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Sample records for age mlda laws

  1. The Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Currently, all 50 states limit alcohol purchases to people aged 21 and over. But that hasn't always been the case. In fact, it was July 17, 1984, when President Ronald Reagan signed the national 21 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) legislation into law. At that time, only 23 states had minimum alcohol purchasing ages of 21 years old. The…

  2. Long-Term Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws (ability to purchase alcohol <21 years) during adolescence can have long-term effects, including heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorders as adults. We examined whether exposure to permissive MLDA laws during adolescence has long-term effects on illicit drug use and disorders in adulthood. Methods Participants from the 2004-2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were linked with historical state MLDA laws. Participants born in 1949-1972 (age 31-63 years at observation, n=110,300) were analyzed because they came of legal age for alcohol purchase when changes occurred in state MLDA laws. Logistic regression was used to model drug use measures as a function of exposure to permissive MLDA during adolescence, adjusting for state and birth-year fixed effects, demographics, and salient state characteristics. Results Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of marijuana were 4.7%, 7.8%, and 1.2% respectively. Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs other than marijuana were 2.9%, 6.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. Among the full sample, exposure to permissive MLDA laws was not significantly associated with drug use or abuse/dependence in adulthood. Men exposed to permissive MLDA laws were at 20% increased odds of past year illicit drug use (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32). Conclusions Restricting alcohol access during adolescence did not increase long-term drug use. Allowing the purchase of alcohol among those less than 21 years of age could increase the risk of drug use later in life. PMID:25707705

  3. Scoring the Strengths and Weaknesses of Underage Drinking Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Scherer, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the impact of a number of minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws on underage alcohol consumption and alcohol-related crashes in the United States. These studies have contributed to our understanding of how alcohol control laws affect drinking and driving among those who are under age 21. However, much of the extant literature examining underage drinking laws use a “Law/No law” coding which may obscure the variability inherent in each law. Previous literature has demonstrated that inclusion of law strengths may affect outcomes and overall data fit when compared to “Law/No law” coding. In an effort to assess the relative strength of states’ underage drinking legislation, a coding system was developed in 2006 and applied to 16 MLDA-21 laws. The current article updates the previous endeavor and outlines a detailed strength coding mechanism for the current 20 MLDA-21 laws. PMID:26097775

  4. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  5. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  6. Copyright law in the digital age

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    Few areas have been shaken up by the information revolution than copyright law. The riddle of how existing law must be adapted in the electronic age brings clashing answers from various media professionals. Various issues associated with copyright protection, including the present political administration`s views, are discussed in this paper.

  7. In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

  8. International Law in a Global Age. Student Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Maxey, Phyllis

    This global approach to teaching high school students about international law uses existing curriculum materials from a variety of social studies disciplines to present five major perspectives. Perspective I "Global Links," focuses on the meaning of citizenship in a global age and the interconnectedness between individuals and the international…

  9. International Law in a Global Age. A Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Maxey, Phyllis

    This global approach to teaching high school students about international law uses existing curriculum materials from a variety of social studies disciplines to present five major perspectives. Perspective I, "Global Links," focuses on the meaning of citizenship in a global age and the interconnectedness between individuals and the international…

  10. Growth, ageing and scaling laws of coronary arterial trees.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Niu, Pei; Niu, Xiaolong; Shen, Wenzeng; Duan, Fei; Ding, Liang; Wei, Xiliang; Gong, Yanjun; Huo, Yong; Kassab, Ghassan S; Tan, Wenchang; Huo, Yunlong

    2015-12-01

    Despite the well-known design principles of vascular systems, it is unclear whether the vascular arterial tree obeys some scaling constraints during normal growth and ageing in a given species. Based on the micro-computed tomography measurements of coronary arterial trees in mice at different ages (one week to more than eight months), we show a constant exponent of 3/4, but age-dependent scaling coefficients in a length-volume scaling law (Lc=K(length-volume) · Vc³/⁴; Lc is the crown length, Vc is the crown volume, K(length-volume) is the age-dependent scaling coefficient) during normal growth and ageing. The constant 3/4 exponent represents the self-similar fractal-like branching pattern (i.e. basic mechanism to regulate the development of vascular trees within a species), whereas the age-dependent scaling coefficients characterize the structural growth or resorption of vascular trees during normal growth or ageing, respectively. This study enhances the understanding of age-associated changes in vascular structure and function. PMID:26701881

  11. Age-progression technology and its application to law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heafner, Horace

    1996-02-01

    The application of recent computer technology of the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children (NCMEC) has provided the means to age progress faces of long term missing children. In the thousands of cases of missing children that have disappeared for two or more years, there is a particular priority to identify and recover these children. It is apparent that long term solutions to this problem lie in the realm of technology. One of the areas is the computerized aging of children's faces. Forensic artists working with this new technology help this goal become a reality. When imaging a child's face, the forensic artist must consider using photographs of the biological family at an age consistent with the age of the missing child. With these pictures, a reasonable likeness can be produced using computer technology. This image can aid law enforcement, child find and social service agencies and the public in their search for the missing child. Unique features of the system provide for the stretching, merging, pixelation and refining of a completed progression. A knowledge of the steps of facial growth and anatomy is necessary to achieve an accurate image. Future developments in age progression and facial reconstruction may be in the realm of morphing technology. Application of this technology is being tested to provide a more accurate image for investigative use.

  12. Sexuality in advanced age in Jewish thought and law.

    PubMed

    David, Benjamin E; Weitzman, Gideon A

    2015-01-01

    Judaism has a positive attitude to sexual relations within a marriage, and views such sexual relations as important not only for procreation but also as part of the framework of marriage. This is true for any age group, and sexuality is seen as an essential element of marriage for couples of advanced age. In this article, the authors present the views of Jewish law and thought regarding sexuality among older couples. The authors illustrate this using 3 case studies of couples who sought guidance in the area of sexuality. In addition, this area of counseling benefits greatly from an ongoing relationship and dialogue between expert rabbis in the field and therapists treating older Orthodox Jewish patients for sexual dysfunction. The triad relationship of couple, therapist, and rabbi enhances the ability to treat and assist such couples to seek treatment and overcome their difficulties. PMID:24313599

  13. When Do Laws Matter? National Minimum-Age-of-Marriage Laws, Child Rights, and Adolescent Fertility, 1989–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify. PMID:25525281

  14. Bringing the Law to the Gerontological Stage: A Different Look at Movies and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2006-01-01

    Films often portray the complexities of real-life aging issues, showing how they are apparently handled outside of and around the law or legal issues. Furthermore, films considering the aged and the social issues associated with aging also reveal how the law actually functions as a framework around and within which people develop customs, habits,…

  15. Chief Student Affairs Officers' Interpretation and Implementation of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age and the Amethyst Initiative: A Discursive Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rebecca Jane

    2012-01-01

    High-risk drinking is an endemic health and safety issue for college campuses in the United States (U.S.). While public health officials have recommended various models for campus alcohol prevention efforts, in 2008 a group of college presidents recommended a controversial strategy: reconsidering the U.S. minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). The…

  16. Effects of a Minimum-Age Tobacco Law--Swedish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundh, Mona; Hagquist, Curt

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the prerequisites for tobacco prevention. The situations before and after the introduction of a minimum-age law were compared with respect to opportunities for adolescents to buy tobacco, and to attitudes towards the law. Data were collected in 1996 and 2000 with a questionnaire among all…

  17. The Law of Entropy and the Aging Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaras, T. T.

    1974-01-01

    Entrophy, internal work on body, mass, and energy are analyzed in relation to the human system and its rate of deterioration. Progressive development, increasing physical and mental efficiency, low caloric intake, and configuration management techniques are recommended for combating the aging process. (Author/SDH)

  18. Age of Sexual Consent Law in Canada: Population-Based Evidence for Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bonnie B.; Cox, David N.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the implications of the 2008 increase in age for sexual consent in Canada using a population health survey of Canadian adolescents. Government rationales for the increase asserted younger adolescents were more likely to experience sexual exploitation and engage in risky sexual behaviour than adolescents 16 and older. Using data from sexually experienced adolescents in the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS, N=6,262; age range 12 – 19; 52% female), analyses documented the scope of first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, then compared sexual behaviours of younger teens (14 and 15 years) with older teens (16 and 17) navigating their first year of sexual activity. Comparisons included: forced sex, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, multiple partners, condom use, effective contraception use, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy involvement. Results showed very few 14- and 15-year-olds had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions based on age (boys: <2%, girls: 3–5%). In contrast, among 12- and 13-year-olds (a group unaffected by the law’s change) between 25% and 50% had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, and almost 40% of teens who first had sex before age 12 reported a first partner age 20 years or more. In their first year of intercourse, 14- and 15-year-olds were slightly more likely to report forced sex and 3 or more partners than older teens, but otherwise made similarly healthy decisions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating policy using population health data and shows that better strategies are needed to protect children 13 and under from sexual abuse. PMID:27087775

  19. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. State Firearm Laws, Firearm Ownership, and Safety Practices Among Families of Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Methods. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Results. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Conclusions. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership. PMID:24825210

  1. Law officers' views on enforcement of the minimum drinking age: a four-state study.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, M; Wagenaar, A C; Hornseth, G W

    1995-01-01

    Qualitative data on enforcement of the minimum drinking age in the United States were obtained through in depth interviews with law enforcement officers in May and June 1992. Interviews were conducted with 37 supervisory and line law enforcement personnel in 15 city and county law enforcement agencies in four States. The selected agencies had varying levels of enforcement as measured by arrest rates. Interviews focused on the social and political context of enforcement of the drinking age, constraints to enforcement, and officers' recommendations for improving enforcement efforts. Officers generally perceive an acceptance of youth drinking by many segments of their communities, and they do not receive significant encouragement from community members to increase enforcement efforts. Political factors are thought to play some role in determining enforcement levels, especially in sheriffs' departments. Reported constraints on enforcement of the minimum drinking age include resource limitations, a number of practical problems, perceptions that punishments are inadequate, time and effort required for processing and paperwork, and the low status accorded enforcement of the minimum drinking age. Officers report facing a number of evidentiary and procedural challenges. Officers suggested a number of ways in which enforcement of the minimum drinking age could be improved. PMID:7638330

  2. [The age-related dynamics of mortality and the Gompertz-Makeham law].

    PubMed

    Ekonomov, A L; Iarygin, V N

    1989-01-01

    Using the statistics of mortality of Caucasian population of 48 states of the USA (1969-1971) it was demonstrated that the real age dynamics of human mortality may differ significantly both from the Gompertz law and from the Gompertz-Makeham law. Using of the Gompertz-Makeham formula leads to appearance of negative A value in 77 cases out of 96. This makes it difficult to interpret this parameter as a "background" component of mortality. Using of the Gompertz formula in different age groups leads uncoordinated changes in alpha and R0 values in every state. Hence, it is impossible to plot geographically stable characters for Gompertz parameters alpha for subsequent epidemiological analysis. The "aging rate", estimated by parameter is not stable throughout the life span of 30-92 years, but changes with certain pattern. PMID:2741560

  3. Minimum Drinking Age Laws Effects on American Youth: 1976-1987. Monitoring the Future. Occasional Paper Series, Paper 28.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    This research was undertaken to delineate cross-sectional differences among U.S. high school seniors and young adults that may be due to variations in recent years in state-level minimum drinking age laws, and to examine the effects of recent changes in minimum drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, and on other relevant attitudes and…

  4. Streamwater ages derived from tritium show power law variation with discharge like silica concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Michael; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Understanding runoff generation is important for management of freshwater systems. Determining transit time distributions of streamwaters and how they change with discharge gives information on the flowpaths and recharge sources of streams - vital information for determining the responses of streams to stressors such as pollution, landuse change, or climate change. This work takes a first look at unique information on how transit time distributions change with discharge in some New Zealand catchments. Transit time distributions of streamwaters have been determined from tritium measurements on single samples in this work. This allows changes with stream discharge to be observed, in contrast to previous isotope studies which have given averaged transit time distributions based on series of samples. In addition, tritium reveals the wide spectrum of ages present in streams whereas oxygen-18 or chloride variations only show the younger ages (Stewart et al., 2010). It was found that the mean transit time (MTT) data could be reasonably represented by straight lines in log-log plots, indicating power law relationships between MTT and discharge. Similar power law behaviour has been observed for the rock forming elements such as silica in streamwaters (Godsey et al., 2009). Case studies are presented for two New Zealand catchments, both with volcanic ash substrates. Toenepi is a dairy catchment near Hamilton, which shows well-constrained power law relationships between MTT and discharge, and between silica concentration and discharge (Morgenstern et al., 2010). Baseflow MTTs vary from 2.5 to 157 years. Tutaeuaua is a pastoral farming catchment near Taupo. Results for nested catchments along the stream also show power law relationships for both MTT and silica with discharge. Streamwater MTTs vary from 1 to 11 years. The results indicate that (1) relatively old waters dominate many streams, (2) streamwater ages vary with discharge, and (3) age, like silica, varies according to

  5. Effects of minimum legal drinking age on alcohol and marijuana use: evidence from toxicological testing data for fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M; Brady, Joanne E; Li, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol and marijuana are among the most commonly used drugs by adolescents and young adults. The question of whether these two drugs are substitutes or complements has important implications for public policy and prevention strategies, especially as laws regarding the use of marijuana are rapidly changing. Methods Data were drawn from fatally injured drivers aged 16 to 25 who died within 1 h of the crash in nine states with high rates of toxicology testing based from 1999 to 2011 on the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (N = 7,191). Drug tests were performed using chromatography and radioimmunoassay techniques based on blood and/or urine specimens. Relative risk regression and Joinpoint permutation analysis were used. Results Overall, 50.5% of the drivers studied tested positive for alcohol or marijuana. Univariable relative risk modeling revealed that reaching the minimum legal drinking age was associated with a 14% increased risk of alcohol use (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.28), a 24% decreased risk of marijuana use (RR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.10), and a 22% increased risk of alcohol plus marijuana use (RR=1.22, 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.66). Joinpoint permutation analysis indicated that the prevalence of alcohol use by age is best described by two slopes, with a change at age 21. There was limited evidence for a change at age 21 for marijuana use. Conclusions These results suggest that among adolescents and young adults, increases in alcohol availability after reaching the MLDA have marginal effect on marijuana use. PMID:26301177

  6. Public health law in an age of terrorism: rethinking individual rights and common goods.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2002-01-01

    The balance between individual interests and common goods needs to be recalibrated in an age of terrorism. Public health agencies should have a robust infrastructure to conduct essential public health services at a level of performance that matches evolving threats to the health of the public. This includes a well-trained workforce, electronic information, surveillance, and laboratory capacity. This paper explains modern efforts at public health law reform: a Model Public Health Statute and the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), which has been enacted wholly or in part by nineteen states and the District of Columbia. Next, the paper shows why existing public health laws provide a weak foundation for public health practice. Finally, the paper offers a systematic defense of MSEHPA, which has galvanized the public debate around the appropriate balance between public goods and individual rights. PMID:12442842

  7. [The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A G

    2009-01-01

    Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve. PMID:19827677

  8. Youth and Alcohol: Laws and Enforcement. Is the 21-Year-Old Drinking Age a Myth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Inspector General (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In response to public health concerns and the adverse health consequences of alcohol abuse, the Surgeon General requested information on state alcohol laws and enforcement. In an effort to examine current state laws and regulations governing youth access to alcohol and how these laws are enforced, the Office of Inspector General conducted…

  9. Youth access to tobacco: the effects of age, gender, vending machine locks, and "it's the law" programs.

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, J R; Savageau, J A; Aisquith, B F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study evaluated the influence of age, gender, vending machine lockout devices, and tobacco industry-sponsored voluntary compliance programs ("It's the Law" programs) on underage youths' ability to purchase tobacco. METHODS. Twelve youths made 480 attempts to purchase tobacco in Massachusetts from over-the-counter retailers and vending machines with and without remote control lockout devices. Half the vendors were participating in It's the Law programs. RESULTS. In communities with no requirements for lockout devices, illegal sales were far more likely from vending machines than from over-the-counter sources (odds ratio [OR] = 5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 10.3). Locks on vending machines made them equivalent to over-the-counter sources in terms of illegal sales to youths. Vendors participating in It's the Law programs were as likely to make illegal sales as nonparticipants (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.57, 1.35). Girls and youths 16 years of age and older were more successful at purchasing tobacco. CONCLUSIONS. The It's the Law programs are ineffective in preventing illegal sales. While locks made vending machines equivalent to over-the-counter sources in their compliance with the law, they are not a substitute for law enforcement. PMID:8633739

  10. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span. PMID:11404047

  11. von Baer's law for the ages: lost and found principles of developmental evolution.

