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Sample records for age older children

  1. Automated bone age assessment of older children using the radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, Han K.

    2008-03-01

    The Digital Hand Atlas in Assessment of Skeletal Development is a large-scale Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) project for automating the process of grading Skeletal Development of children from 0-18 years of age. It includes a complete collection of 1,400 normal hand X-rays of children between the ages of 0-18 years of age. Bone Age Assessment is used as an index of skeletal development for detection of growth pathologies that can be related to endocrine, malnutrition and other disease types. Previous work at the Image Processing and Informatics Lab (IPILab) allowed the bone age CAD algorithm to accurately assess bone age of children from 1 to 16 (male) or 14 (female) years of age using the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones. At the older ages (16(male) or 14(female) -19 years of age) the Phalanges as well as the Carpal Bones are fully developed and do not provide well-defined features for accurate bone age assessment. Therefore integration of the Radius Bone as a region of interest (ROI) is greatly needed and will significantly improve the ability to accurately assess the bone age of older children. Preliminary studies show that an integrated Bone Age CAD that utilizes the Phalanges, Carpal Bones and Radius forms a robust method for automatic bone age assessment throughout the entire age range (1-19 years of age).

  2. Children's Attitudes toward Older Adults and Aging: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Cara N.; Ricketts, Kristina G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper serves as a summation of literature on children's attitudes toward older adults and aging. Research indicates that the vast amount of information available provides varying levels of understanding toward children's actual views of older adults. Differences between measurements, settings, and procedures stand as barriers in…

  3. Age-related differences in brain electrical activity during extended continuous face recognition in younger children, older children and adults.

    PubMed

    Van Strien, Jan W; Glimmerveen, Johanna C; Franken, Ingmar H A; Martens, Vanessa E G; de Bruin, Eveline A

    2011-09-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with distracter faces. The children were required to make old vs. new decisions. Older children responded faster than younger children, but younger children exhibited a steeper decrease in latencies across the five repetitions. Older children exhibited better accuracy for new faces, but there were no age differences in recognition accuracy for repeated faces. For the N2, N400 and late positive complex (LPC), we analyzed the old/new effects (repetition 1 vs. new presentation) and the extended repetition effects (repetitions 1 through 5). Compared to older children, younger children exhibited larger frontocentral N2 and N400 old/new effects. For extended face repetitions, negativity of the N2 and N400 decreased in a linear fashion in both age groups. For the LPC, an ERP component thought to reflect recollection, no significant old/new or extended repetition effects were found. Employing the same face recognition paradigm in 20 adults (Study 2), we found a significant N400 old/new effect at lateral frontal sites and a significant LPC repetition effect at parietal sites, with LPC amplitudes increasing linearly with the number of repetitions. This study clearly demonstrates differential developmental courses for the N400 and LPC pertaining to recognition memory for faces. It is concluded that face recognition in children is mediated by early and probably more automatic than conscious recognition processes. In adults, the LPC extended repetition effect indicates that adult face recognition memory is related to a conscious and graded recollection process rather than to an automatic recognition process.

  4. Children under the age of two are more likely to watch inappropriate background media than older children

    PubMed Central

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Brockmeyer Cates, Carolyn; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule, Samantha B; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Aim To establish whether young children watched foreground electronic media or background media that was not aimed at them or was inappropriate for their age. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of mother-infant dyads participating in a larger parenting study. The primary dependent variable was maternal reports of watching habits from media diaries at six, 14, 24 and 36 months. Independent variables were child age, programme content and whether the programme was turned on specifically for the child. Results We analysed 3,570 programme exposures in 527 children, mostly from television. Children were significantly more likely to actually watch programmes if they were older, if the content was coded as “educational-young child” or if the parent tuned on the programme specifically so the child could watch it. Children under the age of two were more likely than older children to watch background media that featured age-inappropriate content or had not been turned on for them to watch (30% versus 16% of programmes; AOR = 2.19, [95%CI 1.82-2.65]). Conclusions Young children under the age of two frequently watch background media that has age-inappropriate content or has not been turned on for them to watch. PMID:24812713

  5. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  6. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days. PMID:26941560

  7. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days. PMID:26941560

  8. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Nicole; Robinson, Joan L

    2016-01-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) continues to be a common infection in young children. Milder disease, usually due to viruses or less virulent bacteria, resolves equally quickly with or without antibiotics. A bulging tympanic membrane, especially if yellow or hemorrhagic, has a high sensitivity for AOM that is likely to be bacterial in origin and is a major diagnostic criterion for AOM. Perforation of the tympanic membrane with purulent discharge similarly indicates a bacterial cause. Immediate antibiotic treatment is recommended for children who are highly febrile (≥39°C), moderately to severely systemically ill or who have very severe otalgia, or have already been significantly ill for 48 h. For all other cases, parents can be provided with a prescription for antibiotics to fill if the child does not improve in 48 h or the child can be reassessed if this occurs. Amoxicillin remains the clear drug of choice. Ten days of therapy is appropriate for children <2 years of age, whereas older children can be treated for five days.

  9. Age-Related Differences in Brain Electrical Activity during Extended Continuous Face Recognition in Younger Children, Older Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Glimmerveen, Johanna C.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Martens, Vanessa E. G.; de Bruin, Eveline A.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the development of recognition memory in primary-school children, 36 healthy younger children (8-9 years old) and 36 healthy older children (11-12 years old) participated in an ERP study with an extended continuous face recognition task (Study 1). Each face of a series of 30 faces was shown randomly six times interspersed with…

  10. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  11. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  12. Sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 years of age and weight or BMI status among older children; systematic review of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Eugenia; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of prospective studies that examined the association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6y of age and later weight or BMI status among older children. An electronic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, SciELO, and EBSCO databases of prospective studies published from 2001 to 2011. Seven studies were analyzed. The study population was from 72 to 10,904 children. Three studies showed a consistent association between SSB intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI, or waist circumference later in childhood, one study showed a positive trend of consumption of SSB and childhood obesity and the OR for incidence of overweight by baseline beverage intake was 1.04, another study it was observed that an increase in total sugar intake and sugar from sweets and beverages in children 1-2 y of age and 7-9 y of age have a tendency to increase BMI, and two studies showed no association. In conclusion, although the trend of the reviews studies, indicate an association between sugar-sweetened beverage intake before 6 y of age and increased weight, BMI or waist circumference later in childhood, to date, the results are inconsistent, and the two studies with the higher number of children showed a positive association.

  13. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  14. IQ and blood lead from 2 to 7 years of age: are the effects in older children the residual of high blood lead concentrations in 2-year-olds?

    PubMed

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N; Ware, James H; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J

    2005-05-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18-30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4-6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20-44 microg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  15. IQ and Blood Lead from 2 to 7 Years of Age: Are the Effects in Older Children the Residual of High Blood Lead Concentrations in 2-Year-Olds?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Dietrich, Kim N.; Ware, James H.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18–30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4–6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently with IQ. Therefore, cross-sectional associations between blood lead and IQ in school-age children have been widely interpreted as the residual effects of higher blood lead concentrations at an earlier age or the tendency of less intelligent children to ingest more leaded dust or paint chips, rather than as a causal relationship in older children. Here we analyze data from a clinical trial in which children were treated for elevated blood lead concentrations (20–44 μg/dL) at about 2 years of age and followed until 7 years of age with serial IQ tests and measurements of blood lead. We found that cross-sectional associations increased in strength as the children became older, whereas the relation between baseline blood lead and IQ attenuated. Peak blood lead level thus does not fully account for the observed association in older children between their lower blood lead concentrations and IQ. The effect of concurrent blood level on IQ may therefore be greater than currently believed. PMID:15866769

  16. Older, Not Younger, Children Learn More False Facts from Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazio, Lisa K.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.

    2008-01-01

    Early school-aged children listened to stories that contained correct and incorrect facts. All ages answered more questions correctly after having heard the correct fact in the story. Only the older children, however, produced story errors on a later general knowledge test. Source errors did not drive the increased suggestibility in older…

  17. Is cancer vaccination feasible at older age?

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Jahangir, Arthee

    2014-01-01

    Age-related defects of the immune system are responsible for T cell unresponsiveness to cancer vaccination at older age. Major immune defects at older age are lack of naïve T cells, impaired activation pathways of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), and age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This raises the question whether cancer vaccination is feasible at older age. We compared various cancer vaccine studies at young and old age, thereby focusing on the importance of both innate and adaptive immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. These analyses suggest that creating an immune-stimulating environment with help of the innate immune system may improve T cell responses in cancer vaccination at older age. PMID:24509231

  18. Providing Better Opportunities for Older Children in the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massinga, Ruth; Pecora, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    A growing number of children over age 10 reside in and emancipate from foster care every year. Older children face many of the same challenges as younger children, but they also have unique developmental needs. This article discusses older children in the child welfare system and finds: (1) Approximately 47% of children in foster care are over age…

  19. Young Children's Thinking in Relation to Texts: A Comparison with Older Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feathers, Karen M.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the thinking of kindergartners and sixth-graders as expressed in unassisted retellings of a narrative text. Found no significant age differences in retelling lengths and few significant age differences in the amount of types of thinking. Older children tended to summarize paragraphs and single sentences; young children tended to summarize…

  20. Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age.

    PubMed

    Le Saux, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of bacterial meningitis in infants and children has decreased since the routine use of conjugated vaccines targeting Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. However, this infection continues to be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity if not treated effectively with empirical antimicrobial therapy. Diagnosis still rests on clinical signs and symptoms, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. This position statement outlines the rationale for current recommended empirical therapy using a third-generation cephalosporin and vancomycin for suspected bacterial meningitis. It also provides new recommendations for the use of adjuvant corticosteroids in this setting. Once antibiotic susceptibilities of the pathogen are known, antimicrobials should be reviewed and modified accordingly. Recommendations for treatment duration as well as audiology testing are included. The present statement replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on bacterial meningitis published in 2007 and revised in 2008.

  1. Guidelines for the management of suspected and confirmed bacterial meningitis in Canadian children older than one month of age

    PubMed Central

    Le Saux, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacterial meningitis in infants and children has decreased since the routine use of conjugated vaccines targeting Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis. However, this infection continues to be associated with considerable mortality and morbidity if not treated effectively with empirical antimicrobial therapy. Diagnosis still rests on clinical signs and symptoms, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. This position statement outlines the rationale for current recommended empirical therapy using a third-generation cephalosporin and vancomycin for suspected bacterial meningitis. It also provides new recommendations for the use of adjuvant corticosteroids in this setting. Once antibiotic susceptibilities of the pathogen are known, antimicrobials should be reviewed and modified accordingly. Recommendations for treatment duration as well as audiology testing are included. The present statement replaces a previous Canadian Paediatric Society position statement on bacterial meningitis published in 2007 and revised in 2008. PMID:24665226

  2. [Frequency of cancer at older ages].

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine; Doyon, Françoise

    2008-05-28

    The dependency between the risk of death and age is analysed, and the contribution of cancer to the overall risk of death is evaluated as a function of age. The frequency of the different cancer sites is described in different age groups. Lastly cancer mortality trends are presented by age. The risk of death from cancer increases markedly with age, but the risk of a death from a cardiovascular disease increases even more rapidly, consequently the importance of cancer as a cause of death decreases with age. In the male population, lung and head and neck cancers are the most frequent cancers before age 65, whereas prostate and colorectal cancers are more frequent at older ages. In the female population, breast and colorectal cancers are the most frequent cancers except for mortality before age 65 where lung cancer is the second killer after breast cancer. The risk of cancer death decreases in recent years for all age groups.

  3. Depression and religiosity in older age.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, M; Warzecha, A

    2011-09-12

    We investigated the hypothesis that religious commitment could help counter general affective distress, accompanying depressive symptoms, in older age. A total of 34 older adults, all catholic believers, completed self-reported questionnaires on the presence of depressive symptoms, religiosity, health, worry, and the style of coping with stress. The depressive and non-depressive subgroups were then created. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 50%, with the substantial predominance of females. Regression analyses indicate that health expectations and worry significantly worsen with increasing intensity of depressive symptoms. The results further show that religious engagement was not different between the depressive and non-depressive subgroups. Religiosity failed to influence the intensity of depressive symptoms or the strategy of coping with stress in either subgroup, although a trend was noted for better health expectations with increasing religious engagement in depressive subjects. We conclude that religiosity is unlikely to significantly ameliorate dysphoric distress accompanying older age.

  4. Older Parents' Perceptions of Ambivalence in Relationships with Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Cheryl L.; Hooker, Karen; Zvonkovic, Anisa M.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study explores older parents' ambivalent perceptions of their relationships with their adult children. Interviews with 17 mothers and fathers (aged 67+) provided reports on 75 relationships (43 sons, 32 daughters). Two predominant sources of ambivalence emerged when parents discussed their current relationships. The first…

  5. Children's Views of Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Howatson-Jones, Lioba

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide demographic change means that the responsibility for an aging population will fall to younger generations. This narrative literature review comprises an international examination of what has been published about children's views of older people between 1980 and 2011. Sixty-nine academic articles were inductively analyzed, and the…

  6. Preparing for a healthier older age.

    PubMed

    Jefferson, Angie

    2006-01-01

    People are living longer and if they are to enjoy a healthier old age it is important that they start preparing themselves for this during middle age. Many diseases are at least partly preventable by diet and exercise, so understanding the practicalities of good nutrition and the need to achieve and maintain a healthy weight is vital. Health professionals should use every opportunity to get this message across in their contacts with middle aged and older people. This article explains the key nutritional and physiological points and includes specific practical tips for burning off calories and reducing calorie intake. PMID:16550807

  7. Listening to Older Adult Parents of Adult Children with Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses qualitative research and narrative analysis to examine the experience of women age 55 and older who are parents caring for adult children with mental illness. Knowledge about the conflicts of older parents with dependent children is underdeveloped. In this study, analysis of women's stories about parenting in later life reveal…

  8. Standards of Fair Play in Same- and Mixed-Age Groups of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graziano, William G.

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that children do not use the same standards of fair play in mixed-age situations as in same-age situations. It was further hypothesized that in mixed-age encounters, younger children would use cues associated with older children (i.e., physical size) as a basis for reward deservingness. Older children,…

  9. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Putney, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Bonnie L.; Sass, Samantha E.; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Results: Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Conclusion: Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly. PMID:27046541

  10. Divalproex-ER pharmacokinetics in older children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Sandeep; Zhang, Yiming; Conway, Jeannine M; Sallee, Floyd R; Biton, Victor; Reed, Michael D; Kearns, Gregory L

    2004-05-01

    Valproic acid pharmacokinetic profile and tolerability after administration of divalproex sodium extended-release tablets was characterized in older children and adolescents. In this multiple-dose, open-label, pharmacokinetic study, the patients were divided into two age groups, 8-11 years (older children; n = 15) and 12-17 years (adolescents; n = 14). Once-daily administration of divalproex sodium extended-release tablets (doses ranged from 250 to 1750 mg) in older children and adolescents produced relatively flat plasma valproic acid concentration-time profiles over the entire 24-hour dosing interval, similar to the pharmacokinetic performance of this formulation in adults. The mean (standard deviation) oral clearance values for unbound valproic acid were 94.3 (51.8) and 82.3 (28.2) mL/h/kg and for total valproic acid were 11.2 (3.77) and 9.06 (2.03) mL/h/kg in older children and adolescents, respectively. Two patients discontinued for administrative reasons, whereas one discontinued for an adverse event (flulike syndrome). Adverse events reported by three or more patients were flu syndrome (5 patients, 17.2%) and headache (3 patients, 10.3%). Reported adverse events were generally mild to moderate in severity and similar to those reported in previous divalproex studies. This study demonstrates that in older children and adolescents, once-daily administration of divalproex sodium extended-release tablets may potentially be used to sustain plasma valproic acid concentrations within the usually accepted therapeutic ranges for various indications. PMID:15165635

  11. The Meaning of "Aging in Place" to Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Janine L.; Leibing, Annette; Guberman, Nancy; Reeve, Jeanne; Allen, Ruth E. S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study illuminates the concept of "aging in place" in terms of functional, symbolic, and emotional attachments and meanings of homes, neighbourhoods, and communities. It investigates how older people understand the meaning of "aging in place," a term widely used in aging policy and research but underexplored with older people…

  12. Employment Hardship Among Older Workers: Does Residential and Gender Inequality Extend Into Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Tim; Jensen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The realities of a rapidly aging society make the employment circumstances of older workers an increasingly important social issue. We examine the prevalence and correlates of underemployment among older Americans, with a special focus on residence and gender, to provide an assessment of the labor market challenges facing older workers. Methods. We analyzed data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers and developed multivariate models to assess the impact of age, residence, and gender on the likelihood of underemployment, net of other predictors. Results. We found clear disadvantages for older workers relative to their middle-aged counterparts, and particular disadvantages for older rural residents and women. Multivariate models showed that the disadvantages of older age held net of other predictors. The results also indicated that much of the disadvantage faced by older rural workers and women was explained by factors other than age, particularly education. Discussion. In an aging society, underemployment among older workers comes at an increasing social cost. Policies aimed at supporting older workers and alleviating employment hardship among them are increasingly in the public interest. PMID:18332197

  13. (Un)Healthy immigrant citizens: naturalization and activity limitations in older age.

    PubMed

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants' political, social, and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008-2010 American Community Survey and 1998-2010 Integrated Health Interview Series, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared with noncitizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared with noncitizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act.

  14. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia in older age.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M H; Dennison, E M; Aihie Sayer, A; Fielding, R; Cooper, C

    2015-11-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common in older age and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Consequently, they are both attended by a considerable socioeconomic burden. Osteoporosis was defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1994 as a bone mineral density of less than 2.5 standard deviations below the sex-specific young adult mean and this characterisation has been adopted globally. Subsequently, a further step forward was taken when bone mineral density was incorporated into fracture risk prediction algorithms, such as the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) also developed by the WHO. In contrast, for sarcopenia there have been several diagnostic criteria suggested, initially relating to low muscle mass alone and more recently low muscle mass and muscle function. However, none of these have been universally accepted. This has led to difficulties in accurately delineating the burden of disease, exploring geographic differences, and recruiting appropriate subjects to clinical trials. There is also uncertainty about how improvement in sarcopenia should be measured in pharmaceutical trials. Reasons for these difficulties include the number of facets of muscle health available, e.g. mass, strength, function, and performance, and the various clinical outcomes to which sarcopenia can be related such as falls, fracture, disability and premature mortality. It is imperative that a universal definition of sarcopenia is reached soon to facilitate greater progress in research into this debilitating condition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  15. Learning Choices, Older Australians and Active Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian M.; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of qualitative, semistructured interviews conducted with 40 older Australian participants who either did or did not engage in organized learning. Phenomenology was used to guide the interviews and analysis to explore the lived learning experiences and perspectives of these older people. Their experiences of…

  16. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  17. Practical Life for the Older Children in the Casa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soholt, Polli

    2013-01-01

    Polli Soholt writes about advanced practical life and demonstrates that adding more challenge and complexity for older children leads to more social cooperation. Activities such as washing dishes, polishing, sewing, and food preparation take the child beyond the need to refine basic skills. The older primary children find more reality in tasks…

  18. What Proportion of Preschool-Aged Children Consume Sweetened Beverages?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickelson, Jen; Lawrence, Jeannine C.; Parton, Jason M.; Knowlden, Adam P.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity affects nearly 17% of US children and youth 2-19?years old and 10% of infants and toddlers under the age of 2?years. One strategy for addressing obesity is to discourage sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption. Compared with their older school-aged counterparts, children =5?years depend largely on parents for the purchase…

  19. Depressed Skull Fractures: A Pattern of Abusive Head Injury in Three Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Anselm C. W.; Ou, Yvonne; Fong, Dawson

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To describe a pattern of abusive head injury in a series of children older than 4 years of age. Methods: A hospital chart review of abused children with skull fractures from 1999 to 2001 was carried out. The clinical features, social background, and subsequent outcome and management are described. Results: An 11-year-old girl and a pair…

  20. DHF in infants, late infants and older children: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Witayathawornwong, Prasonk

    2005-07-01

    A comparative study of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants and children was conducted at the Department of Pediatrics, Phetchabun Hospital between May,1999 and December, 2002. There were 1,924 DHF patients (aged 0-14 years). There were 40 (2.1%) infants (age 0-l years) and 27 (1.4%) young children (age 1-2 years). Sixty-seven cases (3.5%) of the older children (> 2-14 years) were selected to be compared. The clinical and epidemiological data for each of the three groups were not statistically different from each other, except for age, splenomegaly, shock state and mode of dengue infection. Older children were more likely to have a second dengue infection and a shock state than younger patients. Laboratory investigation results and fluid management for each of the three groups were not significantly different from each other except for the total WBC (min), neutrophils (max), lymphocytes (max) and platelets (min). The platelets (min) in the infants were significantly lower than in the younger children and the older children. Associated symptoms, diseases, complications, and hematologic manifestations in each of the three groups were not significantly different from each other except for the presence of coryza, seizures, nausea/vomiting, rash, and petichiae. Coryza, seizures, nausea/vomiting, rash, and petichiae in the infants and younger children were significantly different from the older children.

