uniform and informative). The informative prior distributions represented both an archaeological and a forensic context. Cohen's kappa statistic uncovered some failings in the scoring procedure. While the accuracy compared favourably with existing methods, the method lacked satisfactory precision. Although combining the components improved accuracy and precision, removing the cranium from the combination was beneficial in some instances. The influence of population variation was observed in the scoring procedure, reference sample and the prior distributions. Validity may be improved for a South African sample by adding age-related components that have been developed on a relevant population. A prior distribution based on South African mortality rates might also be beneficial.

  12. METHODS FOR MODELING PARTICLE DEPOSITION AS A FUNCTION OF AGE. (R827352C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this paper is to review the application of mathematical models of inhaled particle deposition to people of various ages. The basic considerations of aerosol physics, biological characteristics and model structure are presented along with limitations inherent in ...

  13. ENHANCED RECOVERY METHODS FOR 85KR AGE-DATING GROUNDWATER: ROYAL WATERSHED, MAINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potential widespread use of 85Kr, having a constant input function in the northern hemisphere, for groundwater age-dating would advance watershed investigations. The current input function of tritium is not sufficient to estimate young modern recharge waters. While tri...

  14. Structural modeling of age specific fertility curves in Peninsular Malaysia: An approach of Lee Carter method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanafiah, Hazlenah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, the study of fertility has been getting a lot of attention among research abroad following fear of deterioration of fertility led by the rapid economy development. Hence, this study examines the feasibility of developing fertility forecasts based on age structure. Lee Carter model (1992) is applied in this study as it is an established and widely used model in analysing demographic aspects. A singular value decomposition approach is incorporated with an ARIMA model to estimate age specific fertility rates in Peninsular Malaysia over the period 1958-2007. Residual plots is used to measure the goodness of fit of the model. Fertility index forecast using random walk drift is then utilised to predict the future age specific fertility. Results indicate that the proposed model provides a relatively good and reasonable data fitting. In addition, there is an apparent and continuous decline in age specific fertility curves in the next 10 years, particularly among mothers' in their early 20's and 40's. The study on the fertility is vital in order to maintain a balance between the population growth and the provision of facilities related resources.

  15. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  16. Age-Related Variability in Cortical Activity during Language Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fridriksson, Julius; Morrow, K. Leigh; Moser, Dana; Baylis, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The present study investigated the extent of cortical activity during overt picture naming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: Participants comprised 20 healthy, adult participants with ages ranging from 20 to 82 years. While undergoing fMRI, participants completed a picture-naming task consisting of 60…

  17. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  18. Phylogenomic Dating-A Method of Constraining the Age of Microbial Taxa That Lack a Conventional Fossil Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Carrine E.

    2009-03-01

    A phylogenomic dating approach was used to identify potential age constraints for multiple archaeal groups, many of which have no fossil, isotopic, or biomarker record. First, well-resolved phylogenetic trees were inferred with the use of multiple gene sequences obtained from whole genome sequences. Next, the ability to use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor was coded into characters, and ancestral state reconstruction was used to identify clades with taxa that metabolize oxygen and likely had an aerobic ancestor. Next, the habitat of the ancestor was inferred. If the local presence of Cyanobacteria could be excluded from the putative ancestral habitat, then these clades would have originated after the rise in atmospheric oxygen 2.32 Ga. With this method, an upper age of 2.32 Ga (an "oxygen age constraint") is proposed for four major archaeal clades: the Sulfolobales, Thermoplasmatales, Thermoproteus neutrophilus/Pyrobaculum spp., and the Thermoproteales. It was also shown that the halophilic archaea likely had an aerobic common ancestor, yet the possibility of local oxygen oases before oxygenation of the atmosphere could not be formally rejected. Thus, an oxygen age constraint was not assessed for this group. This work suggests that many archaeal groups are not as ancient as many in the research community have previously assumed, and it provides a new method for establishing upper age constraints for major microbial groups that lack a conventional fossil record.

  19. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  20. Local community playgroup participation and associations with social capital.

    PubMed

    Strange, Cecily; Bremner, Alexander; Fisher, Colleen; Howat, Peter; Wood, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Issue addressed: The study aim was to investigate the relationships between social capital measures and playgroup participation in a local residential area for parents with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) compared with non-participation and participation in a playgroup outside the local residential area. Research indicates playgroup participation has benefits for families, however, less is known about the potential local community social capital for parents who participate in playgroups.Methods: Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey from March 2013 to January 2014 in Perth, Western Australia. The data from a group of parents (n=405) who had at least one child aged between 1 and 4 years were analysed using multivariable regression. Reported playgroup participation (local, outside the area or non-participation) in the previous 12 months was investigated for associations with three measures (Neighbourhood Cohesion Index, Social Capital and Citizenship Survey and local reciprocity) that capture attributes of social capital.Results: Participation in playgroup locally was generally associated with higher levels of social capital than both participation in playgroup outside the local area and non-participation. Mothers with two or more children fared better for social capital measures than mothers with one child.Conclusions: Participation in a locally placed playgroup may provide an important opportunity for families with children of playgroup age (1-4 years) to build social capital in their local community.So what?: Playgroups in a family's local area have the potential to foster locally placed social capital through community interaction, social networks and cohesion, which are important for mental health promotion in communities.