    PubMed

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-12-01

    In 1828, Karl Ernst von Baer formulated a series of empirically defined rules, which became widely known as the 'Law of Development' or 'von Baer's law of embryology'. This was one the most significant attempts to define the principles that connected morphological complexity and embryonic development. Understanding this relation is central to both evolutionary biology and developmental genetics. Von Baer's ideas have been both a source of inspiration to generations of biologists and a target of continuous criticism over many years. With advances in multiple fields, including paleontology, cladistics, phylogenetics, genomics, and cell and developmental biology, it is now possible to examine carefully the significance of von Baer's law and its predictions. In this review, I argue that, 185 years after von Baer's law was first formulated, its main concepts after proper refurbishing remain surprisingly relevant in revealing the fundamentals of the evolution-development connection, and suggest that their explanation should become the focus of renewed research. PMID:24120296

  12. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness. PMID:26061020

  13. Intergenerational Exchanges of Middle-Aged Adults With Their Parents and Parents-In-Law in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Fingerman, Karen L.; Han, Gyounghae

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated patterns of support exchanges between Korean adult children and their parents and parents-in-law, gender differences in these patterns, and implications of children’s marital quality for exchange patterns. Data were from a nationally representative sample of married adults (N = 920, age 30–59 years) with at least 1 living parent and 1 living parent-in-law. Latent class analysis was applied to 12 indicators of exchanges (financial, instrumental, emotional support given to and received from parents and parents-in-law). Five classes of exchanges were identified, 3 showing balanced patterns of exchanges with parents and parents-in-law across three types of support and 2 classes with unbalanced patterns (e.g., giving instrumental and financial, but not emotional support). The findings revealed variability in intergenerational exchange patterns, with a mix of patrilineal traditional and balanced patterns. Significant associations of exchange patterns with adult children’s marital quality suggest the importance of balanced exchanges with parents for marriage. PMID:25937670

  14. Professional Development in Law, Health Care, and Aging: A Model Fellowship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapp, Marshall B.

    2000-01-01

    Argues there is a growing need for a core of professionals with the education and sensitivities necessary to integrate the fields of law, health care, and gerontology. Paper describes a professional development fellowship program which attempts to address this need by having recently graduated attorneys assess, on a firsthand level, provisions of…

  15. HIV transmission law in the age of treatment-as-prevention.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget; Kaldor, John

    2015-12-01

    Evidence that treating people with HIV early in infection prevents transmission to sexual partners has reframed HIV prevention paradigms. The resulting emphasis on HIV testing as part of prevention strategies has rekindled the debate as to whether laws that criminalise HIV transmission are counterproductive to the human rights-based public health response. It also raises normative questions about what constitutes 'safe(r) sex' if a person with HIV has undetectable viral load, which has significant implications for sexual practice and health promotion. This paper discusses a recent high-profile Australian case where HIV transmission or exposure has been prosecuted, and considers how the interpretation of law in these instances impacts on HIV prevention paradigms. In addition, we consider the implications of an evolving medical understanding of HIV transmission, and particularly the ability to determine infectiousness through viral load tests, for laws that relate to HIV exposure (as distinct from transmission) offences. We conclude that defensible laws must relate to appreciable risk. Given the evidence that the transmissibility of HIV is reduced to negligible level where viral load is suppressed, this needs to be recognised in the framing, implementation and enforcement of the law. In addition, normative concepts of 'safe(r) sex' need to be expanded to include sex that is 'protected' by means of the positive person being virally suppressed. In jurisdictions where use of a condom has previously mitigated the duty of the person with HIV to disclose to a partner, this might logically also apply to sex that is 'protected' by undetectable viral load. PMID:26420071

  16. Aging in the shadow of the law: the case of elder guardianship in Israel.

    PubMed

    Doron, Israel

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the frail elderly, as well as other vulnerable populations who are unable to care for themselves, have been subject to legal proceedings known as guardianships. Despite changes and reforms, adult guardianship law has survived as a fundamental legal institution aimed at protecting the frail elderly as well as other incompetent adults. However, very little is known on the reality of adult guardianship under Israeli law, and the experience of the adult population under guardianship was never empirically studied in Israel. The empirical void regarding the workings of the Israeli law in this area served as the impetus for this study. The study investigated the issue of adult and elder guardianship in Israel as revealed in Family Law Courts' rulings, while focusing in particular on the profile of the wards, the reasons and motives, the legal procedure, and the outcome of the guardianship process. The study was a quantitative analysis, based on a random sample that included 523 court cases requesting legal guardianship for adults due to impaired legal competence. Rulings on these cases were provided in Family Courts from Haifa, Nazareth, and the Krayot areas in the period of the years 2000-2002. A clear but somber picture emerges from the findings of this study: Every year thousands of elderly individuals are subjected to the plenary legal authority of guardians appointed by law. This severe legal outcome takes place without providing these elderly the right to express their positions, without the provision of legal representation, and without their being seen or heard by the courts. These findings lead to the conclusion that there is urgent need in Israel to carry out extensive reform in the realm of civil legislation on the issue of guardianship for adults and the elderly. PMID:15724573

  17. Now That the Law Has Changed: Assessing the Impact of the 21 Year Old Drinking Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Terry; And Others

    To determine the effects of raising the legal drinking age on the drinking patterns of college students, especially those whose status changed from legal to illegal, a survey was designed and administered to college students before and after the legal drinking age was changed from 19 to 21. College students (N=799) completed surveys in April of…

  18. From Sin to Crime: Laws on Infanticide in the Middle Ages.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This is the second of three papers investigating the legislative history concerning infanticide. It compares the efforts of various states to protect the newborn infant between 534 and 1532 CE. When the Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, the jurisdiction of infanticide was relegated to the church, which regarded carnal delicts a sin rather than a crime. The punishment - public penance of the mother for 7-15 years - was milder than that which the murder of an adult would incur. The Council of Florence decreed in 1439 that the souls of children who died without having been baptized descend to hell. This turned infanticide from a penitential sin to the most heinous of all crimes. The states passed laws that abominated infanticide even more than the murder of older humans and punished women with ever more cruel forms of execution. Towards the men, however, who usually abandoned the women they had impregnated, the laws were lenient. Churches and society continued to vilify illegitimate birth, thus enhancing rather than preventing infanticide. The Habsburg-German legislation of 1532 ordained to torture any woman who had concealed pregnancy and birth and claimed the infant was stillborn. Legislation developed similarly in other countries, albeit at a different speed. French (1556) and British (1623) legislation reversed the burden of proof and demanded the death penalty for concealing pregnancy and birth when a dead infant was found. PMID:26583381

  19. The Myths and Realities of Age Limits for Law Enforcement and Firefighting Personnel. A Report by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    A study examined current age limitation policies affecting Federal public safety personnel and the interrelationship between job performance and aging. The study concluded that mandatory retirement of competent law enforcement officers and firefighters is unnecessary and wasteful and that the Federal Government's failure to recognize this problem…

  20. Asteroid Impacts, Crater Scaling Laws, and a Proposed Younger Age for Venus's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William; Ghent, Rebecca; Mazrouei, Sara; Robbins, Stuart; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2015-11-01

    rate as Earth. Fitting model craters to observations, we estimate Venus’ average surface age as ~130 Myr, a lower value than previous predictions. This result, if true, has interesting implications for Venus’s evolutionary history.

  1. [Numerical modeling of ideal cohorts of aging organisms obeying the Gompertz-Makeham law in association with the Strehler-Mildwan correlation].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A G

    2004-01-01

    The Gompertz-Makeham law (-dn/dt x l/n(t)=C+lambdae(gammat)) so as other genuine laws of Nature is strictly applicable only to ideal objects (populations and cohorts) analogously to laws of mechanics or thermodynamics, which are exactly true only for such physical abstractions as mass points or ideal gases. Therefore, a biologically meaningful interpretation of the parameters of this law is likely to be more important for understanding the aging process than devising of alternative analytical descriptions of biodemographic processes for the sake of a better fit only. Numerical modeling of ideal cohorts of aging organisms obeying the Gompertz-Makeha law makes it possible to differentiate possible real and apparent changes in mortality patterns that occur in human history and in evolution and are observed in gerontological experiments and to demonstratively show such effects as the dependency of longevity upon population size, the evolutionarily important possibility of reciprocal changes in the mean and maximal longevity, or detection of apparent changes in negatively correlated aging rate and vitality when the Makeham term is ignored, which is usual in demography. The basic difference between the Makeham term Cand Gompertz term lambdae(gammat) is suggested to be not that the former is constant, whereas the latter is age-dependent, but that the former comprises the contributions of inherently irresistible stresses to mortality, whereas the latter comprises the contributions of resistible stresses to mortality and shows how changes in the ability to resist them is translated into changes in mortality. PMID:15754953

  2. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  3. Copyright in a Digital Age: How To Comply with the Law--and Set a Good Example for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gary H.

    2000-01-01

    As classroom technology has developed, so have copyright laws and guidelines. Guidelines are outlined for taping broadcasts, using "home use only" videocasettes, networking and duplicating computer software, incorporating copyrighted material for multimedia productions, creating materials for posting on Internet websites, and transmitting…

  4. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  5. Possession Is Not Always the Law: With Age, Preschoolers Increasingly Use Verbal Information to Identify Who Owns What

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Peter R.; Ganea, Patricia A.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Children can identify owners either by seeing a person in possession of an object (a visual cue) and inferring that they are the owner or by hearing testimony about a claim of ownership (a verbal cue). A total of 391 children between 2.5 and 6 years of age were tested in three experiments assessing how children identify owners when these two cues…

  6. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  7. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  8. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil. PMID:27011997

  9. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  10. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  11. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  12. Older Americans Act Amendments of 1987: A Summary of Provisions. Public Law 100-175. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Carol

    The Older American Act Amendments of 1987 (Public Law 100-175) contain no major overhaul of the Act, but new provisions do significantly expand certain service components of the state and area agency on aging program under title III to address the special needs of certain populations, including the frail elderly living at home, residents of…

  13. “They Arrested Me for Loving a Schoolgirl”: Ethnography, HIV, and A Feminist Assessment of the Age of Consent Law as a Gender-based Structural Intervention in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Shanti A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1990 women’s rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. While the intention of the law and aggressive campaign was to prosecute “sugar daddies” and “pedophiles,” the average age of men charged with defilement was twenty-one years old and many were believe to be “boyfriends” in consensual sexual liaisons with the alleged victims. This article uses court records, case studies, and longitudinal ethnographic data gathered in central-eastern Uganda to examine the impact of the age of consent law at national and local levels, and specifically what the disjunctures between national intentions and local uses reveal about conflicting views about the sexual privilege and rights. I argue that existing class, gender, and age hierarchies have shaped how the Defilement Law has been applied locally, such that despite the stated aim of “protecting” young women, the law reinstates patriarchal privilege (especially against men of lower social class) while simultaneously increasing the regulation of adolescent female sexuality and undermining their autonomy. This paper demonstrates how ethnography and gender theory—which emphasizes the intersectionality of gender, age, and class in the (re)production of inequalities—can be used to examine consequences of macro-level interventions in ways that may be undetected in conventional public health evaluation techniques but that are crucial for designing and modifying effective interventions. PMID:21824700

  14. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  15. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  16. Law 302.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  17. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  18. On the Law of Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichten, William

    2004-01-01

    The law of intelligence is presented in test independent form. Mental abilities, physical brain size, and infant motor capacity follow the same law of growth from birth to adolescence. Mental growth is independent of race, "SES" or the Flynn effect. The vitality of the mental age scale calls for a reexamination of Wechsler's deviation IQ. This…

  19. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  20. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses (1) a Michigan court decision concerning reverse discrimination and voluntary affirmative action policies; (2) the Massachusetts Supreme Court's rejection of the work-to-rule strategy; and (3) an Arkansas law that will allow teachers failing a basic skills and literacy test to be fired only when their state certification expires. (MLF)

  1. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  2. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews four recent court decisions affecting school law. A Circuit Court of Appeals ruling upheld Norfolk Schools' decision to abolish busing and reinstate neighborhood schools. The United States Supreme Court dismissed appeals to lower court decisions involving a minimum grade prerequisite, a teacher's privacy rights, and an "adult" movie…

  3. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  4. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  5. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  6. Universal mortality law and immortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  7. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

  8. Rhetoric and Law: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anapol, Malthon

    1970-01-01

    Rhetoric and law had mutually beneficial influences on each other during the Graeco-Roman era. The relationship deteriorated during the middle ages because of a universal decline in learning, culture, and social organization; the hostility of the church toward rhetoric as a pagan concept; and the feudal structure in which there was no system of…

  9. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Gerber, P

    1984-03-17

    The decision in the Gillick case confirms that oral contraceptives (OCS) may be prescribed for adolescents under age 16 without their parent's knowlege or consent. And it is probable that to convey the information to parents will render the doctor guilty of professional miscnduct. This is true incases where the adolescent has reached the age of 16 and thus attained the age of consent, notwithstanding the decision in the Browne case. In that case, an elderly Birmingham general practitioner, Dr. Robert Browne, was chaged, on the information of a local family planning clinc, with serious professional misconduct when he told the father of a girl who had been his patient since birth that she was taking OCS. The girl had consulted a local family planning clinic, which had put her on OCS and conveyed the information to Dr. Browne in a confidential letter. Dr Browne had decided that her parents were the best people to counsel her, and since the information had been supplied by the clinic, "I could not accept from a third party a unilateral imposition of confidential information." The latter proposition is specious; the former is not a good defense at law. The decision of the General Medical Council's Disciplinary Committee in favor of Dr. Browne rests on tenuous reasoning. It was most likely wrong when it was handed down in 1971 and would almost certainly not be followed today. There is something in the Gillick case to infuriate every family doctor. At 1 level, the decision points the finger at as sensitive area of family medicine most often ignored by medical practitioners -- the provision of timely counseling, particularly in the area of sexual relations. The point has been reached where a family planning clinic's judgment can be lawfully substituted for that of parents on issues involving the moral and emotional development of their children. A doctor's obligation to maintain confidentiality does not come about by default, nor can it gan moral reinforcement as a result

  10. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  11. Mutational load distribution analysis (MLDA) in pancreatic cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Certain p16 mutation carriers showed mutation elevations in the specific Ki-ras and p53 alleles significantly higher than normal, similar to controls with pancreatitis. Two individuals from separate families started out with "low risk" readings subsequently converted to "high risk" categorization and remained there in each sequential exam.

  12. Update on Law-Related Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of three issues of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) that offers background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three issues include: (1) "Speech, Press, Religion, Assembly, Petition"; (2) "Law in the New Information Age"; and (3) "Human Rights."…

  13. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  14. Dementia and the law in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Coll, Patrick P; McEvoy, Kate

    2013-05-01

    Laws pertain to almost every aspect of our lives. How a law applies to a person or one situation is dependent on many variables. One important variable is the capacity of a person to understand the ramifications of their actions. One of the most common reasons for permanent loss of decisional capacity is the development of dementia. Dementia is primarily a disease of old age. As the population of Connecticut ages and the prevalence of dementiaincreases, physicians will be presented with an increasing number of difficult decisions, where the interface between the law and medical practice will have an impact on their approach to the patient and their medical care. Familiarity with pertaining Connecticut laws and the appropriate procedures to follow as outlined by those laws will help physicians address these complex issues. PMID:23777039

  15. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  16. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

  17. Law As a Career.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    Intended as a guide for people considering a career in law, this booklet addresses the following questions: (1) "What is the lawyer's role in society?" (2) "Should you be a lawyer?" (3) "What about jobs?" (4) "How much do lawyers make?" (5) "How do you choose a law school?" (6) "How to get into law school?" (7) "What is law school like?" (8) "How…

  18. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  19. [Teaching about Family Law].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

  20. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  1. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  2. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  3. The Age of Majority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of State Governments, Lexington, KY.

