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Sample records for age mlda laws

  1. The Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age Law. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Currently, all 50 states limit alcohol purchases to people aged 21 and over. But that hasn't always been the case. In fact, it was July 17, 1984, when President Ronald Reagan signed the national 21 minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) legislation into law. At that time, only 23 states had minimum alcohol purchasing ages of 21 years old. The…

  2. Long-Term Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Marijuana and Other Illicit Drug Use in Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws (ability to purchase alcohol <21 years) during adolescence can have long-term effects, including heavy alcohol use or alcohol use disorders as adults. We examined whether exposure to permissive MLDA laws during adolescence has long-term effects on illicit drug use and disorders in adulthood. Methods Participants from the 2004-2012 National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) were linked with historical state MLDA laws. Participants born in 1949-1972 (age 31-63 years at observation, n=110,300) were analyzed because they came of legal age for alcohol purchase when changes occurred in state MLDA laws. Logistic regression was used to model drug use measures as a function of exposure to permissive MLDA during adolescence, adjusting for state and birth-year fixed effects, demographics, and salient state characteristics. Results Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of marijuana were 4.7%, 7.8%, and 1.2% respectively. Rates of past month use, past year use, and abuse/dependence of illicit drugs other than marijuana were 2.9%, 6.2%, and 0.7%, respectively. Among the full sample, exposure to permissive MLDA laws was not significantly associated with drug use or abuse/dependence in adulthood. Men exposed to permissive MLDA laws were at 20% increased odds of past year illicit drug use (aOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09-1.32). Conclusions Restricting alcohol access during adolescence did not increase long-term drug use. Allowing the purchase of alcohol among those less than 21 years of age could increase the risk of drug use later in life. PMID:25707705

  3. The Persistent Effects of Minimum Legal Drinking Age Laws on Drinking Patterns Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Plunk, Andrew D.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.; Grucza, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to permissive minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws not only affects young adults in the short term, but also later in life; for example, individuals who could legally purchase alcohol before age 21 are more likely to suffer from drinking problems as older adults, long after the laws had been changed. However, it is not known how permissive MLDA exposure affects specific drinking behavior. This present study uses changes in MLDA laws during the 1970s and 1980s as a natural experiment to investigate the potential impact of permissive MLDA exposure on average alcohol consumption, frequency of drinking, and on patterns of binging and more moderate, non-heavy drinking. Methods Policy exposure data were paired with alcohol use data from the 1991–1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey and the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Past-year drinkers born between 1949 and 1972 (n = 24,088) were included. Average daily intake, overall drinking frequency, and frequency of both binge episodes (5+ drinks) and days without a binge episode (non-heavy drinking) for the previous year at the time of interview were tracked for each respondent. Results Exposure to permissive MLDAs was associated with higher odds to report frequent binging and lower odds to report any moderate drinking; these associations were largely driven by men and those who did not attend college. Overall drinking frequency and average alcohol consumption were not affected by MLDA exposure. Conclusions The ability to legally purchase alcohol before age 21 does not seem to increase overall drinking frequency, but our findings suggest that it is associated with certain types of problematic drinking behaviors that persist into later adulthood: more frequent binge episodes and less frequent non-heavy drinking. We also propose that policymakers and critics should not focus on college drinking when evaluating the effectiveness of MLDAs. PMID

  4. Heavy drinking on college campuses: no reason to change minimum legal drinking age of 21.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Drew K

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would remove one of the most researched and supported policies in the nation's alcohol control arsenal. There is little evidence that other interventions or policies are capable of working on the same broad level as MLDA 21, and there could also be a deleterious ripple effect in related legislation because MLDA 21 works in conjunction with other drinking laws. In addition, historic and international experiences with a lowered MLDA indicate there are serious social and public health consequences. Instead of removing efficacious interventions, we must remain committed to implementing and enforcing evidence-based practices and legislation.

  5. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2013-03-01

    In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.

  6. Scoring the Strengths and Weaknesses of Underage Drinking Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Scherer, Michael; Fisher, Deborah A.; Romano, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have examined the impact of a number of minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws on underage alcohol consumption and alcohol-related crashes in the United States. These studies have contributed to our understanding of how alcohol control laws affect drinking and driving among those who are under age 21. However, much of the extant literature examining underage drinking laws use a “Law/No law” coding which may obscure the variability inherent in each law. Previous literature has demonstrated that inclusion of law strengths may affect outcomes and overall data fit when compared to “Law/No law” coding. In an effort to assess the relative strength of states’ underage drinking legislation, a coding system was developed in 2006 and applied to 16 MLDA-21 laws. The current article updates the previous endeavor and outlines a detailed strength coding mechanism for the current 20 MLDA-21 laws. PMID:26097775

  7. Assessing the Impact of Twenty Underage Drinking Laws

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Scherer, Michael; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Over the last two decades, many states have adopted several of the 20 laws that aim to control youth access to and possession of alcohol and prevent underage drinking in the United States. However, many of these laws have not been evaluated since their adoption. The objective of this study was to determine which minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws currently have an effect on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. Method: We updated the effective dates of the 20 MLDA-21 laws examined in this study and used scores of each law’s strengths and weaknesses. Our structural equation model included the 20 MLDA-21 laws, impaired driving laws, seat belt safety laws, economic strength, driving exposure, beer consumption, and fatal crash ratios of drinking-to-nondrinking drivers under age 21. Results: Nine MLDA-21 laws were associated with significant decreases in fatal crash ratios of underage drinking drivers: possession of alcohol (-7.7%), purchase of alcohol (-4.2%), use alcohol and lose your license (-7.9%), zero tolerance .02 blood alcohol concentration limit for under-age drivers (-2.9%), age of bartender ≥21 (-4.1%), state responsible beverage service program (-3.8%), fake identification support provisions for retailers (-11.9%), dram shop liability (-2.5%), and social host civil liability (-1.7%). Two laws were associated with significant increases in the fatal crash ratios of underage drinking drivers: prohibition of furnishing alcohol to minors (+7.2%) and registration of beer kegs (+9.6%). Conclusions: The nine effective MLDA-21 laws are estimated to be currently saving approximately 1,135 lives annually, yet only five states have enacted all nine laws. If all states adopted these nine effective MLDA-21 laws, it is estimated that an additional 210 lives could be saved every year. PMID:26997183

  8. Alcohol Policy, Social Context, and Infant Health: The Impact of Minimum Legal Drinking Age

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ning; Caine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective The minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) was increased in the U.S. in the late 1980s in an effort to reduce intoxication-associated injuries, especially those related to motor vehicle accidents. This paper explores distal (secondary) effects of changing MLDA on indices of infant health, and whether changes in drinking behaviors or birth composition contributed to these effects. Methods State- and year-fixed-effects models are used to analyze the relationship between MLDA, drinking behaviors, and birth outcomes. We studied the effects of different MLDA (age 18, 19, 20, or 21 years) when potential mothers were 14 years old by merging two population-based datasets, the Natality Detailed Files and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System between 1985 and 2002. Results A MLDA of 18 years old (when potential mothers were 14 years old) increased the prevalence of low birth weight, low Apgar scores, and premature births. Effects were stronger among children born to black women compared with white women. Moreover, a younger MLDA was associated with an increasing proportion of very young and high school dropouts for black women. Furthermore, older MLDA laws at age 14 years decreased the prevalence of binge drinking among black women. Conclusions Increasing the MLDA had longer term, distal impacts beyond the initially intended outcomes, specifically on birth outcomes (particularly among infants born to black women) as well as school drop-outs and binge drinking patterns among black young females. The older MLDA, intended initially to reduce problematic drinking behaviors, appeared to alter broader social contexts that influenced young women during their early childbearing years. PMID:22016717

  9. Methylation Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA) for identifying differentially methylated CpG islands

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wei; Teodoridis, Jens M; Graham, Janet; Zeller, Constanze; Huang, Tim HM; Yan, Pearlly; Vass, J Keith; Brown, Robert; Paul, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is strongly correlated to transcriptional gene silencing and epigenetic maintenance of the silenced state. As well as its role in tumor development, CpG island methylation contributes to the acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy. Differential Methylation Hybridisation (DMH) is one technique used for genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. The study of such microarray data sets should ideally account for the specific biological features of DNA methylation and the non-symmetrical distribution of the ratios of unmethylated and methylated sequences hybridised on the array. We have therefore developed a novel algorithm tailored to this type of data, Methylation Linear Discriminant Analysis (MLDA). Results MLDA was programmed in R (version 2.7.0) and the package is available at CRAN [1]. This approach utilizes linear regression models of non-normalised hybridisation data to define methylation status. Log-transformed signal intensities of unmethylated controls on the microarray are used as a reference. The signal intensities of DNA samples digested with methylation sensitive restriction enzymes and mock digested are then transformed to the likelihood of a locus being methylated using this reference. We tested the ability of MLDA to identify loci differentially methylated as analysed by DMH between cisplatin sensitive and resistant ovarian cancer cell lines. MLDA identified 115 differentially methylated loci and 23 out of 26 of these loci have been independently validated by Methylation Specific PCR and/or bisulphite pyrosequencing. Conclusion MLDA has advantages for analyzing methylation data from CpG island microarrays, since there is a clear rational for the definition of methylation status, it uses DMH data without between-group normalisation and is less influenced by cross-hybridisation of loci. The MLDA algorithm successfully identified differentially methylated loci between two classes of samples analysed by DMH

  10. Heavy Drinking on College Campuses: No Reason to Change Minimum Legal Drinking Age of 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Drew K.

    2011-01-01

    The recent Amethyst Initiative argues that a minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) of 21 has created a culture of heavy alcohol use on college campuses by making drinking clandestine and extreme. This group and others argue that lowering the MLDA will reduce the problem of "binge drinking" on college campuses. However, such a policy change would…

  11. Copyright law in the digital age

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-30

    Few areas have been shaken up by the information revolution than copyright law. The riddle of how existing law must be adapted in the electronic age brings clashing answers from various media professionals. Various issues associated with copyright protection, including the present political administration`s views, are discussed in this paper.

  12. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  13. Gompertz law and aging as exclusion effects.

    PubMed

    Hallén, Anund

    2007-10-01

    The exponential increase with age in mortality rate, the Gompertz law, indicates that the decrease in vitality and viability linked to aging depends on phenomena with exponential or logarithmic dynamics. Gompertz slope (alpha) is assumed to be a measure of aging rate, provided the studied cohort is homogeneous and in a supporting environment. The law provides no clue about the cause of aging, but may be formally correlated with various physical or mathematical functions. A possible correlation between the Ogston-Laurent exclusion equation and human aging is examined. An increase with age of an inert cross-linked insoluble protein network is assumed to result in a logarithmic decrease in water volume available to colloidal macromolecules. In this model, alpha is assumed to be a measure of the rate of accumulation of the polypeptide network.

  14. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation. PMID:25197154

  15. The Utility of Including the Strengths of Underage Drinking Laws in Determining Their Effect on Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Scherer, Michael; Voas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background To control underage drinking in the United States, which has been associated with an estimated 5,000 deaths and 2.6 million injuries or other harm annually, each state has developed a unique set of laws. Previous research examining these laws’ effectiveness has frequently focused on the laws’ existence without considering variance in sanctions, enforcement, or exemptions. Methods We scored 20 minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws for their strengths and weaknesses based on (1) sanctions for violating the law, (2) exceptions or exemptions affecting application, and (3) provisions affecting the law or enforcement. We then replicated a 2009 study of the effects of six MLDA-21 laws in three different ways (using identical structural equation modeling): Study 1—eight additional years of data, no law strengths; Study 2—years from the original study, added law strengths; Study 3—additional years, law strengths, serving as an update of the six laws’ effects. Results In all three studies—and the original study—keg registration laws were associated with both an unexpected significant increase (+11%, p < .001) in underage drinking-driver ratios and a notable 25% reduction in per capita beer consumption—opposing results that are difficult to explain. In Study 3, possession and purchase laws were associated with a significant decrease in underage drinking-driver fatal crash ratios (−4.9%, p < .001; −3.6%, p < .001, respectively). Similarly, zero tolerance and use and lose laws were associated with reductions in underage drinking-driver ratios (−2.8%, p < .001; −5.3%, p < .001, respectively). Conclusions Including strengths and weaknesses of underage drinking laws is important when examining their effects on various outcomes as the model fit statistics indicated. We suggest that this will result in more accurate and more reliable estimates of the impact of the laws on various outcome measures. PMID:26148047

  16. The fatal toll of driving to drink: the effect of minimum legal drinking age evasion on traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Lovenheim, Michael F; Slemrod, Joel

    2010-01-01

    There is a sizeable literature on the effect of minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions on teenage drunk driving. This paper adds to the literature by examining the effect of MLDA evasion across states with different alcohol restrictions. Using state-of-the-art GIS software and micro-data on fatal vehicle accidents from 1977 to 2002, we find that in counties within 25 miles of a lower-MLDA jurisdiction, a legal restriction on drinking does not reduce youth involvement in fatal accidents and, for 18 and 19-year-old drivers, fatal accident involvement actually increases. Farther from such a border, we find results consistent with the previous literature that MLDA restrictions are effective in reducing accident fatalities. The estimates imply that, of the total reduction in teenager-involved fatalities due to the equalization of state MLDAs at 21 in the 1970s and 1980s, for 18-year olds between a quarter and a third and for 19-year olds over 15 percent was due to equalization. Furthermore, the effect of changes in the MLDA is quite heterogeneous with respect to the fraction of a state's population that need not travel far to cross a border to evade its MLDA. Our results imply the effect of lowering the MLDA in select states, such as has been proposed in Vermont, could lead to sizeable increases in teenage involvement in fatal accidents due to evasion of local alcohol restrictions.

  17. The relationship of 16 underage drinking laws to reductions in underage drinking drivers in fatal crashes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fell, J C; Fisher, D A; Voas, R B; Blackman, K; Tippetts, A S

    2007-01-01

    The minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA 21) legislation in the United States (U.S.) has been documented as one of the most effective public health measures adopted in recent times. This study reports on an effort to evaluate and interrelate a basic set of 16 laws directed at younger than age 21 youth that are designed to (a) control the sales of alcohol to youth, (b) prevent possession and consumption of alcohol by youth, and (c) prevent alcohol impaired driving by those younger than age 21. The first objective of this study was to determine whether there was any relationship between the existence and strength of the various underage drinking laws in a State and the percentage of younger than age 21 drivers involved in fatal crashes who were drinking. After controlling for various factors, the only significant finding that emerged was for the existence and strength of the law making it illegal for an underage person to use fake identification ( p <0.016). The second objective was to determine if the enactment of two of the sixteen provisions (possession and purchase laws) was associated with a reduction in the rate of underage drinking driver involvements in fatal crashes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a national 11.2% reduction ( p <0.05) in the ratio of underage drinking drivers to underage non-drinking drivers in fatal crashes after the possession and purchase laws were adopted in 36 States and the District of Columbia (DC). This suggests that the two mandatory elements of the Federal MLDA 21 law are having the desired effect of reducing underage alcohol-related highway deaths.

  18. In Digital Age, Sunshine Laws Turn Hazy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Nora

    2013-01-01

    School board members are struggling to interpret laws that govern where and how they do business now that as many conversations take place digitally as they do face to face. As online and digital interactions increase, so too does public concern that officials have more opportunities to violate state open-meetings and open-records laws meant to…

  19. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging.

    PubMed

    Sas, Arthur A; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-05-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototypical subject, provided minimal (or no) external causes of death (i.e. fatal infections, starvation, accidents). Our approach deviates from the traditional (exponential) Gompertz' hazard function. For instance, the here formulated Gompertz' law accurately describes old-age deceleration of both all-cause mortality and the incidence of some ageing-associated cancers, as illustrated for the Dutch population. We consider the possibility that the old-age expression and progression of cancer and other pathologies becomes suppressed, because of random (and exponential) accumulation of damage during life. Gompertz' law may trigger new concepts and models describing life-spanning physiological and pathological processes of aging. We discuss (and reject) various aging models (e.g. a predominant role of individual variations at birth; reliability theory) and point to the explanatory potential of network models and systemic regulatory models.

  20. Growth, ageing and scaling laws of coronary arterial trees.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Niu, Pei; Niu, Xiaolong; Shen, Wenzeng; Duan, Fei; Ding, Liang; Wei, Xiliang; Gong, Yanjun; Huo, Yong; Kassab, Ghassan S; Tan, Wenchang; Huo, Yunlong

    2015-12-06

    Despite the well-known design principles of vascular systems, it is unclear whether the vascular arterial tree obeys some scaling constraints during normal growth and ageing in a given species. Based on the micro-computed tomography measurements of coronary arterial trees in mice at different ages (one week to more than eight months), we show a constant exponent of 3/4, but age-dependent scaling coefficients in a length-volume scaling law (Lc=K(length-volume) · Vc³/⁴; Lc is the crown length, Vc is the crown volume, K(length-volume) is the age-dependent scaling coefficient) during normal growth and ageing. The constant 3/4 exponent represents the self-similar fractal-like branching pattern (i.e. basic mechanism to regulate the development of vascular trees within a species), whereas the age-dependent scaling coefficients characterize the structural growth or resorption of vascular trees during normal growth or ageing, respectively. This study enhances the understanding of age-associated changes in vascular structure and function.

  1. When Do Laws Matter? National Minimum-Age-of-Marriage Laws, Child Rights, and Adolescent Fertility, 1989–2007

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minzee; Longhofer, Wesley; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger; Nyseth, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Using the case of adolescent fertility, we ask the questions of whether and when national laws have an effect on outcomes above and beyond the effects of international law and global organizing. To answer these questions, we utilize a fixed-effect time-series regression model to analyze the impact of minimum-age-of-marriage laws in 115 poor- and middle-income countries from 1989 to 2007. We find that countries with strict laws setting the minimum age of marriage at 18 experienced the most dramatic decline in rates of adolescent fertility. Trends in countries that set this age at 18 but allowed exceptions (for example, marriage with parental consent) were indistinguishable from countries that had no such minimum-age-of-marriage law. Thus, policies that adhere strictly to global norms are more likely to elicit desired outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of what national law means in a diffuse global system where multiple actors and institutions make the independent effect of law difficult to identify. PMID:25525281

  2. Bringing the Law to the Gerontological Stage: A Different Look at Movies and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2006-01-01

    Films often portray the complexities of real-life aging issues, showing how they are apparently handled outside of and around the law or legal issues. Furthermore, films considering the aged and the social issues associated with aging also reveal how the law actually functions as a framework around and within which people develop customs, habits,…

  3. Chief Student Affairs Officers' Interpretation and Implementation of the Minimum Legal Drinking Age and the Amethyst Initiative: A Discursive Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Rebecca Jane

    2012-01-01

    High-risk drinking is an endemic health and safety issue for college campuses in the United States (U.S.). While public health officials have recommended various models for campus alcohol prevention efforts, in 2008 a group of college presidents recommended a controversial strategy: reconsidering the U.S. minimum legal drinking age (MLDA). The…

  4. Effects of a Minimum-Age Tobacco Law--Swedish Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundh, Mona; Hagquist, Curt

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase understanding of the prerequisites for tobacco prevention. The situations before and after the introduction of a minimum-age law were compared with respect to opportunities for adolescents to buy tobacco, and to attitudes towards the law. Data were collected in 1996 and 2000 with a questionnaire among all…

  5. Ambivalence in the Relationship of Adult Children to Aging Parents and In-Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Andrea E.; Shuey, Kim M.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates ambivalence in adult children's relationships with their aging parents and in-laws. Focuses on factors predicting adult children's ambivalence toward parents and in-laws within a gendered kinship structure that shapes these relations. Concludes that ambivalence is a useful concept for representing the complexity of parent-child…

  6. Age of Sexual Consent Law in Canada: Population-Based Evidence for Law and Policy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Bonnie B.; Cox, David N.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the implications of the 2008 increase in age for sexual consent in Canada using a population health survey of Canadian adolescents. Government rationales for the increase asserted younger adolescents were more likely to experience sexual exploitation and engage in risky sexual behaviour than adolescents 16 and older. Using data from sexually experienced adolescents in the 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (BC AHS, N=6,262; age range 12 – 19; 52% female), analyses documented the scope of first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, then compared sexual behaviours of younger teens (14 and 15 years) with older teens (16 and 17) navigating their first year of sexual activity. Comparisons included: forced sex, sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs, multiple partners, condom use, effective contraception use, self-reported sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy involvement. Results showed very few 14- and 15-year-olds had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions based on age (boys: <2%, girls: 3–5%). In contrast, among 12- and 13-year-olds (a group unaffected by the law’s change) between 25% and 50% had first intercourse partners who were not within the ‘close in age’ exemptions, and almost 40% of teens who first had sex before age 12 reported a first partner age 20 years or more. In their first year of intercourse, 14- and 15-year-olds were slightly more likely to report forced sex and 3 or more partners than older teens, but otherwise made similarly healthy decisions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of evaluating policy using population health data and shows that better strategies are needed to protect children 13 and under from sexual abuse. PMID:27087775

  7. Medical Marijuana Laws and Suicides by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D. Mark; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides. Methods. We obtained state-level suicide data from the National Vital Statistics System’s Mortality Detail Files for 1990–2007. We used regression analysis to examine the association between medical marijuana legalization and suicides per 100 000 population. Results. After adjustment for economic conditions, state policies, and state-specific linear time trends, the association between legalizing medical marijuana and suicides was not statistically significant at the .05 level. However, legalization was associated with a 10.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = −17.1%, −3.7%) and 9.4% (95% CI = −16.1%, −2.4%) reduction in the suicide rate of men aged 20 through 29 years and 30 through 39 years, respectively. Estimates for females were less precise and sensitive to model specification. Conclusions. Suicides among men aged 20 through 39 years fell after medical marijuana legalization compared with those in states that did not legalize. The negative relationship between legalization and suicides among young men is consistent with the hypothesis that marijuana can be used to cope with stressful life events. However, this relationship may be explained by alcohol consumption. The mechanism through which legalizing medical marijuana reduces suicides among young men remains a topic for future study. PMID:24432945

  8. Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, W. R.; Cox, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the legal issues relative to water quality covering publications of 1977. Consideration is given to federal laws, Supreme Court cases, and the impact of federal environmental laws on local government. A list of 47 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Bringing the law to the gerontological stage: a different look at movies and old age.

    PubMed

    Doron, Israel

    2006-01-01

    Films often portray the complexities of real-life aging issues, showing how they are apparently handled outside of and around the law or legal issues. Furthermore, films considering the aged and the social issues associated with aging also reveal how the law actually functions as a framework around and within which people develop customs, habits, and behaviors related to the issue of old age. Exposing these hidden socio-legal boundaries allows us to better understand both the films concerned and the place of law within our aging society. In an attempt to better understand these issues, this article deconstructs five relatively modern and well-known films. All feature aged protagonists, and all tell their stories against a background of legal issues that are only alluded to, and remain hidden "behind the scenes." Two main questions are addressed by this analysis: First, to what extent does the reality of old age as described in the films considered here reflect familiar social phenomena identified by empirical studies? And, second, to what extent does the legal infrastructure embedded in the narrative of these films reflect the legal regulations that govern the aged in today's society. The conclusions that arose from the analysis of the cinematic and the legal reality expressed in the films demonstrate that the current level of discourse on major issues in social gerontology ignores the importance and relevance of law. Therefore, it behooves us to "bring the Law to the gerontological stage," where the current situation as it actually exists can be analyzed and perhaps even changed.