  1. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  2. Does Work Contribute to Successful Aging Outcomes in Older Workers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Martha J.; McCready, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    Older workers are the fastest growing segment of the labor force, yet little is known about designing jobs for older workers that optimize their experiences relative to aging successfully. This study examined the contribution of workplace job design (opportunities for decision-making, skill variety, coworker support, supervisor support) to…

  3. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  4. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  5. Epidemiology of Falls in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Nancye May

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, falls among older people are a public health concern because of their frequency and adverse consequences in terms of morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, as well as their impact on health system services and costs. This epidemiological review outlines the public health burden of falls and fall-related injuries and the impact of…

  6. So You Think You Look Young? Matching Older Adults' Subjective Ages with Age Estimations Provided by Younger, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotter-Gruhn, Dana; Hess, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Perceived age plays an important role in the context of age identity and social interactions. To examine how accurate individuals are in estimating how old they look and how old others are, younger, middle-aged, and older adults rated photographs of older target persons (for whom we had information about objective and subjective age) in terms of…

  7. Measuring Successful Aging in Southern Black Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troutman, Meredith; Nies, Mary A.; Bentley, Monica

    2011-01-01

    With the growing size of the population of aging Black individuals, it is important to understand successful aging in this group. This study, therefore, piloted the Successful Aging Inventory (SAI) with a convenience sample of Black older adults. Participants completed a demographic form, the SAI, Purpose in Life Test, Life Satisfaction…

  8. Older Adults in Lifelong Learning: Participation and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the participation of older adult learners in educational activities and successful aging. In partnership with seniors' organizations, focus-group interviews were conducted on seniors' involvement in learning and their perceptions of its influence on successful aging. Successful aging is defined in…

  9. Never-married childless women in Australia: health and social circumstances in older age.

    PubMed

    Cwikel, Julie; Gramotnev, Helen; Lee, Christina

    2006-04-01

    A growing proportion of women reach older age without having married or having children. Assumptions that these older women are lonely, impoverished, and high users of social and health services are based on little evidence. This paper uses data from the Older cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health to describe self-reported demographics, physical and emotional health, and use of services among 10,108 women aged 73-78, of whom 2.7% are never-married and childless. The most striking characteristic of this group is their high levels of education, which are associated with fewer reported financial difficulties and higher rates of private health insurance. There are few differences in self-reported physical or emotional health or use of health services between these and other groups of older women. Compared with older married women with children, they make higher use of formal services such as home maintenance and meal services, and are also more likely to provide volunteer services and belong to social groups. Overall, there is no evidence to suggest that these women are a "problem" group. Rather, it seems that their life experiences and opportunities prepare them for a successful and productive older age. PMID:16225976

  10. Study comparing the applicability of dorsal lumbotomy in older children

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Jonathan; Haidar, Nadim; Rompre-Deschenes, Marie-Pier; Grimard, Maryse; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dismembered pyeloplasty through dorsal lumbotomy to correct ureteropelvic junction obstruction is mainly successfully performed in children under 5 years old for technical reasons. We compared children who underwent dorsal lumbotomy by age group (<5 vs. ≥5 years old) to determine if the surgical success and long-term results were comparable. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 134 children undergoing a pyeloplasty. Group 1 consisted of children <5 years old (n = 90) and Group 2 consisted of children ≥5 years old. Patients’ characteristics, as well as hospital stay, narcotic use, radiologic follow-up and success rate, were compared. Success was defined by absence of symptoms and ≥50% reduction in renal pelvis anteroposterior diameter and/or scintigraphic normalization of the drainage T1/2 when obtained. Univariate analysis was performed to compare the groups. Results: Mean age (years) and weight (kg) at surgery for Groups 1 and 2 were 1/8 kg and 11/35 kg, respectively. Mean operative time was 98 minutes versus 120 minutes, respectively; mean hospital stay was 2.5 days for both groups and analgesia requirement was 50% higher in Group 2. A Pippi-Salle stent was used in 90% (n = 120) of cases. Mean follow-up was 26 months and the success rate was 89% and 90% for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Our study showed comparable success rates. We can infer that, as a technique, dismembered pyeloplasty is effective and safe in the younger and older children. PMID:21539770

  11. Labor-Force Dynamics at Older Ages

    PubMed Central

    Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149

  12. College Students' Perceptions about Older People and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the perceptions of college students at a large southeastern university about aging and older people. Participants were 441 students from age 17 to 49 years with a median age of 19 years. There were 118 males (26.8%) and 323 females (73.2%). The results indicated that students believed a person is "old" at the age of 60 years.…

  13. Characteristics of Older Adults and the Aging: Some Comments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Cash J.; Cangemi, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Asserting that both humanistic and manpower considerations dictate that we address the aging process, this article describes the characteristics of older adults and illustrates the way in which they may be allowed to remain productive. Maslow's "Need Hierarchy" and Thorndike's "Theory of Developmental Tasks" are applied to the aging process. (JC)

  14. Active Ageing and Universities: Engaging Older Learners. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Chris; Ogg, Jim

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews the engagement of older learners (defined as those aged 50 and over) in education and training with particular reference to their involvement in higher education. The ageing of populations was one of the most important trends in the 20th century and will raise major challenges in this century. Appended are: (1) Selected UK…

  15. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: Victorian Aged Care Workers Survey. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  16. Older Workers' Perspectives on Training and Retention of Older Workers: South Australian Aged Care Workers Study. Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, David; Marshallsay, Zariah

    2007-01-01

    Older workers' perspectives are examined in a national survey of the finance sector and case studies of aged care and construction workers. The majority of older workers intend to work beyond retirement age, to achieve a better lifestyle. With training, older workers could mentor younger workers. This support document includes a national survey of…

  17. Spousal Caregiving in Late Mid-Life Versus Older Ages: Implications of Work and Family Obligations

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Julie C.; Allen, Susan M.; Goldscheider, Frances; Intrator, Orna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined life stage differences in the provision of care to spouses with functional impairment. Methods We examined 1218 married adults aged 52 and older from the 2000 wave of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who received impairment-related help with at least one activity of daily living. We examined the differential likelihood that spouses serve as primary caregiver and the hours of care provided by spousal primary caregivers by life stage. Results We found that late middle-aged care recipients were more likely than their older counterparts to receive the majority of their care from their spouse, but received fewer hours of spousal care, mostly when spouses worked full time. Competing demands of caring for children or parents did not affect the amount of care provided by a spouse. Discussion Late middle-aged adults with functional limitations are more likely than older groups to be married and cared for primarily by spouses; however they may be particularly vulnerable to unmet need for care. As the baby boom generation ages, retirement ages increase, and federal safety nets weaken, people with health problems at older ages may soon find themselves in the same caregiving predicament as those in late middle age. PMID:18689772

  18. Attitudes about Aging and Gender among Young, Middle Age, and Older College-Based Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Fischer, Mary; Laditka, James N.; Segal, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Using an updated version of the Aging Semantic Differential, 534 younger, middle age, and older participants from a college community rated female and male targets categorized as ages 21-34 and 75-85. Participants also provided views about their own aging. Repeated measures of analysis of variance examined attitudinal differences by age and gender…

  19. Older and Handicapped Children Are Adoptable: The Spaulding Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacklock, Dottie; And Others

    Described is an adoption agency for difficult to place handicapped and older children (infancy through 16 years-old). The process involves initial assessment of the child's functioning and of the family's parenting capabilities, and continued support after placement. Placement histories of two handicapped children are presented. Reviewed are the…

  20. An Investigation of the Additive Benefits of Parent Dialogic Reading Techniques in Older Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Switalski, Sarah O'Neill

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the additive benefit of parent dialogic reading techniques in older, high-risk preschool children using multiple baseline design across participants, a single subject research design, as was as well as pre-test and post-test measures. Five preschoolers age-eligible to begin kindergarten the following school year participated.…

  1. The Older of Two Trees: Young Children's Development of Operational Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamii, Constance; Russell, Kelly A.

    2010-01-01

    Piaget (1971) made a distinction between intuitive (preoperational) time and operational (logico-mathematical) time. According to Piaget, operational time develops around 7-8 years of age and is characterized by children's ability to deduce, for example, that if A was born before B, A will always be older than B. When time is still intuitive,…

  2. Impact of Training on Attitudes of Older Paraprofessionals Toward Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttman, Rosalie A.

    With the increased use of paraprofessionals as service providers to the elderly, and indication in current literature that negative attitudes toward the aged are reflected in treatment received, the need for specialized training in geriatrics is apparent. A true-false 54-item questionnaire concerning older people's social, economic, physical and…

  3. Perspective Taking in Older Age Revisited: A Motivational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Fung, Helene H.; Stanley, Jennifer T.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Ho, Man Yee

    2013-01-01

    How perspective-taking ability changes with age (i.e., whether older adults are better at understanding others' behaviors and intentions and show greater empathy to others or not) is not clear, with prior empirical findings on this phenomenon yielding mixed results. In a series of experiments, we investigated the phenomenon from a…

  4. Keeping It Safe: Aging in Place among Rural Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina G.; Bishop, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study addressed in this article was to identify ways to reduce risk and improve safe aging in place among rural older adults. Resident and Extension faculty and county educators visited study participants at home to assess functional capacity and the home environment. Extension professionals may be uniquely positioned to provide…

  5. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  6. The Fate of Childhood Memories: Children Postdated Their Earliest Memories as They Grew Older.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Childhood amnesia has been attributed to the inaccessibility of early memories as children grow older. We propose that systematic biases in the age estimates of memories may play a role. A group of 4- to 9-year-olds children were followed for 8 years, recalling and dating their earliest childhood memories at three time points. Although children retained many of the memories over time, their age estimates of these memories shifted forward in time, to later ages. The magnitude of postdating was especially sizable for earlier memories and younger children such that some memories were dated more than a year later than originally. As a result, the boundary of childhood amnesia increased with age. These findings shed light on childhood amnesia and the fate of early memories. They further suggest that generally accepted estimates for people's age of earliest memory may be wrong, which has far-reaching implications.

  7. The Fate of Childhood Memories: Children Postdated Their Earliest Memories as They Grew Older

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Childhood amnesia has been attributed to the inaccessibility of early memories as children grow older. We propose that systematic biases in the age estimates of memories may play a role. A group of 4- to 9-year-olds children were followed for 8 years, recalling and dating their earliest childhood memories at three time points. Although children retained many of the memories over time, their age estimates of these memories shifted forward in time, to later ages. The magnitude of postdating was especially sizable for earlier memories and younger children such that some memories were dated more than a year later than originally. As a result, the boundary of childhood amnesia increased with age. These findings shed light on childhood amnesia and the fate of early memories. They further suggest that generally accepted estimates for people’s age of earliest memory may be wrong, which has far-reaching implications. PMID:26793149

  8. School-age children development

    MedlinePlus

    ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including: ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. SAFETY Safety is important for school-age children. ...

  9. ANXIETY AND ITS CORRELATES AMONG OLDER ADULTS ACCESSING AGING SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Thomas M.; Simning, Adam; He, Hua; Conwell, Yeates

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the characteristics of anxiety in aging services network (ASN) clients. Methods Interviews were conducted as part of an academic-community partnership for studying the mental health needs of community-dwelling older adults. Participants consisted of ASN clients in Monroe County, NY, that were aged 60 years and older and received an in-home assessment for care management services. The Goldberg Anxiety Scale screened for anxiety symptoms, and instruments covering the domains of associated mental health, physical health and disability, social support, negative life events, and other areas relevant to delivery of aging services were administered. Results Of 378 subjects enrolled, 27% had clinically significant levels of anxiety. In bivariate analyses anxiety was associated with having a current major depressive episode (MDE), five or more medical conditions, pain, younger age, less income, and negative life events. After controlling for MDE in multivariate analyses, medical conditions, pain, negative life events, and younger age were significant correlates of anxiety in ASN clients. Conclusions Anxiety was common among ASN clients who received in-home care management services. These anxious clients suffered from a combination of mental, medical, and social issues that suggests the need for multidisciplinary care. Because aging services providers work with their clients to ameliorate conditions that are highly correlated with anxiety, the ASN represents a promising venue for detecting, managing, and preventing anxiety among older adults. PMID:20066684

  10. Children in an Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sendov, Blagovest

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes the main themes and presents recommendations of the international conference, "Children in an Information Age: Tomorrow's Problems Today," that was held in Bulgaria in 1985. Topics discussed include computer training for children; the need for well designed research; the teacher-computer relationship; artificial intelligence; and reform…

  11. Storage of Poisonous Substances and Firearms in Homes with Young Children Visitors and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Runyan, Carol W.; Baccaglini, Lorena; Perkis, David; Johnson, Renee M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Most unintentional childhood poisonings and firearm injuries occur in residential environments. Therefore, a preventive strategy includes limiting children’s access to poisons and firearms through safe storage. This study examines storage of poisons and firearms among households with older adults, and households where young children reside compared to those where they visit only. Methods Sample is from a 2002 national random-digit-dial survey of 1003 households. Analyses were weighted to reflect the national population. Results There were 637 households with children residents or visitors aged <6 years. Seventy-five percent of the households (n =480) had children aged <6 as visitors only, and 15% had older adult residents (aged ≥70 years). Poisons and firearms were stored less securely in homes with young children as visitors as compared to those homes with resident young children. In 55% of homes where young children lived, and 74% of homes where young children were only visitors, household chemicals were reportedly stored unlocked. Although firearm ownership was comparable between the two categories of households (33% vs 34%), homes in which children were only visitors were more likely to store firearms unlocked (56%), than homes in which children resided (33%). Homes with older adult residents had more firearms present. Conclusions Children are at risk from improperly stored poisonous substances and firearms in their own homes and homes they visit. Strategies are needed to improve the storage practices of both poisons and firearms to minimize in-home hazards to young children, particularly raising awareness of these hazards to young visitors. PMID:15626565

  12. (Un)Healthy Immigrant Citizens: Naturalization and Activity Limitations in Older Age*

    PubMed Central

    Gubernskaya, Zoya; Bean, Frank D.; Van hook, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This research argues that immigrants’ political, social and economic incorporation experiences, which are embedded in individual life-course trajectories and heavily influenced by governmental policies, play an important role in producing diverse health outcomes among older U.S. foreign-born persons. Using data from the 2008–2010 American Community Surveys and 1998–2010 Integrated Health Interview Surveys, we demonstrate how naturalization, a key indicator of social and political inclusion, is related to functional health in midlife and older age. Consistent with the theoretical framework, we find that among those foreign-born who immigrated as children and young adults, naturalized citizens show better health at older ages compared to non-citizens, although this relationship is partly mediated by education. But among those older foreign-born who immigrated at middle and older ages, naturalized citizens report worse health compared to non-citizens. Moreover, this negative health selection into naturalization becomes stronger for those naturalizing after the 1996 Welfare Reform Act. PMID:24311754

  13. Aging on the Street: Homeless Older Adults in America.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    Older adults are at greater risk for homelessness today than at any time in recent history. Approximately one half of homeless individuals in America are older than 50, which has created serious challenges for how cities, governments, and health care providers care for homeless populations. Systems established in the 1980s to help care for homeless individuals were not designed to address problems of aging. It is critical that nurses and all health professionals have a better understanding of the unique needs and concerns of homeless older adults. Nurses can be an important part of the solution, not only through direct patient care but by advocating for improvements in care for this vulnerable population. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(9), 25-29.]. PMID:27576225

  14. Purchasing piety? Coresidence of married children with their older parents in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Emiko; Silverstein, Merril

    2011-11-01

    We investigated the conditions under which married children live with their older parents in Japan. We focused on how needs and resources in each generation are associated with whether married couples live with their parents in parent-headed and child-headed households, and we also investigated difference in power relations between older and younger generations and between children and their spouses. We analyzed a nationally representative sample of older parents (n  =  3,853) and their married children (n  =  8,601) from the 1999 Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (NUJLSOA). Mutinomial regression revealed that married children with relatively affluent parents tended to live with them in parent-headed households and that married children with parents who are in relatively poor health or who are widowed tended to live with them in child-headed households. We also found that less-educated married children tended to live in the households of their higher-income parents, suggesting that parents may be "purchasing" traditional arrangements with less-affluent children. In addition, children with an educational advantage over their spouses were more likely to have parents living with them in child-headed coresident households. We conclude that traditional multigenerational coresidence has become a commodity negotiated within families based on relative resources and needs within and across generations. PMID:21826562

  15. Children are not like older adults: A diffusion model analysis of developmental changes in speeded responses

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Love, Jessica; Thompson, Clarissa A.; Opfer, John E.

    2011-01-01

    Children (N = 130; Mage = 8.51–15.68 years) and college-aged adults (N = 72; Mage = 20.50 years) completed numerosity discrimination and lexical decision tasks. Children produced longer response times (RTs) than adults. Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, which divides processing into components (e.g., quality of evidence, decision criteria settings, nondecision time) was fit to the accuracy and RT distribution data. Differences in all components were responsible for slowing in children in these tasks. Children extract lower quality evidence than college-aged adults, unlike older adults who extract a similar quality of evidence as college-aged adults. Thus, processing components responsible for changes in RTs at the beginning of the lifespan are somewhat different from those responsible for changes occurring with healthy aging. PMID:22188547

  16. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Vonetta M.; Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Sozda, Christopher N.; Kirton, Joshua W.; Green, Mackenzie L.; O’Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E.; Anton, Stephen D.; Manini, Todd M.; Woods, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness. PMID:26834623

  17. Age Differences in Prefrontal Surface Area and Thickness in Middle Aged to Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Dotson, Vonetta M; Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Sozda, Christopher N; Kirton, Joshua W; Green, Mackenzie L; O'Shea, Andrew; McLaren, Molly E; Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Woods, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Age is associated with reductions in surface area and cortical thickness, particularly in prefrontal regions. There is also evidence of greater thickness in some regions at older ages. Non-linear age effects in some studies suggest that age may continue to impact brain structure in later decades of life, but relatively few studies have examined the impact of age on brain structure within middle-aged to older adults. We investigated age differences in prefrontal surface area and cortical thickness in healthy adults between the ages of 51 and 81 years. Participants received a structural 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scan. Based on a priori hypotheses, primary analyses focused on surface area and cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. We also performed exploratory vertex-wise analyses of surface area and cortical thickness across the entire cortex. We found that older age was associated with smaller surface area in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices but greater cortical thickness in the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. Vertex-wise analyses revealed smaller surface area in primarily frontal regions at older ages, but no age effects were found for cortical thickness. Results suggest age is associated with reduced surface area but greater cortical thickness in prefrontal regions during later decades of life, and highlight the differential effects age has on regional surface area and cortical thickness.

  18. Living arrangements of older Malaysians: who coresides with their adult children?

    PubMed

    DaVanzo, J; Chan, A

    1994-02-01

    More than two-thirds of Malaysians age 60 or older coreside with an adult child. Data from the Senior sample of the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey (MFLS-2) are used to investigate which "seniors" (persons age 60 or older) live in this way. The analysis generally supports the notion that coresidence is influenced by the benefits, costs, opportunities, and preferences for coresidence versus separate living arrangements. For example, married seniors are more likely to coreside with adult children when housing costs are greater in their area or when the husband or wife is in poor health. This finding suggests that married parents and children live together to economize on living costs or to receive help with household services. Unmarried seniors who are better off economically are less likely to live with adult children, presumably because they use their higher incomes to "purchase privacy."

  19. [Young children, toddlers and school age children].

    PubMed

    Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia

    2016-09-01

    Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883

  20. Older Adults' Level of Knowledge about Old Age Using the Facts of Aging Quiz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Arleen J.

    The Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) has been used in different studies to assess the level of knowledge about old age. It contains 25 factual statements concerning basic physical, mental, and social facts and the most common misconceptions about aging. One purpose of this study was to identify the most frequent misconceptions in a group of older adults…

  1. The Emotional Well-Being of Older Siblings of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Older Siblings of Children with Typical Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raghuraman, Renuka Sundaram

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the emotional well-being of older siblings of children who are deaf or hard of hearing and older siblings of children with typical hearing (control group). We interviewed 70 families and had both the parent and the older sibling complete questionnaires on sibling perceptions and relationships. Findings revealed no significant…

  2. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  3. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  4. Overlooked potential: older-age parents in the era of ART.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nathalie; Knodel, John; Kiry Kim, Sovan; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen

    2008-11-01

    The advent of widespread ART provision in low- and middle-income countries requires not just medical attention, but also social and psychological support to encourage and monitor strict adherence to drug regimens. Developing innovative approaches to providing this broad support is a major challenge, especially within the financial constraints of resource-limited countries hardest hit by the epidemic. In this study, we examine the role of older-age parents in monitoring ART treatment and caring for their HIV-infected children and grandchildren in Cambodia. Our results are based on 25 open-ended interviews with older-age parents of people with AIDS (PWHA). A high level of co-residence when PWHA become ill and a sense of parental responsibility and emotional attachment facilitate high parental involvement in their children's and grandchildren's illness, care and treatment. Our interviews indicate that parents play an important role in encouraging their children to get tested and to access treatment if they test positive. They consistently monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and opportunistic infections and remind PWHA to attend medical appointments and support-group meetings. Parents also provide for the nutrition and hygiene of PWHA essential to the success of ART treatments. We find that despite low levels of education, older parents were able to express clear, correct and detailed knowledge of complicated ART treatment regimens, nutrition and hygiene. Overall, our findings show that older parents play a pivotal role in care and treatment if they are provided with proper resources and training and have the ability to understand the necessity and details of ensuring strict adherence to medications. Based on these results, we suggest that explicitly including older parents in policy and programs for care and treatment would allow Cambodia and other countries to take advantage of this unique and effective but overlooked asset in AIDS care and treatment. PMID

  5. The Influence of Older Siblings on the Sex-Typed Toy Play of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Alison; Fraleigh, Kimberly

    To examine the influence of older siblings on the sex-typed toy play of younger siblings, a study was undertaken of 60 children, 2 to 5 years old, with equal numbers of boys and girls with older brothers, older sisters, and no older siblings. Children's toy collections were inventoried and classified into conventionally male toys, or toys of the…

  6. Nonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older people.

    PubMed

    Brédart, Serge; Bouffier, Marion

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that young participants typically date events that they remember, but no longer believe they experienced, to the period of childhood. The present study investigated whether participants aged between 40 and 79years dated events related to relinquished memories to the period of childhood, as do younger people, or whether they dated such events to a period later in life. The study also compared believed and nonbelieved memories with respect to memory perspective (1st vs 3rd person perspective). Results indicated that the majority of middle-aged and older people dated nonbelieved memories to the period of childhood (median age=8years). No correlation was found between the participants' current age and their age at the time the nonbelieved event occurred. In addition, results showed that believed memories were more likely to be retrieved from a 1st person perspective than were nonbelieved memories.

  7. The Healthy Ageing Model: health behaviour change for older adults.

    PubMed

    Potempa, Kathleen M; Butterworth, Susan W; Flaherty-Robb, Marna K; Gaynor, William L

    2010-01-01

    Proposed is a model of primary care for older adults with chronic health conditions that focuses on active engagement in health care. The Healthy Ageing Model is anchored in established theory on motivation and health behaviour change. The model draws on empirical and applied clinical underpinnings in such diverse areas as health promotion and education, treatment of addictions or obesity, management of chronic diseases, goal-setting, and coaching techniques. The conceptual foundation for the Healthy Ageing Model is described first, followed by a brief description of the key characteristics of the model. In conclusion, suggestions are offered for the clinical application and for further developing the model.

  8. The Development of Associate Learning in School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Harel, Brian T.; Pietrzak, Robert H.; Snyder, Peter J.; Thomas, Elizabeth; Mayes, Linda C.; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Associate learning is fundamental to the acquisition of knowledge and plays a critical role in the everyday functioning of the developing child, though the developmental course is still unclear. This study investigated the development of visual associate learning in 125 school age children using the Continuous Paired Associate Learning task. As hypothesized, younger children made more errors than older children across all memory loads and evidenced decreased learning efficiency as memory load increased. Results suggest that age-related differences in performance largely reflect continued development of executive function in the context of relatively developed memory processes. PMID:25014755

  9. Living arrangements of older adults in Lebanon: correlates of living with married children.

    PubMed

    Shideed, O; Sibai, A; Tohme, R

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in the proportion of older adults in the population present major challenges to policy-makers worldwide. Using a nationally representative sample from the PAPFAM survey in Lebanon, this study examined the living arrangements of older adults (aged > or = 65 years), and their correlates, with a focus on co-residence with married children. Of 1774 older adults 17.1% co-resided with their married children: 28.1% of the 559 unmarried (widowed/divorced/single) and 11.3% of the 1071 married older adults. Among both the married and unmarried, the likelihood of co-residence was significantly lower in regions outside the capital and decreased with increasing socioeconomic status. Among the unmarried elderly, co-residence with a married child was also significantly associated with increasing age and availability of sons, as well as presence of a vascular disorder and speech problems. While solitary living has traditionally been the focus for policy-makers, older people living with a married child may also be a vulnerable group. PMID:24684101

  10. Predisposing effects of cigarette advertising on children's intentions to smoke when older.

    PubMed

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R; Hastings, G B; Haywood, A J

    1991-04-01

    Six hundred and forty Glasgow children, initially aged between 11 and 14 years, were interviewed twice, with approximately one year between interviews. Children whose intentions to smoke when older became more positive between the two interviews tended to be more aware of cigarette advertising at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were negative at both interviews). Children whose intentions to smoke became more negative between the interviews tended to be less appreciative of cigarette advertisements at the time of the first interview (compared with children whose intentions to smoke were positive at both interviews). Since both groups differed from their respective contrast groups before their declared intentions changed, these findings support the view that cigarette advertising has predisposing as well as reinforcing effects on children's attitudes and behaviour with respect to smoking.

  11. Age Preferences: How Old Is "Too Old" for Selected Service Providers among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farney, Lori; Aday, Ronald H.; Breault, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated age preferences for 11 different service providers and the age at which workers in these occupational roles were considered to be "too old" by three age groups: young (18-24), middle-aged (35-55), and older adults (65+). Results indicate that in comparison to middle-aged and older adults, young adults continue to have…

  12. Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; French, David P; Jackson, Dean; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil; Degens, Hans

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity helps to improve physical and mental functions as well as reverse some effects of chronic disease to keep older people mobile and independent. Despite the highly publicised benefits of physical activity, the overwhelming majority of older people in the United Kingdom do not meet the minimum physical activity levels needed to maintain health. The sedentary lifestyles that predominate in older age results in premature onset of ill health, disease and frailty. Local authorities have a responsibility to promote physical activity amongst older people, but knowing how to stimulate regular activity at the population-level is challenging. The physiological rationale for physical activity, risks of adverse events, societal and psychological factors are discussed with a view to inform public health initiatives for the relatively healthy older person as well as those with physical frailty. The evidence shows that regular physical activity is safe for healthy and for frail older people and the risks of developing major cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, obesity, falls, cognitive impairments, osteoporosis and muscular weakness are decreased by regularly completing activities ranging from low intensity walking through to more vigorous sports and resistance exercises. Yet, participation in physical activities remains low amongst older adults, particularly those living in less affluent areas. Older people may be encouraged to increase their activities if influenced by clinicians, family or friends, keeping costs low and enjoyment high, facilitating group-based activities and raising self-efficacy for exercise. PMID:26936444

  13. Physical activity in older age: perspectives for healthy ageing and frailty.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Jamie S; French, David P; Jackson, Dean; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil; Degens, Hans

    2016-06-01

    Regular physical activity helps to improve physical and mental functions as well as reverse some effects of chronic disease to keep older people mobile and independent. Despite the highly publicised benefits of physical activity, the overwhelming majority of older people in the United Kingdom do not meet the minimum physical activity levels needed to maintain health. The sedentary lifestyles that predominate in older age results in premature onset of ill health, disease and frailty. Local authorities have a responsibility to promote physical activity amongst older people, but knowing how to stimulate regular activity at the population-level is challenging. The physiological rationale for physical activity, risks of adverse events, societal and psychological factors are discussed with a view to inform public health initiatives for the relatively healthy older person as well as those with physical frailty. The evidence shows that regular physical activity is safe for healthy and for frail older people and the risks of developing major cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, obesity, falls, cognitive impairments, osteoporosis and muscular weakness are decreased by regularly completing activities ranging from low intensity walking through to more vigorous sports and resistance exercises. Yet, participation in physical activities remains low amongst older adults, particularly those living in less affluent areas. Older people may be encouraged to increase their activities if influenced by clinicians, family or friends, keeping costs low and enjoyment high, facilitating group-based activities and raising self-efficacy for exercise.