    During the past 2 years state laws lowering the age of majority to 18 and other statutes that confer some majority rights on minors have considerably altered the status of young people in our society. In 7 states, the age of majority has been lowered in an effort to relieve young people of the minority disabilities originally intended to protect…

  4. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  5. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

  6. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  7. Education on Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  8. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  9. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  10. The Constitutional Law Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Daniel O.

    1972-01-01

    Teachers, attorneys, and law educators met to evaluate 1971 workshops in law education and to plan improved learning experiences at future workshops. Coordination between substantive law sessions and teaching methodology sessions was cited as a major necessity. Teachers were encouraged to develop their own material. (JB)

  11. The neuroeconomic path of the law.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2004-01-01

    Advances in evolutionary biology, experimental economics and neuroscience are shedding new light on age-old questions about right and wrong, justice, freedom, the rule of law and the relationship between the individual and the state. Evidence is beginning to accumulate suggesting that humans evolved certain fundamental behavioural predispositions grounded in our intense social natures, that those predispositions are encoded in our brains as a distribution of probable behaviours, and therefore that there may be a core of universal human law. PMID:15590608

  12. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

  13. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  14. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  15. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  16. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  17. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  18. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  19. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  20. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  1. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties. PMID:22327159

  2. 45 CFR 233.39 - Age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.39 Age. (a) Condition for plan approval. A State plan under title I or...) In OAA or AABD with respect to the aged, 65 years of age or over; (ii) In AFDC, under 18 years of age... Social Security Act will be made according to the common-law method (under which a specific age...

  3. 45 CFR 233.39 - Age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.39 Age. (a) Condition for plan approval. A State plan under title I or...) In OAA or AABD with respect to the aged, 65 years of age or over; (ii) In AFDC, under 18 years of age... Social Security Act will be made according to the common-law method (under which a specific age...

  4. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  5. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as…

  6. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  7. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  8. Law and You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schurr, Sandra

    Fourteen activity units are presented to help elementary and junior high students learn about laws, rules, and respect for others. A pretest introduces the materials by asking students why society has rules and laws, which ones apply to children, and what reactions students have to the word "cop." The subsequent units involve the students in group…

  9. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity. Activities…

  10. School Law Update, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

  11. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  12. Nanotechnology and the Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  13. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  14. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  15. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  16. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  17. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  18. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  19. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  20. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  1. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  2. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped from…

  3. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  4. Impact crater scaling laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsapple, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    Impact craters are numerous on planetary bodies and furnish important information about the composition and past histories of those bodies. The interpretation of that information requires knowledge about the fundamental aspects of impact cratering mechanics. Since the typical conditions of impacts are at a size scale and velocity far in excess of experimental capabilities, direct simulations are precluded. Therefore, one must rely on extrapolation from experiments of relatively slow impacts of very small bodies, using physically based scaling laws, or must study the actual cases of interest using numerical code solutions of the fundamental physical laws that govern these processes. A progress report is presented on research on impact cratering scaling laws, on numerical studies that were designed to investigate those laws, and on various applications of the scaling laws developed by the author and his colleagues. These applications are briefly reviewed.

  5. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  6. The new energy law

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Z.

    1997-05-01

    Foreign companies, as well as Polish companies, have long awaited the introduction of a new environment for doing business in Poland`s energy sector. The adoption by the Sejm (lower house of the Polish Parliament) of a new Energy Law (Prawo Energetyczne) promises to move Poland into a brave new world for energy sector businesses. With this law, Poland hopes to leapfrog into the vanguard of European countries in terms of privatization and demonopolization of its energy sectors. Only the United Kingdom may be more progressive in this regard. During the past several months, a draft law was passed by the Sejm and sent to the Senate. The Senate introduced nearly 50 changes, passed the law and returned it to the Sejm. At that point, the Sejm committee responsible for this law recommended against almost all the Senate`s changes, returning the draft law to its original form. The actions by the Sejm, now awaited, will be final with only the signature of the president needed to put the law into force. Subsequently, this examination of the law is based upon the draft as originally passed by the Sejm and expected to be signed by Poland`s president. There are several key provisions of the proposed new law that make it so different from the current regulatory structure. The key terms that the Polish government likes to use are privatization and demonopolization, of which the latter is to come first. It is a leap forward from an energy sector that was owned entirely by the State, and where prices at all levels, from the coal mines to the residential consumer, were set without regard to cost.

  7. State Indoor Tanning Laws and Adolescent Indoor Tanning

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Gery P.; Berkowitz, Zahava; Jones, Sherry Everett; O’Malley Olsen, Emily; Miyamoto, Justin N.; Michael, Shannon L.; Saraiya, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Recently, several state indoor tanning laws, including age restrictions, were promulgated to reduce indoor tanning among minors. We examined the effects of these laws on adolescent indoor tanning. Methods. We used nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (n = 31 835). Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined the association between state indoor tanning laws and indoor tanning among US high school students. Results. Female students in states with indoor tanning laws were less likely to engage in indoor tanning than those in states without any laws. We observed a stronger association among female students in states with systems access, parental permission, and age restriction laws than among those in states without any laws. We found no significant association among female students in states with only systems access and parental permission laws or among male students. Conclusions. Indoor tanning laws, particularly those including age restrictions, may be effective in reducing indoor tanning among female high school students, for whom rates are the highest. Such reductions have the potential to reduce the health and economic burden of skin cancer. PMID:24524515

  8. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Leontsinis, Stefanos

    2014-12-01

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the n-th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we investigate the distances of galaxies and stars by comparing the first, second and third significant digit probabilities with Benford's predictions. It is found that the distances of galaxies follow the first digit law reasonable well, and that the star distances agree very well with the first, second and third significant digit.

  9. Sexuality and Australian law.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500

  10. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  11. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:25770525

  12. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  13. Electrodynamic force law controversy.

    PubMed

    Graneau, P; Graneau, N

    2001-05-01

    Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment. PMID:11415053

  14. 28 CFR 42.711 - Exception; authorized by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exception; authorized by law. 42.711 Section 42.711 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... § 42.711 Exception; authorized by law. (a) This subpart does not apply to an age distinction...

  15. Responses to the Law: A Word of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Preston; Buchanan, E. T.

    1979-01-01

    Universities have faced a wave of legalism. The lowering of the legal age of adulthood and the case law revolution that led to the death of "in loco parentis" implies a greater responsibility by the institution. Together, deans and lawyers must work to support the law and institutional purposes. (Author/CMG)

  16. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  17. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  18. Teaching Criminal Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  19. What Is Benford's Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jonathan R.; Farnsworth, David L.

    2009-01-01

    The surprising property of many data sets that their first significant digits follow Benford's Law provides examples that can pique and hold students' interest. Several ideas for student activities are presented.

  20. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  1. Stokes' Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses limitations and corrections to be made in physics experiments involving the investigations of drag and terminal velocity on spheres falling through a liquid in accordance with Stokes' law. (SL)

  2. Myocontrol in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fimbel, Eric J.; Arguin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Myoelectric (EMG) signals are used in assistive technology for prostheses, computer and domestic control. An experimental study previously conducted with young participants was replicated with elderly persons in order to assess the effect of age on the ability to control myoelectric amplitude (or myocontrol). Participants performed pointing tasks as the myoelectric amplitude was captured by a surface electrode in two modalities (sustained: stabilize the amplitude after reaching the desired level; impulsion: return immediately to resting amplitude). There was a significant decrease of performance with Age. However, the patterns of performance of young and aged were noticeably similar. The Impulsion modality was difficult (high rates of failure) and the speed-accuracy trade-offs predicted by Fitts' law were absent (bow-shaped patterns as function of target amplitude instead of logarithmic increase). Conversely, the reach phase of the Sustained modality followed the predictions of Fitts' law. However, the slope of the regression line with Fitts' index of difficulty was quite steeper in aged than in young participants. These findings suggest that 1) all participants, young and aged, adapt their reaching strategies to the anticipated state (sustained amplitude or not) and/or to the difficulty of the task, 2) myocontrol in aged persons is more fragile, i.e., performance is markedly degraded as the difficulty of the task increases. However, when individual performance was examined, some aged individuals were found to perform as well as the young participants, congruently with the literature on good aging. PMID:18030349

  3. Is life law-like?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Buchanan, Anne V

    2011-08-01

    Genes are generally assumed to be primary biological causes of biological phenotypes and their evolution. In just over a century, a research agenda that has built on Mendel's experiments and on Darwin's theory of natural selection as a law of nature has had unprecedented scientific success in isolating and characterizing many aspects of genetic causation. We revel in these successes, and yet the story is not quite so simple. The complex cooperative nature of genetic architecture and its evolution include teasingly tractable components, but much remains elusive. The proliferation of data generated in our "omics" age raises the question of whether we even have (or need) a unified theory or "law" of life, or even clear standards of inference by which to answer the question. If not, this not only has implications for the widely promulgated belief that we will soon be able to predict phenotypes like disease risk from genes, but also speaks to the limitations in the underlying science itself. Much of life seems to be characterized by ad hoc, ephemeral, contextual probabilism without proper underlying distributions. To the extent that this is true, causal effects are not asymptotically predictable, and new ways of understanding life may be required. PMID:21828277

  4. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioffe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

  5. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  6. Law of the Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Borgese, E.M.

    1983-03-01

    Seabed development will proceed even though the US declined to join 119 nations signing the Law of the Sea Treaty. The new law replaces laissez faire development with management of the seas. The US, Soviet Union, and 15 other countries, while withholding their signatures from the convention, did sign the Final Act of the Conference and can sign as full participants in the future if they choose. The new management approach considers global socio-economic and resource needs. It emphasizes international cooperation in the areas of economic development, disarmament, and in establishing rules and regulations for exploring the seabed. (DCK)

  7. Reviews Book: The Age of Wonder Equipment: Portoscope DVD: Around the World in 80 Images Book: Four Laws that Drive the Universe Book: Antimatter Equipment: Coffee Saver Starter Set Equipment: Graphite Levitation Kit Book: Critical Reading Video: Science Fiction-Science Fact Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Age of Wonder This book tells the stories of inspiring 19th-century scientists Antimatter A fast read that gives an intriguing tour of the antimatter world Science Fiction-Science Fact A video from a set of resources about the facts in science fiction WORTH A LOOK Portoscope Lightweight ×30 microscope that is easy on the purse Four Laws that Drive the Universe In just 124 pages Peter Atkins explains thermodynamics Coffee Saver Starter Kit A tool that can demonstrate the effect of reduced air pressure Graphite Levitation Kit Compact set that demonstrates diamagnetic behaviour Critical Reading A study guide on how to read scientific papers HANDLE WITH CARE Around the World in 80 Images Navigate through images from Envistat, country by country WEB WATCH This month's issue features real-time simulation program Krucible 2.0, which enables learners to run virtual experiments

  8. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  9. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  10. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  11. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  12. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  13. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  14. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  15. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  16. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  17. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  18. Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…

  19. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

  20. School Law Update--1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This book is a collection of 26 addresses made at the 23rd annual convention of the National Organization on Legal Problems of Education. It discusses issues surrounding school law in elementary, secondary, and higher education in 1977 and before. Some of the topics covered include collective bargaining, employee layoff, sex discrimination and…

  1. Environmental Law II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

    Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

  2. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  3. School Law Update, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 papers in this volume. Written in law review style and including legal citations, the papers and authors included are: (1) "Who Runs the Schools" (Flygare); (2) "Copyright Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction" (Helm); (3)…

  4. The Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  5. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  6. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  7. Discipline and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1996-01-01

    Some superintendents'"zero-tolerance" stance on guns, drugs, and disruptive student behavior conflicts with federal laws (Individuals with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act), which apply a "zero-reject" policy to many categories of students with disabilities. Superintendents should revamp policies and practices and think twice…

  8. Evolution and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, William V.

    1973-01-01

    Some court cases and legislative bills have been filed in states to legalize the use of the creationist view (of life forms on earth) in biology textbooks superseding the organic theory of evolution. The law has not yet accepted the religious viewpoint. (PS)

  9. Public Relations & the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Frank

    This monograph synthesizes the laws and regulations that form the basis of the right to representation in the court of public opinion by all who would seek to influence public and private decisions. It expresses the framework of human and social values that underlie this constitutional freedom and that give public relations and other management…

  10. Wisconsin Law Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Law School.

    A substantial portion of this issue of the Wisconsin Law Review is devoted to collective negotiations in higher education. Articles included are: "The Status and Trends of Collective Negotiations for Faculty in Higher Education," by Donald H. Wollett; "The Scope of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education," by Michael H. Moskow; "Collective…

  11. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  12. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  13. Law Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, R., Ed.; Kirchgaessner, R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal edition focuses upon the many resources for teachers to draw upon in order to infuse law-related education (LRE) into their classrooms. Isidore Starr explains the reasons behind the LRE movement, while Mabel McKinney-Browning describes the existing American Bar Association's programs in LRE. Judith Zimmer covers the Street Law…

  14. The Law and Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Meyer, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This report reviews and analyzes six books on the subject of the law and racial equality, especially as related to school desegregation. The books examined are: (1)"Government by Judiciary" by Raoul Berger, which examines the Supreme Court's interpretation of the 14th Amendment; (2) "Disaster by Decree," by Lino A. Graglia, which criticizes…

  15. Law and Ecomanagement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayda, Jaro

    1986-01-01

    This article argues that environmental awareness has a substantial impact on law, both as a technical discipline and as a policy process. It further develops the concept of ecomanagement and reviews the role of environmental impact assessments in policy development. (JDH)

  16. Schools and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reutter, E. Edmund, Jr.

    The basic areas of school law in the United States, from the governmental framework in which education functions to concerns about teachers, pupils, and school property, are covered in this book. Separate chapters describe the roles of governmental agencies at federal, state, and local levels and discuss regulation of what is taught as well as…

  17. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  18. Team Teaching School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanko, John G.; Rogina, Raymond P.

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students preparing themselves for a career in school administration are typically apprehensive about the legal issues they will face in their first administrative position. After teaching school law for the first time, the author believed that there had to be a more effective way to reach these students rather than the traditional methods…

  19. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  20. Protective Policy Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrin, Donald D.

    1994-01-01

    Offers ways to help student affairs administrators understand protective policy laws and regulations. Looks at how such federal guidelines affect campus policies, practices, and procedures. Examines the Buckley Amendment, student consumer information, student right-to-know, campus security, and the Drug Free Schools and Communities Act. (Includes…

  1. The Hungarian Library Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This booklet includes the Law-Decree No. 15 on Libraries issued by the Presidium of the Hungarian People's Republic in 1976 and the decree of the Council of Ministers on its implementation. The purpose of the decree is to further the fulfilment of citizens' cultural demands, and meet the needs for special literature of both citizens and corporate…

  2. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  3. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  4. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  5. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  6. Teaching "Law and Education" Outside the Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.

    A symposium discussion is presented on the topic, "Teaching 'Law and Education' Outside the Law School." The participants were: Walter J. McCann of Harvard Graduate School of Education; E. Edmund Reutter, Jr., of Teachers College of Columbia University; Robert J. Simpson of University of Miami Center for Policy and Law in Education; Tyll Van Geel…

  7. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  8. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  9. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  10. Upstream health law.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law." PMID:25565619

  11. [Abortion law in Italy].

