Science.gov

Sample records for age nonverbal iq

  1. A Guide to Child Nonverbal IQ Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeThorne, Laura S.; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    2004-01-01

    This guide provides a basic overview of 16 child nonverbal IQ measures and uses a set of specified criteria to evaluate them in terms of their psychometric properties. In doing so, the goal is neither to validate nor to criticize current uses of IQ but to (a) familiarize clinicians and investigators with the variety of nonverbal IQ measures…

  2. Language abilities and nonverbal IQ in children with language impairment: inconsistency across measures.

    PubMed

    Dethorne, Laura S; Watkins, Ruth V

    2006-11-01

    The present study used correlation analyses to examine the extent to which language abilities are associated with nonverbal IQ in 30 children with language impairment, age 4-8 years. After controlling for age, nonverbal IQ demonstrated medium associations with composite measures of both semantic and morphosyntactic abilities (r = .46 and .45 respectively). However when only criterion-referenced measures of language were included in the analyses, no significant associations between language and nonverbal IQ were observed. In addition, individual difference scores between language and nonverbal IQ revealed that discrepancies occurred in both directions--with language exceeding nonverbal IQ in some cases and nonverbal IQ exceeding language in others. In sum, the relatively inconsistent associations between language and nonverbal IQ provided additional reason to question current practices, such as cognitive referencing and the definition of specific language impairment. Implications in regard to theoretical accounts of language impairment are also discussed.

  3. Empirical Implications of Matching Children With Specific Language Impairment to Children With Typical Development on Nonverbal IQ.

    PubMed

    Earle, F Sayako; Gallinat, Erica L; Grela, Bernard G; Lehto, Alexa; Spaulding, Tammie J

    This study determined the effect of matching children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their peers with typical development (TD) for nonverbal IQ on the IQ test scores of the resultant groups. Studies published between January 2000 and May 2012 reporting standard nonverbal IQ scores for SLI and age-matched TD controls were categorized into those that matched and did not match children with SLI and TD on nonverbal IQ. We then compared the nonverbal IQ scores across matching criterions within each diagnostic category. In studies that matched children on nonverbal IQ, children with SLI scored significantly higher on nonverbal IQ tests relative to children with SLI in studies that did not match on this criterion. Therefore, it appears that the nonverbal IQ performance of children with SLI is not comparable across studies that do and do not match samples on nonverbal IQ. This suggests that the practice of nonverbal IQ matching may have unintended consequences for the generalization of research findings to the broader SLI population.

  4. Birth order effects on nonverbal IQ scores in autism multiplex families.

    PubMed

    Spiker, D; Lotspeich, L J; Dimiceli, S; Szatmari, P; Myers, R M; Risch, N

    2001-10-01

    Lord (1992) published a brief report showing a trend for decreasing nonverbal IQ scores with increasing birth order in a sample of 16 autism multiplex families, and urged replication in a larger sample. In this report, analyses of nonverbal IQ scores for a sample of 144 autism multiplex families indicated that nonverbal IQ scores were significantly lower in secondborn compared with firstborn siblings with autism. This birth order effect was independent of gender as well as the age differences within sib pairs. No such birth order effects were found for social or communicative deficits as measured by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), but there was a modest tendency for increased scores for ritualistic behaviors for the firstborn sibs. Further, there were no gender differences on nonverbal IQ scores in this sample. Results are discussed in terms of implications for genetic studies of autism.

  5. Association between restricted and repetitive behaviors and nonverbal IQ in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Somer L; Richler, Jennifer; Lord, Catherine

    2006-08-01

    The present study explored the relationship between nonverbal IQ and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 830 children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The role of chronological age as a moderator of this relationship was also investigated. For many behaviors, there was a significant interaction between nonverbal IQ and chronological age, such that nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was more strongly related to the prevalence of RRBs in older children. For the majority of such behaviors (e.g. repetitive use of objects, hand and finger mannerisms), RRB prevalence was negatively associated with NVIQ. However, the prevalence of certain behaviors (e.g. circumscribed interests) showed positive relationships with NVIQ, which provides some support for the idea of different classes of RRBs. For the severity of different RRBs, there were several significant effects for age and NVIQ, but few interactions.

  6. Ability Profiles in Children with Autism: Influence of Age and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2003-01-01

    Psychological data were analyzed for 164 individuals (ages 3-15) with autism (IQs 14-143). Verbal IQ lagged behind nonverbal during the preschool years, but by school age the gap had closed. For school-age children with low IQs, math, spelling, and writing scores were consistent with IQ and reading was above IQ. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  7. Measurement of Nonverbal IQ in Autism Spectrum Disorder: Scores in Young Adulthood Compared to Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Somer L.; Farmer, Cristan; Thurm, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal IQ (NVIQ) was examined in 84 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) followed from age 2 to 19. Most adults who scored in the range of intellectual disability also received scores below 70 as children, and the majority of adults with scores in the average range had scored in this range by age 3. However, within the lower ranges…

  8. Do Individuals with High Functioning Autism Have the IQ Profile Associated with Nonverbal Learning Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n=69) and adults (n=77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R,…

  9. Grammatical tense deficits in children with SLI and nonspecific language impairment: relationships with nonverbal IQ over time.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mabel L; Tomblin, J Bruce; Hoffman, Lesa; Richman, W Allen; Marquis, Janet

    2004-08-01

    The relationship between children's language acquisition and their nonverbal intelligence has a long tradition of scientific inquiry. Current attention focuses on the use of nonverbal IQ level as an exclusionary criterion in the definition of specific language impairment (SLI). Grammatical tense deficits are known as a clinical marker of SLI, but the relationship with nonverbal intelligence below the normal range has not previously been systematically studied. This study documents the levels of grammatical tense acquisition (for third-person singular -s, regular and irregular past tense morphology) in a large, epidemiologically ascertained sample of kindergarten children that comprises 4 groups: 130 children with SLI, 100 children with nonspecific language impairments (NLI), 73 children with low cognitive levels but language within normal limits (LC), and 117 unaffected control children. The study also documents the longitudinal course of acquisition for the SLI and NLI children between the ages of 6 and 10 years. The LC group did not differ from the unaffected controls at kindergarten, showing a dissociation of nonverbal intelligence and grammatical tense marking, so that low levels of nonverbal intelligence did not necessarily yield low levels of grammatical tense. The NLI group's level of performance was lower than that of the SLI group and showed a greater delay in resolution of the overgeneralization phase of irregular past tense mastery, indicating qualitative differences in growth. Implications for clinical groupings for research and clinical purposes are discussed.

  10. Nonverbal and verbal cognitive discrepancy profiles in autism spectrum disorders: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ > verbal IQ [NVIQ > VIQ], verbal IQ > nonverbal IQ [VIQ > NVIQ], and no split) and the relationship of gender, age, and ASD symptomatology to IQ discrepancy profile in a large sample of children with ASD. The NVIQ > VIQ profile occurred at a higher frequency than expected, had more young males, and showed more autism symptoms than the other groups. Results suggest that the NVIQ > VIQ profile may be less likely to represent a subtype of ASD, but rather a common developmental pathway for children with ASD and other disorders.

  11. Nonverbal and Verbal Cognitive Discrepancy Profiles in Autism Spectrum Disorders: Influence of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankenman, Katy; Elgin, Jenna; Sullivan, Katherine; Vincent, Logan; Bernier, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    Research suggests that discrepant cognitive abilities are more common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may indicate an important ASD endophenotype. The current study examined the frequency of IQ discrepancy profiles (nonverbal IQ greater than verbal IQ [NVIQ greater than VIQ], verbal IQ greater than nonverbal IQ [VIQ greater…

  12. Do individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Diane L.; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17–26% of the children and 20–32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA. PMID:18516234

  13. Do individuals with high functioning autism have the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability?

    PubMed

    Williams, Diane L; Goldstein, Gerald; Kojkowski, Nicole; Minshew, Nancy J

    2008-06-01

    Previously researchers have noted a high level of occurrence of the IQ profile associated with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) in Asperger syndrome (ASP) but not in high functioning autism (HFA). We examined the IQ profile scores of a large sample of children (n = 69) and adults (n = 77) with HFA, stringently diagnosed according to ADOS, ADI-R, and DSM-IV criteria, and a corresponding sample of typical child (n = 72) and adult controls (n = 107). At least one of the three primary components of the Wechsler pattern seen in NLD were found in 17-26% of the children and 20-32% of the adults with HFA. All three components occurred in slightly more than 5% of the children and adults with autism. Overall, the VIQ > PIQ profile seen in NLD occurred in 18% of the sample of individuals stringently diagnosed with HFA. Therefore, obtaining this IQ profile is not a valid clinical discriminator between NLD and HFA.

  14. The Role of Timing in Testing Nonverbal IQ in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGonigle-Chalmers, Margaret; McSweeney, Meabh

    2013-01-01

    15 School-aged high functioning children on the autistic spectrum were compared with a neurotypical cohort on the WISC-III and the KABC-II, to determine the impact of the relatively more strict timing criteria of the former test on the evaluation of nonverbal intelligence. Significant group effects, showing lower performance by the ASD group were…

  15. Age-Related Differences in Nonverbal Decoding Ability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebermann, Devorah A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports a study comparing the nonverbal decoding ability (under auditory, visual, and audio-visual conditions) of college age females with elderly females, in order to identify preliminary nonverbal differences which may be related to aging. Finds that the elderly were significantly less skilled in decoding nonverbal behaviors across all…

  16. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mina; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3–14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5–16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for “mentally retarded” and “average,” respectively (Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.15). There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman's rho = 0.8977, P = 0.0008). “Picture arrangement” and “picture completion,” reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes. PMID:26236723

  17. The Relation between Nonverbal IQ and Postoperative CI Outcomes in Cochlear Implant Users: Preliminary Result.

    PubMed

    Park, Mina; Song, Jae-Jin; Oh, Seo Jin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Jun Ho; Oh, Seung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the correlation between performance intelligence and the postoperative cochlear implant (CI) outcome in Korean-speaking children. In addition, the relationship between the performance intelligence subscales and the post-CI speech outcome was evaluated. Materials and Methods. Thirteen pediatric CI users (five males, eight females; median age at implantation 6.2 (range 1.3-14.2) years; median age at intelligence test 9.3 (range 5-16) years) who were tested using the Korean Educational Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for children were studied. The correlations between the intelligence scores and 1-2 years postoperative Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scores and between subscales of performance and 1-2 years postoperative CAP scores were analyzed. Results. There was no correlation between the categories of verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ for "mentally retarded" and "average," respectively (Spearman's rho = 0.42, P = 0.15). There was a strong correlation between performance IQ and the postoperative CAP scale (Spearman's rho = 0.8977, P = 0.0008). "Picture arrangement" and "picture completion," reflecting social cognition, were strongly correlated with the postoperative CAP scales. Conclusion. Performance intelligence, especially social cognition, was strongly related to the postoperative CI outcome of cochlear implant users. Therefore, auditory rehabilitation, including social rehabilitation, should maximize the postoperative CI outcomes.

  18. The role of nonverbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M; Ellis Weismer, Susan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined the relationship between nonverbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10years matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntactic processing and a visual N-Back task and Corsi Blocks task to measure nonverbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher nonverbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that nonverbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge.

  19. The role of non-verbal working memory in morphosyntactic processing by school-aged monolingual and bilingual children

    PubMed Central

    Gangopadhyay, Ishanti; Davidson, Meghan M.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between non-verbal working memory and morphosyntactic processing in monolingual native speakers of English and bilingual speakers of English and Spanish. We tested 42 monolingual children and 42 bilingual children between the ages of 8 and 10, matched on age and non-verbal IQ. Children were administered an auditory Grammaticality Judgment task in English to measure morphosyntatic processing, and a visual N-Back task and a Corsi Blocks task to measure non-verbal working memory capacity. Analyses revealed that monolinguals were more sensitive to English morphosyntactic information than bilinguals, but the groups did not differ in reaction times or response bias. Furthermore, higher non-verbal working memory capacity was associated with greater sensitivity to morphosyntactic violations in bilinguals, but not in monolinguals. The findings suggest that non-verbal working memory skills link more tightly to syntactic processing in populations with lower levels of language knowledge. PMID:26550957

  20. Semantic Verbal Fluency in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with Chronological Age and IQ

    PubMed Central

    Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Feo-Álvarez, Mireia; González-Sala, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We administered a semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task to two groups of children (age range from 5 to 8): 47 diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD Group) and 53 with typical development (Comparison Group), matched on gender, chronological age, and non-verbal IQ. Four specific indexes were calculated from the SVF task, reflecting the different underlying cognitive strategies used: clustering (component of generativity and lexical-semantic access), and switching (executive component, cognitive flexibility). First, we compared the performance of the two groups on the different SVF task indicators, with the ASD group scoring lower than the Comparison Group, although the difference was greater on switching than on clustering. Second, we analyzed the relationships between the different SVF measures and chronological age, verbal IQ and non-verbal IQ. While in the Comparison Group chronological age was the main predictor of performance on the SVF task, in the ASD Group verbal IQ was the best predictor. In the children with ASD, therefore, greater linguistic competence would be associated with better performance on the SVF task, which should be taken into account in speech therapies designed to achieve improvements in linguistic generativity and cognitive flexibility. PMID:27379002

  1. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Hansen Research Services Matrix Adaptive Test: A Measure of Nonverbal IQ.

    PubMed

    Hansen, John A

    2016-10-13

    Assessment of individuals on the autism spectrum often includes a measure of nonverbal IQ. One such measure is the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). For large research studies with participants distributed nationally it is desirable for assessments to be available online. Because time is a premium, it is ideal that the measure produces accurate scores quickly. The Hansen Research Services Matrix Adaptive Test (HRS-MAT) addresses these needs and with similar psychometric properties of the RSPM. Scores based on the HRS-MAT correlated at r = .81 with those of the RSPM. In adult-child pairs, HRS-MAT scores correlated at approximately r = .50. Details from respondents in a national sample and psychometric properties including reliability and validity are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  3. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  4. Humor processing in children: influence of temperament, age and IQ.

    PubMed

    Vrticka, Pascal; Black, Jessica M; Neely, Michelle; Walter Shelly, Elizabeth; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-11-01

    Emerging evidence from fMRI studies suggests that humor processing is a specific social cognitive-affective human function that comprises two stages. The first stage (cognitive humor component) involves the detection and resolution of incongruity, and is associated with activity in temporo-occipito-parietal brain areas. The second stage (emotional humor component) comprises positive feelings related to mirth/reward, and is linked with reward-related activity in mesocorticolimbic circuits. In healthy adults, humor processing was shown to be moderated by temperament traits like intro-/extraversion, neuroticism, or social anxiety, representing risk factors for psychopathology. However, comparable data from early developmental stages is crucially lacking. Here, we report for the first time data from 22 children (ages 6 to 13) revealing an influence of temperament on humor processing. Specifically, we assessed the effects of Emotionality, Shyness, and Sociability, which are analogous to neuroticism, behavioral inhibition/fear and extraversion in adults. We found Emotionality to be positively, but Shyness negatively associated with brain activity linked with both cognitive and emotional humor components. In addition, Shyness and Sociability were positively related to activity in the periaqueductal gray region during humor processing. These findings are of potential clinical relevance regarding the early detection of childhood psychopathology. Previous data on humor processing in both adults and children furthermore suggest that intelligence (IQ) supports incongruity detection and resolution, whereas mirth and associated brain activity diminishes with increasing age. Here, we found that increasing age and IQ were linked with stronger activity to humor in brain areas implicated in the cognitive component of humor. Such data suggest that humor processing undergoes developmental changes and is moderated by higher IQ scores, both factors likely improving incongruity detection

  5. Sensory processing in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Relationship with non-verbal IQ, autism severity and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Cervera, Pilar; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gemma; Fernández-Andrés, Maria-Inmaculada; Tárraga-Mínguez, Raul

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze in a sample of children with ASD the relationship between sensory processing, social participation and praxis impairments and some of the child's characteristics, such as non-verbal IQ, severity of ASD symptoms and the number of ADHD symptoms (inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity), both in the home and main-classroom environments. Participants were the parents and teachers of 41 children with ASD from 5 to 8 years old (M=6.09). They completed the Sensory Processing Measure (SPM) to evaluate sensory processing, social participation and praxis; the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale (GARS-2) to evaluate autism severity; and a set of items (the DSM-IV-TR criteria) to evaluate the number of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in the child. Non-verbal IQ - measured by the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test - did not show a relationship with any of the SPM variables. The SPM variables were significant predictors of autism severity and had similar weights in the two environments. In the case of ADHD symptoms, the SPM variables had a greater weight in the home than in the classroom environment, and they were significant predictors of both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity - especially inattention - only in the family context. The moderate association between inattention and auditory processing found in the main-classroom suggests the possible utility of certain measures aimed to simplify any classroom's acoustic environment.

  6. Does Age Moderate the Effect of IQ on the Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities during Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Data from the national standardization of the French version of the WISC-III were analyzed to determine when during childhood the IQ-related process of differentiation appears and how the strength of the relationships among subtests evolves with age in low- and high-IQ groups. Indeed, some recent studies suggest that age might moderate the effect…

  7. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  8. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  9. Refractive error, IQ and reading ability: a longitudinal study from age seven to 11.

    PubMed

    Williams, S M; Sanderson, G F; Share, D L; Silva, P A

    1988-12-01

    Children from a population sample whose cycloplegic refractive errors included myopia, pre-myopia and hypermetropia were compared on measures of IQ and reading with a group of children without significance refractive errors. At age 11 both those with myopia and with pre-myopia had increased verbal and performance IQ, while those with hypermetropia had slightly reduced verbal and performance IQ, in comparison with the children without refractive errors. The differences in verbal IQ were not attributable simply to earlier differences, but the differences in performance IQ were attributable to earlier differences. No significant differences in reading scores were found at either age. It is concluded that differing abilities of myopic and other children at age 11 are not fully explained by differences in family background or in pre-existing ability.

  10. The association between sleep spindles and IQ in healthy school-age children.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Reut; Wise, Merrill S; Frenette, Sonia; Knäauper, Bärbel; Boom, Alice; Fontil, Laura; Carrier, Julie

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sleep is associated with IQ measures in children, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. An association between sleep spindles and IQ has been found in adults, but only two previous studies have explored this topic in children. The goal of this study was to examine whether sleep spindle frequency, amplitude, duration and/or density were associated with performance on the perceptual reasoning, verbal comprehension, working memory, and processing speed subscales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV). We recruited 29 typically developing children 7-11 years of age. We used portable polysomnography to document sleep architecture in the natural home environment and evaluated IQ. We found that lower sleep spindle frequency was associated with better performance on the perceptual reasoning and working memory WISC-IV scales, but that sleep spindle amplitude, duration and density were not associated with performance on the IQ test.

  11. The Relationship between Age and IQ in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searcy, Yvonne M.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Rose, Fredric E.; Klima, Edward S.; Bavar, Nasim; Korenberg, Julie R.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between age and IQ was evaluated in a cross-sectional sample of 80 individuals with Williams syndrome (17 to 52 years). The relationship between age and WAIS-R subtest scores was such that increases and decreases in raw scores occurred at a rate sufficient to maintain stability of age-corrected scaled scores, indicating a…

  12. Face and object discrimination in autism, and relationship to IQ and age.

    PubMed

    Pallett, Pamela M; Cohen, Shereen J; Dobkins, Karen R

    2014-05-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast, spatial frequency make-up). Participants with ASD exhibited slight, non-significant impairments in discrimination sensitivity for faces, yet significantly enhanced discrimination sensitivity for objects. The ASD group also showed a protracted development of face and object inversion effects. Finally, for ASD participants, face sensitivity improved with increasing IQ while object sensitivity improved with age. By contrast, for controls, face sensitivity improved with age, but neither face nor object sensitivity was influenced by IQ. These findings suggest that individuals with ASD follow a qualitatively different path in the development of face and object processing abilities.

  13. Age Differences within Secular IQ Trends: An Individual Growth Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J.; Scullin, Matthew H.

    2005-01-01

    Age differences within the yo-yo trend in IQ, caused when aging norms that produce inflated scores are replaced with new norms, were examined using longitudinal WISC, WISC-R and WISC-III records of students tested for special education services from 10 school districts. Descriptive and individual growth modeling analyses revealed that while the…

  14. Brief Report: Concurrent Validity of the Leiter-R and KBIT-2 Scales of Nonverbal Intelligence for Children with Autism and Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy; Raggio, Donald J.; May, Warren

    2012-01-01

    The concurrent validity of the KBIT-2 Nonverbal IQ and Leiter-R Brief IQ was evaluated for two groups of children: those with high functioning autism and those with language impairments without autism. Fifty-three children between the ages of 4 and 13 years of age participated in the study. The correlation between the scales was large (r = 0.62)…

  15. WAIS-III IQs, Horn's Theory, and Generational Changes from Young Adulthood to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2001-01-01

    Examined age changes in intellectual ability in the range from 16 to 89 years through 2 studies that involved IQs on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Results are interpreted in the context of the fluid-crystallized intelligence theory of J. Horn. Studies used WAIS-III standardization data for 2,450 adults and longitudinal data…

  16. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  17. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  18. Development of Non-Verbal Intellectual Capacity in School-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits, D. W.; Ketelaar, M.; Gorter, J. W.; van Schie, P. E.; Becher, J. G.; Lindeman, E.; Jongmans, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with cerebral palsy (CP) are at greater risk for a limited intellectual development than typically developing children. Little information is available which children with CP are most at risk. This study aimed to describe the development of non-verbal intellectual capacity of school-age children with CP and to examine the…

  19. Umbilical cord androgens and estrogens in relation to verbal and nonverbal abilities at age 10 in the general population

    PubMed Central

    Keelan, Jeffrey A.; Russell-Smith, Suzanna N.; Hickey, Martha; Maybery, Murray T.; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2017-01-01

    Sex differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities are a contentious area of research. Prenatal steroids have been shown to have masculinizing effects on the brain that may affect the development of nonverbal and verbal abilities in later life. The current study examined a wide range of biologically active sex steroids (both androgens and estrogens) in umbilical cord blood at birth in a large pregnancy cohort in relation to performance on nonverbal (Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices) and verbal (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3 and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-III) measures at age 10 years. Overall, Androgen and Estrogen composites in cord blood were not found to be predictive of performance on verbal and nonverbal measures at age 10. These data suggest that late gestation sex steroids do not exert a major effect on nonverbal and verbal abilities in middle childhood. PMID:28278304

  20. IQ in Childhood and the Metabolic Syndrome in Middle Age: Extended Follow-Up of the 1946 British Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Marcus; Black, Stephanie; Mishra, Gita; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Batty, David G.

    2009-01-01

    IQ in early adulthood has been inversely associated with risk of the metabolic syndrome in midlife. We tested this association in the British 1946 birth cohort, which assessed IQ at age eight years and ascertained the metabolic syndrome at age 53 years based on modified (non-fasting blood) ATPIII criteria. Childhood IQ was inversely associated…

  1. Maternal Stress in Nonverbal Learning Disorder: A Comparison with Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Joseph, Guy-Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Maternal stress was assessed in mothers of children ages 8 to 11 years with learning disorders (LD). Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched children with reading disorders (RD; n = 31), children with nonverbal learning disorders (NVLD; n = 21), and typically developing control participants (n = 23) participated. Mothers of children with LD reported higher…

  2. In the ear of the beholder: how age shapes emotion processing in nonverbal vocalizations.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Alves, Tiago; Scott, Sophie K; Castro, São Luís

    2014-02-01

    It is well established that emotion recognition of facial expressions declines with age, but evidence for age-related differences in vocal emotions is more limited. This is especially true for nonverbal vocalizations such as laughter, sobs, or sighs. In this study, 43 younger adults (M = 22 years) and 43 older ones (M = 61.4 years) provided multiple emotion ratings of nonverbal emotional vocalizations. Contrasting with previous research, which often includes only one positive emotion (happiness) versus several negative ones, we examined 4 positive and 4 negative emotions: achievement/triumph, amusement, pleasure, relief, anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. We controlled for hearing loss and assessed general cognitive decline, cognitive control, verbal intelligence, working memory, current affect, emotion regulation, and personality. Older adults were less sensitive than younger ones to the intended vocal emotions, as indicated by decrements in ratings on the intended emotion scales and accuracy. These effects were similar for positive and negative emotions, and they were independent of age-related differences in cognitive, affective, and personality measures. Regression analyses revealed that younger and older participants' responses could be predicted from the acoustic properties of the temporal, intensity, fundamental frequency, and spectral profile of the vocalizations. The two groups were similarly efficient in using the acoustic cues, but there were differences in the patterns of emotion-specific predictors. This study suggests that ageing produces specific changes on the processing of nonverbal vocalizations. That decrements were not attenuated for positive emotions indicates that they cannot be explained by a positivity effect in older adults.

  3. IQ at age 12 following a history of institutional care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Almas, Alisa N; Degnan, Kathryn A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2016-11-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12 years of age in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized clinical trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Of the original 136 children in the study, 107 were tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. Results revealed continued benefit from the intervention through age 12, with 12-year-old children placed in foster care scoring significantly higher on full-scale IQ compared to their peers who received prolonged institutional care. Longitudinal IQ data revealed 2 IQ profiles from early to late childhood. Attachment security emerged as a significant predictor of a profile of stable, typical IQ scores over time. We demonstrate the continued importance of foster care intervention and the negative effects of severe, early psychosocial deprivation on IQ into late childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. IQ of four-year-olds who go on to develop dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F; Maassen, Ben; Krikhaar, Evelien; Plakas, Anna; van der Leij, Aryan

    2014-01-01

    Do children who go on to develop dyslexia show normal verbal and nonverbal development before reading onset? According to the aptitude-achievement discrepancy model, dyslexia is defined as a discrepancy between intelligence and reading achievement. One of the underlying assumptions is that the general cognitive development of children who fail to learn to read has been normal. The current study tests this assumption. In addition, we investigated whether possible IQ deficits are uniquely related to later reading or are also related to arithmetic. Four-year-olds (N = 212) with and without familial risk for dyslexia were assessed on 10 IQ subtests. Reading and arithmetic skills were measured 4 years later, at the end of Grade 2. Relative to the controls, the at-risk group without dyslexia had subtle impairments only in the verbal domain, whereas the at-risk group with dyslexia lagged behind across IQ tasks. Nonverbal IQ was associated with both reading and arithmetic, whereas verbal IQ was uniquely related to later reading. The children who went on to develop dyslexia performed relatively poorly in both verbal and nonverbal abilities at age 4, which challenges the discrepancy model. Furthermore, we discuss possible causal and epiphenomenal models explaining the links between early IQ and later reading.

  5. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  6. IQ testing

    MedlinePlus

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  7. Specific language and reading skills in school-aged children and adolescents are associated with prematurity after controlling for IQ.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eliana S; Yeatman, Jason D; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M

    2011-04-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N=100) included 9-16-year old children born before 36 weeks gestation and weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n=65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n=35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β=-.27, p<.05, R(2)=.07, verbal memory, β=.31, p<.05, R(2)=.09, and reading comprehension, β=.28, p<.05, R(2)=.08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-aged children and adolescents born preterm.

  8. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and IQ. Participants from two study sites (N = 100) included 9–16 year old children born before 36 weeks gestation weighing less than 2500 grams (preterm group, n = 65) compared to children born at 37 weeks gestation or more (full-term group, n = 35). Children born preterm had significantly lower scores than full-term controls on Performance IQ, Verbal IQ, receptive and expressive language skills, syntactic comprehension, linguistic processing speed, verbal memory, decoding, and reading comprehension but not on receptive vocabulary. Using MANCOVA, we found that SES, IQ, and prematurity all contributed to the variance in scores on a set of six non-overlapping measures of language and reading. Simple regression analyses found that after controlling for SES and Performance IQ, the degree of prematurity as measured by gestational age group was a significant predictor of linguistic processing speed, β = −.27, p < .05, R2 = .07, verbal memory, β = .31, p < .05, R2 = .09, and reading comprehension, β = .28, p < .05, R2 = .08, but not of receptive vocabulary, syntactic comprehension, or decoding. The language and reading domains where prematurity had a direct effect can be classified as fluid as opposed to crystallized functions and should be monitored in school-age children and adolescents born preterm. PMID:21195100

  9. Specific Language Impairment, Nonverbal IQ, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Autism Spectrum Disorder, Cochlear Implants, Bilingualism, and Dialectal Variants: Defining the Boundaries, Clarifying Clinical Conditions, and Sorting Out Causes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this research forum article is to provide an overview of a collection of invited articles on the topic “specific language impairment (SLI) in children with concomitant health conditions or nonmainstream language backgrounds.” Topics include SLI, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorder, cochlear implants, bilingualism, and dialectal language learning contexts. Method The topic is timely due to current debates about the diagnosis of SLI. An overarching comparative conceptual framework is provided for comparisons of SLI with other clinical conditions. Comparisons of SLI in children with low-normal or normal nonverbal IQ illustrate the unexpected outcomes of 2 × 2 comparison designs. Results Comparative studies reveal unexpected relationships among speech, language, cognitive, and social dimensions of children's development as well as precise ways to identify children with SLI who are bilingual or dialect speakers. Conclusions The diagnosis of SLI is essential for elucidating possible causal pathways of language impairments, risks for language impairments, assessments for identification of language impairments, linguistic dimensions of language impairments, and long-term outcomes. Although children's language acquisition is robust under high levels of risk, unexplained individual variations in language acquisition lead to persistent language impairments. PMID:26502218

  10. Evidence of nonverbal learning disability among learning disabled boys with sensory integrative dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Humphries, T; Krekewich, K; Snider, L

    1996-06-01

    The presumed sensorimotor basis of the nonverbal learning disability syndrome was investigated among 90 learning disabled boys (M age = 6 yr., 8 mo., SD = 12.2 mo.) with sensory integrative dysfunction. The majority of the boys were Caucasian, lower to middle socioeconomic status, and from urban, English-speaking families. 14% (n = 13) of the boys satisfied core discrepancy criteria for nonverbal learning disability, including both a significantly higher Wechsler Verbal than Performance IQ and a higher standard score in Reading than Arithmetic on the Wide Range Achievement Test. Compared with a control group of 19 boys from the same sample who had no significant discrepancies, boys with nonverbal learning disability had significantly greater weaknesses in space visualization and visuomotor coordination. As predicted, rote verbal memory and syntactical strengths were also exhibited by boys with nonverbal learning disability, but the two groups did not differ significantly.

  11. Performance on Piaget-Type Tasks of High-IQ, Average-IQ, and Low-IQ Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta

    The relative effects of chronological age, mental age, IQ or Piagetian task performance were investigated among 143 Ss of high, average, and low IQ. Two kinds of group comparisons were made on fifteen tasks: (1) groups of the same chronological age, but different mental age and IQ, and (2) groups of the same mental age, but different chronological…

  12. Increasing Social Interaction Using Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching with Nonverbal School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Jessica H.; Davis, Barbara L.; Davis, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Children with autism display marked deficits in initiating and maintaining social interaction. Intervention using play routines can create a framework for developing and maintaining social interaction between these children and their communication partners. Method: Six nonverbal 5- to 8-year-olds with autism were taught to engage in…

  13. Foetal Antiepileptic Drug Exposure and Verbal versus Non-Verbal Abilities at Three Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meador, Kimford J.; Baker, Gus A.; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported that foetal valproate exposure impairs intelligence quotient. In this follow-up investigation, we examined dose-related effects of foetal antiepileptic drug exposure on verbal and non-verbal cognitive measures. This investigation is an ongoing prospective observational multi-centre study in the USA and UK, which has enrolled…

  14. Imagery deficits in nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Cornoldi, C; Rigoni, F; Tressoldi, P E; Vio, C

    1999-01-01

    This study reports the observations gathered from 11 children referred to consulting services because of learning difficulties at school and diagnosed with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD). These children had an average verbal IQ, but a WISC-R performance IQ lower than the verbal IQ by at least 15 points and experienced difficulties especially in mathematics and drawing. The children completed a battery of four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery: a memory task composed of pictures and their positions (Pictures task), a task that required them to memorize the positions filled in a matrix (Passive Matrix task), a task that required them to imagine a pathway along a matrix (Active Matrix task) and a task that required them to learn groups made up of three words, using a visual interactive imagery strategy (TV task). In comparison to a control group of 49 children, children with NVLD scored lower in all the tasks, showing deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. By contrasting subgroups of children of different ages in the control group, it was possible to show that some tasks did not show a clear developmental trend. Thus the deficits shown by the children with NVLD cannot simply be attributed to a developmental delay of these children, but seem to reflect a more severe disability.

  15. Patterns of Change in Nonverbal Cognition in Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Channell, Marie Moore; Thurman, Angela John; Kover, Sara Teresa; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine longitudinal change in nonverbal cognitive abilities across adolescence for 20 males with Down syndrome (DS). We used hierarchical linear modeling to examine the rate of change in performance on the subtests of the Leiter-R Brief IQ across four annual time points and to determine the relation between maternal IQ and level and rate of change in performance. Results indicated no significant change in IQ (standard scores) with age in the sample, suggesting IQ stability during adolescence for individuals with DS, although several participants performed at floor level on the standard scores for the Leiter-R, limiting interpretation. Growth scores, however, provide a metric of absolute ability level, allow for the examination of change in Leiter-R performance in all participants, and minimize floor effects. Results from the analysis of growth scores indicated significant gain in absolute nonverbal cognitive ability levels (growth score values) over time for the adolescents with DS, although the growth varied by subdomain. Maternal IQ did not explain variability in cognitive performance or change in that performance over time in our sample of adolescents with DS. PMID:25112795

  16. Brighter children? The association between seasonality of birth and child IQ in a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Grootendorst-van Mil, Nina H; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Objective Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and biological factors in the association between season of birth and child IQ. Design In a prenatally recruited birth cohort (born in 2002–2006), we examined the association between season of birth and non-verbal IQ at age 6 years among 6034 children. We explored how adjusting for socioeconomic status and maternal IQ, childbirth outcomes, pregnancy vitamin D status, nutritional intake, exposure to infections, and child age relative to peers in class changed the relation between season of birth and child IQ. Results We found that spring birth was associated with lower non-verbal IQ (estimate: more than 1 point; β−1.24 (95% CI −2.31 to −0.17), p=0.02; seasonal trend β−0.40 (95% CI −0.74 to −0.07), p=0.02) than birth in summer. Adjustment for different covariates led to a substantial reduction (−65.0% change, in a seasonal trend analysis) of this association. In particular, sociodemographic factors and maternal IQ (−10.0% and −22.5% change, respectively) contributed. Conclusions Season of birth is an indicator of many underlying factors related to child IQ. The observed effects on IQ were small and therefore not of clinical significance. PMID:28213594

  17. Comparison of Performance on Two Nonverbal Intelligence Tests by Adolescents with and without Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Carol A.; Gilbert, Erin

    2008-01-01

    Definitions of specific language impairment (SLI), for both research and clinical purposes, often state that nonverbal IQ scores must be within normal limits. This use of nonverbal IQ has been criticized on several grounds, including lack of equivalence between tests. In the current study, a sample of 204 adolescents with and without language…

  18. Cognitive Processing Profiles of School-Age Children Who Meet Low-Achievement, IQ-Discrepancy, or Dual Criteria for Underachievement in Oral Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Santen, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive processing profiles of school-age children (ages 7 to 17) who met criteria for underachievement in oral reading accuracy based on three different methods: 1) use of a regression-based IQ-achievement discrepancy only (REGonly), 2) use of a low-achievement cutoff only (LAonly), and 3) use of a…

  19. Nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Volden, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is described as a subtype of specific learning disability where the source of the disability is a difficulty in processing nonverbal information. The child with NLD presents with problems in visual, spatial, and tactile perception but with strengths in rote verbal skills. Traditionally, these children were recognized by their difficulties in arithmetic which presented a stark contrast with their strengths in spelling and decoding text. They also exhibited a split between their verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores with the VIQ being significantly higher than PIQ. Over time, however, diagnostic criteria have evolved and the broadened definition of the NLD syndrome has led many to question the utility and uniqueness of the NLD diagnosis. In addition, shifting diagnostic standards have made research results difficult to replicate. In short, the research to date leaves many unanswered questions about (1) the definition of the NLD syndrome, (2) the pervasiveness of the academic, social and psychopathological difficulties, (3) the source of the NLD syndrome, and (4) the degree to which it overlaps with other conditions. This chapter outlines a brief history of the NLD syndrome, how it is currently conceptualized, and some of the current debate about the unanswered questions above.

  20. IQ Decline Following Early Unilateral Brain Injury: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Susan C.; Kraus, Ruth; Alexander, Erin; Suriyakham, Linda Whealton; Huttenlocher, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    We examine whether children with early unilateral brain injury show an IQ decline over the course of development. Fifteen brain injured children were administered an IQ test once before age 7 and again several years later. Post-7 IQ scores were significantly lower than pre-7 IQ scores. In addition, pre-7 IQ scores were lower for children with…

  1. IQ in Early Adulthood, Socioeconomic Position, and Unintentional Injury Mortality by Middle Age: A Cohort Study of More Than 1 Million Swedish Men

    PubMed Central

    Batty, G. David; Gale, Catharine R.; Tynelius, Per; Deary, Ian J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated the little-examined association between intelligence (IQ) and injury mortality and, for the first known time, explored the extent to which IQ might explain established socioeconomic inequalities in injury mortality. A nationwide cohort of 1,116,442 Swedish men who underwent IQ testing at about 18 years of age was followed for mortality experience for an average of 22.6 years. In age-adjusted analyses in which IQ scores were classified into 4 groups, relative to the highest scoring category, the hazard ratio in the lowest was elevated for all injury types: poisonings (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.25, 7.97), fire (HR = 4.39, 95% CI: 2.51, 7.77), falls (HR = 3.17, 95% CI: 2.19, 4.59), drowning (HR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.85, 5.39), and road injury (HR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.91, 2.47). Dose-response effects across the full IQ range were evident (P-trend < 0.001). Control for potential covariates, including socioeconomic position, had little impact on these gradients. When socioeconomic disadvantage—indexed by parental and subject's own occupational social class—was the exposure of interest, IQ explained a sizable portion (19%–86%) of the relation with injury mortality. These findings suggest that IQ may have an important role both in the etiology of injuries and in explaining socioeconomic inequalities in injury mortality. PMID:19147741

  2. Age of second language acquisition affects nonverbal conflict processing in children: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Mohades, Seyede Ghazal; Struys, Esli; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Baeken, Chris; Van De Craen, Piet; Luypaert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background In their daily communication, bilinguals switch between two languages, a process that involves the selection of a target language and minimization of interference from a nontarget language. Previous studies have uncovered the neural structure in bilinguals and the activation patterns associated with performing verbal conflict tasks. One question that remains, however is whether this extra verbal switching affects brain function during nonverbal conflict tasks. Methods In this study, we have used fMRI to investigate the impact of bilingualism in children performing two nonverbal tasks involving stimulus–stimulus and stimulus–response conflicts. Three groups of 8–11-year-old children – bilinguals from birth (2L1), second language learners (L2L), and a control group of monolinguals (1L1) – were scanned while performing a color Simon and a numerical Stroop task. Reaction times and accuracy were logged. Results Compared to monolingual controls, bilingual children showed higher behavioral congruency effect of these tasks, which is matched by the recruitment of brain regions that are generally used in general cognitive control, language processing or to solve language conflict situations in bilinguals (caudate nucleus, posterior cingulate gyrus, STG, precuneus). Further, the activation of these areas was found to be higher in 2L1 compared to L2L. Conclusion The coupling of longer reaction times to the recruitment of extra language-related brain areas supports the hypothesis that when dealing with language conflicts the specialization of bilinguals hampers the way they can process with nonverbal conflicts, at least at early stages in life. PMID:25328840

  3. Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension, Childhood IQ, and Cognitive Ability in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adele M.; MacGillivray, Thomas J.; Henderson, Ross D.; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Methods Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Results Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. Conclusions The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing. PMID:25816017

  4. Kinematic Movement Strategies in Primary School Children with 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Compared to Age- and IQ-Matched Controls during Visuo-Manual Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aken, Katrijn; Swillen, Ann; Beirinckx, Marc; Janssens, Luc; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien

    2010-01-01

    The present study focused on the mechanism subserving the production of kinematic patterns in 21 children with 22q11.2DS (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.05 [plus or minus] 10.2) and 21 age- and IQ-matched control children (mean age=9.6 [plus or minus] 1.9; mean FSIQ=73.38 [plus or minus] 12.0) when performing a visuo-manual…

  5. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed.