  14. Living Arrangements of Ever-Married Older Lebanese Women: Is Living with Married Children Advantageous?

    PubMed Central

    Mehio-Sibai, Abla; Tohme, Rania A.

    2016-01-01

    In many Middle Eastern countries including Lebanon, the family as a social institution is greatly valued and local norms regarding family ties and living arrangements are especially important for older adults, in particular older women. While the presence of an adult child is often seen as responsive to the financial, health and social needs of older parents, it is not clear whether co-residence with married children offers a similar advantage as in the case of co-residence with unmarried children. Using data from a national Population and Housing Survey, this study examines associations of co-residence with adult children among ever-married women aged 65 years and older in Lebanon. Results showed a considerable proportion of elderly women who were living alone (18%) at the time of the survey. Co-residence was more frequent with unmarried than married children, but the gender ratio of the co-residing child varied with the marital status of both the older woman and the child. Moreover, among those co-residing with married children, results indicate a greater likelihood of co-residence with married sons over married daughters. Co-residence with an adult child associated positively with the availability of surviving children and negatively with the socioeconomic status of the woman and her spouse. Compared to other living arrangements, co-residence with a married child entailed the least advantageous Household Socioeconomic Status (HSES) score in terms of housing characteristics, infrastructure, and material possessions, for both married and unmarried women. PMID:18283537

  15. Older Children Need Phonemic Awareness Instruction, Too

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In this age of accountability and assessment, classroom teachers need to be encouraged to become action researchers. Action research helps them look at a challenge in the classroom in depth and adjust the curriculum, their teaching methods, or both when they find that current practices are not meeting the needs of some or all students. If…

  16. Sustained attention and unintentional injury among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Bennett Murphy, L; Caroline, E; Rose, C L

    2001-06-01

    This study examined vigilance in preschool-aged children and explored the relationship between vigilance and unintentional injury. There were 28 participating children, aged 4 and 5 years, who completed a computerized vigilance task for two 5-min sessions. The task generated measures of correct detections, false alarms, reaction time, and the signal detection indices of d' and c. Primary caregivers completed daily injury phone journals for a 4-week period. Results indicated that age and signal probability affected vigilance. Older children made more correct detections, had greater perceptual sensitivity, and performed in patterns similar to adults. Performance was enhanced in the high signal probability condition. In addition, vigilance indicators of perceptual sensitivity and response bias were predictive of injury, while age was not. Specifically, children with lower perceptual sensitivity scores, and who were less responsive to the vigilance task, experienced more unintentional injuries over the course of the study.

  17. [Life expectancy at older ages and alternative approach to aging measurement (the case of St. Petersburg)].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, L V; Safarova, G L; Lisenenkov, F I; Mikhaĭlova, O N

    2009-01-01

    St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology, NWB of RAMS, 3 pr. Dinamo, St. Petersburg 197110; For St. Petersburg, aging issues are of great importance as values of many aging indicators for St. Petersburg are higher than for Russia as a whole. Taper aims at analyzing the dynamics of life expectancy at older ages and comparing traditional (proportion of the elderly, average age, median age) and new (proportion of population with a remaining life expectancy 15 years or less, population average remaining years of life) aging indicators for St. Petersburg in 1990-2006.

  18. Age Identification in the Framework of Successful Aging: A Study of Older Finnish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uotinen, Virpi; Suutama, Timo; Ruoppila, Isto

    2003-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used in a study of age identification among community-dwelling older people. The study was based on 8-year follow-up data; 843 persons aged 65-84 were involved in the first phase of the study, and 426 persons aged 73-92, in the second phase. Loosely, on the basis of the distinction between successful, usual, and…

  19. Electropalatography for Older Children and Adults with Residual Speech Errors.

    PubMed

    Gibbon, Fiona; Lee, Alice

    2015-11-01

    Most residual speech errors (RSEs) involve abnormal positioning or movement of the tongue. However, it is not possible under normal circumstances to view directly the actions of the tongue during production of these distorted articulations. The visually inaccessible location of the tongue can often make precise diagnosis difficult in cases of RSEs, and intervention can be a particular challenge for clinicians when speech errors persist in older children and adults. Electropalatography (EPG) is a technique that can provide objective and clinically relevant data about details of tongue articulation during speech. Furthermore, biofeedback with EPG offers the possibility of an effective intervention for RSEs. This tutorial provides an overview of EPG and describes how the technique can contribute to our knowledge and treatment of abnormal tongue-palate contact in older children and adults with RSEs. An illustrative case study of a child with RSEs affecting fricatives and affricates is included.

  20. Why is toilet training occurring at older ages? A study of factors associated with later training.

    PubMed

    Blum, Nathan J; Taubman, Bruce; Nemeth, Nicole

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies suggest that children are completing toilet training much later than the preceding generation. Our objective was to identify factors associated with later toilet training. Children between 17 and 19 months of age (n=406) were enrolled in the study. At enrollment, parents completed the Parenting Stress Index and the Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale. Follow-up parent interviews were conducted every 2 to 3 months until children completed daytime toilet training. Information obtained at follow-up interviews included steps parents were taking to toilet train their child, child toilet training behaviors, presence and frequency of constipation, birth of a sibling, and child care arrangements. In a stepwise linear regression model predicting age at completion of toilet training, 3 factors were consistently associated with later training: initiation of toilet training at an older age, presence of stool toileting refusal, and presence of frequent constipation. Models including these variables explained 25% to 39% of the variance in age at completion of toilet training. In conclusion, a later age at initiation of toilet training, stool toileting refusal, and constipation may explain some of the trend toward completion of toilet training at later ages.

  1. Viewing Our Aged Selves: Age Progression Simulations Increase Young Adults' Aging Anxiety and Negative Stereotypes of Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Rittenour, Christine E; Cohen, Elizabeth L

    2016-04-01

    This experiment tests the effect of an old-age progression simulation on young adults' (N = 139) reported aging anxiety and perceptions about older adults as a social group. College students were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: self-aged simulation, stranger-aged simulation, or a control group. Compared with the control group, groups exposed to an age progression experienced more negative affect, and individuals in the self-aged condition reported greater aging anxiety. In accordance with stereotype activation theorizing, the self-age simulation group also perceived older adults as less competent and expressed more pity and less envy for older adults. Compared to the stranger-aged group, participants who observed their own age progression were also the more likely to deny the authenticity of their transformed image.These findings highlight potential negative social and psychological consequences of using age simulations to affect positive health outcomes, and they shed light on how virtual experiences can affect stereotyping of older adults. PMID:27076488

  2. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia

    2014-01-01

    An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers' CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children's fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children's DFA. PMID:25187737

  3. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (HEE: higher English experience, HSE: higher Spanish experience). Children produced three associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older children produced more semantic responses and code-switched more often from Spanish to English than younger children. Within each group, children demonstrated better performance in the more frequently used than the less used language. The HEE children outperformed the HSE children in English and the HSE children outperformed the HEE children in Spanish. These effects of age and language experience are consistent with predictions of the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual lexical organization. PMID:23163772

  4. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  5. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice. PMID:22668843

  6. Non-random aneuploidy specifies subgroups of pilocytic astrocytoma and correlates with older age

    PubMed Central

    Khuong-Quang, Dong-Anh; Bechet, Denise; Gayden, Tenzin; Kool, Marcel; De Jay, Nicolas; Jacob, Karine; Gerges, Noha; Hutter, Barbara; Şeker-Cin, Huriye; Witt, Hendrik; Montpetit, Alexandre; Brunet, Sébastien; Lepage, Pierre; Bourret, Geneviève; Klekner, Almos; Bognár, László; Hauser, Peter; Garami, Miklós; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Montes, Jose-Luis; Atkinson, Jeffrey; Lambert, Sally; Kwan, Tony; Korshunov, Andrey; Tabori, Uri; Collins, V. Peter; Albrecht, Steffen; Faury, Damien; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin; Jones, David T.W.; Jabado, Nada

    2015-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common brain tumor in children but is rare in adults, and hence poorly studied in this age group. We investigated 222 PA and report increased aneuploidy in older patients. Aneuploid genomes were identified in 45% of adult compared with 17% of pediatric PA. Gains were non-random, favoring chromosomes 5, 7, 6 and 11 in order of frequency, and preferentially affecting non-cerebellar PA and tumors with BRAF V600E mutations and not with KIAA1549-BRAF fusions or FGFR1 mutations. Aneuploid PA differentially expressed genes involved in CNS development, the unfolded protein response, and regulators of genomic stability and the cell cycle (MDM2, PLK2),whose correlated programs were overexpressed specifically in aneuploid PA compared to other glial tumors. Thus, convergence of pathways affecting the cell cycle and genomic stability may favor aneuploidy in PA, possibly representing an additional molecular driver in older patients with this brain tumor. PMID:26378811

  7. Validation of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) among Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study initially validates the Chinese version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C), which has been identified as a potentially valid instrument to assess moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children among diverse racial groups. The psychometric properti...

  8. Semantic Development in Spanish-English Bilingual Children: Effects of Age and Language Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheng, Li; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Fiestas, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study examines semantic development in 60 Spanish-English bilingual children, ages 7 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months, who differed orthogonally in age (younger, older) and language experience (higher English experience [HEE], higher Spanish experience [HSE]). Children produced 3 associations to 12 pairs of translation equivalents. Older…

  9. Wheezing, Sleeping, and Worrying: The Hidden Risks of Asthma and Obesity in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiese, Barbara H.; Everhart, Robin S.; Wildenger, Leah

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the co-occurrence of asthma and obesity in a sample of 193 children (mean age = 7.76 years). Specifically, this study was interested in delineating the associated comorbidities of internalizing symptoms and sleep disruptions among younger (younger than 7 years) and older elementary age children with asthma who were…

  10. Comparisons of magnitude estimation scaling of rock music by children, young adults, and older people.

    PubMed

    Fucci, D; Kabler, H; Webster, D; McColl, D

    1999-12-01

    The present study concerned the perceptual processing of complex auditory stimuli in 10 children (M age = 8.1) as compared to 10 young adults (M age = 19.3) and 10 older adult subjects (M age = 54.2). The auditory stimulus used was 10 sec. of rock music (Led Zeppelin, 1969). All three groups provided numerical responses to nine intensities of the rock music stimulus (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 dB above threshold). Analysis showed that the children reported a wider range of numerical responses than both adult groups. The mean numerical responses for the children ranged from .54 to 54.24. For the young adults the range was .76 to 11.37, and for the older subjects it was 1.6 to 23.31. Results suggest that the children were not bound by the same set of rules as the adults with regard to magnitude estimation scaling of the loudness of the rock music stimulus. Their internal scaling mechanisms appeared to be more flexible and broader based than those of the adults who participated in this study.

  11. "The Wisdom of Age": Perspectives on Aging and Growth among Lesbian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Putney, Jennifer M; Leafmeeker, Rebecca R; Hebert, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Older lesbian-identified women are a health disparate yet resilient population about whom knowledge is limited and emerging. Among the areas in need of research are older lesbians' experiences of later life and stress-related growth. This article presents the findings from a qualitative study that investigated older lesbians' experiences of adversity and adaptation as they age. In-depth, exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 lesbian-identified women who were between the ages of 65-80. This study applied grounded theory methodology to identify respondents sources of stress and fear, their strengths and coping strategies and how those relate to each other and to their growth in later life. We advance a model of adaptive change that shows how spirituality, social support, and resistance to cultural norms help older lesbian adults cope with loss, illness, and discrimination and develop wisdom in later life. Knowledgeable practitioners can help older lesbian women identify and maintain sources of social support, explore spirituality, and facilitate continuous growth through the end of life. Social workers can advocate for services that are welcoming and affirmative so as to reduce fears of isolation and dependence associated with health decline. PMID:27267208

  12. "The Wisdom of Age": Perspectives on Aging and Growth among Lesbian Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Putney, Jennifer M; Leafmeeker, Rebecca R; Hebert, Nicholas

    2016-04-01

    Older lesbian-identified women are a health disparate yet resilient population about whom knowledge is limited and emerging. Among the areas in need of research are older lesbians' experiences of later life and stress-related growth. This article presents the findings from a qualitative study that investigated older lesbians' experiences of adversity and adaptation as they age. In-depth, exploratory interviews were conducted with 12 lesbian-identified women who were between the ages of 65-80. This study applied grounded theory methodology to identify respondents sources of stress and fear, their strengths and coping strategies and how those relate to each other and to their growth in later life. We advance a model of adaptive change that shows how spirituality, social support, and resistance to cultural norms help older lesbian adults cope with loss, illness, and discrimination and develop wisdom in later life. Knowledgeable practitioners can help older lesbian women identify and maintain sources of social support, explore spirituality, and facilitate continuous growth through the end of life. Social workers can advocate for services that are welcoming and affirmative so as to reduce fears of isolation and dependence associated with health decline.

  13. Congenital muscular torticollis in older children: treatment with Z-plasty technique.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Nur Yucel; Kizilay, Ahmet; Akarcay, Mustafa; Firat, Yezdan

    2014-09-01

    Congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is a common congenital disorder of the musculoskeletal system in neonates and infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of inferior Z-plasty in older children with CMT. They had mean age of 10 years (range, 5-14 years) and were followed up for 1 to 6 years. Postoperative protocol included a neck exercise program composed of active and passive movements in all cases and immobilization with a cervical collar in only 4 patients. This study concluded that surgical management of older children with CMT using Z-lengthening gives excellent clinical and functional results. The procedure is much more effective than other techniques and relatively complication-free and safe. Postoperative cervical collar and a well-planed physiotherapy protocol go a long way toward ensuring good to excellent results. Early diagnosis and treatment are necessary for good results.

  14. An alternative discourse of productive aging: A self-restrained approach in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minxia; Chui, Ernest Wing-Tak

    2016-08-01

    While Western discourses regarding productive aging emphasize individuals' contributions to economic productivity, the Confucian cultural heritage of the Chinese community may provide an alternative perspective. This qualitative study explores interpretations of what constitutes productive aging, based on a series of in-depth interviews with older Chinese people in Hong Kong. It shows that some of these individuals adopted a passive and indirect interpretation of productive aging, distinct from that found in Western countries. The Confucianism-based, collectivist, normative order underpinning Hong Kong society disposed these older people to adopting a self-restrained attitude with the aim of avoiding becoming a burden to others, especially family members. Such a tendency toward self-restraint or avoidance also encompassed a compromise between ideals and reality, with the older people opting to compromise their expectations of the younger generation as a whole, their adult children in particular, in terms of respect and reciprocity.

  15. An alternative discourse of productive aging: A self-restrained approach in older Chinese people in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Luo, Minxia; Chui, Ernest Wing-Tak

    2016-08-01

    While Western discourses regarding productive aging emphasize individuals' contributions to economic productivity, the Confucian cultural heritage of the Chinese community may provide an alternative perspective. This qualitative study explores interpretations of what constitutes productive aging, based on a series of in-depth interviews with older Chinese people in Hong Kong. It shows that some of these individuals adopted a passive and indirect interpretation of productive aging, distinct from that found in Western countries. The Confucianism-based, collectivist, normative order underpinning Hong Kong society disposed these older people to adopting a self-restrained attitude with the aim of avoiding becoming a burden to others, especially family members. Such a tendency toward self-restraint or avoidance also encompassed a compromise between ideals and reality, with the older people opting to compromise their expectations of the younger generation as a whole, their adult children in particular, in terms of respect and reciprocity. PMID:27531450

  16. Older adults challenged financially when adult children move home.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Steven P; Padilla-Frausto, D Imelda

    2014-02-01

    This policy brief looks at the financial burdens imposed on older Californians when adult children return home, often due to a crisis not of their own making, to live with their parents. The findings show that on average in California, the amount of money that older adults need in order to maintain a minimally decent standard of living while supporting one adult child in their home increases their expenses by a minimum of 50 percent. Low-income older adults are usually on fixed incomes, so helping an adult child can provide the child with a critical safety net but at the cost of the parents' own financial well-being. Policy approaches to assisting this vulnerable population of older adults include implementing reforms to increase Supplemental Security Income (SSI), improving the availability of affordable housing, assuring that all eligible nonelderly adults obtain health insurance through health care reform's expansion of Medi-Cal and subsidies, and increasing food assistance through SNAP and senior meal programs. PMID:24804354

  17. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. PMID:27294182

  18. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  19. Self-perceived Age and Attitudes Toward Marketing of Older Consumers in China.

    PubMed

    Ying, Bin; Yao, Rui

    2010-09-01

    Understanding consumer psychological characteristics and their impact on consumer behavior is an important foundation for business marketing strategies. Self-perceived age has a great impact on older consumers' behavior. This article defines the gray market in China, investigates the factors that affect the differences between older consumers' self-perceived age and life age, and analyzes the influence of self-perceived age on older Chinese consumers' behavior. In this study, 1,120 older consumers were randomly selected from six cities in China. Findings show that over half of the respondents feel younger than their actual life age. Related marketing strategies are discussed.

  20. Aging and older adults in three Roman Catholic magazines: Successful aging and the Third and Fourth Ages reframed.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2015-12-01

    This article is a qualitative content analysis of how aging and older adults are represented in the articles of three Roman Catholic magazines in the United States: America, Commonweal, and U.S. Catholic. The findings suggest that, as in mainstream secular magazines, the concept of successful aging is common in portrayals of older adults in the Third Age. Distinctive in Catholic magazine portrayals of successful aging is an emphasis on meaningful activity and on the wisdom that is gained and transmitted in this stage of life. In contrast to the lack of attention to Fourth Age decline in mainstream magazines, in the Catholic publications the difficult features of such deterioration are acknowledged but are also reframed as potential sources of value. The theoretical implications of these more complex faith-based renderings of the Third and Fourth Ages are briefly explored.

  1. A Study of Reading Comprehension in Older Children Using Selected Korean Bible Translations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2014-01-01

    Problem: The problem of this study was to determine the difference in Bible comprehension scores among gender-based groups of older children using selected passages from three Bible translations: the Children's Bible, the Easy Bible, and the New Revised Korean Bible. Procedures: A total of 288 older children in three churches (Beautiful Baptist…

  2. Attitudes toward Younger and Older Adults: The German Aging Semantic Differential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluth, Sebastian; Ebner, Natalie C.; Schmiedek, Florian

    2010-01-01

    The present study used the German Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) to assess attitudes toward younger and older adults in a heterogeneous sample of n = 151 younger and n = 143 older adults. The questionnaire was administered in two versions, one referring to the evaluation of younger adults, the other to the evaluation of older adults.…

  3. The Housing and Support Needs of People with an Intellectual Disability into Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, K.; Cartwright, C.; Craig, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are growing older as a population cohort. Many live at home with family members who are their carers but who are also becoming older and less able to provide care. The housing and support preferences of people with IDs and their carers into older age are poorly characterised in the…

  4. Crisis Model for Older Adults: Special Considerations for an Aging Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungers, Christin M.; Slagel, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    As the U.S. population ages, counselors must begin structuring their interactions to meet the unique needs of older adults, especially in the area of crisis intervention. The purposes of this article are to draw attention to the rapidly growing, often disregarded older population and to introduce the Crisis Model for Older Adults (CM-OA), an…

  5. Retrieval of famous names on a Rebus Riddle task by middle-aged and older subjects.

    PubMed

    Marshall, R C; Morelli, C A; Calise, G E; Phillips, D S

    1997-12-01

    This study compared the performances of 20 middle-aged and 20 older subjects on a Rebus Riddle task that required they retrieve the names of famous persons. Older subjects solved significantly more riddles and responded to prompts designed to aid riddle-solving efforts with significantly greater success than middle-aged subjects. Older subjects also had nonsignificantly faster riddle-solving times than middle-aged subjects. Similar riddles were difficult or easy for both groups. Superior performance of the older group appeared to be related to the age of the subject at the time the persons in the riddles had become famous.

  6. Profiles of successful aging in middle-aged and older adult married couples.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kelly J; Berg, Cynthia A; Butner, Jonathan; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W

    2007-12-01

    The study identified coupled profiles of successful aging in middle-aged (n = 139; wives, M = 43.8 years old; husbands, M = 45.6 years old) and older adult married couples (n = 148; wives, M = 62.0 years old; husbands, M = 64.4 years old). Latent profile analysis was applied to variables reflecting the domains of cognition, physical health, personality, and social support. A 2-profile solution and a 4-profile solution were interpreted. Both solutions indicated that a large group of couples scored favorably across domains of successful aging. A small group of largely middle-aged couples who were experiencing extreme marital distress was identified. Unevenness across domains was identified, in that some groups involved a disassociation between marital satisfaction and health outcomes. Spouses were substantially similar in the pattern of their profile of aging. Older adults were not always associated with less favorable profiles. Profiles of successful aging did discriminate on external measures of well-being. The results point to the value of a multidimensional notion of successful aging in couples across the life span.

  7. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD. PMID:27348529

  8. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health. PMID:26656204

  9. Obesity, job satisfaction and disability at older ages in Europe.

    PubMed

    Pagan, Ricardo; de Haro, Carmen Ordóñez; Sánchez, Carlos Rivas

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the interaction between obesity and disability and its impact on the levels of job satisfaction reported by older workers (aged 50-64) in ten European countries (Denmark, Sweden, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, Italy and Spain). Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe for the years 2004, 2007 and 2011, we estimate a job satisfaction equation which includes a set of explanatory variables measuring worker's obesity and disability status (non-disabled, non-limited disabled, and limited disabled). The results show that, after controlling for other variables, obese workers are more likely to be satisfied with their jobs as compared to those workers with normal weight (0.066 points). In addition, being limited disabled or having poor health contribute to reducing (by 0.082 and 0.172 points, respectively) this positive effect of being obese on job satisfaction. However, we do not find any differential effect of obesity on job satisfaction by disability status, except for those underweight individuals who are not limited in their daily activities. Overall, these findings support the hypothesis of lower expectations about jobs for obese workers, especially if they also have poor health.

  10. Eye Conditions in Older Adults: Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Iroku-Malize, Tochi; Kirsch, Scott

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) causes a progressive loss of photoreceptors in the macula. It is the most common cause of legal blindness in the United States, and some form of AMD is thought to affect more than 9 million individuals. Risk factors include older age, smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, white race, female sex, and a family history of AMD. There are two types of advanced AMD: nonexudative (dry or geographic atrophy) and exudative (wet or neovascular). Both cause progressive central vision loss with intact peripheral vision. Nonexudative AMD accounts for 80% to 90% of all advanced cases, and more than 90% of patients with severe vision loss have exudative AMD. On ophthalmoscopic examination, early findings include drusen (ie, yellow deposits in the retina). Prominent choroidal vessels, subretinal edema, and/or hemorrhage are seen in wet AMD. Regular eye examinations, visual field testing, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography are used for diagnosis and to guide management. There is no specific therapy for dry AMD, but antioxidant supplementation may be helpful. Intravitreal injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor is the treatment of choice for wet AMD. Optical aids and devices can help to maximize function for patients with AMD.

  11. Comparison of the Vitamin D Status of Children Younger and Older Than 2 Years in Tehran: Are Supplements Really Necessary?