    PubMed

    Havránek, F

    1979-04-01

    On May 28, 1978, the Italian senate passed a law legalizing abortions. The law, passed against the will of the Christian Democrat party and the Vatican, is the most liberal in Western Europe. Any woman 18 or older is free to seek an abortion at a private or public institution during the first 90 days of pregnancy. Abortions can be sought on health, economic, social, family, or psychological grounds. A woman requests an abortion at a hospital or clinic, or from a physician. If termination is deemed urgent, the procedure may be performed immediately. If a request is denied, a woman may make another request 7 days later. Second trimester abortions are permitted only if grave danger to the woman or deformation of the fetus is suspected. Women under 18 meed the permission of their parents or legal guardians; a court may also grant permission. Passage of the law has facilitated open debate on the legal and medical aspects of abortion. It has also guaranteed women access to abortions. Physicians, who on grounds of conscience feel they can't perform abortions, may register to be exempt from having to perform them. They may not, however, deny a woman care before and after her abortion, and if they perform the procedure even once, their name is removed from the exempt register. Additionally, all physicians are bound to attempt to preserve the life of all women as well as any fetus which shows life outside the womb. PMID:445601

  12. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  13. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  14. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  15. Freedom under Law. Revised edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Schools, CO.

    This pamphlet identifies and explains Colorado laws as they apply to juveniles and adults. The handbook was specifically developed to help teenagers know how the laws protect them and how they are expected to comply with them. Two short sections discuss the necessity of having laws and give definitions of 12 legal terms such as felony and petty…

  16. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study and review…

  17. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  18. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  19. Practical Law in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Melinda, Ed.

    This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…

  20. Immigration Law & the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

  1. Student Age and the Collegiate Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Michael; Smith, Jonathan; Howell, Jessica S.

    2015-01-01

    Using a rich data set of all SAT test takers from the 2004 through 2008 high school graduation cohorts, we investigate the impact of state-specific school age-of-entry laws on students' pathways into and through college. We document that these laws do not impact the probability that a student takes the SAT; however, we find strong evidence…

  2. Reproductive health, youth, and the law.

    PubMed

    Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article surveys legal and policy approaches to adolescent health care programs and presents data on the availability of sex education programs, contraception, and abortion for adolescents in selected countries in the developed and developing world. The age at which youth are considered legally able reach independent decisions on matters affecting their health varies from country to country, although there is a trend toward setting the "age of majority" at 18 years. There has also been a trend toward viewing laws that require parental consent to health care and treatment as a barrier to health rather than a form of protection. Alternative legal approaches to the dilemma of consent have included lowering the age of majority for purposes of medical treatment, permitting professionals tojude whether an adolescent has sufficient maturity to give consent, and the use of third-party consent (e.g. child advocate). Cultural diversity mitigates against a universal legal approach to reproductive health education. There is wide variation in the policy response to questions such as whether reproductive health education courses should be permitted within the school curriculum, whether they should be obligatory or elective, if there should be separate courses or integration of fertility-related material into existing courses, and whether the sexes should be separated for instruction. There is awareness that formal sex education programs in a school setting cannot reach the large number of adolescents outside the educational system, but laws regarding public dissemination of reproductive health information are often restrictive. Contraceptive-related law and policy affect who has access to contraception and under what conditions. Abortion law takes 2 different forms: those that establish the retionales on which a given pregnancy may be terminated and those that establish the formal procedural requirements that must be met. It is concluded that, overall, law and policy have

  3. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-07-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ( Found Chem 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all ceteris paribus laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally different to the laws of physics, because they involve approximations. Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34-50, 2000) agree that the laws of chemistry are operationally different to the laws of physics, but claim that the distinction between exact and approximate laws is too simplistic to taxonomise them. Approximations in chemistry involve diverse kinds of activity and often what counts as a scientific law in chemistry is dictated by the context of its use in scientific practice. This paper addresses the question of what makes chemical laws distinctive independently of the separate question as to how they are related to the laws of physics. From an analysis of some candidate ceteris paribus laws in chemistry, this paper argues that there are two distinct kinds of ceteris paribus laws in chemistry; idealized and approximate chemical laws. Thus, while Christie ( Stud Hist Philos Sci 25:613-629, 1994) and Christie and Christie ( Of minds and molecules. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 34--50, 2000) are correct to point out that the candidate generalisations in chemistry are diverse and heterogeneous, a distinction between idealizations and approximations can nevertheless be used to successfully taxonomise them.

  4. Iowa trial court blocks parental notification law.

    PubMed

    1997-01-31

    The US District Court for the Southern District of Iowa issued a preliminary injunction on January 22 that prohibits enforcement of that state's parental notification requirement for young women seeking abortions. Under the law, which was passed by the Iowa legislature in March 1996, one parent of a woman under the age of 18 must be notified at least 48 hours before the procedure (see RFN V/6). Alternatively, the young woman may seek a court waiver of the mandate. Judge Ronald Longstaff found that the women's health care providers challenging the law were likely to prevail in their claim that the statute presents an unconstitutional obstacle to young women's right to choose abortion. Affirming findings made in a temporary restraining order that prevented the law from taking effect earlier in the month, Judge Longstaff held that the law would put doctors who provide emergency abortions to young women at risk of liability, a possibility that could discourage physicians from providing abortion services (see RFN VI/1). The court also found that the judicial bypass laid out in the statute failed to sufficiently protect a young woman's confidentiality or guarantee an expeditious procedure. The plaintiffs in Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa vs. Miller are represented by Dara Klassel and Roger Evans of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America, CRLP's Priscilla Smith and Michael Erdos, Mark Lambert of Planned Parenthood of Greater Iowa, and Randall Wilson of the Iowa Civil Liberties Union. PMID:12292101

  5. Forecasting the Effect of the Amethyst Initiative on College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ben G.; Scribner, Richard; Ackleh, Azmy S.; Rasul, Jawaid; Jacquez, Geoffrey; Simonsen, Neal; Rommel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background A number of college presidents have endorsed the Amethyst Initiative, a call to consider lowering the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). Our objective is to forecast the effect of the Amethyst Initiative on college drinking. Methods A system model of college drinking siumlates MLDA changes through (1) a decrease in heavy episodic drinking (HED) due to the lower likelihood of students drinking in unsupervised settings where they model irresponsible drinking (misperception), and (2) an increase in overall drinking among currently underage students due to increased social availability of alcohol (wetness). Results For the proportion of HEDs on campus, effects of large decreases in misperception of responsible drinking behavior were more than offset by modest increases in wetness. Conclusions For the effect of lowering the MLDA, it appears that increases in social availability of alcohol have a stronger impact on drinking behavior than decreases in misperceptions. PMID:22432502

  6. Environmental law institute

    SciTech Connect

    Futrell, J.W.

    1993-10-01

    Congress and the Clinton Administration must consider reauthorizing some of the country's most important environmental statutes during a time of increasing environmental concern and decreasing financial resources. The debate over the U.S. environmental direction is fierce; yet if history is any guide, the result of the commotion will be better policy. The constant tugging and pulling may slog the law-making process, but resulting policy is often much better because of it. Fundamental policy issues continue to be as pertinent today as they were in the 1970s.

  7. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  8. Epilepsy and law.

    PubMed

    Beran, Roy G

    2008-05-01

    Epilepsy can define who one is rather than the diagnosis one has. It may be considered under the rubric of disability with legislative protection against discrimination. Those seeking remedy should investigate alternative dispute resolution in preference to litigation. Many areas of the life of a person with epilepsy deserve examination when considering epilepsy and law. Just some of these include: duty of care; informed consent; driving; research; social interactions; insurance; recreational pursuits; employment; and privacy. This article examines the legal implications and ramifications of these selected topics, acknowledging that the limited scope of the article has only exposed the tip of the iceberg to encourage further exploration. PMID:18234559

  9. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  10. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  11. PSYCHIATRY AND THE LAW

    PubMed Central

    Zeifert, Mark

    1957-01-01

    In Rex vs. Arnold (1724) it was held that to avail himself of the defense of insanity “a man must be totally deprived of his understanding and memory, so as not to know what he is doing, no more than an infant, a brute, or a wild beast.” Although there has been some modification of this formula in most jurisdictions, the courts still operate under the McNaghten Rule (1843) which is no more logical and actually is more difficult to apply. That such a situation exists in 1956 is a reflection on the indifference of society—and particularly the courts which it elects—as well as on the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its viewpoint to society. If we are to correct the sad formulae of the “right and wrong” and “policeman at the elbow” tests, we must have more study and better methods of communication in this area. A similar state of confusion exists in the methods of commitment of mentally ill people to psychiatric hospitals. The methods prescribed by law are archaic and cruel—and again reflect the failure of modern psychiatry to communicate its understanding to the legislatures and courts. There are many other areas of conflict between law (which looks to the past for its insights) and psychiatry (which seeks for its concepts in the current scientific advances). PMID:13383383

  12. Composition law for polarizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lages, J.; Giust, R.; Vigoureux, J.-M.

    2008-09-01

    The polarization process when polarizers act on an optical field is studied. We give examples for two kinds of polarizers. The first kind presents an anisotropic absorption—as in a Polaroid film—and the second one is based on total reflection at the interface with a birefringent medium. Using the Stokes vector representation, we determine explicitly the trajectories of the wave light polarization during the polarization process. We find that such trajectories are not always geodesics of the Poincaré sphere as is usually thought. Using the analogy between light polarization and special relativity, we find that the action of successive polarizers on the light wave polarization is equivalent to the action of a single resulting polarizer followed by a rotation achieved, for example, by a device with optical activity. We find a composition law for polarizers similar to the composition law for noncollinear velocities in special relativity. We define an angle equivalent to the relativistic Wigner angle which can be used to quantify the quality of two composed polarizers.

  13. Integrable viscous conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    We propose an extension of the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative approach to the study of normal forms for non-Hamiltonian integrable scalar conservation laws. The explicit computation of the first few corrections leads to the conjecture that such normal forms are parameterized by one single functional parameter, named the viscous central invariant. A constant valued viscous central invariant corresponds to the well-known Burgers hierarchy. The case of a linear viscous central invariant provides a viscous analog of the Camassa-Holm equation, that formerly appeared as a reduction of two-component Hamiltonian integrable systems. We write explicitly the negative and positive hierarchy associated with this equation and prove the integrability showing that they can be mapped respectively into the heat hierarchy and its negative counterpart, named the Klein-Gordon hierarchy. A local well-posedness theorem for periodic initial data is also proven. We show how transport equations can be used to effectively construct asymptotic solutions via an extension of the quasi-Miura map that preserves the initial datum. The method is alternative to the method of the string equation for Hamiltonian conservation laws and naturally extends to the viscous case. Using these tools we derive the viscous analog of the Painlevé I2 equation that describes the universal behaviour of the solution at the critical point of gradient catastrophe.

  14. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  15. Conservation Laws, Symmetries, and Elementary Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoekzema, Dick; Schooten, Gert; van den Berg, Ed; Lijnse, Piet

    2005-05-01

    The following student text on conservation laws, symmetries, and elementary particles was developed in a Dutch project for teaching modern physics to the top stream of the sixth year of secondary education (age 17-18). In a series of 35 lessons of 45-50 minutes each, students study particle-wave duality, the Heisenberg principle, probability models for properties of particles, the particle in a box, and applications, elementary particles, and astrophysics (http://www.phys.uu.nl/˜wwwpmn). In this paper we focus on particle physics and the key concepts of this chapter are: transformation, reaction equation, conservation laws, and symmetry. For recent literature regarding the teaching of symmetries and/or elementary particles, we refer to articles by Hill & Lederman, Pascolini & Pietroni,2 Kalmus,3 O'Connell,4 and Hanley.5

  16. Is Life Law-Like?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Kenneth M.; Buchanan, Anne V.

    2011-01-01

    Genes are generally assumed to be primary biological causes of biological phenotypes and their evolution. In just over a century, a research agenda that has built on Mendel’s experiments and on Darwin’s theory of natural selection as a law of nature has had unprecedented scientific success in isolating and characterizing many aspects of genetic causation. We revel in these successes, and yet the story is not quite so simple. The complex cooperative nature of genetic architecture and its evolution include teasingly tractable components, but much remains elusive. The proliferation of data generated in our “omics” age raises the question of whether we even have (or need) a unified theory or “law” of life, or even clear standards of inference by which to answer the question. If not, this not only has implications for the widely promulgated belief that we will soon be able to predict phenotypes like disease risk from genes, but also speaks to the limitations in the underlying science itself. Much of life seems to be characterized by ad hoc, ephemeral, contextual probabilism without proper underlying distributions. To the extent that this is true, causal effects are not asymptotically predictable, and new ways of understanding life may be required. PMID:21828277

  17. Makeham's addition to the Gompertz law re-evaluated.

    PubMed

    Hallén, Anund

    2009-08-01

    The Makeham parameter, a constant mortality rate independent of aging added to the Gompertz law of human mortality, is proposed to be a measure of the impact on mortality rate by extrinsic causes of mortality, with the effect of aging removed. A small intrinsic contribution to mortality, assumed to depend on the components involved in cellular function, is linked to the initial mortality rate of the Gompertz law. To avoid biased results and conclusions, the impact of extrinsic mortality should be eliminated from the Gompertz parameters. PMID:18951143

  18. Unified scaling law for earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Kim; Danon, Leon; Scanlon, Tim; Bak, Per

    2002-01-01

    We propose and verify a unified scaling law that provides a framework for viewing the probability of the occurrence of earthquakes in a given region and for a given cutoff magnitude. The law shows that earthquakes occur in hierarchical correlated clusters, which overlap with other spatially separated correlated clusters for large enough time periods and areas. For a small enough region and time-scale, only a single correlated group can be sampled. The law links together the Gutenberg–Richter Law, the Omori Law of aftershocks, and the fractal dimensions of the faults. The Omori Law is shown to be the short time limit of general hierarchical phenomenon containing the statistics of both “main shocks” and “aftershocks,” indicating that they are created by the same mechanism. PMID:11875203

  19. Zipf law: an extreme perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2016-04-01

    Extreme value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.

  20. Regional differences in sodomy laws.

    PubMed

    Young, T J

    1991-02-01

    As of 1989, 24 states prohibited either heterosexual or homosexual sodomy. This raises for study the following question: in what ways do states with sodomy laws differ from states without sodomy laws. It was hypothesized that states with sodomy laws are more punitive (as measured by the rate of adults under correctional supervision and the number of restricted civil rights for a felony conviction), rural, and southern. Although the first two hypotheses were rejected, states with sodomy laws scored significantly higher than states without such laws on Gastil's Index of Southerness. Sodomy laws may be more commonly found in the South given regional differences in social values about sex, morality, and family life. PMID:2034763

  1. Rephrasing Faraday's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, S. Eric

    2010-09-01

    As physics educators, we must often find the balance between simplicity and accuracy. Particularly in introductory courses, it can be a struggle to give students the level of understanding for which they're ready without misrepresenting reality. Of course, it's in these introductory courses that our students begin to construct the conceptual framework that they'll flesh out over a physics curriculum. So a misrepresentation at this early stage will seed difficulties and stubborn misconceptions that can persist or even strengthen through subsequent courses, especially since many upper-level texts focus more on techniques and would not directly challenge mistaken concepts. In the worst cases, our students retain misunderstandings past graduation, and even pass them on to their own students. One important case is the common representation of Faraday's law as showing that a time-varying magnetic field causes a circulating electric field.

  2. LAWS hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, John

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the proposed work, it may be impossible to meaningfully study tropical cyclones with lidar wind data because data coverage (i.e., swath width) is insufficient. Research on this grant has focused on how to maximize the benefits of a wind lidar regardless of the choice of platform or laser. Our studies have shown that major unsolved problems in tropical meteorology relate to the structure, dynamics, and role in tropical cyclogenesis of 'easterly waves'. These disturbances exist almost everywhere in the global subtropics. Results are described that focus upon easterly wave impacts on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. The availability of wind lidar data would create tremendous opportunities for the study of these waves and their role in the general circulation.