  6. Differential Use of Paralanguage and Nonverbal Behavior by Tutors as a Function of Relative Age of the Student. Technical Report No. 491.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plazewski, Joseph G.; Allen, Vernon L.

    Twenty-four college students served as tutors in an examination of the use of paralanguage and nonverbal behavior in presenting a lesson intended for an adult of the tutor's age and for a child. Each subject was tape recorded twice while reading verbatim a lesson from a grade school textbook. Before each taping, the subject was told that the…

  7. Prebiotics and age, but not probiotics affect the transformation of 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) by fecal microbiota - An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Czyżowska, Agata; Huben, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Kuberski, Sławomir; Otlewska, Anna; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2016-06-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are carcinogens which are formed in meat cooked using high-temperature methods. The human gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota plays a crucial role in maintaining health in humans of different ages, and especially in the elderly. However, the GI microbiota, whose metabolism and composition changes with age, may also be responsible for the activation of mutagenic substances reaching the colon with diet. Probiotics and prebiotics are promising in terms of reducing the destructive effects of HAAs. The aim of the study was to determine if fecal microbiota derived from the feces of 27 volunteers: infants (up to 18 months), adults (aged 23-39 years), the sub-elderly (aged 64-65 years), and the elderly (aged 76-87 years), and the presence of probiotics or prebiotics, affected the transformation of IQ (2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) to 7-OH-IQ (2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-7-one). The compounds were identified using LC-MS(n), NMR, and FTIR. Their genotoxicity was compared in the comet assay. Individual strains capable of IQ transformation were also identified. 7-OH-IQ was detected in six persons (two children and four elderly individuals). The degree of IQ conversion ranged from 26% (4-month-old girl) to 94% (81-year-old woman) of the initial quantity. Four Enterococcus isolates: two Enterococcus faecium and two Enterococcus faecalis strains, as well as one Clostridium difficile strain (LOCK 1030, from the culture collection) converted IQ to 7-OH-IQ. The genotoxicity of samples containing 7-OH-IQ was even three times higher (P < 0.05) than those with IQ and was correlated with the degree of IQ conversion and 7-OH-IQ concentration.

  8. Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; McCallum, R. Steve

    This kit presents all components of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), a newly developed instrument designed to measure the general intelligence and cognitive abilities of children and adolescents (ages 5 through 17) who may be disadvantaged by traditional verbal and language-loaded measures such as children with speech, language,…

  9. Relationships among aging, IQ, and intracranial volume in alcoholics and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Schottenbauer, Michele A; Momenan, Reza; Kerick, Michael; Hommer, Daniel W

    2007-05-01

    The current article examined the relationships among aging, intelligence, intracranial volume, and brain shrinkage in alcoholics and nonalcoholic controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure intracranial and cerebral volumes in 146 subjects with alcohol use disorders and 42 comparison subjects who were not alcoholic. The authors' findings show that performance on Block Design decreases as alcoholics age, and this decrease is predicted by brain shrinkage. This is consistent with a process of cumulative brain damage related to alcohol use. However, the authors' data also show that vocabulary does not decrease with age and is correlated with premorbid brain size as measured by intracranial volume, suggesting that lower verbal ability precedes heavy alcohol use and may be a risk factor for alcoholism.

  10. The Geography of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelade, Garry A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the distribution of national IQ in geographical space. When the heritability of IQ and its dependence on eco-social factors are considered from a global perspective, they suggest that the IQs of neighboring countries should be similar. Using previously published IQ data for 113 nations (Lynn, R., & Vanhanen, T., (2006). IQ and…

  11. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  12. National Drug IQ Challenge

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Drug IQ Challenge 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge Print Get Started! Correct/Total Questions: Score: ... accessible version of the 2016 National Drug & Alcohol IQ Challenge , [PDF, 637KB]. Download an accessible version of ...

  13. Developmental right-hemisphere syndrome: clinical spectrum of the nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Gross-Tsur, V; Shalev, R S; Manor, O; Amir, N

    1995-02-01

    We report the clinical characteristics of the developmental right-hemisphere syndrome (DRHS), a nonverbal learning disability, in 20 children (9 girls and 11 boys; mean age = 9.5 years) who also manifested attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), severe graphomotor problems, and marked slowness of performance. Diagnostic criteria for this study included (a) emotional and interpersonal difficulties; (b) paralinguistic communication problems; (c) impaired visuospatial skills, verbal IQ > performance IQ, and verbal IQ > or = 85; and either (d) dyscalculia or (e) neurological signs on the left side of the body. In this group, verbal IQ was significantly higher than performance IQ (106.6 +/- 13.0 vs. 85.1 +/- 13.1, respectively, p < .01). Arithmetic was the lowest score among the verbal subtests (7.8 +/- 3.5, p < .01) and Geometrical Design was the lowest score among the performance subtests (5.8 +/- 1.7). Thirteen children had soft neurological signs on the left side of the body. ADHD was seen in all 20 children, marked slowness of performance in 16, and severe graphomotor problems in 18. The latter two features have not been previously described as part of DRHS.

  14. Parenting Practices at 24 to 47 Months and IQ at Age 8: Effect-Measure Modification by Infant Temperament.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shiau Yun; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Gregory, Tess; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lynch, John W; Smithers, Lisa G

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive development might be influenced by parenting practices and child temperament. We examined whether the associations between parental warmth, control and intelligence quotient (IQ) may be heightened among children in difficult temperament. Participants were from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 7,044). Temperament at 6 months was measured using the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire and classified into 'easy' and 'difficult'. Parental warmth and control was measured at 24 to 47 months and both were classified into 2 groups using latent class analyses. IQ was measured at 8 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and dichotomized (<85 and ≥85) for analyzing effect-measure modification by temperament. Linear regression adjusted for multiple confounders and temperament showed lower parental warmth was weakly associated with lower IQ score [β = -0.52 (95% CI 1.26, 0.21)], and higher parental control was associated with lower IQ score [β = -2.21 (-2.95, -1.48)]. Stratification by temperament showed no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children [risk ratio (RR) = 0.97 95% CI 0.65, 1.45)] but an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.12 95% CI 0.95, 1.32) when parental warmth was low. There was also no increased risk of having low IQ in temperamentally difficult children (RR = 1.02 95% CI 0.69, 1.53) but there was an increased risk among temperamentally easy children (RR = 1.30 95% CI 1.11, 1.53) when parental control was high. For both parental warmth and control, there was some evidence of negative effect-measure modification by temperament on the risk-difference scale and the risk-ratio scale. It may be more appropriate to provide parenting interventions as a universal program rather than targeting children with difficult temperament.

  15. Specific Language and Reading Skills in School-Aged Children and Adolescents Are Associated with Prematurity after Controlling for IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eliana S.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Luna, Beatriz; Feldman, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies of long-term outcomes of children born preterm consistently show low intelligence quotient (IQ) and visual-motor impairment, studies of their performance in language and reading have found inconsistent results. In this study, we examined which specific language and reading skills were associated with prematurity independent of the…

  16. Further Evidence on the Relation Between Age of Separation and Similarity in IQ Among Pairs of Separated Identical Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberg, Steven G.; Johnson, Ronald C.

    Ronald C. Johnson argued that if early environmental stimulation or deprivation has a significant effect on intellectual ability, then individuals who are genetically identical and who are exposed to a common early environment should resemble one another more closely in IQ than similar individuals who have not shared a common environment. Johnson…

  17. IQ at Age 12 Following a History of Institutional Care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12…

  18. Verbal Strategies and Nonverbal Cues in School-Age Children with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichorn, Naomi; Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Scheuer, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considerable evidence suggests that performance across a variety of cognitive tasks is effectively supported by the use of verbal and nonverbal strategies. Studies exploring the usefulness of such strategies in children with specific language impairment (SLI) are scarce and report inconsistent findings. Aims: To examine the effects of…

  19. Responses to Nonverbal Behaviour of Dynamic Virtual Characters in High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Caroline; Bente, Gary; Gawronski, Astrid; Schilbach, Leonhard; Vogeley, Kai

    2010-01-01

    We investigated feelings of involvement evoked by nonverbal behaviour of dynamic virtual characters in 20 adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) and high IQ as well as 20 IQ-matched control subjects. The effects of diagnostic group showed that subjects with autism experienced less "contact" and "urge" to establish contact across conditions and…

  20. Language performance in siblings of nonverbal children with autism.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-05-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children - SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27 typically developing children (SIBS-TD; 16 boys) matched to the SIBS-ANV on age, family background, socioeconomic status and type of school they attended. Significant IQ differences, as well as language differences as measured on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF), emerged between SIBS-ANV and SIBS-TD. However, differences in the language scores mostly disappeared when PIQ and FSIQ were controlled for. Furthermore, grammatical analysis of spontaneous speech samples produced in the course of testing did not reveal any significant differences between the groups. These results add to recent work suggesting that language deficits may not be part of the Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP). It further suggests that the cognitive deficit characteristic of nonverbal people with autism may be familial.

  1. IQ as moderator of terminal decline in perceptual and motor speed, spatial, and verbal ability: Testing the cognitive reserve hypothesis in a population-based sample followed from age 70 until death.

    PubMed

    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Skoog, Ingmar; Johansson, Boo

    2017-03-01

    Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [-0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children and Adolescents with Fragile X Syndrome: Within-Syndrome Differences and Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDuffie, Andrea; Abbeduto, Leonard; Lewis, Pamela; Kover, Sara; Kim, Jee-Seon; Weber, Ann; Brown, W. Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) was used to examine diagnostic profiles and age-related changes in autism symptoms for a group of verbal children and adolescents who had fragile X syndrome, with and without autism. After controlling for nonverbal IQ, we found statistically significant between-group differences for lifetime and…

  3. Birth Order, Sibling IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    The differential impact of birth order and IQ on sibling roles were examined with particular interest focused on achievement outcomes. Subjects were a stratified sample of 37 pairs of near-in-age siblings, all within the normal range in personality and IQ, but differing significantly in scores on the Slosson IQ Test. Results indicate that when the…

  4. IQ and Crime: Dull Behavior and/or Misspecified Theory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Brunschot, Erin Gibbs; Brannigan, Augustine

    1995-01-01

    In response to "The Bell Curve," notes that the effects of IQ on crime and delinquency are mediated by gender and age in a fashion that is not readily explained by a reduction to genetic differences. Discusses possible interrelationships among IQ, delinquency, and school performance, and suggests that the causal link between IQ and…

  5. Predicting Vocabulary Growth in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment: A Longitudinal Study from 2;6 to 21 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; Hoffman, Lesa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) often have vocabulary impairments. This study evaluates longitudinal growth in a latent trait of receptive vocabulary in affected and unaffected children ages 2;6 (years;months) to 21 years and evaluates as possible predictors maternal education, child gender, and nonverbal IQ. Method: A…

  6. Nonverbal social interaction skills of children with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the break. Younger and older children with and without LD did not differ significantly in their nonverbal responses, but there was a statistically significant difference in terms of younger children's nonverbal initiations. Younger children with LD exhibited significantly fewer nonverbal initiations than younger children without LD. Findings are discussed and suggestions are made for further research.

  7. The developmental etiology of high IQ.

    PubMed

    Brant, Angela M; Haberstick, Brett C; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Hewitt, John K

    2009-07-01

    The genetic and environmental trends in IQ development were assessed in 483 same-sex twin pairs in the Colorado longitudinal twin study using maximum-likelihood model-fitting analysis. The twins were assessed periodically from ages 1 to 16. Results show a decreasing influence of shared environment and an increasing influence of heritability across development, with large and increasing age to age stability of genetic influences. Non-shared environment contributes almost exclusively to age to age change. Similar analyses were conducted designating the top 15% of the sample as having high IQ at each age. The developmental etiology of high IQ did not significantly differ from that found for the continuous measure in this relatively novel analysis. These results demonstrate early stability in etiological influences on IQ and have potential implications for gene-finding efforts, suggesting that samples selected for high IQ can be used to find genetic variation that will be applicable to the full range of the IQ distribution, although conclusive demonstration that the same genes are indeed involved was beyond the scope of this study.

  8. Vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy and child's IQ at age 8: a Mendelian randomization study in the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lawlor, Debbie A; Taylor, Amy E; Gunnell, David J; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ness, Andrew R; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Ring, Susan M; Emmett, Pauline M; Smith, A David; Refsum, Helga; Pennell, Craig E; Brion, Marie-Jo; Smith, George Davey; Lewis, Sarah J

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 is essential for the development and maintenance of a healthy nervous system. Brain development occurs primarily in utero and early infancy, but the role of maternal vitamin B-12 status during pregnancy on offspring cognitive function is unclear. In this study we assessed the effect of vitamin B-12 status in well-nourished pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring in a UK birth cohort (ALSPAC). We then examined the association of SNPs in maternal genes FUT2 (rs492602) and TCN2 (rs1801198, rs9606756) that are related to plasma vitamin B-12, with offspring IQ. Observationally, there was a positive association between maternal vitamin B-12 intake and child's IQ that was markedly attenuated after adjustment for potential confounders (mean difference in offspring IQ score per doubling of maternal B-12 intake, before adjustment: 2.0 (95% CI 1.3, 2.8); after adjustment: 0.7 (95% CI -0.04, 1.4)). Maternal FUT2 was weakly associated with offspring IQ: mean difference in IQ per allele was 0.9 (95% CI 0.1, 1.6). The expected effect of maternal vitamin B-12 on offspring IQ, given the relationships between SNPs and vitamin B-12, and SNPs and IQ was consistent with the observational result. Our findings suggest that maternal vitamin B-12 may not have an important effect on offspring cognitive ability. However, further examination of this issue is warranted.

  9. Associations of Ethnicity and SES with IQ and Achievement in Spina Bifida Meningomyelocele

    PubMed Central

    Garnaat, Sarah L.; Myszka, Katherine A.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Dennis, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated whether the phenotypic pattern of higher verbal than nonverbal IQ in children with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM) is consistent across subgroups differing in ethnicity and SES. We also explored the relation of cognitive and academic performance. Methods Non-Hispanic White (n = 153) and Hispanic (n = 80) children with SBM received the Stanford Binet Test of Intelligence-IV and achievement subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson. Parents completed questionnaires assessing the family environment [socioeconomic status (SES), resources, and educational opportunities]. Results Multivariate analysis revealed that Hispanic children with lower SES had lower verbal than nonverbal scores. Hispanic children with higher SES and non-Hispanic White children demonstrated the reverse pattern. Verbal and nonverbal IQ interacted to predict reading and math performance. Conclusions Lower SES is associated with lower verbal IQ in economically disadvantaged Hispanic children with SBM. Academic achievement is largely correlated with verbal IQ, but children with lower verbal IQ may partially compensate with higher nonverbal ability. PMID:20150339

  10. Verbal and non-verbal intelligence changes in the teenage brain.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Sue; Richardson, Fiona M; Josse, Goulven; Thomas, Michael S C; Ellis, Caroline; Shakeshaft, Clare; Seghier, Mohamed L; Price, Cathy J

    2011-10-19

    Intelligence quotient (IQ) is a standardized measure of human intellectual capacity that takes into account a wide range of cognitive skills. IQ is generally considered to be stable across the lifespan, with scores at one time point used to predict educational achievement and employment prospects in later years. Neuroimaging allows us to test whether unexpected longitudinal fluctuations in measured IQ are related to brain development. Here we show that verbal and non-verbal IQ can rise or fall in the teenage years, with these changes in performance validated by their close correlation with changes in local brain structure. A combination of structural and functional imaging showed that verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by speech, whereas non-verbal IQ changed with grey matter in a region that was activated by finger movements. By using longitudinal assessments of the same individuals, we obviated the many sources of variation in brain structure that confound cross-sectional studies. This allowed us to dissociate neural markers for the two types of IQ and to show that general verbal and non-verbal abilities are closely linked to the sensorimotor skills involved in learning. More generally, our results emphasize the possibility that an individual's intellectual capacity relative to their peers can decrease or increase in the teenage years. This would be encouraging to those whose intellectual potential may improve, and would be a warning that early achievers may not maintain their potential.

  11. Nonverbal social communication and gesture control in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Stegmayer, Katharina; Sulzbacher, Jeanne; Vanbellingen, Tim; Müri, René; Strik, Werner; Bohlhalter, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia patients are severely impaired in nonverbal communication, including social perception and gesture production. However, the impact of nonverbal social perception on gestural behavior remains unknown, as is the contribution of negative symptoms, working memory, and abnormal motor behavior. Thus, the study tested whether poor nonverbal social perception was related to impaired gesture performance, gestural knowledge, or motor abnormalities. Forty-six patients with schizophrenia (80%), schizophreniform (15%), or schizoaffective disorder (5%) and 44 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and education were included. Participants completed 4 tasks on nonverbal communication including nonverbal social perception, gesture performance, gesture recognition, and tool use. In addition, they underwent comprehensive clinical and motor assessments. Patients presented impaired nonverbal communication in all tasks compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, performance in patients was highly correlated between tasks, not explained by supramodal cognitive deficits such as working memory. Schizophrenia patients with impaired gesture performance also demonstrated poor nonverbal social perception, gestural knowledge, and tool use. Importantly, motor/frontal abnormalities negatively mediated the strong association between nonverbal social perception and gesture performance. The factors negative symptoms and antipsychotic dosage were unrelated to the nonverbal tasks. The study confirmed a generalized nonverbal communication deficit in schizophrenia. Specifically, the findings suggested that nonverbal social perception in schizophrenia has a relevant impact on gestural impairment beyond the negative influence of motor/frontal abnormalities.

  12. Nonverbal Communication in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard A.

    1979-01-01

    School-related research is reviewed under seven categories of nonverbal communication: environmental factors, proxemics, kinesics, touching behavior, physical characteristics, paralanguage, and artifacts. (Author/MH)

  13. It is the examinee's IQ.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsinyi; Pan, Tianshu; Zhu, Jianjun

    2016-11-01

    In response to the question "Whose IQ is it?" raised by McDermott, Watkins, and Rhoad (2014), this study examined the same concern about assessor bias by applying hierarchical linear modeling to a large and representative standardization sample of 2,200 child records in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). When differences in child age, gender, ethnicity, parental education level, and some intellectual abilities were cojointly used as covariates to adjust for nonrandom assignment problems, the results revealed that the Level 2 assessor variance was trivial for Full Scale IQ and all WISC-IV scores, ranging from 1%-5%, with the only exception being the Comprehension subtest, which showed a moderate level of between-assessor variance (10%). Evidence shows that WISC-IV scores are valid measures of children's intellectual abilities, with no evidence showing harmful assessor bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Relationship of child IQ to parental IQ and education in children with fetal antiepileptic drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Cohen, Morris J; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2011-06-01

    Clinical trial designs need to control for genetic and environmental influences when examining cognitive outcomes in children for whom clinical considerations preclude randomization. However, the contributions of maternal and paternal IQ and education to pediatric cognitive outcomes are uncertain in disease populations. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Here, we examined the relationship of IQ and education in both parents to child IQ at age 3 years. IQ and education for both parents were statistically correlated to child IQ. However, paternal IQ and education were not significant after accounting for maternal IQ effects. Because maternal IQ and education are independently related to child cognitive outcome, both should be assessed in studies investigating the effects of fetal drug exposures or other environmental factors that could affect the child's cognitive outcome.

  15. Nonverbal Communication in "Friends"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2006-01-01

    This activity uses video clips from a popular sitcom, "Friends," to help students grasp the relational, rule-governed, and culture-specific nature of nonverbal communication. It opens students' eyes to nonverbal behaviors that are happening on a daily basis so that they not only master the knowledge but are able to apply it. While other popular…

  16. Nonverbal Communication Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leathers, Dale G.

    This book was designed to meet five specific criteria which allow development of a course parallel to the treatment of the book's subject matter, active student involvement in testing and developing their own nonverbal communication capacities, delineation and analysis of the functional capacity of different nonverbal communication systems, an…

  17. Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overmier, Mary; And Others

    After a brief description of the dimensions of nonverbal communication, this booklet presents 21 activities that deal with nonverbal communication. Activities in the booklet involve body movements (kinesics), facial expressions, eye movements, perception and use of space (proxemics), haptics (touch), paralinguistics (vocal elements that accompany…

  18. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  19. Was Michelangelo's IQ 180?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Jeffrey M.

    1979-01-01

    This reviewer finds that Lewis M. Terman's five-volume "Genetic Studies of Genius," published between 1925 and 1959, makes exaggerated claims for IQ scores as measures of natural ability. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Does the IQ God Exist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Linda S.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to "The Bell Curve" by arguing that IQ is merely a statistical fiction, an artificial construct not corresponding to any real entity. Discusses the "seductive statistical trap of factor analysis" as it relates to IQ tests, multiple intelligences, content and bias of IQ tests, lack of validity of IQ tests for individual…

  1. Does n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy increase the IQ of children at school age? Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Jacqueline F; Treyvaud, Karli; Yelland, Lisa N; Anderson, Peter J; Smithers, Lisa G; Gibson, Robert A; McPhee, Andrew J; Makrides, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite recommendations that pregnant women increase their docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) intake to support fetal brain development, a recent systematic review found a lack of high-quality data to support the long-term effects of DHA supplementation on children's neurodevelopment. Methods and analysis We will assess child neurodevelopment at 7 years of age in follow-up of a multicentre double-blind randomised controlled trial of DHA supplementation in pregnancy. In 2010–2012, n=2399 Australian women with a singleton pregnancy <21 weeks’ gestation were randomised to receive 3 capsules daily containing a total dose of 800 mg DHA/day or a vegetable oil placebo until birth. N=726 children from Adelaide (all n=97 born preterm, random sample of n=630 born at term) were selected for neurodevelopmental follow-up and n=638 (preterm n=85) are still enrolled at 7 years of age. At the 7-year follow-up, a psychologist will assess the primary outcome, IQ, with the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, Second Edition. Specific measures of executive functioning (Fruit Stroop and the Rey Complex Figure), attention (Test of Everyday Attention for Children), memory and learning (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test), language (Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, Fourth Edition) and basic educational skills (Wide Range Achievement Test, Fourth Edition) will also be administered. Caregivers will be asked to complete questionnaires measuring behaviour and executive functioning. Families, clinicians and research personnel are blinded to group assignment with the exception of families who requested unblinding prior to the follow-up. All analyses will be conducted according to the intention-to-treat principal. Ethics and dissemination All procedures will be approved by the relevant institutional ethics committees prior to start of the study. The results of this study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journal publications and academic presentations

  2. Neuropsychological, learning and psychosocial profile of primary school aged children with the velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11 deletion): evidence for a nonverbal learning disability?

    PubMed

    Swillen, A; Vandeputte, L; Cracco, J; Maes, B; Ghesquière, P; Devriendt, K; Fryns, J P

    1999-12-01

    In this exploratory study, the neuropsychological and learning profile of nine primary school age children with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCFS) was studied by systematic neuropsychological testing. In five out of nine children, the following profile was found: a VIQ-PIQ discrepancy (in favor of the VIQ), significantly better scores (.05 level) for reading (decoding) and spelling compared to arithmetic, deficient tactile-perceptual skills (difficulties mainly on the left side of the body), weak but not deficient visual-perceptual abilities, deficient visual-spatial skills, extremely poor psychomotor skills (gross motor skills more deficient than fine motor skills), problems with processing of new and complex material, poor visual attention, good auditory memory and relatively good language skills. These findings correspond to the pattern of neuropsychological assets and deficits that has been described for the syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) (Rourke, 1987, 1988, 1989, 1995). The psychosocial profile of all nine children with VCFS also correspond to that of children with NLD. Further studies on the relationship between cognitive function, behavior, psychiatric disorder and abnormalities in brain anatomy in young people with VCFS will be needed. In clinical practice, it is worthwhile exploring in greater depth the neuropsychological functions of children with VCFS to rule out NLD, since they may benefit from specific remediation following the learning principles of the NLD-treatment.

  3. Narrative retelling in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: is there a role for nonverbal temporal-sequencing skills?

    PubMed

    Johnels, Jakob Åsberg; Hagberg, Bibbi; Gillberg, Christopher; Miniscalco, Carmela

    2013-10-01

    Oral narrative retelling is often problematic for children with communicative and neurodevelopmental disorders. However, beyond a suggested role of language level, little is known about the basis of narrative performance. In this study we examine whether oral narrative retelling might be associated not just with language level but also with skills related to nonverbal narrative temporal sequencing. A diagnostically heterogeneous sample of Swedish-speaking children with a full scale IQ >70 was included in the study (N = 55; age 6-9 years). Narrative retelling skills were measured using the three subscores from the bus story test (BST). Independent predictors included (1) temporal sequencing skills according to a picture arrangement test and (2) a language skills factor consisting of definitional vocabulary and receptive grammar. Regression analyses show that language skills predicted BST Sentence Length and Subordinate Clauses subscores, while both temporal sequencing and language were independently linked with the BST Information subscore. When subdividing the sample based on nonverbal temporal sequencing level, a significant subgroup difference was found only for BST Information. Finally, a principal component analysis shows that temporal sequencing and BST Information loaded on a common factor, separately from the language measures. It is concluded that language level is an important correlate of narrative performance more generally in this diagnostically heterogeneous sample, and that nonverbal temporal sequencing functions are important especially for conveying story information. Theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  4. Exploring the Flynn effect in mentally retarded adults by using a nonverbal intelligence test for children.

    PubMed

    Nijman, E E; Scheirs, J G M; Prinsen, M J H; Abbink, C D; Blok, J B

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence test developed for children, the Snijders-Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test (SON), was administered to 32 retarded adults with a mental age of 3-6 years. Sixty-nine children with a biological age in the same range and with normal intelligence served as a comparison group. Both an older and a more recent version of the SON were presented to all participants in a counterbalanced order. The proportion of items answered correctly was taken as a measure of the dependent variable. It was found that a FE existed in both the group of children and in the group of retarded adults, but that the FE was largest in the latter group. The importance of not using obsolete test norms when diagnosing mental retardation was stressed, and possible causes of the Flynn effect were discussed.

  5. Music lessons enhance IQ.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2004-08-01

    The idea that music makes you smarter has received considerable attention from scholars and the media. The present report is the first to test this hypothesis directly with random assignment of a large sample of children (N = 144) to two different types of music lessons (keyboard or voice) or to control groups that received drama lessons or no lessons. IQ was measured before and after the lessons. Compared with children in the control groups, children in the music groups exhibited greater increases in full-scale IQ. The effect was relatively small, but it generalized across IQ subtests, index scores, and a standardized measure of academic achievement. Unexpectedly, children in the drama group exhibited substantial pre- to post-test improvements in adaptive social behavior that were not evident in the music groups.

  6. Nonverbal Social Interaction Skills of Children with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaliotis, Ioannis; Kalyva, Efrosini

    2008-01-01

    Many children with learning disabilities (LD) face problems in their nonverbal communication, which constitutes an important component of their social skills. This study explores the frequency of nonverbal initiations and responses of 36 children with LD and 36 children without LD matched for age and gender, who were observed for 40 min during the…

  7. Nonverbal Abilities of Hispanic and Speech-Impaired Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenteros, Eduardo C.; Roid, Gale H.

    The present study examines a new battery of nonverbal cognitive measures used extensively with numerous preschool children. Seven nonverbal, individually administered measures of fluid reasoning and visualization were administered to these children. Raw scores were converted to age-corrected scaled scores and subjected to multivariate analysis of…

  8. Can PEP-3 Provide a Cognitive Profile in Children with ASD? A Comparison between the Developmental Ages of PEP-3 and IQ of Leiter-R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Cristella, Arcangelo; Terenzio, Vanessa; Buttiglione, Maura; Margari, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of the intelligence quotient (IQ) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is important to plan a detailed therapeutic-educative programme. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) to estimate the general cognitive development of children with ASD.…

  9. Exploring the Flynn Effect in Mentally Retarded Adults by Using a Nonverbal Intelligence Test for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijman, E. E.; Scheirs, J. G. M.; Prinsen, M. J. H.; Abbink, C. D.; Blok, J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Increases in the scores on IQ tests across generations have been called the Flynn effect (FE). One of the unresolved questions is whether the FE affects all subsamples of the intellectual ability distribution equally. The present study was aimed at determining the size of the FE in moderately mentally retarded individuals. A nonverbal intelligence…

  10. Inbreeding Depression and IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamin, Leon J.

    1980-01-01

    This article reviews sex studies of children of cousin marriages and three studies of children of incestuous matings. It is argued that these studies, taken as a whole, provide no substantial evidence for an inbreeding depression effect within the polygenic system commonly asserted to determine IQ. (Author/DB)

  11. IQ and Standard English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Points out the untestability of a heredity explanation for the differences in IQs of Black children and those of White children. Suggests an environmental explanation, arguing that Black children, simply have not had the opportunity to develop their potential for abstract thinking. (HTH)

  12. Nonverbal learning disability: adult outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dugbartey, A T

    2000-07-01

    There are few empirical studies of the adult outcomes of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). An overwhelming majority of NLD studies has been devoted to the nature of academic difficulties of school children, whereas the few follow-up studies have tended to be limited to college-age young adults. Herein, it is argued that the problems of adults with NLD do not fall solely in academic areas, and that early academic remediation programs might do well to include intervention in emotional and social skills enhancement.

  13. Imagery Deficits in Nonverbal Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornoldi, Cesare; Rigoni, Fiorenza; Tressoldi, Patrizio Emmanuele; Vio, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    A study compared 11 Italian children (ages 7-11) with nonverbal learning disabilities (NVLD) to 49 controls on four tasks requiring visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. Results found the children with NVLD showed deficits in the use of visuospatial working memory and visual imagery. (Author/CR)

  14. Nonverbal Measures of Self Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hufman, Melody

    Noting that nonverbal communication classes rarely teach students to analyze their own nonverbal communication behavior, this paper presents five class activities that provide students with objective measures of their nonverbal selves. The exercises in the paper allow students to analyze their vocalics, facial kinesics, dress, and appearance.…

  15. Nonverbal Communication: A Needed Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Charles

    Research into teacher nonverbal behavior is needed. Although teachers are usually aware of their verbal behavior, they may be unaware of many nonverbal cues they express through gesture, facial expression, posture, vocal tone, or similar mechanisms. Such nonverbal expressions convey attitudes and impressions which may affect the teaching-learning…

  16. Nonverbal Behavior in Tutoring Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    This document reports on a series of studies carried out concerning nonverbal behavior in peer tutoring interactions. The first study examined the encoding (enactment) of nonverbal behavior in a tutoring situation. Results clearly indicated that the tutor's nonverbal behavior was affected by the performance of the tutee. The question of whether or…

  17. Wechsler subscale IQ and subtest profile in early treated phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, P; Demellweek, C; Fay, N; Robinson, P; Davidson, D

    2000-01-01

    AIM—Mildly depressed IQ is common in treated phenylketonuria. This study explored whether a particular intellectual ability profile typifies early and continuously treated phenylketonuria and whether component skills comprising the IQ relate to socioeconomic and treatment factors.
METHODS—IQ scores were collected retrospectively from variants of the "Wechsler intelligence scale for children" performed at age 8 on 57 children with early treated, classic phenylketonuria. The mental ability pattern underlying IQ was investigated by analysing subscale and subtest scores and dietary factors, such as historical phenylalanine blood concentrations.
RESULTS—The children's mean full scale IQ of 91.11 was significantly below the healthy population norm. There was a significant discrepancy between their mean verbal IQ (94.65) and mean performance IQ (89.42), suggestive of a spatial deficit, but the data did not support a biochemical or sociological explanation. Individual Wechsler subtests had no distinctive pattern. Phenylalanine control at age 2 was predictive of overall IQ. At this age, children with annual median phenylalanine < 360 µmol/litre (recommended UK upper limit) had a mean IQ 10 points higher than those above.
CONCLUSIONS—Early and continuous treatment of phenylketonuria does not necessarily lead to normalisation of overall IQ. Verbal intelligence in the primary school years appears to normalise if blood phenylalanine is maintained below 360 µmol/litre in infancy, but spatial intelligence may remain poor. However, the discrepancy in skill development is not the result of social status or treatment variables. Perhaps weak spatial intelligence is an ancillary effect of a protective rearing style occasioned by the dietary treatment regimen.
 PMID:10685922

  18. EnergyIQ

    SciTech Connect

    MILLS, EVAN; MATTHE, PAUL; STOUFER, MARTIN

    2016-10-06

    EnergyIQ-the first "action-oriented" benchmarking tool for non-residential buildings-provides a standardized opportunity assessment based on benchmarking results. along with decision-support information to help refine action plans. EnergyIQ offers a wide array of benchmark metrics, with visuall as well as tabular display. These include energy, costs, greenhouse-gas emissions, and a large array of characteristics (e.g. building components or operational strategies). The tool supports cross-sectional benchmarking for comparing the user's building to it's peers at one point in time, as well as longitudinal benchmarking for tracking the performance of an individual building or enterprise portfolio over time. Based on user inputs, the tool generates a list of opportunities and recommended actions. Users can then explore the "Decision Support" module for helpful information on how to refine action plans, create design-intent documentation, and implement improvements. This includes information on best practices, links to other energy analysis tools and more. The variety of databases are available within EnergyIQ from which users can specify peer groups for comparison. Using the tool, this data can be visually browsed and used as a backdrop against which to view a variety of energy benchmarking metrics for the user's own building. User can save their project information and return at a later date to continue their exploration. The initial database is the CA Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS), which provides details on energy use and characteristics for about 2800 buildings (and 62 building types). CEUS is likely the most thorough survey of its kind every conducted. The tool is built as a web service. The EnergyIQ web application is written in JSP with pervasive us of JavaScript and CSS2. EnergyIQ also supports a SOAP based web service to allow the flow of queries and data to occur with non-browser implementations. Data are stored in an Oracle 10g database. References: Mills

  19. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  20. Nonverbal Communication: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.; And Others

    The entries in this extensive bibliography represent books, educational journals, dissertations, popular magazines, and research studies that deal with the topic of nonverbal communication. Divided into time periods (1975 to present, 1973 to 1975, and before 1973), the titles span a variety of topics, including the following: sensory perception,…

  1. Are Cross-National Differences in IQ Profiles Stable? A Comparison of Finnish and U.S. WAIS Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2013-01-01

    To study the concept of national IQ profile, we compared U.S. and Finnish WAIS, WAIS-R, and WAIS III nonverbal and working memory subtest norms. The U.S. standardization samples had consistently higher scores on the Coding and Digit span subtests, while the Finnish samples had higher scores on the Block design subtest. No stable cross-national…

  2. Nonverbal learning disability, school behavior, and dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Badian, N A

    1992-12-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate whether children showing a low nonverbal/high verbal (LNV) WISC-R profile are more likely to exhibit behaviors conducive to school failure than children with a low verbal/high nonverbal (LV) profile, and to examine the relationships among these behaviors, the LNV/LV profiles, and reading ability. The 65 subjects included 27 LNV and 38 LV children, aged 5 to 11 years. Results confirmed earlier findings (Badian 1986) that LNV children are perceived by their teachers as significantly poorer than LV children in many behaviors associated with school success. There was a dichotomy, however, between LNV good and poor readers. All LNV subjects displayed problems in organizational skills, but those who were dyslexic were poorer in social behavior (e.g., acceptance of criticism and peer relationships) than either LNV good readers or LV good or poor readers. It was concluded that children with a low nonverbal/high verbal profile and a probable right hemisphere dysfunction, who appear to be dyslexic in the early school years, are at high risk for both social behavior problems and school failure, and that these children are a more high-risk group than poor readers with a low verbal/high nonverbal profile.