  10. State Firearm Laws, Firearm Ownership, and Safety Practices Among Families of Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Methods. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Results. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Conclusions. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership. PMID:24825210

  11. Underage drinking: does the minimum age drinking law offer enough protection?

    PubMed

    Green, Rivka; Jason, Hannah; Ganz, Debora

    2015-05-01

    Underage drinking is a significant problem in the US. It is responsible for several thousand mortalities and fatalities each year, both among minors and other members of society. Additionally, underage alcohol consumption produces a severe economic burden in the US. Introduction to alcohol in youth poses serious long-term risks for adolescents, including occupational, educational, and psychosocial impairments, and increases the risk for developing alcohol abuse disorders in adulthood. In order to address and mitigate this problem, the US has set a minimum age drinking law of 21 in all 50 states, and has implemented several supplementary laws limiting the possession and consumption of alcohol. Though these laws have successfully reduced underage drinking, several additional strategies are noteworthy, including preventative and intervention efforts incorporating environmental, individual, communal, and parental factors. The following literature review describes these concepts as they relate to underage drinking laws in the US. Directions for future research, interventions, and ongoing challenges related to the minimum drinking age in the US are also discussed.

  12. The Effect of an All-Ages Bicycle Helmet Law on Bicycle-Related Trauma.

    PubMed

    Kett, Paula; Rivara, Frederick; Gomez, Anthony; Kirk, Annie Phare; Yantsides, Christina

    2016-12-01

    In 2003, Seattle implemented an all-ages bicycle helmet law; King County outside of Seattle had implemented a similar law since 1994. For the period 2000-2010, the effect of the helmet legislation on helmet use, helmet-preventable injuries, and bicycle-related fatalities was examined, comparing Seattle to the rest of King County. Data was retrieved from the Washington State Trauma Registry and the King County Medical Examiner. Results comparing the proportions of bicycle related head injuries before (2000-2002) and after (2004-2010) the law show no significant change in the proportion of bicyclists admitted to the hospital and treated for head injuries in either Seattle (37.9 vs 40.2 % p = 0.75) nor in the rest of King County (30.7 vs 31.4 %, p = 0.84) with the extension of the helmet law to Seattle in 2003. However, bicycle-related major head trauma as a proportion of all bicycle-related head trauma did decrease significantly in Seattle (83.9 vs 64.9 %, p = 0.04), while there was no significant change in King County (64.4 vs 57.6 %, p = 0.41). While the results do not show an overall decrease in head injuries, they do reveal a decrease in the severity of head injuries, as well as bicycle-related fatalities, suggesting that the helmet legislation was effective in reducing severe disability and death, contributing to injury prevention in Seattle and King County. The promotion of helmet use through an all ages helmet law is a vital preventative strategy for reducing major bicycle-related head trauma.

  13. Laws of conservation as related to brain growth, aging, and evolution: symmetry of the minicolumn.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; El-Baz, Ayman; Switala, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Development, aging, and evolution offer different time scales regarding possible anatomical transformations of the brain. This article expands on the perspective that the cerebral cortex exhibits a modular architecture with invariant properties in regards to these time scales. These properties arise from morphometric relations of the ontogenetic minicolumn as expressed in Noether's first theorem, i.e., that for each continuous symmetry there is a conserved quantity. Whenever minicolumnar symmetry is disturbed by either developmental or aging processes the principle of least action limits the scope of morphometric alterations. Alternatively, local and global divergences from these laws apply to acquired processes when the system is no longer isolated from its environment. The underlying precepts to these physical laws can be expressed in terms of mathematical equations that are conservative of quantity. Invariant properties of the brain include the rotational symmetry of minicolumns, a scaling proportion or "even expansion" between pyramidal cells and core minicolumnar size, and the translation of neuronal elements from the main axis of the minicolumn. It is our belief that a significant portion of the architectural complexity of the cerebral cortex, its response to injury, and its evolutionary transformation, can all be captured by a small set of basic physical laws dictated by the symmetry of minicolumns. The putative preservations of parameters related to the symmetry of the minicolumn suggest that the development and final organization of the cortex follows a deterministic process.

  14. Streamwater ages derived from tritium show power law variation with discharge like silica concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Michael; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Understanding runoff generation is important for management of freshwater systems. Determining transit time distributions of streamwaters and how they change with discharge gives information on the flowpaths and recharge sources of streams - vital information for determining the responses of streams to stressors such as pollution, landuse change, or climate change. This work takes a first look at unique information on how transit time distributions change with discharge in some New Zealand catchments. Transit time distributions of streamwaters have been determined from tritium measurements on single samples in this work. This allows changes with stream discharge to be observed, in contrast to previous isotope studies which have given averaged transit time distributions based on series of samples. In addition, tritium reveals the wide spectrum of ages present in streams whereas oxygen-18 or chloride variations only show the younger ages (Stewart et al., 2010). It was found that the mean transit time (MTT) data could be reasonably represented by straight lines in log-log plots, indicating power law relationships between MTT and discharge. Similar power law behaviour has been observed for the rock forming elements such as silica in streamwaters (Godsey et al., 2009). Case studies are presented for two New Zealand catchments, both with volcanic ash substrates. Toenepi is a dairy catchment near Hamilton, which shows well-constrained power law relationships between MTT and discharge, and between silica concentration and discharge (Morgenstern et al., 2010). Baseflow MTTs vary from 2.5 to 157 years. Tutaeuaua is a pastoral farming catchment near Taupo. Results for nested catchments along the stream also show power law relationships for both MTT and silica with discharge. Streamwater MTTs vary from 1 to 11 years. The results indicate that (1) relatively old waters dominate many streams, (2) streamwater ages vary with discharge, and (3) age, like silica, varies according to

  15. [The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A G

    2009-01-01

    Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.

  16. The aging of Wolff's "law": ontogeny and responses to mechanical loading in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Osbjorn M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-01-01

    The premise that bones grow and remodel throughout life to adapt to their mechanical environment is often called Wolff's law. Wolff's law, however, is not always true, and in fact comprises a variety of different processes that are best considered separately. Here we review the molecular and physiological mechanisms by which bone senses, transduces, and responds to mechanical loads, and the effects of aging processes on the relationship (if any) between cortical bone form and mechanical function. Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that cortical bone is primarily responsive to strain prior to sexual maturity, both in terms of the rate of new bone growth (modeling) as well as rates of turnover (Haversian remodeling). Rates of modeling and Haversian remodeling, however, vary greatly at different skeletal sites. In addition, there is no simple relationship between the orientation of loads in long bone diaphyses and their cross-sectional geometry. In combination, these data caution against assuming without testing adaptationist views about form-function relationships in order to infer adult activity patterns from skeletal features such as cross-sectional geometry, cortical bones density, and musculo-skeletal stress markers. Efforts to infer function from shape in the human skeleton should be based on biomechanical and developmental models that are experimentally tested and validated.

  17. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  18. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  19. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  20. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  1. 45 CFR 96.130 - State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State law regarding sale of tobacco products to individuals under age of 18. 96.130 Section 96.130 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.130...

  2. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span.

  3. [Thermodynamic theory of aging explaining reasons of aging and death with standpoint of general laws of nature].

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, G P

    2001-01-01

    Thermodynamic theory of aging explains changes of the functions of states of cells and tissues during aging. The rates of aging depend on the genetic factors, the nature of habitat, nutrition and external influences. These rates can be different. Aging of organs, functional systems and tissues, as theirs diseases, lead decrease of adaptational ability of organism and its death.

  4. Can a restrictive law serve a protective purpose? The impact of age-restrictive laws on young people's access to sexual and reproductive health services.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kirsten; Apland, Kara; Watson, Katherine

    2014-11-01

    This article explores the purpose, function and impact of legal restrictions imposed on children's and young people's involvement in sexual activity and their access to sexual and reproductive health services. Whilst there is no consensus on the age at which it is appropriate or acceptable for children and young people to start having sex, the existence of a minimum legal age for sexual consent is almost universal across national jurisdictions, and many states have imposed legal rules that place restrictions on children's and young people's independent access to health services, including sexual health services. The article draws on evidence and analysis from a recent study conducted by the International Planned Parenthood Federation in collaboration with the Coram Children's Legal Centre, UK, which involved a global mapping of laws in relation to sexual and reproductive rights, and exploratory qualitative research in the UK, El Salvador and Senegal amongst young people and health care providers. The article critically examines the social and cultural basis for these rules, arguing that the legal concept of child protection is often founded on gendered ideas about the appropriate boundaries of childhood knowledge and behaviour. It concludes that laws which restrict children's access to services may function to place children and young people at risk: denying them the ability to access essential information, advice and treatment.

  5. von Baer's law for the ages: lost and found principles of developmental evolution.

    PubMed

    Abzhanov, Arhat

    2013-12-01

    In 1828, Karl Ernst von Baer formulated a series of empirically defined rules, which became widely known as the 'Law of Development' or 'von Baer's law of embryology'. This was one the most significant attempts to define the principles that connected morphological complexity and embryonic development. Understanding this relation is central to both evolutionary biology and developmental genetics. Von Baer's ideas have been both a source of inspiration to generations of biologists and a target of continuous criticism over many years. With advances in multiple fields, including paleontology, cladistics, phylogenetics, genomics, and cell and developmental biology, it is now possible to examine carefully the significance of von Baer's law and its predictions. In this review, I argue that, 185 years after von Baer's law was first formulated, its main concepts after proper refurbishing remain surprisingly relevant in revealing the fundamentals of the evolution-development connection, and suggest that their explanation should become the focus of renewed research.

  6. Sentencing Male Sex Offenders Under the Age of 14: A Law Reform Advocacy Journey in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.

  7. HIV transmission law in the age of treatment-as-prevention.

    PubMed

    Haire, Bridget; Kaldor, John

    2015-12-01

    Evidence that treating people with HIV early in infection prevents transmission to sexual partners has reframed HIV prevention paradigms. The resulting emphasis on HIV testing as part of prevention strategies has rekindled the debate as to whether laws that criminalise HIV transmission are counterproductive to the human rights-based public health response. It also raises normative questions about what constitutes 'safe(r) sex' if a person with HIV has undetectable viral load, which has significant implications for sexual practice and health promotion. This paper discusses a recent high-profile Australian case where HIV transmission or exposure has been prosecuted, and considers how the interpretation of law in these instances impacts on HIV prevention paradigms. In addition, we consider the implications of an evolving medical understanding of HIV transmission, and particularly the ability to determine infectiousness through viral load tests, for laws that relate to HIV exposure (as distinct from transmission) offences. We conclude that defensible laws must relate to appreciable risk. Given the evidence that the transmissibility of HIV is reduced to negligible level where viral load is suppressed, this needs to be recognised in the framing, implementation and enforcement of the law. In addition, normative concepts of 'safe(r) sex' need to be expanded to include sex that is 'protected' by means of the positive person being virally suppressed. In jurisdictions where use of a condom has previously mitigated the duty of the person with HIV to disclose to a partner, this might logically also apply to sex that is 'protected' by undetectable viral load.

  8. The legacy of minimum legal drinking age law changes: Long-term effects on suicide and homicide deaths among women

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A; Hipp, Pamela R.; Norberg, Karen E.; Rundell, Laura; Evanoff, Anastasia; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior to the establishment of the uniform drinking age of 21 in the United States, many states permitted legal purchase of alcohol at younger ages. Lower drinking ages were associated with several adverse outcomes, including elevated rates of suicide and homicide among youth. The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 remained at elevated risk in adulthood. Methods Analysis of data from the U.S. Multiple Cause of Death files, 1990–2004, combined with data on the living population from the U.S. Census and American Community Survey. The assembled data contained records on over 200,000 suicides and 130,000 homicides for individuals born between 1949 and 1972, the years during which the drinking age was in flux. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate whether adults who were legally permitted to drink prior to age 21 were at elevated risk for death by these causes. A quasi-experimental analytical approach was employed which incorporated state and birth year fixed effects to account for unobserved covariates associated with policy exposure. Results In the population as a whole, we found no association between minimum drinking age and homicide or suicide. However, significant policy-by-sex interactions were observed for both outcomes, such that women exposed to permissive drinking age laws were at higher risk for both suicide (OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.05, 1.18, p=0.0003) and homicide (OR=1.15; 95% CI 1.04, 1.25; p=0.0028). Effect sizes were stronger for the portion of the cohort born after 1960, whereas no significant effects were observed for women born prior to 1960. Conclusions Lower drinking ages may result in persistent elevated risk for suicide and homicide among women born after 1960. The national drinking age of 21 may be preventing about 600 suicides and 600 homicides annually. PMID:22085045

  9. Now That the Law Has Changed: Assessing the Impact of the 21 Year Old Drinking Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Terry; And Others

    To determine the effects of raising the legal drinking age on the drinking patterns of college students, especially those whose status changed from legal to illegal, a survey was designed and administered to college students before and after the legal drinking age was changed from 19 to 21. College students (N=799) completed surveys in April of…

  10. Bio-terrorism, human security and public health: can international law bring them together in an age of globalization?

    PubMed

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2005-09-01

    Bio-terrorism, the use of a microorganism with the deliberate intent of causing infection, before and since the anthrax attacks in the United States in October 2001, has emerged as a real medical and public health threat. The link between bio-terrorism, human security and public health raises complex questions on the normative trajectories of international law, the mandates of international organizations, and global health governance. In May 2001, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) passed a resolution entitled "Global Health Security: Epidemic Alert and Response" which inter alia, urged WHO member states to participate actively in the verification and validation of surveillance data and information concerning health emergencies of international concern. This article explores the links between bio-terrorism, human security and public health, and investigates the effectiveness of international legal mechanisms that link them in an age of globalization of public health. The article explores the interaction of WHO's 'soft-law' approaches to global health security, and the 'moribund' negotiations of the verification and monitoring protocol to the Biological Weapons Convention 1972. Can international law link bio-terrorism, public health and human security? Does the WHO collaborate with other international organizations within and outside the United Nations system to develop effective legal and governance approaches to bio-terrorism and global health security? The article concludes that the globalization of public health threats like bio-terrorism requires globalized legal approaches.

  11. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Laws of Influence of Structural Characteristics on the Strength and Crack Resistance of Aging Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhnik, S. B.; Usikova, G. I.

    2005-01-01

    The structural characteristics (the volume fraction, size, and shape of and the distance among hardening-phase particles) of aging alloys and steels, which define the behavior of the critical stress intensity factor during thermal hardening, are determined using the structural-mechanical approach we have developed. It is experimentally demonstrated for maraging steels that our approach is capable of proving the correlations of strength, plasticity, and crack- resistance with the structural characteristics, which were varied by changing the chemical composition of steel and thermokinetic aging conditions

  13. [Numerical modeling of ideal cohorts of aging organisms obeying the Gompertz-Makeham law in association with the Strehler-Mildwan correlation].

    PubMed

    Golubev, A G

    2004-01-01

    The Gompertz-Makeham law (-dn/dt x l/n(t)=C+lambdae(gammat)) so as other genuine laws of Nature is strictly applicable only to ideal objects (populations and cohorts) analogously to laws of mechanics or thermodynamics, which are exactly true only for such physical abstractions as mass points or ideal gases. Therefore, a biologically meaningful interpretation of the parameters of this law is likely to be more important for understanding the aging process than devising of alternative analytical descriptions of biodemographic processes for the sake of a better fit only. Numerical modeling of ideal cohorts of aging organisms obeying the Gompertz-Makeha law makes it possible to differentiate possible real and apparent changes in mortality patterns that occur in human history and in evolution and are observed in gerontological experiments and to demonstratively show such effects as the dependency of longevity upon population size, the evolutionarily important possibility of reciprocal changes in the mean and maximal longevity, or detection of apparent changes in negatively correlated aging rate and vitality when the Makeham term is ignored, which is usual in demography. The basic difference between the Makeham term Cand Gompertz term lambdae(gammat) is suggested to be not that the former is constant, whereas the latter is age-dependent, but that the former comprises the contributions of inherently irresistible stresses to mortality, whereas the latter comprises the contributions of resistible stresses to mortality and shows how changes in the ability to resist them is translated into changes in mortality.

  14. Asteroid Impacts, Crater Scaling Laws, and a Proposed Younger Age for Venus's Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William; Ghent, Rebecca; Mazrouei, Sara; Robbins, Stuart; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2015-11-01

    rate as Earth. Fitting model craters to observations, we estimate Venus’ average surface age as ~130 Myr, a lower value than previous predictions. This result, if true, has interesting implications for Venus’s evolutionary history.

  15. "They arrested me for loving a schoolgirl": ethnography, HIV, and a feminist assessment of the age of consent law as a gender-based structural intervention in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Shanti A

    2012-06-01

    In 1990 women's rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. While the intention of the law and aggressive campaign was to prosecute "sugar daddies" and "pedophiles," the average age of men charged with defilement was twenty-one years old and many were believe to be "boyfriends" in consensual sexual liaisons with the alleged victims. This article uses court records, case studies, and longitudinal ethnographic data gathered in east-central Uganda to examine the impact of the age of consent law at national and local levels, and specifically what the disjunctures between national intentions and local uses reveal about conflicting views about sexual privilege and rights. I argue that existing class, gender, and age hierarchies have shaped how the Defilement Law has been applied locally, such that despite the stated aim of "protecting" young women, the law reinstates patriarchal privilege (especially against men of lower social class) while simultaneously increasing the regulation of adolescent female sexuality and undermining their autonomy. This paper demonstrates how ethnography and critical gender theory-which emphasizes the intersectionality of gender, age, and class in the (re)production of inequalities-can be used to examine consequences of macro-level interventions in ways that may be undetected in conventional public health evaluation techniques but that are crucial for designing and modifying effective interventions.

  16. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-08-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms.

  17. Endorsement of a Personal Responsibility to Adhere to the Minimum Drinking Age Law Predicts Consumption, Risky Behaviors, and Alcohol-Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L.; Lewis, Deborah; Frank, Jeremy; Marchell, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Despite minimum drinking age laws, underage college students engage in high levels of risky drinking and reach peak lifetime levels of alcohol dependence. A group of presidents of universities and colleges has argued that these laws promote disrespect for laws in general, and do not prevent drinking or related negative consequences. However, no study has investigated the policy-relevant question of whether students who endorse a personal responsibility to obey drinking laws, regardless of their opinions about the laws, are less likely to drink or to experience negative consequences. Therefore, we compared endorsers to non-endorsers, controlling for race, gender, and baseline outcomes, at two universities (Ns = 2007 and 2027). Neither sample yielded a majority (49% and 38% endorsement), but for both universities, all 17 outcome measures were significantly associated with endorsement across all types of analyses. Endorsers were less likely to drink, drank less, engaged in less high-risk behavior (e.g., heavy/binge drinking), and experienced fewer harms (e.g., physical injury), even when controlling for covariates. Racial/ethnic minority groups were more likely to endorse, compared to White students. By isolating a small window of time between high school and college that produces large changes in drinking behavior, and controlling for covariates, we can begin to hone in on factors that might explain relations among laws, risky behaviors, and harms. Internalization of a social norm to adhere to drinking laws could offer benefits to students and society, but subsequent research is needed to pin down causation and causal mechanisms. PMID:24078780

  18. Community norms, enforcement of minimum legal drinking age laws, personal beliefs and underage drinking: an explanatory model.

    PubMed

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W; Paschall, Mallie J

    2010-06-01

    Strategies to enforce underage drinking laws are aimed at reducing youth access to alcohol from commercial and social sources and deterring its possession and use. However, little is known about the processes through which enforcement strategies may affect underage drinking. The purpose of the current study is to present and test a conceptual model that specifies possible direct and indirect relationships among adolescents' perception of community alcohol norms, enforcement of underage drinking laws, personal beliefs (perceived parental disapproval of alcohol use, perceived alcohol availability, perceived drinking by peers, perceived harm and personal disapproval of alcohol use), and their past-30-day alcohol use. This study used data from 17,830 middle and high school students who participated in the 2007 Oregon Health Teens Survey. Structural equations modeling indicated that perceived community disapproval of adolescents' alcohol use was directly and positively related to perceived local police enforcement of underage drinking laws. In addition, adolescents' personal beliefs appeared to mediate the relationship between perceived enforcement of underage drinking laws and past-30-day alcohol use. Enforcement of underage drinking laws appeared to partially mediate the relationship between perceived community disapproval and personal beliefs related to alcohol use. Results of this study suggests that environmental prevention efforts to reduce underage drinking should target adults' attitudes and community norms about underage drinking as well as the beliefs of youth themselves.

  19. Drinking-Age Laws: An Evaluation Synthesis of Their Impact on Highway Safety. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Investigations and Oversight, Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Program Evaluation and Methodology Div.

    This study examined existing evaluations of drinking-age laws to determine the extent to which they provide empirical support for federal and state initiatives to change the legal drinking age. It specifically examined the effects that raising the minimum drinking age has had on traffic accidents, beverage alcohol consumption, driving after…

  20. Population age and initial density in a patchy environment affect the occurrence of abrupt transitions in a birth-and-death model of Taylor's law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Zhang, B.; Cohen, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Taylor's power law describes an empirical relationship between the mean and variance of population densities in field data, in which the variance varies as a power, b, of the mean. Most studies report values of b varying between 1 and 2. However, Cohen (2014a) showed recently that smooth changes in environmental conditions in a model can lead to an abrupt, infinite change in b. To understand what factors can influence the occurrence of an abrupt change in b, we used both mathematical analysis and Monte Carlo samples from a model in which populations of the same species settled on patches, and each population followed independently a stochastic linear birth-and-death process. We investigated how the power relationship responds to a smooth change of population growth rate, under different sampling strategies, initial population density, and population age. We showed analytically that, if the initial populations differ only in density, and samples are taken from all patches after the same time period following a major invasion event, Taylor's law holds with exponent b=1, regardless of the population growth rate. If samples are taken at different times from patches that have the same initial population densities, we calculate an abrupt shift of b, as predicted by Cohen (2014a). The loss of linearity between log variance and log mean is a leading indicator of the abrupt shift. If both initial population densities and population ages vary among patches, estimates of b lie between 1 and 2, as in most empirical studies. But the value of b declines to ~1 as the system approaches a critical point. Our results can inform empirical studies that might be designed to demonstrate an abrupt shift in Taylor's law.

  1. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  2. Frailty's Place in Ethics and Law: Some Thoughts on Equality and Autonomy and on Limits and Possibilities for Aging Citizens.

    PubMed

    McNally, Mary; Lahey, William

    2015-01-01

    Consideration of ethical and legal themes relating to frailty must engage with the concern that frailty is a pejorative concept that validates and reinforces the disadvantage and vulnerability of aging adults. In this chapter, we consider whether a greater focus on frailty may indeed be part of the solution to the disadvantages that aging adults face in achieving equality and maintaining their autonomy within systems that have used their frailty to deny them equality and autonomy. First, by examining equality both as an ethical norm and as a requirement for protections against discrimination, we raise questions about the grounds on which health providers and health systems can be required to give equal concern and respect to the needs of frail older persons. Second, we explore autonomy and identify the tension between meaningful self-determination and prevailing ethical and legal norms associated with informed choice. Third, we argue that a proper understanding of frailty is essential within both of these themes; it respects equality by enabling health providers and systems to identify and address the distinct care needs of aging adults and helps to align informed choice theory with appropriate processes for decision-making about those needs.