  3. Library Laws Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    This document presents excerpts and copies of state laws relating to Michigan libraries. The following are included: the Preamble of the Constitution of Michigan of 1963; Legislative Council Act (excerpt); Incompatible Public Offices; Freedom of Information Act; Open Meetings Act; Laws, Documents, and Reports (excerpts); Administrative Procedures…

  4. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing knowledge over…

  5. Simulating the Law: Experiential "Teachniques" in the Modern Law Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Yvonne; Higgins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The concept of arguing aspects of legal scenarios in order to facilitate student learning within the law curriculum originated in the vocational Inns of Court in fourteenth-century England. Nowadays, simulations of court proceedings, such as moot courts and mock trials, are widely employed as educational tools in law modules in third-level…

  6. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  7. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  8. Everyday Law for Children. The Everyday Law Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides an accessible introduction to laws that affect children and families, and the dominant public debates that surround and drive these laws. Using real-world examples, the book exposes the tension between reliance on the private, autonomous family and the public's desire to secure child wellbeing. A look at some public systems,…

  9. Critical analysis of the applicability of the Gompertz-Makeham law in human populations.

    PubMed

    Pakin YuV; Hrisanov, S M

    1984-01-01

    The adequacy of the Gompertz-Makeham law (Rt = Beat + A) for a description of human mortality was tested. The analysis was based on statistical data of current mortality rates in men and women of 35 countries for 5 calender years. The study tested the justification of the part of the Gompertz-Makeham law postulating that age-associated mortality (i.e. Beat) increases exponentially. It was found that the alpha parameter of the age component of the Gompertz-Makeham law was not a constant value within the age range 35-75 years, but had rather an age-associated shift which was qualitatively different in men and women. The conclusion was made that the Gompertz-Makeham law did not adequately describe the mortality pattern of a modern human population. This should be borne in mind when use is made of mortality indices for the analysis of the human aging process. PMID:6698409

  10. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  11. Restrictive abortion laws, antiabortion attitudes and women's contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Medoff, Marshall H

    2012-01-01

    This study empirically examines the public and social policy question: Do state restrictive abortion laws affect the likelihood that women use more highly effective contraceptive methods? Using contraceptive use data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2002 survey, the empirical results show that Medicaid Funding Restrictions, Informed Consent Laws, and Two-Visit Laws have no significant impact on adult women's (ages 18-44, 18-24, 25-34, 35-44) use of highly effective contraceptive methods. A state's antiabortion attitudes, which likely contribute to the enactment of restrictive abortion laws in a state, are a major factor in inducing greater use of highly effective contraceptive methods by adult women at-risk of an unintended pregnancy. The empirical findings remain robust for various population subgroups of adult women (i.e., married, single, employed, unemployed, with children, no children and college educated). PMID:23017704

  12. UNEQUAL BRAINS: DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    At a time when brain-based explanations of behaviour are proliferating, how will law respond to the badly behaved child? In Australia, children and youth with challenging behaviours such as aggression, swearing, or impulsivity are increasingly understood as having a behavioural disability and so may be afforded the protections of discrimination law. A brain-based approach to challenging behaviour also offers a seemingly neutral framework that de-stigmatises a child's 'bad' behaviour, making it a biological or medical issue rather than a failure of discipline or temperament. Yet this 'brain-based' framework is not as neutral as it appears. How law regulates the brain-based subject in the form of the badly behaved child depends on how law conceptualises the brain. This article examines two competing approaches to the brain in law: a structural, deterministic model and a 'plastic', flexible model. Each of these impacts differently on disabled and abled identity and consequently on discrimination law and equality rights. Using examples from Australian discrimination law, this article argues that as new brain-based models of identity develop, existing inequalities based on race, gender, and disability are imported, and new forms of stigma emerge. In the neurological age, not all brains are created equal. PMID:26744366

  13. AIDS groups challenge Federal Internet censorship law.

    PubMed

    1996-05-01

    The Communications Decency Act (CDA), a section of the 1996 telecommunications reform law, bans indecent and patently offensive expression from all online systems available to those under the age of 18. AIDS organizations and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed suit in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia, PA,to challenge the law. The ACLU contends that the CDA law is unconstitutional because it criminalizes expression that is protected by the First Amendment, and violates constitutional rights to privacy. The CDA also would impede dissemination of HIV prevention information, according to AIDS online services. Operators of these electronic information systems state that providing explicit language about safe sexual practices is essential if teenagers are to understand how to prevent HIV infection. Additionally, content providers argue that it is almost impossible to know what text or images must be censored in order to avoid government prosecution. Expert witnesses testifying for the U.S. Government stated that there are means available to purge Internet sites of materials that might be regarded as indecent. The ACLU recommends utilizing a software package that would enable parents to control their children's Internet access without requiring broad censorship. PMID:11363465

  14. Molecular Size and Raoult's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1985-01-01

    The concept of an ideal solution is ordinarily introduced in freshman chemistry by means of Raoult's Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a volatile component of a solution is proportional to its mole fraction. The relationship of this law to molecular size is discussed. (JN)

  15. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  16. Lenz's law in the kitchen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindorf, Wojciech

    1999-05-01

    A steel blade—a rather vital part of a mixer—has fallen behind a cupboard in my kitchen. The cupboard is heavy and quite permanently mounted between stove and fridge. Hopeless situation! Unless—you are an experimental physicist. This straightforward demonstration helps in appreciating the connection between Lenz's law and the law of conservation of energy.

  17. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  18. School Law in Review, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: (1) "Environmental Hazards for Urban Schools Facing the New Challenge" (Kelly Frels, Kevin A. Ewing, Timothy A. Wilkins, Jason B. Hutt); (2) "How Accommodating? High-Stakes Testing and Federal Laws That…

  19. Social Change and Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  20. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  1. [Psychiatric evaluation in civil law].

    PubMed

    Foerster, K

    1992-03-01

    Aspects of civil law of importance for the psychiatrist as expert witness are those dealing with disability pensions accident insurance, compensation in civil law and rights of the seriously disabled. The legal basis of each is briefly outlined, and some guidelines given for psychiatric court reports. Some outstanding theoretical and practical problems are mentioned. PMID:1579170

  2. Reference Service in Law Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasala, Kathleen M.

    Ten law librarians, at one private and three academic law libraries, were studied to ascertain what types of reference services they provide to their patrons. The current model employed in public libraries today was used as the baseline against which to measure these legal reference services. This model employs five traditional categories of:…

  3. The Coming Law School Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Michael I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author explains how forty years of politicized hiring in the law schools has left its destructive mark. The results are potentially catastrophic: Market forces and internal law school policies may be combining to produce a legal education bubble the likes of which the country has never seen. (Contains 11 footnotes.)

  4. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  5. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws. PMID:23086699

  6. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  7. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  8. Creative Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  9. Power-law parametrized quintessence model

    SciTech Connect

    Rahvar, Sohrab; Movahed, M. Sadegh

    2007-01-15

    We propose a simple power-law parametrized quintessence model with time-varying equation of state and obtain corresponding quintessence potential of this model. This model is compared with Supernova Type Ia (SNIa) Gold sample data, size of baryonic acoustic peak from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the position of the acoustic peak from the CMB observations and structure formation from the 2dFGRS survey and put constrain on the parameters of model. The parameters from the best fit indicates that the equation of state of this model at the present time is w{sub 0}=-1.40{sub -0.65}{sup +0.40} at 1{sigma} confidence level. Finally we calculate the age of universe in this model and compare it with the age of old cosmological objects.

  10. Literacy in the World of the Aged Care Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Linda; Casarotto, Nadia

    Australia's Aged Care Act of 1997 mandates a number of key reforms aimed at ensuring consistency in the quality of care and well-being for all residents of aged care facilities. The law required residential aged care facilities to provide high-quality care within a framework of continuous improvement which requires aged care workers to perform the…

  11. 28 CFR 42.711 - Exception; authorized by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception; authorized by law. 42.711 Section 42.711 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the...

  12. Reflections on the Law and Curricular Values in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Thro, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The Supreme Court's 1925 ruling in "Pierce v. Society of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary" ("Pierce"), striking down a law from Oregon that would have required all children, other than those needing special education, between the ages of 8 and 16 to attend public schools, essentially upheld the right of nonpublic schools to operate.…

  13. New Tax Law Impairs Plans to Encourage Early Retirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1987-01-01

    New federal tax law requiring employees to pay taxes on a large sum of money at one time rather than over the course of retirement makes college retirement "buyout plans" no longer feasible and hampers colleges' efforts to thin faculty ranks after the uncapping of the mandatory retirement age. (MSE)

  14. 20 CFR 404.1632 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determination function; for example, Treasury Department regulations on letters of credit (31 CFR part 205). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 404.1632 Section 404.1632 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1632 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determination function; for example, Treasury Department regulations on letters of credit (31 CFR part 205). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other Federal laws and regulations. 404.1632 Section 404.1632 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS...

  16. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  17. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  18. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  19. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  20. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  1. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  2. Genetic discrimination and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Natowicz, M R; Alper, J K; Alper, J S

    1992-01-01

    The use of genetic tests can lead to genetic discrimination, discrimination based solely on the nature of an individual's genotype. Instances of the discriminatory uses of genetic tests by employers and insurance companies have already been reported. The recently enacted Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), together with other federal and state laws, can be used to combat some forms of this discrimination. In this article we define and characterize genetic discrimination, discuss the applicability of the various relevant federal and state laws, including the ADA, in the areas of employment and insurance discrimination, explore the limitations of these laws, and, finally, suggest some means of overcoming these limitations. PMID:1342778

  3. Generalized second law for cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Engelhardt, Netta

    2016-01-01

    We conjecture a novel generalized second law that can be applied in cosmology, regardless of whether an event horizon is present: the generalized entropy increases monotonically outside of certain hypersurfaces we call past Q-screens. A past Q-screen is foliated by surfaces whose generalized entropy (sum of area and entanglement entropy) is stationary along one future null direction and increasing along the other. We prove that our generalized second law holds in spacetimes obeying the quantum focusing conjecture. An analogous law applies to future Q-screens, which appear inside evaporating black holes and in collapsing regions.

  4. Misunderstandings of "Law" and "Conservation": A Study of Pupils' Meanings of these Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the extent to which pupils of different ages tend to confuse scientific and everyday meanings of "Law" and "Conservation." The concepts of resource economy, environmental concern, and the law of conservation of energy are discussed in terms of potential teaching difficulties. (KR)

  5. Informing Law Curricula: Modifying First-Year Courses To Reflect the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, William B. T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserting that many traditional law school courses could be modified to take information-age concepts and interests into account, demonstrates how to recast some typical first-year courses (such as contracts, property, criminal law, criminal procedure, and legal research and writing) with information perspectives. (EV)

  6. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  7. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  8. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  9. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  10. The Law of Attrition

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    In an ongoing effort of this Journal to develop and further the theories, models, and best practices around eHealth research, this paper argues for the need for a “science of attrition”, that is, a need to develop models for discontinuation of eHealth applications and the related phenomenon of participants dropping out of eHealth trials. What I call “law of attrition” here is the observation that in any eHealth trial a substantial proportion of users drop out before completion or stop using the appplication. This feature of eHealth trials is a distinct characteristic compared to, for example, drug trials. The traditional clinical trial and evidence-based medicine paradigm stipulates that high dropout rates make trials less believable. Consequently eHealth researchers tend to gloss over high dropout rates, or not to publish their study results at all, as they see their studies as failures. However, for many eHealth trials, in particular those conducted on the Internet and in particular with self-help applications, high dropout rates may be a natural and typical feature. Usage metrics and determinants of attrition should be highlighted, measured, analyzed, and discussed. This also includes analyzing and reporting the characteristics of the subpopulation for which the application eventually “works”, ie, those who stay in the trial and use it. For the question of what works and what does not, such attrition measures are as important to report as pure efficacy measures from intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. In cases of high dropout rates efficacy measures underestimate the impact of an application on a population which continues to use it. Methods of analyzing attrition curves can be drawn from survival analysis methods, eg, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model). Measures to be reported include the relative risk of dropping out or of stopping the use of an application, as well as a “usage half-life”, and

  11. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Stressing-Rate State Evolution in Rate-State Friction Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Rubin, A. M.; Bayart, E.; Savage, H. M.; Marone, C.; Beeler, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Standard rate and state friction laws fail to explain the full range of observations from laboratory friction experiments. A new state evolution law has been proposed by Nagata et al. (2012) that adds a linear stressing-rate-dependent term to the Dieterich (aging) law, which may provide a remedy. They introduce a parameter c that controls the contribution of the stressing rate to state evolution. We show through analytical approximations that the new law can transition between the responses of the traditional Dieterich (aging) and Ruina (slip) laws in velocity step up/down experiments when the value of c is tuned properly. In particular, for c = 0 the response is pure aging while for finite, non-zero c one observes slip law like behavior for small velocity jumps but aging law like response for larger jumps. The magnitude of the velocity jump required to see this transition between aging and slip behaviour increases as c increases. In the limit of c >> 1 the response to velocity steps becomes purely slip law like. In this limit, numerical simulations show that this law loses its appealing time dependent healing property. An approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo parameter search on data for large magnitude velocity step tests reveals that it is only possible to determine a lower bound on c using datasets that are well explained by the slip law. For a dataset with velocity steps of two orders of magnitude on simulated fault gouge we find this lower bound to be c ≈ 10.0. This is significantly larger than c ≈ 2.0 used by Nagata et al. (2012) to fit their data (mainly bare rock experiments with smaller excursions from steady state than our dataset). Similar parameter estimation exercises on slide hold slide data reveal that none of the state evolution laws considered - Dieterich, Ruina, Kato-Tullis and Nagata - match the relevant features of the data. In particular, even the aging law predicts only the correct rate of healing for long hold times but not the correct

  12. von Neumann's Law: Theoretical and Microgravity Experimental Comparison for Coarsening Diffusion in Bubble Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gravity in influencing the theoretical limit for bubble lattice coarsening and aging behavior, otherwise called von Neumann's law, is examined theoretically and experimentally. Preliminary microgravity results will be discussed.

  13. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  14. The South's First Black Woman Law Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collison, Michele N-K.

    1988-01-01

    Marilyn Yarbrough, the University of Tennessee's new law school dean, has impressive credentials, a reputation as an excellent administrator, and interests in increasing minority representation in law and reducing the financial burden of law students. (MSE)

  15. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  17. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  18. Law in the Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerlach, Ronald A.

    1970-01-01

    An evaluation is made of existing teacher guides and curricula, and proposals are given for curriculum improvements in the areas of Jurisprudence, Law, and Civics at the elementary and secondary level. (EJS)

  19. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  20. The brain and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  1. Novel Third-Law Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonc, William

    1995-01-01

    Presents an easy method to demonstrate Third-Law interactions using identical button magnets sliding along a smooth (nonmagnetic) knitting needle. Explains the gravitational and magnetic interactions in the case of horizontal and vertical positions of the needle. (JRH)

  2. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  4. The brain and the law.

    PubMed

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-11-29

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  5. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  6. Allometric scaling laws of metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Jafferson Kamphorst Leal; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Barbosa, Lauro A.

    2006-12-01

    One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from physical ones in a simple manner. In this work, we review the interspecific allometry of metabolic rates, where recent progress in the understanding of the interplay between geometrical, physical and biological constraints has been achieved. For many years, it was a universal belief that the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of all organisms is described by Kleiber's law (allometric exponent b=3/4). A few years ago, a theoretical basis for this law was proposed, based on a resource distribution network common to all organisms. Nevertheless, the 3/4-law has been questioned recently. First, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the empirical value of b is 3/4 or 2/3, or even nonuniversal. Second, some mathematical and conceptual errors were found these network models, weakening the proposed theoretical arguments. Another pertinent observation is that the maximal aerobically sustained metabolic rate of endotherms scales with an exponent larger than that of BMR. Here we present a critical discussion of the theoretical models proposed to explain the scaling of metabolic rates, and compare the predicted exponents with a review of the experimental literature. Our main conclusion is that although there is not a universal exponent, it should be possible to develop a unified theory for the common origin of the allometric scaling laws of metabolism.