  3. The Impact of Nonverbal Ability on Prevalence and Clinical Presentation of Language Disorder: Evidence from a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Wray, Charlotte; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Vamvakas, George; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of "specific" language impairment traditionally required nonverbal IQ to be within normal limits, often resulting in restricted access to clinical services for children with lower NVIQ. Changes to DSM-5 criteria for language disorder removed this NVIQ requirement. This study sought to delineate the impact of varying…

  4. Does IQ Matter in Adolescents' Reading Disability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortteinen, Hanna; Narhi, Vesa; Ahonen, Timo

    2009-01-01

    We studied the connection of IQ, reading disability (RD) and their interaction with reading, spelling and other cognitive skills in adolescents with average IQ and RD (n = 22), average IQ, non-RD (n = 71), below average IQ and RD (n = 29), and below average IQ non-RD (n = 33). IQ was not connected to reading and spelling in subjects without RD,…

  5. How to Read Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Kleiner, Brian H.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that the ability to read nonverbal communication in the business world can prove to be a valuable tool for the successful manager. Analyzes three modes of nonverbal communication: the physical office setting, an individual's manner of dress, and body language. (SR)

  6. NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GALLOWAY, CHARLES

    NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR CONSISTS MAINLY OF FACIAL EXPRESSIONS, GESTURES AND BODY MOVEMENTS, AND VOCAL INTONATIONS AND INFLECTIONS. IN ORDER TO PROVIDE A MODEL FOR OBSERVING TEACHER NONVERBAL CLASSROOM ACTIVITY, 12 CATEGORIES WERE DEVELOPED THROUGH THE USE OF TWO DIMENSIONS--ENCOURAGING TO INHIBITING AND TEACHER INITIATED TO TEACHER RESPONSE. THREE…

  7. Paralanguage and Kinesics (Nonverbal Communication).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    Nonverbal communication is an important and little-understood aspect of human communication. This book deals primarily with two aspects of nonverbal communication: paralanguage and kinesics. "Paralanguage" includes vocalizations such as hissing, shushing, and whistling, as well as speech modifications such as quality of voice (sepulchral, whiny,…

  8. Adolescent IQ and Survival in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert M.; Palloni, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study attempts to explain the ubiquitous positive correlation between cognitive ability (IQ) and survival. Methods. A sample of 10,317 Wisconsin high school graduates of 1957 was followed until 2009, from ages 18 to 68 years. Mortality was analyzed using a Weibull survival model that includes gender, social background, Henmon–Nelson IQ, and rank in high school class. Results. Rank in high school class, a cumulative measure of responsible performance during high school, entirely mediates the relationship between adolescent IQ and survival. Its effect on survival is 3 times greater than that of IQ, and it accounts for about 10% of the female advantage in survival. Discussion. Cognitive functioning may improve survival by promoting responsible and timely patterns of behavior that are firmly in place by late adolescence. Prior research suggests that conscientiousness, one of the “Big Five” personality characteristics, plays a key role in this relationship. PMID:21743056

  9. The effect of praise, positive nonverbal response, reprimand, and negative nonverbal response on child compliance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Owen, Daniela J; Slep, Amy M S; Heyman, Richard E

    2012-12-01

    Lack of compliance has both short- and long-term costs and is a leading reason why parents seek mental health services for children. What parents do to help children comply with directives or rules is an important part of child socialization. The current review examines the relationship between a variety of parenting discipline behaviors (i.e., praise, positive nonverbal response, reprimand, negative nonverbal response) and child compliance. Forty-one studies of children ranging in age from 1½ to 11 years were reviewed. Reprimand and negative nonverbal responses consistently resulted in greater compliance. Praise and positive nonverbal responses resulted in mixed child outcomes. The findings are discussed based on theory and populations studied. The authors propose a mechanism that may increase children's sensitivity to both positive and negative behavioral contingencies.

  10. Intellectual performance after presymptomatic cranial radiotherapy for leukaemia: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, D; Leiper, A D; Chessells, J M; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1995-01-01

    Cognitive outcome, as measured by verbal and performance IQs, was compared in 35 girls and 47 boys who were in first remission for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. All children had received presymptomatic cranial radiotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.2 years and the mean elapsed time from initial diagnosis to intellectual assessment was 7.1 years. Results showed that children irradiated before the age of 4 years were impaired in certain aspects of non-verbal ability, as well as in measures of short term memory and attention, calculated by factor scores derived from selected subtests of the IQ test. Subtests requiring verbal and non-verbal reasoning showed the greatest impairment after early diagnosis and treatment. In addition girls were selectively impaired in verbal IQ and other aspects of verbal ability, with the degree of impairment exacerbated by early treatment. No relationship was found between degree of impairment and either time since treatment or number of methotrexate injections. It is concluded that early age at irradiation increases the risk of impaired intellectual outcome, particularly in girls. PMID:7574857

  11. Unspoken Words: Understanding Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is communicated in the classroom is through nonverbal means. Sending appropriate nonverbal signals, as well as recognizing and interpreting the nonverbal signals of others, are essential features of the learning process. Students' abilities to encode and decode nonverbal communication have the potential to affect all aspects of their…

  12. Associations between childhood intelligence (IQ), adult morbidity and mortality.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, Alixe H M; Starr, John M; Whalley, Lawrence J

    2010-02-01

    Intelligence is a life-long trait that exerts powerful influences on educational success, occupational status, use of health services, life style and recreational choices. Until recently, the influence of cognitive performance on time to death was thought largely to be based on failing cognition in the time immediately before death or because lower mental ability was associated with low socioeconomic status and socioeconomic disadvantage. Children who were systematically IQ tested early in the twentieth century have now completed most of their life expectancy and permit evaluation of a possible link between childhood IQ and survival. This link is discussed as it affects people with intellectual disability and as a possible contributor to the acquisition of a healthy life style or use of health services. Studies on the topic are affected by many methodological pitfalls. Recently, as cohorts IQ tested as adolescents have completed middle age, new relevant data have become available. These suggest that earlier attempts to tease out the confounding effects of socioeconomic status on the relationship between childhood IQ and mortality did not take account of the full effects of childhood adversity on IQ and disease risk. When statistical models that include childhood adversity are tested, these attenuate and sometimes remove the contribution of IQ to morbidity and premature death.

  13. Student Characteristics and Behaviors at Age 12 Predict Occupational Success 40 Years Later over and above Childhood IQ and Parental Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…

  14. Nonverbal Communication during Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Gladys P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief overview and synthesis of current knowledge on the development of nonverbal communication in young children is presented, and implications for teacher-child interactions during the early school years are suggested. (JD)

  15. Attracting Assault: Victims' Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Betty; Stein, Morris I.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study in which prison inmates convicted of assault identified potential victims from videotapes. A lab analysis code was used to determine which nonverbal body movement categories differentiated victims and nonvictims. (JMF)

  16. Seizure outcome after resective epilepsy surgery in patients with low IQ.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, Kristina; Olsson, Ingrid; Engman, Elisabeth; Flink, Roland; Rydenhag, Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Epilepsy surgery has been questioned for patients with low IQ, since a low cognitive level is taken to indicate a widespread disturbance of cerebral function with unsatisfactory prognosis following resective surgery. The prevalence of epilepsy in patients with cognitive dysfunction is, however, higher than in the general population and the epilepsy is often more severe and difficult to treat. It is therefore important to try to clarify whether IQ predicts seizure outcome after resective epilepsy surgery. The Swedish National Epilepsy Surgery Register, which includes data on all epilepsy surgery procedures in Sweden since 1990, was analysed for all resective procedures performed 1990-99. Sustained seizure freedom with or without aura at the 2-year follow-up was analysed as a function of pre-operative IQ level categorized as IQ <50, IQ 50-69 and IQ >or=70 and was also adjusted for the following variables: age at epilepsy onset, age at surgery, pre-operative seizure frequency, pre-operative neurological impairment, resection type and histopathological diagnosis. Four hundred and forty-eight patients underwent resective epilepsy surgery in Sweden from 1990 to 1999 and completed the 2-year follow-up: 72 (16%) had IQ <70, (18 with IQ <50 and 54 with IQ 50-69) and 376 IQ >or=70. There were 313 adults and 135 children IQ <50 group, 37% (20/54) in the IQ 50-69 group and 61% (228/376) in the IQ >or=70 group. There was a significant relation between IQ category and seizure freedom [odds ratio (OR) 0.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27-0.62] and this held also when adjusting for clinical variables [OR 0.58 (95% CI 0.35-0.95)]. In this population-based epilepsy surgery series, IQ level was shown to be an independent predictor of

  17. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  18. IQ Score of Children with Persistent or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis: A Comparison with Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    GHAFFARI, Javad; ABBASKHANIAN, Ali; JALILI, Masumeh; YAZDANI CHARATI, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prevalence of allergies is different around the world. Allergic rhinitis is a common chronic disease in children. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an indicator of efficacy and many factors including chronic diseases may affect it. This study compares the IQs of children diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis with healthy children. Material & Methods This was a comparative study that was conducted from June 2011–May 2013 in an academic referral clinic. In this study, 90 patients aged 6- to 14-yearsold who were diagnosed with persistent or perennial allergic rhinitis and were compared to 90 age and gender match healthy patients from their respective families. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to divide and calculate overall IQ, verbal IQ, and practical IQ. The t-test and chi square were used to analyze quantitative variables and qualitative variables, respectively. Results In this study, out of total 180 children, 90 (50%) in the case group and 90 children (50%), the control group participated for IQ comparison. One hundred (57%) were male and 80 (43%) were female. The overall IQ for allergic rhinitis patients and healthy patients was 109.2 and 107.5, respectively. This difference was not considered significant. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the IQ scores of males and females. Conclusion Although allergic rhinitis is a chronic disease and effects quality of life, there were no identifiable negative effects on IQ. PMID:25143773

  19. Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-06-01

    Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing.

  20. IQ and the Wealth of States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    In "IQ and the Wealth of Nations" (2002), Lynn and Vanhanen estimate the mean IQs of 185 nations and demonstrate that national IQs strongly correlate with the macroeconomic performance of the nations, explaining about half of the variance in GDP per capita. I seek to replicate Lynn and Vanhanen's results across states within the United…

  1. Nonverbal imitation skills in children with specific language delay.

    PubMed

    Dohmen, Andrea; Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-10-01

    Research in children with language problems has focussed on verbal deficits, and we have less understanding of children's deficits with nonverbal sociocognitive skills which have been proposed to be important for language acquisition. This study was designed to investigate elicited nonverbal imitation in children with specific language delay (SLD). It is argued that difficulties in nonverbal imitation, which do not involve the processing of structural aspects of language, may be indicative of sociocognitive deficits. Participants were German-speaking typically developing children (n=60) and children with SLD (n=45) aged 2-3 ½ years. A novel battery of tasks measured their ability to imitate a range of nonverbal target acts that to a greater or lesser extent involve sociocognitive skills (body movements, instrumental acts on objects, pretend acts). Significant group differences were found for all body movement and pretend act tasks, but not for the instrumental act tasks. The poorer imitative performance of the SLD sample was not explained by motor or nonverbal cognitive skills. Thus, it appeared that the nature of the task affected children's imitation performance. It is argued that the ability to establish a sense of connectedness with the demonstrator was at the core of children's imitation difficulty in the SLD sample.

  2. Confronting the Puzzle of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacca, Dorothy M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes characteristics of students with nonverbal learning disorders and offers teachers suggestions for helping them work with students with these disabilities. Includes story of one nonverbal learning-disabled student's school experience. (PKP)

  3. A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

  4. Educating the Non-Verbal Child: A Transdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Sherry; And Others

    The article describes a pilot program to encourage independent communication in seven nonverbal children (ages 6-8) with orthopedic and/or neurological involvement or cerebral palsy. Transdisciplinary team members included the classroom teacher, speech clinician, instructional aide, computer resource person, occupational therapist, physical…

  5. The Non-Verbal Child: Some Clinical Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Joel; And Others

    Selected principles and procedures related to language training for nonverbal children are presented. The participating children are 3 to 6 years of age and are enrolled at a clinic for a minimal of 3 hours of individual therapy a week. The language problems vary considerably. The possibility of some central nervous system dysfunction is thought…

  6. Language Performance in Siblings of Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata; Bar-Yuda, Chanit

    2011-01-01

    The study focuses on language and cognitive abilities of siblings of the linguistically most affected children with autism (i.e. siblings of nonverbal children--SIBS-ANV). Twenty-eight SIBS-ANV (17 boys), ages 4-9 years, took part in the study. All children attended regular schools, and none had received a diagnosis of autism. Controls were 27…

  7. Administrative and Management Perspectives on Nonverbal Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, William L.

    The potential of nonverbal communication as a field of inquiry for educators is explored in this paper. Following a brief introduction, the first section of the paper discusses basic concepts in nonverbal communication, beginning with two related definitions and a review of research. The functional significance of nonverbal communication is…

  8. Cross-Cultural Nonverbal Cue Immersive Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    1 CROSS-CULTURAL NONVERBAL CUE IMMERSIVE TRAINING Shatha N. Samman*, Michael Moshell + , Bryan Clark, Chantel Brathwaite + , and Allison Abbe...their meaning. 1.2 Nonverbal Cues Categorized by Function In one commonly accepted taxonomic approach, Ekman and Friesen (1969) classified...nonverbal cues (Ekman & Friesen , 1969). Emblems occur mainly when verbal communication is inhibited by external factors (e.g., noise, distance

  9. Behavior and mental health problems in children with epilepsy and low IQ.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janice M; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Shen, Jianzhao; Dunn, David W; Fastenau, Philip S

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to describe the particular types of behavioral problems, self-concept, and symptoms of depression experienced by children with both low IQ and epilepsy. Three groups of children (83 males, 81 females; mean age 11 years 10 months, SD 1 year 10 months; age range 9 to 14 years) with epilepsy were compared: (Group 1) Low IQ (<85), n=48, 25 males, 23 females; (Group 2) Middle IQ (85 to 100), n=58, 24 males, 34 females; and (Group 3) High IQ (>100), n=58, 34 males, 24 females. The Child Behavior Checklist, Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Children's Depression Inventory were used to measure behavior, self-concept, and depression respectively. Results indicated that children in the Low IQ group had the most behavioral and mental health problems. Additionally, there were IQ group-by-sex interactions, with females in the Low IQ group being at the highest risk for poor self-concept. Findings suggest that children with both epilepsy and low IQ should be carefully assessed for mental health problems in the clinical setting.

  10. Behavior and mental health problems in children with epilepsy and low IQ

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Janice M; Austin, Joan K; Perkins, Susan M; Shen, Jianzhao; Dunn, David W; Fastenau, Philip S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to describe the particular types of behavioral problems, self-concept, and symptoms of depression experienced by children with both low IQ and epilepsy. Three groups of children (83 males, 81 females; mean age 11 years 10 months, SD 1 year 10 months; age range 9 to 14 years) with epilepsy were compared: (Group 1) Low IQ (<85), n=48, 25 males, 23 females; (Group 2) Middle IQ (85 to 100), n=58, 24 males, 34 females; and (Group 3) High IQ (>100), n=58, 34 males, 24 females. The Child Behavior Checklist, Piers–Harris Self-Concept Scale, and Children’s Depression Inventory were used to measure behavior, self-concept, and depression respectively. Results indicated that children in the Low IQ group had the most behavioral and mental health problems. Additionally, there were IQ group-by-sex interactions, with females in the Low IQ group being at the highest risk for poor self-concept. Findings suggest that children with both epilepsy and low IQ should be carefully assessed for mental health problems in the clinical setting. PMID:14515940

  11. Genetic influences on the overlap between low IQ and antisocial behavior in young children.

    PubMed

    Koenen, Karestan C; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Taylor, Alan

    2006-11-01

    The well-documented relation between the phenotypes of low IQ and childhood antisocial behavior could be explained by either common genetic influences or environmental influences. These competing explanations were examined through use of the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study 1994-1995 cohort (Moffitt & the E-Risk Study Team, 2002) of 1,116 twin pairs and their families. Children's IQ was assessed via individual testing at age 5 years. Mothers and teachers reported on children's antisocial behavior at ages 5 and 7 years. Low IQ was related to antisocial behavior at age 5 years and predicted relatively higher antisocial behavior scores at age 7 years when antisocial behavior at age 5 years was controlled. This association was significantly stronger among boys than among girls. Genetic influences common to both phenotypes explained 100% of the low IQ-antisocial behavior relation in boys. Findings suggest that specific candidate genes and neurobiological processes should be tested in relation to both phenotypes.

  12. Nonverbal Communication: Readings with Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Shirley, Ed.

    These twenty-two readings in five areas of nonverbal communication emphasize the most recent work indicating significant trends in research. The selections represent several perspectives, including those of Ray L. Birdwhistell, Allen T. Dittman, Albert E. Scheflen, Robert Sommer, Edward T. Hall, Ralph V. Exline, and Adam Kendon. Some of the essays…

  13. Nonverbal Communication among Italian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferri-Bernardoni, Joseph M.

    Participant observation and author introspection were used to collect data in this study of nonverbal communication among Italian Americans in three large American cities. Discussion is given to kinesics (gestures and signs), haptics (touch), proxemics (interiors of homes, exteriors of homes, and spatial arrangements at a wedding dinner), and…

  14. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte, Richard R.; Bolaski, Jon A.

    1998-01-01

    Review features of nonverbal learning disabilities in terms of personal, social, and academic manifestations, including deficits in reading comprehension, graphomotor coordination, mathematics, and science. Examines the neuropsychological and learning components associated with developmental right-hemisphere brain syndrome and outlines effective…

  15. Agreement between clinicians' and care givers' assessment of intelligence in Nigerian children with intellectual disability: 'ratio IQ' as a viable option in the absence of standardized 'deviance IQ' tests in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bakare, Muideen O; Ubochi, Vincent N; Okoroikpa, Ifeoma N; Aguocha, Chinyere M; Ebigbo, Peter O

    2009-01-01

    Background There may be need to assess intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, either for the purpose of educational needs assessment or research. However, modern intelligence scales developed in the western parts of the world suffer limitation of widespread use because of the influence of socio-cultural variations across the world. This study examined the agreement between IQ scores estimation among Nigerian children with intellectual disability using clinicians' judgment based on International Classification of Diseases, tenth Edition (ICD - 10) criteria for mental retardation and caregivers judgment based on 'ratio IQ' scores calculated from estimated mental age in the context of socio-cultural milieu of the children. It proposed a viable option of IQ score assessment among sub-Saharan African children with intellectual disability, using a ratio of culture-specific estimated mental age and chronological age of the child in the absence of standardized alternatives, borne out of great diversity in socio-cultural context of sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Clinicians and care-givers independently assessed the children in relation to their socio-cultural background. Clinicians assessed the IQ scores of the children based on the ICD - 10 diagnostic criteria for mental retardation. 'Ratio IQ' scores were calculated from the ratio of estimated mental age and chronological age of each child. The IQ scores as assessed by the clinicians were then compared with the 'ratio IQ' scores using correlation statistics. Results A total of forty-four (44) children with intellectual disability were assessed. There was a significant correlation between clinicians' assessed IQ scores and the 'ratio IQ' scores employing zero order correlation without controlling for the chronological age of the children (r = 0.47, df = 42, p = 0.001). First order correlation controlling for the chronological age of the children showed higher correlation

  16. IQ Is Not Strongly Related to Response to Reading Instruction: A Meta-Analytic Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    STUEBING, KARLA K.; BARTH, AMY E.; MOLFESE, PETER J.; WEISS, BRANDON; FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2009-01-01

    A meta-analysis of 22 studies evaluating the relation of different assessments of IQ and intervention response did not support the hypothesis that IQ is an important predictor of response to instruction. We found an R2 of .03 in models with IQ and the autoregressor as predictors and a unique lower estimated R2 of .006 and a higher estimated R2 of .013 in models with IQ, the autoregressor, and additional covariates as predictors. There was no evidence that these aggregated effect sizes were moderated by variables such as the type of IQ measure, outcome, age, or intervention. In simulations of the capacity of variables with effect sizes of .03 and .001 for predicting response to intervention, we found little evidence of practical significance. PMID:20224749

  17. Nonverbal signals speak up: association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Nizielski, Sophia; Schütz, Astrid; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    Emotional communication uses verbal and nonverbal means. In case of conflicting signals, nonverbal information is assumed to have a stronger impact. It is unclear, however, whether perceptual nonverbal dominance varies between individuals and whether it is linked to emotional intelligence. Using audiovisual stimulus material comprising verbal and nonverbal emotional cues that were varied independently, perceptual nonverbal dominance profiles and their relations to emotional intelligence were examined. Nonverbal dominance was found in every participant, ranging from 55 to 100%. Moreover, emotional intelligence, particularly the ability to understand emotions, correlated positively with nonverbal dominance. Furthermore, higher overall emotional intelligence as well as a higher ability to understand emotions were linked to smaller reaction time differences between emotionally incongruent and congruent stimuli. The association between perceptual nonverbal dominance and emotional intelligence, and more specifically the ability to understand emotions, might reflect an adaptive process driven by the experience of higher authenticity in nonverbal cues.

  18. A longitudinal twin study of the direction of effects between ADHD symptoms and IQ.

    PubMed

    Rommel, Anna Sophie; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Greven, Corina U; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2015-01-01

    While the negative association between ADHD symptoms and IQ is well documented, our knowledge about the direction and aetiology of this association is limited. Here, we examine the association of ADHD symptoms with verbal and performance IQ longitudinally in a population-based sample of twins. In a population-based sample of 4,771 twin pairs, DSM-IV ADHD symptoms were obtained from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised. Verbal (vocabulary) and performance (Raven's Progressive Matrices) IQ were assessed online. ADHD symptom ratings and IQ scores were obtained at ages 12, 14 and 16 years. Making use of the genetic sensitivity and time-ordered nature of our data, we use a cross-lagged model to examine the direction of effects, while modelling the aetiologies of the association between ADHD symptoms with vocabulary and Raven's scores over time. Although time-specific aetiological influences emerged for each trait at ages 14 and 16 years, the aetiological factors involved in the association between ADHD symptoms and IQ were stable over time. ADHD symptoms and IQ scores significantly predicted each other over time. ADHD symptoms at age 12 years were a significantly stronger predictor of vocabulary and Raven's scores at age 14 years than vice versa, whereas no differential predictive effects emerged from age 14 to 16 years. The results suggest that ADHD symptoms may put adolescents at risk for decreased IQ scores. Persistent genetic influences seem to underlie the association of ADHD symptoms and IQ over time. Early intervention is likely to be key to reducing ADHD symptoms and the associated risk for lower IQ.

  19. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  20. Nonverbal Correlates of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Bruce K.

    Twenty college age males' hand shrugs, face-play manipulations, and frequency and duration of mutual eye contact were recorded in response to a female counterpart who varied her assertiveness and attractiveness in a two by two factorial design. Mutual eye contact, which increased under attractive conditions, was a useful negative correlate of…

  1. An Investigation of Nonverbal Communication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The subject addressed is nonverbal communication, it evolvement into a new scientific study called kinesics , and its relationship to the spoken word...Data was gathered through literary research. This posed a problem inasmuch as kinesics is a new field and relatively little has been written on the...This is not to say that these are the only professions where kinesics is important. Rather it is an attempt to show that this new science touches

  2. Effects on WAIS-III performance IQ (PIQ) and full scale IQ (FSIQ) when object assembly is substituted for each standard performance scale subtest.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Joseph J; Morris, Jeri; Brown, Kristina I; Glass, Laura A

    2006-12-01

    According to the WAIS-III Administration and Scoring Manual, Object Assembly (OA) may be substituted for any spoiled Performance subtest. This assertion has not been evaluated in a clinical sample. The present investigation reports differences that resulted in Performance IQ (PIQ) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when OA replaced each of the Performance subtests. Participants were 47 referrals for neuropsychological assessment (age M = 45.98 years, SD = 9.82; education M = 13.82 years, SD = 2.78). Results indicated that OA may replace any Performance subtest without seriously altering the summary scores. Differences between the standard IQs and OA-based composites were < 2 points for PIQ and < 1 point for FSIQ. More than 90% of the OA-based composites fell within the 90% confidence limits of the corresponding IQ.

  3. 77 FR 49839 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2012. AGENCY... an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. ] APPLICANTS: IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ'') and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). SUMMARY OF APPLICATION: Applicants request...

  4. Birthweight predicts IQ: fact or artefact?

    PubMed

    Newcombe, Rhiannon; Milne, Barry J; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2007-08-01

    It has been shown that lower birthweight is associated with lower IQ, but it remains unclear whether this association is causal or spurious. We examined the relationship between birthweight and IQ in two prospective longitudinal birth cohorts: a UK cohort of 1116 twin pairs (563 monozygotic [MZ] pairs), born in 1994-95, and a New Zealand cohort of 1037 singletons born in 1972-73. IQ was tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. Birthweight differences within MZ twin pairs predicted IQ differences within pairs, ruling out genetic and shared environmental explanations for the association. Birthweight predicted IQ similarly in the twin and nontwin cohorts after controlling for social disadvantage, attesting that the association generalized beyond twins. An increase of 1000 g in birthweight was associated with a 3 IQ point increase. Results from two cohorts add to evidence that low birthweight is a risk factor for compromised neurological health. Our finding that birthweight differences predict IQ differences within MZ twin pairs provides new evidence that the mechanism can be narrowed to an environmental effect during pregnancy, rather than any familial environmental influence shared by siblings, or genes. With the increasing numbers of low-birthweight infants, our results support the contention that birthweight could be a target for early preventive intervention to reduce the number of children with compromised IQ.

  5. School Achievement Strongly Predicts Midlife IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, Ruth; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, L. William; Pfalzgraf, Christopher; Waterman, Elijah

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between measures of IQ and standardized school achievement tests is well established at around r~0.5 when the two are measured in close proximity. The current paper examined the stability of this correlation when comparing elementary school achievement (grades 3-8) and midlife IQ. Iowa Adoption Study participants who had…

  6. IQ and Neuropsychological Predictors of Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Bixler, Edward O.; Zimmerman, Dennis N.

    2009-01-01

    Word reading and math computation scores were predicted from Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Full Scale IQ, 10 neuropsychological tests, and parent attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) ratings in 214 general population elementary school children. IQ was the best single predictor of achievement. In addition, Digit Span…

  7. Racist Arguments and I.Q.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Stephen Jay

    1974-01-01

    The author argues that no "hard" data exists on genetically based differences in intelligence among human groups. IQ measures the heritability of IQ, and statistical inaccuracies in reported studies are discussed and questioned. The current interest in biological determinism of intelligence is trivial; individuals can not be judged by group means.…

  8. Sex-Related Pragmatics in Infants' Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Jeannette M.

    1977-01-01

    Outlines a study which examines adult interpretations of infant nonverbal behavior. Contends that negative nonverbal emotions are more likely to be attributed to male infants, and positive nonverbal emotions are more often attributed to female infants. (MH)

  9. Identifying Gifted Canadian Inuit Children Using Conventional IQ Measures and Nonverbal (Performance) Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilgosh, L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The article addresses minority assessment issues, describes a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-- Revised (WISC-R) re-norming (for Inuit children) project, examines usefulness of the re-normed WISC-R and reports results of a study comparing gifted and average Inuit children on the WISC-R, Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, and the Goodenough…

  10. Nonverbal intelligence in young children with dysregulation: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Basten, Maartje; van der Ende, Jan; Tiemeier, Henning; Althoff, Robert R; Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Hudziak, James J; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya

    2014-11-01

    Children meeting the Child Behavior Checklist Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) suffer from high levels of co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Little is known about the cognitive abilities of these children with CBCL-DP. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence. Parents of 6,131 children from a population-based birth cohort, aged 5 through 7 years, reported problem behavior on the CBCL/1.5-5. The CBCL-DP was derived using latent profile analysis on the CBCL/1.5-5 syndrome scales. Nonverbal intelligence was assessed using the Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test 2.5-7-Revised. We examined the relationship between CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence using linear regression. Analyses were adjusted for parental intelligence, parental psychiatric symptoms, socio-economic status, and perinatal factors. In a subsample with diagnostic interview data, we tested if the results were independent of the presence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The results showed that children meeting the CBCL-DP (n = 110, 1.8%) had a 11.0 point lower nonverbal intelligence level than children without problems and 7.2-7.3 points lower nonverbal intelligence level than children meeting other profiles of problem behavior (all p values <0.001). After adjustment for covariates, children with CBCL-DP scored 8.3 points lower than children without problems (p < 0.001). The presence of ADHD or ASD did not account for the lower nonverbal intelligence in children with CBCL-DP. In conclusion, we found that children with CBCL-DP have a considerable lower nonverbal intelligence score. The CBCL-DP and nonverbal intelligence may share a common neurodevelopmental etiology.

  11. Brain function during probabilistic learning in relation to IQ and level of education.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2012-02-15

    Knowing how to adapt your behavior based on feedback lies at the core of successful learning. We investigated the relation between brain function, grey matter volume, educational level and IQ in a Dutch adolescent sample. In total 45 healthy volunteers between ages 13 and 16 were recruited from schools for pre-vocational and pre-university education. For each individual, IQ was estimated using two subtests from the WISC-III-R (similarities and block design). While in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, participants performed a probabilistic learning task. Behavioral comparisons showed that participants with higher IQ used a more adaptive learning strategy after receiving positive feedback. Analysis of neural activation revealed that higher IQ was associated with increased activation in DLPFC and dACC when receiving positive feedback, specifically for rules with low reward probability (i.e., unexpected positive feedback). Furthermore, VBM analyses revealed that IQ correlated positively with grey matter volume within these regions. These results provide support for IQ-related individual differences in the developmental time courses of neural circuitry supporting feedback-based learning. Current findings are interpreted in terms of a prolonged window of flexibility and opportunity for adolescents with higher IQ scores.

  12. Does IQ = IQ? Comparability of Intelligence Test Scores in Typically Developing Children.

    PubMed

    Hagmann-von Arx, Priska; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2016-08-05

    Numerous intelligence tests are available to psychological diagnosticians to assess children's intelligence, but whether they yield comparable test results has been little studied. We examined test scores of 206 typically developing children aged 6 to 11 years on five German intelligence tests (Reynolds Intellectual Assessment Scales; Snijders Oomen Nonverbal Intelligence Test; Intelligence and Development Scales; Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition; Culture Fair Intelligence Test Scale 2), which were individually administered. On a sample level, the test scores showed strong correlation and little or no mean difference. These results indicate that the tests measure a similar underlying construct, which is interpreted as general intelligence. On an individual level, however, test scores significantly differed across tests for 12% to 38% of the children. Differences did not depend on which test was used but rather on unexplained error. Implications for the application of intelligence assessment in psychological practice are discussed.

  13. Physical growth and non-verbal intelligence: Associations in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Sascha; Reich, Jodi; Thuma, Philip E.; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate normative developmental BMI trajectories and associations of physical growth indicators (ie, height, weight, head circumference [HC], body mass index [BMI]) with non-verbal intelligence in an understudied population of children from Sub-Saharan Africa. Study design A sample of 3981 students (50.8% male), grades 3 to 7, with a mean age of 12.75 years was recruited from 34 rural Zambian schools. Children with low scores on vision and hearing screenings were excluded. Height, weight and HC were measured, and non-verbal intelligence was assessed using UNIT-symbolic memory and KABC-II-triangles. Results Results showed that students in higher grades have a higher BMI over and above the effect of age. Girls showed a marginally higher BMI, although that for both boys and girls was approximately 1 SD below the international CDC and WHO norms. Controlling for the effect of age, non-verbal intelligence showed small but significant positive relationships with HC (r = .17) and BMI (r = .11). HC and BMI accounted for 1.9% of the variance in non-verbal intelligence, over and above the contribution of grade and sex. Conclusions BMI-for-age growth curves of Zambian children follow observed worldwide developmental trajectories. The positive relationships between BMI and intelligence underscore the importance of providing adequate nutritional and physical growth opportunities for children worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa in particular. Directions for future studies are discussed with regard to maximizing the cognitive potential of all rural African children. PMID:25217196

  14. Accounting: Nonverbal Communication: The Unworded Message.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, James A.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses kinesics, nonverbal communication or body language; states that business educators must teach the nonverbal aspects of communication along with its written and oral elements; and offers suggestions for incorporating a unit on kinesics in business English or business communications classes. (MF)

  15. Nonverbal Elements of International Business Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltman, John L.

    Because proficiency in nonverbal communication is as important in international business communication as it is in one's own culture, temporary residents need to learn how to improve communication. This paper explores several ways business communication specialists can help improve sojourners' nonverbal fluency for specific cultures. Temporary…

  16. Nonverbal Communication and Writing Lab Tutorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claywell, Gina

    Writing labs should utilize the knowledge gained from a variety of fields to enhance further their programs, particularly with regard to the study of nonverbal communication. Regardless of the sincerity and importance of the tutor's suggestions, nonverbal messages often are sent to the student which undermine the session. Various channels of…

  17. The Mind's Eye: Nonverbal Thought in Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Eugene S.

    1978-01-01

    Much of the creative thought of the designers of our technology is nonverbal; since the Renaissance, it has relied on objects and drawings, not descriptions. Because nonverbal thought is closer to art than science, there is a risk that it will be ignored in engineering education. (Author/SJL)

  18. Body, Identity and Interaction: Interpreting Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canfield, Allan

    The study of nonverbal communication continues to grow across the spectrum of research in many fields of study. Good textbooks and research studies are available to the scholar and the student, and courses about nonverbal behavior and communication are found in modern curricula. This book focuses on the complex, often hidden, processes that…

  19. Nonverbal Cues as Indicators of Verbal Dissembling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Sixty-three third and sixth graders in an experimental teaching session provided either genuine or dissembled (disguised) verbal praise to a student (confederate). Trained coders and naive observers analyzed nonverbal behavior. As hypothesized, nonverbal cues such as facial expressions, body movement, and pausing indicated verbal deception.…

  20. Nonverbal Communication of Affect in Interracial Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Donohoe, Lawrence F.

    1978-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship between nonverbal behavior and the racial composition of a teacher-student dyad. Both White and Black teachers behaved nonverbally more positively to a student of their own race than to a student of the other race, even though student performance was controlled. (Author/RD)

  1. Nonverbal Communication: A Research Guide & Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Key, Mary Ritchie

    This volume discusses various aspects of nonverbal communication and provides an extensive bibliography of journal articles, listed by author, that are relevant to the topic. Commentary is divided into six sections: "Considerations in Nonverbal Communication," which examines the impact of motion and rhythm, the components of nonverbal…

  2. Cultural Norms and Nonverbal Communication: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yanrong

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication takes place in specific cultural contexts and is influenced by cultural norms. Cultural norms are "social rules for what certain types of people should and should not do" (Hall, 2005). Different cultures might have different norms for nonverbal behaviors in specific social, relational, and geographical contexts.…

  3. Non-verbal Effects in Oral Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, G. M.; Pedrosa, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Investigated the effects of nonverbal communication during oral examinations by testing two groups of British secondary students, one group in a face-to-face situation. Finds nonverbal effects increased the mean scores by two points but could not conclude that the increase was a result of student appearance and gestures. (CH)

  4. Image quality (IQ) guided multispectral image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Chen, Genshe; Wang, Zhonghai; Blasch, Erik

    2016-05-01

    Image compression is necessary for data transportation, which saves both transferring time and storage space. In this paper, we focus on our discussion on lossy compression. There are many standard image formats and corresponding compression algorithms, for examples, JPEG (DCT -- discrete cosine transform), JPEG 2000 (DWT -- discrete wavelet transform), BPG (better portable graphics) and TIFF (LZW -- Lempel-Ziv-Welch). The image quality (IQ) of decompressed image will be measured by numerical metrics such as root mean square error (RMSE), peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), and structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. Given an image and a specified IQ, we will investigate how to select a compression method and its parameters to achieve an expected compression. Our scenario consists of 3 steps. The first step is to compress a set of interested images by varying parameters and compute their IQs for each compression method. The second step is to create several regression models per compression method after analyzing the IQ-measurement versus compression-parameter from a number of compressed images. The third step is to compress the given image with the specified IQ using the selected compression method (JPEG, JPEG2000, BPG, or TIFF) according to the regressed models. The IQ may be specified by a compression ratio (e.g., 100), then we will select the compression method of the highest IQ (SSIM, or PSNR). Or the IQ may be specified by a IQ metric (e.g., SSIM = 0.8, or PSNR = 50), then we will select the compression method of the highest compression ratio. Our experiments tested on thermal (long-wave infrared) images (in gray scales) showed very promising results.

  5. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  6. Subcortical intelligence: caudate volume predicts IQ in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Grazioplene, Rachael G; G Ryman, Sephira; Gray, Jeremy R; Rustichini, Aldo; Jung, Rex E; DeYoung, Colin G

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the association between size of the caudate nuclei and intelligence. Based on the central role of the caudate in learning, as well as neuroimaging studies linking greater caudate volume to better attentional function, verbal ability, and dopamine receptor availability, we hypothesized the existence of a positive association between intelligence and caudate volume in three large independent samples of healthy adults (total N = 517). Regression of IQ onto bilateral caudate volume controlling for age, sex, and total brain volume indicated a significant positive correlation between caudate volume and intelligence, with a comparable magnitude of effect across each of the three samples. No other subcortical structures were independently associated with IQ, suggesting a specific biological link between caudate morphology and intelligence.

  7. Bifactor Model of WISC-IV: Applicability and Measurement Invariance in Low and Normal IQ Groups.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Rapson; Vance, Alasdair; Watson, Shaun

    2016-09-05

    This study examined the applicability and measurement invariance of the bifactor model of the 10 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) core subtests in groups of children and adolescents (age range from 6 to 16 years) with low (IQ ≤79; N = 229; % male = 75.9) and normal (IQ ≥80; N = 816; % male = 75.0) IQ scores. Results supported this model in both groups, and there was good support for measurement invariance for this model across these groups. For all participants together, the omega hierarchical and explained common variance (ECV) values were high for the general factor and low to negligible for the specific factors. Together, the findings favor the use of the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) scores of the WISC-IV, but not the subscale index scores. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Breastfeeding is positively associated with child intelligence even net of parental IQ.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2015-12-01

    Some previous reviews conclude that breastfeeding is not significantly associated with increased intelligence in children once mother's IQ is statistically controlled. The conclusion may potentially have both theoretical and methodological problems. The National Child Development Study allows the examination of the effect of breastfeeding on intelligence in two consecutive generations of British children. The analysis of the first generation shows that the effect of breastfeeding on intelligence increases from Age 7 to 16. The analysis of the second generation shows that each month of breastfeeding, net of parental IQ and other potential confounds, is associated with an increase of .16 IQ points. Further analyses suggest that some previous studies may have failed to uncover the effect of breastfeeding on child intelligence because of their reliance on one IQ test.