  3. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Edward S.; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-01-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit. PMID:26345196

  4. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  5. Conditional grandmother effects on age at marriage, age at first birth, and completed fertility of daughters and daughters-in-law in historical Krummhörn.

    PubMed

    Johow, Johannes; Voland, Eckart

    2012-09-01

    Based on historical data pertaining to the Krummhörn population (eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Germany), we compared reproductive histories of mothers according to whether the maternal grandmother (MGM) or the paternal grandmother (PGM) or neither of them was resident in the parents' parish at the time of the mother's first birth. In contrast to effects of PGMs, we discovered conditional differences in the MGM's effects between landless people and wealthier, commercial farmers. Our data indicate that the presence of the MGM only lowers the woman's age at marriage (AAM) and her age at the birth of her first child (AFB) in the case of landless families. However, among commercial farmers, who can generally be characterized by a lower AAM and AFB, we found opposite tendencies for the MGM's effect leading to a relatively small delay in AAM and AFB. Moreover, we also analyzed differences in the completed fertility (i.e., children ever born: CEB). Results indicate that landless families in general do have fewer CEB compared with commercial farmers except for those families in which the MGM has been present. Emphasizing that the adaptiveness of investment decisions should depend on the interaction of genetic, lineage-specific (intrinsic) and ecologically imposed (extrinsic) constraints, we conclude that kin strategies consequently address different fitness components under different conditions.

  6. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits.

  7. Power law behavior of RR-interval variability in healthy middle-aged persons, patients with recent acute myocardial infarction, and patients with heart transplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigger, J. T. Jr; Steinman, R. C.; Rolnitzky, L. M.; Fleiss, J. L.; Albrecht, P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The purposes of the present study were (1) to establish normal values for the regression of log(power) on log(frequency) for, RR-interval fluctuations in healthy middle-aged persons, (2) to determine the effects of myocardial infarction on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), (3) to determine the effect of cardiac denervation on the regression of log(power) on log(frequency), and (4) to assess the ability of power law regression parameters to predict death after myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS. We studied three groups: (1) 715 patients with recent myocardial infarction; (2) 274 healthy persons age and sex matched to the infarct sample; and (3) 19 patients with heart transplants. Twenty-four-hour RR-interval power spectra were computed using fast Fourier transforms and log(power) was regressed on log(frequency) between 10(-4) and 10(-2) Hz. There was a power law relation between log(power) and log(frequency). That is, the function described a descending straight line that had a slope of approximately -1 in healthy subjects. For the myocardial infarction group, the regression line for log(power) on log(frequency) was shifted downward and had a steeper negative slope (-1.15). The transplant (denervated) group showed a larger downward shift in the regression line and a much steeper negative slope (-2.08). The correlation between traditional power spectral bands and slope was weak, and that with log(power) at 10(-4) Hz was only moderate. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were used to predict mortality and were compared with the predictive value of traditional power spectral bands. Slope and log(power) at 10(-4) Hz were excellent predictors of all-cause mortality or arrhythmic death. To optimize the prediction of death, we calculated a log(power) intercept that was uncorrelated with the slope of the power law regression line. We found that the combination of slope and zero-correlation log(power) was an outstanding predictor, with a

  8. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  9. Older Americans Act Amendments of 1987: A Summary of Provisions. Public Law 100-175. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Carol

    The Older American Act Amendments of 1987 (Public Law 100-175) contain no major overhaul of the Act, but new provisions do significantly expand certain service components of the state and area agency on aging program under title III to address the special needs of certain populations, including the frail elderly living at home, residents of…

  10. “They Arrested Me for Loving a Schoolgirl”: Ethnography, HIV, and A Feminist Assessment of the Age of Consent Law as a Gender-based Structural Intervention in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Shanti A.

    2011-01-01

    In 1990 women’s rights activists in Uganda successfully lobbied to amend the Defilement Law, raising the age of sexual consent for adolescent females from fourteen to eighteen years old and increasing the maximum sentence to death by hanging. The amendment can be considered a macro-level intervention designed to address the social and health inequalities affecting young women and girls, particularly their disproportionately high rate of HIV as compared to their male counterparts. While the intention of the law and aggressive campaign was to prosecute “sugar daddies” and “pedophiles,” the average age of men charged with defilement was twenty-one years old and many were believe to be “boyfriends” in consensual sexual liaisons with the alleged victims. This article uses court records, case studies, and longitudinal ethnographic data gathered in central-eastern Uganda to examine the impact of the age of consent law at national and local levels, and specifically what the disjunctures between national intentions and local uses reveal about conflicting views about the sexual privilege and rights. I argue that existing class, gender, and age hierarchies have shaped how the Defilement Law has been applied locally, such that despite the stated aim of “protecting” young women, the law reinstates patriarchal privilege (especially against men of lower social class) while simultaneously increasing the regulation of adolescent female sexuality and undermining their autonomy. This paper demonstrates how ethnography and gender theory—which emphasizes the intersectionality of gender, age, and class in the (re)production of inequalities—can be used to examine consequences of macro-level interventions in ways that may be undetected in conventional public health evaluation techniques but that are crucial for designing and modifying effective interventions. PMID:21824700

  11. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2011-01-01

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.

  12. Darwin's laws.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Chris

    2012-03-01

    There is widespread agreement among contemporary philosophers of biology and philosophically-minded biologists that Darwin's insights about the intrusion of chance processes into biological regularities undermines the possibility of there being biological laws. Darwin made references to "designed laws." He also freely described some laws as having exceptions. This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the notion of scientific laws that was dominant in Darwin's time, and in all probability the one which he inherited. The analysis of laws is then used to show how it could have been natural for Darwin to believe in designed laws that had exceptions, and to highlight the continuity between the metaphysics of pre-Darwinian, Darwinian, and contemporary biological science. One important result is the removal of one motivation for the anti-laws sentiment in philosophy and biology.

  13. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  14. Lectures on Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettleship, Lois

    Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

  15. School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Splitt, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

  16. World Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, David

    This consultant paper is intended to provide information useful to a goal of this curriculum development project in the war/peace field, that is to encourage students to search intelligently for alternatives to war. The most fundamental assumptions used in thinking about international law are described, including some assumptions about systemic…

  17. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopels, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  18. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel, Mark Ya.

    2005-07-01

    Exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal- environment interactions (metabolism etc) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kind of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  19. Stigma law.

    PubMed

    1998-10-30

    Massachusetts enacted a law, called House No. 2099, that relieves real estate brokers from liability for not disclosing the history of a property to a potential buyer. The statute says that certain information does not need to be disclosed in a real estate transaction. Such information includes whether any previous occupants had HIV/AIDS or any other disease that is unlikely to be transmitted casually.

  20. Application of Arrhenius law to DP and zero-span tensile strength measurements taken on iron gall ink impregnated papers: relevance of artificial ageing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouchon, Véronique; Belhadj, Oulfa; Duranton, Maroussia; Gimat, Alice; Massiani, Pascale

    2016-08-01

    Iron gall inks (IGI) were largely used for writing until the nineteenth century. Under certain circumstances, they provoke a substantial degradation of their cellulosic support. It was shown in a previous works that combination of oxygen and iron largely impacts cellulose chain breaking occurring in acidic conditions (pH 3-4). The present study aims to study the kinetic of this degradation. It assesses the validity of Arrhenius law between 20 and 90 °C taking advantage of the fast depolymerization of IGI impregnated papers at room temperature and using two complementary tools: DP measurements and zero-span tensile strength. The first one is sensitive enough to measure degradation at its very beginning, while the second is more appropriate for advanced stage of degradation. Similar activation energies (97 ± 2 kJ mol-1) were found via DP and zero-span measurements, and reaction rates of IGI impregnated papers were 1-2 orders of magnitude above available data related to lignin-free acidic papers. These observations suggest a dominant hydrolytic mechanism that involves directly or indirectly oxygen and iron.

  1. Conservation Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

    In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

  2. Predictive implications of Gompertz's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, Peter; Roehner, Bertrand M.

    2016-04-01

    Gompertz's law tells us that for humans above the age of 35 the death rate increases exponentially with a doubling time of about 10 years. Here, we show that the same law continues to hold up to age 106. At that age the death rate is about 50%. Beyond 106 there is so far no convincing statistical evidence available because the number of survivors are too small even in large nations. However, assuming that Gompertz's law continues to hold beyond 106, we conclude that the mortality rate becomes equal to 1 at age 120 (meaning that there are 1000 deaths in a population of one thousand). In other words, the upper bound of human life is near 120. The existence of this fixed-point has interesting implications. It allows us to predict the form of the relationship between death rates at age 35 and the doubling time of Gompertz's law. In order to test this prediction, we first carry out a transversal analysis for a sample of countries comprising both industrialized and developing nations. As further confirmation, we also develop a longitudinal analysis using historical data over a time period of almost two centuries. Another prediction arising from this fixed-point model, is that, above a given population threshold, the lifespan of the oldest persons is independent of the size of their national community. This prediction is also supported by empirical evidence.

  3. Universal mortality law and immortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel', Mark Ya.

    2004-10-01

    Well-protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant resources are evolutionarily unprecedented. Physical approach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality, establishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, which is universal for all animals from yeast to humans. Singularities of the law demonstrate new kinds of stepwise adaptation. The law proves that universal mortality is an evolutionary by-product, which at any given age is reversible, independent of previous life history, and disposable. Life expectancy may be extended, arguably to immortality, by minor biological amendments in the animals. Indeed, in nematodes with a small number of perturbed genes and tissues it increased 6-fold (to 430 years in human terms), with no apparent loss in health and vitality. The law relates universal mortality to specific processes in cells and their genetic regulation.

  4. Sexuality and the law.

    PubMed

    Portelli, C J

    1998-01-01

    Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care.

  5. Exact law of live nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azbel‧, Mark Ya.

    2005-08-01

    The exact law of mortality dynamics in changing populations and environment is derived. It includes no explicit characteristics of animal-environment interactions (metabolism, etc.) which are a must for life; it is universal for all animals, from single-cell yeast to humans, with their drastically different biology, evolutionary history, and complexity; it is rapidly (within few percent of life span) reversible. Such a law is unique for live systems with their homeostatic self-adjustment to environment (cf. thermodynamics of liquids and glasses). The law which is valid for all live, and only live, systems is their specific natural law. Mortality is an instrument of natural selection and biological diversity. Its law, which is preserved in evolution of all species, is a conservation law of mortality, selection, evolution, biology. The law implies new kinds of intrinsic mortality and adaptation which dominate in evolutionary unprecedented protected populations and, in contrast to species-specific natural selection, proceed via universal stepwise rungs and reduce to universal cellular mechanism. The law demonstrates that intrinsic mortality and at least certain aspects of aging are disposable evolutionary byproducts, and directed genetic and/or biological changes may yield healthy and vital Methuselah lifespan. This is consistent with experiments. Universality implies that single-cell yeast may provide a master key to the cellular mechanism of universal mortality, aging, selection, evolution, and its regulation in all animals. One may look for its manifestations in animal cells also, e.g., in their replicative senescence and cancer. Evolutionary origin and genetic nature of universality are suggested.

  6. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  7. Inclusion and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damer, Linda K.

    2001-01-01

    Describe four different laws related to the education of children with disabilities: (1) Public Law 94-142; (2) Public Law 99-457; (3) Public Law 101-336 ADA; and (4) Public Law 101-476 IDEA. Discusses the topic of mainstreaming and highlights the recent legal decisions that have occurred. (CMK)

  8. Teaching Global Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  9. Law and family planning.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M D

    1984-03-17

    This discussion of law and family planning reviews some recent reports of the Australain Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the law as it affects family planning and the sexuality of young people with reference to the Irish dilemma, the law's approach in Ingland, Canada, and the US. The ALRC works only on references recived by it from the Federal Attorney General. No reference so far received has been specific to the issues of family planning, but some past and present projects are partly relevant. The most recent report of the ALRC, tabled in Federal Parliament in December 1983 related to privacy protection. An issue that arose in this inquiry related to the subject of the rights to privacy of young people. In a discussion paper the ALRC had suggestd that young persons between the ages of 12-16 should have certain defined legal protection of privacy, even against their parents. Specifically, the ALRC was thinking of medical advice and school counseling. Obviously the issue of contraceptive advice was raised in this context, and never has a tenative proposal of the ALRC engendered so much bitter criticism. The Commission modified its proposal on this topic and the details of the revised proposals are disclosed in its report. Clearly, the rights of young people in regard to sexual advice, education, and treatment are matters of great controversy and strongly divided community opinion. In Australia there are some who are totally opposed to family planning for themselves, their children, and even for others. Such opposition exists in the medical profession. Presumably, such people base their views on strongly held moral principles. They generally believe that contraception interferes in the ways of nature. Far from being promoted by open discussion and instruction in the schools, such matters are intimate concerns of a small circle, principally the family. In dealing with those aspects that concern the rights of parents in thes matters, attention turns to England's Gillick

  10. Media Studies Approaches to Communications Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lule, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Advocates the integration of media studies into a liberal education to promote inquiry into the role of communication media systems in the information age. Describes a media law course which widened its scope to include perspectives such as the relationship among law, the media, and social life. (SR)

  11. Evaluation of the Law Focus Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Patricia J.; Workman, Eva Mae

    1974-01-01

    This evaluation of the Law Focused Curriculum Project of the Oklahoma Public Schools analyzes the human and nonhuman resources utilized in the project, and the nature and extent of activities. The first part of the document examines the program and its objectives. School-age citizens are to become acquainted with the law, the functions and…

  12. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the…

  13. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

  14. Tax Law System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  15. Dementia and the law in Connecticut.

    PubMed

    Coll, Patrick P; McEvoy, Kate

    2013-05-01

    Laws pertain to almost every aspect of our lives. How a law applies to a person or one situation is dependent on many variables. One important variable is the capacity of a person to understand the ramifications of their actions. One of the most common reasons for permanent loss of decisional capacity is the development of dementia. Dementia is primarily a disease of old age. As the population of Connecticut ages and the prevalence of dementiaincreases, physicians will be presented with an increasing number of difficult decisions, where the interface between the law and medical practice will have an impact on their approach to the patient and their medical care. Familiarity with pertaining Connecticut laws and the appropriate procedures to follow as outlined by those laws will help physicians address these complex issues.

  16. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  17. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  18. On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wixted, John T.

    2004-01-01

    T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

  19. Administrative Law Judges

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  20. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  1. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  2. Campus Common Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakken, Gordon Morris

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the legal principle of common law as it applies to the personnel policies of colleges and universities in an attempt to define the parameters of campus common law and to clarify its relationship to written university policies and relevant state laws. (JG)

  3. On Teaching Natural Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  4. School of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This article explains how Street Law helps teachers to defuse tensions between students and police through a combination of education, empathy, and expertise. Street Law was born at Georgetown in 1972. Every year, it sends two dozen law students like Courtney Donovan into Washington, D.C., high schools to help teach the year long course. Street…

  5. Education on Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  6. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  7. The Laws Are Yours.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  8. Ovum donation: examining the new Israeli law.

    PubMed

    Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Pinchover, Zachary S; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2011-11-01

    Ovum donation affords countless couples that under natural circumstances would not be able to produce offspring the ability to carry out natural pregnancies. With advancements in biotechnology including egg collection and in vitro fertilization (IVF), physicians can now successfully implant fertilized embryos. Due to Israel's tremendous involvement in IVF for its own citizens, the national laws that govern egg donation are of great importance. On September 5th 2010, the Israeli Parliament (Knesset) passed a law that allows young women between the ages of 21 and 35 to donate their eggs for paid financial compensation. The new law allows infertile women between the ages of 18 and 54 to request egg donation and IVF, which will partially be covered under state insurance plans. This article provides a description of the new Israeli law regulating ovum donation and the practical, moral and ethical debate surrounding the new system.

  9. International law and law enforcement firearms.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

    2004-01-01

    Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility.

  10. Approximation of Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  11. The neuroeconomic path of the law.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Morris B

    2004-01-01

    Advances in evolutionary biology, experimental economics and neuroscience are shedding new light on age-old questions about right and wrong, justice, freedom, the rule of law and the relationship between the individual and the state. Evidence is beginning to accumulate suggesting that humans evolved certain fundamental behavioural predispositions grounded in our intense social natures, that those predispositions are encoded in our brains as a distribution of probable behaviours, and therefore that there may be a core of universal human law. PMID:15590608

  12. Water, law, science

    SciTech Connect

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  13. Mutational load distribution analysis (MLDA) in pancreatic cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Certain p16 mutation carriers showed mutation elevations in the specific Ki-ras and p53 alleles significantly higher than normal, similar to controls with pancreatitis. Two individuals from separate families started out with "low risk" readings subsequently converted to "high risk" categorization and remained there in each sequential exam.

  14. On Hack's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  15. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  16. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  17. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  18. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  19. 20 CFR 404.726 - Evidence of common-law marriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of common-law marriage. 404.726... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.726 Evidence of common-law marriage. (a) General. A common-law marriage is one considered valid under certain State laws even...

  20. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  1. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  2. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  3. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  4. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    PubMed

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  5. The Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  6. School Law Update, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

  7. Careers in Law Enforcement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Solomon J.

    1991-01-01

    Opportunities for blacks in law enforcement careers are detailed. Local and federal law enforcement agencies are hiring members of minority groups. In a climate in which so many young African Americans are involved in negative behaviors, others should take the opportunity to try to provide positive role models. (SLD)

  8. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  9. Know Your Laws. Czechoslovakian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ziembinski, Vera

    This Czechoslovakian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first…

  10. Know Your Laws. Italian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  11. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  12. Know Your Laws. German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

    This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  13. Know Your Laws. Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

    This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

  14. Know Your Laws. Polish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Kopania, Margaret

    This Polish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  15. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  16. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized…

  17. Laws for Young Mountaineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

    This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

  18. Teaching Information Technology Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  19. Science and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

    2000-01-01

    Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)

  20. Pop Goes the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  1. Language and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  2. Teachers and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Louis; And Others

    This book is designed to promote legal literacy for public school teachers. It examines a wide range of constitutional, statutory, and case law that directly affects their work. Its purpose is to provide teachers with the knowledge necessary to comply with the law, assert their rights, and bring violations to the attention of administrators and…

  3. Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William W.; Stutts, Jane C.

    This manual is an attempt to draw together relevant resources and information for localities interested in developing a bicycle law enforcement operation. It is divided into five major sections. Section I explains the need for and importance of bicycle law enforcement. In section II are presented examples of past and current bicycle law…

  4. Social Studies: Law Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  5. Indian Law Enforcement History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etheridge, David

    Written as a tribute to American Indian law enforcement officers and the Indian Criminal Justice System, this monographh details the history of the legislative, judicial, financial, and cultural problems associated with the development of Indian law enforcement. Citing numerous court cases, pieces of legislation, and individual and organizational…

  6. Reinventing Howard's Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Gwendolyn

    2001-01-01

    Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

  7. Charles' Law of Gases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petty, John T.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

  8. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines…

  9. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  10. Evaluation of New Zealand's bicycle helmet law.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Colin F

    2012-02-10

    The New Zealand helmet law (all ages) came into effect on 1 January 1994. It followed Australian helmet laws, introduced in 1990-1992. Pre-law (in 1990) cyclist deaths were nearly a quarter of pedestrians in number, but in 2006-09, the equivalent figure was near to 50% when adjusted for changes to hours cycled and walked. From 1988-91 to 2003-07, cyclists' overall injury rate per hour increased by 20%. Dr Hillman, from the UK's Policy Studies Institute, calculated that life years gained by cycling outweighed life years lost in accidents by 20 times. For the period 1989-1990 to 2006-2009, New Zealand survey data showed that average hours cycled per person reduced by 51%. This evaluation finds the helmet law has failed in aspects of promoting cycling, safety, health, accident compensation, environmental issues and civil liberties.

  11. International resources law

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

  12. Chemical Laws, Idealization and Approximation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of laws in chemistry. Vihalemm ("Found Chem" 5(1):7-22, 2003) argues that the laws of chemistry are fundamentally the same as the laws of physics they are all "ceteris paribus" laws which are true "in ideal conditions". In contrast, Scerri (2000) contends that the laws of chemistry are…

  13. On Both Sides of the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Brian; Larson, Scott

    2001-01-01

    On June 5, 2001, Brian Hancock graduated from law school. His story behind the story is significant to those concerned with reclaiming troubled teens. Ten years earlier at age fourteen, Brian was facing the prospect of spending the rest of his life in adult prison. This is his story as told to Scott Larson. (Author)

  14. The Law, Computers, and Student Privacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The problem with privacy and computers is not technology but lack of systematic value education in those who use, teach, and learn about computers. A deeper issue than updating the law to the age of computers is integrating computers and the right to privacy into the world of education. (MSE)

  15. Anomalous law of cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Anomalous law of cooling.

    PubMed

    Lapas, Luciano C; Ferreira, Rogelma M S; Rubí, J Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton's law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  17. Lenz's Law Magic Trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2006-02-01

    The demonstration of Lenz's law by dropping a powerful magnet down a nonmagnetic metal pipe has become a classic lecture-hall demonstration.1,2 An inexpensive version is packaged as a professional magic trick3 called "Newton's Nightmare." Combining sleight-of-hand with a demonstration of Lenz's law is a surefire way to heighten student interest. The subsequent student discussion motivated by a desire to understand the magic trick can lead to a memorable physics lesson. This paper will discuss Lenz's law magic and review literature that reveals the subtlety of the physics.

  18. Anomalous law of cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Lapas, Luciano C.; Ferreira, Rogelma M. S.; Rubí, J. Miguel; Oliveira, Fernando A.

    2015-03-14

    We analyze the temperature relaxation phenomena of systems in contact with a thermal reservoir that undergoes a non-Markovian diffusion process. From a generalized Langevin equation, we show that the temperature is governed by a law of cooling of the Newton’s law type in which the relaxation time depends on the velocity autocorrelation and is then characterized by the memory function. The analysis of the temperature decay reveals the existence of an anomalous cooling in which the temperature may oscillate. Despite this anomalous behavior, we show that the variation of entropy remains always positive in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costonis, John J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

  20. Police accident report forms: safety device coding and enacted laws.

    PubMed

    Brock, K; Lapidus, G

    2008-12-01

    Safety device coding on state police accident report (PAR) forms was compared with provisions in state traffic safety laws. PAR forms were obtained from all 50 states and the District of Columbia (states/DC). For seat belts, 22 states/DC had a primary seat belt enforcement law vs 50 with a PAR code. For car seats, all 51 states/DC had a law and a PAR code. For booster seats, 39 states/DC had a law vs nine with a PAR code. For motorcycle helmets, 21 states/DC had an all-age rider helmet law and another 26 a partial-age law vs 50 with a PAR code. For bicycle helmets, 21 states/DC had a partial-age rider helmet law vs 48 with a PAR code. Therefore gaps in the ability of states to fully record accident data reflective of existing state traffic safety laws are revealed. Revising the PAR forms in all states to include complete variables for safety devices should be an important priority, independent of the laws.

  1. Tribal Laws and Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA works collaboratively with tribes, states, and local governments to preserve our land. A number of federal statutes or laws form the legal basis for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response programs.

  2. Preventive Law on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Paul; Tribbensee, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, by fostering a teamwork relationship between administrators and university attorneys, the preventive law approach can effectively identify risks and develop strategies and policies in advance of any individual legal dispute. (EV)

  3. Teaching Criminal Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  4. Potential conservation laws

    SciTech Connect

    Kunzinger, Michael; Popovych, Roman O.