  7. Entropic Corrections to Coulomb's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendi, S. H.; Sheykhi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Two well-known quantum corrections to the area law have been introduced in the literatures, namely, logarithmic and power-law corrections. Logarithmic corrections, arises from loop quantum gravity due to thermal equilibrium fluctuations and quantum fluctuations, while, power-law correction appears in dealing with the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and assuming the quantum corrected relation for the entropy, we propose the entropic origin for the Coulomb's law in this note. Also we investigate the Uehling potential as a radiative correction to Coulomb potential in 1-loop order and show that for some value of distance the entropic corrections of the Coulomb's law is compatible with the vacuum-polarization correction in QED. So, we derive modified Coulomb's law as well as the entropy corrected Poisson's equation which governing the evolution of the scalar potential ϕ. Our study further supports the unification of gravity and electromagnetic interactions based on the holographic principle.

  8. Aging on Parisi's Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, J.-P.; Dean, D. S.

    1995-03-01

    We present a detailed study of simple “tree" models for off equilibrium dynamics and aging in glassy systems. The simplest tree describes the landscape of a random energy model, whereas multifurcating trees occur in the solution of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. An important ingredient taken from these models is the exponential distribution of deep free-energies, which translate into a power-law distribution of the residence time within metastable “valleys". These power law distributions have infinite mean in the spin-glass phase and this leads to the aging phenomenon. To each level of the tree is associated an overlap and the exponent of the time distribution. We solve these models for a finite (but arbitrary) number of levels and show that a two-level tree accounts very well for many experimental observations (thermoremanent magnetization, a.c. susceptibility, second noise spectrum....). We introduce the idea that the deepest levels of the tree correspond to equilibrium dynamics whereas the upper levels correspond to aging. Temperature cycling experiments suggest that the borderline between the two is temperature dependent. The spin-glass transition corresponds to the temperature at which the uppermost level is put out of equilibrium but is subsequently followed by a sequence of (dynamical) phase transitions corresponding to non equilibrium dynamics within deeper and deeper levels. We tentatively try to relate this “tree" picture to the real space “droplet" model, and speculate on how the final description of spin-glasses might look like.

  9. The scope of Baker's law.

    PubMed

    Pannell, John R; Auld, Josh R; Brandvain, Yaniv; Burd, Martin; Busch, Jeremiah W; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier; Conner, Jeffrey K; Goldberg, Emma E; Grant, Alannie-Grace; Grossenbacher, Dena L; Hovick, Stephen M; Igic, Boris; Kalisz, Susan; Petanidou, Theodora; Randle, April M; de Casas, Rafael Rubio; Pauw, Anton; Vamosi, Jana C; Winn, Alice A

    2015-11-01

    Baker's law refers to the tendency for species that establish on islands by long-distance dispersal to show an increased capacity for self-fertilization because of the advantage of self-compatibility when colonizing new habitat. Despite its intuitive appeal and broad empirical support, it has received substantial criticism over the years since it was proclaimed in the 1950s, not least because it seemed to be contradicted by the high frequency of dioecy on islands. Recent theoretical work has again questioned the generality and scope of Baker's law. Here, we attempt to discern where the idea is useful to apply and where it is not. We conclude that several of the perceived problems with Baker's law fall away when a narrower perspective is adopted on how it should be circumscribed. We emphasize that Baker's law should be read in terms of an enrichment of a capacity for uniparental reproduction in colonizing situations, rather than of high selfing rates. We suggest that Baker's law might be tested in four different contexts, which set the breadth of its scope: the colonization of oceanic islands, metapopulation dynamics with recurrent colonization, range expansions with recurrent colonization, and colonization through species invasions. PMID:26192018

  10. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    PubMed

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights. PMID:12222382

  11. Paris court attacks abortion law.

    PubMed

    Dorozynski, A

    1995-07-15

    A Paris court last week challenged a 1993 law that makes it a criminal offense to obstruct abortions. The court acquitted nine anti-abortion protestors who had broken into the maternity ward of the public hospital Pitie-Salpetriere last November and prayed at the entrance of a ward where patients are admitted for abortions. The judges ruled that the protestors had not interfered with abortions being carried out because none were taking place at the time of the demonstration; furthermore, the judges stated, because the fetus could be considered a person (child), the protestors were protected by other laws which give immunity to those breaking a law in order to protect another person's life, or to defend a child that had been abandoned. The court continued to say that a fetus should be protected, whether or not it was considered a person, because it was definitely more than nothing. The Syndicat de la Magistrature, the association of French magistrates, believes the tribunal has denied the right to abortion guaranteed in the 1975 law. Veronique Neietz, who drafted the 1993 law, was "scandalized" by the decision and believes the decision of the court was made in retribution for a recent parliamentary decision to exclude anti-abortion protestors from the general amnesty given after presidential elections to minor offenders. During the same week of this court decision, two tribunals, in Lyons and in Bourg-en-Bresse, sentenced 45 anti-abortionists to suspended prison terms with fines. PMID:7613424

  12. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  13. Girl child: her rights and law.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, S D

    1995-01-01

    This article points out the disparity between India's laws to protect female children and their actual living conditions. It is asserted that the role of women needs to be strengthened and that equal rights are executed to the advantage of children. Equality must come at the very beginning of life. Girl children need access to health, nutrition, education, and other basic services. In India, girls are guaranteed an equal right to education, but fewer girls are enrolled in primary school, and very few girls go on to secondary schools. There is no enforcement of compulsory laws, which particularly disadvantage girls from poor families. Girls marry below the legal minimum age. Early childbearing shortens women's life expectancy and adversely affects their health, nutrition, education, and employment opportunities. Prevention of early child marriage should be strictly enforced. Amniocentesis is performed in order to determine the sex of the child and abort female fetuses. The Juvenile Justice Act of 1986 includes special provisions for the protection, treatment, and rehabilitation of girls under 18 years old and of boys younger than 16. This act protects girls trapped in brothels for child prostitution and protects any person engaged in an immoral, drunken, or depraved life. Juvenile Welfare Boards address the problem of neglected girls and offer special protective homes and supervision by probation officers. The act needs to strengthen noninstitutional services, such as sponsorship, family assistance, foster care, and adoption. Girl children grow to womanhood. Effective social development in childhood reaps rewards in adulthood. PMID:12157999

  14. Education Law Texts Usage: Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the textbooks professors use in education law courses, based on a survey of 110 members of the Education Law Association during 1996-97. Almost half preferred Alexander and Alexander's "American School Law," with McCarthy and Caqmbron-McCabe's "Public School Law" a close second. Only 44% required or suggested additional nontextbook…

  15. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  16. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  17. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other laws. 15.17 Section 15... TRAINING CENTER § 15.17 Other laws. Nothing in the rules and regulations in this part will be construed to abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  18. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  19. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  20. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  1. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  2. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3... RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a... transfer to the requirements of applicable law. Based on the laws cited in this paragraph,...

  3. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  4. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  5. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  6. 22 CFR 231.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 231.16 Section 231.16 Foreign... EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 231.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  7. 14 CFR 155.3 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicable law. 155.3 Section 155.3... RELEASE OF AIRPORT PROPERTY FROM SURPLUS PROPERTY DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS § 155.3 Applicable law. (a... transfer to the requirements of applicable law. Based on the laws cited in this paragraph,...

  8. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  9. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  10. Zeroth Law, Entropy, Equilibrium, and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2008-01-01

    The place of the zeroth law in the teaching of thermodynamics is examined in the context of the recent discussion by Gislason and Craig of some problems involving the establishment of thermal equilibrium. The concept of thermal equilibrium is introduced through the zeroth law. The relation between the zeroth law and the second law in the…

  11. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  12. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  13. Power laws and fragility in flow networks☆

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Jesse; Chu, Catherine J.; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2015-01-01

    What makes economic and ecological networks so unlike other highly skewed networks in their tendency toward turbulence and collapse? Here, we explore the consequences of a defining feature of these networks: their nodes are tied together by flow. We show that flow networks tend to the power law degree distribution (PLDD) due to a self-reinforcing process involving position within the global network structure, and thus present the first random graph model for PLDDs that does not depend on a rich-get-richer function of nodal degree. We also show that in contrast to non-flow networks, PLDD flow networks are dramatically more vulnerable to catastrophic failure than non-PLDD flow networks, a finding with potential explanatory power in our age of resource- and financial-interdependence and turbulence. PMID:26082568

  14. Indentation law for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.

  15. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  16. Conservation laws in embedding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, Oscar; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this work is considered embedding theory, a theory in which independent variables which describe gravity are functions of the space-time embedding into a ten-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. Neother's theorem is used to find conservation laws for energy and angular momentum as a result from the action's invariance in relation to the rotation and translation of the system. The form of these conservation laws and their consequences depending on the different formulations of embedding theory is discussed. It is also analyzed a transition from embedding theory to a field theory in a flat space-time with a number of dimensions greater than four. The same procedure is followed in this case to find conservation laws, resulting in the solution of the problem of time present in Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  17. Power Law Distribution in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Hari M.; Campanha, José R.; Chavarette, Fábio R.

    We studied the statistical distribution of student's performance, which is measured through their marks, in university entrance examination (Vestibular) of UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista) with respect to (i) period of study-day versus night period (ii) teaching conditions - private versus public school (iii) economical conditions - high versus low family income. We observed long ubiquitous power law tails in physical and biological sciences in all cases. The mean value increases with better study conditions followed by better teaching and economical conditions. In humanities, the distribution is close to normal distribution with very small tail. This indicates that these power law tails in science subjects are due to the nature of the subjects themselves. Further and better study, teaching and economical conditions are more important for physical and biological sciences in comparison to humanities at this level of study. We explain these statistical distributions through Gradually Truncated Power law distributions. We discuss the possible reason for this peculiar behavior.

  18. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b) For families and children, the agency must use the popular usage method (under which an age is reached... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 435.522 Section...

  19. Quality Care through Multi-Age Grouping of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prendergast, Leo

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that multi-age grouping in early childhood settings can and does work. Addresses four main hurdles to successful implementation: (1) laws and regulations that act as barriers; (2) health concerns; (3) overcoming educational values that conflict with those of the age-grouped classroom; and (4) staff misunderstanding of multi-age grouping…

  20. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  1. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  2. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  3. 42 CFR 435.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... must use the common-law method (under which an age reached the day before the anniversary of birth). (b... on the anniversary of birth), if this method is used under the State's AFDC plan. (c) For aged, blind... July 1, for determining an individual's age if the year, but not the month, of his birth is...

  4. Facing the Millenium: Law Schools, Law Librarians, and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the role of advancing technology in legal education looks at the administrative and organizational questions it poses, solutions developed at the Duke University (North Carolina) law school, and new possible roles for library directors in managing and planning the growing integration of information technology into all aspects of…

  5. Law in the Workplace. You and the Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

    Meant to help both employees and employers avoid problems by generally explaining the law of the workplace and suggesting places to turn for further information concerning particular situations, this booklet is presented in a question/answer format. The areas covered and their subtopics are as follows: (1) recruiting and hiring; (2) employees'…

  6. Law and Community Service: The Appalachian School of Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Lynda

    2001-01-01

    At southwest Virginia's new Appalachian School of Law, students volunteer 25 hours each semester on community service projects. Projects fall into two categories: pure service by sharing a skill or interest, and service that draws on legal skills, such as presenting legal seminars to senior citizens' groups or conducting conflict resolution…

  7. The Law of Teacher Evaluation: Case Law Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the law of teacher evaluation using recent cases. The purpose is to assist administrators in separating professional lore from legal requirements. Case analysis, with citations, is provided in several topic areas, including procedural default, remediation plans, statutory discrimination, and grievance arbitrability. (Author)

  8. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  9. Teaching Law to Online Law Students at RMIT University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching…

  10. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  11. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  12. Snell's Law for Spin Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  13. Innovative telecommunications for law enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of computer-aided dispatch, mobile digital communications, and automatic vehicle location systems used in law enforcement is discussed, and characteristics of systems used by different agencies are compared. With reference to computer-aided dispatch systems, the data base components, dispatcher work load, extent of usage, and design trends are surveyed. The capabilities, levels of communication, and traffic load of mobile digital communications systems are examined. Different automatic vehicle location systems are distinguished, and two systems are evaluated. Other aspects of the application of innovative technology to operational command, control, and communications systems for law enforcement agencies are described.

  14. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples. PMID:25615053

  15. Zipf law in firms bankruptcy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshi

    2004-06-01

    Using an exhaustive list of Japanese bankruptcy in 1997, we discover a Zipf law for the distribution of total liabilities of bankrupted firms in high debt range. The life-time of these bankrupted firms has exponential distribution in correlation with entry rate of new firms. We also show that the debt and size are highly correlated, so the Zipf law holds consistently with that for size distribution. In an attempt to understand “physics” of bankruptcy, we show that a model of debtor-creditor dynamics of firms and a bank, recently proposed by economists, can reproduce these phenomenological findings.

  16. Power law in firms bankruptcy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Byoung Hee; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Jae Woo

    2007-01-01

    We consider the scaling behaviors for fluctuations of the number of Korean firms bankrupted in the period from 1 August 2002 to 28 October 2003. We observe a power law for the distribution of the number of the bankrupted firms. The Pareto exponent is close to unity. We also consider the daily increments of the number of firms bankrupted. The probability distribution of the daily increments for the firms bankrupted follows the Gaussian distribution in central part and has a fat tail. The tail parts of the probability distribution of the daily increments for the firms bankrupted follow a power law.

  17. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  18. Ethics and the law: the law and assisted human conception.

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1990-07-01

    This article aims to provide no more than a brief summary and overview of some of the principal legal questions which arise in connection with assisted human conception. There is no requirement of legal suitability for natural parenthood, though a child may be removed from parental care at birth if its welfare is considered to be at risk. Where medical or other assistance is required, however, the law and social judgments may impinge on the freedom of individuals to procreate. Commercial surrogacy has recently been criminalized, but private surrogacy arrangements without reward are not illegal--although any contract would probably be unenforceable through the courts. If medical intervention is required to achieve assisted conception, the availability of resources for NHS treatment, the physical and mental health of the prospective mother and father, and the welfare (or lack of it) of any prospective child, may be factors in deciding whether an infertility unit will offer treatment. Such practices must not operate unfairly and must not discriminate on racial grounds. If treatment is provided, and a woman becomes pregnant, the ordinary abortion laws will apply and, it is thought, will extend to the selective reduction of a multiple pregnancy--there is no claim in English law for 'wrongful birth'. AID does not constitute adultery, and the law has recently been reformed to recognize children born following AID as legitimate to their social parents. A child may be regarded as the legitimate child of a surrogate mother's marriage, but where the baby is genetically distinct from the surrogate mother, the law, and is uncertain and as yet could be conflicting claims of parenthood without legislation. The storage and disposal of human gametes and embryos may raise problems of 'ownership'. PMID:2207612

  19. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  20. Age Discrimination in Employment Suits: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, J. Michael

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on those elements of an age discrimination suit that have traditionally presented the most difficulty for attorneys--burden of proof, bona fide occupational qualifications, and procedure matters among them. Available from West Virginia Law Review, W.V.U. Law Center, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  1. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  2. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  3. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  5. State-level school competitive food and beverage laws are associated with children’s weight status

    PubMed Central

    Oh, April; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Chriqui, Jamie F.; Mâsse, Louise C.; Moser, Richard P.; Perna, Frank

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study attempted to determine whether state laws regulating low nutrient, high energy-dense foods and beverages sold outside of the reimbursable school meals program (referred to as ‘competitive foods’) are associated with children’s weight status. METHODS We use the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) database of state codified law(s) relevant to school nutrition. States were classified as having strong, weak, or no competitive food laws in 2005 based on strength and comprehensiveness. Parent-reported height and weight along with demographic, behavioral, family, and household characteristics were obtained from the 2007 National Survey of Children’s Health. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses estimated the association between states’ competitive food laws and children’s overweight and obesity status (BMI-for-age ≥ 85th percentile). Children (n=16271) between the ages of 11–14 years with a BMI for age ≥ 5th percentile who attended public school were included. RESULTS Children living in states with weak competitive food laws for middle schools had over a 20% higher odds of being overweight or obese than children living in states with either no or strong school competitive food laws. CONCLUSION State-level school competitive food and beverage laws merit attention with efforts to address the childhood obesity epidemic. Attention to the specificity and requirements of these laws should also be considered. PMID:25117896

  6. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  7. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  8. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  9. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  10. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  11. Power laws and macroeconomic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffeo, Edoardo; Gallegati, Mauro; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Palestrini, Antonio

    2003-06-01

    We study the duration distribution of recessions and recoveries occurred in a pool of industrialized countries during the last 120 years. We find that for recessions the duration is distributed according to a power law, and that the power exponent is virtually invariant as we split up the time span into sub-periods. The evidence regarding the duration of recoveries is mixed, however.