  9. Relationships between Cerebral Blood Flow and IQ in Typically Developing Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kilroy, Emily; Liu, Collin Y.; Yan, Lirong; Kim, Yoon Chun; Dapretto, Mirella; Mendez, Mario F.; Wang, Danny J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between IQ and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in children and adolescents. ASL was used to collect perfusion MRI data on 39 healthy participants aged 7 to 17. The Wechsler Abbreviated Intelligence Scale was administered to determine IQ scores. Multivariate regression was applied to reveal correlations between CBF and IQ scores, accounting for age, sex and global mean CBF. Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) analysis, which measures regional cortical volume, was performed as a control. Regression analyses were further performed on CBF data with adjustment of regional gray matter density (GMD). A positive correlation between CBF and IQ scores was primarily seen in the subgenual/anterior cingulate, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal and right inferior parietal regions. An inverse relationship between CBF and IQ was mainly observed in bilateral posterior temporal regions. After adjusting for regional GMD, the correlations between CBF and IQ in the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex, right orbitofrontal, superior temporal regions and left insula remained significant. These findings support the Parieto-Frontal Integration Theory of intelligence, especially the role of the subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex in the neural networks associated with intelligence. The present study also demonstrates the unique value of CBF in assessing brain-behavior relationships, in addition to structural morphometric measures. PMID:23976891

  10. Association of maternal and paternal IQ with offspring conduct, emotional and attention problem scores: trans-generational evidence from the 1958 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2014-01-01

    Context Lower IQ individuals have an increased risk of psychological disorders, mental health problems, and suicide; similarly, children with low IQ scores are more likely to have behavioural, emotional and anxiety disorders. However, very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the mental health outcomes of their children. Objective To determine whether maternal and paternal IQ score is associated with offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores. Design Cohort. Setting General population. Participants Members of 1958 National Child Development Study and their offspring. Of 2,984 parent-offspring pairs, with non-adopted children aged 4+ years, 2,202 pairs had complete data on all variables of interest and were included in the analyses. Outcome measure Offspring conduct, emotional and attention scores based on Behavioural Problems Index for children aged 4-6 years or the Rutter A scale for children aged 7 and over. Results There was little evidence of any association of parental IQ with conduct or emotional problems in younger (aged 4-6) children. However, among children aged 7+, there was strong evidence from age- and sex-adjusted models to support a decrease in conduct, emotional and attention problems in those whose parents had higher IQ scores. These associations were linear across the full IQ range. Individual adjustments for socioeconomic status and child’s own IQ had limited impact while adjustments for Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scores and parental malaise attenuated associations with mother’s IQ but, again, had little impact on associations with father’s IQ. Strong associations were no longer evident in models that simultaneously adjusted for all four potential mediating variables. Conclusions Children whose parents score poorly on IQ tests may have an increased risk of conduct, emotional and attention problems. Home environment, parental malaise, and child’s own IQ may have a role in explaining these

  11. Cerebral integration of verbal and nonverbal emotional cues: impact of individual nonverbal dominance.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Heike; Kreifelts, Benjamin; Brück, Carolin; Erb, Michael; Hösl, Franziska; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2012-07-02

    Emotional communication is essential for successful social interactions. Emotional information can be expressed at verbal and nonverbal levels. If the verbal message contradicts the nonverbal expression, usually the nonverbal information is perceived as being more authentic, revealing the "true feelings" of the speaker. The present fMRI study investigated the cerebral integration of verbal (sentences expressing the emotional state of the speaker) and nonverbal (facial expressions and tone of voice) emotional signals using ecologically valid audiovisual stimulus material. More specifically, cerebral activation associated with the relative impact of nonverbal information on judging the affective state of a speaker (individual nonverbal dominance index, INDI) was investigated. Perception of nonverbally expressed emotions was associated with bilateral activation within the amygdala, fusiform face area (FFA), temporal voice area (TVA), and the posterior temporal cortex as well as in the midbrain and left inferior orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/left insula. Verbally conveyed emotions were linked to increased responses bilaterally in the TVA. Furthermore, the INDI correlated with responses in the left amygdala elicited by nonverbal and verbal emotional stimuli. Correlation of the INDI with the activation within the medial OFC was observed during the processing of communicative signals. These results suggest that individuals with a higher degree of nonverbal dominance have an increased sensitivity not only to nonverbal but to emotional stimuli in general.

  12. Genetic Variance in the SES-IQ Correlation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckland, Bruce K.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses questions dealing with genetic aspects of the correlation between IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Questions include: How does assortative mating affect the genetic variance of IQ? Is the relationship between an individual's IQ and adult SES a causal one? And how can IQ research improve schools and schooling? (Author/DB)

  13. Estimating State IQ: Measurement Challenges and Preliminary Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is threefold. First, an estimate of state IQ is derived and its strengths and limitations are considered. To that end, an indicator of downward bias in estimating state IQ is provided. Two preliminary causal models are offered that predict state IQ. These models were found to be highly predictive of state IQ, yielding…

  14. Comparability of IQ Scores over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Must, Olev; te Nijenhuis, Jan; Must, Aasa; van Vianen, Annelies E. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the comparability of IQ scores. Three cohorts (1933/36, 1997/98, 2006) of Estonian students (N = 2173) are compared using the Estonian National Intelligence Test. After 72 years the secular rise of the IQ test scores is 0.79 SD. The mean 0.16 SD increase in the last 8 years suggests a rapid increase of the Flynn Effect (FE)…

  15. Adult smoking in the home environment and children's IQ.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D L; Swank, P R; Baldwin, C D; McCormick, D

    1999-02-01

    In a sample of 3- and 5-yr.-old children, smoking in the home was found to be significantly and inversely related to IQ. Children of normal birth weight and without neurological impairment had been enrolled in a longitudinal study of child development. Analyses were conducted with sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational stimulation in the home, day care, and mother's intelligence controlled. Significant results were obtained for scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised at age three years and on the major Stanford-Binet Fourth Edition scales at ages three and five years. All effects were for the mother, not the father, smoking in the home.

  16. [Non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Schiaratura, Loris Tamara

    2008-09-01

    This review underlines the importance of non-verbal communication in Alzheimer's disease. A social psychological perspective of communication is privileged. Non-verbal behaviors such as looks, head nods, hand gestures, body posture or facial expression provide a lot of information about interpersonal attitudes, behavioral intentions, and emotional experiences. Therefore they play an important role in the regulation of interaction between individuals. Non-verbal communication is effective in Alzheimer's disease even in the late stages. Patients still produce non-verbal signals and are responsive to others. Nevertheless, few studies have been devoted to the social factors influencing the non-verbal exchange. Misidentification and misinterpretation of behaviors may have negative consequences for the patients. Thus, improving the comprehension of and the response to non-verbal behavior would increase first the quality of the interaction, then the physical and psychological well-being of patients and that of caregivers. The role of non-verbal behavior in social interactions should be approached from an integrative and functional point of view.

  17. Hearing Loss is Associated with Decreased Nonverbal Intelligence in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Susan D.; Schmitz, Jane; Pillion, Joseph; Wu, Lee; Khatry, Subarna K.; Karna, Sureshwar L.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the association between adolescent and young adult hearing loss and nonverbal intelligence in rural Nepal Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of hearing loss among a population cohort of adolescents and young adults Setting Sarlahi District, southern Nepal Patients 764 individuals aged 14–23 years Intervention Evaluation of hearing loss, defined by WHO criteria of pure-tone average (PTA) >25 decibels (0.5, 1, 2, 4 kHz), unilaterally and bilaterally Main Outcome Measure Nonverbal intelligence, measured by the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, 3rd Edition (TONI-3) standardized score (mean 100; standard deviation (SD) 15) Results Nonverbal intelligence scores differed between participants with normal hearing and those with bilateral (p =0.04) but not unilateral (p =0.74) hearing loss. Demographic and socioeconomic factors including male sex, higher caste, literacy, education level, occupation reported as student, and ownership of a bicycle, watch, and latrine were strongly associated with higher nonverbal intelligence scores (all p <0.001). Subjects with bilateral hearing loss scored an average of 3.16 points lower (95% CI: −5.56, −0.75; p =0.01) than subjects with normal hearing after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There was no difference in nonverbal intelligence score based on unilateral hearing loss (0.97; 95% CI: −1.67, 3.61; p =0.47). Conclusions Nonverbal intelligence is adversely affected by bilateral hearing loss, even at mild hearing loss levels. Social and economic well being appear compromised in individuals with lower nonverbal intelligence test scores. PMID:25299832

  18. 77 FR 41464 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application July 9, 2012. AGENCY... grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. Applicants: IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``Manager'') and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application was filed on September 9, 2011,...

  19. The Generalizability of Verbal IQ as an Estimate of Full Scale IQ on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Mark E.; Doehrman, Steven

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of correlations between Verbal and Full Scale IQ scores for 231 high-IQ psychiatric outpatients indicated that Verbal IQ appears partially valid as a WAIS short form for this higher IQ group. Results are interpreted in terms of Resnick and Entin's short form validity criteria. (Editor/SJL)

  20. Pronunciation of irregular words is preserved in dementia, validating premorbid IQ estimation.

    PubMed

    McGurn, B; Starr, J M; Topfer, J A; Pattie, A; Whiteman, M C; Lemmon, H A; Whalley, L J; Deary, I J

    2004-04-13

    The National Adult Reading Test (NART), used to estimate premorbid mental ability, involves pronunciation of irregular words. The authors demonstrate that, after controlling for age 11 IQ test scores, mean NART scores do not differ in people with and without dementia. The correlation between age 11 IQ and NART scores at about age 80 was similar in the groups with (r = 0.63, p < 0.001) and without (r = 0.60, p < 0.001) dementia. These findings validate the NART as an estimator of premorbid ability in mild to moderate dementia.

  1. Genetic priming of a proinflammatory profile predicts low IQ in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, K S; Mortensen, E L; Avlund, K; Pilegaard, H; Christiansen, L; Pedersen, A N; Schroll, M; Jørgensen, T; Pedersen, B K; Bruunsgaard, H

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within interleukin (IL)-18, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 gene promoter regions are risk factors for cognitive decline in healthy octogenarians, and to isolate the strongest inflammatory biomarkers of cognitive function in the peripheral blood. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale was administered to 112 individuals at ages 80 and 85. An IL-18 haplotype was an independent risk factor of poor Performance IQ. The TNF-308GA genotype was related to individual declines in Verbal IQ, and the IL-10-592 CC genotype was related to better Verbal IQ at the age of 80. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha, sTNFRs, and IL-6 were negatively correlated with IQ at age 85 and less strongly to IQ at age 80 with activation of the TNF system as the strongest biomarker. In conclusion, SNPs related to high proinflammatory or low anti-inflammatory activity are independent risk factors of reduced cognitive function in octogenarians. Only the IL-18 haplotype was associated with inflammation in the peripheral blood and only with regard to circulating TNF-alpha.

  2. Hemoglobin Status Associate with Performance IQ but not Verbal IQ in Chinese Pre-school Children

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Yuexian; Zhao, Sophie R.; Zhou, Guoping; Ma, Xiaoyang; Liu, Jianghong

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the body of literature that links anemia with poorer cognition in children and the evidence that the severity of the effects of anemia on children’s cognition vary in different populations, few studies have investigated the effects of anemia on the cognitive development of Chinese children. Study Design This longitudinal cohort includes 171 children from a developing region of China. Hemoglobin and iron levels were taken when the children were 4 years old. At age 6, the children’s cognition was tested with Chinese WPPSI. Psychosocial information was also used in analyses. Results Results showed that the children who had low Hb levels had significantly lower scores in PIQ, but not VIQ. Although blood Fe levels were not shown to moderate the link between hemoglobin levels and IQ, we found children who performed the best on IQ tests exhibited low iron levels concurrent with high hemoglobin levels, whereas the group who performed the worst exhibited high iron but low hemoglobin levels. We also found that psychosocial adversity did not differ significantly between children who had normal or low hemoglobin levels, although the effect of hemoglobin on PIQ became only suggestive after controlling for psychosocial adversity, therefore the relationship is not causal but only a suggestive association. Conclusion Our findings are in agreement with literature on the negative effects of anemia on children’s cognition and point to the possibility that the portions of the brain associated with PIQ components are particularly affected by low Hb during crucial periods of development. PMID:22507306

  3. Associations between IQ, total and regional brain volumes, and demography in a large normative sample of healthy children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative norms for healthy brain development by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed correlations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus), cerebellum, and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently.

  4. Associations Between IQ, Total and Regional Brain Volumes and Demography in a Large Normative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Bigler, Erin D.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    In the course of efforts to establish quantitative MRI-based norms for healthy brain development (Brain Development Cooperative Group, 2006), previously unreported associations of parental education and temporal and frontal lobe volumes with full scale IQ and its verbal and performance subscales were discovered. Our findings were derived from the largest, most representative MRI sample to date of healthy children and adolescents, ages 4 years 10 months to 18 years 4 months. We first find that parental education has a strong association with IQ in children that is not mediated by total or regional brain volumes. Second, we find that our observed associations between temporal gray matter, temporal white matter and frontal white matter volumes with full scale IQ, between 0.14 to 0.27 in children and adolescents, are due in large part to their correlations with performance IQ and not verbal IQ. The volumes of other lobar gray and white matter, subcortical gray matter (thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus), cerebellum and brainstem do not contribute significantly to IQ variation. Third, we find that head circumference is an insufficient index of cerebral volume in typically developing older children and adolescents. The relations between total and regional brain volumes and IQ can best be discerned when additional variables known to be associated with IQ, especially parental education and other demographic measures, are considered concurrently. PMID:20446134

  5. Concurrent validity of social subtype and IQ after early intensive behavioral intervention in children with autism: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Beglinger, Leigh; Smith, Tristram

    2005-06-01

    Three subtypes of autism based on social style have been proposed by Wing: active-but-odd, passive, or aloof. Previous research has shown evidence of an association between IQ and Wing subtype in untreated children and adults. Because IQ changes can accompany behavioral treatment, but often only for a subset of children, social subtype may be related to treatment responsiveness. We administered a social subtyping measure, the Wing Subgroups Questionnaire (WSQ), at various points in treatment to younger children than previously studied with autism in early, intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI). Thirty-seven children in EIBI (aged 39-71 months, amount of EIBI 0-44 months) were assessed to determine whether Wing's three proposed subtypes were found in this sample and whether subtypes were associated with current IQ and change in IQ after a period of EIBI. Results confirmed that all three subtypes were present and correlated with IQ after a period of intervention, as well as with change in IQ. Participants classified as aloof had significantly lower IQ scores and changes in IQ after EIBI than other children. Future studies should extend these findings by examining whether social subtype at pretreatment predicts EIBI outcome.

  6. IQ, the Urban Environment, and Their Impact on Future Schizophrenia Risk in Men.

    PubMed

    Toulopoulou, Timothea; Picchioni, Marco; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-02-22

    Exposure to an urban environment during early life and low IQ are 2 well-established risk factors for schizophrenia. It is not known, however, how these factors might relate to one another. Data were pooled from the North Jutland regional draft board IQ assessments and the Danish Conscription Registry for men born between 1955 and 1993. Excluding those who were followed up for less than 1 year after the assessment yielded a final cohort of 153170 men of whom 578 later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder. We found significant effects of having an urban birth, and also experiencing an increase in urbanicity before the age of 10 years, on adult schizophrenia risk. The effect of urban birth was independent of IQ. However, there was a significant interaction between childhood changes in urbanization in the first 10 years and IQ level on the future adult schizophrenia risk. In short, those subjects who moved to more or less urban areas before their 10th birthday lost the protective effect of IQ. When thinking about adult schizophrenia risk, the critical time window of childhood sensitivity to changes in urbanization seems to be linked to IQ. Given the prediction that by 2050, over 80% of the developed world's population will live in an urban environment, this represents a major future public health issue.

  7. IQ estimate smackdown: comparing IQ proxy measures to the WAIS-III.

    PubMed

    Spinks, Ruth; McKirgan, Lowell W; Arndt, Stephan; Caspers, Kristin; Yucuis, Rebecca; Pfalzgraf, Christopher J

    2009-07-01

    Brief assessments of general cognitive ability are frequently needed by neuropsychologists, and many methods of estimating intelligence quotient (IQ) have been published. While these measures typically present overall correlations with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full Scale IQ, it is tacitly acknowledged that these estimates are most accurate within 1 standard deviation of the mean and that accuracy diminishes moving toward the tails of the IQ distribution. However, little work has been done to systematically characterize proxy measures at the tails of the IQ distribution. Additionally, while these measures are all correlated with the WAIS, multiple proxy measures are rarely presented in one manuscript. The current article has two goals: (1) Examine various IQ proxies against Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Third Version) scores, showing the overall accuracy of each measure against the gold standard IQ measure. This comparison will assist in selecting the best proxy measure for particular clinical constraints. (2) The sample is then divided into three groups (below, average, and above-average ability), and each group is analyzed separately to characterize proxy performance at the tails of the IQ distribution. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance compares the different proxy measures across ability levels. All IQ estimates are represented in tables so that they can be examined side by side.

  8. Wechsler Performance IQ > Verbal IQ Index in a Forensic Sample: A Reconsideration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWolfe, Alan S.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the Performance IQ(PIQ) > Verbal IQ(VIQ) scales of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale with type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 men. Analyses indicated the significant relationships between PIQ > VIQ and type of crime and reading disability may be independent of ethnicity and each other.…

  9. Genetic Model Fitting in IQ, Assortative Mating & Components of IQ Variance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, Christiane; Vetta, Adrian R.; Vetta, Atam

    1998-01-01

    The biometrical school of scientists who fit models to IQ data traces their intellectual ancestry to R. Fisher (1918), but their genetic models have no predictive value. Fisher himself was critical of the concept of heritability, because assortative mating, such as for IQ, introduces complexities into the study of a genetic trait. (SLD)

  10. Symbolic Action in India: Gandhi's Nonverbal Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Allen H.

    1975-01-01

    Examines symbolic action as a method of exerting public influence nonverbally through nonviolent behavior. Discusses Gandhi's persuasive tactics including fasting, propaganda tours, silence, clothing and adoption of symbols. (MH)

  11. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  12. Nonverbal Behavior, Race, and the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    1985-01-01

    Teachers are not always sensitive to the fact that students of different races may possess differing communicative codes. Differences between the nonverbal communication of blacks and whites are discussed. (CB)

  13. Nonverbal Cues and Television News: TV News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tankard, James W., Jr.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Presents evidence that nonverbal cues by newscasters are interpreted by the viewer as a sign of bias. Using two cues, raised eyebrows and a smile, the study produced data that suggest that the audience is aware of this influence. (JMF)

  14. On Intersubjective Engagement in Autism: A Controlled Study of Nonverbal Aspects of Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Perez, Rosa M.; Lee, Anthony; Hobson, R. Peter

    2007-01-01

    Does autism involve a deficit in intersubjective engagement with other persons? We studied nonverbal communication in children and adolescents with and without autism (n = 12 per group), group-matched for chronological age and verbal mental age, during 3 min of a videotaped interview. In keeping with previous studies, there were only subtle but…

  15. WISC-R Factor Structures of Younger and Older Youth with Low IQs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, M.; Hubble, L.

    1982-01-01

    Factor analyzed Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised scores of low-IQ youths aged 9-11 and 14-16. Extracted Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Organization and Freedom From Distractibility dimensions for each group. Coefficients of congruence indicated the two age groups were not similar on the Freedom From Distractibility factor.…

  16. Academic and cognitive abilities in children of parents with bipolar disorder: a test of the nonverbal learning disability model.

    PubMed

    McDonough-Ryan, Patricia; DelBello, Melissa; Shear, Paula K; Ris, Douglas M; Soutullo, Ceasar; Strakowski, Stephen M

    2002-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that children who are at genetic risk to develop bipolar disorder demonstrate deficiencies consistent with the syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD); however, this hypothesis has never been tested directly. In the present study, a group of at-risk children (AR group; N = 28) was compared to a demographically matched control group of children of healthy parents (HC group; N = 24) for evidence of a constellation of features associated with NLD. Some characteristic features of NLD were evident, including significant Verbal IQ (VIQ) > Performance IQ (PIQ) discrepancies and psychomotor deficits. However, academic deficiencies in mechanical arithmetic relative to reading and spelling abilities were not demonstrated. These findings replicate and extend the current literature on the cognitive functioning of children of parents with Bipolar disorder (BPD). The results, however, do not support the presence of NLD in these children.

  17. IQ and ability across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie

    2011-07-01

    The experience of cognitive decline can be a potent source of anxiety and concern for many people. While an IQ consistent with estimated optimal levels or previously recorded scores may indicate no significant change in cognitive function, the patient may be accurately reporting a normal age-related deterioration in actual ability. The aim of this article is to chart the age-related changes in intellectual abilities evident on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV). The norms from the WAIS-IV manual were examined to plot the age-related changes in Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) and composite scores across the adult life span, while holding actual ability level constant across the age groups. Here we present a graphical representation of the normal cognitive developments and declines in FSIQ, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, Working Memory, and Processing Speed across the adult life span. This graphical representation provides a rational basis for the identification of atypical profiles/complaints of cognitive deterioration that may require further specialist neuropsychological evaluation. These graphs can be used to provide reassurance for healthy adults with concerns of cognitive decline and as an educative tool for their referring agencies.

  18. Pitch perception deficits in nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Prieto, I; Caprile, C; Tinoco-González, D; Ristol-Orriols, B; López-Sala, A; Póo-Argüelles, P; Pons, F; Navarra, J

    2016-12-01

    The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness. Participants performed four speeded tests: a stimulus detection test and three perceptual categorization tests based on colour, spatial position and pitch. Results revealed that both groups were equally fast at detecting visual targets and categorizing visual stimuli according to their colour. In contrast, the NLD group showed slower responses than the control group when categorizing space (direction of a visual object) and pitch (direction of a change in sound frequency). This pattern of results suggests the presence of a subtle deficit at judging pitch in NLD along with the traditionally-described difficulties in spatial processing.

  19. The relationship of IQ to effort test performance.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Arnold, Ginger

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between IQ and nine effort indicators was examined in a sample of 189 neuropsychology clinic outpatients who were not in litigation or attempting to obtain disability. Participants with the lowest IQ (50-59) failed approximately 60% of the effort tests, while patients with an IQ of 60 to 69 failed 44% of effort indicators, and individuals with borderline IQ (70 to 79) exhibited a 17% failure rate. All patients with IQ < 70 failed at least one effort test. Cutoffs for the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (Words) and Finger Tapping maintained the highest specificities in low IQ samples.

  20. Effect of interaction with clowns on vital signs and non-verbal communication of hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Alcântara, Pauline Lima; Wogel, Ariane Zonho; Rossi, Maria Isabela Lobo; Neves, Isabela Rodrigues; Sabates, Ana Llonch; Puggina, Ana Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Compare the non-verbal communication of children before and during interaction with clowns and compare their vital signs before and after this interaction. Methods: Uncontrolled, intervention, cross-sectional, quantitative study with children admitted to a public university hospital. The intervention was performed by medical students dressed as clowns and included magic tricks, juggling, singing with the children, making soap bubbles and comedic performances. The intervention time was 20min. Vital signs were assessed in two measurements with an interval of 1min immediately before and after the interaction. Non-verbal communication was observed before and during the interaction using the Non-Verbal Communication Template Chart, a tool in which non-verbal behaviors are assessed as effective or ineffective in the interactions. Results: The sample consisted of 41 children with a mean age of 7.6±2.7 years; most were aged 7-11 years (n=23; 56%) and were males (n=26; 63.4%). There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pain and non-verbal behavior of children with the intervention. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased and pain scales showed decreased scores. Conclusions: The playful interaction with clowns can be a therapeutic resource to minimize the effects of the stressing environment during the intervention, improve the children's emotional state and reduce the perception of pain. PMID:27080219

  1. Evaluating the relationship between cannabis use and IQ in youth and young adults at clinical high risk of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Buchy, Lisa; Seidman, Larry J; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Cannon, Tyrone D; Cornblatt, Barbara A; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Stone, William; Tsuang, Ming T; Walker, Elaine F; Woods, Scott W; Bearden, Carrie E; Mathalon, Daniel H; Addington, Jean

    2015-12-30

    Among people with psychosis, those with a history of cannabis use show better cognitive performance than those who are cannabis naïve. It is unknown whether this pattern is present in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis. We evaluated relationships between IQ and cannabis use while controlling for use of other substances known to impact cognition in 678 CHR and 263 healthy control (HC) participants. IQ was estimated using the Vocabulary and Block Design subtests of the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Drug and alcohol use severity and frequency were assessed with the Alcohol and Drug Use Scale, and we inquired participants' age at first use. CHR were further separated into early and late age at onset of cannabis use sub-groups, and low-, moderate- and high-frequency sub-groups. No significant differences in IQ emerged between CHR or HC cannabis users vs. non-users, or between use frequency groups. CHR late-onset users showed significantly higher IQ than CHR early-onset users. Age at onset of cannabis use was significantly and positively correlated with IQ in CHR only. Results suggest that age at onset of cannabis may be a more important factor for IQ than use current use or use frequency in CHR.

  2. Early Childhood IQ Trajectories in Individuals Later Developing Schizophrenia and Affective Psychoses in the New England Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica C; Buka, Stephen L; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Seidman, Larry J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals who develop schizophrenia in adulthood exhibit, on average, deficits in childhood cognition relative to healthy controls. However, it remains unclear when in childhood such deficits emerge and whether they are stable across childhood or change (increase or decrease) across development. Importantly, whether the trajectory of childhood cognition differs among youth who later develop affective psychoses (AP) vs schizophrenia as adults remains unresolved. Subjects in the Collaborative Perinatal Project were administered the Stanford-Binet IQ test at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. A total of 9809 (54.7%) participants in the New England Study sites were tested at both ages, including 37 who later developed schizophrenia spectrum psychoses (SSP) and 39 who later developed AP. Logistic regression models examined the association of level of and change in childhood IQ and later SSP or AP. Lower overall childhood IQ was associated with higher risk of SSP. Additionally, there was a small mean increase in IQ in the SSP group relative to a mean decrease in the control group from age 4 to 7 such that positive change in IQ was significantly associated with a higher risk of SSP. Neither overall level nor change in IQ was associated with risk of AP. The results are consistent with neurocognitive impairment throughout early childhood specifically for children who later develop schizophrenia, affirming the theory of atypical neurodevelopment in premorbid schizophrenia.

  3. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  4. The Contributions of Memory and Vocabulary to Non-Verbal Ability Scores in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mungkhetklang, Chantanee; Bavin, Edith L.; Crewther, Sheila G.; Goharpey, Nahal; Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    It is usually assumed that performance on non-verbal intelligence tests reflects visual cognitive processing and that aspects of working memory (WM) will be involved. However, the unique contribution of memory to non-verbal scores is not clear, nor is the unique contribution of vocabulary. Thus, we aimed to investigate these contributions. Non-verbal test scores for 17 individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and 39 children with typical development (TD) of similar mental age were compared to determine the unique contribution of visual and verbal short-term memory (STM) and WM and the additional variance contributed by vocabulary scores. No significant group differences were found in the non-verbal test scores or receptive vocabulary scores, but there was a significant difference in expressive vocabulary. Regression analyses indicate that for the TD group STM and WM (both visual and verbal) contributed similar variance to the non-verbal scores. For the ID group, visual STM and verbal WM contributed most of the variance to the non-verbal test scores. The addition of vocabulary scores to the model contributed greater variance for both groups. More unique variance was contributed by vocabulary than memory for the TD group, whereas for the ID group memory contributed more than vocabulary. Visual and auditory memory and vocabulary contributed significantly to solving visual non-verbal problems for both the TD group and the ID group. However, for each group, there were different weightings of these variables. Our findings indicate that for individuals with TD, vocabulary is the major factor in solving non-verbal problems, not memory, whereas for adolescents with ID, visual STM, and verbal WM are more influential than vocabulary, suggesting different pathways to achieve solutions to non-verbal problems. PMID:28082922

  5. IQ Zoo and Teaching Operant Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bihm, Elson M.; Gillaspy, J. Arthur, Jr.; Lammers, William J.; Huffman, Stephanie P.

    2010-01-01

    Psychology texts often cite the work of Marian and Keller Breland and their business, Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE), to demonstrate operant conditioning and the "misbehavior of organisms" from an evolutionary perspective. Now available on the Internet at the official IQ Zoo website (http://www3.uca.edu/iqzoo/), the artifacts of ABE's work, in…

  6. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  7. Education, Wechler's Full Scale IQ and "g."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Garcia, Luis F.; Juan-Espinosa, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether average Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) differences can be attributed to "g" using the Spanish standardization sample of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS III) (n=703 females and 666 men). Results support the conclusion that WAIS III FSIQ does not directly or exclusively measure "g" across the full range…

  8. The IQ Argument. Race, Intelligence and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    The controversy over the causes of intelligence--genetic or environmental--is reviewed. More specifically, the subject of the consistently lower intelligence scores for blacks is analyzed. Much attention is devoted to Jensen and his monograph published in the "Harvard Educational Review," entitled "How much can we boost IQ and scholastic…

  9. The Decline of the World's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Harvey, John

    2008-01-01

    Dysgenic fertility means that there is a negative correlation between intelligence and number of children. Its presence during the last century has been demonstrated in several countries. We show here that there is dysgenic fertility in the world population quantified by a correlation of--0.73 between IQ and fertility across nations. It is…

  10. Science, Politics, and the IQ Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyderman, Mark; Rothman, Stanley

    1986-01-01

    The controversy over intelligence testing is more often influenced by political considerations than empirical research. A survey of 1,020 experts found that a majority agree that (1) intelligence can be defined; (2) heredity plays a role in individual and group IQ differences; and (3) intelligence testing in schools should continue at its present…

  11. The interplay of childhood behavior problems and IQ in the development of later schizophrenia and affective psychoses.

    PubMed

    Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Seidman, Larry J; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Smoller, Jordan W; Goldstein, Jill M; Buka, Stephen L

    2017-01-03

    Schizophrenia and affective psychoses are both associated with impaired social functioning, but the extent to which childhood behavioral impairments are present prior to onset of illness is less well studied. Moreover, the concurrent relationship of childhood behavior problems and premorbid IQ with subsequent psychotic disorder has not been established. We investigated whether childhood behavior problems are associated with increased risk for adult schizophrenia or affective psychosis, independently and in combination with IQ. The study included individuals with schizophrenia (N=47), affective psychoses (N=45) and non-psychotic controls (N=1496) from the New England Family Study. Behavior problems were prospectively assessed from standardized clinician observations at ages 4 and 7. IQ was assessed with the Stanford-Binet at age 4 and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at age 7. We found externalizing problems at age 4 and externalizing and internalizing problems at age 7 were associated with later schizophrenia, and both internalizing and externalizing problems at ages 4 and 7 were associated with later development of affective psychoses. Lower IQ at ages 4 and 7 was associated with schizophrenia, while lower IQ was associated with affective psychoses at age 7 only. Examined simultaneously, both lower IQ and behavior problems remained associated with risk of schizophrenia, while only behavior problems remained associated with affective psychoses. Behavior problems appear to be a general marker of risk of adult psychotic disorder, while lower childhood IQ is more specific to risk of schizophrenia. Future research should clarify the premorbid evolution of behavior and cognitive problems into adult psychosis.

  12. Gender-Specific Nonverbal Communication: Impact for Speaker Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Lori

    1995-01-01

    A literature review notes how gender expectations lead to nonverbal communication differences in such behaviors as smiling, eye contact, kinesics, proximics, and decoding. The importance of the effective use of nonverbal communication in human resource development is emphasized. (SK)

  13. Effects of Therapist's Nonverbal Communication on Rated Skill and Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherer, Mark; Rogers, Ronald W.

    1980-01-01

    Nonverbal cues of immediacy significantly improved ratings of the therapist's interpersonal skills and effectiveness. A therapist's nonverbal behavior is a basis for interpretations of empathy, warmth, genuineness, and effectiveness. (Author)

  14. Measuring and Teaching for Success: Intelligence versus IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Service, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    Optimize action learning and successful evaluation through adopting new views of IQ. IQ as developed here relates to success in life and it is among the most changeable of characteristics. However, IQ as measured in the past is one of the least malleable of factors. Had you rather measure for and teach toward something that is not changeable or…

  15. The IQ Quantitative Trait Loci Project: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David

    1998-01-01

    Describes the IQ Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) project, an attempt to identify genes underlying IQ score variations using maps from the Human Genome Project. The essay argues against funding the IQ QTL project because it will end the debates about the genetic basis of intelligence and may lead directly to eugenic programs of genetic testing. (SLD)

  16. The New Assault on Equality: IQ and Social Stratification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartner, Alan, Ed.; And Others

    This book includes nine essays. In the Introduction: "The Lingering Infatuation with IQ," the editors argue that since the IQ test has again risen as an instrument of conservative policy, the test and the arguments built around it must be reexamined. Noam Chomsky criticizes the well-known "Atlantic" article, "IQ" (September, 1971), in "The Fallacy…

  17. Skull Size and Intelligence, and King Robert Bruce's IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deary, Ian J.; Ferguson, Karen J.; Bastin, Mark E.; Barrow, Geoffrey W. S.; Reid, Louise M.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.

    2007-01-01

    An estimate of someone's IQ is a potentially informative personal datum. This study examines the association between external skull measurements and IQ scores, and uses the resulting regression equation to provide an estimate of the IQ of King Robert I of Scotland (Robert Bruce, 1274-1329). Participants were 48 relatively healthy Caucasian men…

  18. IQ, Cultural Values, and the Technological Achievement of Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelade, Garry A.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the technological capabilities of a nation are related to national IQ. Nations with a higher percentage of high-IQ individuals generate more technological knowledge (as measured by patents granted per head of population) than other nations. Technological achievement is also shown to mediate the relationship between national IQ and…

  19. Executive function and IQ predict mathematical and attention problems in very preterm children.

    PubMed

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke Sandrine Hanan; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; Duivenvoorden, Hugo Joseph; van Goudoever, Johannes Bernard; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    Objective of this study was to examine the impact of executive function (EF) on mathematical and attention problems in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) children. Participants were 200 very preterm (mean age 8.2 ± 2.5 years) and 230 term children (mean age 8.3 ± 2.3 years) without severe disabilities, born between 1996 and 2004. EFs assessed included verbal fluency, verbal working memory, visuospatial span, planning, and impulse control. Mathematics was assessed with the Dutch Pupil Monitoring System and parents and teachers rated attention problems using standardized behavior questionnaires. The impact of EF was calculated over and above processing speed indices and IQ. Interactions with group (very preterm versus term birth status) were examined. Analyses were conducted separately for two subsamples: children in preschool and children in primary school. Very preterm children performed poorer on tests for mathematics and had more parent and teacher rated attention problems than term controls (ß(s)>.11, P(s)<.01). IQ contributed unique variance to mathematics in preschool and in primary school (ß(s)>.16, P(s)<.007). A significant interaction of group with IQ (ß = -. 24, P = .02) showed that IQ contributed unique variance to attention problems as rated by teachers, but that effects were stronger for very preterm than for term infants. Over and above IQ, EF contributed unique variance to mathematics in primary school (ß = .13, P<.001), to parent rated inattention in preschool and in primary school (ß(s)>-.16, P(s)<.04), and to teacher rated inattention in primary school (ß = -.19; ß = .19, P(s)<.009). In conclusion, impaired EF is, over and above impaired IQ, an important predictor for poor mathematics and attention problems following very preterm birth.

  20. Causation of Binet IQ Decrements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorndike, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    The 1972 re-norming of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale for children from three to six years of age produced unusually high scores. When these children were retested three years later, some drop in scores was noted. Reasons for the initial scores and the score decline are discussed. (Author/JKS)

  1. Neuropsychological functioning and social functioning of survivors of pediatric brain tumors: evidence of nonverbal learning disability.

    PubMed

    Carey, M E; Barakat, L P; Foley, B; Gyato, K; Phillips, P C

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine if survivors of pediatric brain tumors exhibit a pattern of performance consistent with nonverbal learning disability (NVLD) and to explore the relationship between neuropsychological and social functioning in these children. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery and objective measures of psychosocial function designed to assess NVLD were administered to 15 survivors of brain tumors, ages 8-12 years. Despite the small sample size, a trend for better verbal skills compared to nonverbal skills was found using composite scores. Parents reported significant social deficits and a tendency for greater internalizing behavior problems as expected in NVLD. Additionally, there was a trend for a positive association between nonverbal scores and social function. Further research is needed to determine if the NVLD pattern observed is attributable to white matter damage of the right hemisphere. Routine neuropsychological and psychosocial assessment and intervention are indicated.

  2. The structure of nonverbal decoding skills.

    PubMed

    DePaulo, B M; Rosenthal, R

    1979-09-01

    The structure of skill at decoding nonverbal cues was examined for 150 high school students and 95 college students. An overall principal components analysis yielded four factors differing in the complexity of the message (pure versus mixed) and in the relative importance of the video versus the audio modality. Factor 1 (pure video) was defined by accuracy at face and body cues of ordinary (2 second) and very brief exposure length. Factor 2 (mixed video) was defined by accuracy at face and body cues with a "noisy" background. Factor 3 (mixed audio) was defined by accuracy at decoding discrepant cues and "noisy" audio cues. Factor 4 (ure audio) was defined by accuracy at pure tone of voice cues. The overall evidence suggested that despite a nontrivial degree of relationship among all measures of skill at decoding nonverbal cues (Armor's Theta = .62), it would increase our theoretical and empirical precision to conceptualize nonverbal decoding ability as made up of several relatively unrelated subskills.

  3. An Investigation of Sex Differences in Regard to Nonverbal Body Gestures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paulette

    Designed to provide clues to research questions on sex differences nonverbal in communication, this paper contains the results of dyadic conversations processed on video tape. Twelve undergraduate and graduate student volunteers were solicited along with employed nonstudents between the ages of 19 and 30. Results indicated that males displayed…

  4. Symbolic Play Behavior in Very Young Verbal and Nonverbal Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, John, Jr.; Barrow, Meryl; Domingo, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This preliminary study assessed differences in symbolic play behavior among 20 verbal and nonverbal children with autism, ages 2.5 to 3.6 years. Results indicated significant differences in symbolic play behavior with the verbal group demonstrating a higher order level of performance. Results underscore the importance of not considering all young…

  5. The Role of Nonverbal Communication in Beginners' EFL Classrooms: Sale Junior High Schools as a Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elfatihi, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    This paper has as objective to investigate the nonverbal features used in beginners' EFL classroom in Morocco. It is based on a field research conducted in a junior high school in Sale, Morocco. The main sample is composed of 3rd form students in junior high school (their age ranges from 15 to 19), and the techniques for data collection are…

  6. Intentional Communication in Nonverbal and Verbal Low-Functioning Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Jansen, Rianne; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2011-01-01

    In this study we characterized profiles of communicative functions and forms of children with autism and intellectual disability (n = 26), as compared to typically developing children (n = 26) with a comparable nonverbal mental age (2-5 years). Videotapes of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales--Developmental Profile were analyzed using…

  7. Race and Performance of Student as Determinants of Teacher Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Orchowsky, Stanley

    1979-01-01

    The effect of students' race and performance on nonverbal behavior of teachers was investigated. White college-age subjects, acting as teachers, were led to praise successful or unsuccessful students. Results showed that stimulus teachers were more pleased with successful than unsuccessful students, and more pleased with White than Black students.…

  8. Nonverbal Affective Decoding Ability in Children with Autism and in Typical Preschoolers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twelve male children (ages 2-6) with autism were found to be less accurate than 12 typical male children in decoding nonverbal facial expressions of happiness, sadness, or anger in videotaped vignettes. However, children with autism were able to identify happiness vignettes at above-chance levels. (Author/JDD)

  9. Use of a Non-Navigational, Non-Verbal Landmark Task in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, William; Pierce, Allison; Watterson, Lucas; Coleman, Jennifer K.

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and twenty two children (104 females), 1-8 years of age and young adults, were tested for up to 25 days on five versions of a non-verbal, non-navigational landmark task that had previously been used for monkeys. In monkeys, performance on this task is severely impaired following damage to the parietal cortex. For the basic task, the…

  10. Nonverbal Communication in Two- and Three-Year-Old Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Wendy L.; Ousley, Opal Y.; Yoder, Paul J.; Hogan, Kerry L.; Hepburn, Susan L.