    2008-10-15

    We prove that potential conservation laws have characteristics depending only on local variables if and only if they are induced by local conservation laws. Therefore, characteristics of pure potential conservation laws have to essentially depend on potential variables. This statement provides a significant generalization of results of the recent paper by Bluman et al. [J. Math. Phys. 47, 113505 (2006)]. Moreover, we present extensions to gauged potential systems, Abelian and general coverings, and general foliated systems of differential equations. An example illustrating possible applications of these results is given. A special version of the Hadamard lemma for fiber bundles and the notions of weighted jet spaces are proposed as new tools for the investigation of potential conservation laws.

  5. Bullying Policies and Laws

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  6. Disobeying Immoral Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israel, Elfie

    1994-01-01

    Describes how one teacher continued to teach after becoming pregnant, even though this was against school policy. Reminds teachers that Henry Thoreau claimed it is moral to disobey an immoral law. (HB)

  7. Responses to the Law: A Word of Caution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parr, Preston; Buchanan, E. T.

    1979-01-01

    Universities have faced a wave of legalism. The lowering of the legal age of adulthood and the case law revolution that led to the death of "in loco parentis" implies a greater responsibility by the institution. Together, deans and lawyers must work to support the law and institutional purposes. (Author/CMG)

  8. HeinOnline: An Online Archive of Law Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marisa, Richard J.

    Law is grounded in the past, in the decisions and reasoning of generations of lawyers, judges, juries, and professors. Ready access to this history is vital to solid legal research, and yet, until 2000, much of it was buried in vast collections of aging paper journals. HeinOnline is a new online archive of law journals. Development of HeinOnline…

  9. The Regulation of Public Social Life: Communication Law Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Susan J.; Gumpert, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Develops a taxonomy of the indirect, intentional, or unintended regulations which influence social interaction in public spaces. Suggests an expansion of the scope of communication law. Describes how the taxonomy developed through a case study of a suburban municipality, encompassing zoning laws, penal codes, minimum drinking and driving ages, and…

  10. Child Labor Law and School Work. A Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    This guide to Maine and United States child labor laws and their relevance to school work experiences for youths aged 14 to 18 is intended to provide teachers, guidance counselors, job developers, and job coordinators with basic information on the standards and major provisions of the laws. Chapter 1 tells why the guide was developed; recommends…

  11. 28 CFR 42.711 - Exception; authorized by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exception; authorized by law. 42.711 Section 42.711 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... § 42.711 Exception; authorized by law. (a) This subpart does not apply to an age distinction...

  12. 28 CFR 42.711 - Exception; authorized by law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exception; authorized by law. 42.711 Section 42.711 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT... § 42.711 Exception; authorized by law. (a) This subpart does not apply to an age distinction...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1632 - Other Federal laws and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 404.1632 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Administrative Responsibilities and Requirements... Federal laws and regulations that directly affect its responsibilities in carrying out the...

  14. Teaching Law to the Public: Catalogue of Law School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    This catalog was developed to provide useful information about the many "Teaching Law to the Public" law school-based projects operating around the country in 1993-94. Aimed at law school project staff members, it is a handy reference to other law school programs. The catalog also is intended as a guide for everybody involved in…

  15. Water laws and concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, H.E.

    1970-01-01

    Throughout human history various laws and customs have developed concerning the individual rights and rights in common to the waters of the earth. Many existing laws and concepts are clearly influenced by the environment in which they originated and reflect the relative abundance or scarcity of water. Many concepts reflect the people's original interests in the water and once established have been passed from generation to generation with little modification. Some laws and concepts have been carried by people in their migrations and colonial expansions to vastly different environments, with rather curious consequences. In many places water laws that had been well adapted to the natural environment have become less tenable because of man's activities in modifying that environment, or because of increasing use of water: Increasing consumptive use shifts the water economy toward lesser abundance or increasing deficiency; increasing nonconsumptive use results in pollution of the water resources, so that they become less suitable for other users. The water-rights systems in the United States vary from State to State: some are reasonably fitted to their environment, some have outlived their place in history, some are wasteful of water, some show favoritism to certain special interests or segments of the population. Water-use rights are universally recognized as real property, with constitutional protection against deprivation without due process of law.

  16. Nurturing Respect for the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioffe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

  17. Physical Laws for Mechanobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Alan D.

    2007-01-01

    Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

  18. Is life law-like?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Buchanan, Anne V

    2011-08-01

    Genes are generally assumed to be primary biological causes of biological phenotypes and their evolution. In just over a century, a research agenda that has built on Mendel's experiments and on Darwin's theory of natural selection as a law of nature has had unprecedented scientific success in isolating and characterizing many aspects of genetic causation. We revel in these successes, and yet the story is not quite so simple. The complex cooperative nature of genetic architecture and its evolution include teasingly tractable components, but much remains elusive. The proliferation of data generated in our "omics" age raises the question of whether we even have (or need) a unified theory or "law" of life, or even clear standards of inference by which to answer the question. If not, this not only has implications for the widely promulgated belief that we will soon be able to predict phenotypes like disease risk from genes, but also speaks to the limitations in the underlying science itself. Much of life seems to be characterized by ad hoc, ephemeral, contextual probabilism without proper underlying distributions. To the extent that this is true, causal effects are not asymptotically predictable, and new ways of understanding life may be required.

  19. Criminal Law Study Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    0507 ARTICLE 134’S LIMITATIONS 5-41 0508 ARTICLE 133’S LIMITATIONS 5-44 0 CHAPTER VI DRUG OFFENSES 0600 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW 6-1 0601 THEORIES OF...b) battery, (c) maiming, and (d) murder. 2. Defined and made punishable by law. Basic to the American theory of justice is the principle that there...necessary to be familiar with the common law background since the trial counsel must still adopt a particular theory to establish the accused’s

  20. Criminal Law Study Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    THEORIES OF PROSECUTION 6-1 0602 RELATIONSHIP AMONG DRUG OFFENSES 6-19 0603 REFERENCE TO OTHER AREAS 6-21 Aooession For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB 0 Unannounoed...punishable by law. Basic to the American theory of justice is the principle that there can be no punishment for harmful conduct unless it was...simplified, it is still necessary to be familiar with the common law background, since the trial counsel must still adopt a particular theory to establish the

  1. The trespasses of property law.

    PubMed

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  2. Law 20-30: Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John; Jackson, Landis

    Law 20, in the Alberta (Canada) educational system, is an introductory course with three core modules: (1) "Nature of Law and Civil Law System," (2) "Contract Law," and (3) "Family Law." Law 30 consists of (1) "Basic Rights and Responsibilities," (2) "Labour Law," and (3) "Property Law."…

  3. Computing beyond Moore's Law

    SciTech Connect

    Shalf, John M.; Leland, Robert

    2015-12-01

    Here, photolithography systems are on pace to reach atomic scale by the mid-2020s, necessitating alternatives to continue realizing faster, more predictable, and cheaper computing performance. If the end of Moore's law is real, a research agenda is needed to assess the viability of novel semiconductor technologies and navigate the ensuing challenges.

  4. Environment Law Review--1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

    This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

  5. Financial Disclosure Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Carol

    1983-01-01

    A study of school board presidents and superintendents in Washington, Missouri, and New Jersey reveals that strict financial disclosure laws tend to reduce the number of professionals on boards; however, board members with professional occupations differ from other board members on a number of measures. (MLF)

  6. Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricker, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

  7. Know Your Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.

    These 24 self-contained competency-based modules are designed to acquaint Florida adult students with laws they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the Cognitive Domain and parallel the…

  8. The Gas Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

  9. Law as Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Joan Heiges

    1989-01-01

    Shows how teachers can increase students' general appreciation of literature and improve students' writing skills by studying literature with legal issues and images of the law. Cites several examples of such literature, including Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales," William Shakespeare's "Measure for Measure," and Jonathan…

  10. Athletics and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appenzeller, Herb

    This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

  11. Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermens, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

  12. A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sathe, Dileep V.

    1984-01-01

    The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

  13. Students and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckman, Ivan B.

    This publication consists of 29 articles that were published between April 1974 and June 1977 in the "Students and the Law" column of the National Association of Secondary School Principals' magazine, the "Student Advocate." In editing the articles, an attempt has been made to eliminate or update any suggestions or conclusions that may have been…

  14. School Law Update, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 papers in this volume. Written in law review style and including legal citations, the papers and authors included are: (1) "Who Runs the Schools" (Flygare); (2) "Copyright Issues in Computer-Assisted…

  15. School Law Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This law-related education teaching resource calls attention to civil rights in the school. Julius Menacker gives an overview of major national school legislation and the federal courts' roles in the constitutional areas of equal protection, freedom of expression, and due process. Aggie Alvez offers new perspectives on the constitutional,…

  16. Environmental Law II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

    Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

  17. Constitutional Law--Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Joan; Wood, Robert J.

    The elective unit on Constitutional Law is intended for 11th and 12th grade students. The unit is designed around major course goals which are to develop those concepts whereby students recognize and understand the following three topic areas: 1) Role of the Federal Judicial Branch of Government, 2) Supreme Court Cases Involving the Three Branches…

  18. ADHD and School Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

  19. Law in Outer Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

  20. Team Teaching School Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanko, John G.; Rogina, Raymond P.

    2005-01-01

    Graduate students preparing themselves for a career in school administration are typically apprehensive about the legal issues they will face in their first administrative position. After teaching school law for the first time, the author believed that there had to be a more effective way to reach these students rather than the traditional methods…

  1. Desegregation Law; An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education Associates, Evanston, IL.

    This booklet is comprised of the following: (i) School desegregation law: recent developments (by J. Harold Flannery), dealing with several threshold questions such as: What is illegal school segregation? What must be done about it and by whom? What will be the role of the courts after desegregation? (ii) School desegregation--the past five years,…

  2. Special Education Law Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1989-01-01

    Due to an error made in printing Professor Zirkel's "Special Education Law; Recent Developments" in Volume 48 (October 13, 1988), these updates to the article are printed. Citations are organized under the following major sections: (1) diagnosis and placement; (2) treatment issues; (3) financial issues; and (4) gifted students. (MLF)

  3. The Hungarian Library Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    This booklet includes the Law-Decree No. 15 on Libraries issued by the Presidium of the Hungarian People's Republic in 1976 and the decree of the Council of Ministers on its implementation. The purpose of the decree is to further the fulfilment of citizens' cultural demands, and meet the needs for special literature of both citizens and corporate…

  4. Preventive Law Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Martha V.; Gullatt, David E.; Hardin, Dawn T.; Jannik, Catherine; Tollett, John R.

    This curriculum guide presents a context for preservice education and/or professional development in education law for teachers. Section 1, "Teacher Liability," discusses "Duty to Supervise,""Providing Reasonable Care,""Duty,""Preventing Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment,""Reporting Child…

  5. Equal Justice Under Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his…

  6. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  7. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  8. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  9. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  10. 29 CFR 570.25 - Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor standards..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Certificates of Age Provisions of Other Laws § 570.25 Effect on laws other than the Federal child labor...

  11. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  12. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  13. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  14. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  15. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  16. Heavy Alcohol Use and Youth Suicide: Evidence from Tougher Drunk Driving Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses the widespread variation across states in the timing of adoption of tougher drunk driving laws that set very low legal blood alcohol limits for drivers under age 21--"zero tolerance" (ZT) laws--to provide new evidence on the causal effect of alcohol use on youth suicide. ZT laws reduced heavy episodic drinking by underage men, with…

  17. Archie's law - a reappraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, Paul W. J.

    2016-07-01

    When scientists apply Archie's first law they often include an extra parameter a, which was introduced about 10 years after the equation's first publication by Winsauer et al. (1952), and which is sometimes called the "tortuosity" or "lithology" parameter. This parameter is not, however, theoretically justified. Paradoxically, the Winsauer et al. (1952) form of Archie's law often performs better than the original, more theoretically correct version. The difference in the cementation exponent calculated from these two forms of Archie's law is important, and can lead to a misestimation of reserves by at least 20 % for typical reservoir parameter values. We have examined the apparent paradox, and conclude that while the theoretical form of the law is correct, the data that we have been analysing with Archie's law have been in error. There are at least three types of systematic error that are present in most measurements: (i) a porosity error, (ii) a pore fluid salinity error, and (iii) a temperature error. Each of these systematic errors is sufficient to ensure that a non-unity value of the parameter a is required in order to fit the electrical data well. Fortunately, the inclusion of this parameter in the fit has compensated for the presence of the systematic errors in the electrical and porosity data, leading to a value of cementation exponent that is correct. The exceptions are those cementation exponents that have been calculated for individual core plugs. We make a number of recommendations for reducing the systematic errors that contribute to the problem and suggest that the value of the parameter a may now be used as an indication of data quality.

  18. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  19. Reviews Book: The Age of Wonder Equipment: Portoscope DVD: Around the World in 80 Images Book: Four Laws that Drive the Universe Book: Antimatter Equipment: Coffee Saver Starter Set Equipment: Graphite Levitation Kit Book: Critical Reading Video: Science Fiction-Science Fact Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Age of Wonder This book tells the stories of inspiring 19th-century scientists Antimatter A fast read that gives an intriguing tour of the antimatter world Science Fiction-Science Fact A video from a set of resources about the facts in science fiction WORTH A LOOK Portoscope Lightweight ×30 microscope that is easy on the purse Four Laws that Drive the Universe In just 124 pages Peter Atkins explains thermodynamics Coffee Saver Starter Kit A tool that can demonstrate the effect of reduced air pressure Graphite Levitation Kit Compact set that demonstrates diamagnetic behaviour Critical Reading A study guide on how to read scientific papers HANDLE WITH CARE Around the World in 80 Images Navigate through images from Envistat, country by country WEB WATCH This month's issue features real-time simulation program Krucible 2.0, which enables learners to run virtual experiments

  20. Hubble's Law Implies Benford's Law for Distances to Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Fox, Ronald F.

    2016-03-01

    A recent article by Alexopoulos and Leontsinis presented empirical evidence that the first digits of the distances from the Earth to galaxies are a reasonably good fit to the probabilities predicted by Benford's law, the well known logarithmic statistical distribution of significant digits. The purpose of the present article is to give a theoretical explanation, based on Hubble's law and mathematical properties of Benford's law, why galaxy distances might be expected to follow Benford's law. The new galaxy-distance law derived here, which is robust with respect to change of scale and base, to additive and multiplicative computational or observational errors, and to variability of the Hubble constant in both time and space, predicts that conformity to Benford's law will improve as more data on distances to galaxies becomes available. Conversely, with the logical derivation of this law presented here, the recent empirical observations may be viewed as independent evidence of the validity of Hubble's law.

  1. The law of mortality revisited: interspecies comparisons of mortality.

    PubMed

    Olshansky, S J

    2010-01-01

    In 1825 the British actuary Benjamin Gompertz believed he had discovered a consistency in the timing of death in people that was so important that he labelled his observation a 'law of mortality'. To Gompertz, this 'law' was equivalent in importance to Newton's law of gravity because he believed it would be observed in all living things. Gompertz's quest for the 'law' eventually failed, as did similar efforts by other scientists in the 19th and most of the 20th century. However, the search for the law of mortality was successfully resolved in 1996 when my colleagues and I discovered that the only way to 'see' Gompertz's law expressed as common age patterns of death across species was to partition total mortality into its intrinsic and extrinsic components, and examine mortality schedules on a uniform time scale. Scientists had been unable to reveal the law of mortality in the past not only because they could not partition total mortality, but also because of the previous anthropocentric perspective that forced some scientists to view duration of life along a single time scale - one based on human measurements of chronological time. The law of mortality is relevant today not only because it links the epidemiology of disease, ageing and death across species, but because it creates a window into the future for those who study disease epidemiology in animals that now live long enough in protected environments to experience the biological consequences of ageing. In this paper I summarize the historical search for the law of mortality, explain why the solution could only be found by linking two seemingly unconnected scientific disciplines (evolution biology and actuarial/demographics), explain why age patterns of disease and death in humans may be used to understand and predict disease epidemiology in other species, and describe how a new scientific discipline has arisen in the modern era as a result of this research.

  2. The Teaching of Constitutional Law in American Law Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haimbaugh, George D., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of the teaching of constitutional law used questionnaires sent to the dean of every law school approved by the Association of American Law Schools or the American Bar Association. Responses describe the basic course, advanced courses and seminars, teachers, goals, and examinations. (MLW)

  3. Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suagee, Dean B.

    2003-01-01

    Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

  4. Bayes and the Law

    PubMed Central

    Fenton, Norman; Neil, Martin; Berger, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although the last forty years has seen considerable growth in the use of statistics in legal proceedings, it is primarily classical statistical methods rather than Bayesian methods that have been used. Yet the Bayesian approach avoids many of the problems of classical statistics and is also well suited to a broader range of problems. This paper reviews the potential and actual use of Bayes in the law and explains the main reasons for its lack of impact on legal practice. These include misconceptions by the legal community about Bayes’ theorem, over-reliance on the use of the likelihood ratio and the lack of adoption of modern computational methods. We argue that Bayesian Networks (BNs), which automatically produce the necessary Bayesian calculations, provide an opportunity to address most concerns about using Bayes in the law. PMID:27398389

  5. Modernizing public health law.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of a mutant strain of Escherichia coli throughout Europe highlights the need for modern and flexible public health laws to identify, control and treat infections and contamination that give significant concern for the health of the population. In this article, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah outline the amendments to the Public Health (Control of Disease) Act 1984 that adopt an all-hazards approach to threats to public health.

  6. Upstream health law.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; McIlhattan, Kelley

    2014-01-01

    For the first time, entrepreneurs are aggressively developing new technologies and business models designed to improve individual and population health, not just to deliver specialized medical care. Consumers of these goods and services are not yet "patients"; they are simply people. As this sector of the health care industry expands, it is likely to require new forms of legal governance, which we term "upstream health law."

  7. Ethics and Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilacoba Ramos, Andrés

    2007-04-01

    Ethics are the set of moral rules that govern human conduct. Hegel, for his part, asserted that ethicity implied the full realization of freedom, as well as the suppression of it as arbitrariness. In this paper, we point out that, through the relation between Law and Ethics, we can discover how high are the Ethics of a society, as well as the adherence of its members to it.

  8. Compensation law in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufresne, A.; Lavergne, C.; Lacabanne, C.

    1993-12-01

    The experimental resolution of the α retardation / relaxation mode of model composites epoxy resin- glass beads has been performed using Thermo Stimulated Creep (TSCr) and Thermo Stimulated Currents (TSC) spectroscopies. The distributed retardation / relaxation times τ are found to obey a compensation law, which is characteristic of cooperative movements liberated at the vicinity of T g. The T c and τ c compensation parameters reveal that the microstructure is strongly linked to the nature of the interface.

  9. Turning around Newton's Second Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric

    2004-01-01

    Conceptual and quantitative difficulties surrounding Newton's second law often arise among introductory physics students. Simply turning around how one expresses Newton's second law may assist students in their understanding of a deceptively simple-looking equation.

  10. Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimbrough, Doris R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)

  11. Enforcing pollution control laws

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

  12. The long-term care insurance law in Israel: present and future.

    PubMed

    Iecovich, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Aging in place is a core component of the policy on aging in Israel. This was well expressed in the Long-Term Care Insurance law enacted in 1986 and implemented in 1988. Under the law, disabled persons can receive in-kind home- and community-based services to enable frail older adults to age in place and to complement or supplement the care provided primarily by family caregivers who are legally responsible for caregiving of their elderly family members. This article presents the main principles of the law and reviews the amendments that this law has undergone during the past 22 years. Finally, some core issues and dilemmas are discussed.

  13. Army Medicine and the Law

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1964-01-01

    D. Blood Alcohol Tests and Drunken Drivers E. Hypnosis in the Law F. Lie-Detectors Can Lie! G, Forensic Pathology and the Law H. The Medicolegal...The Federal Tort Claims Act, copyright, 1963. b. Consent to Medical Procedures, copyright 1963. c. Hypnosis in the Law, copyright 1964. d. Blood...Tort Claims Act, copyright 1963. b. Forensic Pathology and the Law, copyright 1964. c. Some Legal Aspects of Military Preventive Medicine, copyright

  14. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  15. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  16. Reordering American Constitutional Law Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Scott D.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that constitutional law is the cornerstone of an undergraduate public law curriculum. Asserts that there is a welcome trend toward teaching the subject over a two-semester sequence, instead of only one. Describes course content and teaching strategies used in a college constitutional law course. (CFR)

  17. Freedom under Law. Revised edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Public Schools, CO.

    This pamphlet identifies and explains Colorado laws as they apply to juveniles and adults. The handbook was specifically developed to help teenagers know how the laws protect them and how they are expected to comply with them. Two short sections discuss the necessity of having laws and give definitions of 12 legal terms such as felony and petty…

  18. Higher Education and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Nordin, Virginia Davis

    The proliferation of laws, regulations, and judicial opinions affecting higher education and the nature of the impact of these laws on the academic community are examined. Designed for use by both students and practitioners, the book employs the "case method" design based on the belief that law cases furnish the best sources for study…

  19. Law-Focused Education: Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls. Malcolm Price Lab. School.

    This law-focused resource booklet is intended to help secondary level students learn about the civil law portion of Iowa's judicial system. The materials are designed to help students understand how to deal with conflict in a peaceful and orderly manner and how to cope with decision making in personal law situations as related to the family, the…

  20. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  1. School accountability laws and the consumption of psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Farasat A S; Schneider, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Over the past decade, several states introduced varying degrees of accountability systems for schools, which became federal law with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. The intent of these accountability laws was to improve academic performance and to make school quality more observable. Nonetheless, schools have reacted to these pressures in several different ways, some of which were not intended. We make use of the variation across states and over time in specific provisions of these accountability laws and find that accountability pressures effect medical diagnoses and subsequent treatment options of school aged children. Specifically, children in states with more stringent accountability laws are more likely to be diagnosed with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and consequently prescribed psychostimulant drugs for controlling the symptoms. However, conditional on diagnosis, accountability laws do not further change the probability of receiving medication therapy.

  2. Reproductive health, youth, and the law.

    PubMed

    Paxman, J M

    1984-01-01

    This article surveys legal and policy approaches to adolescent health care programs and presents data on the availability of sex education programs, contraception, and abortion for adolescents in selected countries in the developed and developing world. The age at which youth are considered legally able reach independent decisions on matters affecting their health varies from country to country, although there is a trend toward setting the "age of majority" at 18 years. There has also been a trend toward viewing laws that require parental consent to health care and treatment as a barrier to health rather than a form of protection. Alternative legal approaches to the dilemma of consent have included lowering the age of majority for purposes of medical treatment, permitting professionals tojude whether an adolescent has sufficient maturity to give consent, and the use of third-party consent (e.g. child advocate). Cultural diversity mitigates against a universal legal approach to reproductive health education. There is wide variation in the policy response to questions such as whether reproductive health education courses should be permitted within the school curriculum, whether they should be obligatory or elective, if there should be separate courses or integration of fertility-related material into existing courses, and whether the sexes should be separated for instruction. There is awareness that formal sex education programs in a school setting cannot reach the large number of adolescents outside the educational system, but laws regarding public dissemination of reproductive health information are often restrictive. Contraceptive-related law and policy affect who has access to contraception and under what conditions. Abortion law takes 2 different forms: those that establish the retionales on which a given pregnancy may be terminated and those that establish the formal procedural requirements that must be met. It is concluded that, overall, law and policy have

  3. Conservation Laws with Dissipation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    smooth, due to the formation of shock waves. However, global solutions exist in the class of functions of bounded variation ,/in the sense of Tonelli...hyperbolic conservation law (2.2) ut + f(u)x -0 The Cauchy problem for (2.2), with initial data u(x,O), of bounded variation , admits a solution in the class...BV of functions of bounded variation ,.in the sense of Tonelli-Cesari. No gain would be made by assuming that u(x,O) is smoother, even analytic! In

  4. Law of the sea

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, E.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Law of the Sea Treaty is designed as an umbrella treaty to provide a general legal framework for dealing with sources of marine pollution, 85% of which are land-based. Unlike smaller bodies of water, the oceans may be too large to reverse the effects of pollution beyond a certain point. Besides land-based sources, the treaty addresses pollution from seabed activities, dumping, airborne pollutants, and vessels. Basic jurisdictional rights and duties are established that protect navigational freedoms as well as prevent pollution. (DCK)

  5. On integrable conservation laws.

    PubMed

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-08

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin-Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations.