  12. What Does the Law Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides legal explanations to the following concerns: (1) case law on specific learning disability (SLD) eligibility; (2) recent developments on response to intervention (RTI); (3) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) rules; and (4) the Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) regulation. The author's…

  13. School Law in Review 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Association for Continuing Education, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    This compilation of the presentations delivered at the NSBA Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar includes the following papers: (1) "The 'Dimensions' of Trial Advocacy" (Keith Evans); (2) "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Who Has It and Who Doesn't" (Jerry L. Wyckoff); (3) "Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment and…

  14. Law Students Practice in Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The glass walls and observation lounge of Hamline University Law Center's moot court allow passersby to glimpse the action day or night. Faculty offices, secretarial spaces, and several student organizations are housed on the second floor. The brick and masonry exterior was designed to fit in with other campus buildings. (Author/MLF)

  15. School Law in Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This book is a compilation of the presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association (NSBA) Council of School Attorneys Annual School Law Seminar on March 22-24, 2001, in San Diego, California. Presentations include: (1) "Religion and the Public Schools--What Hath the Supreme Court Wrought?" (Jay Worona and Patricia H. Gould); (2)…

  16. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  17. The Seed Is the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  18. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world. PMID:25630549

  19. A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Don L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate Boyle's law that provides pressure measurements in a familiar unit (psi) and makes no assumptions concerning atmospheric pressure. Items needed include bathroom scales and a 60-ml syringe, castor oil, disposable 3-ml syringe and needle, modeling clay, pliers, and a wooden block. Commercial devices use a…

  20. Fire and Water Demonstrate Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Luca, R.; Ganci, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe two classroom experiments that can be interpreted by means of Bernoulli's law. The first experiment uses a lighted candle in front of a mirror and a stream of air that is sent obliquely towards the mirror. The purpose of this experiment is to find out which way the flame will bend if air is blown at a given…

  1. The Development of Adoption Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Alice

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of U.S. adoption law since 1851. Recounts changes in the perceived "best interests" of all members of the adoption triad over time, and growing recognition of links between adoption and child welfare policy. Discusses current controversies including open adoption, birth parents' rights, unmarried fathers, and the role of…

  2. Teaching Freedom of Information Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toran, Janice

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed that a course on the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 is shaped largely by one question: how does the rhetoric behind the law match the reality of its operation? Issues such a course can address are identified, and possible course formats and teaching materials are discussed. (MSE)

  3. Measuring Law for Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Thomas, Sue; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations that combine social science and law have tremendous potential to illuminate the effects of governmental policies and yield insights into how effectively policy makers' efforts achieve their aims. This potential is infrequently achieved, however, because such interdisciplinary research contains often overlooked substantive and…

  4. Various Paths to Faraday's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redzic, Dragan V.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent note, the author presented a derivation of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction for a closed filamentary circuit C(t) which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves via the magnetic vector potential. Recently, Kholmetskii et al, while correcting an error in an equation, showed that it can be…

  5. Making School Bully Laws Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Edmondson, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, bully prevention activities moved from the local districts to the state houses where legislators amended public school laws to incorporate safety regulations. For instance, the 2001 authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as No Child Left Behind, included the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

  6. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  7. Business Law Syllabus. 1977 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This business law curriculum guide for use with eleventh or twelfth grade students provides a modular course of study designed to be covered in one school year using a four or five class periods per week schedule. The guide begins with a brief section covering the course objectives, administrative considerations such as abbreviated courses,…

  8. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  9. Lotka's Law: A Testing Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1985-01-01

    A step-by-step outline is presented for testing the applicability of Lotka's law of scientific productivity. Steps include the computation of the values of the exponent and constant based on Lotka's method and the test for significance of observed frequency distribution against the estimated theoretical distribution derived from Lotka's formula.…

  10. Law Enforcement and the Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poelvoorde, Rose; And Others

    The training program examines the relationship between law enforcement personnel and persons with disabilities. The curriculum is organized into four sections dealing with specific concerns of people with hearing impairments, visual impairments, mental retardation, and mobility impairments. Background information is presented for each disability…

  11. Law and the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.; Webster, John B.

    Court cases and legal decisions involving the student press in the late 1960s and early 1970s are brought together in this book in order to show how the law has been applied to school officials and student journalists in high school, college, and the underground. The ten chapters cover the following topics: censorship, libel, obscenity, contempt,…

  12. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  13. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  14. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  15. A generalization of Snell's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Michael L.

    1990-06-01

    This thesis presents several derivations of Snell's Law of Refraction and one of the principle of reflection. In all of these, we place different constraints upon the problem and produce the familiar laws governing reflection and refraction. The main result of this research is the expression found for Snell's Law of Refraction in which the velocity of the light particles in the medium depends upon direction. We also use inverse problems to find the index of refraction needed to move along any desired family of curves. Finally, we derive a general expression that generates a family of curves given any index of refraction. This research has several applications in the area of acoustical and optical wave propagation. In the area of acoustics, the inverse problems enable us to predict the path followed by sound waves for a given medium. This has a military use in the area of prosecuting submarine contacts and in ocean bottom surveys. The inverse problems also have applications to the bending of light rays used in laser technology. Although this paper derives several generalizations of Snell's Law of Refraction there are still areas that require further research.

  16. School Law. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    Four subjects are the focus of this discussion of school law: sexual harassment, the copyright act, school discipline, and religion and the schools. In cases of sexual harassment of students by school personnel, a criterion for determining whether a school is liable involves the standard of "actual knowledge" in which school officials have…

  17. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  18. Copyright Law Symposium. No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, New York, NY.

    This book presents the five national prizewinning papers in the twenty-third copyright law symposium conducted by the American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers (ASCAP). Titles of the papers are "The USSR Joins the Universal Copyright Convention" (first prize), "Copyright Misuse: Thirty Years Waiting for the Other Shoe" (second prize),…

  19. School Law in Review, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa, Ed.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: "From Vouchers to One Nation Under God: A Review of Recent Decisions Affecting the Separation of Church and State in the Context of Public Education" (Jay Worona); "ACLJ Memorandum: Religion in the…

  20. Effective Learning & Teaching in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burridge, Roger, Ed.; Hinett, Karen, Ed.; Paliwala, Abdul, Ed.; Varnava, Tracey, Ed.

    This book discusses key issues for the effective teaching of law from a range of experts in the United Kingdom. It includes material on teaching and the support of learning and on using learning materials and information technology in legal education. The chapters are: (1) Revising Legal Education (Tracey Varnava and Roger Burridge); (2) Learning…

  1. Family Law: Notes from China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Cynthia J.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the newly emerging legal system of the People's Republic of China, particularly the 1980 marriage law and its effects on marriage customs and divorce. In China, many roles perceived as social work roles are blended with the role of attorney. (JAC)

  2. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  3. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  4. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  5. School Law in Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhehey, M. A., Ed.

    This twenty-one chapter book deals with important, timely topics in school law. Topics include home instruction in place of public school attendance; judicial review of labor arbitration awards; procedures for nonrenewal of nontenured teachers that avoid constitutional problems; discipline by grade reduction and grade denial based on attendance;…

  6. The Coming of Secret Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relyea, Harold C.

    1988-01-01

    Traces trends in the federal government's policy toward publication of statutes and publication practices from the time of the colonies to the present administration. The impairment of the publication of federal administrative law is then discussed in the context of the rise of a national security state. (118 notes with references) (CLB)

  7. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  8. Goldilocks and the Three Complex Crater Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Formed in the gravity regime, complex craters are larger than their simple crater equivalents, due to a combination of slumping and uplift. Just how much larger is a matter of great interest for, for example, age dating studies. We examine three empirical scaling laws for complex crater size, examining their strengths and weaknesses, as well as asking how well they accord with previously published and new data from lunar, terrestrial, and venusian craters.

  9. Goldilocks and the Three Complex Crater Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Formed in the gravity regime, complex craters are larger than their simple crater equivalents, due to a combination of slumping and uplift. Just how much larger is a matter of great interest for, for example, age dating studies. We examine three empirical scaling laws for complex crater size, examining their strengths and weaknesses, as well as asking how well they accord with previously published and new data from lunar, terrestrial, and Venusian craters.

  10. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  11. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  12. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults. PMID:19697188

  13. Earthquake Nucleation on Faults with a Revised Rate- and State-Dependent Friction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kame, Nobuki; Fujita, Satoshi; Nakatani, Masao; Kusakabe, Tetsuya

    2015-08-01

    Recently N agata et al. (J Geophys Res 117:B02314, 2012) have proposed a new version of rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF) that seems to have eventually resolved all the previously known discrepancies in the existing RSFs from laboratory observations. The values of a and b, empirical RSF parameters determined by fitting the same laboratory experiments, have been revised to be five times greater and a newly noticed weakening effect by shear stress with a coefficient c has been introduced. By using this revised RSF, we reinvestigated a problem of 2D quasi-static nucleation on faults. A crack-like nucleation-zone expansion known for the `aging' version of RSF is not sustainable with the `Nagata' law, which is understandable as the Nagata law does not produce a slip-weakening distance proportional to the involved strength reduction, an aging law's feature that contradicts laboratory observations. The later stage of Nagata-law nucleation shows localization of quasi-static slip within a limited spatial extent, but the localization is much milder than that predicted by the `slip' version of RSF. With an appropriate c parameter of the Nagata law, the nucleation size seems to be reduced only by a factor from that of the aging law.

  14. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  15. The Damage Law of HTPB Propellant under Thermomechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Cheng-wu; Yang, Jian-hong; Wang, Xian-meng; Ma, Yong-kang

    2016-01-01

    By way of measuring the acoustic emission (AE) signals of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant in condition of uniform speed, and combined with the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) fracture surface observation, the damage law of HTPB composite solid propellant under thermomechanical loading was studied. The results show that the effects of thermomechanical loading on HTPB propellant are related to the time and can be divided into three different stages. In the first stage, thermal air aging dominates; in the second stage, interface damage is dominant; and in the third stage, thermal air aging is once again dominant.

  16. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  17. Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2003-03-01

    Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain ("canonic") fractions of these characteristics. (The conjecture is verified with experimental tests of its counterintuitive predictions). A relation, which is conserved under (invariant to) transformations from one species in its living conditions to another, is a conservation law of biological evolution. Of course, all parameters of such transformations can hardly be comprehensively specified. However, when canonic fractions are additive, the very invariance of the law to an extraordinary wide class of transformations, with no other experimental data, in any given interval of canonic fraction values accurately predicts [1]: either their conservation law is linear, or the population is homogeneous with respect to their values (an "exclusion principle" of their heterogeneity in an otherwise heterogeneous population). To be specific. Metabolism conservation laws (e.g., the dependence of oxygen consumption at rest per heartbeat on the animal mass) are linear. They imply [2] the existence of fundamental biological constants, which are similar to those crucial in physics. Survivability conservation law (the relation between the probabilities to survive to any two given ages) is piecewise linear (with four linear intervals). At the intersections mortality is homogeneous, and its susceptibility to living conditions vanishes. The law predicts that a dominant canonic fraction of mortality in protected populations is reversible for species as different as humans and flies, and may be eliminated. All these predictions agree with experimental data. (For instance, mortality of Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 years

  18. Property law: a cognitive turn.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jeremy A

    2010-04-01

    Despite more than a century of research by psychologists on issues relating to the law, most such research has focused on a small subset of topics relevant to the legal system. Here, I review several legal topics amenable to psychological research that fall under the broad umbrella of property law: (1) how the concepts of property and ownership are represented cognitively; (2) the relationship between wealth and happiness, consumer behavior, and the priming effect of money concepts; (3) animal and child development in cognition about and behavior toward property and ownership; and (4) the relevance of psychological research on home to legal policy. These and other areas provide potential research agendas for cognitive and social cognitive psychologists. After noting the importance of such research for legal doctrine, theory, and policy, I close with suggestions for effectively communicating empirical findings to the legal community. PMID:20382918

  19. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  20. Shallow-water conservation laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The derivation of basic conservation laws in the shallow-water theory from the multidimensional integral laws of conservation of mass and total momentum describing the plane-parallel flow of an ideal incompressible fluid above a horizontal bottom is proposed. The restrictions on flow parameters arising in this case have the integral form and are much weaker in comparison with the requirement of flow potentiality and the condition of long-wavelength approximation. The last fact substantiates the use of the shallow-water model for the mathematical modeling of a much wider class of wave flows, the parameters of which are not related directly to the restrictions of the long-wavelength approximation.

  1. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws

    PubMed Central

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably. PMID:25411405

  2. Snell's Law for Spin Waves.

    PubMed

    Stigloher, J; Decker, M; Körner, H S; Tanabe, K; Moriyama, T; Taniguchi, T; Hata, H; Madami, M; Gubbiotti, G; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T; Back, C H

    2016-07-15

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications. PMID:27472134

  3. Effectiveness of a state law mandating use of bicycle helmets among children: an observational evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kanny, D; Schieber, R A; Pryor, V; Kresnow, M J

    2001-12-01

    In spring 1999, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a 1997 Florida law requiring helmet use by all bicyclists younger than age 16 years. Sixty-four counties in Florida had enacted the bicycle helmet-use law, while the other three counties had opted out. Using a cross-sectional study design, the authors conducted unobtrusive observations at bicycle racks at public elementary schools statewide. Florida children riding bicycles in counties where the state helmet-use law was in place were twice as likely to wear helmets as children in counties without the law. In counties where the state law was in place, 16,907 (79%) of 21,313 riders observed wore a helmet, compared with only 148 (33%) of 450 riders in counties where no such law was in place (crude prevalence ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval: 2.1, 2.8). Helmet use by children of all racial groups exceeded 60% under the law. No significant difference in use by gender was found. These data support the positive influence of a law on bicycle helmet use among children. The data reinforce the Healthy People 2010 objective that all 50 states adopt such a law for children in order to increase helmet use and consequently reduce brain injury. PMID:11724725

  4. Nuclear weapons and the law.

    PubMed

    Murray, R K

    1999-01-01

    The history of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) is summarized, with a discussion of some of its earlier Advisory Opinions. The Advisory Opinion on the legality of nuclear arms is considered in the light of the principles of international humanitarian law and a review of nuclear weapons effects. The present government's position on nuclear weapons as outlined in the Strategic Defence Review (which ignores the issue of legality) is examined critically. PMID:10371869

  5. Environmental issues and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Henrichs, R

    1992-01-01

    This report first briefly reviews the history and lessons learned from our legislation regarding protection of our environment. Then, these lessons are combined with principles of general jurisprudence to suggest avenues for regulation of industrial ecology. Even though the law has important limitations, it can be used as a tool to identify national goals and to promote their achievement by means of incentives or sanctions. PMID:11607266

  6. Employment Discrimination: Age, Sex and National Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David G.; Lawson, Miriam

    Chapter 17 of a book on school law is an historical review of judicial decisions and legislative enactments that apply to employment. The purpose of the chapter is to analyze those cases concerned with discrimination because of sex, age, or national origin, and to discuss the decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court in these areas. Not until the…

  7. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ)+〈Q〉_{F|m}≥0, where ΔH(ρ_{m},ρ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρ_{m} and 〈Q〉_{F|m} is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples. PMID:27627241

  8. Bayesian second law of thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolotta, Anthony; Carroll, Sean M.; Leichenauer, Stefan; Pollack, Jason

    2016-08-01

    We derive a generalization of the second law of thermodynamics that uses Bayesian updates to explicitly incorporate the effects of a measurement of a system at some point in its evolution. By allowing an experimenter's knowledge to be updated by the measurement process, this formulation resolves a tension between the fact that the entropy of a statistical system can sometimes fluctuate downward and the information-theoretic idea that knowledge of a stochastically evolving system degrades over time. The Bayesian second law can be written as Δ H (ρm,ρ ) + F |m≥0 , where Δ H (ρm,ρ ) is the change in the cross entropy between the original phase-space probability distribution ρ and the measurement-updated distribution ρm and F |m is the expectation value of a generalized heat flow out of the system. We also derive refined versions of the second law that bound the entropy increase from below by a non-negative number, as well as Bayesian versions of integral fluctuation theorems. We demonstrate the formalism using simple analytical and numerical examples.