    PubMed Central

    Torkaman, Mohammad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Amirsalari, Susan; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Afsharpaiman, Shahla; Kavehmanesh, Zohreh; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is a vital lipid-soluble vitamin in the body, helping the growth and development of bones. Vitamin D deficiency in children has several adverse effects. The most important preventative factor is determining the deficiency at an early stage and prescribing vitamin D-containing supplements. Objectives To investigate the vitamin D status of children younger and older than 2 years and determine the utility of prescribing vitamin D supplements. Patients and Methods Three hundred healthy children who attended the pediatric clinic for routine assessments were enrolled in this study. Their parents were asked to complete a questionnaire, which included questions about demographics, nutrition, and supplements. Blood levels of vitamin D, calcium, and phosphorus were then measured. Results The final study consisted of 286 children, 140 males and 146 females, with a mean age of 4.46 ± 2.82 yr. Of these, 218 (76.22%) children, with a mean age of 5.09 ± 2.82 yr, had vitamin D deficiency, and 76 children (23.78%), with a mean age of 2.58 ± 1.88 yr, had normal vitamin D levels (P = 0.001). The mean level of vitamin D was 29.71 ± 14.42 ng/mL in 88 (30.8%) patients up to 2 years and 17.11 ± 14.02 ng/mL in 198 (69.2%) patients older than 2 years (P = 0.0001). Conclusions The vitamin D levels of children aged more than 2 years are lower than those of children aged less than 2 years. Thus, prescribing vitamin D-containing supplements in children older than 2 years may be beneficial.

  12. Point Vowel Duration in Children with Hearing Aids and Cochlear Implants at 4 and 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandam, Mark; Ide-Helvie, Dana; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the developmental aspects of the duration of point vowels in children with normal hearing compared with those with hearing aids and cochlear implants at 4 and 5 years of age. Younger children produced longer vowels than older children, and children with hearing loss (HL) produced longer and more variable vowels than their…

  13. Outcome of Silicone Ring Vertical Gastroplasty in Patients Aged 50 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Kyzer; Ramadan; Avraham; Belavsky; Hopp; Chaimoff

    1996-08-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors studied the results Of silicone ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) in Patients aged 50 years and older. METHODS: The early and late Postoperative results in 28 patients aged.50 Years or older undergoing SRVG were reviewed retrospectively, The results were compared to those of 370 Patients Younger than 50 years operated during the same period. RESULTS: There was no Postoperative mortality among patients aged 50 years and older. There was a significantly higher incidence Of Pulmonary embolus and wound infection among patients aged 50 years and older (P < 0.05). The weight loss did not differ significantly between the two studied age groups. CONCLUSION: SRVG may performed on patients aged 50 years or older with acceptable complication rate and favorable postoperative results. PMID:10729875

  14. Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... FDA Reminder for Parents: Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children Share ... giving these products to young children. Alternatives to cough and cold medicines for infants Parents of infants ...

  15. Early Ahead: Do Young Gifted Resemble Older Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    2011-01-01

    Children who are intellectually gifted are often emotionally mature for their ages. For a variety of reasons--including an unrewarding curriculum, preference for others of the same intellectual ability, or a feeling of social rejection--this maturity is sometimes masked at school. This can lead to what the author calls a "forced-choice" dilemma.…

  16. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  17. Older farmers' prevalence, capital, health, age-related limitations, and adaptations.

    PubMed

    Cole, Henry P; Donovan, Teresa A

    2008-01-01

    A major reduction in the proportion of older farmers in the farm population has been predicted for nearly 50 years. Not only has the proportion of older farmers increased but the proportion of younger farmers has decreased dramatically. In 2002, principal operators age >or= 65 years of age comprised 26.2% of US farmers. These older farmers and farm landlords combined owned 34% of all farm assets. In addition to their economic capital, older farmers have large stocks of social and cultural capital that contribute to their communities and the nation. A large majority of older people in the US population, and older farmers in particular, remain healthy and active. All older adults experience normal age-related deficits in sensory, motor, and cognitive functioning. However, age-related adaptations of healthy older adults, including their experience and compensatory behavioral and information processing strategies, minimize many age-related deficits. These factors allow perhaps 80% or more of older farmers to continue working safely and productively well past typical retirement age. PMID:19042700

  18. Difficulty in Differentiating Trustworthiness from Untrustworthiness in Older Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Bianca; Hine, Alison C.; Bailey, Phoebe E.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults report being more trusting than young adults, and this may be particularly evident in close social relationships. This is beneficial for well-being when trust is reciprocated, but detrimental when trust is exploited. In a repeated trust game, young (n = 35) and older adults (n = 33) invested real money over repeated interactions with…

  19. Brain white matter damage in aging and cognitive ability in youth and older age.

    PubMed

    Valdés Hernández, Maria Del C; Booth, Tom; Murray, Catherine; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Morris, Zoe; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Royle, Natalie A; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Bastin, Mark E; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2013-12-01

    Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) reflect accumulating white matter damage with aging and impair cognition. The role of childhood intelligence is rarely considered in associations between cognitive impairment and WMH. We studied community-dwelling older people all born in 1936, in whom IQ had been assessed at age 11 years. We assessed medical histories, current cognitive ability and quantified WMH on MR imaging. Among 634 participants, mean age 72.7 (SD 0.7), age 11 IQ was the strongest predictor of late life cognitive ability. After accounting for age 11 IQ, greater WMH load was significantly associated with lower late life general cognitive ability (β = -0.14, p < 0.01) and processing speed (β = -0.19, p < 0.001). WMH were also associated independently with lower age 11 IQ (β = -0.08, p < 0.05) and hypertension. In conclusion, having more WMH is significantly associated with lower cognitive ability, after accounting for prior ability, age 11IQ. Early-life IQ also influenced WMH in later life. Determining how lower IQ in youth leads to increasing brain damage with aging is important for future successful cognitive aging.

  20. Understanding HIV-related stigma in older age in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The combination of HIV- and age-related stigma exacerbates prevalence of HIV infection and late diagnosis and initiation of anti-retroviral therapy among older populations (Moore, 2012; Richards et al. 2013). Interventions to address these stigmas must be grounded in understanding of situated systems of beliefs about illness and older age. This study analyses constructions of HIV and older age that underpinned the stigmatisation of older adults with HIV in rural Balaka, Malawi. It draws on data from a series of in-depth interviews (N = 135) with adults aged 50-∼90 (N = 43) in 2008-2010. Around 40% (n = 18) of the sample had HIV. Dominant understandings of HIV in Balaka pertained to the sexual transmission of the virus and poor prognosis of those infected. They intersected with understandings of ageing. Narratives about older age and HIV in older age both centred on the importance of having bodily, moral and social power to perform broadly-defined "work". Those who could not work were physically and socially excluded from the social world. This status, labelled as "child-like", was feared by all participants. In participants' narratives, growing old involves a gradual decline in the power required to produce one's membership of the social world through work. HIV infection in old age is understood to accelerate this decline. Understandings of the sexual transmission of HIV, in older age, imply the absence of moral power and in turn, loss of social power. The prognosis of those with HIV, in older age, reflects and causes amplified loss of bodily power. In generating dependency, this loss of bodily power infantilises older care recipients and jeopardises their family's survival, resulting in further loss of social power. This age-and HIV-related loss of power to produce social membership through work is the discrediting attribute at the heart of the stigmatisation of older people with HIV. PMID:27459023

  1. Understanding HIV-related stigma in older age in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Emily

    2016-09-01

    The combination of HIV- and age-related stigma exacerbates prevalence of HIV infection and late diagnosis and initiation of anti-retroviral therapy among older populations (Moore, 2012; Richards et al. 2013). Interventions to address these stigmas must be grounded in understanding of situated systems of beliefs about illness and older age. This study analyses constructions of HIV and older age that underpinned the stigmatisation of older adults with HIV in rural Balaka, Malawi. It draws on data from a series of in-depth interviews (N = 135) with adults aged 50-∼90 (N = 43) in 2008-2010. Around 40% (n = 18) of the sample had HIV. Dominant understandings of HIV in Balaka pertained to the sexual transmission of the virus and poor prognosis of those infected. They intersected with understandings of ageing. Narratives about older age and HIV in older age both centred on the importance of having bodily, moral and social power to perform broadly-defined "work". Those who could not work were physically and socially excluded from the social world. This status, labelled as "child-like", was feared by all participants. In participants' narratives, growing old involves a gradual decline in the power required to produce one's membership of the social world through work. HIV infection in old age is understood to accelerate this decline. Understandings of the sexual transmission of HIV, in older age, imply the absence of moral power and in turn, loss of social power. The prognosis of those with HIV, in older age, reflects and causes amplified loss of bodily power. In generating dependency, this loss of bodily power infantilises older care recipients and jeopardises their family's survival, resulting in further loss of social power. This age-and HIV-related loss of power to produce social membership through work is the discrediting attribute at the heart of the stigmatisation of older people with HIV.

  2. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Amanda L.; Taylor, Beth A.; Panza, Gregory A.; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S.; Thompson, Paul D.; Fernandez, Antonio B.

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population. PMID:27486492

  3. Coming of Age: Considerations in the Prescription of Exercise for Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Zaleski, Amanda L; Taylor, Beth A; Panza, Gregory A; Wu, Yin; Pescatello, Linda S; Thompson, Paul D; Fernandez, Antonio B

    2016-01-01

    Older adults represent the fastest-growing age demographic of the population. Physiological changes associated with primary aging and concurrent chronic disease adversely impact functional capacity, health outcomes, and quality of life. For these reasons, there is a national emphasis for healthcare providers to improve the health, function, and quality of life of older adults to preserve independent living and psychological well-being. The benefits of regular physical activity or exercise with regard to aging and disease are indisputable, yet many clinicians do not prescribe exercise to older adults. This reluctance may be attributable to a lack of knowledge regarding appropriate exercise prescription for older adults in light of the potential risks and benefits of various doses and types of exercise. In addition, clinicians and patients may have concerns about potential health considerations relevant to older adults such as comprehensive pre-exercise screening and exercise-drug interactions. In light of this, the following review presents (1) guidelines for exercise prescription in older adults and modification of these guidelines for patients with the most common age-associated comorbidities; (2) recommendations for pre-exercise screening prior to initiating an exercise program in older adults; (3) considerations for older adults on one or more medications; and (4) common barriers to adopting and maintaining exercise in an older population. Our goal is to provide a framework that clinicians can follow when prescribing exercise in older adults while considering the unique characteristics and concerns present in this population. PMID:27486492

  4. Being the Older Sibling: Self-Perceptions of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdity, Clare; Burgman, Imelda

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study explored the experience of being an older sibling, from the perspective of children with disabilities. A phenomenological approach was used to investigate the experiences of 10 children with disabilities. The participants described engagement in older sibling roles that they perceived to positively influence their sense of…

  5. Connecting Generations: Developing Co-Design Methods for Older Adults and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Bo; Druin, Allison; Fails, Jerry; Massey, Sheri; Golub, Evan; Franckel, Sonia; Schneider, Kiki

    2012-01-01

    As new technologies emerge that can bring older adults together with children, little has been discussed by researchers concerning the design methods used to create these new technologies. Giving both children and older adults a voice in a shared design process comes with many challenges. This paper details an exploratory study focusing on…

  6. Learning (Not) to Talk about Race: When Older Children Underperform in Social Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apfelbaum, Evan P.; Pauker, Kristin; Ambady, Nalini; Sommers, Samuel R.; Norton, Michael I.

    2008-01-01

    The present research identifies an anomaly in sociocognitive development, whereby younger children (8 and 9 years) outperform their older counterparts (10 and 11 years) in a basic categorization task in which the acknowledgment of racial difference facilitates performance. Though older children exhibit superior performance on a race-neutral…

  7. Missing and Delayed Auditory Responses in Young and Older Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Lanza, Matthew R.; Daina, Aleksandra B.; Monroe, Justin F.; Khan, Sarah Y.; Blaskey, Lisa; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Jenkins, Julian; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The development of left and right superior temporal gyrus (STG) 50 ms (M50) and 100 ms (M100) auditory responses in typically developing (TD) children and in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined. Reflecting differential development of primary/secondary auditory areas and supporting previous studies, it was hypothesized that whereas left and right M50 STG responses would be observed equally often in younger and older children, left and right M100 STG responses would more often be absent in younger than older children. In ASD, delayed neurodevelopment would be indicated via the observation of a greater proportion of ASD than TD subjects showing missing M100 but not M50 responses in both age groups. Missing M100 responses would be observed primarily in children with ASD with language impairment (ASD + LI) (and perhaps concomitantly lower general cognitive abilities). Methods: Thirty-five TD controls, 63 ASD without language impairment (ASD − LI), and 38 ASD + LI were recruited. Binaural tones were presented. The presence or absence of a STG M50 and M100 was scored. Subjects were grouped into younger (6–10 years old) and older groups (11–15 years old). Results: Although M50 responses were observed equally often in older and younger subjects and equally often in TD and ASD, left and right M50 responses were delayed in ASD − LI and ASD + LI. Group comparisons showed that in younger subjects M100 responses were observed more often in TD than ASD + LI (90 versus 66%, p = 0.04), with no differences between TD and ASD − LI (90 versus 76%, p = 0.14) or between ASD − LI and ASD + LI (76 versus 66%, p = 0.53). In older subjects, whereas no differences were observed between TD and ASD + LI, responses were observed more often in ASD − LI than ASD + LI. Findings were similar when splitting the ASD group into lower- and higher-cognitive functioning groups. Conclusion

  8. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  9. Medical and Obstetric Complications among Pregnant Women Aged 45 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Grotegut, Chad A.; Chisholm, Christian A.; Johnson, Lauren N. C.; Brown, Haywood L.; Heine, R. Phillips; James, Andra H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older. Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM) codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35–44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes. Results Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35. Conclusion Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may

  10. Parental Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems, Parenting Self-Esteem, and Mothers' Reported Stress in Younger and Older Hyperactive and Normal Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; Johnston, Charlotte

    1983-01-01

    Examined parental perceptions of child behavior, parenting self-esteem, and mothers' reported stress for younger and older hyperactive and normal children. Parenting self-esteem was lower in parents of hyperactives than in parents of normal children. Self-esteem related to skill/knowledge as a parent was age related. (Author/RC)

  11. Age or Disability? Age-Based Disparities in Service Provision for Older People with Intellectual Disabilities in Great Britain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Alan; Walker, Carol

    1998-01-01

    This paper argues that a key factor in the dependency of older people with intellectual disabilities is the age discriminatory attitudes held by many service providers. Two research projects of deinstitutionalization in Britain found greater improvement in competencies or less deterioration in older than younger individuals at follow-up despite…

  12. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: I. Age differences in agency and communion during marital interaction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy W; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples' greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity-especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  13. Meet the parents? Family size and the geographic proximity between adult children and older mothers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Holmlund, Helena; Rainer, Helmut; Siedler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the causal effect of family size on the proximity between older mothers and adult children by using a large administrative data set from Sweden. Our main results show that adult children in Sweden are not constrained by sibship size in choosing where to live: for families with more than one child, sibship size does not affect child-mother proximity. For aging parents, however, having fewer children reduces the probability of having at least one child living nearby, which is likely to have consequences for the intensity of intergenerational contact and eldercare.

  14. Efficacy and effectiveness of live attenuated influenza vaccine in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Coelingh, Kathleen; Olajide, Ifedapo Rosemary; MacDonald, Peter; Yogev, Ram

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of high efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) from randomized controlled trials is strong for children 2-6 years of age, but fewer data exist for older school-age children. We reviewed the published data on efficacy and effectiveness of LAIV in children ≥5 years. QUOSA (Elsevier database) was searched for articles published from January 1990 to June 2014 that included 'FluMist', 'LAIV', 'CAIV', 'cold adapted influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated influenza vaccine', 'live attenuated cold adapted' or 'flu mist'. Studies evaluated included randomized controlled trials, effectiveness and indirect protection studies. This review demonstrates that LAIV has considerable efficacy and effectiveness in school-age children.

  15. Older Age is Associated with More Successful Aging: Role of Resilience and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Jeste, Dilip V.; Savla, Gauri N.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Vahia, Ipsit V.; Glorioso, Danielle K.; Martin, A’verria Sirkin; Palmer, Barton W.; Rock, David; Golshan, Shahrokh; Kraemer, Helena C.; Depp, Colin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing public health interest in understanding and promoting successful aging. While there has been some exciting empirical work on objective measures of physical health, relatively little published research combines physical, cognitive, and psychological assessments in large, randomly selected, community-based samples to assess self-rated successful aging (SRSA). Methods In this Successful AGing Evaluation (SAGE) study, we used a structured multi-cohort design to assess successful aging in 1,006 community-dwelling adults in San Diego County, aged 50–99 years, with over-sampling of people over 80. A modified version of random digit dialing was used to recruit subjects. Evaluations included a 25-minute phone interview followed by a comprehensive mail-in survey of physical, cognitive, and psychological domains, including SRSA (scaled from 1 [lowest] to 10 [highest]) and positive psychological traits. Results In our sample with mean age of 77.3 years, the mean SRSA score was 8.2, and older age was associated with higher SRSA (R2 = 0.027), despite worsening physical and cognitive functioning. The best multiple regression model achieved, using all the potential correlates, accounted for 30% of variance in SRSA, and included resilience, depression, physical functioning, and age (entering the regression model in that order). Conclusions Resilience and depression had a significant association with SRSA with effect sizes comparable to that for physical health. While no causality can be inferred from cross-sectional data, increasing resilience and reducing depression might have as strong effects on successful aging as reducing physical disability, suggesting an important role for psychiatry in promoting successful aging. PMID:23223917

  16. Age-Related Differences in Vehicle Control and Eye Movement Patterns at Intersections: Older and Middle-Aged Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Yamani, Yusuke; Horrey, William J.; Liang, Yulan; Fisher, Donald L.

    2016-01-01

    Older drivers are at increased risk of intersection crashes. Previous work found that older drivers execute less frequent glances for detecting potential threats at intersections than middle-aged drivers. Yet, earlier work has also shown that an active training program doubled the frequency of these glances among older drivers, suggesting that these effects are not necessarily due to age-related functional declines. In light of findings, the current study sought to explore the ability of older drivers to coordinate their head and eye movements while simultaneously steering the vehicle as well as their glance behavior at intersections. In a driving simulator, older (M = 76 yrs) and middle-aged (M = 58 yrs) drivers completed different driving tasks: (1) travelling straight on a highway while scanning for peripheral information (a visual search task) and (2) navigating intersections with areas potential hazard. The results replicate that the older drivers did not execute glances for potential threats to the sides when turning at intersections as frequently as the middle-aged drivers. Furthermore, the results demonstrate costs of performing two concurrent tasks, highway driving and visual search task on the side displays: the older drivers performed more poorly on the visual search task and needed to correct their steering positions more compared to the middle-aged counterparts. The findings are consistent with the predictions and discussed in terms of a decoupling hypothesis, providing an account for the effects of the active training program. PMID:27736887

  17. Effect of prophylactic trochanteric epiphyseodesis in older children with Perthes' disease.

    PubMed

    Shah, Hitesh; Siddesh, Nandi D; Joseph, Benjamin; Nair, Sreekumaran N

    2009-12-01

    high proportion of children operated at or before 8.5 years of age and in half the children operated between the age of 8.5 years and 10 years. On the basis of this study, we recommend prophylactic epiphyseodesis of the greater trochanter as a means of minimizing trochanteric overgrowth and resultant Trendelenburg gait in older child with Perthes' disease.

  18. The development of emotion concepts: a story superiority effect in older children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Widen, Sherri C; Pochedly, Joseph T; Russell, James A

    2015-03-01

    Contrary to traditional assumptions, young children are more likely to correctly label someone's emotion from a story that describes the causes and consequences of the emotion than from the person's facial expression. This story superiority effect was examined in a sample of older children and adolescents (N=90, 8-20 years) for the emotions of fear, disgust, shame, embarrassment, and pride. Participants freely labeled the emotion they inferred from a story describing a cause and consequence of each emotion and, separately, from the corresponding facial expression. In each of five age groups, the expected emotion label was used for the emotion story significantly more than for the corresponding facial expression (except for pride). The story superiority effect is strong from childhood to early adulthood and opens the door to new accounts of how emotion concepts develop.

  19. The development of emotion concepts: a story superiority effect in older children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Widen, Sherri C; Pochedly, Joseph T; Russell, James A

    2015-03-01

    Contrary to traditional assumptions, young children are more likely to correctly label someone's emotion from a story that describes the causes and consequences of the emotion than from the person's facial expression. This story superiority effect was examined in a sample of older children and adolescents (N=90, 8-20 years) for the emotions of fear, disgust, shame, embarrassment, and pride. Participants freely labeled the emotion they inferred from a story describing a cause and consequence of each emotion and, separately, from the corresponding facial expression. In each of five age groups, the expected emotion label was used for the emotion story significantly more than for the corresponding facial expression (except for pride). The story superiority effect is strong from childhood to early adulthood and opens the door to new accounts of how emotion concepts develop. PMID:25516425

  20. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  1. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases. PMID:26529217

  2. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  3. Keeping up! Older workers' adaptation in the workplace after age 55.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eddy S W; Law, Alan

    2014-03-01

    How do older workers keep up and adapt to a changing workplace after age 55? In exploring that question, this study specifically examined how age-related changes affect workers, how older workers deal with a loss of resources, how they engage in life management, and why some are more successful than others. An in-depth analysis was undertaken using 32 semi-structured interviews conducted with workers aged 55 to 64. Findings revealed that older workers use various strategies to adapt to a change in resources, and that these strategies help them cope and maintain their functioning in the workplace. Because older workers require different types of employer support, this study offers an understanding of how employers can provide that support to encourage older workers to remain in the workforce longer. Several avenues for future research are suggested, including an exploration of the role played by internal sources of support.

  4. Keeping up! Older workers' adaptation in the workplace after age 55.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eddy S W; Law, Alan

    2014-03-01

    How do older workers keep up and adapt to a changing workplace after age 55? In exploring that question, this study specifically examined how age-related changes affect workers, how older workers deal with a loss of resources, how they engage in life management, and why some are more successful than others. An in-depth analysis was undertaken using 32 semi-structured interviews conducted with workers aged 55 to 64. Findings revealed that older workers use various strategies to adapt to a change in resources, and that these strategies help them cope and maintain their functioning in the workplace. Because older workers require different types of employer support, this study offers an understanding of how employers can provide that support to encourage older workers to remain in the workforce longer. Several avenues for future research are suggested, including an exploration of the role played by internal sources of support. PMID:24345532

  5. Cultural and age differences of three groups of Taiwanese young children's creativity and drawing.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mei-Hue; Dzeng, Annie

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated the cultural and age effects on children's overall creativity and drawing. 1,055 children ages 6 to 8 from three groups--urban and rural Taiwanese children and Taiwanese children of immigrant mothers, all in public schools--were given a creativity test, a people-drawing test, and a free-drawing test. The results showed that the older Taiwanese children scored higher than the young Taiwanese children on people-drawing and free-drawing, but not overall creativity. Drawing and creativity scores increased in accordance with age. In the six-year-old group, a group difference was found only on the scale of people-drawing. Urban Taiwanese children in the eight-year-old group scored higher than the other two groups of children on creativity and free-drawing. Results are discussed in terms of educational opportunities.

  6. Older-Adult Playfulness: An Innovative Construct and Measurement for Healthy Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    Few studies of adult playfulness exist, but limited research on older adults and playfulness suggests that playfulness in later life improves cognitive, emotional, social, and psychological functioning and healthy aging overall. Older adults represent a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. population, underscoring the need to understand the aging…

  7. Barriers to Care for Depressed Older People: Perceptions of Aged Care among Medical Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Davison, Tanya; Mellor, David; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated barriers to detection of depression among older people. Focus groups were conducted with 21 professional carers, 4 nurses, 10 general practitioners, and 7 aged care managers. The results demonstrated that care for older people is primarily focused on physical care. Further, staff resources, a lack of continuity of care,…

  8. Nutrition and the Older Adult. Module A-9. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on nutrition and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Five sections present…

  9. Confusion and the Older Adult. Module A-8. Block A. Basic Knowledge of the Aging Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Dexter; Cap, Orest

    This instructional module on confusion and the older adult is one in a block of 10 modules designed to provide the human services worker who works with older adults with basic information regarding the aging process. An introduction provides an overview of the module content. A listing of general objectives follows. Three sections present…

  10. Attitudes about Aging Well among a Diverse Group of Older Americans: Implications for Promoting Cognitive Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Corwin, Sara J.; Laditka, James N.; Liu, Rui; Tseng, Winston; Wu, Bei; Beard, Renee L.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine perceptions about aging well in the context of cognitive health among a large and diverse group of older adults. Design and Methods: Forty-two focus groups were conducted with older adults living in the community ( N = 396; White, African American, American Indian, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hispanic). Participant descriptions …

  11. Disentangling chronological age from age of onset in children and adolescents with obsessive--compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Geller, D A; Biederman, J; Faraone, S V; Bellordre, C A; Kim, G S; Hagermoser, L; Cradock, K; Frazier, J; Coffey, B J

    2001-06-01

    Although paediatric obsessive--compulsive disorder (OCD) is increasingly recognized as a putative developmental subtype of the disorder, it remains uncertain as to whether additional subtyping by age at onset in childhood or adolescence is warranted. Subjects included children and adolescents meeting DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria for OCD referred to a specialized OCD clinic. All youth were systematically evaluated with structured diagnostic interviews and clinical assessment by an OCD expert. Irrespective of current age, an earlier age at onset predicted increased risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, simple phobia, agoraphobia and multiple anxiety disorders. In contrast, mood and psychotic disorders were associated with chronological age and were more prevalent in older subjects. Tourette's disorder showed associations with both chronological age and age at onset. Chronological age and age at onset predicted different patterns of comorbidity and dysfunction in children and adolescents with OCD. Considering the heterogeneity of OCD, age at onset may help identify meaningful developmental subtypes of the disorder beyond chronological age.