    1997-01-01

    The forms, functions, and complexity of nonverbal communication used by 14 young (ages 2-3) children with autism were investigated. Comparison with children with developmental delays and/or language impairments on a structured assessment found that autistic children directly manipulated the examiner's hand and requested more often but were less…

  11. Is There an Increased Familial Prevalence of Psychopathology in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antshel, Kevin M.; Khan, Fahad M.

    2008-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioral symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) have been described by previous investigators. Nevertheless, we know far less about the potential genetic contributions that may predispose a child to have NLD. An endophenotype model was investigated in 5 samples of children ages 9 to 15 years: NLD (n = 32); reading…

  12. Anxiety and Depression in Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities, Reading Disabilities, or Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene C.; Ghisi, Marta; Bomba, Monica; Bottesi, Gioia; Caviola, Sara; Broggi, Fiorenza; Nacinovich, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to shed further light on the psychological characteristics of children with different learning disability profiles aged between 8 and 11 years, attending from third to sixth grade. Specifically, children with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD), reading disabilities (RD), or a typical development (TD) were…

  13. Narrative Comprehension and Retelling Abilities of Children with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Tom; Cardy, Janis O.; Worling, David E.; Peets, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) are characterized by weaknesses in narrative discourse. Thirty-three children (M age=11.7 years), 15 girls and 18 boys, listened to stories to evaluate their narrative comprehension and retelling abilities. Children with NLD (n=11) performed as poorly as children with verbal impairment (n=10) on all narrative…

  14. Developmental Right-Hemisphere Syndrome: Clinical Spectrum of the Nonverbal Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross-Tsur, Varda; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study reports clinical characteristics of developmental right-hemisphere syndrome, a nonverbal learning disability, in 20 children (mean age 9.5 years) who also manifested attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, graphomotor problems, and slow performance. Diagnostic criteria included emotional and interpersonal difficulties, paralinguistic…

  15. Spatial Working Memory and Arithmetic Deficits in Children with Nonverbal Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age,…

  16. Interpretation of Facial Expressions of Affect in Children with Learning Disabilities with Verbal or Nonverbal Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrovsky, Lilly; Spector, Hedva; Levy-Shiff, Rachel; Vakil, Eli

    1998-01-01

    The ability to identify six facial expressions was studied in 48 nondisabled children and 76 children with learning disabilities (LD) ages 9 through 12. Overall, the nondisabled group had better interpretive ability. Among LD children, those with verbal deficits had better ability than either those with nonverbal deficits and or those with both…

  17. Detecting Deceit via Analyses of Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrij, Aldert; Akehurst, Lucy; Soukara, Stavroula; Bull, Ray

    2004-01-01

    This experiment examined children's and undergraduates' verbal and nonverbal deceptive behavior, and the extent to which their truths and lies could be correctly classified by paying attention to these responses. Participants (N = 196) aged 5-6, 10-11, and 14-15, as well as university undergraduates, participated in an erasing the blackboard…

  18. Future Cognitive Ability: US IQ Prediction until 2060 Based on NAEP

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The US National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) measures cognitive competences in reading and mathematics of US students (last 2012 survey N = 50,000). The long-term development based on results from 1971 to 2012 allows a prediction of future cognitive trends. For predicting US averages also demographic trends have to be considered. The largest groups’ (White) average of 1978/80 was set at M = 100 and SD = 15 and was used as a benchmark. Based on two past NAEP development periods for 17-year-old students, 1978/80 to 2012 (more optimistic) and 1992 to 2012 (more pessimistic), and demographic projections from the US Census Bureau, cognitive trends until 2060 for the entire age cohort and ethnic groups were estimated. Estimated population averages for 2060 are 103 (optimistic) or 102 (pessimistic). The average rise per decade is dec = 0.76 or 0.45 IQ points. White-Black and White-Hispanic gaps are declining by half, Asian-White gaps treble. The catch-up of minorities (their faster ability growth) contributes around 2 IQ to the general rise of 3 IQ; however, their larger demographic increase reduces the general rise at about the similar amount (-1.4 IQ). Because minorities with faster ability growth also rise in their population proportion the interactive term is positive (around 1 IQ). Consequences for economic and societal development are discussed. PMID:26460731

  19. Neuropsychological differences among children with Asperger syndrome, nonverbal learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder, and controls.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Walkowiak, Jenifer; Wilkinson, Alison; Christopher, Gina

    2010-01-01

    Confusion is present as to possible diagnostic differences between Asperger syndrome (AS) and Nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) and the relation of these disorders to attentional difficulties. Three-hundred and forty-five children participated in this study in 5 groups; NLD, AS, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Combined type, ADHD: Inattentive type, and controls. The NLD group showed particular difficulty on visual-spatial, visual-motor, and fluid reasoning measures compared to the other groups. There was also a significant verbal-performance IQ split in this group related to difficulty in social functioning. This study extends the findings from previous studies and extends these findings to differences between AS and NLD groups.

  20. Investigating the Predictive Roles of Working Memory and IQ in Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alloway, Tracy Packiam; Alloway, Ross G.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence for the relationship between working memory and academic attainment. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether working memory is simply a proxy for IQ or whether there is a unique contribution to learning outcomes. The findings indicate that children's working memory skills at 5 years of age were the best…

  1. Are Correlations between Cognitive Abilities Highest in Low-IQ Groups during Childhood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facon, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on Spearman's law of diminishing returns which states that correlations between IQ tests decrease as the intellectual efficiency increases. In the present study, data from the national standardization sample of a French intelligence scale for children aged 4 to 9 years (Echelles Differentielles d'Efficiences Intellectuelles,…

  2. Fenfluramine and Methylphenidate in Children with Mental Retardation and Borderline IQ: Clinical Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Aman, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of methylphenidate and different doses of fenfluramine in 30 children (ages 5-14) with mental retardation or borderline IQ and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was conducted. Parents and teachers cited more improvement with fenfluramine; however, fenfluramine had more side effects,…

  3. IQ and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Interpersonal Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The literature is mixed as to the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in adult populations. Even less is known about the relationship in children who have been traumatized. Methods: Fifty-nine children and adolescents (mean age = 10.6) with a history of interpersonal…

  4. IQ and Perceptual Motor Scores as Predictors of Achievement Among Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Thompson, J., Sr.; Amble, Bruce R.

    1970-01-01

    The Koppitz scoring of the Bender Gestalt Test for young children was used to predict educational attainment for 74 EMH students on reading, spelling, and arithmetic. Only on the arithmetic criterion did Bender scores increase prediction, beyond the factors of chronological age and IQ.

  5. Ratio Developmental Quotients from the Bayley Are Comparable to Later IQs from the Stanford-Binet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Donald J.; Sheaffer, Christopher I.

    1988-01-01

    Ratio developmental quotients from Bayley Scales administered after age 30 months were compared to Stanford Binet IQs secured later for 42 mentally retarded children. Means were almost identical suggesting use of Bayley ratio quotients with children too old for the Bayley norms and too retarded for the Stanford Binet. (Author/DB)

  6. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders.

  7. A Generational Approach to Using Emoticons as Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krohn, Franklin B.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to help determine whether the use of emoticons in computer mediated communication (CMC) are truly nonverbal cues. A review of the literature revealed that the traditional nonverbal theorists failed to predict the future employment of nonverbal cues in electronic CMC. A variety of emoticons are then described…

  8. Teachers' Nonverbal Behavior and Its Impact on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhry, Noureen Asghar; Arif, Manzoor

    2012-01-01

    The observational study was conducted to see the impact of teachers' nonverbal behavior on academic achievement of learners. This also investigated the relationship of nonverbal communication of teachers working in different educational institutions. Main objectives of study were to measure nonverbal behavior of teachers' both male and female…

  9. Nonverbal Communication in One-to-One Music Performance Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkul, Wen W.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored nonverbal communication in one-to-one music performance instruction by investigating relationships among nonverbal sensitivity, nonverbal behaviors and lesson effectiveness. Subjects (N = 120) comprised 60 college teachers and 60 of their non-music major students. Using the Music Lesson Evaluation Form, lesson effectiveness was…

  10. Nonverbal Disclosure of Teacher Deception and Interpersonal Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    1976-01-01

    Nonverbal behavior tended to reflect whether a teacher was dissembling or truthful. When being truthful, teachers revealed their underlying affective states; but when lying, there was no difference in nonverbal behavior according to affective state. Teachers' nonverbal behavior also tended to occur differentially according to the publicness of the…

  11. Toward a resolution of inconsistencies in the phonological deficit theory of reading disorders: phonological reading difficulties are more severe in high-IQ poor readers.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rhona S; Morrison, Marjorie

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether high- and low-IQ poor readers differed in patterns of reading performance. Ten-year-old poor readers with IQ scores of 110 and higher showed difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, failing to show an advantage in reading high-frequency regular versus irregular words and showing impaired nonword reading accuracy for their reading age. However, poor readers with IQ scores of 90 and below showed a more phonological approach to reading, with better reading of regular than irregular words of both high and low frequency, and with nonword reading skills slower than, but as accurate as, those of reading-age controls. We concluded that the high-IQ poor readers experienced difficulty in taking a phonological approach to reading, whereas the low-IQ poor readers had much less marked phonological problems, supporting Stanovich's phonological-core variable-difference model.

  12. Anatomical Correlates of Non-Verbal Perception in Dementia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Nai-Ching; Chang, Wen-Neng; Huang, Chi-Wei; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Shih-Wei; Hsu, Che-Wei; Chang, Chiung-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patients with dementia who have dissociations in verbal and non-verbal sound processing may offer insights into the anatomic basis for highly related auditory modes. Methods: To determine the neuronal networks on non-verbal perception, 16 patients with Alzheimer’s dementia (AD), 15 with behavior variant fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD), 14 with semantic dementia (SD) were evaluated and compared with 15 age-matched controls. Neuropsychological and auditory perceptive tasks were included to test the ability to compare pitch changes, scale-violated melody and for naming and associating with environmental sound. The brain 3D T1 images were acquired and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare and correlated the volumetric measures with task scores. Results: The SD group scored the lowest among 3 groups in pitch or scale-violated melody tasks. In the environmental sound test, the SD group also showed impairment in naming and also in associating sound with pictures. The AD and bv-FTD groups, compared with the controls, showed no differences in all tests. VBM with task score correlation showed that atrophy in the right supra-marginal and superior temporal gyri was strongly related to deficits in detecting violated scales, while atrophy in the bilateral anterior temporal poles and left medial temporal structures was related to deficits in environmental sound recognition. Conclusions: Auditory perception of pitch, scale-violated melody or environmental sound reflects anatomical degeneration in dementia patients and the processing of non-verbal sounds are mediated by distinct neural circuits. PMID:27630558

  13. Does IQ Moderate the Relation between Psychopathy and Juvenile Offending?

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Ashley S.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Steinberg, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Although evidence indicates that both psychopathy and intelligence independently predict juvenile offending, relations among IQ, psychopathy, and offending are inconsistent. We investigated whether intelligence moderates the relation between psychopathy and aggressive and income offending concurrently and over time among 1,354 juvenile offenders enrolled in Pathways to Desistance, a prospective study of serious juvenile offenders in Philadelphia and Phoenix. Participants were assessed on intelligence, psychopathy, and self-reported offending both at their initial interview (ages 14–18 years old), and 36 and 84 months later. Results indicate that intelligence moderates the concurrent relation between both aggressive and income offending and total psychopathy, as well as scores on Factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and Factor 2 (social deviance); the 36-month prospective relation between all aspects of psychopathy and income offending; and the 84-month prospective relation between Factor 2 psychopathy and aggressive offending. As expected, higher levels of psychopathy are associated with higher levels of offending, but the highest levels of offending are evinced among youth with relatively higher levels of psychopathy and relatively higher IQ. PMID:23750597

  14. Does IQ Really Predict Job Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    IQ has played a prominent part in developmental and adult psychology for decades. In the absence of a clear theoretical model of internal cognitive functions, however, construct validity for IQ tests has always been difficult to establish. Test validity, therefore, has always been indirect, by correlating individual differences in test scores with what are assumed to be other criteria of intelligence. Job performance has, for several reasons, been one such criterion. Correlations of around 0.5 have been regularly cited as evidence of test validity, and as justification for the use of the tests in developmental studies, in educational and occupational selection and in research programs on sources of individual differences. Here, those correlations are examined together with the quality of the original data and the many corrections needed to arrive at them. It is concluded that considerable caution needs to be exercised in citing such correlations for test validation purposes. PMID:26405429

  15. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, S H; Munafò, M R; Roiser, J P; Curran, H V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾ 50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested.

  16. Dissociating Verbal and Nonverbal Audiovisual Object Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, Julia; Price, Cathy J.

    2009-01-01

    This fMRI study investigates how audiovisual integration differs for verbal stimuli that can be matched at a phonological level and nonverbal stimuli that can be matched at a semantic level. Subjects were presented simultaneously with one visual and one auditory stimulus and were instructed to decide whether these stimuli referred to the same…

  17. Competent Verbal and Nonverbal Crossgender Immediacy Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rifkind, Lawrence J.; Harper, Loretta F.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of immediacy, the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people, looks at a variety of verbal and nonverbal factors and behaviors useful to gain immediacy among co-workers, including attractiveness, clothing, posture, facial/eye behavior, vocal cues, space, touch, time, and gestures. Cross-gender dimensions,…

  18. Communication Apprehension and Intercultural Nonverbal Coding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardot, Joe

    A study investigated the relationship between communication apprehension and two nonverbal variables--proxemic establishment and kinesic behavior--in an intercultural setting. Subjects were 30 high and 30 low apprehensive adults (15 white and 15 black in each category). The subjects were paired to create three groups: the first containing 10 dyads…

  19. Nonverbal Communication Can Be a Motivational Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John E., Jr.; Weiting, Gretchen K.

    1979-01-01

    Stating that motivation is a product of the interaction between employer and employee, the authors discuss the "Pygmalion effect" (whereby the expectations of a manager influence the performance of subordinates), the importance of communication, and the components of nonverbal communication: environment, proxemics, postures, gestures,…

  20. Responding to Students with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telzrow, Cathy F.; Bonar, Aimee M.

    2002-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) syndrome and describes appropriate educational strategies. Primary characteristics of NLD and possible indicators are listed. Remedial, compensatory, instructional or therapeutic interventions are listed for psychomotor and perceptual motor deficits, for arithmetic…

  1. Nonverbal Cues to Deception in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimmin, Harold; Noel, Richard C.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nonverbal facial, body, and paralanguage cues to deception in children. A sample of 31 Hispanic and Black second and third grade students were videotaped while playing a color identification that required six honest and six deceptive verbal responses to a randomized stimulus presentation. Frame-by-frame…

  2. Attitudes, Cognition, and Nonverbal Communicative Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Lobato-Barrera, Debra

    In the first of two experiments, positive and negative expectations about a teacher were induced in a student who was about to be taught by that teacher, and both verbal and nonverbal measurements were taken. Results showed that subjects responded quite directly to the experimental manipulation. In the second experiment, a student simulated some…

  3. Human Nonverbal Behaviors, Empathy, and Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggers, T. Thorne

    Nonverbal behavior is an important aspect of the film and is one of the several tools that a director uses to communicate to an audience the characters' feelings and relationships. By adding to this information their own personal responses, viewers often experience strong feelings. With reference to the social psychological research of nonverbal…

  4. Facilitative Effects of Practice upon Nonverbal Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roweton, William E.; Spencer, Herbert L., Jr.

    Numerous studies of verbal creativity indicate that idea originality increases progressively as more ideas are produced. The present study tested the effects of practice upon nonverbal creativity. Thirty-two fifth grade children were administered Form A and/or Form B of Torrance's picture completion task for 5 consecutive days. Figural originality…

  5. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Remedial Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Jean M.

    1991-01-01

    Adolescents with nonverbal learning disabilities are characterized by poor fine graphomotor skills, poor organization, and inaccurate perceptions of social situations. Effective remedial interventions include training students in study skills, writing skills, organizational skills, and social skills, and in ways to plan, risk, and act on their own…

  6. Hawaiian Nonverbal Communication: Two Classroom Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Alberta Pualani

    Although there are only about 2,000 active speakers of the Hawaiian language, there exists a coherent system of nonverbal behavior which can be identified as Hawaiian and which contrasts sharply with middle class white American behavior. Teachers of Hawaiian children should be aware of this in order to avoid potential misunderstandings in the…

  7. Sex Roles and Nonverbal Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Judith A.; Halberstadt, Amy G.

    1981-01-01

    Reports on a meta-analysis of research studies on the relationship of encoding and decoding abilities to sex roles. Suggests that "feminine" interpersonal goals may be achieved without superior nonverbal communication ability, whereas "masculine" goals may require more ability to judge others' feelings and moods. (Author/ST)

  8. Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollman, Steven A.

    Research has shown that nonverbal variables have a strong influence on classroom communication. This paper examines the way in which communication in the classroom is affected by the variables of distance, physical environment, facial expression, vocal cues, posture and gestures, touch, use of time, physical attractiveness, and dress. Each…

  9. Evaluation of Nonverbal Elements in Mathematics Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunzel, Martin; Binterova, Helena

    2016-01-01

    This article comments on mathematics textbooks for lower secondary schools. Authors do not focus on texts in the books but on the nonverbal elements instead. A possible system of categories which enables mapping and classifying of such elements is suggested in this article. As a result of that, it is possible to evaluate and compare the textbooks…

  10. Phishing IQ Tests Measure Fear, Not Ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandpara, Vivek; Dingman, Andrew; Jakobsson, Markus; Liu, Debin; Roinestad, Heather

    We argue that phishing IQ tests fail to measure susceptibility to phishing attacks. We conducted a study where 40 subjects were asked to answer a selection of questions from existing phishing IQ tests in which we varied the portion (from 25% to 100%) of the questions that corresponded to phishing emails. We did not find any correlation between the actual number of phishing emails and the number of emails that the subjects indicated were phishing. Therefore, the tests did not measure the ability of the subjects. To further confirm this, we exposed all the subjects to existing phishing education after they had taken the test, after which each subject was asked to take a second phishing test, with the same design as the first one, but with different questions. The number of stimuli that were indicated as being phishing in the second test was, again, independent of the actual number of phishing stimuli in the test. However, a substantially larger portion of stimuli was indicated as being phishing in the second test, suggesting that the only measurable effect of the phishing education (from the point of view of the phishing IQ test) was an increased concern—not an increased ability.

  11. Prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymetry in children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wajnsztejn, Alessandra Bernardes Caturani; Bianco, Bianca; Barbosa, Caio Parente

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe clinical and epidemiological features of children and adolescents with interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder and to investigate the prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry in this population group. Methods Cross-sectional study including children and adolescents referred for interdisciplinary assessment with learning difficulty complaints, who were given an interdisciplinary diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. The following variables were included in the analysis: sex-related prevalence, educational system, initial presumptive diagnoses and respective prevalence, overall non-verbal learning disorder prevalence, prevalence according to school year, age range at the time of assessment, major family complaints, presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry, arithmetic deficits, visuoconstruction impairments and major signs and symptoms of non-verbal learning disorder. Results Out of 810 medical records analyzed, 14 were from individuals who met the diagnostic criteria for non-verbal learning disorder, including the presence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry. Of these 14 patients, 8 were male. Conclusion The high prevalence of inter-hemispheric asymmetry suggests this parameter can be used to predict or support the diagnosis of non-verbal learning disorder. PMID:28076596

  12. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet: IV, and Academic Achievement Test Scores in Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2003-01-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for children (ages 3-7) on the Stanford-Binet: IV (n=53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n=63). Stanford-Binet: IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ and high-IQ groups with high scores on visual matching tests. (Contains…

  13. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bo-yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies. PMID:27881961

  14. Functional Connectivity of Child and Adolescent Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Patients: Correlation with IQ.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Yong; Hong, Jisu; Lee, Seung-Hak; Park, Hyunjin

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a pervasive neuropsychological disorder that affects both children and adolescents. Child and adolescent ADHD patients exhibit different behavioral symptoms such as hyperactivity and impulsivity, but not much connectivity research exists to help explain these differences. We analyzed openly accessible resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data on 112 patients (28 child ADHD, 28 adolescent ADHD, 28 child normal control (NC), and 28 adolescent NC). We used group independent component analysis (ICA) and weighted degree values to identify interaction effects of age (child and adolescent) and symptom (ADHD and NC) in brain networks. The frontoparietal network showed significant interaction effects (p = 0.0068). The frontoparietal network is known to be related to hyperactive and impulsive behaviors. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is an important factor in ADHD, and we predicted IQ scores using the results of our connectivity analysis. IQ was predicted using degree centrality values of networks with significant interaction effects of age and symptom. Actual and predicted IQ scores demonstrated significant correlation values, with an error of about 10%. Our study might provide imaging biomarkers for future ADHD and intelligence studies.

  15. Neurodevelopmental outcome of hypoglycaemia in healthy, large for gestational age, term newborns

    PubMed Central

    Brand, P; Molenaar, N; Kaaijk, C; Wierenga, W

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the effects of transient hypoglycaemia on the first day of life in 75 healthy term large for gestational age (LGA) infants, born to non-diabetic mothers, on their neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 4 years. Methods: Screening for hypoglycaemia was performed 1, 3, and 5 hours after birth, and continued if blood glucose levels were low. Treatment with intravenous glucose for hypoglycaemia was started if hypoglycaemia was severe or symptomatic. Patients' development and behaviour was examined at the age of 4 years by the Denver Developmental Scale, a non-verbal intelligence test, and the Child Behaviour Check List. Results: There were no significant differences between children with neonatal normoglycaemia (n = 15) and hypoglycaemia (plasma glucose <2.2 mmol/l 1 hour after birth, or <2.5 mmol/l subsequently; n = 60) in Denver developmental scale scores and child behaviour checklist scores. Although total IQ did not differ between hypoglycaemic and normoglycaemic children, one subscale (reasoning) did (mean difference 9.3, 95% CI 1.3 to 17.2). The correlation between reasoning IQ and neonatal blood glucose levels was weak and not statistically significant. When other definitions for hypoglycaemia were applied, the difference in reasoning IQ was not found. There were no differences in any of the test scores between hypoglycaemic children who had and who had not been treated with intravenous glucose. Conclusion: Transient mild hypoglycaemia in healthy, term LGA newborns does not appear to be harmful to psychomotor development at the age of 4 years. PMID:15613521

  16. Head size and intelligence, learning, nutritional status and brain development. Head, IQ, learning, nutrition and brain.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, Daniza M; Leiva, Boris P; Pérez, Hernán T; Olivares, Manuel G; Díaz, Nora S; Urrutia, María Soledad C; Almagià, Atilio F; Toro, Triana D; Miller, Patricio T; Bosch, Enrique O; Larraín, Cristián G

    2004-01-01

    This multifactorial study investigates the interrelationships between head circumference (HC) and intellectual quotient (IQ), learning, nutritional status and brain development in Chilean school-age children graduating from high school, of both sexes and with high and low IQ and socio-economic strata (SES). The sample consisted of 96 right-handed healthy students (mean age 18.0 +/- 0.9 years) born at term. HC was measured both in the children and their parents and was expressed as Z-score (Z-HC). In children, IQ was determined by means of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R), scholastic achievement (SA) through the standard Spanish language and mathematics tests and the academic aptitude test (AAT) score, nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric indicators, brain development was determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and SES applying the Graffar modified method. Results showed that microcephalic children (Z-HC < or = 2 S.D.) had significantly lower values mainly for brain volume (BV), parental Z-HC, IQ, SA, AAT, birth length (BL) and a significantly higher incidence of undernutrition in the first year of life compared with their macrocephalic peers (Z-HC > 2S.D.). Multiple regression analysis revealed that BV, parental Z-HC and BL were the independent variables with the greatest explanatory power for child's Z-HC variance (r(2) = 0.727). These findings confirm the hypothesis formulated in this study: (1) independently of age, sex and SES, brain parameters, parental HC and prenatal nutritional indicators are the most important independent variables that determine HC and (2) microcephalic children present multiple disorders not only related to BV but also to IQ, SA and nutritional background.

  17. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  18. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-06-25

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation.

  19. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-adoption

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar et al., 2013; Kreppner, O’Connor, & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad et al., 2008). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M= 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M= 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into 4 groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = −0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = −.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. PMID:25070881

  20. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers' interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R(2) = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R(2) = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R(2) = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age.

  1. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Scoring for Autism, quantifying toddlers’ interest in toys, social routines, and activities that could serve as reinforcers in an intervention. Adaptive level and mental age were measured concurrently (Time 1) and again after a mean of 16.3 months of treatment (Time 2). Interest Level Scoring for Autism score, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule score, adaptive age equivalent, verbal and nonverbal mental age, and intensity of intervention were entered into regression models to predict rates of skill acquisition. Interest level at Time 1 predicted subsequent acquisition rate of adaptive skills (R2 = 0.36) and verbal mental age (R2 = 0.30), above and beyond the effects of Time 1 verbal and nonverbal mental ages and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. Interest level at Time 1 also contributed (R2 = 0.30), with treatment intensity, to variance in development of nonverbal mental age. PMID:25398893

  2. Premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    URFER PARNAS, ANNICK; JANSSON, LENNART; HANDEST, PETER; NIELSEN, JAN; SÆBYE, DITTE; PARNAS, JOSEF

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the association between IQ and schizophrenia is still unclear. So far no study addressed this issue in relation to the breadth or scope of the very concept of schizophrenia. We examined the premorbid IQ in a polydiagnostic study with four classifications of schizophrenia: ICD-8/9, ICD-10, St. Louis and Flexible System-Wide. Only the ICD-10 schizophrenia patients exhibited a significantly lower premorbid IQ. There were suggestive differences between the four examined systems as well as between the ICD-10 paranoid and non-paranoid subtypes. Exploration of crucial diagnostic features of schizophrenia in relation to IQ revealed associations between low premorbid IQ and hallucinations as well as negative symptoms. It is concluded that premorbid IQ varies across different definitions of schizophrenia. PMID:17342225

  3. State IQ and suicide rates in the United States.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2007-08-01

    Previous findings pertaining to the direction (positive or negative) of the ecological correlation between intelligence and suicide rates in the USA have been conflicting. Using novel state IQ estimates, derived from the Scholastic Assessment Test, the American College Test, these tests combined, or the National Assessment of Educational Progress state scores, these estimates were not consistently associated to state suicide rates. Whereas ACT-derived state IQ was significantly positively correlated with suicide rates, the correlation with composite ACT-SAT-derived state IQ was significantly negative and with both SAT-derived and NAEP-derived state IQ also negative but not significant. Validity checks pointed to possible methodological problems with the state IQ estimates. Currently available estimates of state IQ, therefore, seem not appropriate to resolve the question of the direction of the ecological correlation of intelligence and suicide mortality across the USA.

  4. Prenatal DDT and DDE exposure and child IQ in the CHAMACOS cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Fraser W; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Chevrier, Jonathan; Mora, Ana Maria; Sjödin, Andreas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-12-01

    Although banned in most countries, dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) continues to be used for vector control in some malaria endemic areas. Previous findings from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) cohort study found increased prenatal levels of DDT and its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE) to be associated with altered neurodevelopment in children at 1 and 2years of age. In this study, we combined the measured maternal DDT/E concentrations during pregnancy obtained for the prospective birth cohort with predicted prenatal DDT and DDE levels estimated for a retrospective birth cohort. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) and linear regression models, we evaluated the relationship of prenatal maternal DDT and DDE serum concentrations with children's cognition at ages 7 and 10.5years as assessed using the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and 4 subtest scores (Working Memory, Perceptual Reasoning, Verbal Comprehension, and Processing Speed) of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). In GEE analyses incorporating both age 7 and 10.5 scores (n=619), we found prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales (p-value>0.05). In linear regression analyses assessing each time point separately, prenatal DDT levels were inversely associated with Processing Speed at age 7years (n=316), but prenatal DDT and DDE levels were not associated with Full Scale IQ or any of the WISC subscales at age 10.5years (n=595). We found evidence for effect modification by sex. In girls, but not boys, prenatal DDE levels were inversely associated with Full Scale IQ and Processing Speed at age 7years. We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the relationship between prenatal DDE levels and children's cognitive development may be modified by sex, with girls being more adversely

  5. Intensity, Variety, and Accuracy in Nonverbal Cues and De-/Encoding: Two Experimental Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard; Gerada-Aloisio, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Nonverbal communication skill, decoding and encoding nonverbal cues effectively, is an important part of social competence. Merely experience in receiving and sending nonverbal cues, however, is not sufficient to improve nonverbal skill. Consequently, a training program was designed to develop nonverbal sensitivity of school administrators and…

  6. Mother and Toddler Activity in the Zone of Proximal Development for Pretend Play as a Predictor of Higher Child IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Anne-Marie; Brown, P. Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the pretend play of mother-toddler dyads in relation to later child IQ. Twenty-one toddlers were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months, and later assessed at 5 years of age on the Stanford-Binet IV. Children's and mothers' pretend play levels and frequencies were measured using…

  7. Characteristics of low IQ arsonists at psychiatric assessment.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Geoff; Sugarman, Philip; Ahmad, Farooq; Edgar, Simon; Hofberg, Kristina; Tewari, Sidharta

    2008-07-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of arsonists referred for psychiatric assessment and found that 88/202 (43.6%) had an IQ of 85 or below. The low IQ group showed more evidence of childhood temperamental disturbance, and a later pattern of internal problems rather than external factors expressing themselves as fire-setting. This study highlights the likelihood of lifelong, temperamental problems being apparent in childhood, and being predictive and possibly causative of fire setting in people with a low IQ. Better understanding of the distinct characteristics of lower IQ arsonists is essential for improved prevention, treatment and management.

  8. IQ AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACROSS REGIONS OF THE UK.

    PubMed

    Carl, Noah

    2016-05-01

    Cross-regional correlations between average IQ and socioeconomic development have been documented in many different countries. This paper presents new IQ estimates for the twelve regions of the UK. These are weakly correlated (r=0.24) with the regional IQs assembled by Lynn (1979). Assuming the two sets of estimates are accurate and comparable, this finding suggests that the relative IQs of different UK regions have changed since the 1950s, most likely due to differentials in the magnitude of the Flynn effect, the selectivity of external migration, the selectivity of internal migration or the strength of the relationship between IQ and fertility. The paper provides evidence for the validity of the regional IQs by showing that IQ estimates for UK nations (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland) derived from the same data are strongly correlated with national PISA scores (r=0.99). It finds that regional IQ is positively related to income, longevity and technological accomplishment; and is negatively related to poverty, deprivation and unemployment. A general factor of socioeconomic development is correlated with regional IQ at r=0.72.

  9. Impact of the DSM-V Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Criteria for Diagnosing Children With High IQ.

    PubMed

    Thongseiratch, Therdpong; Worachotekamjorn, Juthamas

    2016-10-01

    This study compared the number of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) cases defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV versus DSM-V criterion in children who have learning or behavioral problems with high IQ. The medical records of children ≤15 years of age who presented with learning or behavioral problems and underwent a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)-III IQ test at the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic unit between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Information on DSM-IV and DSM-V criteria for ADHD were derived from computer-based medical records. Twenty-eight children who had learning or behavioral problems were identified to have a full-scale IQ ≥120. Sixteen of these high-IQ children met the DSM-IV criteria diagnosis for ADHD. Applying the extension of the age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years in DSM-V led to an increase of three cases, all of which were the inattentive type ADHD. Including the pervasive developmental disorder criterion led to an increase of one case. The total number of ADHD cases also increased from 16 to 20 in this group. The data supported the hypothesis that applying the extension of the age-of-onset ADHD criterion and enabling the diagnosis of children with pervasive developmental disorders will increase the number of ADHD diagnoses among children with high IQ.

  10. 78 FR 79511 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and...''). Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust (the ``Trust''); IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ Advisors''); and ALPS... Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-1090; Applicants: the Trust and IndexIQ Advisors,...

  11. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each, a ``Trust,'' and collectively, the ``Trusts''), IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ Advisors'') and...

  12. Requiem for nutrition as the cause of IQ gains: Raven's gains in Britain 1938-2008.

    PubMed

    Flynn, James R

    2009-03-01

    The hypothesis that enhanced nutrition is mainly responsible for massive IQ gains over time borrows plausibility from the height gains of the 20th century. However, evidence shows that the two trends are largely independent. A detailed analysis of IQ trends on the Raven's Progressive Matrices tests in Britain dramatizes the poverty of the nutrition hypothesis. A multiple factor hypothesis that operates on three levels is offered as an alternative instrument of causal explanation. The Raven's data show that over the 65 years from circa 1942 to the present, taking ages 5-15 together, British school children have gained 14 IQ points for a rate of 0.216 points per year. However, since 1979, gains have declined with age and between the ages of 12-13 and 14-15, small gains turn into small losses. This is confirmed by Piagetian data and poses the possibility that the cognitive demands of teen-age subculture have been stagnant over perhaps the last 30 years.

  13. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  14. Development of an IQ test for New Zealand adults.

    PubMed

    Hattie, John; Fletcher, Richard

    2008-04-01

    In 2003 and 2004 a television network in New Zealand showed a syndicated program called Test the Nation: The New Zealand IQ Test. This paper demonstrates how the IQ test was devised using item response theory, and evaluates the properties of the test using data from the TV program participants.

  15. IQ Wars Continue with Battles over New Puzzles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    James R. Flynn is an accidental IQ specialist. In the early 1980s, the American-born political scientist thought he might spend a few pages in a planned book on "how to defend humane ideals" grappling with the argument that the gap in IQ scores between blacks and whites was genetically rooted. It was not his first foray into that subject, but this…

  16. Dynamic test of radio altimeter based on IQ modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongfei; Tian, Yu; Li, Miao

    2010-08-01

    This paper based on the analysis and research of radio altimeter and its basic principles, it introduces a design for I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system. Further, data got from the test had been analyzed. Combined with the testing data of the altimeter, a construction of the I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system is built.

  17. Exponential Correlation of IQ and the Wealth of Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerson, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Plots of mean IQ and per capita real Gross Domestic Product for groups of 81 and 185 nations, as collected by Lynn and Vanhanen, are best fitted by an exponential function of the form: GDP = "a" * 10["b"*(IQ)], where "a" and "b" are empirical constants. Exponential fitting yields markedly higher correlation coefficients than either linear or…

  18. The Secular Rise in IQ: Giving Heterosis a Closer Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingroni, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although most discussions today start from the assumption that the secular rise in IQ must be environmental in origin, three reasons warrant giving the genetic phenomenon heterosis a closer look as a potential cause. First, it easily accounts for both the high heritability and low shared environmental effects seen in IQ, findings that are…

  19. Interrelationships among Music Aptitude, IQ, and Auditory Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Doris

    1980-01-01

    Tests of intelligence, music audiation, auditory conservation, and visual conservation were administered to two first-grade classes. Data revealed that auditory conservation isn't significantly related to visual conservation but is significantly related to music aptitude, to IQ, and to the interaction of music aptitude and IQ. Instructional…

  20. Statistical Inference and Spatial Patterns in Correlates of IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassall, Christopher; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-national comparisons of IQ have become common since the release of a large dataset of international IQ scores. However, these studies have consistently failed to consider the potential lack of independence of these scores based on spatial proximity. To demonstrate the importance of this omission, we present a re-evaluation of several…

  1. Shortcomings of the IQ-Based Construct of Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Ziegler, Albert; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2012-01-01

    Despite being plagued by serious conceptual problems, underachievement ranks among the most popular constructs in research on the gifted. Many of its problems have their roots in the use of the IQ as the supposedly best method of measuring ability levels. Only a few decades ago the opinion was still widespread that the IQ-based construct of…

  2. IQ and Fertility: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatz, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have found a small to moderate negative correlation between IQ and fertility rates. However, these studies have been limited to the United States and some European countries. The present study was a between-nation study using national IQ scores and national fertility rates. There were strong negative correlations found between…

  3. IQ Predicts Word Decoding Skills in Populations with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of word decoding in adolescents with Down syndrome and in adolescents with Intellectual Deficits of unknown etiology. It was designed as a replication of studies of word decoding in English speaking and in Hebrew speaking adolescents with Williams syndrome ([0230] and [0235]). Participants' IQ was matched to IQ in the groups with…

  4. IQ Gains in Argentina between 1964 and 1998

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, James R.; Rossi-Case, Lilia

    2012-01-01

    The literature on IQ gains in Latin America is sparse. We estimate gains on Raven's Progressive Matrices in the city of La Plata (Argentina) between 1964 and 1998. The gains are robust at the top of the curve as well as at the bottom. Therefore, they are contrary to the hypothesis that nutrition played a major role in recent Argentine IQ gains.…

  5. The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Mortensen, EL; Kilburn, T; Underbjerg, M; Bertrand, J; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Grove, J; Kesmodel, US

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of low to moderate maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy on children’s intelligence (IQ) at age 5 years. Design Prospective follow-up study. Setting Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003–2008. Population A cohort of 1628 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Methods Participants were sampled based on maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age, children were tested with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence—Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, maternal smoking in pregnancy, the child’s age at testing, gender, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for maternal binge drinking, age, BMI, parity, home environment, postnatal smoking in the home, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairments. Main outcome measures The WPPSI-R. Results No differences in test performance were observed between children whose mothers reported consuming between one and four or between five and eight drinks per week at some point during pregnancy, compared with children of mothers who abstained. For women who reported consuming nine or more drinks per week no differences were observed for mean differences; however, the risks of low full-scale IQ (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.2–18.2) and low verbal IQ (OR 5.9; 95% CI 1.4–24.9) scores, but not low performance IQ score, were increased. Conclusions Maternal consumption of low to moderate quantities of alcohol during pregnancy was not associated with the mean IQ score of preschool children. Despite these findings, acceptable levels of alcohol use during pregnancy have not yet been established, and conservative advice for women continues to be to avoid alcohol use during pregnancy. PMID:22712749

  6. Individual Differences in Working Memory, Nonverbal IQ, and Mathematics Achievement and Brain Mechanisms Associated with Symbolic and Nonsymbolic Number Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullick, Margaret M.; Sprute, Lisa A.; Temple, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences in mathematics performance may stem from domain-general factors like working memory and intelligence. Parietal and frontal brain areas have been implicated in number processing, but the influence of such cognitive factors on brain activity during mathematics processing is not known. The relationship between brain mechanisms…

  7. Radiation dosimetry predicts IQ after conformal radiation therapy in pediatric patients with localized ependymoma

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Thomas E. . E-mail: thomas.merchant@stjude.org; Kiehna, Erin N.; Li Chenghong; Xiong Xiaoping; Mulhern, Raymond K.