  9. Law and regulation of benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Feitshans, I L

    1989-01-01

    OSHA has created final benzene regulations after extensive rulemakings on two occasions, 1978 and 1987. These standards have been the subject of extensive litigation for nearly 20 years. This article examines in detail the conceptual underpinnings of the Benzene Case, (which was decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1980) in light of U.S. administrative law precedents that have set limits upon administrative discretion under the test for "substantial evidence" and the "hard look doctrine." This article also addresses recent developments in the wake of the Benzene Case and their implications for benzene regulations following the "significant risk" doctrine in that case. This article briefly describes other national, regional, and international laws governing the use of benzene. This article concludes that the revisions of the benzene regulation and subsequent rulemaking provide substantial evidence of scientific underpinnings for regulatory action and that laws from other nations reflect an international consensus that occupational exposure to benzene is a proper subject of regulation. Such regulations and policies are therefore likely to withstand scrutiny and remain enforceable as widely accepted norms. PMID:2792048

  10. Semantic grasping escapes Weber's law.

    PubMed

    Löwenkamp, Christian; Gärtner, Wiebke; Haus, Isabel D; Franz, Volker H

    2015-04-01

    According to Weber's law, the just noticeable difference between stimuli increases proportionally with stimulus magnitude, suggesting that perception becomes more variable when a stimulus becomes larger. Surprisingly, this basic psychophysical principle appears to be violated in grasping because the variability of grasping movements does not increase with object size. This dissociation between perception and grasping has been interpreted either as evidence for different neuronal processing of real-time visual size information [Ganel, T., Chajut, E., Algom, D. (2008a). Current Biology, 18(14), R599-R601], or for the idea that grasping ignores stimulus size and is based on position information only [Smeets, J. B. J., and Brenner, E. (2008). Current Biology, 18(23), R1089-R1090]. Both accounts assume that it is the processing of visual information that leads to the absence of Weber's law in grasping. We show that even if neither visual nor any real-time sensory information about the stimulus is presented (but only abstract, semantic information about its size), grasping does not follow Weber's law. This indicates that other mechanisms must be responsible for the unexpected behavior of grasping. PMID:25731904

  11. Ethical issues in family law.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, S

    1993-01-01

    This article focuses on a few key ethical issues which arise in the context of family law. One of the issues faces mental health practitioners who are often engaged as expert witnesses in family law disputes. In another realm, family law attorneys face several fundamental ethical dilemmas in the course of their work. The client's right to appropriate treatment will be considered in the light of multidisciplinary services. On a broader level, the courts need to examine the ethical implications of the commonly used guideline in judicial process, 'the best interests of the child'. When these ethical issues are considered, it becomes clear what changes need to be made in individual practice, professional standards and social policy. The underlying premise is based on the knowledge we have gained in recent years through research and clinical experience with divorcing families. It is suggested that a radically different approach to society's handling of divorce is needed. Denmark's administrative handling of these problems is presented as a working alternative model. PMID:8231692

  12. Facilitation for law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1997-02-01

    In todays world of rapid technology development, emerging technologies present to law enforcement agencies, one of a very limited number of legal responses to criminal initiatives. Yet in spite of the existence of very sophisticated enforcement technologies, many law enforcement organizations seem to lag behind in several important areas of technology response and adaptation. This paper will propose the idea that what is needed is a closer partnership between private industry`technology adaptors' and government officials who are the problem `identifiers'. This marriage of necessity would produce immediate operational results focussed on todays enforcement problems and tomorrows emerging solutions. The paper will also present the concept of the establishment of an independent body tasked with the creation of an enforcement technology `adaptor' registry for authorized and innovative, enforcement technology applications specialists. This registry would be created to assist enforcement agencies with the location and/or creation of new law enforcement technologies/products. These persons would locate and/or create quick response technology innovations developed to provide operational `fixes' and technologies designed to address emerging enforcement problems. The presentation will conclude by providing examples of up to 12 different existing technologies devices currently available (but not generally known by government agencies).

  13. Demonstrating Newton's Third Law: Changing Aristotelian Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests techniques to help eliminate students' misconceptions involving Newton's Third Law. Approaches suggested include teaching physics from a historical perspective, using computer programs with simulations, rewording the law, drawing free-body diagrams, and using demonstrations and examples. (PR)

  14. Introduction to Law-Related Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Timothy H.

    1989-01-01

    Defines Law-Related Education and describes its goals: citizenship and ethics education, delinquency prevention, teaching survival, and critical thinking skills. Justifies Law-Related Education's place in the social studies curriculum. (CH)

  15. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  16. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  17. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  18. Consumerism in Business Law--A Natural

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clow, John E.; Furjanic, Sheila

    1974-01-01

    Consumer protection should be a major objective in high school business law classes. Suggested units are the nature of law, sources of legal assistance, sales contracts, use of commercial paper, and rental or ownership of real property. (MS)

  19. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  20. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  1. The Teacher and the Copyright Law: Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Bernard

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the Alex Caughran article on the teacher and the copyright law, concluding that copyright law is a complicated field and to oversimplify it is a disservice to teachers. See also CS 705 949. (RD)

  2. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  3. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  4. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  5. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  6. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  7. Rediscovering Kepler's Third Law using NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Jason; Springsteen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were discovered around four hundred years ago using data that was meticulously gathered by Tycho Brahe through naked eye observations. Here we will show that the same Kepler's result illustrated in his third planetary law still holds today, by using modern data from NASA. In addition, we discuss how all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion can be derived directly from Newton's Gravitational law.

  8. The immunization system in the United States - the role of school immunization laws.

    PubMed

    Orenstein, W A; Hinman, A R

    1999-10-29

    School immunization laws have had a remarkable impact on vaccine-preventable diseases in the United States, particularly in school-aged populations. Enforcement of laws through the exclusion of unvaccinated children from school is a critical factor in assuring success. All laws have exemptions for medical contraindications, 47 states have exemptions for persons with strong religious beliefs against vaccination and 15 states have exemptions for persons philosophically opposed to vaccination. Fewer than 1% of students have any type of exemption in most states. School laws harness the resources of other programs such as education to the immunization effort. They establish a safety net to assure high levels of coverage each and every year. But they cannot replace efforts to assure age appropriate immunization in the first two years of life. PMID:10559531

  9. The second laws of quantum thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Fernando; Horodecki, Michał; Ng, Nelly; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Wehner, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics places constraints on state transformations. It applies to systems composed of many particles, however, we are seeing that one can formulate laws of thermodynamics when only a small number of particles are interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are approximately cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a different form compared to the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on state transformations, but an entire family of constraints. We find a family of free energies which generalize the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. The ordinary second law relates to one of these, with the remainder imposing additional constraints on thermodynamic transitions. We find three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are relevant for small systems, and also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics are unified in this framework, with the first law defining the class of operations, the zeroth law emerging as an equivalence relation between thermal states, and the remaining laws being monotonicity of our generalized free energies. PMID:25675476

  10. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE CLAIMS AND LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for...

  11. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  12. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  13. LAW, VOL. 1, NO. 1, JANUARY, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARTMAN, PAUL; RABKIN, SOL

    THIS IS THE FIRST ISSUE OF A NEW PUBLICATION WHICH WILL PROVIDE PERIODIC REPORTS ON CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION. IT CONTAINS A 1965 STATE-BY-STATE SUMMARY OF NEW LAWS AND LAWS WHICH HAVE BEEN STRENGTHENED TO FURTHER PROTECT CIVIL RIGHTS. MOST OF THESE LAWS PROHIBIT DISCRIMINATION IN HOUSING, HIRING PRACTICES, AND PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS. THE REPORT…

  14. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  15. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the present value of any periodic payment upon which the award is based, is computed, unless the law... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance...

  16. Marriage law and practice in the Sahel.

    PubMed

    Boye, A K; Hill, K; Isaacs, S; Gordis, D

    1991-01-01

    The legal systems of Sahelian African countries combine customary law, Islamic law, French colonial law, and civil law introduced since independence in 1960. Utilizing a framework developed by the Faculty of Law, University of Dakar, Senegal, and the Development Law and Policy Program, Center for Population and Family Health, Columbia University, the Sahel Institute undertook a comprehensive study of the legal and social status of women in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. Since 1960, Burkina Faso, Mali, and Senegal have replaced French family law with national marriage codes. Niger has not yet adopted a family code; the laws on the family inherited from the French remain in force. The postindependence marriage codes have attempted to give young women more say in choosing a husband, to regulate the practice of bride price, and to limit the practice of polygyny. They have done this by integrating customary law and government-passed civil law. Mali, Niger, and Senegal have repealed provisions in their codes prohibiting the distribution of contraception, based on a 1920 French law. Although it has taken no formal legal action, Burkina Faso has adopted family planning policies that effectively nullify the 1920 law. PMID:1792674

  17. Update on Law-Related Education, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of 3 volumes of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) offering background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three volumes include "International Law,""Crime and Freedom," and "Civil Law". Background articles are provided along with teaching…

  18. The Rate Laws for Reversible Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Edward L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides background information for teachers on the rate laws for reversible reactions. Indicates that although prediction of the form of the rate law for a reverse reaction given the rate law for the forward reaction is not certain, the number of possibilities is limited because of relationships described. (JN)

  19. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  20. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  1. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  2. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “2007 ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  3. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  4. 49 CFR 95.13 - Antitrust laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Antitrust laws. 95.13 Section 95.13 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ADVISORY COMMITTEES § 95.13 Antitrust laws. The activities of advisory committees are subject to the antitrust laws and committee members are not immune from...

  5. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  6. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  7. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  8. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  9. Admission to Law School: New Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Marjorie M.; Zedeck, Sheldon

    2012-01-01

    Standardized tests have been increasingly controversial over recent years in high-stakes admission decisions. Their role in operationalizing definitions of merit and qualification is especially contested, but in law schools this challenge has become particularly intense. Law schools have relied on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT) and an INDEX…

  10. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  11. Should Principals Know More about Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Tyrus L.

    2013-01-01

    Educational law is a critical piece of the education conundrum. Principals reference law books on a daily basis in order to address the wide range of complex problems in the school system. A principal's knowledge of law issues and legal decision-making are essential to provide effective feedback for a successful school.

  12. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  13. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  14. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  15. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  16. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  17. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  18. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  19. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  20. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  1. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  2. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  3. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  4. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  5. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  6. 22 CFR 233.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 233.16 Section 233.16 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE... Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the...

  7. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  8. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  9. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  10. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  11. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the “2007 ACH Rules” are available from NACHA—The Electronic Payments... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States...

  12. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  13. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  14. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  15. 22 CFR 221.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 221.43 Section 221.43 Foreign... Administration § 221.43 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and commercial transactions of the...

  16. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  17. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  18. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  19. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  20. 27 CFR 72.31 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Laws applicable. 72.31... Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 72.31 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the applicable customs laws. (Sec. 613, 618, 46 Stat. 756, as amended, 757, as...

  1. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  2. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  3. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  4. 22 CFR 230.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Governing law. 230.16 Section 230.16 Foreign... SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUB. L. 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 230.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States...

  5. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  6. 22 CFR 204.43 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Governing law. 204.43 Section 204.43 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT HOUSING GUARANTY STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS Administration § 204.43 Governing law. This Guaranty shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws...

  7. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  8. 26 CFR 403.35 - Laws applicable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laws applicable. 403.35 Section 403.35 Internal... DISPOSITION OF SEIZED PERSONAL PROPERTY Remission or Mitigation of Forfeitures § 403.35 Laws applicable. Remission or mitigation of forfeitures shall be governed by the customs laws applicable to remission...

  9. 32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicable law. 537.5 Section 537.5 National... THE UNITED STATES § 537.5 Applicable law. (a) Basis for recovery. (1) Most recovery assertions are.... These actions or omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of...

  10. 32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.111 Section 842.111 National... CLAIMS Claims Under the National Guard Claims Act (32 U.S.C. 715) § 842.111 Applicable law. (a) Extent of... the United States. The law of the place where the act or omission occurs governs liability. The...

  11. 22 CFR 232.16 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Governing law. 232.16 Section 232.16 Foreign...-74-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS § 232.16 Governing law. This Guarantee shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the United States of America governing contracts and...

  12. 32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.51 Section 842.51 National... CLAIMS Military Claims Act (10 U.S.C. 2733) § 842.51 Applicable law. This paragraph provides the existing law governing liability, measurement of liability and the effects of settlement upon awards....

  13. 32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 750.46 Section 750.46 National... Military Claims Act § 750.46 Applicable law. (a) Claims arising within the United States, Territories, Commonwealth, and Possessions. The law of the place where the act or omission occurred will be applied...

  14. Laws of Scattering Applied to Popular Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Kevin L.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that examined Top 40 singles chart data to determine whether the frequency distribution of artist productivity fit either of two laws of scatter (Lotka Law of Scientific Productivity or Bradford Law of Scatter). Possible reasons for the lack of statistical significance found between the theoretical and observed distributions are…

  15. Revenge, or Moon (over) Your Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, John Henry

    1990-01-01

    Law reviews should contain articles that are more than useless compendia of rules. They should be about law, the legal system and how it operates or might operate, so they become truly practical knowledge. Editors should boldly reject articles that do not advance understanding about law. (MSE)

  16. LAW EVERYONE SHOULD KNOW, ADULT COURSE OUTLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GAENZLE, LAWRENCE W.; AND OTHERS

    THIS LATEST REVISION OF THE INTRODUCTORY COURSE IN LAW FOR LAYMEN (AS PRACTICED IN NEW YORK STATE) DISCUSSES THE NEW DIVORCE LAW, CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, PROTECTION AGAINST SELF-INCRIMINATION, AND TAKING AGAINST A WILL, AS WELL AS OTHER CHANGES IN THE LAW SINCE THE LAST REVISION IN 1961. COURSE 1 INCLUDES SESSIONS ON WILLS DEFINED, WILLS AND ESTATE…

  17. The Mixed Blessings of Sunshine Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hearn, James C.; McLenson, Michael K.; Gilchrist, Leigh Z.

    2004-01-01

    Sunshine laws arose from public concern over how public officials make decisions. Every state has sunshine laws, and in every case those laws have been applied to public higher education systems and institutions. Operationally, they serve a variety of goals. These include helping to ensure that public colleges and universities are pursuing…

  18. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...

  19. 50 CFR 665.936 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false International law. 665.936 Section 665... National Monument § 665.936 International law. The regulations in this subpart shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is...

  20. 50 CFR 404.12 - International law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false International law. 404.12 Section 404.12... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.12 International law. These regulations shall be applied in accordance with international law. No restrictions shall apply to or be enforced against a person who is not...