  6. On integrable conservation laws

    PubMed Central

    Arsie, Alessandro; Lorenzoni, Paolo; Moro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We study normal forms of scalar integrable dispersive (not necessarily Hamiltonian) conservation laws, via the Dubrovin–Zhang perturbative scheme. Our computations support the conjecture that such normal forms are parametrized by infinitely many arbitrary functions that can be identified with the coefficients of the quasi-linear part of the equation. Moreover, in general, we conjecture that two scalar integrable evolutionary partial differential equations having the same quasi-linear part are Miura equivalent. This conjecture is also consistent with the tensorial behaviour of these coefficients under general Miura transformations. PMID:25568614

  7. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.

  8. Alexander's Law revisited.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoat, Benjamin; Shelukhin, Alexander; Fong, Alex; Mustain, William; Zhou, Wu

    2008-07-01

    Alexander's Law states that the slow-phase velocity of the nystagmus caused by unilateral vestibular lesion increases with gaze in the beat direction. Two studies have shown that this gaze effect is generalized to the nystagmus caused by unilateral cold water irrigation. This indicates that the gaze effect is not the result of central changes associated with a peripheral lesion but rather because of unilateral vestibular peripheral inhibition. In this study, we show that there is a similar gaze effect on the nystagmus produced by unilateral warm water ear irrigation. Furthermore, we examined the two hypotheses of Alexander's Law proposed in the two studies. One hypothesis is based on the gaze-dependent modulation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) response to unbalanced canal input. The other hypothesis, however, is based on the leaky neural integrator caused by unilateral vestibular peripheral inhibition. These two hypotheses predict the same gaze effect on the nystagmus produced by cold water irrigation, but opposite gaze effects on the nystagmus produced by warm water irrigation. Our results support the first hypothesis and suggest that the second hypothesis needs to be modified.

  9. Lightning Scaling Laws Revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, D. J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Scaling laws relating storm electrical generator power (and hence lightning flash rate) to charge transport velocity and storm geometry were originally posed by Vonnegut (1963). These laws were later simplified to yield simple parameterizations for lightning based upon cloud top height, with separate parameterizations derived over land and ocean. It is demonstrated that the most recent ocean parameterization: (1) yields predictions of storm updraft velocity which appear inconsistent with observation, and (2) is formally inconsistent with the theory from which it purports to derive. Revised formulations consistent with Vonnegut's original framework are presented. These demonstrate that Vonnegut's theory is, to first order, consistent with observation. The implications of assuming that flash rate is set by the electrical generator power, rather than the electrical generator current, are examined. The two approaches yield significantly different predictions about the dependence of charge transfer per flash on storm dimensions, which should be empirically testable. The two approaches also differ significantly in their explanation of regional variability in lightning observations.

  10. Fault tolerant control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ly, U. L.; Ho, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic procedure for the synthesis of fault tolerant control laws to actuator failure has been presented. Two design methods were used to synthesize fault tolerant controllers: the conventional LQ design method and a direct feedback controller design method SANDY. The latter method is used primarily to streamline the full-state Q feedback design into a practical implementable output feedback controller structure. To achieve robustness to control actuator failure, the redundant surfaces are properly balanced according to their control effectiveness. A simple gain schedule based on the landing gear up/down logic involving only three gains was developed to handle three design flight conditions: Mach .25 and Mach .60 at 5000 ft and Mach .90 at 20,000 ft. The fault tolerant control law developed in this study provides good stability augmentation and performance for the relaxed static stability aircraft. The augmented aircraft responses are found to be invariant to the presence of a failure. Furthermore, single-loop stability margins of +6 dB in gain and +30 deg in phase were achieved along with -40 dB/decade rolloff at high frequency.

  11. China's Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Law: the law and the philosophy.

    PubMed

    Lening Zhang; Jianhong Liu

    2007-10-01

    The present study introduces and discusses the Juvenile Delinquency Prevention Law of the People's Republic of China. The law was promulgated in the context of Chinese socioeconomic reforms and legal reforms in response to the rising delinquency since the early 1980s. The study explains the social and political background of the law with respect to the patterns of delinquency in China. The law has several main features that reflect the Chinese philosophical underpinnings of crime prevention and control, and the study discusses the connection between the law and the traditional Chinese philosophy and thinking. Finally, the study discusses the challenges to the enforcement of the law in Chinese society, which has lacked a legal tradition in its history.

  12. What is a Physical Law?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Marc

    2008-10-01

    Laws of nature are distinguished from logical and mathematical truths, on the one hand, and from ``accidental facts'' (such as that every atom in some particular spatiotemporal region is lead), on the other hand. What is it for some fact to be a law? Roughly speaking, laws, unlike accidents, would still have held no matter what -- even if other things had been different. For instance, if Earth's axis had been tipped differently, then various accidental features of Earth's seasons would have been different, but the laws of nature would have been no different. However, this way of drawing the distinction between laws and accidents threatens to appeal to the very distinction that it is supposed to illuminate: some fact p is a law if and only if for any hypothetical state of affairs q that is logically consistent with the laws, p would still have held had q been the case. (The risk of circularity arises from the requirement that q be logically consistent with the laws.) In this talk, I will explain how to avoid referring to lawhood on the right side of this ``if and only if.'' The resulting account of the distinction between laws and accidents nicely explains the sense in which things ``cannot'' break the laws.

  13. Scaling laws in cognitive sciences.

    PubMed

    Kello, Christopher T; Brown, Gordon D A; Ferrer-I-Cancho, Ramon; Holden, John G; Linkenkaer-Hansen, Klaus; Rhodes, Theo; Van Orden, Guy C

    2010-05-01

    Scaling laws are ubiquitous in nature, and they pervade neural, behavioral and linguistic activities. A scaling law suggests the existence of processes or patterns that are repeated across scales of analysis. Although the variables that express a scaling law can vary from one type of activity to the next, the recurrence of scaling laws across so many different systems has prompted a search for unifying principles. In biological systems, scaling laws can reflect adaptive processes of various types and are often linked to complex systems poised near critical points. The same is true for perception, memory, language and other cognitive phenomena. Findings of scaling laws in cognitive science are indicative of scaling invariance in cognitive mechanisms and multiplicative interactions among interdependent components of cognition.

  14. Horrocks's bogus law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, David W.

    2005-02-01

    In the early 17th century it was generally accepted that the size of a planet was related to its distance from the Sun. The Lancashire astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks (1619-42) took this a stage further. For the planets known at the time he suggested that the planet-Sun distance was about 15 000 times the planetary radius. This was equivalent to saying that all the planetary spheres subtended an angle of 28 arcsec at the Sun. This so called ``Horrocks's Law'' was confirmed by his Sunday 24 November 1639 (old style) measurement of the angular diameter of the transiting Venus. It leads to a solar parallax of 14 arcsec, a value considered rather small at the time, but refreshingly close to the modern value of about 8.798 arcsec.

  15. Kirschmann's Fourth Law.

    PubMed

    Bosten, J M; Mollon, J D

    2012-01-15

    Kirschmann's Fourth Law states that the magnitude of simultaneous color contrast increases with the saturation of the inducing surround, but that the rate of increase reduces as saturation increases. Others since Kirschmann have agreed and disagreed. Here we show that the form of the relationship between simultaneous color contrast and inducer saturation depends on the method of measurement. Functions were measured by four methods: (i) asymmetric matching with a black surround, (ii) asymmetric matching with a surround metameric to equal energy white, (iii) dichoptic matching, and (iv) nulling an induced sinusoidal modulation. Results from the asymmetric matching conditions agreed with Kirschmann, whereas results from nulling and from dichoptic matching showed a more linear increase in simultaneous contrast with the saturation of the inducer. We conclude that the method certainly affects the conclusions reached, and that there may not be any "fair" way of measuring simultaneous contrast.

  16. LAWS hurricane studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molinari, John

    1995-01-01

    The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the proposed work, it may be impossible to meaningfully study tropical cyclones with lidar wind data because data coverage (i.e., swath width) is insufficient. Research on this grant has focused on how to maximize the benefits of a wind lidar regardless of the choice of platform or laser. Our studies have shown that major unsolved problems in tropical meteorology relate to the structure, dynamics, and role in tropical cyclogenesis of 'easterly waves'. These disturbances exist almost everywhere in the global subtropics. Results are described that focus upon easterly wave impacts on eastern Pacific tropical cyclogenesis. The availability of wind lidar data would create tremendous opportunities for the study of these waves and their role in the general circulation.

  17. Videofile for Law Enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Components of a videotape storage and retrieval system originally developed for NASA have been adapted as a tool for law enforcement agencies. Ampex Corp., Redwood City, Cal., built a unique system for NASA-Marshall. The first application of professional broadcast technology to computerized record-keeping, it incorporates new equipment for transporting tapes within the system. After completing the NASA system, Ampex continued development, primarily to improve image resolution. The resulting advanced system, known as the Ampex Videofile, offers advantages over microfilm for filing, storing, retrieving, and distributing large volumes of information. The system's computer stores information in digital code rather than in pictorial form. While microfilm allows visual storage of whole documents, it requires a step before usage--developing the film. With Videofile, the actual document is recorded, complete with photos and graphic material, and a picture of the document is available instantly.

  18. Makeham's addition to the Gompertz law re-evaluated.

    PubMed

    Hallén, Anund

    2009-08-01

    The Makeham parameter, a constant mortality rate independent of aging added to the Gompertz law of human mortality, is proposed to be a measure of the impact on mortality rate by extrinsic causes of mortality, with the effect of aging removed. A small intrinsic contribution to mortality, assumed to depend on the components involved in cellular function, is linked to the initial mortality rate of the Gompertz law. To avoid biased results and conclusions, the impact of extrinsic mortality should be eliminated from the Gompertz parameters.

  19. Classical and quantum Malus laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wódkiewicz, Krzysztof

    1995-04-01

    The classical and the quantum Malus laws for light and spin are discussed. It is shown that for spin 1/2, the quantum Malus law is equivalent in form to the classical Malus law provided the statistical average involves a quasidistribution function that can become negative. A generalization of Malus's law for arbitrary spin s is obtained in the form of a Feynman path-integral representation for the Malus amplitude. The classical limit of the Malus amplitude for s-->∞ is discussed.

  20. The Simulated Law Firm and Other Contemporary Law Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollander, Patricia A.

    1978-01-01

    Various modes of simulations currently used in law schools are reviewed, including the Simulated Law Firm (SLF) at SUNY Buffalo and various computer-aided teaching programs. Simulation and computer use in the legal profession is reported, followed by a historical description of simulations in teaching and research. Its effectiveness as a teaching…

  1. Simulating the Law: Experiential "Teachniques" in the Modern Law Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Yvonne; Higgins, Noelle

    2010-01-01

    The concept of arguing aspects of legal scenarios in order to facilitate student learning within the law curriculum originated in the vocational Inns of Court in fourteenth-century England. Nowadays, simulations of court proceedings, such as moot courts and mock trials, are widely employed as educational tools in law modules in third-level…

  2. Library Laws Handbook: State Laws Relating to Michigan Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Library, Lansing.

    This document presents excerpts and copies of state laws relating to Michigan libraries. The following are included: the Preamble of the Constitution of Michigan of 1963; Legislative Council Act (excerpt); Incompatible Public Offices; Freedom of Information Act; Open Meetings Act; Laws, Documents, and Reports (excerpts); Administrative Procedures…

  3. Bijuralism in Law's Empire and in Law's Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasirer, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    Using the example of McGill University's bijural program, explores how teaching the common and civil law traditions together provides an opportunity to teach in law's "cosmos" rather than its "empire," so that a bijural legal education can plainly and confidently ally itself with the great university tradition of prizing…

  4. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  5. Teaching of Administrative Law in the New Grade of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domínguez Alonso, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The teaching of Administrative Law in the new grade of law poses numerous challenges and opportunities in the new model of Bologna. It's really important work of research and students in class presentations. It is also important to motivate students to study the issues and cases brought before classes and to use virtual platforms to interact with…

  6. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  7. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  8. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  9. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  10. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  11. 42 CFR 436.522 - Determination of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determination of age. 436.522 Section 436.522... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Age § 436.522 Determination of age. (a) In determining age, the agency must use the common law method (under which an age is reached the day before the anniversary of...

  12. Women and minorities science bill becomes law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. President Bill Clinton has signed into law a measure to establish a commission to identify and address problems associated with the recruitment, retention, and advancement of women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering fields."Today, we have taken a positive step forward to strengthen and expand our high-tech workforce by ensuring that women, minorities, and persons with disabilities have the skills necessary to compete in the Information Age," said U.S. Rep. Connie Morella (R.-Md.), who introduced the measure.

  13. Economics of mining law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  14. The First Law of Elasticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girill, T. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…

  15. Molecular Size and Raoult's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    1985-01-01

    The concept of an ideal solution is ordinarily introduced in freshman chemistry by means of Raoult's Law, which states that the vapor pressure of a volatile component of a solution is proportional to its mole fraction. The relationship of this law to molecular size is discussed. (JN)

  16. Preventive Law for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.

    This chapter focuses on the need for a revised relationship between schools and the courts through the concept of preventive law. The chapter reviews court cases and presents an overview of conflict resolution models and strategies for reducing litigation. Preventive law assumes that greater use of its strategies affords a lesser need for conflict…

  17. Social Change and Criminal Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  18. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  19. Anisotropic power-law inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro; Watanabe, Masa-aki E-mail: jiro@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2010-12-01

    We study an inflationary scenario in supergravity model with a gauge kinetic function. We find exact anisotropic power-law inflationary solutions when both the potential function for an inflaton and the gauge kinetic function are exponential type. The dynamical system analysis tells us that the anisotropic power-law inflation is an attractor for a large parameter region.

  20. School Law in Review, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National School Boards Association, Alexandria, VA. Council of School Attorneys.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: (1) "Environmental Hazards for Urban Schools Facing the New Challenge" (Kelly Frels, Kevin A. Ewing, Timothy A. Wilkins, Jason B. Hutt); (2) "How Accommodating? High-Stakes Testing and Federal Laws That…

  1. Laser atmospheric wind sounder (LAWS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beranek, R. G.; Bilbro, J. W.; Fitzjarrald, D. E.; Jones, W. D.; Keller, V. W.

    1989-01-01

    The principle of operation of a space based Doppler lidar wind measuring system is discussed along with laser wavelength selection considerations. Differences in accommodating the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) polar platform and the Manned Space Station are presented. The impact of the LAWS instrument support subsystems are specifically discussed.

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Illinois Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Illinois state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maine Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maine state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Arkansas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Arkansas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alaska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alaska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Arizona Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Arizona state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Virginia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Virginia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  8. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oklahoma Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oklahoma state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  9. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Alabama Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Alabama state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  10. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Utah Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Utah state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students. Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Missouri Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Missouri state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  12. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Iowa Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Iowa state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  13. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Georgia Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Georgia state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  14. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Maryland Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Maryland state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  15. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Kansas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Kansas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  16. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Oregon Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Oregon state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  17. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nevada Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nevada state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  18. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Michigan Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Michigan state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  19. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Texas Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Texas state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  20. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Nebraska Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Nebraska state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  1. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Indiana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Indiana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  2. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Colorado Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Colorado state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  3. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Hawaii Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Hawaii state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Montana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Montana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Pennsylvania Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Pennsylvania state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students. Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Ohio Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Ohio state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student, or…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Florida Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Florida state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law student,…

  8. Information Problems and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, R.

    1972-01-01

    The first part of the paper deals with statute law and describes the inadequacy of the official Statutes Revised' system for maintaining up-to-date records. There is a similar lack of official retrieval tools for tracing information on case law. The problems of factual information retrieval are dealt with briefly. (Author/NH)

  9. UNEQUAL BRAINS: DISABILITY DISCRIMINATION LAWS AND CHILDREN WITH CHALLENGING BEHAVIOUR.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    At a time when brain-based explanations of behaviour are proliferating, how will law respond to the badly behaved child? In Australia, children and youth with challenging behaviours such as aggression, swearing, or impulsivity are increasingly understood as having a behavioural disability and so may be afforded the protections of discrimination law. A brain-based approach to challenging behaviour also offers a seemingly neutral framework that de-stigmatises a child's 'bad' behaviour, making it a biological or medical issue rather than a failure of discipline or temperament. Yet this 'brain-based' framework is not as neutral as it appears. How law regulates the brain-based subject in the form of the badly behaved child depends on how law conceptualises the brain. This article examines two competing approaches to the brain in law: a structural, deterministic model and a 'plastic', flexible model. Each of these impacts differently on disabled and abled identity and consequently on discrimination law and equality rights. Using examples from Australian discrimination law, this article argues that as new brain-based models of identity develop, existing inequalities based on race, gender, and disability are imported, and new forms of stigma emerge. In the neurological age, not all brains are created equal.

  10. Do parental involvement laws deter risky teen sex?

    PubMed

    Colman, Silvie; Dee, Thomas S; Joyce, Ted

    2013-09-01

    Parental involvement (PI) laws require that physicians notify or obtain consent from a parent(s) of a minor seeking an abortion before performing the procedure. Several studies suggest that PI laws curb risky sexual behavior because teens realize that they would be compelled to discuss a subsequent pregnancy with a parent. We show that prior evidence based on gonorrhea rates overlooked the frequent under-reporting of gonorrhea by race and ethnicity, and present new evidence on the effects of PI laws using more current data on the prevalence of gonorrhea and data that are novel to this literature (i.e., chlamydia rates and data disaggregated by year of age). We improve the credibility of our estimates over those in the existing literature using an event-study design in addition to standard difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) models. Our findings consistently suggest no association between PI laws and rates of sexually transmitted infections or measures of sexual behavior.

  11. Patent Law's Reproducibility Paradox.

    PubMed

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical research faces a reproducibility crisis. Many recent clinical and preclinical studies appear to be irreproducible--their results cannot be verified by outside researchers. This is problematic for not only scientific reasons but also legal ones: patents grounded in irreproducible research appear to fail their constitutional bargain of property rights in exchange for working disclosures of inventions. The culprit is likely patent law’s doctrine of enablement. Although the doctrine requires patents to enable others to make and use their claimed inventions, current difficulties in applying the doctrine hamper or even actively dissuade reproducible data in patents. This Article assesses the difficulties in reconciling these basic goals of scientific research and patent law. More concretely, it provides several examples of irreproducibility in patents on blockbuster drugs--Prempro, Xigris, Plavix, and Avastin--and discusses some of the social costs of the misalignment between good clinical practice and patent doctrine. Ultimately, this analysis illuminates several current debates concerning innovation policy. It strongly suggests that a proper conception of enablement should take into account after-arising evidence. It also sheds light on the true purpose--and limits--of patent disclosure. And lastly, it untangles the doctrines of enablement and utility.

  12. Dyslexia laws in the USA.

    PubMed

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-07-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and regulations for both identification and treatment, and the provision of equal access to students who are diagnosed with dyslexia. The majority of states, however, have not developed such laws and guidelines. The purposes of this article are to review the present status and content of these dyslexia laws, highlight some differences among the laws and regulations across states, and suggest strategies for initiating such laws.

  13. Hack's Law: Sinuosity, convexity, elongation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemin, James H.

    2000-11-01

    Hack's law, an empirical, power law relationship between drainage basin area and the length of the main stream channel, has long been taken to imply that drainage basins become more elongate (relatively longer and narrower) with increasing basin size. A study of the geometry of 38 basins from three distinct geomorphic settings shows that this geometric interpretation of Hack's law is only occasionally true: Even though Hack's power law relationship holds between basin area and main channel length, these basins do not necessarily become more elongate with increasing size. Rather, Hack's law is an expression of a balance between changes in basin shape and changes in channel planform geometry. For the basins in this study, changes in channel sinuosity play the most important role in this balance; changes in basin shape are far less regular. Local conditions appear to determine the partitioning of importance between changes in basin shape and channel sinuosity.

  14. AIDS groups challenge Federal Internet censorship law.

    PubMed

    1996-05-03

    The Communications Decency Act (CDA), a section of the 1996 telecommunications reform law, bans indecent and patently offensive expression from all online systems available to those under the age of 18. AIDS organizations and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) filed suit in U.S. District Court in Philadelphia, PA,to challenge the law. The ACLU contends that the CDA law is unconstitutional because it criminalizes expression that is protected by the First Amendment, and violates constitutional rights to privacy. The CDA also would impede dissemination of HIV prevention information, according to AIDS online services. Operators of these electronic information systems state that providing explicit language about safe sexual practices is essential if teenagers are to understand how to prevent HIV infection. Additionally, content providers argue that it is almost impossible to know what text or images must be censored in order to avoid government prosecution. Expert witnesses testifying for the U.S. Government stated that there are means available to purge Internet sites of materials that might be regarded as indecent. The ACLU recommends utilizing a software package that would enable parents to control their children's Internet access without requiring broad censorship.

  15. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  16. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  17. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  18. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  19. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  20. 38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Law courses. 21.4274... Pursuit of Courses § 21.4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree will be assessed as provided in § 21.4273(a). (b)...

  1. A 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'? Poor Law, Lunacy Law and Scotland's parochial asylums.

    PubMed

    Farquharson, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    Scotland's parochial asylums are unfamiliar institutional spaces. Representing the concrete manifestation of the collision between two spheres of legislation, the Poor Law and the Lunacy Law, six such asylums were constructed in the latter half of the nineteenth century. These sites expressed the enduring mandate of the Scottish Poor Law 1845 over the domain of 'madness'. They were institutions whose very existence was fashioned at the directive of the local arm of the Poor Law, the parochial board, and they constituted a continuing 'Scottish Poor Law of Lunacy'. Their origins and operation significantly subverted the intentions and objectives of the Lunacy Act 1857, the aim of which had been to institute a public district asylum network with nationwide coverage.

  2. Relativistic covariance of Ohm's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, R.; Schober, G. A. H.

    2016-04-01

    The derivation of Lorentz-covariant generalizations of Ohm's law has been a long-term issue in theoretical physics with deep implications for the study of relativistic effects in optical and atomic physics. In this article, we propose an alternative route to this problem, which is motivated by the tremendous progress in first-principles materials physics in general and ab initio electronic structure theory in particular. We start from the most general, Lorentz-covariant first-order response law, which is written in terms of the fundamental response tensor χμ ν relating induced four-currents to external four-potentials. By showing the equivalence of this description to Ohm's law, we prove the validity of Ohm's law in every inertial frame. We further use the universal relation between χμ ν and the microscopic conductivity tensor σkℓ to derive a fully relativistic transformation law for the latter, which includes all effects of anisotropy and relativistic retardation. In the special case of a constant, scalar conductivity, this transformation law can be used to rederive a standard textbook generalization of Ohm's law.