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of radiation dose-volume distribution on the trajectory of IQ development after conformal radiation therapy (CRT) in pediatric patients with ependymoma. Methods and Materials: The study included 88 patients (median age, 2.8 years {+-} 4.5 years) with localized ependymoma who received CRT (54-59.4 Gy) that used a 1-cm margin on the postoperative tumor bed. Patients were evaluated with tests that included IQ measures at baseline (before CRT) and at 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Differential dose-volume histograms (DVH) were derived for total-brain, supratentorial-brain, and right and left temporal-lobe volumes. The data were partitioned into three dose intervals and integrated to create variables that represent the fractional volume that received dose over the specified intervals (e.g., V{sub 0-20Gy}, V{sub 20-40Gy}, V{sub 40-65Gy}) and modeled with clinical variables to develop a regression equation to estimate IQ after CRT. Results: A total of 327 IQ tests were performed in 66 patients with infratentorial tumors and 20 with supratentorial tumors. The median follow-up was 29.4 months. For all patients, IQ was best estimated by age (years) at CRT; percent volume of the supratentorial brain that received doses between 0 and 20 Gy, 20 and 40 Gy, and 40 and 65 Gy; and time (months) after CRT. Age contributed significantly to the intercept (p > 0.0001), and the dose-volume coefficients were statistically significant (V{sub 0-20Gy}, p = 0.01; V{sub 20-40Gy}, p < 0.001; V{sub 40-65Gy}, p = 0.04). A similar model was developed exclusively for patients with infratentorial tumors but not supratentorial tumors. Conclusion: Radiation dosimetry can be used to predict IQ after CRT in patients with localized ependymoma. The specificity of models may be enhanced by grouping according to tumor location.

  8. Non-verbal communication through sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tairych, Andreas; Xu, Daniel; O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2016-04-01

    When we communicate face to face, we subconsciously engage our whole body to convey our message. In telecommunication, e.g. during phone calls, this powerful information channel cannot be used. Capturing nonverbal information from body motion and transmitting it to the receiver parallel to speech would make these conversations feel much more natural. This requires a sensing device that is capable of capturing different types of movements, such as the flexion and extension of joints, and the rotation of limbs. In a first embodiment, we developed a sensing glove that is used to control a computer game. Capacitive dielectric elastomer (DE) sensors measure finger positions, and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) detects hand roll. These two sensor technologies complement each other, with the IMU allowing the player to move an avatar through a three-dimensional maze, and the DE sensors detecting finger flexion to fire weapons or open doors. After demonstrating the potential of sensor fusion in human-computer interaction, we take this concept to the next level and apply it in nonverbal communication between humans. The current fingerspelling glove prototype uses capacitive DE sensors to detect finger gestures performed by the sending person. These gestures are mapped to corresponding messages and transmitted wirelessly to another person. A concept for integrating an IMU into this system is presented. The fusion of the DE sensor and the IMU combines the strengths of both sensor types, and therefore enables very comprehensive body motion sensing, which makes a large repertoire of gestures available to nonverbal communication over distances.

  9. Intrauterine exposure to alcohol and tobacco use and childhood IQ: findings from a parental-offspring comparison within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    PubMed

    Alati, Rosa; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Sayal, Kapil; MAY, Margaret; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that moderate maternal alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy is associated with intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in childhood through intrauterine mechanisms. We conducted parental-offspring comparisons between the associations of tobacco and alcohol consumption with child's IQ in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Analyses were conducted on 4332 participants with complete data on maternal and paternal use of alcohol and tobacco at 18 wk gestation, child's IQ and a range of confounders. IQ was measured at child age 8 with the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals in IQ scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations. In fully adjusted models, there was no strong statistical evidence that maternal alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy were associated with childhood IQ with any greater magnitude than paternal alcohol and tobacco consumption (also assessed during their partners' pregnancy). Our findings suggest that the relationship between maternal moderate alcohol and tobacco use in early pregnancy and childhood IQ may not be explained by intrauterine mechanisms.

  10. Influence of maternal and paternal IQ on offspring health and health behaviours: evidence for some trans-generational effects using the 1958 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Whitley, Elise; Gale, Catharine R.; Deary, Ian J.; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Batty, G. David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Individuals scoring poorly on tests of intelligence (IQ) have been reported as having increased risk of morbidity, premature mortality, and risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, poor diet, alcohol and cigarette consumption. Very little is known about the impact of parental IQ on the health and health behaviours of their offspring. Methods We explored associations of maternal and paternal IQ scores with offspring television viewing, injuries, hospitalisations, long standing illness, height and BMI at ages 4 to 18 using data from the National Child Development Study (1958 birth cohort). Results Data were available for 1,446 mother-offspring and 822 father-offspring pairs. After adjusting for potential confounding/mediating factors, the children of higher IQ parents were less likely to watch TV (odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for watching 3+ vs. <3 hours per week associated with a standard deviation increase in maternal or paternal IQ: 0.75 (0.64, 0.88) or 0.78 (0.64, 0.95) respectively) and less likely to have one or more injuries requiring hospitalisation (0.77 (0.66, 0.90) or 0.72 (0.56, 0.91) respectively for maternal or paternal IQ). Conclusions Children whose parents have low IQ scores may have poorer selected health and health behaviours. Health education might usefully be targeted at these families. PMID:22541368

  11. Nonverbal learning disabilities: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Spreen, Otfried

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a critical review of the term and concept of nonverbal learning disability (NLD). After a brief historical introduction, the article focuses on the apparent rarity of NLD; the hypothesis of the frequent co-occurrence of emotional disorder, depression, and suicide in NLD; the white matter hypothesis as an explanation of the origin of NLD; and the question of NLD as part of a variety of other disorders. It is argued that NLD presents a broad hypothesis, but that there is little evidence to support its use in clinical practice.

  12. Wechsler performance IQ greater than Verbal IQ index in a forensic sample: a reconsideration.

    PubMed

    DeWolfe, A S; Ryan, J J

    1984-01-01

    Explored the relationships of the Performance IQ (PIQ) greater than Verbal IQ (VIQ) to type of crime, ethnicity, and reading disability in a corrections sample of 70 adult males incarcerated on felony charges. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign was not related to Full Scale IQ or to violent vs. nonviolent crime, per se. The PIQ greater than VIQ sign showed a trend toward association with Ethnicity (black vs. white) and was related significantly to reading disability, with the reading disabled inmates more likely to show the sign, and to type of crime, with perpetrators of sex crimes most likely (87%) to show the sign and those incarcerated for murder or attempted murder least likely (33%) to show it. The difference in the proportion of inmates who showed the sign in these two classes of violent crimes (murder and sex crimes) was significant, and further analysis showed that with murder excluded, PIQ greater than VIQ occurred significantly more frequently in those accused of violent crimes than for nonviolent crimes. The latter findings suggested that differences between studies in the relationship of PIQ greater than VIQ and violence may be the result of differences in the proportion of murderers in the violent samples. Additional analyses indicated that the significant relationships between PIQ greater than VIQ and both type of crime and reading disability were most likely independent of ethnicity and each other.

  13. A bivariate twin study of regional brain volumes and verbal and nonverbal intellectual skills during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Lee, Nancy Raitano; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth C; Medland, Sarah E; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Clasen, Liv S; Schmitt, James E; Neale, Michael C; Giedd, Jay N

    2010-03-01

    Twin studies indicate that both intelligence and brain structure are moderately to highly heritable. Recent bivariate studies of adult twins also suggest that intelligence and brain morphometry are influenced by shared genetic factors. The current study examines shared genetic and environmental factors between brain morphometry and intelligence in a sample of children and adolescents (twins, twin siblings, and singletons; n = 649, ages 4-19). To extend previous studies, brain morphometric data were parsed into subregions (lobar gray/white matter volumes, caudate nucleus, lateral ventricles) and intelligence into verbal and nonverbal skills (Wechsler Vocabulary and Block Design subtests). Phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and intelligence were small. Verbal skills shared unique environmental effects with gray matter volumes while nonverbal skills shared genetic effects with both global and regional gray and white matter. These results suggest that distinct mechanisms contribute to the small phenotypic relationships between brain volumes and verbal versus nonverbal intelligence.

  14. Verbal-spatial IQ discrepancies impact brain activation associated with the resolution of cognitive conflict in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Amy E; Davis, Katie S; Pao, Lisa S; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel

    2017-02-15

    Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control. Unknown is whether the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy is associated with functional deficits in these areas in healthy or ill children and adolescents. We assessed the effects of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy on fMRI BOLD response during the resolution of cognitive conflict in 55 healthy children and adolescents during performance of a Simon Spatial Incompatibility task. As the magnitude of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy increased, activation of fronto-striatal, limbic, and temporal regions decreased during conflict resolution (p < .05, corrected). In exploratory analyses, the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy was associated with reduced functional connectivity from right inferior frontal gyrus to right thalamus and increased functional connectivity to right supramarginal gyrus (ps < .03, uncorrected). The VIQ>PIQ discrepancy may be an important aspect of an individual's cognitive profile and likely contributes to, or is associated with, deficient cognitive control processes characteristic of many childhood disorders.

  15. Guidelines for Teaching Non-Verbal Communications Through Visual Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Mahima Ranjan

    1976-01-01

    There is a natural unique relationship between non-verbal communication and visual media such as television and film. Visual media will have to be used extensively--almost exclusively--in teaching non-verbal communications, as well as other methods requiring special teaching skills. (Author/ER)

  16. Non-Verbal Communication in Children with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallineni, Sharmila; Nutheti, Rishita; Thangadurai, Shanimole; Thangadurai, Puspha

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine: (a) whether children with visual and additional impairments show any non-verbal behaviors, and if so what were the common behaviors; (b) whether two rehabilitation professionals interpreted the non-verbal behaviors similarly; and (c) whether a speech pathologist and a rehabilitation professional interpreted…

  17. Slap What? An Interactive Lesson in Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haithcox-Dennis, Melissa J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the use of nonverbal communication strategies for fostering social health in middle school students. It outlines a teaching technique designed to help students better understand nonverbal cues and their role in maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships. The technique begins with the card game "Slap What?" where the…

  18. Nonverbal Communication. What Research Says to the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patrick W.

    Noting that educators are surrounded by a vast array of communication processes that involve many avenues of expression, this booklet argues that nonverbal communication is an often ignored, but powerful, aid that can be used to enhance the learning environment. Following an introduction to the subject of nonverbal communication, the booklet…

  19. Verbal and Nonverbal Metaphor with Children in Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesley, Gayle L.; Gillett, Dodie A.; Wagner, William G.

    2008-01-01

    The metaphor is typically viewed as a verbal form of expression in traditional talk therapies. However, this definition excludes nonverbal metaphors that children use when they express themselves through play. In this article, the authors examine the use of therapeutic metaphors, both verbal and nonverbal, with children. The roles of the child,…

  20. Teaching about Verbal and Nonverbal Communication: A New Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Mark; Archer, Dane

    The encoding and decoding of verbal and nonverbal cues is basic to the process of social interaction. A method of teaching about verbal and nonverbal communication--the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT)--consists of a videotape divided into 30 brief scenes. After each scene viewers answer an interpretive question by decoding the verbal and…

  1. An Activity for Teaching the Effects of Nonverbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; King, Eden B.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a novel teaching activity that allows students in diversity, leadership, and communication courses to observe the powerful effects of nonverbal communication. The nonverbal experiences female leaders may encounter as they rise through the ranks of organizations are simulated and consequences discussed. Two student volunteers…

  2. Walking the Walk: Understanding Nonverbal Communication through Walking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is fundamental to any comprehensive examination of human interaction. This article presents an activity that can be easily applied by any instructor as a starting point for a discussion of nonverbal communication, or as a demonstration of learning points previously discussed. Instructors should have a slight background in…

  3. Socialization Processes in Encoding and Decoding: Learning Effective Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.; Coats, Erik

    This study examined the relationship of nonverbal encoding and decoding skills to the level of exposure to television. Subjects were children in second through sixth grade. Three nonverbal skills (decoding, spontaneous encoding, and posed encoding) were assessed for each of five emotions: anger, disgust, fear or surprise, happiness, and sadness.…

  4. Developmental Aspects of Nonverbal Behavior in Small Group Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, Edward A.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzed observational data on nonverbal behavior in small groups to assess whether such behavior significantly changed within or across group meetings. Results showed that kinesic limb movements, posture, eye contact, and body orientation significantly changed across five group sessions. Discussion relates results of nonverbal behavioral changes…

  5. Competitive Live Discussion: The Effective Use of Nonverbal Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlefield, Robert S.

    Verbal and nonverbal dimensions of communication are a vital part of competitive group discussion. Specific nonverbal elements that have been found useful in competitive group discussion include environment, proxemics, kinesics, objectics, and chronemics. For example, equalizing arrangements for the discussion in the best area of a room enhances…

  6. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  7. Japanese Nonverbal Communication: A Review and Critique of Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Edwin R.

    The growth of intercultural interactions increases the need for nonverbal communication competency to help obviate potential cross cultural communication difficulties. Foreign language studies too often concentrate on vocabulary, grammar, and syntax, and forgo the role and methods of nonverbal communication. Japanese culture and modes of…

  8. Nonverbal Communication and Client Satisfaction in Computer-Assisted Transactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketrow, Sandra M.

    1991-01-01

    Tests the arousal-valence model of nonverbal communication by examining the effect of selected immediate nonverbal communication cues exhibited by bank tellers on the satisfaction of their clients in banking transactions. Finds that immediacy in brief impersonal transactions is not a significant predictor of satisfaction. (SR)

  9. Investigating a Relationship between Nonverbal Communication and Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Clear and effective communication is essential in today's society (Smith & Cotten, 1980; Smith & Land, 1981). Nonverbal communication specifically has a vital role in communication. There is inconsistent data on the effect of nonverbal communication used by instructors and the impact on student learning within the higher education…

  10. A Contextual Approach to Investigating Verbal and Nonverbal Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Douglas M.; Wilson, Barry

    This investigation utilized a recent concept developed by researchers and theoreticians studying nonverbal behavior--the contextual framework. Instruments of demonstrated reliability were employed to record simultaneous verbal and nonverbal data within the selected contextual framework of student-initiated questions. Data was collected at the…

  11. Teaching is Communicating: Nonverbal Language in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Charles M.

    Improving the act of teaching in a classroom implies the need to study nonverbal cues and events, for many classroom phenomena serve as communicators of information and tend to either facilitate or inhibit learning. Nonverbal language, a reflection of both cultural and individual differences, includes not only the teacher's facial expressions,…

  12. The Influence of Manifest Strabismus and Stereoscopic Vision on Non-Verbal Abilities of Visually Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gligorovic, Milica; Vucinic, Vesna; Eskirovic, Branka; Jablan, Branka

    2011-01-01

    This research was conducted in order to examine the influence of manifest strabismus and stereoscopic vision on non-verbal abilities of visually impaired children aged between 7 and 15. The sample included 55 visually impaired children from the 1st to the 6th grade of elementary schools for visually impaired children in Belgrade. RANDOT stereotest…

  13. Verbal and Nonverbal Identification of Pitch Changes in a Familiar Song by English- and Spanish-Speaking Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Patricia J.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1991-01-01

    Assesses children's ability to indicate verbally and nonverbally their awareness of two-octave pitch shifts in a familiar song. Compares abilities of English- and Spanish-speaking children by age and by native language. Discovers older children indicate changes more proficiently whereas Spanish-speaking children respond less often. Finds many…

  14. Test Review: Wechsler, D., & Naglieri, J.A. (2006). "Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability". San Antonio, TX--Harcourt Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massa, Idalia; Rivera, Vivina

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of the Wechsler Nonverbal Scale of Ability (WNV), a general cognitive ability assessment tool for individuals' aged 4 year 0 months through 21 years 11 months with English language and/or communicative limitations. The test targets a population whose performance on intelligence batteries might be compromised by…

  15. Unspoken Cultural Influence: Exposure to and Influence of Nonverbal Bias

    PubMed Central

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2009-01-01

    We examined the extent to which nonverbal behavior contributes to culturally-shared attitudes and beliefs. In Study 1, we demonstrated that slim women elicit especially positive nonverbal behaviors in popular television shows. In Study 2, we demonstrated that exposure to this nonverbal bias caused people to have especially slim cultural and personal ideals of female beauty and to have especially positive attitudes toward slim women. In Study 3, we demonstrated that individual differences in exposure to such nonverbal bias could account for substantial variance in pro-slim attitudes, anti-fat attitudes, and personal ideals of beauty, even after controlling for several third variables. In Study 4, we demonstrated that regional differences in exposure to nonverbal bias accounted for substantial variance in regional unhealthy dieting behaviors, even after controlling for several third variables. PMID:19469590

  16. Epilepsy surgery for people with a low IQ.

    PubMed

    Davies, Rebecca; Baxendale, Sallie; Thompson, Pamela; Duncan, John S

    2009-03-01

    Epilepsy is more prevalent in people with a low IQ than the general population. Up to 1 in 4 people with epilepsy may have a learning disability, yet this group are often under-represented in specialist neurology services. This study examined access and outcomes in epilepsy surgery for people with a low IQ in an audit of 953 patients who have undergone pre-surgical evaluation in our service from 1988 to 2007. We noted a significant increase in the proportion of people with an IQ of 70 or less who have been evaluated for surgery since the routine introduction of high resolution MRI. However candidates with an IQ of 70 or less remain significantly less likely to proceed to surgery; with only 1 in 4 offered surgery compared to 1 in 2 of the candidates with an IQ greater than 70. People with a low IQ who proceeded to surgery achieved comparable postoperative seizure control to their counterparts with an IQ greater than 70. Our findings suggest that special consideration should be given to candidates who are excluded from surgery primarily on the basis of neuropsychological data, since the necessary specialist protocols and appropriate neuropsychological test norms are not widely available for this population.

  17. Relation of Prenatal Methylmercury Exposure from Environmental Sources to Childhood IQ

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Éric

    2015-01-01

    Background Although prenatal methylmercury exposure has been linked to poorer intellectual function in several studies, data from two major prospective, longitudinal studies yielded contradictory results. Associations with cognitive deficits were reported in a Faroe Islands cohort, but few were found in a study in the Seychelles Islands. It has been suggested that co-exposure to another contaminant, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), may be responsible for the positive findings in the former study and that co-exposure to nutrients in methylmercury-contaminated fish may have obscured and/or protected against adverse effects in the latter. Objectives We aimed to determine the degree to which co-exposure to PCBs may account for the adverse effects of methylmercury and the degree to which co-exposure to docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may obscure these effects in a sample of Inuit children in Arctic Québec. Methods IQ was estimated in 282 school-age children from whom umbilical cord blood samples had been obtained and analyzed for mercury and other environmental exposures. Results Prenatal mercury exposure was related to poorer estimated IQ after adjustment for potential confounding variables. The entry of DHA into the model significantly strengthened the association with mercury, supporting the hypothesis that beneficial effects from DHA intake can obscure adverse effects of mercury exposure. Children with cord mercury ≥ 7.5 μg/L were four times as likely to have an IQ score < 80, the clinical cut-off for borderline intellectual disability. Co-exposure to PCBs did not alter the association of mercury with IQ. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to document an association of prenatal mercury exposure with poorer performance on a school-age assessment of IQ, a measure whose relevance for occupational success in adulthood is well established. This association was seen at levels in the range within which many U.S. children of Asian-American background are

  18. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  19. Concrete and Formal Operations in Very Bright (IQ greater than 160) Six to Eleven-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Roger A.

    Twenty-six children ranging in age from 6 to 12 years whose tested IQ's were over 160 were tested on three Piagetian tasks of advanced concrete operations and two tests of formal operations. All children passed all concrete operations problems, but only four of the oldest boys passed the formal operations tasks. Findings are discussed in terms of…

  20. The Relationship of Developmental Level with Science Performance: A Case for an Alternative to IQ Grouping of Mildly Retarded Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Joe M.

    Whether grouping children into special classes on the basis of IQ scores is educationally defensible was investigated using 492 educable mentally retarded (EMR) students, 12-15 years of age, during two field tests (1971-73). The curriculum used was the Me and My Environment biological sciences program. The following three test instruments were…

  1. The stability of IQ in people with low intellectual ability: an analysis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-04-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ < 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of .77 and .78 were found for Verbal IQ (V IQ) and Performance IQ (P IQ) on the Wechsler tests and .82 for Full-Scale IQ (FS IQ) on both Wechsler and Binet tests, for a mean test-retest interval of 2.8 years. Although the majority of FS IQs changed by less than 6 points, 14% changed by 10 points or more. The author suggests that the results of IQ assessment should be treated with more caution than previously thought.

  2. Stanford-Binet & WAIS IQ Differences and Their Implications for Adults with Intellectual Disability (aka Mental Retardation).

    PubMed

    Silverman, Wayne; Miezejeski, Charles; Ryan, Robert; Zigman, Warren; Krinsky-McHale, Sharon; Urv, Tiina

    2010-03-01

    Stanford-Binet and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) IQs were compared for a group of 74 adults with intellectual disability (ID). In every case, WAIS Full Scale IQ was higher than the Stanford-Binet Composite IQ, with a mean difference of 16.7 points. These differences did not appear to be due to the lower minimum possible score for the Stanford-Binet. Additional comparisons with other measures suggested that the WAIS might systematically underestimate severity of intellectual impairment. Implications of these findings are discussed regarding determination of disability status, estimating prevalence of ID, assessing dementia and aging-related cognitive declines, and diagnosis of ID in forensic cases involving a possible death penalty.

  3. Maternal and infant affect at 4 months predicts performance and verbal IQ at 4 and 7 years in a diverse population.

    PubMed

    Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Tenenbaum, Elena J; Messinger, Daniel S; Miller-Loncar, Cynthia L; Tronick, Ed; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles; Whitaker, Toni; Hammond, Jane; Lester, Barry M

    2016-10-23

    Using existing longitudinal data from 570 infants in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, we explored the predictive value of maternal and infant affect and maternal vocalizations during 2 minutes of face-to-face interactions at 4 months on IQ scores at 4.5 and 7 years. After controlling for demographic factors, maternal depression, and prenatal drug exposure, maternal positive affect and maternal positive vocalizations emerged as predictors of both verbal and performance IQ at 4.5 and 7 years. Although infant positive affect during the interaction with the mother was not predictive of these outcome measures, infant positive affect towards an examiner predicted verbal but not performance IQ at 4.5 years. These results suggest that maternal positive affect may index emotional engagement in interaction that facilitates both verbal and nonverbal cognitive development, while infant social positive affect is specifically related to the acquisition of verbal reasoning abilities. These findings are significant because they are based on a discrete snapshot of observable behavior in infancy (just 2 minutes of interaction), because they extend the range of maternal behaviors and characteristics known to support positive developmental outcomes, and because they are derived from high-risk infants where prevention efforts may be beneficial. Potential mechanisms for these associations are discussed, as are the clinical implications for identifying dyads most in need of targeted interventions.

  4. Accounting for estimated IQ in neuropsychological test performance with regression-based techniques.

    PubMed

    Testa, S Marc; Winicki, Jessica M; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Gordon, Barry; Schretlen, David J

    2009-11-01

    Regression-based normative techniques account for variability in test performance associated with multiple predictor variables and generate expected scores based on algebraic equations. Using this approach, we show that estimated IQ, based on oral word reading, accounts for 1-9% of the variability beyond that explained by individual differences in age, sex, race, and years of education for most cognitive measures. These results confirm that adding estimated "premorbid" IQ to demographic predictors in multiple regression models can incrementally improve the accuracy with which regression-based norms (RBNs) benchmark expected neuropsychological test performance in healthy adults. It remains to be seen whether the incremental variance in test performance explained by estimated "premorbid" IQ translates to improved diagnostic accuracy in patient samples. We describe these methods, and illustrate the step-by-step application of RBNs with two cases. We also discuss the rationale, assumptions, and caveats of this approach. More broadly, we note that adjusting test scores for age and other characteristics might actually decrease the accuracy with which test performance predicts absolute criteria, such as the ability to drive or live independently.

  5. Neuropsychological characteristics of children with Tourette syndrome: evidence for a nonverbal learning disability?

    PubMed

    Brookshire, B L; Butler, I J; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Fletcher, J M

    1994-04-01

    In this study the neuropsychological characteristics of thirty-one 6 to 16-year-old children with Tourette Syndrome (TS) were compared to 20 normal siblings and 10 children with arithmetic disabilities (AD) who were comparable in age and socioeconomic status. Unlike the sibling group, neuropsychological profiles of the TS and AD groups were expected to reflect nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD). The three groups performed generally within the average range on academic and cognitive measures. Like the AD children, the TS group demonstrated poorer performance on written arithmetic tasks with comparatively better word reading and written word spelling. Unlike the AD group, who demonstrated generalized nonverbal deficiencies, children with TS demonstrated reduced performance on visual-motor and expressive language measures as well as measures of complex cognition. These results are suggestive of an "output" subtype of learning disability and support theories that implicate the mesocortical dopaminergic system in the pathophysiology of TS.

  6. Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Brett, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman-Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation-the NART-and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.

  7. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003-2007.

    PubMed

    Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Grunewaldt, Kristine H; Bjuland, Knut J; Stavnes, Elisabeth M; Bastholm, Irén A; Aanes, Synne; Østgård, Heidi F; Håberg, Asta; Løhaugen, Gro C C; Skranes, Jon; Rimol, Lars M

    2015-01-01

    Children born prematurely with very low birth weight (VLBW: bw  ≤ 1500 g) have an increased risk of preterm perinatal brain injury, which may subsequently alter the maturation of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. The aim of study was to assess cortical thickness and surface area in VLBW children compared with term-born controls, and to investigate possible relationships between cortical morphology and Full IQ. In this cross-sectional study, 37 VLBW and 104 term children born between the years 2003-2007 were assessed cognitively at 5-10 years of age, using age appropriate Wechsler tests. The FreeSurfer software was used to obtain estimates of cortical thickness and surface area based on T1-weighted MRI images at 1.5 Tesla. The VLBW children had smaller cortical surface area bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. A thicker cortex in the frontal and occipital regions and a thinner cortex in posterior parietal areas were observed in the VLBW group. There were significant differences in Full IQ between groups (VLBW M = 98, SD = 9.71; controls M = 108, SD = 13.57; p < 0.001). There was a positive relationship between IQ and surface area in both groups, albeit significant only in the larger control group. In the VLBW group, reduced IQ was associated with frontal cortical thickening and temporo-parietal thinning. We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003-2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning.

  8. Cortical morphometry and IQ in VLBW children without cerebral palsy born in 2003–2007

    PubMed Central

    Sølsnes, Anne Elisabeth; Grunewaldt, Kristine H.; Bjuland, Knut J.; Stavnes, Elisabeth M.; Bastholm, Irén A.; Aanes, Synne; Østgård, Heidi F.; Håberg, Asta; Løhaugen, Gro C.C.; Skranes, Jon; Rimol, Lars M.

    2015-01-01

    Children born prematurely with very low birth weight (VLBW: bw  ≤ 1500 g) have an increased risk of preterm perinatal brain injury, which may subsequently alter the maturation of the brain, including the cerebral cortex. The aim of study was to assess cortical thickness and surface area in VLBW children compared with term-born controls, and to investigate possible relationships between cortical morphology and Full IQ. In this cross-sectional study, 37 VLBW and 104 term children born between the years 2003–2007 were assessed cognitively at 5–10 years of age, using age appropriate Wechsler tests. The FreeSurfer software was used to obtain estimates of cortical thickness and surface area based on T1-weighted MRI images at 1.5 Tesla. The VLBW children had smaller cortical surface area bilaterally in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. A thicker cortex in the frontal and occipital regions and a thinner cortex in posterior parietal areas were observed in the VLBW group. There were significant differences in Full IQ between groups (VLBW M = 98, SD = 9.71; controls M = 108, SD = 13.57; p < 0.001). There was a positive relationship between IQ and surface area in both groups, albeit significant only in the larger control group. In the VLBW group, reduced IQ was associated with frontal cortical thickening and temporo-parietal thinning. We conclude that cortical deviations are evident in childhood even in VLBW children born in 2003–2007 who have received state of the art medical treatment in the perinatal period and who did not present with focal brain injuries on neonatal ultrasonography. The cortical deviations were associated with reduced cognitive functioning. PMID:26106543

  9. Applicability of the Nonverbal Learning Disability Paradigm for Children With 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schoch, Kelly; Harrell, Waverly; Hooper, Stephen R.; Ip, Edward H.; Saldana, Santiago; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Shashi, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) has been used to describe the strengths and deficits of children with 22q11DS, but the applicability of the label for this population has seldom been systematically evaluated. The goal of the current study was to address how well the NLD diagnosis characterizes children and adolescents with 22q11DS. A total of 74 children and adolescents with 22q11DS were given neurocognitive, socioemotional, and academic assessments to measure aspects of NLD. Of the cohort, 20% met at least 7 of 9 assessed criteria for NLD; 25% showed verbal skills exceeding their nonverbal skills as assessed by an IQ test; and 24% showed the good rote verbal capacity commonly associated with NLD. Hypothesizing that if the entire cohort did not show consistent NLD characteristics, the descriptor might be more accurate for a distinct subgroup, the authors used latent class analysis to divide participants into three subgroups. However, the lines along which the groups broke out were more related to general functioning level than to NLD criteria. All three groups showed a heightened risk for psychiatric illness, highlighting the importance of careful mental health monitoring for all children with 22q11DS. PMID:22572413

  10. Applicability of the nonverbal learning disability paradigm for children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schoch, Kelly; Harrell, Waverly; Hooper, Stephen R; Ip, Edward H; Saldana, Santiago; Kwapil, Thomas R; Shashi, Vandana

    2014-01-01

    Chromosome 22qll.2 deletion syndrome (22qllDS) is the most common microdeletion in humans. Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) has been used to describe the strengths and deficits of children with 22q11DS, but the applicability of the label for this population has seldom been systematically evaluated. The goal of the current study was to address how well the NLD diagnosis characterizes children and adolescents with 22q11DS. A total of 74 children and adolescents with 22q11DS were given neurocognitive, socioemotional, and academic assessments to measure aspects of NLD. Of the cohort, 20% met at least 7 of 9 assessed criteria for NLD; 25% showed verbal skills exceeding their nonverbal skills as assessed by an IQ test; and 24% showed the good rote verbal capacity commonly associated with NLD. Hypothesizing that if the entire cohort did not show consistent NLD characteristics, the descriptor might be more accurate for a distinct subgroup, the authors used latent class analysis to divide participants into three subgroups. However, the lines along which the groups broke out were more related to general functioning level than to NLD criteria. All three groups showed a heightened risk for psychiatric illness, highlighting the importance of careful mental health monitoring for all children with 22qllDS.

  11. [Patients' preferences for nurses' nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication].

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, M S

    1990-12-01

    at arm's length, 0.5-1m (64.4%). Patients preferred direct eye contact (58.9%) and a smile (94.5%). Patients preferred that the nurse put the medicine directly the patient's hand (64.4%). Whether the nurse nodded her head or not was not considered important. 3. The relation of general characteristics and patient's preferences for nurse's nonverbal expressions of warmth during nursing rounds and administration of oral medication. During nursing rounds, the age of subjects (p = 0.010) and the standard of education (p = 0.026) related to the distance between the nurse and the patient. The sick hospital ward related to the eye contact (p = 0.017) and facial expression (p = 0.010).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  12. Normal IQ is possible in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Yasemen; Nguyen-Driver, Mina; Steiner, Robert D; Merkens, Louise; Merkens, Mark; Roullet, Jean-Baptiste; Elias, Ellen; Sarphare, Geeta; Porter, Forbes D; Li, Chumei; Tierney, Elaine; Nowaczyk, Małgorzata; Freeman, Kurt A

    2017-03-27

    Children with Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) are typically reported to have moderate to severe intellectual disability. This study aims to determine whether normal cognitive function is possible in this population and to describe clinical, biochemical and molecular characteristics of children with SLOS and normal intelligent quotient (IQ). The study included children with SLOS who underwent cognitive testing in four centers. All children with at least one IQ composite score above 80 were included in the study. Six girls, three boys with SLOS were found to have normal or low-normal IQ in a cohort of 145 children with SLOS. Major/multiple organ anomalies and low serum cholesterol levels were uncommon. No correlation with IQ and genotype was evident and no specific developmental profile were observed. Thus, normal or low-normal cognitive function is possible in SLOS. Further studies are needed to elucidate factors contributing to normal or low-normal cognitive function in children with SLOS.

  13. The Role of IQ in the Use of Cognitive Strategies to Learn Information from a Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Seokhee

    2010-01-01

    The role of IQ in individual differences in real-life problem solving and strategies use was explored. Repeated trials of learning and recall of information from a map were analyzed with high IQ and average IQ Korean students. IQ correlated with the selection and use of strategies in recall. However, the performance and strategic behaviors of…

  14. Inbreeding Depression and IQ in a Study of 72 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    In this ecological study, a robust negative correlation of r = - 0.62 (P less than 0.01) is reported between national IQs and consanguinity as measured by the log10 transformed percentage of consanguineous marriages for 72 countries. This correlation is reduced in magnitude, when IQ is controlled for GDP per capita (r = - 0.41, P less than 0.01);…

  15. Nonverbal behavior during face-to-face social interaction in schizophrenia: a review.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Mary; Healey, Patrick G T; McCabe, Rosemarie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia display social cognitive deficits. However, little is known about patients' nonverbal communication during their social encounters with others. This review identified 17 studies investigating nonverbal communication in patients' unscripted face-to-face interactions, addressing a) nonverbal differences between patients and others, b) nonverbal behavior of the patients' partners, c) the association between nonverbal behavior and symptoms, and d) the association between nonverbal behavior and social outcomes. Patients displayed fewer nonverbal behaviors inviting interaction, with negative symptoms exacerbating this pattern. Positive symptoms were associated with heightened nonverbal behavior. Patients' partners changed their own nonverbal behavior in response to the patient. Reduced prosocial behaviors, inviting interaction, were associated with poorer social outcomes. The evidence suggests that patients' nonverbal behavior, during face-to-face interaction, is influenced by patients symptoms and impacts the success of their social interactions.

  16. Familial covariation of facial emotion recognition and IQ in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Andric, Sanja; Maric, Nadja P; Mihaljevic, Marina; Mirjanic, Tijana; van Os, Jim

    2016-12-30

    Alterations in general intellectual ability and social cognition in schizophrenia are core features of the disorder, evident at the illness' onset and persistent throughout its course. However, previous studies examining cognitive alterations in siblings discordant for schizophrenia yielded inconsistent results. Present study aimed to investigate the nature of the association between facial emotion recognition and general IQ by applying genetically sensitive cross-trait cross-sibling design. Participants (total n=158; patients, unaffected siblings, controls) were assessed using the Benton Facial Recognition Test, the Degraded Facial Affect Recognition Task (DFAR) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Patients had lower IQ and altered facial emotion recognition in comparison to other groups. Healthy siblings and controls did not significantly differ in IQ and DFAR performance, but siblings exhibited intermediate angry facial expression recognition. Cross-trait within-subject analyses showed significant associations between overall DFAR performance and IQ in all participants. Within-trait cross-sibling analyses found significant associations between patients' and siblings' IQ and overall DFAR performance, suggesting their familial clustering. Finally, cross-trait cross-sibling analyses revealed familial covariation of facial emotion recognition and IQ in siblings discordant for schizophrenia, further indicating their familial etiology. Both traits are important phenotypes for genetic studies and potential early clinical markers of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  17. Brief Report: Impression Formation in High-Functioning Autism--Role of Nonverbal Behavior and Stereotype Activating Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Caroline; Dratsch, Thomas; Vogeley, Kai; Bente, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about whether stereotypes influence social judgments of autistic individuals, in particular when they compete with tacit face-to-face cues. We compared impression formation of 17 subjects with high-functioning autism (HFA) and 17 age-, gender- and IQ-matched controls. Information about the profession of a job applicant served as…

  18. Asperger syndrome: how does it relate to non-verbal learning disability?

    PubMed

    Ryburn, B; Anderson, V; Wales, R

    2009-03-01

    The syndrome of non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD) is associated with prominent non-verbal deficits such as reduced perceptual and spatial abilities, against a background of relatively intact verbal abilities. Asperger syndrome is one of the several developmental disorders for which Byron Rourke has claimed that almost all the signs and symptoms of NLD are present. This study investigated the claim utilizing a battery of neuropsychological tests that were found to be sensitive to NLD in the original learning disordered populations used to describe the syndrome. Children aged between 8 and 14 were recruited to form two groups: (1) children with Asperger syndrome (N=14) and (2) normal healthy schoolchildren (N=20). By contrast to the main principle outlined in the NLD model, children with Asperger syndrome did not display a relative difficulty with spatial- or problem-solving tasks; indeed, they displayed significantly higher performance on some non-verbal tasks in comparison with verbal tasks. It was only in relation to their high levels of psychosocial and interpersonal difficulties, which are also predicted on the basis of their psychiatric diagnosis, that the children with Asperger syndrome were clearly consistent with the NLD model in this study. These results raise questions about the relevance of the syndrome of NLD for children with Asperger syndrome.

  19. Assessment of Nonverbal and Verbal Apraxia in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Presotto, Monia; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Shumacher Shuh, Artur Francisco; Rieder, Carlos R. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the presence of nonverbal and verbal apraxia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and analyze the correlation between these conditions and patient age, education, duration of disease, and PD stage, as well as evaluate the correlation between the two types of apraxia and the frequency and types of verbal apraxic errors made by patients in the sample. Method. This was an observational prevalence study. The sample comprised 45 patients with PD seen at the Movement Disorders Clinic of the Clinical Hospital of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were evaluated using the Speech Apraxia Assessment Protocol and PD stages were classified according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Results. The rate of nonverbal apraxia and verbal apraxia in the present sample was 24.4%. Verbal apraxia was significantly correlated with education (p ≤ 0.05). The most frequent types of verbal apraxic errors were omissions (70.8%). The analysis of manner and place of articulation showed that most errors occurred during the production of trill (57.7%) and dentoalveolar (92%) phonemes, consecutively. Conclusion. Patients with PD presented nonverbal and verbal apraxia and made several verbal apraxic errors. Verbal apraxia was correlated with education levels. PMID:26543663

  20. Spatial working memory and arithmetic deficits in children with nonverbal learning difficulties.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene Cristina; Lucangeli, Daniela; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory and its involvement in arithmetic were examined in two groups of 7- to 11-year-olds: one comprising children described by teachers as displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning difficulties (N = 21), the other a control group without learning disabilities (N = 21). The two groups were matched for verbal abilities, age, gender, and sociocultural level. The children were presented with a visuospatial working memory battery of recognition tests involving visual, spatial-sequential and spatial-simultaneous processes, and two arithmetic tasks (number ordering and written calculations). The two groups were found to differ on some spatial tasks but not in the visual working memory tasks. On the arithmetic tasks, the children with nonverbal learning difficulties made more errors than controls in calculation and were slower in number ordering. A discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of spatial-sequential working memory in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to spatial working memory and arithmetic difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities. Implications for the relationship between visuospatial working memory and arithmetic are also considered.