  12. Trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype among middle-aged and older Britons, 2004–2013

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Since the ageing population demands a response to ensure older people remain healthy and active, we studied the dynamics of a recently proposed healthy ageing phenotype. We drew the phenotype’s trajectories and tested whether their levels and rates of change are influenced by health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions earlier in the life course. Design and outcomes The English Longitudinal Ageing Study, a prospective, nationally representative sample of people aged ≥50 years, measured a set of eight biomarkers which make up the outcome of the healthy ageing phenotype three times over nearly a decade (N2004 = 5009, N2008 = 5301, N2013 = 4455). A cluster of health behaviours, comorbidities and socioeconomic positions were also measured repeatedly. We assessed the phenotype’s distribution non-parametrically, then fitted linear mixed models to phenotypic change and further examined time interactions with gender and socioeconomic position. We ran additional analyses to test robustness. Results Women had a wider distribution of the healthy ageing phenotype than men had. The phenotype declined annually by −0.242 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.352, −0.131). However, there was considerable heterogeneity in the levels and rates of phenotypic change. Women started at higher levels, then declined more steeply by −0.293 (CI: −0.403, −0.183) annually, leading to crossover in the trajectories. Smoking and physical activity assessed on the Allied Dunbar scale were strongly associated with the trajectories. Conclusion Though marked by secular decline, the trajectories of the healthy ageing phenotype showed distinct socioeconomic gradients. The trajectories were also susceptible to variations in health behaviours, strengthening the case for serial interventions to attain healthy and active ageing. PMID:27105690

  13. Creative Ageing? Selfhood, Temporality and the Older Adult Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabeti, Shari

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on a long-term ethnography of an adult creative writing class situated in a major urban art gallery in the United Kingdom. It takes the claims of one group of older adults--that creative writing made them "feel younger"--as the starting point for exploring this connection further. It places these claims broadly within…

  14. Future Selves and Aging: Older Adults' Memory Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L.; Viverito, Kristen M.

    2006-01-01

    Thoughts about the self in the future, called possible selves, are an important component of the current identity of individuals. This study specifically focused on possible selves in the domain of memory and cognition. Both older and younger groups spontaneously reported possible selves in the cognitive domain, e.g., "learning a new skill," but…

  15. 42 CFR 440.181 - Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Definitions § 440.181 Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older. (a) Description of services— Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older means services, not otherwise... age 65 or older. 440.181 Section 440.181 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  16. 42 CFR 440.181 - Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Definitions § 440.181 Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older. (a) Description of services— Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older means services, not otherwise... age 65 or older. 440.181 Section 440.181 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  17. 42 CFR 440.181 - Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definitions § 440.181 Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older. (a) Description of services— Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older means services, not otherwise... age 65 or older. 440.181 Section 440.181 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  18. 42 CFR 440.181 - Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Definitions § 440.181 Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older. (a) Description of services— Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older means services, not otherwise... age 65 or older. 440.181 Section 440.181 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID...

  19. 42 CFR 440.181 - Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... age 65 or older. 440.181 Section 440.181 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... Definitions § 440.181 Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older. (a) Description of services— Home and community-based services for individuals age 65 or older means services, not...

  20. Exploring opportunities for healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Within the areas of literature on both population aging and health and homelessness, little attention has been given to the opportunities and barriers to healthy aging among older persons with a history of homelessness. Set in the context of inner-city Toronto, Canada, this article reports on the findings from qualitative interviews with 29 formerly homeless older persons. The findings illustrate participants' experiences of positive health change since moving into a stable housing environment and the aspects of housing they perceive to have improved their health and wellbeing. The qualitative findings also draw attention to the ongoing barriers to healthy aging that can be experienced among older persons with a history of homelessness. Overall, this study draws on the lived experiences of formerly homeless older persons to offer a better understanding of the long-term effects of homelessness on health, wellbeing, and aging.

  1. Age Integration and the Lives of Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Matilda White; Riley, John W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Argues that currently age-differentiated society will give way to age-integrated one; that age will lose its power to constrain people's entry, exist, and performance in such basic social institutions as education, work, and retirement. Sees revolutionary changes toward age integration as needed to reduce structural lag in which dynamism of human…

  2. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  3. The Accuracy of Older and Younger Australians' Understanding of Mental Health and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.

    1993-01-01

    Administered quiz about positive and negative aspects of mental health in old age to 250 Australian adults (ages 17-81). Retirees scored lowest, with no significant differences among younger students versus nonstudents. Age was more important mediator of retirees' low scores than was gender, living with older person, or self-definition as retired.…

  4. Do Out-of-Pocket Health Expenditures Rise with Age Among Older Americans?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Relationships are examined between age and out-of-pocket costs for different health goods and services among the older population. Design and Methods: Age patterns in health service use and out-of-pocket costs are examined by use of the 1990 Elderly Health Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,031, age 66+). Multivariate…

  5. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  6. Factors associated with quality of life in middle-aged and older patients living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2016-01-01

    HIV infection has been historically considered a disease of young adults; however, adults aged 50 years and older represent now an increasing proportion of HIV cases worldwide, including in Portugal. In this context, given the considerable burden associated with living with HIV, the topic of quality-of-life (QoL) assessment has become increasingly relevant. The aims of this study were to examine the age-related differences in QoL and depressive symptoms of younger and middle-aged and older adults with HIV as well as the sociodemographic, HIV-related and depressive symptoms (cognitive-affective and somatic) associated with QoL domains. The sample consisted of 1194 HIV-infected patients, recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. QoL data were collected using the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref questionnaire. Patients also completed the Beck Depression Inventory. Of the 1194 patients, 185 (15.5%) were over 50 years old. Middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower QoL in the physical, independence and social relationships domains. Regarding the specific facets of QoL, middle-aged and older patients reported significantly lower scores in seven of the 29 specific facets of the WHOQOL-HIV-Bref and higher scores in one facet (financial resources). Overall, among middle-aged and older patients, higher education, being employed, a shorter time since HIV diagnosis, use of combination anti-retroviral therapy and fewer depressive symptoms were significantly associated with higher QoL ratings. Our findings suggest that both cognitive-affective and somatic depressive symptoms account for significant variability in QoL scores in middle-aged and older patients. Because an important feature of healthy ageing is maintaining QoL, these data may provide useful information for tailoring age-appropriate and effective interventions to improve the mental health and QoL of middle-aged and older patients living with HIV. PMID:26881294

  7. Partner age-disparity and HIV incidence risk for older women in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    While sexual partner age disparity is frequently considered as a potential risk factor for HIV amongst young women in Africa, no research has addressed this question amongst older women. Our aim was thus to determine whether sex partner age disparity was associated with subsequent HIV acquisition in women aged over 30. Methods To achieve this aim we conducted a quantitative analysis of a population-based, open cohort of women in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (n=1,737) using Cox proportional hazards models. Results As partner age rose, HIV acquisition risk fell significantly: compared to a same-aged partner, a five-year older partner was associated with a one-third reduction (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.63, 95%CI: 0.52–0.76) and a ten-year older partner with a one-half reduction (HR: 0.48, 95%CI: 0.35–0.67). This result was neither confounded nor effect-modified by women’s age or socio-demographic factors. Conclusions These findings suggest that existing HIV risk-reduction campaigns warning young women about partnering with older men may be inappropriate for older women. HIV prevention strategies interventions specifically tailored to older women are needed. PMID:25670473

  8. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  9. Slowing of Mortality Rates at Older Ages in Large Medfly Cohorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, James R.; Liedo, Pablo; Orozco, Dina; Vaupel, James W.

    1992-10-01

    It is generally assumed for most species that mortality rates increase monotonically at advanced ages. Mortality rates were found to level off and decrease at older ages in a population of 1.2 million medflies maintained in cages of 7,200 and in a group of approximately 48,000 adults maintained in solitary confinement. Thus, life expectancy in older individuals increased rather than decreased with age. These results cast doubt on several central concepts in gerontology and the biology of aging: (i) that senescence can be characterized by an increase in age-specific mortality, (ii) that the basic pattern of mortality in nearly all species follows the same unitary pattern at older ages, and (iii) that species have absolute life-span limits.

  10. Aging in community: mobilizing a new paradigm of older adults as a core social resource.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathy; Dobbs, Debra; Young, Tiffany L

    2015-03-01

    Dignity and independence are widely considered as core concepts to aging well, yet little research has explored how older adults perceive these issues in the context of community life. Moreover, little is known regarding the ways in which the broader public views and enhances aging with dignity and independence with their older residents. Using participatory action research, multiple methods of qualitative inquiry, and tenets of appreciative inquiry, this article reports on a community-based initiative aimed to better understand the positive aspects of aging with dignity and independence. Synthesized findings yielded 6 "actionable themes": (1) meaningful involvement, (2) aging in place, (3) respect and inclusion, (4) communication and information, (5) transportation and mobility, and (6) health and well-being. The findings invoke a new paradigm for community aging that highlights the unique contributions of older adults as a core social resource. Implications for mobilizing community action to promote aging with dignity and independence are discussed. PMID:25681387

  11. Close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking: reevaluating their influence on children's smoking.

    PubMed

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Peterson, Arthur V; Robyn Andersen, M; Leroux, Brian G; Bharat Rajan, K; Sarason, Irwin G

    2006-04-01

    A number of longitudinal studies have explored the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking acquisition. A reasonable implication of this previous research is that intervention efforts could be beneficially directed toward countering the potential influence of friends' and possibly older siblings' smoking but not parents' smoking. However, methodological limitations of this previous research motivated our reevaluation of the role of friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking in children's smoking. Close friends' smoking status was assessed when children were in 5th grade, whereas parents' and older siblings' smoking status was assessed when children were in 3rd grade. The outcome, children's daily smoking status, was assessed in 12th grade. The setting was 40 Washington state school districts that participated in the long-term Hutchinson Smoking Prevention Project. Participants were the 4,576 families for whom close friends', parents', and older siblings' smoking status as well as children's smoking status were available. The probability that each close friend's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 9% (95% CI = 6%-12%), the probability that each parent's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 11% (95% CI = 9%-14%), and the probability that each older sibling's smoking influenced the child to smoke daily was 7% (95% CI = 1%-13%). These results suggest that close friends', parents', and siblings' smoking were similarly important influences on children's smoking. Family-focused interventions could be a valuable future direction of prevention research. PMID:16766414

  12. Age, marital satisfaction, and optimism as predictors of positive sentiment override in middle-aged and older married couples.

    PubMed

    Story, T Nathan; Berg, Cynthia A; Smith, Timothy W; Beveridge, Ryan; Henry, Nancy J M; Pearce, Gale

    2007-12-01

    This study examined whether positive sentiment override (greater positive appraisal of spouse's affiliative behavior than is warranted by observed behavior) occurred more frequently in older compared with middle-aged married couples and whether age differences were mediated by older adults' greater marital satisfaction when controlling for optimism. Participants included 270 middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) couples who discussed a marital disagreement and completed an errand task. Couples provided appraisals of their spouse's affiliation, and the authors coded affiliative interactions using the structural analysis of social behavior. Hierarchical multivariate linear modeling indicated that older husbands and wives viewed their spouse's behavior as more positive during disagreement interactions than did independent observers; in the errand task, only older wives demonstrated positive sentiment override. Age differences in positive sentiment override were mediated by marital satisfaction, even when controlling for optimism. The results are consistent with theories of emotion regulation, such as socioemotional selectivity theory, that suggest that older adults are biased toward the positive aspects of close relationships.

  13. Dental fear and anxiety in older children: an association with parental dental anxiety and effective pain coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Anka; Banozic, Adriana; Klaric, Miro; Vukojevic, Katarina; Puljak, Livia

    2014-01-01

    An association between dental fear and anxiety (DFA) has been confirmed for children younger than 8 years, but this association in older children is less clear. The aim of this study was to fill this knowledge gap by studying DFA in older children and their parents with validated measures. This cross-sectional study, conducted at Community Health Centre Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina, included 114 children and their parents. DFA, coping, and sociodemographic variables were studied using Corah Dental Anxiety Questionnaire (CDAS), Dental Subscale of the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS), Dental Cope Questionnaire, and sociodemographic questionnaire. Maternal CDAS scores had significant positive correlation with child DFA measured with CFSS-DS (r=0.35, P<0.001) and CDAS (r=0.32, P<0.001). Fathers’ CDAS scores were not associated with child CFSS-DS, but showed a moderate correlation with child CDAS (r=0.19, P<0.05). There were no significant differences in children’s fear and anxiety based on age, sex, or socioeconomic variables. Children used internal coping strategies most frequently and external coping strategies were rated by the children as the most effective. We did not find differences in number and type of effective coping strategies in children with high DFA compared with children with low DFA. In conclusion, there is evidence of the coexistence of dental fear in parents and older children. These findings may help to devise interventions that will prevent or alleviate children’s DFA. PMID:25187737

  14. Correlates of Root Caries Experience in Middle-Aged and Older Adults within the Northwest PRECEDENT

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Donald L.; Berg, Joel H.; Kim, Amy S.; Scott, JoAnna

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED ABSTRACT Background We examined the correlates of root caries experience for middle-aged (ages 45–64 years) and older adults (ages 65+ years) to test the hypothesis that the factors related to root caries are different for middle-aged versus older adults. Methods This observational cross-sectional study focused on adult patients ages 45–97 years recruited from the Northwest PRECEDENT (N=775 adults). The outcome variable was any root caries experience (no/yes). Sociodemographic, intraoral, and behavioral factors were hypothesized as potential root caries correlates. We used Poisson regression models to generate overall and age-stratified prevalence ratios (PR) of root caries and Generalized Estimating Equations to account for practice-level clustering of participants. Results About 20% of adults had any root caries. Dentists’ assessment that the patient was at high risk for any caries was associated with greater prevalence of root caries experience in both middle-aged adults (PR=2.70, 95% CI: 1.63,4.46) and older adults (PR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.19,2.95). The following factors were significantly associated with increased root caries prevalence, but only for middle-aged adults: male sex (P=.02), self-reported dry mouth (P<.0001), exposed roots (P=.03), and increased frequency of eating or drinking between meals (P=.03). No other covariates were related to root caries experience for older adults. Conclusions Within a practice-based research network, the factors associated with root caries experience were different for middle-aged and older adults. Future work should identify relevant root caries correlates for adults ages 65+ years. Clinical Implications Interventions aimed at preventing root caries are likely to be different for middle-aged and older adults. Root caries prevention programs should address the appropriate aged-based risk factors. PMID:23633699

  15. Intergenerational Music Making: A Phenomenological Study of Three Older Australians Making Music with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three older Australians' active engagement in music making with children was examined in this phenomenological study. Intergenerational music engagement was explored, focusing on the perspectives of the older Australians engaged in these musical interactions and, in particular, perceived benefits in being part of these musical interactions. Data…

  16. Knowledge of Aging and Life Satisfaction among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Neil C.; Friedrich, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred young-, middle-, and old-old adults responded to a battery of quizzes dealing with life satisfaction and objective aging knowledge in the physical, psychological, and social domains. Analyses incorporated domains of aging knowledge, life satisfaction, age, gender, and demographic variables. Both means difference and regression…

  17. Sensory evaluation of a novel vegetable in school age children.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, Helen; Palfreyman, Zoe; Morizet, David

    2016-05-01

    A behavioural sensory task was undertaken to further understanding into whether children's sensory evaluation of a new vegetable is associated with tasting and food neophobia scores. A sample of ninety-five children, aged 7-11 years, was recruited from a primary school in inner city Birmingham, UK. They were asked to rate the sight, smell and feel of a familiar vegetable (carrot) and an unfamiliar vegetable (celeriac) in a randomised order to control for order effects. They were then asked to try the each vegetable, and rate its taste. It was found that children rated the sensory characteristics of the familiar vegetable more positively than the novel vegetable across all sensory domains (p < 0.05). Refusing to try the novel vegetable was associated with food neophobia scores and olfactory ratings. The ratings of the taste of the novel vegetable were associated with olfactory and tactile ratings. In addition there was a clear developmental shift in the sample with younger children being more likely to rate the novel vegetable as 'looking strange' and older children rating the novel vegetable as 'smelling strange'. This research strengthens the idea that sensory information is important in children deciding to try, and their hedonic evaluation of the taste of a new vegetable. PMID:26809143

  18. Older adults' experiences of living with cleft lip and palate: a qualitative study exploring aging and appearance.

    PubMed

    Hamlet, Claire; Harcourt, Diana

    2015-03-01

    Objective : To explore older adults' experiences of living with cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), focusing on aging and appearance. Design : An exploratory-descriptive qualitative study. Participants : Individual semi-structured interviews (five via telephone, one face-to-face) conducted with six adults between the ages of 57 and 82 years. Results : Interview transcripts were analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, which resulted in five themes: cleft across the life span, keeping up appearances, being one of a kind, resilience and protection, and cleft in an ever-changing society. A CL/P had an ongoing impact on participants' lives, although its relevance shifted over time and some aspects of life (e.g., romantic relationships, decisions about having children of their own) were particularly affected. Participants seemed at ease living with CL/P as an older adult and considered it an important aspect of their identity, yet they still described feeling isolated at times and had little contact with other people with a cleft. They felt that health care could be more considerate to the needs of older people with a cleft, particularly around dentistry and information provision. Participants thought societal attitudes toward visible differences had changed over the years, but not necessarily for the better. A paradox was evident between reports of being noticed by others because of their cleft and simultaneously feeling invisible or ignored because of their age. Conclusions : These findings have implications for provision of care for older adults with a CL/P and for younger people with a CL/P who will be the older generation of the future.

  19. Age related effects in children taking the computerized assessment of response bias and word memory test.

    PubMed

    Courtney, John C; Dinkins, Juliet P; Allen, Lyle M; Kuroski, Katherine

    2003-06-01

    The assessment of effort is a fundamental component of test performance analysis, since effort determines whether a psychological evaluation is valid. The assessment of effort in children has proven problematic. This may be related to the variable and inconsistent nature of children's developing self-regulatory systems, and the fact that measures commonly used to assess effort were standardized on adults. If one uses effort measures designed for adults to assess children, then one must presume that the maintenance of effort in children is comparable to the same behavior in adults. However, because children's executive functioning, including their abilities to self-regulate, attend, concentrate, and to engage in various cognitive activities improve with time (Barkley, 1997, pp. 209-234), our hypothesis is that young children's effort regulation is dissimilar to that of adults, and the presumption of similarity is implausible. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age is a significant influence upon young children's performances on the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (CARB) and Word Memory Test (WMT). Statistical analysis suggests that younger children (those under 10 years of age) tended to produce poorer performance on these instruments. Younger children's scores differed significantly from children ages 10 and older. Children 11 years and older produced CARB and WMT results similar to adult participants, suggesting a viability for adult normative comparisons with children in this age range. The current investigation concluded that children's maintenance of effort appears to be significantly related to age and reading ability level. Consequently, the use of current adult-based norms with the CARB and WMT, without regard for a child's developmental status and other contextual factors such as the child's ability to read, appears ill-advised especially with children under 11 years of age. PMID:12815513

  20. The Difference that Age Makes: Cultural Factors that Shape Older Adults' Responses to Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogk, Marja

    2008-01-01

    This article suggests that approaching vision loss from age-related macular degeneration from a sociocultural perspective, specifically considering perceptions of aging, blindness, disability, and generational viewpoints and norms, may be critical to understanding older adults' responses to vision loss and visual rehabilitation.

  1. The general age of leadership: older-looking presidential candidates win elections during war.

    PubMed

    Spisak, Brian R

    2012-01-01

    As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed--which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i) faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii) morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age.

  2. The General Age of Leadership: Older-Looking Presidential Candidates Win Elections during War

    PubMed Central

    Spisak, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    As nation-state leaders age they increasingly engage in inter-state militarized disputes yet in industrialized societies a steady decrease in testosterone associated with aging is observed – which suggests a decrease in dominance behavior. The current paper points out that from modern societies to Old World monkeys increasing both in age and social status encourages dominant strategies to maintain acquired rank. Moreover, it is argued this consistency has shaped an implicit prototype causing followers to associate older age with dominance leadership. It is shown that (i) faces of older leaders are preferred during intergroup conflict and (ii) morphing U.S. Presidential candidates to appear older or younger has an overriding effect on actual election outcomes. This indicates that democratic voting can be systematically adjusted by activating innate biases. These findings appear to create a new line of research regarding the biology of leadership and contextual cues of age. PMID:22649504

  3. Characteristics and Outcome of Patients Diagnosed With HIV at Older Age.

    PubMed

    Asher, Ilan; Guri, Keren Mahlab; Elbirt, Daniel; Bezalel, Shira Rosenberg; Maldarelli, Frank; Mor, Orna; Grossman, Zehava; Sthoeger, Zev M

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the clinical, virological, and immunological status at presentation as well as the outcome of patients diagnosed with HIV above the age of 50. A retrospective study of 418 patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 1 Israeli center, between the years 2004 and 2013. Patients with new HIV diagnosis ≥ 50 years of age defined as "older' and < 50 defined as "younger.' Patients were evaluated every 1 to 3 months (mean follow-up 53 ± 33 months). Patients with < 2 CD4/viral-load measurements or with < 1 year of follow-up were excluded. Time of HIV infection was estimated by HIV sequence ambiguity assay. Ambiguity index ≤ 0.43 indicated recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. Eighty nine (21%) patients were diagnosed with HIV at an older age. Those older patients presented with significant lower CD4 cell counts and higher viral-load compared with the younger patients. At the end of the study, the older patients had higher mortality rate (21% vs 3.5%; P < 0.001) and lower CD4 cell counts (381 ± 228 vs 483 ± 26 cells/μL; P < 0.001) compared with the younger patients. This difference was also observed between older and younger patients with similar CD4 cell counts and viral load at the time of HIV diagnosis and among patients with a recent (≤ 1 year) HIV infection. One-fifth of HIV patients are diagnosed at older age (≥ 50 years). Those older patients have less favorable outcome compared with the younger patients. This point to the need of educational and screening programs within older populations and for a closer follow-up of older HIV patients. PMID:26735534

  4. Memory Loss, Dementia, and Stroke: Implications for Rehabilitation of Older Adults with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Older adults with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are not immune to the other diseases of aging. Although AMD is the leading cause of low vision in older Americans, stroke is the leading cause of disability, and dementias affect another 2.5 million older Americans. Each condition alone can significantly impair a person's ability to…

  5. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  6. Accounting for changes in social support among married older adults: insights from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Regan A R; Taylor, Shelley E; Seeman, Teresa E

    2003-09-01

    Using longitudinal, community-based data from the MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging, the authors examined determinants of changes in social support receipt among 439 married older adults. In general, social support increased over time, especially for those with many preexisting social ties, but those experiencing more psychological distress and cognitive dysfunction reported more negative encounters with others. Gender affected social support receipt: Men received emotional support primarily from their spouses, whereas women drew more heavily on their friends and relatives and children for emotional support. Discussion centers on the importance of social support provision to those with the greatest needs.