  3. Youth and the Law: A Guide for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota House of Representatives, St. Paul. Research Dept.

    The purpose of this guidebook is to give Minnesota legislators an overview of all laws affecting young people in order to have a reference aid on current state policies toward youth. State statutes and cases that provide rights, responsibilities, and protections for young people under age 18 are described. Part 1 of this guide, "The…

  4. Reflections on the Law and Curricular Values in American Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Thro, William E.

    2012-01-01

    The Supreme Court's 1925 ruling in "Pierce v. Society of the Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary" ("Pierce"), striking down a law from Oregon that would have required all children, other than those needing special education, between the ages of 8 and 16 to attend public schools, essentially upheld the right of nonpublic…

  5. Civil Law Study Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    compassionate assistance should be rendered. b. Boredom. This drives many young people to turn to a legal drug (i.e., alcohol) as an escape. The average age of...NE NE A A E E Education assistance NE NE A A E E Pensions to widows and children NE NE A A E E Hospital and domiciliary care NE NE A A E E Medical...Waiver of military obligation to support spouse .. ..... 9-7 C. Children ......... ....................... ... 9-8 4 0911 AMOUNT OF SUPPORT

  6. Sex education laws and policies.

    PubMed

    Roemer, R; Paxman, J M

    1985-01-01

    Sex education laws and policies are important in facilitating or blocking efforts to provide adolescents with sexuality education and information. Legislation in developing and industrialized countries concerns both sexuality education in schools and adolescents' access to information on contraception and abortion. Although laws and policies vary, the trend is to remove laws restricting sex education and information and to promote the flow of reproductive health information for adolescents. The integration of sex education with programs that provide contraceptive services offers the promise of preventing unwanted pregnancy in adolescents, with its all too frequent tragic health and social consequences.

  7. Zipf's Law in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Chikara; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2003-02-01

    Using data from gene expression databases on various organisms and tissues, including yeast, nematodes, human normal and cancer tissues, and embryonic stem cells, we found that the abundances of expressed genes exhibit a power-law distribution with an exponent close to -1; i.e., they obey Zipf’s law. Furthermore, by simulations of a simple model with an intracellular reaction network, we found that Zipf’s law of chemical abundance is a universal feature of cells where such a network optimizes the efficiency and faithfulness of self-reproduction. These findings provide novel insights into the nature of the organization of reaction dynamics in living cells.

  8. The law of attrition.

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2005-03-31

    In an ongoing effort of this Journal to develop and further the theories, models, and best practices around eHealth research, this paper argues for the need for a "science of attrition", that is, a need to develop models for discontinuation of eHealth applications and the related phenomenon of participants dropping out of eHealth trials. What I call "law of attrition" here is the observation that in any eHealth trial a substantial proportion of users drop out before completion or stop using the application. This feature of eHealth trials is a distinct characteristic compared to, for example, drug trials. The traditional clinical trial and evidence-based medicine paradigm stipulates that high dropout rates make trials less believable. Consequently eHealth researchers tend to gloss over high dropout rates, or not to publish their study results at all, as they see their studies as failures. However, for many eHealth trials, in particular those conducted on the Internet and in particular with self-help applications, high dropout rates may be a natural and typical feature. Usage metrics and determinants of attrition should be highlighted, measured, analyzed, and discussed. This also includes analyzing and reporting the characteristics of the subpopulation for which the application eventually "works", ie, those who stay in the trial and use it. For the question of what works and what does not, such attrition measures are as important to report as pure efficacy measures from intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses. In cases of high dropout rates efficacy measures underestimate the impact of an application on a population which continues to use it. Methods of analyzing attrition curves can be drawn from survival analysis methods, eg, the Kaplan-Meier analysis and proportional hazards regression analysis (Cox model). Measures to be reported include the relative risk of dropping out or of stopping the use of an application, as well as a "usage half-life", and prediction models

  9. Outer space law: A problem of astronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, V.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of space law is discussed from the point of view of similarities and differences between hypothetical space law and current (1932) aviation law. International legal aspects and economic and cultural effects are also addressed.

  10. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Law Enforcement Commissions AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission...

  11. Signaling motifs and Weber's law.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, James E

    2009-12-11

    New experimental and theoretical studies reported by Uri Alon, Marc Kirschner, and colleagues in this issue of Molecular Cell suggest that Weber's law of sensory perception may apply to a number of cell signaling processes.

  12. International law and communicable diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Aginam, Obijiofor

    2002-01-01

    Historically, international law has played a key role in global communicable disease surveillance. Throughout the nineteenth century, international law played a dominant role in harmonizing the inconsistent national quarantine regulations of European nation-states; facilitating the exchange of epidemiological information on infectious diseases; establishing international health organizations; and standardization of surveillance. Today, communicable diseases have continued to re-shape the boundaries of global health governance through legally binding and "soft-law" regimes negotiated and adopted within the mandate of multilateral institutions - the World Health Organization, the World Trade Organization, the Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Office International des Epizooties. The globalization of public health has employed international law as an indispensable tool in global health governance aimed at diminishing human vulnerability to the mortality and morbidity burdens of communicable diseases. PMID:12571722

  13. International Megan's Law of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Smith, Christopher H. [R-NJ-4

    2009-03-19

    04/27/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, Refugees, Border Security, and International Law. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. The brain and the law.

    PubMed Central

    Chorvat, Terrence; McCabe, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Much has been written about how law as an institution has developed to solve many problems that human societies face. Inherent in all of these explanations are models of how humans make decisions. This article discusses what current neuroscience research tells us about the mechanisms of human decision making of particular relevance to law. This research indicates that humans are both more capable of solving many problems than standard economic models predict, but also limited in ways those models ignore. This article discusses how law is both shaped by our cognitive processes and also shapes them. The article considers some of the implications of this research for improving our understanding of how our current legal regimes operate and how the law can be structured to take advantage of our neural mechanisms to improve social welfare. PMID:15590613

  15. Alaska public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2008-04-01

    The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.

  16. How laetrile laws affect MDs.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, S L; Arnold, F D

    1978-10-01

    A variety of problems exist in the 17 states that have passed laetrile laws. The precise legal relationship of these statutes to state food and drug laws and state medical practice acts is not well defined. The variability of the laws, state to state, is great and substances other than laetril are sometimes involved. The passage of substance-specific legislation confers "pseudo-approval" status on that substance in the public's mind. This results in a shifting of the drug approval process away from normal health regulatory channels into the political arena. Physicians should become familiar with the legal, medical, and social implications of such laws in their own states. More importantly, they need to articulate clearly to legislators the inherent problems and dangers in passing such legislation.

  17. An alternative to Zoe's Law.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, James

    2015-03-01

    Under the criminal law of New South Wales, the destruction of a foetus (other than in the course of a medical procedure) constitutes grievous bodily harm to the pregnant woman. Charges can be laid for offences against the woman, but not against the foetus. Many are dissatisfied with this. The Crimes Amendment (Zoe's Law) Bill 2013 (No 2) (NSW) aimed to change this by providing that a foetus is taken to be a living person for the purposes of certain offences. The Bill was strongly opposed on the basis that according personhood to a foetus in this way will have undesirable consequences that could erode the reproductive rights of women. The public debate over how the criminal law addresses the destruction of a foetus has centred on Zoe's Law. This article proposes an alternative amendment. that aims, to accommodate the concerns of the Bill's supporters and its detractors.

  18. Government Contract Law Cases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    u 1 a r rity by ures th 7, 11 L se invo uspendi necess s norma the ex liable is judg d i v i d u a Having end i t ages if sense o e 1...ency ti ce Hear i i s pr estab ear i n ervic e, 345 U the secu the hear e Attorn ), the A esi gned ot perfo . 5 U.S the APA ible to... APA heari ng. Tv. 3-124 ’•*.v>’’.vCv.>:.yis ••’>:-’v\\>’’»i.,/v-/.-.-.- .»•••••••.- • —— — —^— — ——^—•—-—* * - • * « % ~ ^ i «- i, *,. *, .v

  19. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  20. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  1. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  2. 29 CFR 570.39 - Effect of this subpart on other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.39 Effect of this subpart on other laws. No provision of this... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of this subpart on other laws. 570.39 Section...

  3. Informing Law Curricula: Modifying First-Year Courses To Reflect the Information Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mock, William B. T.

    2001-01-01

    Asserting that many traditional law school courses could be modified to take information-age concepts and interests into account, demonstrates how to recast some typical first-year courses (such as contracts, property, criminal law, criminal procedure, and legal research and writing) with information perspectives. (EV)

  4. Misunderstandings of "Law" and "Conservation": A Study of Pupils' Meanings of these Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    1990-01-01

    Presented is the extent to which pupils of different ages tend to confuse scientific and everyday meanings of "Law" and "Conservation." The concepts of resource economy, environmental concern, and the law of conservation of energy are discussed in terms of potential teaching difficulties. (KR)

  5. Health Law as Social Justice.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Lindsay F

    2014-01-01

    Health law is in the midst of a dramatic transformation. From a relatively narrow discipline focused on regulating relationships among individual patients, health care providers, and third-party payers, it is expanding into a far broader field with a burgeoning commitment to access to health care and assurance of healthy living conditions as matters of social justice. Through a series of incremental reform efforts stretching back decades before the Affordable Care Act and encompassing public health law as well as the law of health care financing and delivery, reducing health disparities has become a central focus of American health law and policy. This Article labels, describes, and furthers a nascent "health justice" movement by examining what it means to view health law as an instrument of social justice. Drawing on the experiences of the reproductive justice, environmental justice, and food justice movements, and on the writings of political philosophers and ethicists on health justice, I propose that health justice offers an alternative to the market competition and patient rights paradigms that currently dominate health law scholarship, advocacy, and reform. I then examine the role of law in reducing health disparities through the health justice lens. I argue that the nascent health justice framework suggests three commitments for the use of law to reduce health disparities. First, to a broader inquiry that views access to health care as one among many social determinants of health deserving of public attention and resources. Second, to probing inquiry into the effects of class, racial, and other forms of social and cultural bias on the design and implementation of measures to reduce health disparities. And third, to collective action grounded in community engagement and participatory parity. In exploring these commitments, I highlight tensions within the social justice framework and between the social justice framework and the nascent health justice movement

  6. Practical Law in Utah. Utah Supplement to "Street Law." Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Statewide Clearinghouse on Law-Related Education.

    This textbook for high school students on law in Utah supplements "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law," a program in law-related education in use across the United States. The introduction explains the meaning of law, how laws are made in Utah, and the functions of the state court system. Following chapters elucidate the branches of…

  7. Exponentially Stabilizing Robot Control Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Bayard, David S.

    1990-01-01

    New class of exponentially stabilizing laws for joint-level control of robotic manipulators introduced. In case of set-point control, approach offers simplicity of proportion/derivative control architecture. In case of tracking control, approach provides several important alternatives to completed-torque method, as far as computational requirements and convergence. New control laws modified in simple fashion to obtain asymptotically stable adaptive control, when robot model and/or payload mass properties unknown.

  8. Law of the Minimum paradoxes.

    PubMed

    Gorban, Alexander N; Pokidysheva, Lyudmila I; Smirnova, Elena V; Tyukina, Tatiana A

    2011-09-01

    The "Law of the Minimum" states that growth is controlled by the scarcest resource (limiting factor). This concept was originally applied to plant or crop growth (Justus von Liebig, 1840, Salisbury, Plant physiology, 4th edn., Wadsworth, Belmont, 1992) and quantitatively supported by many experiments. Some generalizations based on more complicated "dose-response" curves were proposed. Violations of this law in natural and experimental ecosystems were also reported. We study models of adaptation in ensembles of similar organisms under load of environmental factors and prove that violation of Liebig's law follows from adaptation effects. If the fitness of an organism in a fixed environment satisfies the Law of the Minimum then adaptation equalizes the pressure of essential factors and, therefore, acts against the Liebig's law. This is the the Law of the Minimum paradox: if for a randomly chosen pair "organism-environment" the Law of the Minimum typically holds, then in a well-adapted system, we have to expect violations of this law.For the opposite interaction of factors (a synergistic system of factors which amplify each other), adaptation leads from factor equivalence to limitations by a smaller number of factors.For analysis of adaptation, we develop a system of models based on Selye's idea of the universal adaptation resource (adaptation energy). These models predict that under the load of an environmental factor a population separates into two groups (phases): a less correlated, well adapted group and a highly correlated group with a larger variance of attributes, which experiences problems with adaptation. Some empirical data are presented and evidences of interdisciplinary applications to econometrics are discussed.

  9. Experimental and Analytical Evaluation of Stressing-Rate State Evolution in Rate-State Friction Laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, P.; Rubin, A. M.; Bayart, E.; Savage, H. M.; Marone, C.; Beeler, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    Standard rate and state friction laws fail to explain the full range of observations from laboratory friction experiments. A new state evolution law has been proposed by Nagata et al. (2012) that adds a linear stressing-rate-dependent term to the Dieterich (aging) law, which may provide a remedy. They introduce a parameter c that controls the contribution of the stressing rate to state evolution. We show through analytical approximations that the new law can transition between the responses of the traditional Dieterich (aging) and Ruina (slip) laws in velocity step up/down experiments when the value of c is tuned properly. In particular, for c = 0 the response is pure aging while for finite, non-zero c one observes slip law like behavior for small velocity jumps but aging law like response for larger jumps. The magnitude of the velocity jump required to see this transition between aging and slip behaviour increases as c increases. In the limit of c >> 1 the response to velocity steps becomes purely slip law like. In this limit, numerical simulations show that this law loses its appealing time dependent healing property. An approach using Markov Chain Monte Carlo parameter search on data for large magnitude velocity step tests reveals that it is only possible to determine a lower bound on c using datasets that are well explained by the slip law. For a dataset with velocity steps of two orders of magnitude on simulated fault gouge we find this lower bound to be c ≈ 10.0. This is significantly larger than c ≈ 2.0 used by Nagata et al. (2012) to fit their data (mainly bare rock experiments with smaller excursions from steady state than our dataset). Similar parameter estimation exercises on slide hold slide data reveal that none of the state evolution laws considered - Dieterich, Ruina, Kato-Tullis and Nagata - match the relevant features of the data. In particular, even the aging law predicts only the correct rate of healing for long hold times but not the correct

  10. Casuistry as common law morality.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    This article elaborates on the relation between ethical casuistry and common law reasoning. Despite the frequent talk of casuistry as common law morality, remarks on this issue largely remain at the purely metaphorical level. The article outlines and scrutinizes Albert Jonsen and Stephen Toulmin's version of casuistry and its basic elements. Drawing lessons for casuistry from common law reasoning, it is argued that one generally has to be faithful to ethical paradigms. There are, however, limitations for the binding force of paradigms. The most important limitations--the possibilities of overruling and distinguishing paradigm norms--are similar in common law and in casuistry, or so it is argued. These limitations explain why casuistry is not necessarily overly conservative and conventional, which is one line of criticism to which casuists can now better respond. Another line of criticism has it that the very reasoning from case to case is extremely unclear in casuistry. I suggest a certain model of analogical reasoning to address this critique. All my suggestions to understand and to enhance casuistry make use of common law reasoning whilst remaining faithful to Jonsen and Toulmin's main ideas and commitments. Further developed along these lines, casuistry can appropriately be called "common law morality."

  11. Teaching medical ethics and law.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2012-03-01

    The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.

  12. Surface Processes and Hack's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walcott, R.

    2010-12-01

    Hack’s law describes the non-linear relationship between the area of a catchment and the length of the longest stream within it. First described in the 1950’s based on a small area in the Appalachians, more recent studies have suggested that this relationship is consistent for over 13 orders of magnitude. As a result Hack’s law is generally considered as one of the fundamental morphological relationships of geomorphology and much effort has been devoted to understanding its origins. This law suggests that catchments are scale independent, however, recent work has demonstrated that the form of catchments varies depending on the type of surface processes operating within the catchment. In this paper we analyse the relationship between hillslope processes and Hack’s law for catchments that range over several orders of magnitude in size in the Himalaya and Chile. We show that Hack’s law varies systematically depending on the mean slope of a catchment. As the dominant process that operates within a catchment also varies with slope and scales with catchment size our findings have important implications for the robustness of Hack’s law and the scale independence of catchments.

  13. Literacy in the World of the Aged Care Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Linda; Casarotto, Nadia

    Australia's Aged Care Act of 1997 mandates a number of key reforms aimed at ensuring consistency in the quality of care and well-being for all residents of aged care facilities. The law required residential aged care facilities to provide high-quality care within a framework of continuous improvement which requires aged care workers to perform the…

  14. Effect of Italy's motorcycle helmet law on traumatic brain injuries

    PubMed Central

    Servadei, F; Begliomini, C; Gardini, E; Giustini, M; Taggi, F; Kraus, J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a revised Italian motorcycle-moped-scooter helmet law on crash brain injuries. Design: A pre-post law evaluation of helmet use and traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurrence from 1999 to 2001. Setting: Romagna region, northeastern Italy, with a 2000 resident population of 983 534 persons. Participants: Motorcycle-moped rider survey for helmet use compliance and all residents in the region admitted to the Division of Neurosurgery of the Maurizio Bufalini Hospital in Cesena, Italy for TBI. Outcome measures: Helmet use compliance and change in TBI admissions and type(s) of brain lesions. Results: Helmet use increased from an average of less than 20% to over 96%. A comparison of TBI incidence in the Romagna region shows that there was no significant variation before and after introduction of the revised helmet law, except for TBI admissions for motorcycle-moped crashes where a 66% decrease was observed. In the same area TBI admissions by age group showed that motorcycle mopeds riders aged 14–60 years sustained significantly fewer TBIs. The rate of TBI admissions to neurosurgery decreased by over 31% and epidural hematomas almost completely disappeared in crash injured moped riders. Conclusions: The revised Italian mandatory helmet law, with police enforcement, is an effective measure for TBI prevention at all ages. PMID:12966016

  15. Random stress and Omori's law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2011-09-01

    We consider two statistical regularities that were used to explain Omori's law of the aftershock rate decay: the Lévy and Inverse Gaussian (IGD) distributions. These distributions are thought to describe stress behaviour influenced by various random factors: post-earthquake stress time history is described by a Brownian motion. Both distributions decay to zero for time intervals close to zero. But this feature contradicts the high immediate aftershock level according to Omori's law. We propose that these statistical distributions are influenced by the power-law stress distribution near the earthquake focal zone and we derive new distributions as a mixture of power-law stress with the exponent ψ and Lévy as well as IGD distributions. Such new distributions describe the resulting inter-earthquake time intervals and closely resemble Omori's law. The new Lévy distribution has a pure power law form with the exponent -(1 +ψ/2) and the mixed IGD has two exponents: the same as Lévy for small time intervals and -(1 +ψ) for longer times. For even longer time intervals this power-law behaviour should be replaced by a uniform seismicity rate corresponding to the long-term tectonic deformation. We compute these background rates using our former analysis of earthquake size distribution and its connection to plate tectonics. We analyse several earthquake catalogues to confirm and illustrate our theoretical results. Finally, we discuss how the parameters of random stress dynamics can be determined through a more detailed statistical analysis of earthquake occurrence or by new laboratory experiments.

  16. Power Laws and Market Crashes ---Empirical Laws on Bursting Bubbles---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, T.

    In this paper, we quantitatively investigate the statistical properties of a statistical ensemble of stock prices. We selected 1200 stocks traded on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and formed a statistical ensemble of daily stock prices for each trading day in the 3-year period from January 4, 1999 to December 28, 2001, corresponding to the period of the forming of the internet bubble in Japn, and its bursting in the Japanese stock market. We found that the tail of the complementary cumulative distribution function of the ensemble of stock prices in the high value of the price is well described by a power-law distribution, P (S > x) ˜ x^{-α}, with an exponent that moves in the range of 1.09 < α < 1.27. Furthermore, we found that as the power-law exponents α approached unity, the bubbles collapsed. This suggests that Zipf's law for stock prices is a sign that bubbles are going to burst.

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  18. Environmental law handbook. Fifteenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.F.P.

    1999-04-01

    Written by 15 nationally recognized environmental legal experts, this new edition maintains the first edition's original goal to provide users with reliable, accurate, and practical compliance information by addressing all changes made to the laws in the past two years. Using clear language with a minimum of legal jargon, this essential 700-page reference provides readers with a foundation for understanding the obligations of the laws. This book also explains and details noncompliance penalties, including administrative fines and criminal prosecution for violation of all acts and newly increased fines for negligent violations of the Clean Water Act. The authors focus, however, on the 14 major environmental, health, and safety laws affecting US businesses and organizations and detail, in over 90 new pages, and all recent changes made to those laws. Such changes include explanations of the Joint EPA/State Innovations agreement, which the EPA and senior state environmental officials established and signed in 1998; the revised TSCA Model Reporting Rule, which took effect June 30, 1998; and RCRA's conditional regulation of waste military munitions, which went into effect August 12, 1997. In addition, this new handbook details the revised national ambient air quality standards for ozone and fine particles and the new and revised air toxics control requirements. Environmental managers, engineers, professionals, and students nationwide will benefit from the professional expertise, sample and cited cases, and straightforward explanations found in the pages of this comprehensive environmental law book, the industry standard for 26 years.

  19. Multiple realizability and biological laws.

    PubMed

    Raerinne, Jani P; Eronen, Markus I

    2012-01-01

    We critically analyze Alexander Rosenberg's argument based on the multiple realizability of biological properties that there are no biological laws. The argument is intuitive and suggestive. Nevertheless, a closer analysis reveals that the argument rests on dubious assumptions about the nature of natural selection, laws of nature, and multiple realizability. We also argue that the argument is limited in scope, since it applies to an outmoded account of laws and the applicability of the argument to other more promising accounts of laws is questionable. Another concern of ours is that the relation between multiple realizability and natural selection is more complex than Rosenberg acknowledges. Finally, we claim that an explanation for why Rosenberg's argument appears persuasive and appealing is that the argument is based on an inflated concept of multiple realizability that rests on unreliable intuitions concerning what counts as a different realization of the same property. Consequently, we argue that the argument is at best inconclusive and at worst false insofar as its implications for the existence of biological laws are concerned.

  20. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  1. Law: protection of the unborn child.

    PubMed

    Finch, J

    1983-04-20

    Under the provisions of the UK's Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 a duty of care is owed to an unborn child via his/her mother, and, although not conclusively settled, a duty of care is probably owed to an unborn child in common law, that is independent of the statute. Thus, it is clear that the law protects the child before birth in the form of an action for damages brought on his/her behalf in respect of disabilities caused during the mother's pregnancy by someone's negligence. In certain cases the law also allows the lives of unborn children to be terminated at some time before birth, or, more precisely, until such time as the unborn child is capable of being born alive. The age at which a child can be born alive is a question of fact and "bona fide" medical evidence in each case. Children who are capable of a live birth are protected under a 1929 Act of Parliament which makes it a serious criminal offense to kill an unborn child who is capable of being born alive. The practice is often either ignored or overlooked, but this vitally important statute should not be forgotten. The offense referred to must be distinguished from the offense of abortion. Staff nurse Karen Smith needs to remember this if she becomes involved in abortions. There are circumstances in which abortion is permitted by law but this is not the same as saying that abortion is lawful. It is necessary to return to 1st principles relating to the law's protection of human life and its provision for the criminal punishment of those who offended against those principles. Subject to certain exceptions, it is murder by a deliberate act to cause or accelerate the death of a person who is "in being." From a legal perspective, this is distinguished as the deliberate ending of the life of someone before their birth. That it is not murder is not because of the fact that the unborn are not "human." Rather it is because they are not yet "in being." In the words of the Infant Life

  2. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  3. Zeroth Law, Entropy, Equilibrium, and All That

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canagaratna, Sebastian G.