  1. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  2. Hydraulic laboratory testing of Sontek-IQ Plus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, Janice M.; Kimball, Scott

    2015-11-10

    The SonTek-IQ Plus (IQ Plus) is a bottom-mounted Doppler instrument used for the measurement of water depth and velocity. Evaluation testing of the IQ Plus was performed to assess the accuracy of water depth, discharge, and velocity measurements. The IQ Plus met the manufacturer’s specifications and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) standard for depth accuracy measurement when the unit was installed, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, at 0 degrees pitch and roll. However, because of the limited depth testing conducted, the depth measurement is not recommended as a primary stage measurement. The IQ Plus was tested in a large indoor tilting flume in a 5-foot (ft) wide, approximately 2.3-ft deep section with mean velocities of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 ft per second. Four IQ Plus instruments using firmware 1.52 tested for water-discharge accuracy using SonTek’s “theoretical” discharge method had a negative bias of -2.4 to -11.6 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection discharge method. The IQ Pluses with firmware 1.52 did not meet the manufacturer’s specification of +/-1 percent for measuring velocity. Three IQ Pluses using firmware 1.60 and SonTek’s “theoretical” method had a difference of -1.6 to -7.9 percent when compared with discharge measured with a SonTek FlowTracker and the midsection method. Mean-velocity measurements with firmware 1.60 met the manufacturer’s specification and Price Type AA meter accuracy requirements when compared with FlowTracker measurements. Because of the instrument’s velocity accuracy, the SonTek-IQ Plus with firmware 1.60 is considered acceptable for use as an index velocity instrument for the USGS. The discharge computed by the SonTek-IQ Plus during the tests had a substantial negative bias and will not be as accurate as a discharge computed with the index velocity method. The USGS does not recommend the use of undocumented computation methods, such as Son

  3. Comparative analysis of nonverbal interpersonal communication of schizophrenics and normals.

    PubMed

    Hardin, S B

    1980-06-01

    The nonverbal communications of schizophrenics and normals in dyadic interactions were analyzed and compared. Twelve purposively selected women were videotaped in normal-normal, normal-schizophrenic, and schizophrenic-schizophrenic communication acts for 30 minutes. Using a PLATO IV computer program and a modified Kendon Kinesic Notation System, a priori sets of nonverbal behaviors were recorded at 1-second intervals. Frequency and duration scores for the sets of nonverbal behaviors with corresponding communication meanings were totaled. A nested analysis of variance showed that the three groups differed significantly (p less than .05) in engagement and defensiveness and that the normal interactors were the least imitative of the three groups. An analysis and description of the patterns of nonverbal communication also revealed differences, lending support to the theory of dysjunctive schizophrenic communication.

  4. A Non-Verbal Analogue to the Verbal Transformation Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lass, Norman J.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigates the effectiveness of non-speech auditory stimuli in eliciting transformations analogous to those reported for speech stimuli to determine if a non-verbal analogue to the verbal transformation effect exists. (DD)

  5. Nonverbal Short-Term Serial Order Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the role of item and order memory in the serial recall of adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), we carried out 2 experiments in which adults with ASD and comparison participants matched on chronological age and verbal IQ saw sequences of 7 dots appear sequentially in a 3 × 4 grid. In Experiment 1 (serial recall), they had to recall the locations and the presentation order of the dots by tapping locations on an empty grid. In Experiment 2, (order reconstruction) the studied dots were provided at test and participants had to touch them in their order of appearance at study. Experiment 1 revealed diminished item and order recall in the ASD group; Experiment 2 revealed diminished order recall only when verbal IQ was controlled. The results support the view that people with ASD have particular difficulty with serial order recall but may use their language ability to achieve better serial recall performance. PMID:27732024

  6. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c.

  7. MRI-based intelligence quotient (IQ) estimation with sparse learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liye; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Suk, Heung-Il; Tang, Xiaoying; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel framework for IQ estimation using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. In particular, we devise a new feature selection method based on an extended dirty model for jointly considering both element-wise sparsity and group-wise sparsity. Meanwhile, due to the absence of large dataset with consistent scanning protocols for the IQ estimation, we integrate multiple datasets scanned from different sites with different scanning parameters and protocols. In this way, there is large variability in these different datasets. To address this issue, we design a two-step procedure for 1) first identifying the possible scanning site for each testing subject and 2) then estimating the testing subject's IQ by using a specific estimator designed for that scanning site. We perform two experiments to test the performance of our method by using the MRI data collected from 164 typically developing children between 6 and 15 years old. In the first experiment, we use a multi-kernel Support Vector Regression (SVR) for estimating IQ values, and obtain an average correlation coefficient of 0.718 and also an average root mean square error of 8.695 between the true IQs and the estimated ones. In the second experiment, we use a single-kernel SVR for IQ estimation, and achieve an average correlation coefficient of 0.684 and an average root mean square error of 9.166. All these results show the effectiveness of using imaging data for IQ prediction, which is rarely done in the field according to our knowledge.

  8. Dissociating verbal and nonverbal conceptual processing in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Thierry, Guillaume; Price, Cathy J

    2006-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging has highlighted a left-hemisphere conceptual system shared by verbal and nonverbal processing despite neuropsychological evidence that the ability to recognize verbal and nonverbal stimuli can doubly dissociate in patients with left- and right-hemisphere lesions, respectively. Previous attempts to control for perceptual differences between verbal and nonverbal stimuli in functional neuroimaging studies may have hidden differences arising at the conceptual level. Here we used a different approach and controlled for perceptual confounds by looking for amodal verbal and nonverbal conceptual activations that are common to both the visual and auditory modalities. In addition to the left-hemisphere conceptual system activated by all meaningful stimuli, we observed the left/right double dissociation in verbal and nonverbal conceptual processing, predicted by neuropsychological studies. Left middle and superior temporal regions were selectively more involved in comprehending words--heard or read--and the right midfusiform and right posterior middle temporal cortex were selectively more involved in making sense of environmental sounds and images. Thus, the neuroanatomical basis of a verbal/nonverbal conceptual processing dissociation is established.

  9. IQ-motif peptides as novel anti-microbial agents.

    PubMed

    McLean, Denise T F; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Timson, David J

    2013-04-01

    The IQ-motif is an amphipathic, often positively charged, α-helical, calmodulin binding sequence found in a number of eukaryote signalling, transport and cytoskeletal proteins. They share common biophysical characteristics with established, cationic α-helical antimicrobial peptides, such as the human cathelicidin LL-37. Therefore, we tested eight peptides encoding the sequences of IQ-motifs derived from the human cytoskeletal scaffolding proteins IQGAP2 and IQGAP3. Some of these peptides were able to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) comparable to LL-37. In addition some IQ-motifs had activity against the fungus Candida albicans. This antimicrobial activity is combined with low haemolytic activity (comparable to, or lower than, that of LL-37). Those IQ-motifs with anti-microbial activity tended to be able to bind to lipopolysaccharide. Some of these were also able to permeabilise the cell membranes of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. These results demonstrate that IQ-motifs are viable lead sequences for the identification and optimisation of novel anti-microbial peptides. Thus, further investigation of the anti-microbial properties of this diverse group of sequences is merited.

  10. Age-Related Change of the Mean Level and Intraindividual Variability of Saccadic Reaction Time Performance in Persons with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haishi, Koichi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined age-related change of saccadic reaction time (SRT) in persons with intellectual disabilities (ID). Participants were 29 persons with intellectual disabilities aged between 14 and 34 years whose IQs were between 14 and 70. Participants were divided into Group I (IQ greater than or equal to 35) and Group II (IQ less than…

  11. Adverse life events and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence: the role of non-verbal cognitive ability and negative cognitive errors.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Panourgia, Constantina

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether negative cognitive errors (overgeneralizing, catastrophizing, selective abstraction, and personalizing) mediate the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events (life stress) and emotional and behavioral problems in adolescence. The sample consisted of 430 children (aged 11-15 years) from three state secondary schools in disadvantaged areas in one county in the South East of England. Total difficulties (i.e., emotional symptoms, peer problems, hyperactivity, and conduct problems) were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Adjustment was made for gender, age, ethnicity, special educational needs, exclusion history, family structure, and family socio-economic disadvantage. Adverse life events were measured with Tiet et al.'s (Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37, 1191-1200, 1998) Adverse Life Events Scale. Non-verbal cognitive ability was measured with Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices Plus. Non-verbal cognitive ability moderated the effect of adverse life events both on total difficulties and on emotional symptoms. Overgeneralizing mediated the moderator effect of non-verbal cognitive ability on the association between adverse life events and total difficulties. Adverse life events were related to a tendency to overgeneralize which was associated with emotional and behavioral problems, but particularly among those adolescents with lower non-verbal cognitive ability.

  12. Sensitivity or artifact? -- IQ Toxicity Test -- effluent values

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, K.R.; Novotny, A.N.; Batista, N.

    1995-12-31

    Several complex effluents were DAPHNIA MAGNA IQ TOXICITY TESTED -- (1.25 hours) and conventionally tested with Daphnia magna (48 hours). In many samples the IQ Technology yielded low EC50 values while the 48 hour exposures yielded no acute toxicity. Possible explanations have been suggested for this occurrence such as: genotoxicity, mutagenicity, substrate interference, and enzyme satiation. To identify the causative agent(s) of this response a Toxicity Identification Evaluation was performed on one of the samples. To define the nature of the response, THE SOS-CHROMOTEST KIT and THE MUTA-CHROMOPLATE KIT were utilized to characterize genotoxicity and mutagenicity respectively. The sample did not test positive for genotoxicity but tested positive for mutagenicity only after activation with S9 enzymes, suggesting the presence of promutagens. Additional work needs to be performed to correlate IQ TOXICITY TEST sensitivity with positive MUTA-CHROMOPLATE response.

  13. Parental Behavior, TV Habits, IQ Predict Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights a longitudinal study on key factors in the metamorphosis of childhood aggression into adult crime in more than 400 males/females. Results (which began with study of 875 third graders in 1960) indicate that aggressive youngsters at age eight have much higher rates of criminal/violent behavior at age 30. (JN)

  14. Nonverbal cognition in deaf children following cochlear implantation: motor sequencing disturbances mediate language delays.

    PubMed

    Conway, Christopher M; Karpicke, Jennifer; Anaya, Esperanza M; Henning, Shirley C; Kronenberger, William G; Pisoni, David B

    2011-01-01

    We assessed profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants (CIs) (N = 24) and age-matched normal-hearing children (N = 31) on several nonverbal cognition measures: motor sequencing, tactile discrimination, response inhibition, visual-motor integration, and visual-spatial processing. The results revealed that the children with CIs showed disturbances solely on motor sequencing and that performance on this task was significantly correlated with scores on the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals, 4th Edition (CELF-4). These findings suggest that a period of auditory deprivation before cochlear implantation affects motor sequencing skills, which in turn may mediate the language delays displayed by some deaf children with CIs.

  15. Negative Associations between Corpus Callosum Midsagittal Area and IQ in a Representative Sample of Healthy Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ganjavi, Hooman; Lewis, John D.; Bellec, Pierre; MacDonald, Penny A.; Waber, Deborah P.; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2011-01-01

    Documented associations between corpus callosum size and cognitive ability have heretofore been inconsistent potentially owing to differences in sample characteristics, differing methodologies in measuring CC size, or the use of absolute versus relative measures. We investigated the relationship between CC size and intelligence quotient (IQ) in the NIH MRI Study of Normal Brain Development sample, a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (aged six to 18, n = 198) recruited to be representative of the US population. CC midsagittal area was measured using an automated system that partitioned the CC into 25 subregions. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI). After correcting for total brain volume and age, a significant negative correlation was found between total CC midsagittal area and IQ (r = −0.147; p = 0.040). Post hoc analyses revealed a significant negative correlation in children (age<12) (r = −0.279; p = 0.004) but not in adolescents (age≥12) (r = −0.005; p = 0.962). Partitioning the subjects by gender revealed a negative correlation in males (r = −0.231; p = 0.034) but not in females (r = 0.083; p = 0.389). Results suggest that the association between CC and intelligence is mostly driven by male children. In children, a significant gender difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ, and in males, a significant age-group difference was observed for FSIQ and PIQ. These findings suggest that the correlation between CC midsagittal area and IQ may be related to age and gender. PMID:21625542

  16. The relationship between executive functions and IQ in Korean children and the comparison with Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyunjoo; Jinyu, An

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between perceived/performance-based executive function and IQ. Additionally, the relationship between perceived executive function and intelligence was investigated cross-culturally between South Korea and China. Korean children (60; M = 34, F = 26, Mean age = 10.35) were included in study 1, and Korean children (43, M = 23, F = 20, Mean age = 10.05) and Chinese children (56; M = 29, F = 27, Mean age = 10.40) were included in study 2. The Korean-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV, the Stroop test, the CTT-2, and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean subjects, and the Raven's matrix test and the executive function questionnaire were used for Korean and Chinese subjects. Multiple regression showed that CTT-2(RT), emotional control difficulty, and Color Word within a 45' Stroop test trial were significant predictors of total IQ. The cross-cultural analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the two countries in the emotional control aspect of perceived executive function. There were no interactions between country and intelligence. In conclusion, intelligence was related to overall executive function. Korean children and Chinese children showed cultural differences in processing emotion. These results are expected to contribute to developing therapeutic strategies for executive function in children and to exchanging these strategies between Korea and China.

  17. A structural equation modeling of executive functions, IQ and mathematical skills in primary students: Differential effects on number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problems.

    PubMed

    Arán Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud, María Cristina

    2016-07-08

    Though the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and mathematical skills has been well documented, little is known about how both EFs and IQ differentially support diverse math domains in primary students. Inconsistency of results may be due to the statistical techniques employed, specifically, if the analysis is conducted with observed variables, i.e., regression analysis, or at the latent level, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). The current study explores the contribution of both EFs and IQ in mathematics through an SEM approach. A total of 118 8- to 12-year-olds were administered measures of EFs, crystallized (Gc) and fluid (Gf) intelligence, and math abilities (i.e., number production, mental calculus and arithmetical problem-solving). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) offered support for the three-factor solution of EFs: (1) working memory (WM), (2) shifting, and (3) inhibition. Regarding the relationship among EFs, IQ and math abilities, the results of the SEM analysis showed that (i) WM and age predict number production and mental calculus, and (ii) shifting and sex predict arithmetical problem-solving. In all of the SEM models, EFs partially or totally mediated the relationship between IQ, age and math achievement. These results suggest that EFs differentially supports math abilities in primary-school children and is a more significant predictor of math achievement than IQ level.

  18. Preparatory power posing affects nonverbal presence and job interview performance.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Amy J C; Wilmuth, Caroline A; Yap, Andy J; Carney, Dana R

    2015-07-01

    The authors tested whether engaging in expansive (vs. contractive) "power poses" before a stressful job interview--preparatory power posing--would enhance performance during the interview. Participants adopted high-power (i.e., expansive, open) poses or low-power (i.e., contractive, closed) poses, and then prepared and delivered a speech to 2 evaluators as part of a mock job interview. All interview speeches were videotaped and coded for overall performance and hireability and for 2 potential mediators: verbal content (e.g., structure, content) and nonverbal presence (e.g., captivating, enthusiastic). As predicted, those who prepared for the job interview with high- (vs. low-) power poses performed better and were more likely to be chosen for hire; this relation was mediated by nonverbal presence, but not by verbal content. Although previous research has focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted during interactions and observed by perceivers affects how those perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor, this experiment focused on how a nonverbal behavior that is enacted before the interaction and unobserved by perceivers affects the actor's performance, which, in turn, affects how perceivers evaluate and respond to the actor. This experiment reveals a theoretically novel and practically informative result that demonstrates the causal relation between preparatory nonverbal behavior and subsequent performance and outcomes.

  19. Why it is 'better' to be reliable but dumb than smart but slapdash: are intelligence (IQ) and Conscientiousness best regarded as gifts or virtues.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-10-01

    The psychological attributes of intelligence and personality are usually seen as being quite distinct in nature: higher intelligence being regarded a 'gift' (bestowed mostly by heredity); while personality or 'character' is morally evaluated by others, on the assumption that it is mostly a consequence of choice? So a teacher is more likely to praise a child for their highly Conscientious personality (high 'C')--an ability to take the long view, work hard with self-discipline and persevere in the face of difficulty--than for possessing high IQ. Even in science, where high intelligence is greatly valued, it is seen as being more virtuous to be a reliable and steady worker. Yet it is probable that both IQ and personality traits (such as high-C) are about-equally inherited 'gifts' (heritability of both likely to be in excess of 0.5). Rankings of both IQ and C are generally stable throughout life (although absolute levels of both will typically increase throughout the lifespan, with IQ peaking in late-teens and C probably peaking in middle age). Furthermore, high IQ is not just an ability to be used only as required; higher IQ also carries various behavioural predispositions--as reflected in the positive correlation with the personality trait of Openness to Experience; and characteristically 'left-wing' or 'enlightened' socio-political values among high IQ individuals. However, IQ is 'effortless' while high-C emerges mainly in tough situations where exceptional effort is required. So we probably tend to regard personality in moral terms because this fits with a social system that provides incentives for virtuous behaviour (including Conscientiousness). In conclusion, high IQ should probably more often be regarded in morally evaluative terms because it is associated with behavioural predispositions; while C should probably be interpreted with more emphasis on its being a gift or natural ability. In particular, people with high levels of C are very lucky in modern

  20. Deaf children's non-verbal working memory is impacted by their language experience

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Chloë; Jones, Anna; Denmark, Tanya; Mason, Kathryn; Atkinson, Joanna; Botting, Nicola; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Several recent studies have suggested that deaf children perform more poorly on working memory tasks compared to hearing children, but these studies have not been able to determine whether this poorer performance arises directly from deafness itself or from deaf children's reduced language exposure. The issue remains unresolved because findings come mostly from (1) tasks that are verbal as opposed to non-verbal, and (2) involve deaf children who use spoken communication and therefore may have experienced impoverished input and delayed language acquisition. This is in contrast to deaf children who have been exposed to a sign language since birth from Deaf parents (and who therefore have native language-learning opportunities within a normal developmental timeframe for language acquisition). A more direct, and therefore stronger, test of the hypothesis that the type and quality of language exposure impact working memory is to use measures of non-verbal working memory (NVWM) and to compare hearing children with two groups of deaf signing children: those who have had native exposure to a sign language, and those who have experienced delayed acquisition and reduced quality of language input compared to their native-signing peers. In this study we investigated the relationship between NVWM and language in three groups aged 6–11 years: hearing children (n = 28), deaf children who were native users of British Sign Language (BSL; n = 8), and deaf children who used BSL but who were not native signers (n = 19). We administered a battery of non-verbal reasoning, NVWM, and language tasks. We examined whether the groups differed on NVWM scores, and whether scores on language tasks predicted scores on NVWM tasks. For the two executive-loaded NVWM tasks included in our battery, the non-native signers performed less accurately than the native signer and hearing groups (who did not differ from one another). Multiple regression analysis revealed that scores on the vocabulary

  1. Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Linked to IQ Decline Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline Email Facebook ... that cannabis use may harm the developing brain. Cannabis Use Correlates With Cognitive Decline The study participants ...

  2. The nature and nurture of high IQ: an extended sensitive period for intellectual development.

    PubMed

    Brant, Angela M; Munakata, Yuko; Boomsma, Dorret I; Defries, John C; Haworth, Claire M A; Keller, Matthew C; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matthew; Petrill, Stephen A; Plomin, Robert; Wadsworth, Sally J; Wright, Margaret J; Hewitt, John K

    2013-08-01

    IQ predicts many measures of life success, as well as trajectories of brain development. Prolonged cortical thickening observed in individuals with high IQ might reflect an extended period of synaptogenesis and high environmental sensitivity or plasticity. We tested this hypothesis by examining the timing of changes in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on IQ as a function of IQ score. We found that individuals with high IQ show high environmental influence on IQ into adolescence (resembling younger children), whereas individuals with low IQ show high heritability of IQ in adolescence (resembling adults), a pattern consistent with an extended sensitive period for intellectual development in more-intelligent individuals. The pattern held across a cross-sectional sample of almost 11,000 twin pairs and a longitudinal sample of twins, biological siblings, and adoptive siblings.

  3. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities and Socioemotional Functioning: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Sara S.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of literature relating to a nonverbal learning disabilities subtype. The article addresses the relationship between nonverbal learning disabilities and socioemotional functioning, generalizability of research outcomes, individual differences, and treatment validity. (Author/JDD)

  4. Hearing impairment: a population study of age at diagnosis, severity, and language outcomes at 7–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wake, M; Poulakis, Z; Hughes, E; Carey-Sargeant, C; Rickards, F

    2005-01-01

    Background: Better language outcomes are reported for preschool children with hearing impairment (HI) diagnosed very early, irrespective of severity. However, population studies of older children are required to substantiate longer term benefits of early detection. Aims: To study impact of age of diagnosis and severity of HI in a population cohort of 7–8 year old children. Methods: Eighty eight 7–8 year old children born in Victoria, who were (a) fitted with hearing aids for congenital HI by 4.5 years and (b) did not have intellectual or major physical disability were studied. Main outcome measures were Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT). Predictors were pure tone average (0.5, 1, 2 kHz) in better ear at diagnosis and age at diagnosis. Marginal (adjusted) means were estimated with general linear models. Results: Response rate was 67% (n = 89; 53 boys). Mean age at diagnosis was 21.6 months (SD 14.4); 21% had mild, 34% moderate, 21% severe, and 24% profound HI; mean non-verbal IQ was 104.6 (SD 16.7). Mean total CELF score was 76.7 (SD 21.4) and mean PPVT score 78.1 (SD 18.1). Age of diagnosis, adjusted for severity and IQ, did not contribute to language scores. In contrast, adjusted mean CELF and PPVT language scores fell sequentially with increasing severity of HI. Conclusions: More severe HI, but not later diagnosis, was strongly related to poorer language outcomes at 7–8 years. Further systematic study is needed to understand why children with hearing impairment have good or poor outcomes. PMID:15723906

  5. The Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Measuring IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borghans, Lex; Meijers, Huub; ter Weel, Bas

    2013-01-01

    This research provides an economic model of the way people behave during an IQ test. We distinguish a technology that describes how time investment improves performance from preferences that determine how much time people invest in each question. We disentangle these two elements empirically using data from a laboratory experiment. The main…

  6. EQ + IQ = Best Leadership Practices for Caring and Successful Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J., Ed.; Arnold, Harriett, Ed.; Hussey, Cynthia Steiger, Ed.

    Combining emotional intelligence (EQ) with academic intelligence (IQ) is the essential key to developing knowledgeable, caring, healthy, and successful students in today's troubled world. Educational leaders offer their best ideas in this book for building safe, smart, caring, successful, and emotionally intelligent school communities in 15…

  7. A Critical Analysis of IQ Studies of Adopted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ken; Norgate, Sarah H.

    2006-01-01

    The pattern of parent-child correlations in adoption studies has long been interpreted to suggest substantial additive genetic variance underlying variance in IQ. The studies have frequently been criticized on methodological grounds, but those criticisms have not reflected recent perspectives in genetics and developmental theory. Here we apply…

  8. Long-Term Positive Associations between Music Lessons and IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2006-01-01

    In Study 1 (N = 147), duration of music lessons was correlated positively with IQ and with academic ability among 6-to 11-year-olds, even when potential confounding variables (i.e., family income, parents' education, involvement in nonmusical activities) were held constant. In Study 2 (N = 150), similar but weaker associations between playing…

  9. Child Abuse: Growth Failure, IQ Deficit, and Learning Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1982-01-01

    The author reviews research on early deprivation and neglect and recounts his own experience with children whose dwarfism is attributed to abuse or neglect. The existence of specific learning disability and diminished IQ in many of these children is cited. The author suggests further attention to the problem. (CL)

  10. Does a High IQ Mean You're Smart?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Phyllis, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal issue presents articles that attempt to expand common ideas of intelligence and giftedness. Following a brief article offering "Notes, Quotes, and Anecdotes" by Francis Carter, the first major article is "Democratizing Our Concept of Human Intelligence" (by Wendy M. Williams). In it, the limitations of IQ tests are explored as are the…

  11. Outsmarting IQ: The Emerging Science of Learnable Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David

    Pychologists, educators, and others have challenged the idea of a fixed IQ. This book uses recent research and earlier discoveries to argue that intelligence is not genetically set. Noting that the idea of learnable intelligence reflects the belief that intelligence can be taught, the book outlines a theory of learnable intelligence, including…

  12. A Genetic Analysis of Brain Volumes and IQ in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Leeuwen, Marieke; Peper, Jiska S.; van den Berg, Stephanie M.; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E.; Kahn, Rene S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2009-01-01

    In a population-based sample of 112 nine-year old twin pairs, we investigated the association among total brain volume, gray matter and white matter volume, intelligence as assessed by the Raven IQ test, verbal comprehension, perceptual organization and perceptual speed as assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III. Phenotypic…

  13. A Polymorphism in Mitochondrial DNA Associated with IQ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuder, Patricia; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Of 100 DNA markers examined in an allelic association study, only 1 showed a replicated association with IQ in samples totaling 107 children. How the gene marked by the particular restriction fragment length polymorphism was tracked and its mitochondrial origin identified is described. (SLD)

  14. Estimated Full Scale IQ in an Adult Heroin Addict Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastain, Robert L.; And Others

    The research concerning intellectual functioning in addict populations has not addressed basic questions concerning why and how intelligence quotients (IQ) might be related to drug addiction. A study was undertaken to estimate intellectual functioning based upon a demographic profile for Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Full…

  15. How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Arthur R.

    The importance and consequences of raising the average ability level (IQ) of the population requires consideration of the ability level that society requires, how the relevant abilities are distributed, and the efficiency of the current educational process. Within the framework of these factors, the document discusses the determinants of mental…

  16. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  17. The Correlation of IQ and Emotional Intelligence with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghabanchi, Zargham; Rastegar, Rabe'e

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of both IQ and emotional intelligence on reading comprehension in Iran. Forty-five EFL college students from Payame Noor University of Gonbad and Azad University of Gorgan participated in this study. Three independent tests were administrated, including Bar-On's emotional intelligence inventory…

  18. National IQs Calculated and Validated for 108 Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the validity of the national IQs presented by Lynn and Vanhanen (2002, 2006) by examining whether they are consistent with the educational attainment of school students in math, science and reading comprehension in 108 countries and provinces. The educational attainment scores in a number of studies are integrated to give EAs…

  19. The Race and Racism of the I.Q. Argument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willhelm, Sidney M.

    A brief historical resume outlining the relationship between economics, racism, and intellectual justification for racism begins this paper, which notes that the I.Q. argument is a racist ideology in exactly the same way that Christianity, Darwinism, and Equality have been systems of justifications for America's racism. It fits the definition of…

  20. Spouse similarity for IQ and personality and convergence.

    PubMed

    Mascie-Taylor, C G

    1989-03-01

    A similar pattern of spousal association for IQ scores and personality traits was found in two British samples from Oxford and Cambridge. There was no indirect evidence from either sample to suggest that convergence occurred during marriage. All observed assortative mating might well be due to initial assortment.

  1. Differences in the Performance of Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Typically Developing Peers on Nonverbal Cognitive Tests: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallinat, Erica; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study used meta-analysis to investigate the difference in nonverbal cognitive test performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: The meta-analysis included studies (a) that were published between 1995 and 2012 of children with SLI who were age matched (and not…

  2. Expressive suppression and neural responsiveness to nonverbal affective cues

    PubMed Central

    Petrican, Raluca; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Grady, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Optimal social functioning occasionally requires concealment of one’s emotions in order to meet one’s immediate goals and environmental demands. However, because emotions serve an important communicative function, their habitual suppression disrupts the flow of social exchanges and, thus, incurs significant interpersonal costs. Evidence is accruing that the disruption in social interactions, linked to habitual expressive suppression use, stems not only from intrapersonal, but also from interpersonal causes, since the suppressors’ restricted affective displays reportedly inhibit their interlocutors’ emotionally expressive behaviors. However, expressive suppression use is not known to lead to clinically significant social impairments. One explanation may be that over the lifespan, individuals who habitually suppress their emotions come to compensate for their interlocutors’ restrained expressive behaviors by developing an increased sensitivity to nonverbal affective cues. To probe this issue, the present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan healthy older women while they viewed silent videos of a male social target displaying nonverbal emotional behavior, together with a brief verbal description of the accompanying context, and then judged the target’s affect. As predicted, perceivers who reported greater habitual use of expressive suppression showed increased neural processing of nonverbal affective cues. This effect appeared to be coordinated in a top-down manner via cognitive control. Greater neural processing of nonverbal cues among perceivers who habitually suppress their emotions was linked to increased ventral striatum activity, suggestive of increased reward value/personal relevance ascribed to emotionally expressive nonverbal behaviors. These findings thus provide neural evidence broadly consistent with the hypothesized link between habitual use of expressive suppression and compensatory development of increased

  3. Gene-Environment Interaction in Adults’ IQ Scores: Measures of Past and Present Environment

    PubMed Central

    Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Posthuma, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction was studied in a sample of young (mean age 26 years, N = 385) and older (mean age 49 years, N = 370) adult males and females. Full scale IQ scores (FSIQ) were analyzed using biometric models in which additive genetic (A), common environmental (C), and unique environmental (E) effects were allowed to depend on environmental measures. Moderators under study were parental and partner educational level, as well as urbanization level and mean real estate price of the participants’ residential area. Mean effects were observed for parental education, partner education and urbanization level. On average, FSIQ scores were roughly 5 points higher in participants with highly educated parents, compared to participants whose parents were less well educated. In older participants, IQ scores were about 2 points higher when their partners were highly educated. In younger males, higher urbanization levels were associated with slightly higher FSIQ scores. Our analyses also showed increased common environmental variation in older males whose parents were more highly educated, and increased unique environmental effects in older males living in more affluent areas. Contrary to studies in children, however, the variance attributable to additive genetic effects was stable across all levels of the moderators under study. Most results were replicated for VIQ and PIQ. PMID:18535898

  4. Economic, Educational, and IQ Gains in Eastern Germany 1990-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roivainen, Eka

    2012-01-01

    Lynn and Vanhanen (2012) have convincingly established that national IQs correlate positively with GDP, education, and many other social and economic factors. The direction of causality remains debatable. The present study re-examines data from military psychological assessments of the German federal army that show strong IQ gains of 0.5 IQ point…

  5. A description of the comprehensive test of nonverbal intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wiederholt, J L; Rees, F J

    1998-05-01

    The Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, or CTONI, has become an essential compliment to the traditional tests of intelligence, such as the WISC-III, DTLA-3, and the Binet. The CTONI provides examiners with a measure of nonverbal reasoning that requires no spoken language or complex motor skills. The CTONI has been proven to be unbiased with regard to gender, minority, or disabling condition. Finally, it is possible to estimate the intelligence of people without the contamination of social, ethnic, or disability bias.

  6. Getting the Message Across; Non-Verbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Jack

    This handbook presents selected theories, activities, and resources which can be utilized by educators in the area of non-verbal communication. Particular attention is given to the use of non-verbal communication in a cross-cultural context. Categories of non-verbal communication such as proxemics, haptics, kinesics, smiling, sound, clothing, and…

  7. A Nonverbal False Belief Task: The Performance of Children and Great Apes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Compared performance of preschool children, chimpanzees, and orangutans on nonverbal task of false-belief understanding and tested children's performance on a verbal version of the same task. Found that children's performance on verbal and nonverbal tasks were highly correlated, and no chimp or orangutan succeeded in the nonverbal false-belief…

  8. The nonverbal communication functions of emoticons in computer-mediated communication.

    PubMed

    Lo, Shao-Kang

    2008-10-01

    Most past studies assume that computer-mediated communication (CMC) lacks nonverbal communication cues. However, Internet users have devised and learned to use emoticons to assist their communications. This study examined emoticons as a communication tool that, although presented as verbal cues, perform nonverbal communication functions. We therefore termed emoticons quasi-nonverbal cues.

  9. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…

  10. The Impact of Nonverbal Communication in Organizations: A Survey of Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Gerald H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a survey of 505 respondents from business organizations. Reports that self-described good decoders of nonverbal communication consider nonverbal communication more important than do other decoders. Notes that both men and women perceive women as both better decoders and encoders of nonverbal cues. Recommends paying more attention to…

  11. β-Glucuronidase and β-glucosidase activity and human fecal water genotoxicity in the presence of probiotic lactobacilli and the heterocyclic aromatic amine IQ in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Adriana; Śliżewska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the genotoxicity of fecal water (FW) and the activity of fecal enzymes (β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase) after incubation with 2-amino-3-methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and probiotic lactobacilli: Lb. casei 0900, Lb. casei 0908, and Lb. paracasei 0919. Our results show that the carcinogen IQ greatly increased FW genotoxicity (up to 16.92 ± 3.03 U/mg) and the activity of fecal enzymes (up to even 1.4 ± 0.16 U/mg) in 15 individuals (children, adults and elderly). After incubation with IQ, the activity of β-glucuronidase was reduced by Lactobacillus bacteria by 76.0% (Lb. paracasei 0908) in the FW of children, and by 82.0% (Lb. paracasei 0919) in the elderly; while that of β-glucosidase was reduced by 55.0% in children (Lb. casei 0908) and 90.0% (Lb. paracasei 0919) in elderly subjects. Lactobacilli decreased the genotoxicity of FW after incubation with IQ to the greatest extent in adults (by 64.5%). Probiotic lactobacilli, in the presence of IQ, efficiently inhibits activity of fecal enzymes to the level of control. Genotoxicity inhibition depends on the person's age, its individual microbiota and diet.

  12. Housing mobility and cognitive development: Change in verbal and nonverbal abilities.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Patrick J; McGrath, Lauren M; Henry, David B; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J; Day, Orin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n=2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged 4-14 years (M=8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats.

  13. Housing Mobility and Cognitive Development: Change in Verbal and Nonverbal Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Patrick J.; McGrath, Lauren M.; Henry, David B.; Schoeny, Michael; Chavira, Dina; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Day, Orin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of housing instability on verbal and nonverbal cognitive development among at-risk children and adolescents involved in the child welfare system. Frequent residential changes threaten child mental health, especially among low-income families. Little is known regarding disruptions to cognitive growth, specifically the impact on verbal and nonverbal abilities. The study tests whether developmental timing of housing mobility affects cognitive development beyond individual and family risks. A nationally representative study of families (n = 2,442) susceptible to housing and family instability tracked children and adolescents aged four to 14 years (M = 8.95 years) over 36 months following investigation by the child welfare system. Youth completed standardized cognitive assessments while caregivers reported on behavior problems and family risk at three time points. Latent growth models examined change in cognitive abilities over time. Housing mobility in the 12 months prior to baseline predicts lower verbal cognitive abilities that improve marginally. Similar effects emerge for all age groups; however, frequent moves in infancy diminish the influence of subsequent housing mobility on verbal tasks. Housing instability threatened cognitive development beyond child maltreatment, family changes, poverty, and other risks. Findings inform emerging research on environmental influences on neurocognitive development, as well as identify targets for early intervention. Systematic assessment of family housing problems, including through the child welfare system, provides opportunities for coordinated responses to prevent instability and cognitive threats. PMID:26184055

  14. Intuitive geometry and visuospatial working memory in children showing symptoms of nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene C; Giofrè, David; Ferrara, Rosanna; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and intuitive geometry were examined in two groups aged 11-13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD; n = 16), and the other, a control group without learning disabilities (n = 16). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with simple storage and complex-span tasks involving VSWM and with the intuitive geometry task devised by Dehaene, Izard, Pica, and Spelke (2006 ). Results revealed that the two groups differed in the intuitive geometry task. Differences were particularly evident in Euclidean geometry and in geometrical transformations. Moreover, the performance of NLD children was worse than controls to a larger extent in complex-span than in simple storage tasks, and VSWM differences were able to account for group differences in geometry. Finally, a discriminant function analysis confirmed the crucial role of complex-span tasks involving VSWM in distinguishing between the two groups. Results are discussed with reference to the relationship between VSWM and mathematics difficulties in nonverbal learning disabilities.

  15. The Magnitude and Components of Change in the Black-White IQ Difference from 1920 to 1991: A Birth Cohort Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson Standardizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The black-white difference in test scores for the three standardizations of the Woodcock-Johnson battery of cognitive tests is analyzed in terms of birth cohorts covering the years from 1920 through 1991. Among persons tested at ages 6-65, a narrowing of the difference occurred in overall IQ and in the two most highly "g"-loaded clusters…

  16. Evaluation of the SCKnowIQ tool and reproductive CHOICES intervention among young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Agatha M; Wilkie, Diana J; Wang, Edward; Labotka, Richard J; Molokie, Robert E; Stahl, Christiane; Hershberger, Patricia E; Zhao, Zhongsheng; Suarez, Marie L; Johnson, Bonnye; Pullum, Cherese; Angulo, Rigoberto; Thompson, Alexis

    2014-08-01

    The study purpose was to evaluate a computer-based questionnaire (SCKnowIQ) and CHOICES educational intervention using cognitive interviewing with childbearing-aged people with sickle cell disease (SCD) or trait (SCT). Ten control group participants completed the SCKnowIQ twice. Ten intervention group participants completed the SCKnowIQ before and after the CHOICES intervention. Most participants found the questionnaire items appropriate and responded to items as the investigators intended. Participants' responses indicated that the information on SCD and SCT and reproductive options was understandable, balanced, important, and new to some. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were adequate (.47 to .87) for 4 of the 6 scales, with significant within-group changes in knowledge scores for the intervention group but not for the control group. Findings show evidence for potential efficacy of the intervention, but proof of efficacy requires a larger randomized study.

  17. Effect of augmented sensorimotor input on learning verbal and nonverbal tasks among children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Latham, Susan O; Stockman, Ida J

    2014-06-01

    Thirty-four children, with autism spectrum disorders, ages 4-14 years, were matched and randomly assigned to one of two conditions for learning a novel juice-making task and producing two novel words about the event. Seventeen sighted children were manually guided to perform the task and tactually prompted during imitated productions of novel words for the event. Their matched controls heard the novel words and watched the juice-making task being performed. Performances on four verbal and two nonverbal measures right after instruction and at 24-48 h post-instruction, revealed higher scores for the ‘‘hands-on’’, participation than observation group on both verbal and nonverbal tasks. This study offers a paradigm for exploring the instructional advantage of enhanced participatory experience.