  7. Cognitive outcomes in school-age children born prematurely.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss findings in the literature regarding long-term developmental outcomes of infants born prematurely, to examine potential causes of individual differences in these outcomes, and to explore directions for future research. An extensive table summarizes recent (1996-2002) international studies of developmental outcomes among children of school age and older who were born with low birth weight, especially as the studies relate to cognitive development and academic performance. The discussion then examines how characteristics of the child and the environment may interact to produce individual differences in outcomes. Processes of attention regulation within the context of the psychosocial environment are examined as an important possible direction for future research. When designing and implementing interventions aimed at improving outcomes in this and other groups of children at risk for delays and deficits, it is important to consider how various factors affect development. PMID:12795506

  8. Successful Aging Among LGBT Older Adults: Physical and Mental Health-Related Quality of Life by Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Shiu, Chengshi; Goldsen, Jayn; Emlet, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people are a health disparate population as identified in Healthy People 2020. Yet, there has been limited attention to how LGBT older adults maintain successful aging despite the adversity they face. Utilizing a Resilience Framework, this study investigates the relationship between physical and mental health-related quality of life (QOL) and covariates by age group. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey of LGBT adults aged 50 and older (N = 2,560) was conducted by Caring and Aging with Pride: The National Health, Aging, and Sexuality Study via collaborations with 11 sites across the U.S. Linear regression analyses tested specified relationships and moderating effects of age groups (aged 50–64; 65–79; 80 and older). Results: Physical and mental health QOL were negatively associated with discrimination and chronic conditions and positively with social support, social network size, physical and leisure activities, substance nonuse, employment, income, and being male when controlling for age and other covariates. Mental health QOL was also positively associated with positive sense of sexual identity and negatively with sexual identity disclosure. Important differences by age group emerged and for the old–old age group the influence of discrimination was particularly salient. Implications: This is the first study to examine physical and mental health QOL, as an indicator of successful aging, among LGBT older adults. An understanding of the configuration of resources and risks by age group is important for the development of aging and health initiatives tailored for this growing population. PMID:25213483

  9. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907

  10. Multiple Trajectories of Successful Aging of Older and Younger Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to apply group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple successful aging trajectories by multiple indicators and to examine the factors related to successful aging among the elderly population in Taiwan. Design and Methods: Nation-representative longitudinal data collected from 1993 to 2007 and…

  11. Age, Health and Life Satisfaction among Older Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Corazzini, Luca; Paccagnella, Omar

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate how age affects the self-reported level of life satisfaction among the elderly in Europe. By using a vignette approach, we find evidence that age influences life satisfaction through two counterbalancing channels. On the one hand, controlling for the effects of all other variables, the own perceived level of life…

  12. Chemistry of the older supracrustals of Archaean age around Sargur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardhan, A. S.; Shadaksharaswamy, N.; Capdevila, R.

    1988-01-01

    In the Archaeans of the Karnataka craton two stratigraphically distinct volcano-sedimentary sequences occur, namely the older supracrustals of the Sargur type and the younger Dharwar greenstones. The dividing line between these is the 3 by old component of the Peninsular gneiss. The trace and rare earth element chemistry of the Sargur metasediments show, in general, marked similarity to the Archaean sediments. The significant departures are in the nickel and chromium abundances. The REE data of the Sargur pelites of the Terakanambi region represented by Silli-gt-bio-feldspar schists and paragneisses show LREE enrichment and flat to depleted HREE pattern. Banded iron formations have very low REE abundance. They show slightly enriched LREE and flat to depleted HREE pattern. REE abundance in the Mn-horizons is comparable to that of the Archaean sediments. Mn-horizons show enriched LREE and flat HREE with anamolous Eu. REE patterns of these bands is well evolved and has similarities with PAAS.

  13. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  14. The Arkansas Aging Initiative: An Innovative Approach for Addressing the Health of Older Rural Arkansans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Claudia J.; McAtee, Robin E.; Chernoff, Ronni; Davis, Gwynn V.; Jones, Susan K.; Lipschitz, David A.

    2007-01-01

    The Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock is addressing one of the most pressing policy issues facing the United States: how to care for the burgeoning number of older adults. In 2001, the Institute created the Arkansas Aging Initiative, which established seven satellite centers on…

  15. The Effect of Retirement versus Age on the Shopping Orientations of the Older Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, James R.

    1984-01-01

    Surveyed 933 middle aged and older adults to compare shopping behavior in retired and nonretired consumers. Results indicated the elderly enjoy shopping less and are less concerned with bargains than adults 55-64. Age, rather than retirement status, was a key factor. (JAC)

  16. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski, Zelinski,…

  17. Negotiations of the Ageing Process: Older Adults' Stories of Sports Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Horton, Sean; Baker, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the talk of older athletes, with particular focus on how the context of sport helps them negotiate the ageing process. It draws on personal stories provided by 44 World Masters Games competitors (23 women; 21 men; aged 56-90 years; "M" = 72). Four themes emerged: "There's no such thing as…

  18. Age Group Differences in Depressive Symptoms among Older Adults with Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Namkee G.; Kim, Johnny S.

    2007-01-01

    This study used data from the 2000 interview wave of the Health and Retirement Study to examine age group differences in the likelihood of self-reported depressive symptomatology among a nationally representative sample of 3,035 adults age 55 years or older who had at least one activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily…

  19. Older Men's Lay Definitions of Successful Aging over Time: The Manitoba Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, Robert B.; Swift, Audrey U.; Bayomi, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of "successful aging" has become widely accepted in gerontology, yet continues to have no common underlying definition. Researchers have increasingly looked to older individuals for their lay definitions of successful aging. The present analysis is based on responses to five questionnaires administered to surviving participants of the…

  20. New Ideas for Promoting Physical Activity among Middle Age and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbey, Geoffrey; Burnett-Wolle, Sarah; Chow, Hsueh-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Promoting physical activity among middle age and older adults to decrease the incidence of disease and premature death and to combat the health care costs associated with a sedentary lifestyle is more important now than ever. There is now a better understanding of what "successful aging" means and of what aspects of life have the greatest…

  1. From Loving Grandma to Working with Older Adults: Promoting Positive Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goncalves, Daniela C.

    2009-01-01

    The steady increase of population aging requires not only more people working within the field of aging but also the creation of new services. However, current students from areas such as medicine, nursing, psychology, and social work frequently have low interest in working with older adults. The low interest relates to this task's lack of…

  2. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  3. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  4. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  5. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  6. 20 CFR 404.745 - Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer to attend school. (b) If you apply before the school year has started and the school is not a high... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of school attendance for child age... § 404.745 Evidence of school attendance for child age 18 or older. If you apply for child's benefits...

  7. Service Providers' Perceptions of Active Ageing among Older Adults with Lifelong Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buys, L.; Aird, R.; Miller, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Considerable attention is currently being directed towards both active ageing and the revising of standards for disability services within Australia and internationally. Yet, to date, no consideration appears to have been given to ways to promote active ageing among older adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Methods:…

  8. Structural and Cultural Factors in Successful Aging Among Older Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Angel, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Successful or healthful aging are terms that draw attention to life course issues related to individual, physical, and psychologic development and maturation, but they also draw attention to the material basis of successful aging and the social structures that determine one’s place in the social hierarchy. This article focuses on barriers to optimal aging for Hispanics, especially those of Mexican origin, and argues that cultural factors and social class are closely associated. The reduction of health disparities and equity in medical and long-term care requires an understanding of both cultural and material sources of differential health levels. PMID:19065093

  9. Promoting successful aging through competitive sports participation: insights from older adults.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinmoo; Culp, Brian; Yamada, Naoko; Won, Youngshin

    2013-01-01

    In this study we explored the experience of competing in the Senior Games and the resultant contributions to the successful aging of older adults. We used in-depth interviews with older adults who participated in the National Senior Games. Analysis of the data produced five central themes: (a) perseverance, (b) career development and significant effort, (c) personal and social benefits, (d) unique ethos, and (e) identification as a senior athlete. We found that participating in the Senior Games as a form of serious leisure enhanced the well-being of older adults and could be utilized as a means by which to maintain a healthy lifestyle. PMID:22927703

  10. What Parents Can Do: School Age Children | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Children Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents As kids get older, they still need a parent's help to keep their teeth sparkling clean and healthy. Here are five tips— 1. Find out if your water has fluoride in it (check with your local water utility). ...

  11. A Revision of the Halstead Category Test for Children Aged 9 to 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Doreen L.; Spreen, Otfried

    1973-01-01

    The analyses of data obtained from bain damaged and normal children of 9 to 11 and 12 to 15 years indicate that the IHCT is a better discriminator between brain damaged and normal Ss in the older age group. A shortened version of the IHCT produced for this study showed the same results. (JC)

  12. Aging-Related Geniohyoid Muscle Atrophy Is Related to Aspiration Status in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Method. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. Results. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. Conclusion. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112114

  13. Age and the purchase of prescription drug insurance by older adults.

    PubMed

    Szrek, Helena; Bundorf, M Kate

    2011-06-01

    The Medicare Part D Prescription Drug Program places an unprecedented degree of choice in the hands of older adults despite concerns over their ability to make effective decisions and desire to have extensive choice in this context. While previous research has compared older adults to younger adults along these dimensions, our study, in contrast, examines how likelihood to delay decision making and preferences for choice differ by age among older age cohorts. Our analysis is based on responses of older adults to a simulation of enrollment in Medicare Part D. We examine how age, numeracy, cognitive reflection, and the interaction between age and performance on these instruments are related to the decision to enroll in a Medicare prescription drug plan and preference for choice in this context. We find that numeracy and cognitive reflection are positively associated with enrollment likelihood and that they are more important determinants of enrollment than age. We also find that greater numeracy is associated with a lower willingness to pay for choice. Hence, our findings raise concern that older adults, and, in particular, those with poorer numerical processing skills, may need extra support in enrolling in the program: they are less likely to enroll than those with stronger numerical processing skills, even though they show greater willingness to pay for choice. PMID:21534689

  14. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  15. Age-related parenting stress differences in mothers of children with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F; Rowe, Brandy P; Bell, Nancy L

    2003-12-01

    This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory, and measures of family support and resources. Scores of families with children under 6 years (preschool) versus 6- to 12-yr.-old children (school age) were compared, as were scores of mothers above or below Age 35. Parents of school-aged children reported significantly higher stress on the Concerns for the Child domain of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. Mothers over 35 tended to report higher stress in the Concerns for the Child and Medical/Legal Concerns domains of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. No associations with medical severity, socioeconomic status, family resources, or family support were detected. As the children age and disability-related differences become more apparent, the same level of functioning and severity of disability may be associated with additional parenting stress. Older mothers and those with school-age children may need more resources than current social support systems typically provide.

  16. Breast Cancer Subtypes in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Königsberg, Robert; Pfeiler, Georg; Hammerschmid, Nicole; Holub, Oliver; Glössmann, Kerstin; Larcher-Senn, Julian; Dittrich, Christian

    2016-05-27

    Recurrence and survival pattern in breast cancer (bc) patients (pts) ≥ 70 years subcategorized according to subtype and age are still an area of uncertainty. Tumor characteristics, patient demographics, therapies applied, and recurrence pattern were compared between luminal A (LA), luminal B (LB), Her2/neu overexpressing (Her+) and triple-negative (TN) bc subtypes and the age subcategories 70-74, 75-79, ≥80 years. Based on univariate Cox-regression-analyses distant-disease-free-survival (DDFS) differed significantly for bc subtypes (p = 0.0002), notably for Her+ vs. LA (p = 0.0014), TN vs. LA (p < 0.001), and TN vs. LB (p = 0.0086). Not age, but Her+ and TN represented prognostic factors for DDFS. PMID:27215407

  17. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  18. Support Networks of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Berit; Depner, Charlene

    Research on social supports of the aged indicates that creation and maintenance of supportive interpersonal bonds among the elderly result in an enhancement of their quality of life. The nature of social support networks at different points in the life course was investigated to determine the relative size of social networks and the way men and…

  19. Age Stereotypes of Older Primary Teachers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Jen; Wang, Ya-Hsaun

    2012-01-01

    Elder respect in East Asia has a long history that could be derived from Confucian philosophy. However, with the rapid development of westernization, younger people have gradually depreciated the value of elder respect and seek a reciprocal relationship with the elderly. A literature search revealed that age stereotypes would be both negative and…

  20. Generativity in Older Age: A Challenge for Universities of the Third Age (U3A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villar, Feliciano; Celdran, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways in which university programs for older people should change to cater to the interests and concerns of generative older people. We describe university programs offered at present, underlining their emphasis on personal growth and on learning for the sake of learning. We argue that these programs are not entirely…

  1. Risk preferences and aging: The “Certainty Effect” in older adults’ decision making

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Mazar, Nina; Gorlick, Marissa A.; Lighthall, Nichole R.; Burgeno, Jessica; Schoeke, Andrej; Ariely, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A prevalent stereotype is that people become less risk taking and more cautious as they get older. However, in laboratory studies, findings are mixed and often reveal no age differences. In the current series of experiments, we examined whether age differences in risk seeking are more likely to emerge when choices include a certain option (a sure gain or a sure loss). In four experiments, we found that age differences in risk preferences only emerged when participants were offered a choice between a risky and a certain gamble but not when offered two risky gambles. In particular, Experiments 1 and 2 included only gambles about potential gains. Here, compared with younger adults, older adults preferred a certain gain over a chance to win a larger gain and thus, exhibited more risk aversion in the domain of gains. But in Experiments 3 and 4, when offered the chance to take a small sure loss rather than risking a larger loss, older adults exhibited more risk seeking in the domain of losses than younger adults. Both their greater preference for sure gains and greater avoidance of sure losses suggest that older adults weigh certainty more heavily than younger adults. Experiment 4 also indicates that older adults focus more on positive emotions than younger adults do when considering their options and that this emotional shift can at least partially account for age differences in how much people are swayed by certainty in their choices. PMID:23066800

  2. Age, stress, and isolation in older adults living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Webel, Allison R.; Longenecker, Chris T.; Gripshover, Barbara; Hanson, Jan E.; Schmotzer, Brian J.; Salata, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) have increasingly longer life spans. This age group faces different challenges than younger PLWH, which may include increased stress and social isolation. The purpose of this study was to determine if the age and sex of PLWH is associated with measures of physiologic stress, perceived stress and social isolation. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 102 PLWH equally into four groups divided by age (< or > 50 years) and gender. Participants completed well-validated survey measurements of stress and isolation, and their heart rate variability over 60 minutes was measured by Holter monitor. The mean (standard deviation) Perceived Stress Scale score was 17.4 (6.94), mean visual analog stress scale score was 3.51 (2.79), and mean Hawthorne Friendship Scale score, a measure of social isolation, was 17.03 (4.84). Mean heart rate variability expressed as the standard deviation of successive N-N intervals was 65.47 (31.16) msec. In multivariable regression models that controlled for selected demographic variables, there was no relationship between the Perceived Stress Scale and age (coefficient=−0.09, p=−.23) or female gender (coefficient=−0.12, p=0.93); however, there was a modest relationship between female gender and stress using the visual analog stress scale (coefficient=1.24, p=0.05). Perceived Stress was negatively associated with the Hawthorne Friendship score (coefficient=−0.34, p=0.05). Hawthorne Friendship score was positively associated with younger age (coefficient=0.11, p=0.02). Age was the only independent predictor of physiologic stress as measured by heart rate variability (coefficient=−1.3, p<0.01). Our findings suggest that younger PLWH may experience more social isolation; however, age-related changes in heart rate variability do not appear to be related to perceived stress or social isolation. Future longitudinal research is required to more thoroughly understand this relationship and its impact on the

  3. Age estimation among Brazilians: Younger or older than 18?

    PubMed

    Deitos, Alexandre Raphael; Costa, Claudio; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Galić, Ivan; Cameriere, Roberto; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye

    2015-07-01

    The age estimation of living or dead individuals is an important part of forensic science because it can be used in various situations, including mass disasters, or for civil or criminal reasons, such as adoption or asylum. Teeth play a major role in this context because they are more resistant than bones in extreme environmental conditions and their development is hardly affected by exogenous or endogenous factors. Because the third molars (3rdM) are still in development from the age of 14, they are useful for determining whether an individual has reached the legal age of 18 years. This study aims to verify the method of Cameriere et al. (2008) in Brazil to discriminate whether an individual is under or over 18 years from the maturity index of the 3rdM (I3m). The analysis of 444 panoramic radiographs resulted in a sensitivity of 78.3%, a specificity of 85.1% and a correct classification of 87%. Significant differences in sexual dimorphism in the early mineralization of males were found only for the average age with I3m ≥ 0.08, except for the range (0.7, 0.9). Due to the high miscegenation ratio of the Brazilian population the ancestry was not one of the studied variables. The method is suitable for estimating adulthood for forensic purposes in Brazil, although it must be applied carefully and judiciously. We recommend a combination of several methods that are available to increase accuracy as well as the establishment of different parameters that are likely to determine whether a person is more or less than 18 years of age, depending on the different legal requirements, whether civil or criminal.

  4. Working memory in children: tracing age differences and special educational needs to parameters of a formal model.

    PubMed

    Göthe, Katrin; Esser, Günther; Gendt, Anja; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2012-03-01

    Parameters of a formal working-memory model were estimated for verbal and spatial memory updating of children. The model proposes interference though feature overwriting and through confusion of whole elements as the primary cause of working-memory capacity limits. We tested 2 age groups each containing 1 group of normal intelligence and 1 deficit group. For young children the deficit was developmental dyslexia; for older children it was a general learning difficulty. The interference model predicts less interference through overwriting but more through confusion of whole elements for the dyslexic children than for their age-matched controls. Older children exhibited less interference through confusion of whole elements and a higher processing rate than young children, but general learning difficulty was associated with slower processing than in the age-matched control group. Furthermore, the difference between verbal and spatial updating mapped onto several meaningful dissociations of model parameters.

  5. Increasing opportunities for the productive engagement of older adults: a response to population aging.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Ernest; Matz-Costa, Christina; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    "Productive aging" puts forward the fundamental view that the capacity of older adults must be better developed and utilized in activities that make economic contributions to society-working, caregiving, volunteering. It is suggested that productive engagement can lead to multiple positive ends: offsetting fiscal strains of a larger older population, contributing to the betterment of families and civil society, and maintaining the health and economic security of older adults. Advocates claim that outdated social structures and discriminatory behaviors limit participation of older adults in these important social roles as well as prevent the optimization of outcomes for older adults, families, and society. We ask two important questions: (a) How can we shape policies and programs to optimally engage the growing resources of an aging population for the sake of society and older adults themselves? and (b) How can policies pertaining to productive engagement reduce health and economic disparities? We answer these questions by first describing the current state of engagement in each of the three productive activities and summarize some current policies and programs that affect engagement. Next we highlight challenges that cross-cut productive engagement. Finally, we provide policy recommendations to address these challenges. PMID:26035601

  6. Factors associated with tobacco smoking practices among middle-aged and older women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Colwell, Brian; Ahn, Sangnam; Ory, Marcia G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines middle-aged and older women's smoking practices and identifies factors associated with tobacco use and cessation in this population. Data of 593 women were analyzed from a seven-county random household sample in Texas. Sequential multinomial logistic regression compared associations with having never smoked, having quit smoking, and currently smoking. Compared to smokers, never smokers and past smokers were significantly more likely to be older, more educated, of better general health, and report past-year physician visits and fewer depressive symptoms. Mental health and smoking are interrelated, indicating the need for addressing depression in smoking-cessation efforts for aging women.

  7. Another health insurance gap: gaining and losing coverage among natives and immigrants at older ages.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Adriana M; Hardy, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    As the immigrant population grows older and larger, limitations on access to health insurance may create a new subgroup of people who remain outside or on the margin of coverage. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) data from the 2004 and 2008 panels, we address the health insurance gap between foreign-born and native-born adults among those aged 50-64 and the 65 and older, two sub-populations that have received relatively little attention in past research. We argue that current practices leave a significant minority of older foreign-born residents inconsistently covered or without any insurance. We find that health insurance coverage for older immigrants is both less likely and more episodic even when compositional differences in SES and assimilation are controlled.

  8. Supporting Children's Transition to School Age Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dockett, Sue; Perry, Bob

    2016-01-01

    While a great deal of research has focused on children's experiences as they start school, less attention has been directed to their experiences--and those of their families and educators--as they start school age care. This paper draws from a recent research project investigating practices that promote positive transitions to school and school…

  9. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Child Care and Development Grant (CCDBG) is the primary source of federal funding for child care subsidies for low-income working families and to improve child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. In fiscal year 2010, states received $5 billion in federal CCDBG funds. States are expected to…

  10. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  11. Age-related differences in street-crossing safety before and after training of older pedestrians.

    PubMed

    Dommes, Aurélie; Cavallo, Viola; Vienne, Fabrice; Aillerie, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    International accident statistics indicate that elderly pedestrians make up an extremely vulnerable road-user group. Past research has shown that older adults make many unsafe street-crossing decisions and adopt insufficient safety margins, especially when vehicles are approaching at high speed. Apart from studies on road design and speed-limit countermeasures, there is surprisingly no road-safety research on behavior-based measures to improve older pedestrians' safety. In this line, the present study was aimed at (i) assessing the effectiveness of a training program for older pedestrians that combined behavioral and educational interventions, and (ii) examining whether and to what extent age-related differences in street-crossing safety could be reduced after training older adults. Twenty seniors were enrolled in a training program. Before, immediately after, and six months after training, street-crossing behavior was assessed using a simulated street-crossing task. Twenty younger participants performed the same simulated task to obtain a baseline measure. The results showed that the training produced significant short- and long-term benefits, due to a shifting of the decision criteria among the older participants towards more conservative judgments. When compared with the younger group, the older participants improved their behavior considerably so that significant differences in the mean safety-related indicators were no longer observed. However, the older participants' ability to take the oncoming car's speed into account did not improve. Even after training, and contrary to younger adults, older participants were found to make more and more unsafe decisions as the car's speed increased, putting them at a higher risk at high speeds. This finding may reflect age-related perceptual and cognitive difficulties that cannot be remedied by a behavioral or educational training method. The present findings underline that high speed is an important risk factor for

  12. Cluster Analysis of Physical and Cognitive Ageing Patterns in Older People from Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Stephan; Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Hogervorst, Eef

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education, cognitive and physical function in older age, and their respective impacts on activities of daily living (ADL). Data on 148 older participants from a community-based sample recruited in Shanghai, China, included the following measures: age, education, ADL, grip strength, balance, gait speed, global cognition and verbal memory. The majority of participants in the present cohort were cognitively and physically healthy and reported no problems with ADL. Twenty-eight percent of participants needed help with ADL, with the majority of this group being over 80 years of age. Significant predictors of reductions in functional independence included age, balance, global cognitive function (MMSE) and the gait measures. Cluster analysis revealed a protective effect of education on cognitive function that did not appear to extend to physical function. Consistency of such phenotypes of ageing clusters in other cohort studies may provide helpful models for dementia and frailty prevention measures. PMID:26907351

  13. Cluster Analysis of Physical and Cognitive Ageing Patterns in Older People from Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Bandelow, Stephan; Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Hogervorst, Eef

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education, cognitive and physical function in older age, and their respective impacts on activities of daily living (ADL). Data on 148 older participants from a community-based sample recruited in Shanghai, China, included the following measures: age, education, ADL, grip strength, balance, gait speed, global cognition and verbal memory. The majority of participants in the present cohort were cognitively and physically healthy and reported no problems with ADL. Twenty-eight percent of participants needed help with ADL, with the majority of this group being over 80 years of age. Significant predictors of reductions in functional independence included age, balance, global cognitive function (MMSE) and the gait measures. Cluster analysis revealed a protective effect of education on cognitive function that did not appear to extend to physical function. Consistency of such phenotypes of ageing clusters in other cohort studies may provide helpful models for dementia and frailty prevention measures. PMID:26907351

  14. Cluster Analysis of Physical and Cognitive Ageing Patterns in Older People from Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Bandelow, Stephan; Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Hogervorst, Eef

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education, cognitive and physical function in older age, and their respective impacts on activities of daily living (ADL). Data on 148 older participants from a community-based sample recruited in Shanghai, China, included the following measures: age, education, ADL, grip strength, balance, gait speed, global cognition and verbal memory. The majority of participants in the present cohort were cognitively and physically healthy and reported no problems with ADL. Twenty-eight percent of participants needed help with ADL, with the majority of this group being over 80 years of age. Significant predictors of reductions in functional independence included age, balance, global cognitive function (MMSE) and the gait measures. Cluster analysis revealed a protective effect of education on cognitive function that did not appear to extend to physical function. Consistency of such phenotypes of ageing clusters in other cohort studies may provide helpful models for dementia and frailty prevention measures.

  15. Effect of Speaker Age on Speech Recognition and Perceived Listening Effort in Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuliffe, Megan J.; Wilding, Phillipa J.; Rickard, Natalie A.; O'Beirne, Greg A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Older adults exhibit difficulty understanding speech that has been experimentally degraded. Age-related changes to the speech mechanism lead to natural degradations in signal quality. We tested the hypothesis that older adults with hearing loss would exhibit declines in speech recognition when listening to the speech of older adults,…

  16. The Moderating Role of Age-Group Identification and Perceived Threat on Stereotype Threat among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sonia K.; Chasteen, Alison L.