    2008-01-01

    The place of the zeroth law in the teaching of thermodynamics is examined in the context of the recent discussion by Gislason and Craig of some problems involving the establishment of thermal equilibrium. The concept of thermal equilibrium is introduced through the zeroth law. The relation between the zeroth law and the second law in the…

  4. Copyright laws and occupational therapy education.

    PubMed

    Sladyk, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Faculty are often confused about the laws of copyright and when copies of articles can be made for students. Copyright laws protect authors of text, art, film, and software from unfair use. Educational settings must comply with copyright laws and are not exempt because of educational status. This article summarizes copyright laws that affect college campuses and suggests practical solutions for compliance.

  5. Derivation of the Ideal Gas Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laugier, Alexander; Garai, Jozsef

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate and graduate physics and chemistry books usually state that combining the gas laws results in the ideal gas law. Leaving the derivation to the students implies that this should be a simple task, most likely a substitution. Boyle's law, Charles's law, and the Avogadro's principle are given under certain conditions; therefore, direct…

  6. The Law of Higher Education 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplin, William A.

    Designed to be used either independently or as a companion to "The Law of Higher Education" (1978), this book serves as a reference to current legal issues, as well as to primary and secondary materials concerning higher education law. Part One, Overview of Postsecondary Education Law, examines the evolution of law relating to postsecondary…

  7. [Law-making "pioneers" of scientometrics].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Schubert, Gábor

    2016-01-10

    The three much cited laws of scientometrics are the laws of Bradford, Lotka and Zipf. The authors briefly review the scientific career of the men behind the names, and that how they discovered the laws named after them. An outline is also given of the scientific aftermath of the laws and of the oeuvre of their eponym.

  8. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  9. Teaching International Law: Concepts in International Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starbird, Caroline; Pettit, Jenny; Singleton, Laurel

    2004-01-01

    This book is designed to introduce students to public international law. Topics covered include international public organizations, such as the United Nations and World Trade Organization, international courts, international human rights law, international trade law, and international environmental law. The goal of each study is to examine how…

  10. Educational Fund Raising and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargerstock, Charles T.

    The law relating to charitable gifts to schools is described, and fund raising considerations are addressed. The first of four chapters, "Education Fund Raising in the Legal Context," reviews the history of the law of charity over the past 400 years (i.e., law in England during 1500-1800 and law in America during 1800-1900). "The Donor and the…

  11. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  12. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other laws. 15.17 Section 15... TRAINING CENTER § 15.17 Other laws. Nothing in the rules and regulations in this part will be construed to abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  13. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  14. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  15. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 842.66 Section 842.66 National... CLAIMS Foreign Claims (10 U.S.C. 2734) § 842.66 Applicable law. This paragraph provides guidance to determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and...

  16. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  17. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  18. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  19. 31 CFR 210.3 - Governing law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governing law. 210.3 Section 210.3... CLEARING HOUSE § 210.3 Governing law. (a) Federal law. The rights and obligations of the United States and..., are governed by this part, which has the force and effect of Federal law. (b) Incorporation...

  20. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  1. 7 CFR 1900.102 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Applicable law. 1900.102 Section 1900.102 Agriculture... GENERAL Applicability of Federal Law § 1900.102 Applicable law. Loans made by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 are authorized and executed pursuant to Federal programs adopted by Congress...

  2. Education Law. Course Outline. Casenote Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquila, Frank D.

    The material included in this book--case briefs, outlines, and textbook/treatise reference information--provides a summary of the most important aspects of the law regarding education. At the heart of this body of knowledge, commonly identified as education law or school law, is statutory and case law. The book serves as a comprehensive guide to…

  3. Education Law Texts Usage: Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kathleen A.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    1998-01-01

    Identifies the textbooks professors use in education law courses, based on a survey of 110 members of the Education Law Association during 1996-97. Almost half preferred Alexander and Alexander's "American School Law," with McCarthy and Caqmbron-McCabe's "Public School Law" a close second. Only 44% required or suggested additional nontextbook…

  4. A new Newton's law of cooling?

    PubMed

    Kleiber, M

    1972-12-22

    Several physiologists confuse Fourier's law of animal heat flow with Newton's law of cooling. A critique of this error in 1932 remained ineffective. In 1969 Molnar tested Newton's cooling law. In 1971 Strunk found Newtonian cooling unrealistic for animals. Unfortunately, he called the Fourier formulation of animal heat flow, requiring post-Newtonian observations, a "contemporary Newtonian law of cooling."

  5. Origins of Newton's First Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecht, Eugene

    2015-02-01

    Anyone who has taught introductory physics should know that roughly a third of the students initially believe that any object at rest will remain at rest, whereas any moving body not propelled by applied forces will promptly come to rest. Likewise, about half of those uninitiated students believe that any object moving at a constant speed must be continually pushed if it is to maintain its motion.1 That's essentially Aristotle's law of motion and it is so "obviously" borne out by experience that it was accepted by scholars for 2000 years, right through the Copernican Revolution. But, of course, it's fundamentally wrong. This paper tells the story of how the correct understanding, the law of inertia, evolved and how Newton came to make it his first law.

  6. An indentation fatigue strength law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Baoxing; Yonezu, Akio; Chen, Xi

    2010-05-01

    Indentation fatigue, where a cyclic load is applied on the sample via an indenter, emerges as an alternative approach for measuring the fatigue properties of materials. We have carried out indentation fatigue tests on a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) bulk material, as well as on TiN and NiP films/coatings deposited on SUS304 steel substrates, and demonstrate that a simple power-law relationship can be established between the indentation load amplitude and number of cycles to failure. Such a law is very similar to the conventional fatigue strength law obtained from uniaxial tests. The agreement between the fatigue stress exponents obtained by uniaxial and indentation fatigue tests suggests the potential applicability of the indentation fatigue technique for extracting the fatigue properties of materials.

  7. Indentation law for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, S. H.

    1981-01-01

    Static indentation tests are described for glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates with steel balls as the indentor. Beam specimens clamped at various spans were used for the tests. Loading, unloading, and reloading data were obtained and fitted into power laws. Results show that: (1) contact behavior is not appreciably affected by the span; (2) loading and reloading curves seem to follow the 1.5 power law; and (3) unloading curves are described quite well by a 2.5 power law. In addition, values were determined for the critical indentation, alpha sub cr which can be used to predict permanent indentations in unloading. Since alpha sub cr only depends on composite material properties, only the loading and an unloading curve are needed to establish the complete loading-unloading-reloading behavior.

  8. International developments in abortion laws: 1977-88.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, R J; Dickens, B M

    1988-01-01

    During the period between 1977 and the first quarter of 1988, 35 countries liberalized their abortion laws and four countries limited grounds for the procedure. Most legislation has extended abortion eligibility through traditional indications such as danger to maternal health or fetal handicap, but a number of other indications have been created such as adolescence, advanced maternal age, family circumstances, and AIDS or HIV infection. A number of countries have redesigned their abortion laws as part of a comprehensive package to facilitate access to and delivery of contraception, voluntary sterilization, and abortion services. Abortion litigation has increased and stimulated the liberalization of abortion provisions and the support of women's autonomous choice within the law. In Canada, the entire criminal prohibition of abortion was held unconstitutional for violating women's integrity and security. In contrast, Latin American and other constitutional developments may limit legal abortion to instances of danger to women's lives. PMID:3048126

  9. Facing the Millenium: Law Schools, Law Librarians, and Information Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danner, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of the role of advancing technology in legal education looks at the administrative and organizational questions it poses, solutions developed at the Duke University (North Carolina) law school, and new possible roles for library directors in managing and planning the growing integration of information technology into all aspects of…

  10. Teaching Law to Online Law Students at RMIT University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babacan, Alperhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the online Juris Doctor Program (JD Program) at RMIT University. The first part of the paper provides a brief overview of the JD Program, the graduate capabilities of the Program and key principles associated with the teaching of law to online postgraduate students. In line with the literature in the area of online teaching…

  11. Newton's Laws, Euler's Laws and the Speed of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Chemical engineering students begin their studies of mechanics in a department of physics where they are introduced to the mechanics of Newton. The approach presented by physicists differs in both perspective and substance from that encountered in chemical engineering courses where Euler's laws provide the foundation for studies of fluid and solid…

  12. Innovative telecommunications for law enforcement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of computer-aided dispatch, mobile digital communications, and automatic vehicle location systems used in law enforcement is discussed, and characteristics of systems used by different agencies are compared. With reference to computer-aided dispatch systems, the data base components, dispatcher work load, extent of usage, and design trends are surveyed. The capabilities, levels of communication, and traffic load of mobile digital communications systems are examined. Different automatic vehicle location systems are distinguished, and two systems are evaluated. Other aspects of the application of innovative technology to operational command, control, and communications systems for law enforcement agencies are described.

  13. Snell's Law for Spin Waves.

    PubMed

    Stigloher, J; Decker, M; Körner, H S; Tanabe, K; Moriyama, T; Taniguchi, T; Hata, H; Madami, M; Gubbiotti, G; Kobayashi, K; Ono, T; Back, C H

    2016-07-15

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  14. [Immigration policies in Argentine law].

    PubMed

    Vichich, N P

    1988-12-01

    This paper analyzes contents of Argentine immigration laws in different periods of Argentine history and refers those contents to the State which enforced the corresponding immigration policies and to the socioeconomic structure they support. The Argentine constitution (1852) and subsequent immigration laws define 2 principal guidelines in population and immigration policies: 1) from 1852 until 1955 immigrants are seen as a part of socioeconomic growth, and 2) after 1955 the theory of national security prevails over considerations of an economic nature. With the return to democracy it should be possible to redefine immigration policies considering the country's demographic requirements and the migrants' own needs.

  15. Snell's Law for Spin Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stigloher, J.; Decker, M.; Körner, H. S.; Tanabe, K.; Moriyama, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Hata, H.; Madami, M.; Gubbiotti, G.; Kobayashi, K.; Ono, T.; Back, C. H.

    2016-07-01

    We report the experimental observation of Snell's law for magnetostatic spin waves in thin ferromagnetic Permalloy films by imaging incident, refracted, and reflected waves. We use a thickness step as the interface between two media with different dispersion relations. Since the dispersion relation for magnetostatic waves in thin ferromagnetic films is anisotropic, deviations from the isotropic Snell's law known in optics are observed for incidence angles larger than 25 ° with respect to the interface normal between the two magnetic media. Furthermore, we can show that the thickness step modifies the wavelength and the amplitude of the incident waves. Our findings open up a new way of spin wave steering for magnonic applications.

  16. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems.

    PubMed

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  17. Thermodynamic laws in isolated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbert, Stefan; Hänggi, Peter; Dunkel, Jörn

    2014-12-01

    The recent experimental realization of exotic matter states in isolated quantum systems and the ensuing controversy about the existence of negative absolute temperatures demand a careful analysis of the conceptual foundations underlying microcanonical thermostatistics. Here we provide a detailed comparison of the most commonly considered microcanonical entropy definitions, focusing specifically on whether they satisfy or violate the zeroth, first, and second laws of thermodynamics. Our analysis shows that, for a broad class of systems that includes all standard classical Hamiltonian systems, only the Gibbs volume entropy fulfills all three laws simultaneously. To avoid ambiguities, the discussion is restricted to exact results and analytically tractable examples.

  18. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  19. Power laws and fragility in flow networks☆

    PubMed Central

    Shore, Jesse; Chu, Catherine J.; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2015-01-01

    What makes economic and ecological networks so unlike other highly skewed networks in their tendency toward turbulence and collapse? Here, we explore the consequences of a defining feature of these networks: their nodes are tied together by flow. We show that flow networks tend to the power law degree distribution (PLDD) due to a self-reinforcing process involving position within the global network structure, and thus present the first random graph model for PLDDs that does not depend on a rich-get-richer function of nodal degree. We also show that in contrast to non-flow networks, PLDD flow networks are dramatically more vulnerable to catastrophic failure than non-PLDD flow networks, a finding with potential explanatory power in our age of resource- and financial-interdependence and turbulence. PMID:26082568

  20. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  1. 21 CFR 1307.02 - Application of State law and other Federal law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... authorized or permitted to do under other Federal laws or obligations under international treaties... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application of State law and other Federal law... MISCELLANEOUS General Information § 1307.02 Application of State law and other Federal law. Nothing in...

  2. A Law of Physics in the Classroom: The Case of Ohm's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kipnis, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    Difficulties in learning Ohm's Law suggest a need to refocus it from the law for a part of the circuit to the law for the whole circuit. Such a revision may improve understanding of Ohm's Law and its practical applications. This suggestion comes from an analysis of the history of the law's discovery and its teaching. The historical materials this…

  3. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  4. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  5. 7 CFR 4284.906 - State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false State laws, local laws, regulatory commission...-Added Producer Grant Program General § 4284.906 State laws, local laws, regulatory commission regulations. If there are conflicts between this subpart and State or local laws or regulatory...

  6. A Manual for Teaching Law Students To Teach Law. Project Director's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armancas-Fisher, Margaret, Ed.; Gray, Grayfred B., Ed.

    This manual is intended to serve as a resource book for law professors and program directors who would like to conduct a program for teaching law students to instruct the public in their areas of the law. Over 30 law schools nationwide offer credit or compensation to law students to teach in the community, primarily in high schools, but also in…

  7. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  8. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  9. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  10. Various Paths to Faraday's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redzic, Dragan V.

    2008-01-01

    In a recent note, the author presented a derivation of Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction for a closed filamentary circuit C(t) which is moving at relativistic velocities and also changing its shape as it moves via the magnetic vector potential. Recently, Kholmetskii et al, while correcting an error in an equation, showed that it can be…

  11. School Law in Review, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soronen, Lisa, Ed.

    This is a compilation of presentations delivered at the National School Boards Association Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar: "From Vouchers to One Nation Under God: A Review of Recent Decisions Affecting the Separation of Church and State in the Context of Public Education" (Jay Worona); "ACLJ Memorandum:…

  12. Law and the Student Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, George E.; Webster, John B.

    Court cases and legal decisions involving the student press in the late 1960s and early 1970s are brought together in this book in order to show how the law has been applied to school officials and student journalists in high school, college, and the underground. The ten chapters cover the following topics: censorship, libel, obscenity, contempt,…

  13. Copyright Law and Educational Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Ivan R.

    1985-01-01

    This review of sections of copyright laws most relevant to media librarians covers requirements of authors, sole rights of copyright owners, fair use and other exceptions to sole rights, the Board of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES) case, the Sony case, exempt public performances, and computer software. Twenty-nine references are provided.…

  14. School Law. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    Four subjects are the focus of this discussion of school law: sexual harassment, the copyright act, school discipline, and religion and the schools. In cases of sexual harassment of students by school personnel, a criterion for determining whether a school is liable involves the standard of "actual knowledge" in which school officials…

  15. Privacy Law and Print Photojournalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dykhouse, Caroline Dow

    Reviews of publications about privacy law, of recent court actions, and of interviews with newspaper photographers and attorneys indicate that torts of privacy often conflict with the freedoms to publish and to gather news. Although some guidelines have already been established (about running distorted pictures, "stealing" pictures, taking…

  16. A Simple Boyle's Law Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Don L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment to demonstrate Boyle's law that provides pressure measurements in a familiar unit (psi) and makes no assumptions concerning atmospheric pressure. Items needed include bathroom scales and a 60-ml syringe, castor oil, disposable 3-ml syringe and needle, modeling clay, pliers, and a wooden block. Commercial devices use a…

  17. Parents, Schools, and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, David; Fisher, Louis

    This book explores parents' legal rights concerning their children's elementary and secondary education. Besides certain constitutional rights (including parents' right to direct their children's education), parents and students have been granted various rights under state and federal statutes. This book aims to demystify the law and provide…

  18. The Seed Is the Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antone, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Since humanities arise from a specific place and from the people of that place, this article will focus on Peacemaker's revolutionary teachings about the seed of law. Long before the people from across the ocean arrived here on Turtle Island (North America) there was much warfare happening. According to John Mohawk (2001, para. 1), an Iroquoian…

  19. A Venture in Constitutional Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, W. Graham; Dillon, Dorothy H.

    1980-01-01

    Senior high girls and boys from two single-sex schools undertook a study of a Supreme Court case that provided insight not only into constitutional law and history but also into how men and women can work together and relate in other ways than dating. (DS)

  20. Faraday's Law and Seawater Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2010-01-01

    Using Faraday's law, one can illustrate how an electromotive force generator, directly utilizing seawater motion, works. The conceptual device proposed is rather simple in its components and can be built in any high school or college laboratory. The description of the way in which the device generates an electromotive force can be instructive not…

  1. Newton's Law of Cooling Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, M.

    2009-01-01

    The cooling of objects is often described by a law, attributed to Newton, which states that the temperature difference of a cooling body with respect to the surroundings decreases exponentially with time. Such behaviour has been observed for many laboratory experiments, which led to a wide acceptance of this approach. However, the heat transfer…

  2. Gender Equity and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Judith H.

    These instructional materials focus on federal laws and executive orders that prohibit sex discrimination in employment and education. The materials consist of the following: (1) a list of some of the legislation covered; (2) a list of relevant materials and resources; (3) a list of 14 instructional activities, each described by one or a few…

  3. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  4. Law School Academic Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangerin, Paul T.

    1989-01-01

    This article attempts to bridge a perceived gap between legal education and education theory as well as the gap between academic counseling and independent learning by examining law school academic support programs. The article argues that a multidisciplinary analysis provides a helpful basis for evaluating academic support programs that address…

  5. Learning to Live with Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondschein, Virginia M.; Kunz, Wayne P.

    1990-01-01

    Law-related education works best when teachers abandon manuals and prepackaged teaching modules for teaching strategies that tap each student's prior knowledge and relevant life experiences. Ten themes are suggested, along with six teaching components (knowledge competencies, motivating and learning activities, curriculum correlation, relation to…

  6. Law Students Practice in Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The glass walls and observation lounge of Hamline University Law Center's moot court allow passersby to glimpse the action day or night. Faculty offices, secretarial spaces, and several student organizations are housed on the second floor. The brick and masonry exterior was designed to fit in with other campus buildings. (Author/MLF)

  7. Biorhythms and Law School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Martin, A.

    1978-01-01

    A study, conducted to test the influence of biorhythms on law school performance, focused on academic disadvantages, absenteeism and withdrawal, biorhythm compatibility among students and teacher, and study efficiency. One conclusion is that outside employment and basic ability are more important than biorhythms in determining success. (JMD)

  8. School Law in Review 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Association for Continuing Education, Vancouver (British Columbia).

    This compilation of the presentations delivered at the NSBA Council of School Attorneys' Annual School Law Seminar includes the following papers: (1) "The 'Dimensions' of Trial Advocacy" (Keith Evans); (2) "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Who Has It and Who Doesn't" (Jerry L. Wyckoff); (3) "Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment and…

  9. Derivation of Jurin's Law Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Miranda, Maria Tirado

    2011-01-01

    The capillary rise/fall of a liquid within a thin capillary tube is described by the well-established Jurin's law. The liquid reaches an equilibrium height/depth as the capillary pressure is balanced by the hydrostatic pressure. When the adhesion force at the three-phase contact line is counteracted by the liquid weight, the liquid column also…

  10. Probing Planck's Law at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnet, I.; Gabelli, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the physics around an incandescent lamp. Using a consumer-grade digital camera, we combine electrical and optical measurements to explore Planck's law of black-body radiation. This simple teaching experiment is successfully used to measure both Stefan's and Planck's constants. Our measurements lead to a strikingly accurate value for…

  11. [Forensic psychiatry and Islamic law].

    PubMed

    Geferakos, G; Lykouras, L; Douzenis, A

    2014-01-01

    Islam is the second most popular monotheistic religion in the world. Its followers, the Muslims, are about 1.2 billion people and are the majority in 56 countries around the globe. Islam is an holistic way and model of life and its rules, according to a large proportion of Muslims, should have more power than the laws deriving from any secular authority. This means that the divine laws, as depicted from Islam's holy scripts, should be the laws of the land. In the strict Islamic states, as Saudi Arabia, the Islamic law or the Shari'ah prevails. Shari'ah means the path, the road each faithful Muslim should follow according to the rules of God. The Islamic views on mental health have some interesting characteristics: on the one hand, the moral necessity for the protection and care of the vulnerable individuals is very strong, but on the other hand superstitions and stigmatization influence the peoples' attitude against mental health patients. At the beginning of its historical course, Islamic world was a pioneer concerning mental health care. Unfortunately, as time passed by, we have observed considerable regression. In our days mental health services provided in most of the Islamic states cannot be considered adequate according to modern Western standards. The same course characterizes the Forensic Psychiatric services and the relevant legislation in the Islamic world.

  12. Lenz's law and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelesko, John A.; Cesky, Michael; Huertas, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    We show that the time it takes a magnet to fall through a nonmagnetic metallic tube may be found via dimensional analysis. The simple analysis makes this classic demonstration of Lenz's law accessible qualitatively and quantitatively to students with little knowledge of electromagnetism and only elementary knowledge of calculus. The analysis provides a new example of the power and limitations of dimensional analysis.

  13. What Does the Law Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author provides legal explanations to the following concerns: (1) case law on specific learning disability (SLD) eligibility; (2) recent developments on response to intervention (RTI); (3) Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) rules; and (4) the Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) regulation. The author's…

  14. The Law of Information Inconservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Qi Quan

    1990-01-01

    Compares the notion of the conservation or inconservation of information with the laws of conservation of matter and energy. The theory of entropy in physics and its significance in information theory is discussed, and the essential nature of information is considered. (LRW)

  15. Marsupial robots for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    2001-02-01

    Marsupial robots are a type of heterogeneous mobile robot team. A mother robot transports, supports, and recovers one or more daughter robots. This paper will cover the marsupial robot concept, the application of law enforcement, and recent results in collaborative teleoperation for the related task of urban search and rescue.

  16. Making School Bully Laws Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth; Edmondson, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, bully prevention activities moved from the local districts to the state houses where legislators amended public school laws to incorporate safety regulations. For instance, the 2001 authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, referred to as No Child Left Behind, included the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and…

  17. Measuring Law for Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremper, Charles; Thomas, Sue; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations that combine social science and law have tremendous potential to illuminate the effects of governmental policies and yield insights into how effectively policy makers' efforts achieve their aims. This potential is infrequently achieved, however, because such interdisciplinary research contains often overlooked substantive and…

  18. The Law of the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jean-Pierre

    1978-01-01

    Recounts problems related to the law of the sea and suggests that these problems could be dealt with in the classroom in an interdisciplinary manner. Problems include pollution control, fishing rights, development of deep sea mineral deposits, and shore access. (Author/DB)

  19. Can Immigration Laws Be Enforced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Edwin

    1983-01-01

    Current immigration law contains loopholes that make it difficult to restrict illegal immigration. Needed are enforcement strategies that maximize benefits from limited resources and are politically acceptable to American citizens. Such strategies might include increasing cost of entry, and focusing post entry operations on aliens involved in…

  20. Mental Health and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  1. Fire and Water Demonstrate Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Luca, R.; Ganci, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe two classroom experiments that can be interpreted by means of Bernoulli's law. The first experiment uses a lighted candle in front of a mirror and a stream of air that is sent obliquely towards the mirror. The purpose of this experiment is to find out which way the flame will bend if air is blown at a given…

  2. Covariant Formulation of Hooke's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gron, O.

    1981-01-01

    Introducing a four-vector strain and a four-force stress, Hooke's law is written as a four-vector equation. This formulation is shown to clarify seemingly paradoxical results in connection with uniformly accelerated motion, and rotational motion with angular acceleration. (Author/JN)

  3. The laws of cell energetics.

    PubMed

    Skulachev, V P

    1992-09-01

    Recent progress in membrane bioenergetics studies has resulted in the important discovery that Na+ can effectively substitute for H+ as the energy coupling ion. This means that living cells can possess three convertible energy currencies, i.e. ATP, protonic and sodium potentials. Analysis of interrelations of these components in various types of living cells allows bioenergetic laws of universal applicability to be inferred.