  18. A pilot study on the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism.

    PubMed

    Sandiford, Givona A; Mainess, Karen J; Daher, Noha S

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of melodic based communication therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant progress after treatment. The MBCT group progressed significantly in number of verbal attempts after weeks 1 through 4 and number of correct words after weeks 1 and 3, while the traditional group progressed significantly after weeks 4 and 5. No significant differences in number of verbal attempts or number of correct words were noted between groups following treatment. A significant number of new words were heard in the home environment for the MBCT group (p = .04). Participants in the MBCT group had more imitative attempts (p = .03). MBCT appears to be a valid form of intervention for children with autism.

  19. Asperger syndrome and nonverbal learning difficulties in adult males: self- and parent-reported autism, attention and executive problems.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Nydén, Agneta; Gillberg, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    A specific overlap between Asperger syndrome (AS) and nonverbal learning difficulties (NLD) has been proposed, based on the observation that, as a group, people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal IQ (VIQ) than performance IQ (PIQ), one of the core features of NLD. The primary aim was to assess the longer term outcome of NLD--broken down into persistent and transient forms. The present study of 68 individuals was performed in the context of a larger prospective longitudinal study to late adolescence/early adult life of 100 boys with AS. Using self- and parent-report measures, we studied the longer term outcome of the NLD (defined as VIQ > PIQ by 15 points) as regards social communication, repetitive behaviour, attention, and executive function (EF) was studied. Three subgroups were identified: (1) Persistent NLD (P-NLD), (2) Childhood "only" NLD (CO-NLD) and (3) Never NLD (NO-NLD). The P-NLD group had the worst outcome overall. The CO-NLD group had better reported EF scores than the two other AS subgroups. There were no differences between the subgroups regarding social communication, repetitive behaviour, or attentional skills. Low PIQ increased the risk of ADHD symptoms. In the context of AS in males, P-NLD carries a relatively poor outcome, particularly with regard to self-reported EF. However, CO-NLD appears to entail a significantly better outcome. The results underscore the importance of analysing the cognitive profile both at diagnosis and after several years, so as to be able to formulate a realistic prognosis.

  20. Developmental outcomes at preschool age after fetal exposure to valproic acid and lamotrigine: cognitive, motor, sensory and behavioral function.

    PubMed

    Rihtman, Tanya; Parush, Shula; Ornoy, Asher

    2013-11-01

    This prospective, observational study assessed the development of preschool children aged 3-6 years, 11 months (n=124) after in-utero anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy exposure to valproic acid (VPA) (n=30, mean age 52.00[±15.22] months) and lamotrigine (LT) (n=42, mean age 50.12[±12.77] months), compared to non-exposed control children (n=52, mean age 59.96[±14.51] months). As a combined group, AED-exposed children showed reduced non-verbal IQ scores, and lower scores on motor measures, sensory measures, and parent-report executive function, behavioral and attentional measures. When the VPA- and LT-exposed groups were analyzed separately, no cognitive differences were found, but control-VPA and control-LT differences emerged for most motor and sensory measures as well as control-VPA parent-report behavioral and attentional differences. No differences were noted between the VPA and LT groups. These findings suggest that VPA- and LT-exposed children should be monitored on a wider range of developmental measures than currently used, and at differing developmental stages.

  1. A non-IQ sampling controller in low level RF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Cheng-Ke; Dai, Zhi-Min; Liu, Jian-Fei; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Zhang, Tong-Xuan; Fu, Ze-Chuan; Liu, Wei-Qing

    2008-10-01

    This paper describes a non-IQ controller for digital Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback control. Based on this non-IQ sampling method, arbitrary frequency relationship between ADC/DAC sampling clocks and IF signals can be employed. The nonlinearity in digital conversion can be reduced and the system dynamic performance improved. This paper analyzes the nonlinearity in conventional IQ sampling, gives the state variable description of the non-IQ algorithm, presents an implementation and its synchronization, and compares its performances with IQ sampling. Supported by SSRF Project

  2. Brief report: IQ split predicts social symptoms and communication abilities in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Black, David O; Wallace, Gregory L; Sokoloff, Jennifer L; Kenworthy, Lauren

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the relationship of discrepancies between VIQ and NVIQ (IQ split) to autism symptoms and adaptive behavior in a sample of high-functioning (mean FSIQ = 98.5) school-age children with autism spectrum disorders divided into three groups: discrepantly high VIQ (n = 18); discrepantly high NVIQ (n = 24); and equivalent VIQ and NVIQ (n = 36). Discrepantly high VIQ and NVIQ were associated with autism social symptoms but not communication symptoms or repetitive behaviors. Higher VIQ and NVIQ were associated with better adaptive communication but not socialization or Daily Living Skills. IQ discrepancy may be an important phenotypic marker in autism. Although better verbal abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in autism, discrepantly high VIQ in high-functioning children may also be associated with social difficulties.

  3. Analysis of WISC-III, Stanford-Binet:IV, and academic achievement test scores in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L

    2003-06-01

    Nonverbal IQs were greater than verbal IQs for young children (3-7 years of age) on the Stanford-Binet:IV (n = 53). However, WISC-III verbal and nonverbal IQs were similar for older children, 6-15 years of age (n = 63). Stanford-Binet:IV profiles were generally consistent for the low-IQ (< 80) and high-IQ (> or = 80) groups, with high scores on visual matching tests (Bead Memory and Quantitative Reasoning). The low- and high-WISC-III IQ groups both performed well relative to IQ on tests of lexical knowledge (Similarities, Information, and Vocabulary), but not on language comprehension and social reasoning (Comprehension). The low-IQ group did best on visuo-motor subtests (Object Assembly and Block Design), but the high-IQ group did not. The high-IQ group had significantly low scores on the Digit Span, Arithmetic, Coding, VMI, and WIAT Written Expression tests, suggesting attention and writing weaknesses.

  4. Association of COMT and PRODH gene variants with intelligence quotient (IQ) and executive functions in 22q11.2DS subjects.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Miri; Zarchi, Omer; Michaelovsky, Elena; Frisch, Amos; Patya, Miriam; Green, Tamar; Gothelf, Doron; Weizman, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) carries the highest genetic risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. We investigated the association of genetic variants in two schizophrenia candidate genes with executive function (EF) and IQ in 22q11.2DS individuals. Ninety two individuals with 22q11.2 deletion were studied for the genetic association between COMT and PRODH variants and EF and IQ. Subjects were divided into children (under 12 years old), adolescents (between 12 and 18 years old) and adults (older than 18 years), and genotyped for the COMT Val158Met (rs4680) and PRODH Arg185Trp (rs4819756) polymorphisms. The participants underwent psychiatric evaluation and EF assessment. Our main finding is a significant influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism on both IQ and EF performance. Specifically, 22q11.2DS subjects with Met allele displayed higher IQ scores in all age groups compared to Val carriers, reaching significance in both adolescents and adults. The Met allele carriers performed better than Val carriers in EF tasks, being statistically significant in the adult group. PRODH Arg185Trp variant did not affect IQ or EF in our 22q11.2DS cohort. In conclusion, functional COMT variant, but not PRODH, affects IQ and EF in 22q11.2DS subjects during neurodevelopment with a maximal effect at adulthood. Future studies should monitor the cognitive performance of the same individuals from childhood to old age.

  5. Asperger syndrome and "non-verbal learning problems" in a longitudinal perspective: neuropsychological and social adaptive outcome in early adult life.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Bibbi S; Nydén, Agneta; Cederlund, Mats; Gillberg, Christopher

    2013-12-15

    Co-existence of Asperger syndrome (AS) and non-verbal learning disability (NLD) has been proposed based on the observation that people with AS tend to have significantly higher verbal than performance IQ (VIQ > PIQ by ≥ 15 points), one of the core features of NLD. In the present study we examined neuropsychological and social adaptive profiles with "non-verbal learning problems" associated with NLD in a group of individuals with AS followed from childhood into early adult life. The group was divided into three subgroups: (i) persistent NLD (P-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) both in childhood and early adulthood occasions, (ii) childhood NLD (CO-NLD), i.e. NLD (VIQ > PIQ) only at original diagnosis, or (iii) No NLD (VIQ > PIQ) ever (NO-NLD). All three subgroups were followed prospectively from childhood into adolescence and young adult life. One in four to one in five of the whole group of males with AS had P-NLD. The P-NLD subgroup had poorer neuropsychological outcome in early adult life than did those with CO-NLD and those with NO-NLD. There were no unequivocal markers in early childhood that predicted subgroup status in early adult life, but early motor delay and a history of early speech-language problems tended to be associated with P-NLD.

  6. Teaching Nonverbal Communication in the Second Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Stephen S.; Moore, Jean

    Because the nonverbal component of communication is culture-specific, effective communication in a second language requires knowledge of the body language typical of speakers of that language. For example, Americans and Hispanics have a different sense of proxemics, Hispanics favoring closeness during conversation. Instruction in nonverbal…

  7. Videotutoring, Non-Verbal Communication and Initial Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichol, Jon; Watson, Kate

    2000-01-01

    Describes the use of video tutoring for distance education within the context of a post-graduate teacher training course at the University of Exeter. Analysis of the tapes used a protocol based on non-verbal communication research, and findings suggest that the interaction of participants was significantly different from face-to-face…

  8. Young Children's Understanding of Markedness in Non-Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebal, Kristin; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Speakers often anticipate how recipients will interpret their utterances. If they wish some other, less obvious interpretation, they may "mark" their utterance (e.g. with special intonations or facial expressions). We investigated whether two- and three-year-olds recognize when adults mark a non-verbal communicative act--in this case a pointing…

  9. Gadgets: Some Non-Verbal Tools for Teaching Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Judy B.

    Recent findings from the fields of brain research and speech perception suggest that non-verbal approaches may be helpful in pronunciation learning. The left side of the brain uses sequential information, such as verbal descriptions. The right side works in a more simultaneous manner, specializing in spatial relations and pitch perception, among…

  10. Nonverbal auditory agnosia with lesion to Wernicke’s area

    PubMed Central

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Leech, Robert; Dick, Frederic

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory comprehension. We carried out extensive audiological and behavioral testing in order to characterize M’s unusual neuropsychological profile. We also examined the patient’s and controls’ neural responses to verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We verified that the patient exhibited persistent and severe auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds in the absence of verbal comprehension deficits or peripheral hearing problems. Acoustical analyses suggested that his residual processing of a minority of environmental sounds might rely on his speech processing abilities. In the patient’s brain, contralateral (right) temporal cortex as well as perilesional (left) anterior temporal cortex were strongly responsive to verbal, but not to nonverbal sounds, a pattern that stands in marked contrast to the controls’ data. This substantial reorganization of auditory processing likely supported the recovery of M’s speech processing. PMID:19698727

  11. Teachers' Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior as Indices of Teacher Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietras, Thomas P.

    The implications of a teacher's language behavior, both verbal and nonverbal, are explored. These means of communication indicate not only the teacher's academic expectancy concerning students but also social and behavioral judgments. Verbal messages are usually explicit and deal with the content of the conversation, but children can be adept at…

  12. Sensory Response Patterns in Nonverbal Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Patten, Elena; Ausderau, Karla K; Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T

    2013-01-01

    We sought to examine concurrent and longitudinal associations between sensory response patterns (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) and verbal status of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a potential factor influencing the development of verbal communication. Seventy-nine children with ASD (verbal, n = 29; nonverbal, n = 50) were assessed using cross-sectional analyses (Study 1), and 14 children with ASD (verbal, n = 6; nonverbal, n = 8) were assessed using prospective longitudinal analyses (Study 2). Data were collected regarding sensory response patterns and verbal ability. Hyporesponsiveness and sensory seeking behaviors were associated with verbal status in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses; nonverbal children were more likely to demonstrate higher hyporesponsive and sensory seeking patterns. Hyperresponsiveness did not significantly differ between verbal and nonverbal groups in either design. Sensory hyporesponsiveness and seeking behaviors may be important factors hindering the development of functional verbal communication in children with ASD. Unusual sensory responsiveness can often be observed before the onset of speech and may yield important prognostic capabilities as well as inform early interventions targeting verbal communication or alternative communication options in young children with ASD.

  13. Participants' versus Nonparticipants' Perception of Teacher Nonverbal Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Bettye Mathis; Creswell, John L.

    1978-01-01

    This study indicates that it is possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of nonverbal cues that can be used as raters or reasons for assessment of teacher behavior. Findings indicate a major difference in the order and relevance of predictors used. (JMF)

  14. Hispanic-Anglo Conflicts in Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curt, Carmen Judith Nine

    The problem of Hispanic-Anglo conflicts in nonverbal communication is approached in this paper from the perspective of a teacher of English and Spanish as second languages, using largely anecdotal and often autobiographical data. Specific cross-cultural differences between Hispanics (Puerto Ricans, Dominicans and Cubans) and Anglos in the area of…

  15. Contrastive Analysis of American and Arab Nonverbal and Paralinguistic Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    To achieve effective intercultural communication, participants must understand how behavioral differences may lead to miscommunication. Such behavioral differences can be illustrated by Arab and American nonverbal behavior. Individualism is the ideal for the American middle class, whereas Arabs are motivated by public opinion. Yet in the Arab…

  16. Nonverbal Sensitivity: Consequences for Learning and Satisfaction in Genetic Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roter, D. L.; Erby, L. H.; Hall, J. A.; Larson, S.; Ellington, L.; Dudley, W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the role of interactants' nonverbal sensitivity, anxiety and sociodemographic characteristics in learning and satisfaction within the genetic counseling context. Design/methodology/approach: This is a combined simulation and analogue study. Simulations were videotaped with 152 prenatal and cancer genetic…

  17. A Method for Teaching about Verbal and Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Mark; Archer, Dane

    1991-01-01

    Describes the Interpersonal Perception Task (IPT), a videotape of brief scenes for teaching about verbal and nonverbal communication. Reports that the IPT includes all communication channels, several categories of interaction, and an objective criterion of accurate judgment. Discusses communications cues, using the IPT to introduce research…

  18. Nonverbal Communication Skills in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…

  19. Verbal and Nonverbal Cognitive Control in Bilinguals and Interpreters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woumans, Evy; Ceuleers, Evy; Van der Linden, Lize; Szmalec, Arnaud; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The present study explored the relation between language control and nonverbal cognitive control in different bilingual populations. We compared monolinguals, Dutch-French unbalanced bilinguals, balanced bilinguals, and interpreters on the Simon task (Simon & Rudell, 1967) and the Attention Network Test (ANT; Fan, McCandliss, Sommer, Raz,…

  20. Race of Student and Nonverbal Behavior of Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Robert S.

    White and black subjects, playing the role of teacher, were led to praise verbally a white or black student. It was hypothesized that the race of the student would affect the nonverbal behavior of the teacher. White and black judges, blind to the race of the students and to the hypothesis of the study, rated how pleased the facial expressions of…

  1. Decoding of Children's Nonverbal Responses. Technical Report No. 365.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Vernon L.; Feldman, Robert S.

    The experiment was designed to see whether children differ from adults in the ability to understand nonverbal responses of other children. Ten third-grade children were secretly filmed while watching a very easy and a very hard math lesson. Third graders, sixth graders, and adults (college students) were asked to judge, based on a film of each…

  2. Improving the Teacher's Awareness of Nonverbal Communication in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachur, Donald; And Others

    The emphasis in this paper is on developing teacher awareness of how nonverbal communication fits into the classroom setting. Various positive and negative aspects of this phase of communication in the classroom are explored. A classroom teacher is observed closely by students every day, and her/his attitude, feelings, mood or state of mind,…

  3. Nonverbal Cues: Clues to the Detection of Foreign Language Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregersen, Tammy S.

    2005-01-01

    This observation study examined the nonverbal behavior of anxious and nonanxious foreign language learners during a videotaped oral foreign language exam. Focusing primarily on the kinesic signals found in facial expressions, gazing behavior, body movement and gesture, and posture, it was discovered that anxious learners manifested limited facial…

  4. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  5. Nonverbal Behavior and Student Achievement in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Howard A.

    An investigation of the principal nonverbal factors elicited by four major correlational studies that examined the relationship between process and product variables in American elementary school classrooms yields several discernible trends, but for the most part contributes mainly to establishing a set of recommendations to guide future research…

  6. Validity of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossen, Eric A.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Penfield, Randall D.; Kranzler, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of the Comprehensive Test of Nonverbal Intelligence (CTONI) in two separate investigations. The first study examined criterion-related evidence of validity across racial/ethnic groups on the CTONI and the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Tests of Achievement (3rd edition). The second study examined the…

  7. Nonverbal Intelligence and Foreign Language Learning. Research Bulletin 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Irene

    A study analyzed the relationship between foreign language learning and four variables, including: nonverbal intelligence, conceptual level, mother tongue, and mathematics. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the same mental processes are involved in poor and good language learning, regardless of the learner's mother tongue. The study…

  8. Nonverbal Learning Disability Explained: The Link to Shunted Hydrocephalus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissman, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A nonverbal learning disability is believed to be caused by damage, disorder or destruction of neuronal white matter in the brain's right hemisphere and may be seen in persons experiencing a wide range of neurological diseases such as hydrocephalus and other types of brain injury (Harnadek & Rourke 1994). This article probes the relationship…

  9. Introverts' and Extraverts' Responses to Nonverbal Attending Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genthner, Robert W.; Moughan, James

    1977-01-01

    The different responses of introverts and extraverts to two types of helper nonverbal attending were examined. Subjects were 26 introverts and 26 extraverts, as defined by Eysenck and Eysenck's questionnaire. Introverts rated the listener higher than did extraverts, independent of his posture. (Author)

  10. Nonverbal auditory agnosia with lesion to Wernicke's area.

    PubMed

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Leech, Robert; Dick, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of patient M, who suffered unilateral left posterior temporal and parietal damage, brain regions typically associated with language processing. Language function largely recovered since the infarct, with no measurable speech comprehension impairments. However, the patient exhibited a severe impairment in nonverbal auditory comprehension. We carried out extensive audiological and behavioral testing in order to characterize M's unusual neuropsychological profile. We also examined the patient's and controls' neural responses to verbal and nonverbal auditory stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We verified that the patient exhibited persistent and severe auditory agnosia for nonverbal sounds in the absence of verbal comprehension deficits or peripheral hearing problems. Acoustical analyses suggested that his residual processing of a minority of environmental sounds might rely on his speech processing abilities. In the patient's brain, contralateral (right) temporal cortex as well as perilesional (left) anterior temporal cortex were strongly responsive to verbal, but not to nonverbal sounds, a pattern that stands in marked contrast to the controls' data. This substantial reorganization of auditory processing likely supported the recovery of M's speech processing.

  11. Syndrome of Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: Psycholinguistic Assets and Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.; Tsatsanis, Katherine D.

    1996-01-01

    This discussion of speech and language development in individuals with nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) reviews NLD assets, deficits, and dynamics; the white matter model; manifestations of NLD in neurological dysfunction; psycholinguistic dimensions of NLD in terms of language content, form, and use; developmental considerations in NLD; and…

  12. Nonverbal Learning Disabilities: The Syndrome and a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, Byron P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents syndrome of nonverbal learning disabilities (NLD) and model developed to encompass its complex manifestations. Includes history of development of syndrome, types of children in whom its principal features are manifest, hypothesized neurological bases of syndrome, and test of its developmental dimensions. Provides case study and discusses…

  13. Memory Profile of Children with Nonverbal Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddell, Glennis A.; Rasmussen, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare visual and verbal memory in children with nonverbal learning disability (NLD) using the Children's Memory Scale and to identify the profile of strengths and weaknesses in visual memory abilities. Performance was significantly lower on measures of visual than verbal memory, indicating that children with NLD have…

  14. Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

  15. The Importance of Nonverbal Communication in the Courtroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remland, Martin S.

    Although a relatively new area of scientific study, theory and research on nonverbal communication in the courtroom has produced important findings for students and practitioners in five key areas: voire dire and jury analysis; opening and closing statements; client demeanor and direct examination; cross-examination; and judge demeanor and…

  16. Nonverbal behavior during clinical interviews: similarities and dissimilarities among schizophrenia, mania, and depression.

    PubMed

    Annen, Sigrid; Roser, Patrik; Brüne, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that patients with schizophrenia and depression differ from nonclinical subjects in nonverbal behavior. In contrast, there is a paucity of studies addressing differences in nonverbal communication between diagnostic groups and as to what extent nonverbal communication feeds into standard ratings of psychopathology. Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia were compared with 24 patients with affective disorders (13 depressed, 11 manic) regarding their nonverbal behavior using the Ethological Coding System for Interviews. Symptom severity was rated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Patients with mania displayed more illustrative gestures than did patients with schizophrenia or depression. Subtler behavioral differences between the groups occurred regarding assertive behaviors and displacement activities suggestive of hostility and motivational conflict, respectively. Distinct correlations between nonverbal communication and psychopathology ratings emerged in all three groups. Patients with schizophrenia, depression, and mania differ in nonverbal behavior. Nonverbal communication seems to be a significant contributor to clinicians' intuitive ratings.

  17. Non-verbal communication of the residents living in homes for the older people in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Zaletel, Marija; Kovacev, Asja Nina; Sustersic, Olga; Kragelj, Lijana Zaletel

    2010-09-01

    Aging of the population is a growing problem in all developed societies. The older people need more health and social services, and their life quality in there is getting more and more important. The study aimed at determining the characteristics of non-verbal communication of the older people living in old people's homes (OPH). The sample consisted of 267 residents of the OPH, aged 65-96 years, and 267 caregivers from randomly selected twenty-seven OPH. Three types of non-verbal communication were observed and analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. In face expressions and head movements about 75% older people looked at the eyes of their caregivers, and about 60% were looking around, while laughing or pressing the lips together was rarely noticed. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among different age groups was observed in dropping the eyes (p = 0.004) and smiling (0.008). In hand gestures and trunk movements, majority of older people most often moved forwards and clenched fingers, while most rarely they stroked and caressed their caregivers. The differences between genders were statistically significant in leaning on the table (p = 0.001), and changing the position on the chair (0.013). Statistically significant differences among age groups were registered in leaning forwards (p = 0.006) and pointing to the others (p = 0.036). In different modes of speaking and paralinguistic signs almost 75% older people spoke normally, about 70% kept silent, while they rarely quarrelled. The differences between genders were not statistically significant while statistically significant differences among age groups was observed in persuasive speaking (p = 0.007). The present study showed that older people in OPH in Slovenia communicated significantly less frequently with hand gestures and trunk movements than with face expressions and head movements or different modes of speaking

  18. IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm used in heterodyne detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhui; Qu, Yang; Tang, Yajun Pang Tiantian

    2015-09-01

    In order to obtain better detection results of heterodyne, we used phase IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm to process the data which detected by laser heterodyne. Based on laser heterodyne interferometer, processing the data in the interferometer phase IQ quadrature demodulation algorithm from the signal to noise ratio, sampling rate, sampling rate, filter order and cutoff frequency, verify the effects of these system parameters to the phase precision, and choose the best parameters to obtain a better phase precision through experiment as: the signal to noise ratio is 25 dB, the IF signal frequency is 98.3 MHz, 98.5 MHz, 99.1 MHz, 99.5 MHz and 100 MHz, the sampling rate is 512-2048, the cutoff frequency and order of the filter are 0.11 and 40, respectively.

  19. Evaluating the use of the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) to estimate IQ in children with low intellectual ability.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Karen; Murray, Aja Louise

    2015-02-01

    In situations where completing a full intellectual assessment is not possible or desirable the clinician or researcher may require an alternative means of accurately estimating intellectual functioning. There has been limited research in the use of proxy IQ measures in children with an intellectual disability or low IQ. The present study aimed to provide a means of converting total scores from a screening tool (the Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire: CAIDS-Q) to an estimated IQ. A series of linear regression analyses were conducted on data from 428 children and young people referred to clinical services, where FSIQ was predicted from CAIDS-Q total scores. Analyses were conducted for three age groups between ages 6 and 18 years. The study presents a conversion table for converting CAIDS-Q total scores to estimates of FSIQ, with corresponding 95% prediction intervals to allow the clinician or researcher to estimate FSIQ scores from CAIDS-Q total scores. It is emphasised that, while this conversion may offer a quick means of estimating intellectual functioning in children with a below average IQ, it should be used with caution, especially in children aged between 6 and 8 years old.

  20. Perceived stress during pregnancy and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs165599 polymorphism impacts on childhood IQ.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Yvette N; Thompson, John M D; Murphy, Rinki; Wall, Clare; Kirk, Ian J; Morgan, Angharad R; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A; Waldie, Karen E

    2014-09-01

    Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with a range of adverse outcomes in offspring and the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has been linked to differential susceptibility to the consequences of antenatal stress. This study examined two functional polymorphisms of the COMT gene (rs4680 and rs165599) in relation to maternal perceived stress and childhood cognitive performance. Data from the longitudinal Auckland Birthweight Collaborative (ABC) study was used. Maternal perceived stress over the prior month was measured at birth, 3.5 and 7years. Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ) was measured at ages 7 and 11. At age 11, a total of 546 DNA samples were collected from the child participants. Data were subjected to a series of split-plot ANCOVAs with birthweight for gestational age and maternal school leaving age as covariates. There were direct effects of maternal stress during the last month of pregnancy on offspring FSIQ at ages 7 and 11years. A significant interaction revealed that children exposed to high maternal antenatal stress had significantly lower FSIQ scores at both 7 and 11years of age than those exposed to low stress, only when they were carriers of the rs165599 G allele. At each age, this difference was of approximately 5 IQ points. The G allele of the rs165599 polymorphism may confer genetic susceptibility to negative cognitive outcomes arising from exposure to antenatal stress. This finding highlights the need to consider gene-environment interactions when investigating the outcomes of antenatal stress exposure.

  1. Children's Understanding of Nonverbal Expressions of Pride

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2012-01-01

    To chart the developmental path of children's attribution of pride to others, we presented children (4 years 0 month to 11 years 11 months of age, N = 108) with video clips of head-and-face, body posture, and multi-cue (both head-and-face and body posture simultaneously) expressions that adults consider to convey pride. Across age groups, 4- and…

  2. Mitochondrial DNA Marker EST00083 Is Not Associated with High vs. Average IQ in a German Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moises, Hans W.; Yang, Liu; Kohnke, Michael; Vetter, Peter; Neppert, Jurgen; Petrill, Stephen A.; Plomin, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Tested the association of a mitochondrial DNA marker (EST00083) with high IQ in a sample of 47 German adults with high IQ scores and 77 adults with IQs estimated at lower than 110. Results do not support the hypothesis that high IQ is associated with this marker. (SLD)

  3. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  4. IQ-Station: A Low Cost Portable Immersive Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Whiting; Patrick O'Leary; William Sherman; Eric Wernert

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of inexpensive 3D TV’s, affordable input and rendering hardware and open-source software has created a yeasty atmosphere for the development of low-cost immersive environments (IE). A low cost IE system, or IQ-station, fashioned from commercial off the shelf technology (COTS), coupled with a targeted immersive application can be a viable laboratory instrument for enhancing scientific workflow for exploration and analysis. The use of an IQ-station in a laboratory setting also has the potential of quickening the adoption of a more sophisticated immersive environment as a critical enabler in modern scientific and engineering workflows. Prior work in immersive environments generally required either a head mounted display (HMD) system or a large projector-based implementation both of which have limitations in terms of cost, usability, or space requirements. The solution presented here provides an alternative platform providing a reasonable immersive experience that addresses those limitations. Our work brings together the needed hardware and software to create a fully integrated immersive display and interface system that can be readily deployed in laboratories and common workspaces. By doing so, it is now feasible for immersive technologies to be included in researchers’ day-to-day workflows. The IQ-Station sets the stage for much wider adoption of immersive environments outside the small communities of virtual reality centers.

  5. Russell-Silver syndrome and nonverbal learning disability: a case study.

    PubMed

    Plotts, Cynthia A; Livermore, Christina L

    2007-01-01

    Russell-Silver Syndrome (RSS) is a rare genetic developmental disorder characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth delays and other physical abnormalities. Neuropsychological screening was completed with LP, a 20-year-old college male diagnosed at one year of age with Russell-Silver Syndrome. LP's history and test findings yielded a profile consistent with a nonverbal learning disability, with significantly higher verbal compared to nonverbal intelligence, deficient visual-spatial memory, fine motor coordination and motor planning problems, relatively greater difficulty in math compared to other achievement areas, decreased writing fluency, and social behavior impediments. LP also experienced attention and concentration problems along with a ruminative cognitive-emotional style and mild depression. His pattern of processing weaknesses indicated a need for academic accommodations to complete his college-level academic work, along with counseling to address emotional issues. Further studies of individuals with RSS should consider neuropsychological assessment to address patterns of cognitive processing and possible need for educational and psychosocial intervention.

  6. Visual perception and memory impairments in children at risk of nonverbal learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mammarella, Irene C; Pazzaglia, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Visuospatial working memory (VSWM) and visual perception were examined in two groups aged 11-13, one with children displaying symptoms of nonverbal learning disability (NLD) (n = 18) and the other a control group without learning disabilities (n = 18). The two groups were matched for general verbal abilities, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. The children were presented with VSWM tests involving visual and spatial-simultaneous processes, and also with a classical visual illusion, a classical ambiguous figure, as well as visual perception tests specifically devised for the present study. Results revealed that performance of children at risk of NLD was worse than controls in some VSWM and in visual perception tests without memory involvement; these latter required comparisons of visual stimuli and locations in space with distractors. Moreover, the two groups differed in perceiving the classical ambiguous figure. Findings are discussed in the light of both theoretical and clinical implications.

  7. Effects on WAIS-III Performance IQ (PIQ) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) When Object Assembly Is Substituted for Each Standard Performance Scale Subtest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph J.; Morris, Jeri; Brown, Kristina I.; Glass, Laura A.

    2006-01-01

    According to the "WAIS-III Administration and Scoring Manual," Object Assembly (OA) may be substituted for any spoiled Performance subtest. This assertion has not been evaluated in a clinical sample. The present investigation reports differences that resulted in Performance IQ (PIQ) and Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when OA replaced each of the Performance…

  8. Error compensation of IQ modulator using two-dimensional DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Takashi; Maesaka, Hirokazu; Matsubara, Shinichi; Otake, Yuji

    2016-06-01

    It is important to precisely set and keep the phase and amplitude of an rf signal in the accelerating cavity of modern accelerators, such as an X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) linac. In these accelerators an acceleration rf signal is generated or detected by an In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator, or a demodulator. If there are any deviations of the phase and the amplitude from the ideal values, crosstalk between the phase and the amplitude of the output signal of the IQ modulator or the demodulator arises. This causes instability of the feedback controls that simultaneously stabilize both the rf phase and the amplitude. To compensate for such deviations, we developed a novel compensation method using a two-dimensional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Because the observed deviations of the phase and amplitude of an IQ modulator involve sinusoidal and polynomial behaviors on the phase angle and the amplitude of the rf vector, respectively, the DFT calculation with these basis functions makes a good approximation with a small number of compensation coefficients. Also, we can suppress high-frequency noise components arising when we measure the deviation data. These characteristics have advantages compared to a Look Up Table (LUT) compensation method. The LUT method usually demands many compensation elements, such as about 300, that are not easy to treat. We applied the DFT compensation method to the output rf signal of a C-band IQ modulator at SACLA, which is an XFEL facility in Japan. The amplitude deviation of the IQ modulator after the DFT compensation was reduced from 15.0% at the peak to less than 0.2% at the peak for an amplitude control range of from 0.1 V to 0.9 V (1.0 V full scale) and for a phase control range from 0 degree to 360 degrees. The number of compensation coefficients is 60, which is smaller than that of the LUT method, and is easy to treat and maintain.

  9. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development.

  10. Influence of verbal and nonverbal references to print on preschoolers' visual attention to print during storybook reading.

    PubMed

    Justice, Laura M; Pullen, Paige C; Pence, Khara

    2008-05-01

    How much do preschool children look at print within storybooks when adults read to them? This study sought to answer this question as well as to examine the effects of adult verbal and nonverbal references to print on children's visual attention to print during storybook reading. Forty-four preschool-aged children participated in this study designed to determine the amount of visual attention children paid to print in 4 planned variations of storybook reading. Children's visual attention to print was examined when adults commented and questioned about print (verbal print condition) or pointed to and tracked the print (nonverbal print condition), relative to 2 comparison conditions (verbatim reading and verbal picture conditions). Results showed that children rarely look at print, with about 5%-6% of their fixations allocated to print in verbatim and verbal picture reading conditions. However, preschoolers' visual attention to print increases significantly when adults verbally and nonverbally reference print; both reading styles exerted similar effects. The authors conclude that explicit referencing of print is 1 way to increase young children's contacts with print during shared storybook reading.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and IQ in 7-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Maryse F.; Chevrier, Jonathan; Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Vedar, Michelle; Calderon, Norma; Trujillo, Celina; Johnson, Caroline; Bradman, Asa; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2011-01-01

    Context: Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are neurotoxic at high doses. Few studies have examined whether chronic exposure at lower levels could adversely affect children’s cognitive development. Objective: We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal exposure to OP pesticides and cognitive abilities in school-age children. Methods: We conducted a birth cohort study (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas study) among predominantly Latino farmworker families from an agricultural community in California. We assessed exposure to OP pesticides by measuring dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine collected during pregnancy and from children at 6 months and 1, 2, 3.5, and 5 years of age. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition, to 329 children 7 years of age. Analyses were adjusted for maternal education and intelligence, Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment score, and language of cognitive assessment. Results: Urinary DAP concentrations measured during the first and second half of pregnancy had similar relations to cognitive scores, so we used the average of concentrations measured during pregnancy in further analyses. Averaged maternal DAP concentrations were associated with poorer scores for Working Memory, Processing Speed, Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ). Children in the highest quintile of maternal DAP concentrations had an average deficit of 7.0 IQ points compared with those in the lowest quintile. However, children’s urinary DAP concentrations were not consistently associated with cognitive scores. Conclusions: Prenatal but not postnatal urinary DAP concentrations were associated with poorer intellectual development in 7-year-old children. Maternal urinary DAP concentrations in the present study were higher but nonetheless within the range of levels measured in the general U.S. population. PMID:21507776

  12. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  13. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of "body movement synchronization" is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  14. Nonverbal Communication and Aircrew Coordination in Army Aviation: Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    limited in-cockpit visibility resulting from night and night vision goggle ( NVG ) use. The resulting reductions in nonverbal communication may have an...movement, posture and body orientation constitute active messages sent and received in ongoing interactions. Body movement and speech-related gestures...Communication NVD - Night Vision Device NVG - Night Vision Goggle RL - Readiness Level SOP - Standard Operating Procedure TC - Training Circular USAAVNC - United

  15. Detection of Nonverbal Synchronization through Phase Difference in Human Communication

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Ono, Eisuke; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Nonverbal communication is an important factor in human communication, and body movement synchronization in particular is an important part of nonverbal communication. Some researchers have analyzed body movement synchronization by focusing on changes in the amplitude of body movements. However, the definition of “body movement synchronization” is still unclear. From a theoretical viewpoint, phase difference is the most important factor in synchronization analysis. Therefore, there is a need to measure the synchronization of body movements using phase difference. The purpose of this study was to provide a quantitative definition of the phase difference distribution for detecting body movement synchronization in human communication. The phase difference distribution was characterized using four statistical measurements: density, mean phase difference, standard deviation (SD) and kurtosis. To confirm the effectiveness of our definition, we applied it to human communication in which the roles of speaker and listener were defined. Specifically, we examined the difference in the phase difference distribution between two different communication situations: face-to-face communication with visual interaction and remote communication with unidirectional visual perception. Participant pairs performed a task supposing lecture in the face-to-face communication condition and in the remote communication condition via television. Throughout the lecture task, we extracted a set of phase differences from the time-series data of the acceleration norm of head nodding motions between two participants. Statistical analyses of the phase difference distribution revealed the characteristics of head nodding synchronization. Although the mean phase differences in synchronized head nods did not differ significantly between the conditions, there were significant differences in the densities, the SDs and the kurtoses of the phase difference distributions of synchronized head nods. These

  16. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs.

    PubMed

    Dreiss, Amélie N; Chatelain, Philippe G; Roulin, Alexandre; Richner, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process.

  17. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance

    PubMed Central

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W.; Finkel, Eli J.; Carney, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness—expanding the body in physical space—was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person’s odds of getting a “yes” response from one’s speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person’s chances of being selected as a potential mate. PMID:27035937

  18. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance.

    PubMed

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J; Carney, Dana R

    2016-04-12

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness-expanding the body in physical space-was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person's odds of getting a "yes" response from one's speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person's chances of being selected as a potential mate.

  19. Prosody Predicts Contest Outcome in Non-Verbal Dialogs

    PubMed Central

    Dreiss, Amélie N.; Chatelain, Philippe G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-verbal communication has important implications for inter-individual relationships and negotiation success. However, to what extent humans can spontaneously use rhythm and prosody as a sole communication tool is largely unknown. We analysed human ability to resolve a conflict without verbal dialogs, independently of semantics. We invited pairs of subjects to communicate non-verbally using whistle sounds. Along with the production of more whistles, participants unwittingly used a subtle prosodic feature to compete over a resource (ice-cream scoops). Winners can be identified by their propensity to accentuate the first whistles blown when replying to their partner, compared to the following whistles. Naive listeners correctly identified this prosodic feature as a key determinant of which whistler won the interaction. These results suggest that in the absence of other communication channels, individuals spontaneously use a subtle variation of sound accentuation (prosody), instead of merely producing exuberant sounds, to impose themselves in a conflict of interest. We discuss the biological and cultural bases of this ability and their link with verbal communication. Our results highlight the human ability to use non-verbal communication in a negotiation process. PMID:27907039

  20. Social priming increases nonverbal expressive behaviors in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Del-Monte, Jonathan; Raffard, Stéphane; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Schmidt, Richard C; Varlet, Manuel; Bardy, Benoît G; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine; Marin, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    Semantic priming tasks are classically used to influence and implicitly promote target behaviors. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that prosocial semantic priming modulated feelings of social affiliation. The main aim of this study was to determine whether inducing feelings of social affiliation using priming tasks could modulate nonverbal social behaviors in schizophrenia. We used the Scrambled Sentence Task to prime schizophrenia patients according to three priming group conditions: pro-social, non-social or anti-social. Forty-five schizophrenia patients, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR, were randomly assigned to one of the three priming groups of 15 participants. We evaluated nonverbal social behaviors using the Motor-Affective subscale of the Motor-Affective-Social-Scale. Results showed that schizophrenia patients with pro-social priming had significantly more nonverbal behaviors than schizophrenia patients with anti-social and non-social priming conditions. Schizophrenia patient behaviors are affected by social priming. Our results have several clinical implications for the rehabilitation of social skills impairments frequently encountered among individuals with schizophrenia.