    2009-01-01

    Although research has shown that older adults are negatively affected by aging stereotypes, relatively few studies have attempted to identify those older adults who may be especially susceptible to these effects. The current research takes steps toward identifying older adults most susceptible to the effects of stereotype threat and investigates…

  17. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  18. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions. PMID:24390608

  19. Labor force participation at older ages in the Western Pacific: A microeconomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Agree, E M; Clark, R L

    1991-10-01

    Retirement has become a very important stage of life for persons in developed countries. Life expectancy for those over age 60 has increased markedly. Rising real income and the institution of broad based social security systems have encouraged older workers to leave the labor force at younger ages. p]Reductions in older age mortality have also affected the less developed regions. Increases in the number of older persons, coupled with continuing high fertility, have increased the size of the working age population through both large entry cohorts and longevity of current workers. The capacity of the economy to absorb this growth is severely limited. As a result, labor force decisions by older individuals will be of increasing importance.This study provides new evidence on labor force decisions in four developing countries in the Western Pacific: Fiji, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. A uniform survey sponsored by the World Health Organization in the four countries of persons aged 60 and over is employed to estimate the determinants of work decisions.

  20. Electrocortical Dynamics Reflect Age-Related Differences in Movement Kinematics among Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Florian A.; Momen, Bahram; Hatfield, Bradley D.; Clark, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging and behavioral studies demonstrated structural and functional changes in the motor system across childhood. However, it is unclear what functionally relevant electrocortical processes underlie developmental differences in motor planning and control during multijoint, goal-directed movements. The current study characterized age-related differences in electrocortical processes during the performance of discrete aiming movements in children and adults. Electroencephalography and movement kinematics were recorded from 3 groups of participants (n = 15 each): young children (mean 6.7 years), older children (mean 10.2 years), and adults (mean 22.1 years). Age-related differences were evident in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. First, young children exhibited less movement-related activity in task-relevant motor areas compared with adults (movement-related cortical potentials). Second, young children exhibited greater activation (less alpha power) of the frontal areas and less activation of the parietal areas as compared with the other groups. At the behavioral level, young children made slower and jerkier movements, with less consistent directional planning compared with older children and adults. Significant correlations were also found between EEG and movement kinematic measures. Taken together, the results of this study provide evidence that age-related differences in the quality of motor planning and performance are reflected in the differences in electrocortical dynamics among children and adults. PMID:20805237

  1. Does age at onset have clinical significance in older adults with bipolar disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Chu, David; Gildengers, Ariel G.; Houck, Patricia R.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Kupfer, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective While age at onset may be useful in explaining some of the heterogeneity of bipolar disorder (BD) in large, mixed age groups, investigations to date have found few meaningful clinical differences between early versus late age at onset in older adults with BD. Methods Data were collected from sixty-one subjects aged 60 years and older, mean (SD) age 67.6 (7.0), with BD I (75%) and II (25%). Subjects were grouped by early (<40 years; n=43) versus late (≥40 years; n=18) age at onset. Early versus late onset groups were compared on psychiatric comorbidity, medical burden, and percentage of days well during study participation. Results Except for family history of major psychiatric illnesses, there were no differences between the groups on demographic or clinical variables. Patients with early and late onset experienced similar percentages of days well; however, those with early onset had slightly more percentage of days depressed than those with late onset (22% versus 13%) Conclusion Distinguishing older adults with BD by early or late age at onset has limited clinical usefulness. PMID:20082348

  2. Subliminal strengthening: improving older individuals' physical function over time with an implicit-age-stereotype intervention.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Pilver, Corey; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2014-12-01

    Negative age stereotypes that older individuals assimilate from their culture predict detrimental outcomes, including worse physical function. We examined, for the first time, whether positive age stereotypes, presented subliminally across multiple sessions in the community, would lead to improved outcomes. Each of 100 older individuals (age=61-99 years, M=81) was randomly assigned to an implicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, an explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, a combined implicit- and explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, or a control group. Interventions occurred at four 1-week intervals. The implicit intervention strengthened positive age stereotypes, which strengthened positive self-perceptions of aging, which, in turn, improved physical function. The improvement in these outcomes continued for 3 weeks after the last intervention session. Further, negative age stereotypes and negative self-perceptions of aging were weakened. For all outcomes, the implicit intervention's impact was greater than the explicit intervention's impact. The physical-function effect of the implicit intervention surpassed a previous study's 6-month-exercise-intervention's effect with participants of similar ages. The current study's findings demonstrate the potential of directing implicit processes toward physical-function enhancement over time. PMID:25326508

  3. Subliminal strengthening: improving older individuals' physical function over time with an implicit-age-stereotype intervention.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Pilver, Corey; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2014-12-01

    Negative age stereotypes that older individuals assimilate from their culture predict detrimental outcomes, including worse physical function. We examined, for the first time, whether positive age stereotypes, presented subliminally across multiple sessions in the community, would lead to improved outcomes. Each of 100 older individuals (age=61-99 years, M=81) was randomly assigned to an implicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, an explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, a combined implicit- and explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, or a control group. Interventions occurred at four 1-week intervals. The implicit intervention strengthened positive age stereotypes, which strengthened positive self-perceptions of aging, which, in turn, improved physical function. The improvement in these outcomes continued for 3 weeks after the last intervention session. Further, negative age stereotypes and negative self-perceptions of aging were weakened. For all outcomes, the implicit intervention's impact was greater than the explicit intervention's impact. The physical-function effect of the implicit intervention surpassed a previous study's 6-month-exercise-intervention's effect with participants of similar ages. The current study's findings demonstrate the potential of directing implicit processes toward physical-function enhancement over time.

  4. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  5. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    PubMed

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686

  6. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    PubMed

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  7. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  8. How Older People Think about Images of Aging in Advertising and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Don E.; Longino, Charles F., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review documents distorted images of aging in mass media and advertising, including underrepresentation and stereotyping. Older consumers are dissatisfied with these images, and their growing purchasing power is forcing advertisers to make more effective appeals. (Contains 20 references.) (SK)

  9. Private Prayer and Optimism in Middle-Aged and Older Patients Awaiting Cardiac Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ai, Amy L.; Peterson, Christopher; Bolling, Steven F.; Koenig, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the use of private prayer among middle-aged and older patients as a way of coping with cardiac surgery and prayer's relationship to optimism. Design and Methods: The measure of prayer included three aspects: (a) belief in the importance of private prayer, (b) faith in the efficacy of prayer on the basis of previous…

  10. The Age of Beauty Calendar for Flood Relief: Photography, Solidarity, Fundraising, and Vibrant Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Carole

    2005-01-01

    "The Age of Beauty: Women for Flood Relief 2005-2006: Celebrating the Spirit of Peterborough," is a calendar that successfully raised funds for flood victims while contributing to the reinvention of images of "powerful rebellious old women" by offering dynamic images of older women's strengths, creativity and spirit. During a time of crisis in…

  11. A Comparison of Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adult Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Pathological gambling is an increasing public health concern, but very little is known about this disorder in older adults. This study evaluated gambling and psychosocial problems across age groups in treatment-seeking gamblers. Design and Methods: At intake to gambling treatment programs, 343 pathological gamblers completed the Addiction…

  12. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans Versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig M.; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  13. Health Promoting Behaviors of Older Americans versus Young and Middle Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Craig; Arnold, William

    2004-01-01

    Health promoting behaviors have become increasingly important as Americans attempt to retain their youth and health. This study collected self-reported data from 559 participants in the Southwest United States using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II to compare the health promoting behaviors of older adults (60-92 years), middle-aged adults…

  14. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  15. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  16. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  17. 42 CFR 441.253 - Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sterilization of a mentally competent individual aged 21 or older. 441.253 Section 441.253 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... LIMITS APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Sterilizations § 441.253 Sterilization of a mentally...

  18. U3A Online: A Virtual University of the Third Age for Isolated Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindell, Rick

    2002-01-01

    Data from 29 older adults in University of the Third Age Online in 1999 and 34 in 2001 indicated that women outnumbered men; more than 70% were from large urban areas; and 70% had professional, business, and managerial backgrounds. Many are unable to participate in mainstream adult education and derive purpose and enjoyment from virtual…

  19. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  20. Ages and Ages: The Multiplication of Children's "Ages" in Early Twentieth-Century Child Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Clementine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the trend, between 1905 and the late 1920s in UK and US child psychology, of "discovering," labelling and calculating different "ages" in children. Those new "ages"--from mental to emotional, social, anatomical ages, and more--were understood as either replacing, or meaningfully related to,…

  1. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants’ cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants’ cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation. PMID:27649296

  2. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Bock, Otmar; Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants' cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants' cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation. PMID:27649296

  3. On and Off the Mat: Yoga Experiences of Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Annette; Wister, Andrew V; Mitchell, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    This article explores potential differences in yoga practice between middle-and older-aged adults. A health belief - life course model frames this research, and a mixed-methods analytic strategy is employed to examine life course pathways into yoga and motivations to practice, as well as perceived barriers and health benefits. For the quantitative analyses, a convenience sample of 452 participants was collected using an online questionnaire. For the qualitative analyses, face-to-face interviews were conducted with a sub-set of 20 participants. Unique differences between the age groups (both current age and age when started yoga) as well as by gender were found for selected pathways, reasons/motivations, and barriers to engage in yoga as well as for perceived health benefits. In addition, results underscore the importance of informational cues and social linkages that affect how individuals adopt and experience yoga. Implications for health promotion programs that target older adults are discussed. PMID:27086476

  4. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  5. Comprehensively Assessing Cognitive and Behavioral Risks for HIV Infection among Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Freddy A.; O'Boyle, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of HIV/AIDS with middle-aged and older adults should include six domains (e.g., factual knowledge regarding the acquisition and transmission of HIV, traditionally-accepted behavioral risks for HIV infection). A sample of 23 women (54.8%) and 19 men (45.2%), ranging in age from 51 to 85 were surveyed across such domains.…

  6. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  7. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline.

  8. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55–64 (young), 65–74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies. PMID:27504201

  9. Aging and the HPA axis: Stress and resilience in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gaffey, Allison E; Bergeman, C S; Clark, Lee Anna; Wirth, Michelle M

    2016-09-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function may change over the course of aging, and altered diurnal or stress-induced secretion of the hormone cortisol could predispose older adults to negative health outcomes. We propose that psychological resilience may interact with diurnal cortisol to affect health outcomes later in life. Emotion regulation and social support are two constructs that contribute to resilience and exhibit age-specific patterns in older adults. Determining how the use of resilience resources interacts with age-related diurnal cortisol will improve our understanding of the pathways between stress, resilience, and well-being. In this review, we assess published studies evaluating diurnal cortisol in older adults to better understand differences in their HPA axis functioning. Evidence thus far suggests that diurnal cortisol may increase with age, although cross-sectional studies limit the conclusions that can be drawn. We also review extant evidence connecting age-specific signatures of emotion regulation and social support with diurnal cortisol. Conclusions are used to propose a preliminary model demonstrating how resilience resources may modulate the effects of cortisol on health in aging.

  10. Knowledge about aging and worry in older adults: Testing the mediating role of intolerance of uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Nuevo, Roberto; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Montorio, Ignacio; Ruiz, Miguel A.; Cabrera, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to explore the relationship between knowledge about aging and severity of worry in older adults, and to test the potential mediational role of intolerance of uncertainty. Method The sample was composed of 120 community-dwelling older adults, with a mean of age of 71.0 years (SD = 6.3). Mediational analyses and structural equation modeling were used to analyze and compare different models. Results Greater knowledge about aging was negatively related to both intolerance of uncertainty and worry, and its effect on worry was partially mediated by intolerance of uncertainty. The mediational model obtained an excellent fit to the data (i.e. Goodness of fit index (GFI) = 0.995) and clearly had a better fit than alternative models. Conclusion These results suggest that a good knowledge of the aging process could help decrease aversive uncertainty and thus reduce the level of worry among older adults. Thus, educational programs to increase knowledge about aging could serve as one preventive strategy for anxiety in old age. PMID:19197699

  11. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Elizabeth M; Wiseman, Hailey D; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55-64 (young), 65-74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies. PMID:27504201

  12. Healthy Aging from the Perspectives of 683 Older People with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Elizabeth M; Wiseman, Hailey D; Ploughman, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this study was to determine what factors most greatly contributed to healthy aging with multiple sclerosis (MS) from the perspective of a large sample of older people with MS. Design and Methods. Participants (n = 683; >55 years of age with symptoms >20 years) provided answers to an open-ended question regarding healthy aging and were categorized into three groups, 55-64 (young), 65-74 (middle), and 75 and over (oldest old). Sociodemographic actors were compared using ANOVA. Two independent raters used the framework method of analyzing qualitative data. Results. Participants averaged 64 years of age (±6.2) with MS symptoms for 32.9 years (±9.4). 531 participants were female (78%). The majority of participants lived in their own home (n = 657) with a spouse or partner (n = 483). Participants described seven themes: social connections, attitude and outlook on life, lifestyle choices and habits, health care system, spirituality and religion, independence, and finances. These themes had two shared characteristics, multidimensionality and interdependence. Implications. Learning from the experiences of older adults with MS can help young and middle aged people with MS plan to age in their own homes and communities. Our data suggests that older people with MS prioritize factors that are modifiable through targeted self-management strategies.

  13. Suicide Risk and Precipitating Circumstances Among Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Male Veterans

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of suicide among veteran men relative to nonveteran men by age and to examine the prevalence of suicide circumstances among male veterans in different age groups (18–34, 35–44, 45–64, and ≥ 65 years). Methods. Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (2003–2008) were used to calculate age-specific suicide rates for veterans (n = 8440) and nonveterans (n = 21 668) and to calculate the age-stratified mortality ratio for veterans. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare health status, stressful life events preceding suicide, and means of death among young, middle-aged, and older veterans. Results. Veterans were at higher risk for suicide compared with nonveterans in all age groups except the oldest. Mental health, substance abuse, and financial and relationship problems were more common in younger than in older veteran suicide decedents, whereas health problems were more prevalent in the older veterans. Most male veterans used firearms for suicide, and nearly all elderly veterans did so. Conclusions. Our study highlighted heightened risk of suicide in male veterans compared with nonveterans. Within the veteran population, suicide might be influenced by different precipitating factors at various stages of life. PMID:22390587

  14. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases.

  15. Epigenetic age analysis of children who seem to evade aging.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard F; Liu, Jia Sophie; Peters, Brock A; Ritz, Beate R; Wu, Timothy; Ophoff, Roel A; Horvath, Steve

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the unusual case of a teenage girl stricken with multifocal developmental dysfunctions whose physical development was dramatically delayed resulting in her appearing to be a toddler or at best a preschooler, even unto the occasion of her death at the age of 20 years. Her life-long physician felt that the disorder was unique in the world and that future treatments for age-related diseases might emerge from its study. The objectives of our research were to determine if other such cases exist, and if so, whether aging is actually slowed. Of seven children characterized by dramatically slow developmental rates, five also had associated disorders displayed by the first case. All of the identified subjects were female. To objectively measure the age of blood tissue from these subjects, we used a highly accurate biomarker of aging known as "epigenetic clock" based on DNA methylation levels. No statistically significant differences in chronological and epigenetic ages were detected in any of the newly discovered cases. PMID:25991677

  16. Correlates of Physical Activity Among Middle-Aged and Older Korean Americans at Risk for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Benjamin; Sadarangani, Tina; Wyatt, Laura C.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Lee, Linda; Islam, Nadia S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore correlates of meeting recommended physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for diabetes mellitus (DM). Design and Methods PA patterns and their correlates were assessed among 292 middle-aged and older Korean Americans at risk for DM living in New York City (NYC) using cross-sectional design of baseline information from a diabetes prevention intervention. PA was assessed by self-report of moderate and vigorous activity, results were stratified by age group (45-64 and 65-75), and bivariate analyses compared individuals performing less than sufficient PA and individuals performing sufficient PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios predicting sufficient PA. Findings After adjusting for sex, age group, years lived in United States, marital status, health insurance and body mass index (BMI), sufficient PA was associated with male sex, older age, lower BMI, eating vegetables daily, and many PA-specific questions (lack of barriers, confidence, and engagement). When stratified by age group, male sex and eating vegetables daily was no longer significant among Koreans age 65 to 75 years of age, and BMI was not significant for either age group. Conclusions PA interventions targeting this population may be beneficial and should consider the roles of sex, age, physical and social environment, motivation, and self-efficacy. Clinical Relevance Clinical providers should understand the unique motivations for PA among Korean Americans and recognize the importance of culturally driven strategies to enable lifestyle changes and support successful aging for diverse populations. PMID:26641597

  17. Effect of older age on treatment decisions and outcomes among patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Henry; Bailey, Christopher S.; Rivers, Carly S.; Noonan, Vanessa K.; Tsai, Eve C.; Fourney, Daryl R.; Attabib, Najmedden; Kwon, Brian K.; Christie, Sean D.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Finkelstein, Joel; Hurlbert, R. John; Townson, Andrea; Parent, Stefan; Drew, Brian; Chen, Jason; Dvorak, Marcel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Older people are at increased risk of traumatic spinal cord injury from falls. We evaluated the impact of older age (≥ 70 yr) on treatment decisions and outcomes. Methods: We identified patients with traumatic spinal cord injury for whom consent and detailed data were available from among patients recruited (2004–2013) at any of the 31 acute care and rehabilitation hospitals participating in the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry. Patients were assessed by age group (< 70 v. ≥ 70 yr). The primary outcome was the rate of acute surgical treatment. We used bivariate and multivariate regression models to assess patient and injury-related factors associated with receiving surgical treatment and with the timing of surgery after arrival to a participating centre. Results: Of the 1440 patients included in our study cohort, 167 (11.6%) were 70 years or older at the time of injury. Older patients were more likely than younger patients to be injured by falling (83.1% v. 37.4%; p < 0.001), to have a cervical injury (78.0% v. 61.6%; p = 0.001), to have less severe injuries on admission (American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale grade C or D: 70.5% v. 46.9%; p < 0.001), to have a longer stay in an acute care hospital (median 35 v. 28 d; p < 0.005) and to have a higher in-hospital mortality (4.2% v. 0.6%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis did not show that age of 70 years or more at injury was associated with a decreased likelihood of surgical treatment (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22–1.07). An unplanned sensitivity analysis with different age thresholds showed that a threshold of 65 years was associated with a decreased chance of surgical treatment (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19–0.80). Older patients who underwent surgical treatment had a significantly longer wait time from admission to surgery than younger patients (37 v. 19 h; p < 0.001). Interpretation: We found chronological age to be a factor influencing

  18. Self-assessed driving behaviors associated with age among middle-aged and older adults in Japan.

    PubMed

    Arai, Asuna; Arai, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing number of older drivers, road traffic safety is an urgent public health issue. It is not easy for older drivers or their relatives to detect early signs of dangerous driving behaviors. We examine the types of driving behavior that increase in frequency with age. We surveyed people aged 40 and over among the general public in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire on sociodemographic factors, driving status, frequency of driving, 12-items on physical symptoms possibly related to driving performance, and 28-items on driving behaviors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of occurrence of each of the 28 driving behaviors for a 5-year increase in age. Significant associations with a 5-year increase in age after adjusting for confounding factors were found for the following directly unsafe driving behaviors: (1) little or no sign of attempts to avoid dangerous situations (OR for a 5-year increase in age=1.38, 95% CI: 1.18-1.63); (2) lack of attention to other people and cars (1.33, 1.12-1.60); (3) improper maneuvering around curves (1.33, 1.09-1.65); and (4) improper or no turn signals (1.33, 1.06-1.69). Information about these driving behaviors should be given to drivers and their stakeholders and used to caution participants when implementing educational programs for older drivers. Self-assessment of driving ability in older drivers provides useful information to raise awareness of their driving performance.

  19. Toward a typology of technology users: how older people experience technology's potential for active aging.

    PubMed

    Gjevjon, Edith Roth; Oderud, Tone; Wensaas, Gro H; Moen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines an emerging typology of older users of information and communication technology (ICT) to facilitate active aging. Through inductive data analysis from focus groups, iterative workshops, and personal interviews, we suggest three types of technology users. These types are "the Excluded," "the Entertained," and "the Networker." Clearly, ICT offers several benefits to those who are enthusiastic and frequent users, exemplified as the Entertained and the Networker. Hence, our findings support the notion of technology as a tool to maintain or increase an older person's engagement and activity level. Conversely, for those reluctant, uninterested, or incapable of using ICT, such potentials are limited and imply fewer opportunities for participation in activities.

  20. Health, Height, Height Shrinkage, and SES at Older Ages: Evidence from China†

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Lei, Xiaoyan; Ridder, Geert; Strauss, John

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we build on the literature that examines associations between height and health outcomes of the elderly. We investigate the associations of height shrinkage at older ages with socioeconomic status, finding that height shrinkage for both men and women is negatively associated with better schooling, current urban residence, and household per capita expenditures. We then investigate the relationships between pre-shrinkage height, height shrinkage, and a rich set of health outcomes of older respondents, finding that height shrinkage is positively associated with poor health outcomes across a variety of outcomes, being especially strong for cognition outcomes. PMID:26594311

  1. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  2. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  3. School age test or procedure preparation

    MedlinePlus

    ... appropriate. Older school-age children might view this approach as childish. Consider your child's intellectual needs before using this type of communication. Older children may benefit from films that show ...

  4. Psychology Doctoral Students' Interest in Working with Older Adults: The Roles of Knowledge, Ageism, Aging Anxiety and Contact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbin, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Given the growing population of older adults with more reported mental health needs, there are not sufficient psychologists interested in working with this population. This study looked at why interest is so low, looking particularly at the correlations between interest in working with older adults and knowledge about aging, ageism, aging anxiety…

  5. Outcome of one-stage treatment of developmental dysplasia of hip in older children

    PubMed Central

    Bhuyan, Basant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: The principles of treatment of congenital dislocation of hip in old children are different than those of infants and neonates. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiographic and functional results of one-stage treatment (open reduction, femoral shortening derotation, and Salter's osteotomy) of DDH in older children. Materials and Methods: Between January 2005 and June 2010, 25 patients (30 hips) underwent one-stage triple procedure of open reduction, femoral shortening derotation, and Salter's osteotomy for the treatment of DDH. Preoperatively, they were classified according to the Tönnis class. Clinical outcomes were assessed using the modified McKay's criteria to measure pain symptoms, gait pattern, Trendelenburg sign status, and the range of hip joint movement. Radiographic assessment was made using Severin's scoring method to measure the centre-edge angle and dysplasia. Results: The mean age at the time of operation was 3.9 years (range 1.6–8 years), and the average duration of followup was 4.1 years (range 2–7.6 years). The McKay's score was excellent in 13 hips, good in 14 hips, fair in 2, and poor in 1 hip. The Severin's class I and II was found in 25 (83.3%) hips at the time of final evaluation as compared to none at the time of presentation. Conclusions: Young children having DDH can safely be treated with an extensive one-stage triple procedure of open reduction, femoral shortening derotation, and Salter's osteotomy, without increasing the risk of AVN. Early diagnosis and intervention is the successful treatment of patients suffering from DDH. PMID:23162148

  6. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1583 - How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1583 How we determine disability for blind persons who are age 55 or older. We will...