  4. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Mississippi Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Mississippi state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  5. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. California Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on California state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  6. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Connecticut Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Connecticut state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  7. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Tennessee Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Tennessee state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  8. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Minnesota Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Minnesota state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  9. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Louisiana Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Louisiana state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  10. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Washington Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Washington state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  11. Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Massachusetts Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phi Alpha Delta Law Fraternity International, Washington, DC.

    Designed for middle school through high school students, this unit contains eight lesson plans that focus on Massachusetts state law. The state lessons correspond to lessons in the volume, "Antidote: Civic Responsibility. Drug Avoidance Lessons for Middle School & High School Students." Developed to be presented by educators, law…

  12. Business Law Syllabus. 1977 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    This business law curriculum guide for use with eleventh or twelfth grade students provides a modular course of study designed to be covered in one school year using a four or five class periods per week schedule. The guide begins with a brief section covering the course objectives, administrative considerations such as abbreviated courses,…

  13. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  14. The Law and Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    This textbook provides information on the legal development of special education, the current legal requirements in providing a free appropriate public education to students with disabilities, and the procedures involved in obtaining legal information in law libraries and on the Internet. Specifically, the 16 chapters address: (1) sources of law…

  15. The Law and Private Police.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is one of a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, its present regulation, and how the law impinges on it. A general discussion of the sources of legal limitations upon private police activities and personnel and sources of legal powers is…

  16. The Ambiguity of Bradford's Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Elizabeth A.

    1972-01-01

    Recent discussion of Bradford's law of scatter has been founded on two formulations that are not mathematically equivalent. A method of comparing the two formulations against empirical data is developed, and the results using four sets of existing data are discussed. (12 references) (Author/NH)

  17. The importance of domestic law to international arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1993-11-01

    Studies of arms control and disarmament tend to focus on political, military, and diplomatic processes. Recently, in the context of the conversion of defense activities to civilian use, the economic aspects of arms control have also received renewed interest. The legal dimension, however, is in need of fresh examination. Both international and domestic law are sailing increasingly in uncharted waters. Recent arms control agreements and related developments in international peacekeeping have expanded the scope of international law and altered how one perceives certain fundamentals, including the principle of national sovereignty. Still, the nation state is largely unchallenged as the primary actor in international affairs. National governments retain near absolute sovereign rights and responsibilities even in an age of trans-national economic integration and codified international norms for human rights, freedom of the press, and the peaceful resolution of disputes. Indeed, the role of domestic law in arms control and disarmament may be more significant now than ever before. A brief review of relationships between arms control and domestic law should illustrate ways in which ones thinking has been underestimating the importance of domestic law. Hopefully, this survey will set the stage properly for the excellent, more detailed case studies by Elinor Hammarskjold and Alan Crawford. Toward that end, this paper will highlight a number of more general, and sometimes provocative, themes. These themes should be kept in mind when those two complementary presentations are considered.

  18. Law and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Richard A; Moulton, A; Matthews, G; Shaw, F; Kocher, P; Mensah, G; Zaza, S; Besser, R

    2006-12-22

    Public health law is an emerging field in U.S. public health practice. The 20th century proved the indispensability of law to public health, as demonstrated by the contribution of law to each of the century's 10 great public health achievements. Former CDC Director Dr. William Foege has suggested that law, along with epidemiology, is an essential tool in public health practice. Public health laws are any laws that have important consequences for the health of defined populations. They derive from federal and state constitutions; statutes, and other legislative enactments; agency rules and regulations; judicial rulings and case law; and policies of public bodies. Government agencies that apply public health laws include agencies officially designated as "public health agencies," as well as health-care, environmental protection, education, and law enforcement agencies, among others.

  19. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    PubMed

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  20. Laws of reflection and Snell's law revisited by video modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.

    2014-07-01

    Video modelling is being used, nowadays, as a tool for teaching and learning several topics in Physics. Most of these topics are related to kinematics. In this work we show how video modelling can be used for demonstrations and experimental teaching in optics, namely the laws of reflection and the well-known Snell's Law of light. Videos were recorded with a photo camera at 30 frames/s, and analysed with the open source software Tracker. Data collected from several frames was treated with the Data Tool module, and graphs were built to obtain relations between incident, reflected and refraction angles, as well as to determine the refractive index of Perspex. These videos can be freely distributed in the web and explored with students within the classroom, or as a homework assignment to improve student's understanding on specific contents. They present a large didactic potential for teaching basic optics in high school with an interactive methodology.

  1. Knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS: development of the HIV/AIDS and the law scale.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, F A; Black, S A; O'Boyle, M; Jones, P

    1999-06-01

    42 middle-aged and older adults, ranging in age from 51 to 85 years, completed 10 items dealing with the assessment of knowledge regarding laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Participants also completed 40 items involving knowledge of risks for HIV infection. The Cronbach coefficient alpha and test-retest reliability coefficient on the HIV/AIDS and the Law Scale were .74 and .83, respectively. Over-all, the grand mean for correct answers was 46.9%, whereas the grand means for incorrect answers and "don't know" responses were 13.6% and 39.5%, suggesting substantial lack of knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS. Women (50%) and younger participants (51 to 66 years old; 48.2%) showed more of this knowledge (50%) than men (43.0%) and older participants (46.2%). The sample reported a substantial amount of knowledge regarding HIV transmission assessed with factual (92.2% correct) and misconception (87.5% correct) items. The correlation between this knowledge and knowledge of laws regulating issues related to HIV and AIDS was .42 (p < .01). Research with this scale using adolescents and young adults as well as the utility of the scale in areas of clinical, legal, and policy development are discussed.

  2. OSMOSIS: A CAUSE OF APPARENT DEVIATIONS FROM DARCY'S LAW.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, Harold W.

    1985-01-01

    This review of the existing evidence shows that osmosis causes intercepts in flow rate versus hydraulic gradient relationships that are consistent with the observed deviations from Darcy's law at very low gradients. Moreover, it is suggested that a natural cause of osmosis in laboratory samples could be chemical reactions such as those involved in aging effects. This hypothesis is analogous to the previously proposed occurrence of electroosmosis in nature generated by geochemical weathering reactions. Refs.

  3. Goldilocks and the Three Complex Crater Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Formed in the gravity regime, complex craters are larger than their simple crater equivalents, due to a combination of slumping and uplift. Just how much larger is a matter of great interest for, for example, age dating studies. We examine three empirical scaling laws for complex crater size, examining their strengths and weaknesses, as well as asking how well they accord with previously published and new data from lunar, terrestrial, and Venusian craters.

  4. Goldilocks and the Three Complex Crater Scaling Laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2003-01-01

    Formed in the gravity regime, complex craters are larger than their simple crater equivalents, due to a combination of slumping and uplift. Just how much larger is a matter of great interest for, for example, age dating studies. We examine three empirical scaling laws for complex crater size, examining their strengths and weaknesses, as well as asking how well they accord with previously published and new data from lunar, terrestrial, and venusian craters.

  5. Copyright Issues for the Electronic Age. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruwelheide, Janis H.

    This digest focuses on a variety of issues confronting copyright law in the digital age. The current copyright law was adopted in 1976, and could not possibly have foreseen so many new technologies. However, it did attempt to cover all bases by using language which was intended to be somewhat elastic. A current report by the U.S. Department of…

  6. Developments in British environmental law

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.G.T.

    1984-07-01

    Decisions on whether or not to build nuclear power plants are increasingly settled in the courts because of conflicting interests in the growth of electric power demand and environmental protection that has led to a breakdown in public order. Lawyers share the same sense of bewilderment as lay people over nuclear as well as noise, smoke, and other types of environmental questions. The author reviews British criminal and civil law to see how the courts have dealt with pollution issues in the past. Public inquiry over a proposed development has triggered many of Britain's major law and environment problems, the Windscale inquiry being a notable example. A reluctance to legislate is an underlying factor in the trend toward inquiry and litigation. 139 references.

  7. Power Law Distribution in Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Hari M.; Campanha, José R.; Prado, Fernando D.

    We studied the statistical distribution of candidate's performance which is measured through their marks in university entrance examination (Vestibular) of UNESP (Universidade Estadual Paulista) for years 1998, 1999, and 2000. All students are divided in three groups: Physical, Biological and Humanities. We paid special attention to the examination of Portuguese language which is common for all and examinations for the particular area. We observed long ubiquitous power law tails in Physical and Biological sciences. This indicate the presence of strong positive feedback in sciences. We are able to explain completely these statistical distributions through Gradually Truncated Power law distributions which we developed recently to explain statistical behavior of financial market. The statistical distribution in case of Portuguese language and humanities is close to normal distribution. We discuss the possible reason for this peculiar behavior.

  8. Law of Conservation of Muons

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Feinberg, G.; Weinberg, S.

    1961-02-01

    A multiplicative selection rule for mu meson-electron transitions is proposed. A "muon parity" = -1 is considered for the muon and its neutrino, while the "muon parity" for all other particles is +1. The selection rule then states that (-1) exp(no. of initial (-1) parity particles) = (-1) exp(no. of final (-1) parity particles). Several reactions that are forbidden by an additive law but allowed by the multiplicative law are suggested; these reactions include mu{sup +} .> e{sup +} + nu{sub mu} + {ovr nu}{sub e}, e{sup -} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + mu{sup -}, and muonium .> antimuonium (mu{sup +} + e{sup -} .> mu{sup -} + e{sup +}). An intermediate-boson hypothesis is suggested. (T.F.H.)

  9. Constructing cities, deconstructing scaling laws.

    PubMed

    Arcaute, Elsa; Hatna, Erez; Ferguson, Peter; Youn, Hyejin; Johansson, Anders; Batty, Michael

    2015-01-06

    Cities can be characterized and modelled through different urban measures. Consistency within these observables is crucial in order to advance towards a science of cities. Bettencourt et al. have proposed that many of these urban measures can be predicted through universal scaling laws. We develop a framework to consistently define cities, using commuting to work and population density thresholds, and construct thousands of realizations of systems of cities with different boundaries for England and Wales. These serve as a laboratory for the scaling analysis of a large set of urban indicators. The analysis shows that population size alone does not provide us enough information to describe or predict the state of a city as previously proposed, indicating that the expected scaling laws are not corroborated. We found that most urban indicators scale linearly with city size, regardless of the definition of the urban boundaries. However, when nonlinear correlations are present, the exponent fluctuates considerably.

  10. Property law: a cognitive turn.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Jeremy A

    2010-04-01

    Despite more than a century of research by psychologists on issues relating to the law, most such research has focused on a small subset of topics relevant to the legal system. Here, I review several legal topics amenable to psychological research that fall under the broad umbrella of property law: (1) how the concepts of property and ownership are represented cognitively; (2) the relationship between wealth and happiness, consumer behavior, and the priming effect of money concepts; (3) animal and child development in cognition about and behavior toward property and ownership; and (4) the relevance of psychological research on home to legal policy. These and other areas provide potential research agendas for cognitive and social cognitive psychologists. After noting the importance of such research for legal doctrine, theory, and policy, I close with suggestions for effectively communicating empirical findings to the legal community.

  11. Moore's Law and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voller, V. R.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2002-07-01

    An estimate of the rate of increase in numerical simulation grid sizes with time is obtained by counting the grids (measured in terms of number of node points) reported in the nine volumes of an established proceedings on the numerical modeling of solidification phenomena dating back to 1980. It is shown that the largest grids used in a given year increase at a rate consistent with the well-known Moore's law on computing power, i.e., the number of nodes in the grids double every 18 months. From this observation, approximate bounds on the available grid size in a current year are established. This approximation is used to provide projections as to when, assuming Moore's law continues to hold, direct simulations of physical phenomena, which resolve to the smallest scale present, will be achievable.

  12. Ageing doctors.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Milligan, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    Doctors are neither more nor less susceptible than the general population to the effects of ageing. The relevance of deterioration with age depends on the nature of the work undertaken. Reduced muscle strength and visual and auditory deterioration can compromise clinical ability. Accumulation of chronic disease further reduces capacity. Cognitive decline is of particular importance, as good medical care requires considerable cognitive function. Patient safety is paramount, yet older doctors are an important part of the medical workforce and their value should be recognised. Changes in patient case mix, work place support systems and individual adjustments can assist safe practice. Deterioration in health should be acknowledged and requires proactive management. Current methods of ensuring competence are inadequate for supporting ageing doctors. A new initiative is recommended comprising collaboration between regulators, colleges and employing institutions to support the ageing doctor in providing safe and effective practice.

  13. [Neuronal ageing].

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Sunderland, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Ageing leads to irreversible alterations in the nervous system, which to various extent impair its functions such as capacity to learn and memory. In old neurons and brain, similarly to what may take place in other cells, there is increased oxidative stress, disturbed energetic homeostasis and metabolism, accumulation of damage in proteins and nucleic acids. Characteristic of old neurons are alterations in plasticity, synaptic transmission, sensitivity to neurotrophic factors and cytoskeletal changes. Some markers of senescence, whose one of them is SA-beta-galactosidase were used to show the process of neuronal ageing both in vitro, and in vivo. Some research suggest that, despite the fact that neurons are postmitotic cells, it is cell cycle proteins which play a certain role in their biology, e.g. differentiation. However, their role in neuronal ageing is not known or explained. Ageing is the serious factor of development of neurodegenerative diseases among others Alzheimer disease.

  14. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  15. Oregon's Toxic Household Products Law.

    PubMed

    Neumann, C M; Giffin, S; Hall, R; Henderson, M; Buhler, D R

    2000-01-01

    In 1991, Oregon became the first state in the U.S. to require the addition of an aversive agent to ethylene glycol-containing antifreeze and methanol-containing windshield wiper fluid. This new law, entitled "Toxic Household Products (THP) Act," was designed to reduce pediatric and animal poisonings from accidental ingestion of these two potentially lethal consumer automotive products. While not the stated intention of the law, addition of aversive agents to consumer automotive products could also reduce adult poisonings associated with intentional (suicides or alcoholics ingesting methanol-containing windshield wiper fluid) or accidental exposures. This law went into effect April 30, 1995, following settlement of a lawsuit brought by the Chemical Manufacturing Specialties Association (CSMA), a trade group representing the five largest manufacturers of ethylene glycol-based antifreeze in the U.S. This paper discusses the major policy issues that arose following the passage of Oregon's THP Act. Major provisions of the law are provided along with a discussion of CSMA's opposition to the Act's implementation. A description of the eventual settlement that was reached with CSMA as well as the major components of Oregon Health Division's (OHD) enforcement program are also highlighted. Data are presented for 1987 through 1998 on the number of exposures and severity of effects for pediatric cases (children < 6 years old) following exposure to both of these potentially lethal automotive products. However, because of the low incidence of exposures each year, these data are insufficient to draw any conclusions on the impact of the THP Act.

  16. [The law of the land].

    PubMed

    Bustin, Julián

    2010-01-01

    The mental health legislation in England has two essential pillars: The Mental Health Act 2007 and The Capacity Act 2005. The Mental Health Act is the legislation governing the formal detention and care of mentally disordered people in english hospitals. The Mental Capacity Act provides a statutory framework to empower and protect vulnerable people who are not able to make their own decisions. This article reviews certain essential aspects of these laws and the impact they have in daily practice.

  17. Naval Law Review. Volume 62

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Sep. 2010 , at 12. 103 U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Pardon Attorney, available at http://www.justice.gov/pardon/. Naval Law Review...Presently assigned to Region Legal Service Office Southeast. Previous assignments include: Defense Counsel Assistance Program, 2010 to 2012...Naval Legal Service Office North Central, 2010 ; Navy and Marine Corps Appellate Defense Division (Code 45), 2007- 2010 ; Naval Legal Service Office Mid

  18. Degenerate Systems of Conservation Laws.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    uI, ..., un ) u(x,t) , f " (fl’ "**’ fn) and x c R, t ) 0. Such equations arise in applications of gas dynamics, elasticity, oil reservoir ... simulation and other areas of engineering when diffusion is neglected. In solutions of (1), information travels at speeds Xi given by the eigenvalues of...laws which is not strictly hyperbolic", MRC Technical Summary Report #2184, December 29, 1980. [13] Peaceman, D. W., Fundamentals of Numerical Reservoir

  19. [Circumcision: history, religion and law].

    PubMed

    Totaro, Angelo; Volpe, Andrea; Racioppi, Marco; Pinto, Francesco; Sacco, Emilio; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the circumcision procedure during history, its therapeutic and preventive goals, with focus on bioethical, economic and law issues. The origins of this practice are lost in antiquity. It was performed since 3000 BC by the Egyptians for hygienic and religious reasons. Moreover, male circumcision is a religious commandment in Judaism and Islam, and it is customary in some Oriental Orthodox and other Christian churches of Africa. Nowadays, circumcision is performed as a routine procedure by the Jews and the Muslims for religious reasons. The world prevalence of men with circumcision is 12.5-33%, especially in USA, Canada, Islamic people and Africa; in Europe the prevalence rate is low (in Great Britain it is 1.5%). Currently, male circumcision is being highly debated because of ethical, law and scientific issues and the different roles of this procedure: therapeutic, prophylactic (but there is no universal consensus) and ritualistic role. Nowadays, in Italy there is a strong debate about the consensus for this practice and its indications. The Italian law does not allow performing ritualistic circumcision, as a free of charge procedure in public hospitals, at the government's expenses, because the Italian law must protect different religious cultures, in name of the laity of the State. Thus, national bioethical committee (CNB) has established that ritualistic circumcision may only be performed on a paying basis in public hospitals. As a protective practice, circumcision has decreased in the entire world because of the improvement of hygienical conditions and, above all, the lack of unanimous consent on the real usefulness of protective circumcision, even if several studies have recently demonstrated the protecting role of male circumcision against HIV infection.

  20. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards... in the apportionment of liability. The amount of damage sustained by both parties is...

  1. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards... in the apportionment of liability. The amount of damage sustained by both parties is...

  2. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards... in the apportionment of liability. The amount of damage sustained by both parties is...

  3. 32 CFR 842.66 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determine the applicable law for assessment of liability. (a) A claim is settled under the law and standards... in the apportionment of liability. The amount of damage sustained by both parties is...

  4. Labor law update--Part 1.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1997-01-01

    To ensure proper actions when making managerial decisions, nurses must be aware of labor laws and the policies that apply to them. Part 1 of "Labor Law Update" discusses public policy considerations and gender, racial and pregnancy discrimination.

  5. Large & Small: Exploring the Laws of Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creutz, E.

    1976-01-01

    Illustrates how both large entities (such as stars and galaxies) and small entities (such as fundamental particles) obey the same physical laws. Discusses quantum mechanics, Newton's laws, and general relativity. (MLH)

  6. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  7. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  8. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  9. 44 CFR 15.17 - Other laws.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY... abolish any other Federal laws or any State and local laws and regulations applicable to Mt. Weather...

  10. Mathematical models, explanation, laws, and evolutionary biology.

    PubMed

    Elgin, Mehmet

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly agreed in the literature on laws of nature that there are at least two necessary conditions for lawhood--that a law must have empirical content and that it must be universal. The main reason offered for the requirement that laws be empirical is as follows: a priori statements are consistent with any imaginable set of observations, so they cannot be informative about the world and therefore they cannot provide explanations. However, we care about laws because we think that laws provide explanations and allow us to make predictions. Thus, if one of the functions of laws is to provide explanations and a priori propositions cannot fulfill this function, they cannot properly be viewed as laws. In this paper, I will aim to show that this argument for the claim that laws must be empirical does not work.

  11. Law and Social Change in Marxist Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazard, John N.

    1970-01-01

    The basic concepts discussed are: social change manipulation through management of economic resources; the leadership of the few that understand the process; and, the law as the primary instrument of implementation (criminal, family, public laws). (SE)

  12. Facilitation for law enforcement technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, David A.

    1997-02-01

    In todays world of rapid technology development, emerging technologies present to law enforcement agencies, one of a very limited number of legal responses to criminal initiatives. Yet in spite of the existence of very sophisticated enforcement technologies, many law enforcement organizations seem to lag behind in several important areas of technology response and adaptation. This paper will propose the idea that what is needed is a closer partnership between private industry`technology adaptors' and government officials who are the problem `identifiers'. This marriage of necessity would produce immediate operational results focussed on todays enforcement problems and tomorrows emerging solutions. The paper will also present the concept of the establishment of an independent body tasked with the creation of an enforcement technology `adaptor' registry for authorized and innovative, enforcement technology applications specialists. This registry would be created to assist enforcement agencies with the location and/or creation of new law enforcement technologies/products. These persons would locate and/or create quick response technology innovations developed to provide operational `fixes' and technologies designed to address emerging enforcement problems. The presentation will conclude by providing examples of up to 12 different existing technologies devices currently available (but not generally known by government agencies).

  13. Age matters.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James Edgar; Marinelli, Michela

    2009-03-01

    The age of an experimental animal can be a critical variable, yet age matters are often overlooked within neuroscience. Many studies make use of young animals, without considering possible differences between immature and mature subjects. This is especially problematic when attempting to model traits or diseases that do not emerge until adulthood. In this commentary we discuss the reasons for this apparent bias in age of experimental animals, and illustrate the problem with a systematic review of published articles on long-term potentiation. Additionally, we review the developmental stages of a rat and discuss the difficulty of using the weight of an animal as a predictor of its age. Finally, we provide original data from our laboratory and review published data to emphasize that development is an ongoing process that does not end with puberty. Developmental changes can be quantitative in nature, involving gradual changes, rapid switches, or inverted U-shaped curves. Changes can also be qualitative. Thus, phenomena that appear to be unitary may be governed by different mechanisms at different ages. We conclude that selection of the age of the animals may be critically important in the design and interpretation of neurobiological studies.

  14. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  15. Rediscovering Kepler's Third Law using NASA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, Jason; Springsteen, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were discovered around four hundred years ago using data that was meticulously gathered by Tycho Brahe through naked eye observations. Here we will show that the same Kepler's result illustrated in his third planetary law still holds today, by using modern data from NASA. In addition, we discuss how all three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion can be derived directly from Newton's Gravitational law.

  16. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  17. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  18. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  19. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...

  20. 32 CFR 935.20 - Applicable law.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable law. 935.20 Section 935.20 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Civil Law § 935.20 Applicable law. Civil acts and deeds taking place on Wake Island... June 15, 1950 (64 Stat. 217) (48 U.S.C. 644a), according to the laws of the United States relating...