  11. The Effect of Age-Correction on IQ Scores among School-Aged Children Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rachel M.; George, Wing Man; Cole, Carolyn; Marshall, Peter; Ellison, Vanessa; Fabel, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of age-correction on IQ scores among preterm school-aged children. Data from the Flinders Medical Centre Neonatal Unit Follow-up Program for 81 children aged five years and assessed with the WPPSI-III, and 177 children aged eight years and assessed with the WISC-IV, were analysed. Corrected IQ scores were…

  12. Vocal overimitation in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Subiaul, Francys; Winters, Katherine; Krumpak, Kathryn; Core, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Overimitation--copying incorrect, idiosyncratic, or causally irrelevant actions--has been linked to our species' long history with artifacts whose functions are often opaque. It is an open question, however, whether children overimitate outside the artifact domain. We explored this question by presenting preschool-age children (3- to 5-year-olds, N=120) with an elicited imitation task that included high- and low-frequency disyllabic nouns (e.g., 'pizza) and nonwords (e.g., 'chizza), all of which had a stressed first syllable. However, during testing, half of the stimuli were incorrectly pronounced by stressing the second syllable (e.g., pi'zza). More than half of the children copied the model's incorrect pronunciation of high-frequency familiar words, consistent with overimitation. This pattern of response persisted even after children had themselves correctly named the familiar words prior to the start of testing, confirming that children purposefully altered the pronunciation of known words to match the incorrect pronunciations used by a model. These results demonstrate that overimitation is not restricted to the artifact domain and might extend to many different tasks and domains. PMID:26407825

  13. Using Walk Score™ and Neighborhood Perceptions to Assess Walking Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Towne, Samuel D; Won, Jaewoong; Lee, Sungmin; Ory, Marcia G; Forjuoh, Samuel N; Wang, Suojin; Lee, Chanam

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between neighborhood characteristics (walkability, cohesion/safety) and recommended activity levels among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Subjective and objective data on 394 individuals aged ≥50 years were used to assess the likelihood of walking ≥150 min/week. Environmental factors associated with a greater likelihood of any walking ≥150 min/week included living in a neighborhood with high perception of cohesion/safety versus low, living in walkable areas versus car-dependent, and living in an area with a low-moderate median income versus the lowest. Middle-aged and older adults were more likely to walk ≥150 min/week in a walkable, perceived safe/cohesive neighborhood. Identifying neighborhood factors associated with promoting walking among this population can enable stakeholders (e.g., researchers, planners, and policy makers) to direct interventions focusing on the built environment.

  14. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  15. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Avi; Raviv, Amiram; Gruber, Reut

    2000-01-01

    Assessed sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found that older children had more delayed sleep onset times and increased reported daytime sleepiness than younger; girls spent more time in sleep than boys and had increased percentage of motionless sleep; and 18 percent of children had fragmented…

  16. Ageing in a spectacular 'youth culture': continuity, change and community amongst older goths.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Paul

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the continuing involvement in youth music and style cultures of older participants through examination of the case study of the goth scene. It does so in the context of a widespread neglect, until recently, of what happens to participants of 'youth cultures' as they move beyond adolescence and also of a growing consensus about the broadening of youth itself as a life course period. Drawing on recent work on older participants in other music and style related groupings, the article uses original qualitative research to examine the developing lives and identities of goths as they become older. Rather than regarding continuing participation as a simple extension of youth, the focus is on the ways participation accompanied and was reconciled with material, domestic and physical elements of developing adult lives. Through reference to the case study, I emphasize the ways the experience of ageing for long-term music and style culture participants can constitute a collective experience.

  17. You Never Lose the Ages You’ve Been: Affective Perspective Taking in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Sarah J.; Mikels, Joseph A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Aging appears to be associated with a growing preference for positive over negative information (Carstensen, Mikels, & Mather, 2006). In this study, we investigated potential awareness of the phenomenon by asking older people to recollect material from the perspective of a younger person. Younger and older participants listened to stories about 25 and 75-year-old protagonists, and then were asked to retell the stories from the perspective of the protagonists. Older adults used relatively more positive than negative words when retelling from the perspective of a 75 versus 25-year-old. Younger adults, however, used comparable numbers of positive and negative words regardless of perspective. These findings contribute to a growing literature that points to developmental gains in the emotion domain. PMID:20230142

  18. Ageing in a spectacular 'youth culture': continuity, change and community amongst older goths.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Paul

    2011-06-01

    This article explores the continuing involvement in youth music and style cultures of older participants through examination of the case study of the goth scene. It does so in the context of a widespread neglect, until recently, of what happens to participants of 'youth cultures' as they move beyond adolescence and also of a growing consensus about the broadening of youth itself as a life course period. Drawing on recent work on older participants in other music and style related groupings, the article uses original qualitative research to examine the developing lives and identities of goths as they become older. Rather than regarding continuing participation as a simple extension of youth, the focus is on the ways participation accompanied and was reconciled with material, domestic and physical elements of developing adult lives. Through reference to the case study, I emphasize the ways the experience of ageing for long-term music and style culture participants can constitute a collective experience. PMID:21631458

  19. Birth Order and Maladaptive Behavior in School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    Drawing on Alfred Adler's theories on the effect of birth order on maladaptive behavior in children, this study focused on the relationship between birth order and the referral to counseling of school-aged children with maladaptive disorder. School-aged children (N=217) with academic or behavioral problems, ages 5 to 18, were referred to the staff…

  20. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common.

  1. Intervention to Improve Expository Reading Comprehension Skills in Older Children and Adolescents with Language Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward-Lonergan, Jeannene M.; Duthie, Jill K.

    2016-01-01

    With the recent renewed emphasis on the importance of providing instruction to improve expository discourse comprehension and production skills, speech-language pathologists need to be prepared to implement effective intervention to meet this critical need in older children and adolescents with language disorders. The purpose of this review…

  2. Effectiveness of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program for Older Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the impacts of Sweden's Contact Family/Person Program (CFPP) for older children on participants' long-term outcomes related to mental health problems, illicit drug use, public welfare receipt, placement in out-of-home care, educational achievement, and offending. Method: We analyzed longitudinal register data on…

  3. Old Dogs, Children, and Watermelon Wine: Focus on the Older Adult Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasworm, Carol E.

    1978-01-01

    Three significant elements should be considered in offering educational programs for the older learner: acceptance (old dogs); support (God bless little children while they're too young to hate); and dependability (watermelon wine). Guidelines are offered for the teacher entering the classroom composed of adult learners. (KC)

  4. Tripartite Therapy with Older Children: Mutuality in the Relationship of a Parent-Child Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This is the last of a series of three papers exploring the use with older children of tripartite psychotherapy--a technique of psychoanalytic psychotherapy of the parent-child relationship with both parent and child in the room together with the therapist. Tripartite psychotherapy merits more attention than it has received. It is a flexible,…

  5. [Ideal ages for marriage and having children].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1994-01-01

    Referring to a 1992 study by Freedman and Blanc, the author of this paper states that during the 15-year period between 1965-70 and 1980-85 the fertility rate in developing countries dropped by 30% and reports that in Turkey the drop for the same period was around 46%, based on analysis using data from a 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey. Using the same data, the author looks at what women consider the ideal age for marriage; bearing their first and last children and the ideal intervals between pregnancies, by region; settlement type; level of education and age groups. These ideals are examined to determine their effect on fertility rates, and it is found that women both get married and give birth to their first child sooner than they would prefer. It is also observed that the interval between births is shorter than women would wish. According to the study, Turkish women would like to have an average of 2.1 children, although the actual figure is higher. It is also noted that, on the average, women would like to have their last child at age 30 and would like to prevent pregnancy after this age. However, many women, despite this wish, do not actually use modern birth control techniques. It is therefore concluded that by increasing the awareness and availability of effective modern family planning, there is potential to further reduce Turkey's fertility rates.

  6. Ageing, Leisure, and Social Connectedness: How could Leisure Help Reduce Social Isolation of Older People?

    PubMed

    Toepoel, Vera

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults. PMID:23874058

  7. Ageing, Leisure, and Social Connectedness: How could Leisure Help Reduce Social Isolation of Older People?

    PubMed

    Toepoel, Vera

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults.

  8. The impact of age and motivation on cognitive effort: implications for cognitive engagement in older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ennis, Gilda E; Hess, Thomas M; Smith, Brian T

    2013-06-01

    We examined age differences in the effort required to perform the basic cognitive operations needed to achieve a specified objective outcome, and how hypothesized increases in effort requirements in later life are related to intrinsic motivation associated with enjoyment of and participation in effortful cognitive activities. Young (N = 59; 20-40 years) and older (N = 57; 64-85 years) adults performed a memory-search task varying in difficulty across trials, with systolic blood pressure responsivity-calculated as the increase over baseline during task performance-used as a measure of effort expenditure and task engagement. Consistent with expectations, older adults exhibited greater levels of responsivity (i.e., effort) at all levels of objective task difficulty, and this increase was reflected in subjective perceptions of difficulty. Older adults also exhibited greater levels of disengagement (i.e., effort withdrawal) than younger adults at higher levels of task difficulty, conceivably reflecting the disproportionately greater effort required for successful performance in the former group. We also found that, relative to younger adults, older adults' engagement was more sensitive to the importance attached to the task (i.e., motivation to do well). Finally, we also obtained evidence that increased costs associated with cognitive engagement in later life were negatively associated with intrinsic levels of motivation to engage in effortful cognitive activity. The results support the general conclusion that the costs of cognitive activity increase with age in adulthood, and that these costs influence individuals' willingness to engage resources in support of demanding cognitive activities.

  9. Spain: Promoting the Welfare of Older Adults in the Context of Population Aging

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Juan P.; Latorre, José M.; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain. PMID:24632624

  10. Spain: promoting the welfare of older adults in the context of population aging.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Juan P; Latorre, José M; Gatz, Margaret

    2014-10-01

    Spain is one of the European countries with the most significant societal changes in the 21st century contributing to an aging population, in particular, high life expectancy coupled with low fertility, which will result in a doubling of the old-age dependency ratio. Demographic aging implies important challenges that affect the lives of people, families, the economy, public finances, and the reorganization of the health and social systems. Currently, the older population has become particularly vulnerable due to the economic crisis taking place in Spain, which has brought about the need for new policies and systems to protect older persons. The pension system is under the greatest threat in conjunction with possible changes in the national health care system. This report presents a general view of the main factors that surround and affect older adults in Spain, as well as policies developed by the government in response to the current and future situation. We highlight demographic predictions for the coming decades, quality-of-life indicators, situations of dependency, active aging policies, and the main research programs related to gerontology in Spain.

  11. Age-Related Gene Expression Differences in Monocytes from Human Neonates, Young Adults, and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Smale, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development. PMID:26147648

  12. Understanding the Experience of Age-Related Vestibular Loss in Older Individuals: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Carol; Bridges, John F. P.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Background Inner ear balance (or vestibular) function declines with age and is associated with decreased mobility and an increased risk of falls in older individuals. We sought to understand the lived experience of older adults with vestibular loss in order to improve care in this population. Methods Qualitative data were derived from semi-structured interviews of individuals aged 65 years or older presenting to the Balance and Falls Prevention Clinic from February 1, 2014 to March 30, 2015 for evaluation of age-related vestibular loss. Transcripts were analyzed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. We created a taxonomy of overarching superordinate themes based on the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) Framework, and classified key dimensions within each of these themes. Results Sixteen interviews were conducted with individuals (mean age 76.0 years, 75 % female) with age-related vestibular loss. The three superordinate themes and associated key dimensions were (1) body impairment (including depression, fatigue, fear/anxiety, and problems with concentrating and memory); (2) activity limitation and participation restriction (isolation, needing to stop in the middle of activities, reduced participation relative to expectations, reduced ability to drive or travel, and problems with bending/looking up, standing, and walking); and (3) environmental influences (needing help with daily activities). All participants reported difficulty walking. Conclusions Older adults report that vestibular loss impacts their body functioning and restricts their participation in activities. The specific key dimensions uncovered by this qualitative study can be used to evaluate care from the patient's perspective. PMID:26739817

  13. Synergistic Effects of HIV Infection and Older Age on Daily Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Weber, Erica; Duarte, Nichole A.; Riggs, P. Katie; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Ellis, Ronald; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether HIV infection and aging act synergistically to disrupt everyday functioning. Design Cross-sectional, factorial study of everyday functioning in the context of HIV serostatus and age (≤ 40 years vs ≥ 50 years). Methods 103 HIV+ and 87 HIV− participants were administered several measures of everyday functioning, including self-report indices of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and instrumental and basic activities of daily living (IADLs and BADLs), and objective measures of functioning including employment and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) ratings. Results Significant interaction effects of HIV and aging were observed for IADL and BADL declines, as well as KPS ratings (ps<.05), independent of potentially confounding factors. Follow-up contrasts revealed significantly worse functioning in the older HIV+ group for all functional outcome measures relative to the other study groups (ps<.05). A significant interaction effect was also observed on the emotional functioning HRQoL subscale, and additive effects of both age and HIV were observed for the physical functioning and general health perceptions HRQoL subscales (ps<.05). Significant predictors of poorer functioning in the older HIV+ group included current major depressive disorder for all outcomes, and comorbid medical conditions, lower estimated premorbid functioning, neurocognitive impairment, and nadir CD4 count for selected outcomes. Conclusion Findings suggest that older age may exacerbate the adverse effects of HIV on daily functioning, which highlights the importance of evaluating and monitoring the functional status of older HIV-infected adults. Early detection of functional difficulties could facilitate delivery of compensatory strategies (e.g., cognitive remediation) or assistive services. PMID:22878422

  14. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  15. An Age-Friendly Living Environment as Seen by Chinese Older Adults: A "Photovoice" Study.

    PubMed

    Chan, Aileen W K; Chan, Helen Y L; Chan, Ivy K Y; Cheung, Bonnie Y L; Lee, Diana T F

    2016-01-01

    "Ageing in place" is a policy initiative strongly advocated by the World Health Organization to face the challenge of an ageing population. This pilot study used a "photovoice" approach, aiming to explore aspects of the housing environment considered by older people as important in facilitating ageing in place. It enabled participants to express their ideas through photographs. Each participant was asked to take photos that illustrated age-friendly features they considered crucial for supporting their lives in the community. A total of 44 older people participated in the pilot study, and 300 photos were collected. Participants were invited to describe the reasons for taking these photos by filling in a journal sheet. A semi-structured interview was then conducted with individual participants, who were asked to elaborate on the meaning of their photos. The analysis revealed three themes: (1) age-friendly housing design; (2) supportive neighborhood; and (3) connection to family and the community. These three themes are pillars of an age-friendly city, which are important to seniors to facilitate ageing in place. PMID:27649217

  16. A profile of middle-aged and older adults admitted to nursing homes: 2000-2008.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nancy A; Pinet-Peralta, Luis M; Elder, Keith T

    2012-01-01

    Middle-aged adults are becoming an increasing share of the nursing home population. Minimum Data Set assessment data for 2000 and 2008 are used to explore similarities and differences in sociodemographic, residential, medical, and psychiatric characteristics of newly admitted middle-aged adults (31-64) compared to their older counterparts (65+). Relative to their share of the state population, Black middle-aged adults are overrepresented in nursing homes across 45 states and the District of Columbia. Chronic conditions, including diabetes, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and circulatory/heart disorders, appeared to contribute to the increasing presence of middle-aged adults. There were substantial increases in diagnoses of psychiatric disorders at admission; psychiatric diagnoses were significantly higher among middle-aged adults. Middle-aged adults were also more likely to have residential histories of prior stays in psychiatric facilities relative to older adults. States' rebalancing efforts need to attend to the increasing presence of disability associated with chronic medical and psychiatric conditions among middle-aged adults. PMID:22720887

  17. Home drowning among preschool age Mexican children.

    PubMed Central

    Celis, A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of drowning by different bodies of water in and near the home for children aged 1 to 4 years. SETTING: The Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, Mexico. METHODS: A population case-control study. Cases (n=33) were children 1 to 4 years old who drowned at their home; controls (n=200) were a random sample of the general population. RESULTS: The risk of drowning for children whose parents reported having a water well at home was almost seven times that of children in homes without a water well (adjusted odds ratio (OR)=6.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.2 to 20.5). Risk ratio estimates for other bodies of water were: swimming pools (OR=5.8, 95% CI=0.9 to 37.5), water barrel (OR=2.4, 95% CI=1.0 to 5.6), underground cistern (OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.8 to 5.2), and a basin front (courtyard pool to store water) of 35 or more litres (OR=1.8, 95% CI=0.8 to 4.4). CONCLUSION: Drowning at home is frequent in the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara, but the causes are different from those reported in developed countries. Accordingly, the preventive strategies must also be different. Images PMID:9493619

  18. [Electrophysiological evaluation of the age-related characteristics of the central nervous system in children with spastic cerebral palsy].

    PubMed

    Klimenko, V A; Iakovleva, M I; Iakovlev, N M

    1977-01-01

    As a result of the conducted studies, the authors were able to demonstrate that in children from 4-9 years with cerebral spastic paralysis the potentiated tonic reactions are preserved (the reflex of distention from the gastrocnemius muscle, cervico-tonical reflex to the extremities and reaction of support). The frequency and regularity of alpha-rhythm on the EEG of these children differ significantly from similar ones of normal children of the same age. As the children grow older, the frequency of exaltated tonic reactions decrease and at the same time the frequency and regularity of alpha-rhythms increases, however the differences compared to age norms are preserved. The authors are of the opinion that in older children with infantile cerebral paralysis, despite the retardation of the morpho-functional development of the higher areas of the brain, the degree of cortical maturity is sufficient to inhibit an increased activity of the stem centres regulating the muscular tone. PMID:930485

  19. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  20. An evaluation of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist for children under age 5.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Huete, John M; Fodstad, Jill C; Chin, Michelle D; Kurtz, Patricia F

    2013-04-01

    Severe problem behaviors such as self-injury and aggression are frequently observed in young children under age 5 with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although early identification of problem behavior is critical to effective intervention, there are few standardized measures available that identify severe problem behavior in this population. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman & Singh, 1994) is a rating scale that measures the severity of a range of problem behaviors commonly observed in individuals with IDD. While it has been used with children under 5, investigations into the fit of the ABC-C for this population are sparse. The purpose of the present study was to report on ABC-C scores in a sample of 97 children under age 5 with problem behavior. Analyses included evaluating differences in scores between age groups, comparing sample norms to established norms for older children, and conducting a confirmatory factor analysis. Results indicated differences in mean scores based on age with younger children generally scoring higher on some subscales of the ABC-C. Furthermore, the original 5-factor structure of the ABC-C was not fully supported. In general, the ABC-C may over- or underestimate behavior problems in younger children; therefore more extensive investigation into the utility of the ABC-C for children under age 5 is warranted.

  1. At What Age Should Children Engage in Agricultural Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jingzhen; O'Gara, Erin; Cheng, Gang; Kelly, Kevin M.; Ramirez, Marizen; Burmeister, Leon F.; Merchant, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We compared parents' perceived-as-appropriate ages with actual-performance ages for their children engaging in selected agricultural tasks or practices, and we examined the factors associated with age discrepancy. Methods: We analyzed data from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study collected among parents of children age 17 or younger.…

  2. Observations of the role relations and behavior between older children with mental retardation and their younger siblings.

    PubMed

    Brody, G H; Stoneman, Z; Davis, C H; Crapps, J M

    1991-03-01

    Children with mental retardation and their younger siblings without retardation were observed interacting in three naturally occurring in-home contexts (toy play, television viewing, and snack). Comparison siblings without retardation who were matched on age, sex, race, parental marital status, education, and family income were also observed. Interactions between children with retardation and their siblings were characterized by accentuated role asymmetries that favored the younger siblings, whereas the older siblings were dominant in the comparison group. No differences in affect were found between the sibling groups. The competence of the child with mental retardation reliably predicted sibling role asymmetries, and the observational contexts influenced sibling behavior in both groups. Gender differences in roles and behavior were minimal. PMID:2043347

  3. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  4. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Petra E M; Siebes, Renate C; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Schuengel, Carlo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Becher, Jules G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP (n=108; 72 males; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GFMCS) level I-V) was followed longitudinally in three yearly assessments. Social functioning and communication were measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Data were analyzed with generalized estimated equations. The results showed that social function followed a course of progressive restrictions over time in non-ambulatory children with CP aged 5-9 compared to children who could walk with or without walking aids. Overall lower levels of social functioning were found in children with GMFCS V, epilepsy, speech problems, lower intellectual capacity and older age at baseline. For communication more restrictions over time were found in children with lower intellectual capacity. Children with GMFCS V, speech problems and older age at baseline had overall greater restrictions in communication. It was concluded that motor functioning and intellectual ability can be used to identify children at risk for progressive restrictions in social functioning and communication. For children with CP and social and communicative restrictions, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment may be indicated to counteract an unfavorable development.

  5. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving.

    PubMed

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20-74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19-89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  6. Greater Emotional Gain from Giving in Older Adults: Age-Related Positivity Bias in Charitable Giving

    PubMed Central

    Bjälkebring, Pär; Västfjäll, Daniel; Dickert, Stephan; Slovic, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Older adults have been shown to avoid negative and prefer positive information to a higher extent than younger adults. This positivity bias influences their information processing as well as decision-making. We investigate age-related positivity bias in charitable giving in two studies. In Study 1 we examine motivational factors in monetary donations, while Study 2 focuses on the emotional effect of actual monetary donations. In Study 1, participants (n = 353, age range 20–74 years) were asked to rate their affect toward a person in need and then state how much money they would be willing to donate to help this person. In Study 2, participants (n = 108, age range 19–89) were asked to rate their affect toward a donation made a few days prior. Regression analysis was used to investigate whether or not the positivity bias influences the relationship between affect and donations. In Study 1, we found that older adults felt more sympathy and compassion and were less motivated by negative affect when compared to younger adults, who were motivated by both negative and positive affect. In Study 2, we found that the level of positive emotional reactions from monetary donations was higher in older participants compared to younger participants. We find support for an age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. This is true for motivation to make a future donation, as well as affective thinking about a previous donation. We conclude that older adults draw more positive affect from both the planning and outcome of monetary donations and hence benefit more from engaging in monetary charity than their younger counterparts. PMID:27378966

  7. Prevalence of Amblyopia and Strabismus in African American and Hispanic Children Ages 6 to 72 Months

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the age- and ethnicity-specific prevalences of strabismus in African American and Hispanic/Latino children ages 6 to 72 months and of amblyopia in African American and Hispanic/Latino children 30 to 72 months. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants The Multi-ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study is a population-based evaluation of the prevalence of vision disorders in children ages 6 to 72 months in Los Angeles County, California. A comprehensive eye examination was completed by 77% of eligible children. This report focuses on results from 3007 African American and 3007 Hispanic/Latino children. Methods Eligible children in all enumerated households in 44 census tracts were identified. Participants underwent an in-home interview and were scheduled for a comprehensive eye examination and in-clinic interview. The examination included evaluation of ocular alignment, refractive error, and ocular structures, as well as determination of optotype visual acuity (VA) in children 30 months and older. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of 6- to 72-month-olds with strabismus on ocular examination and proportion of 30- to 72-month-olds with optotype VA deficits and amblyopia risk factors consistent with predetermined definitions of amblyopia. Results Strabismus was detected in 2.4% of Hispanic/Latino children and 2.5% of African American children (P = 0.81), and was more prevalent in older children than in younger children. Amblyopia was detected in 2.6% of Hispanic/Latino children and 1.5% of African American children, a statistically significant difference (P = 0.02), and 78% of cases of amblyopia were attributable to refractive error. Amblyopia prevalence did not vary with age. Conclusions Among Hispanic/Latino and African American children in Los Angeles County, strabismus prevalence increases with age, but amblyopia prevalence appears stable by 3 years of age. Amblyopia is usually caused by abnormal refractive error. These findings may help to

  8. Influenza vaccination: the persuasiveness of messages among people aged 65 years and older.

    PubMed

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Zani, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    About 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 years and older. Vaccination remains the primary option for preventing influenza infection. This study examined the efficacy of messages designed to increase the uptake of influenza vaccination. Two messages, narrative and didactic, were created based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The study employed a one-factor between-subjects experimental design with participants assigned randomly to three conditions: no message, didactic communication, and narrative communication. Participants were 311 Italian people aged 65 years or older. The results showed that, compared to no message and didactic communication, narrative communication was related to higher risk perception of influenza, to higher perception of the efficacy of the vaccine, and to self-efficacy related to vaccination, controlling for social trust, previous flu shot, and demographic variables. There were no differences among the three conditions with respect to the intention to receive the influenza vaccine. Findings suggest that narrative communication based on EPPM may have a persuasive effect on people aged 65 years or older.

  9. Investigation of the acceptance of a handbook for safe driving at an older age.

    PubMed

    Vardaki, Sophia; Yannis, George

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is the investigation of older drivers' attitudes towards a handbook for safe driving at an older age. The handbook was developed with the purpose of increasing elderly drivers' awareness of their driving abilities and providing information about the effects of ageing on driving and about safe driving practices and compensation strategies. A survey was carried out in which 64 active drivers between 65 and 74 years of age participated. Participants regard the handbook for safe driving as useful, interesting, providing knowledge and relevant information. More than half of them reported that they had become more aware of changes in their driving after reading it. Binary logistic analysis was conducted to identify individual driver characteristics that might predict acceptance of the handbook by active older drivers in terms of reported increased awareness and intended repeated use. The findings of the research indicate a positive attitude of elderly active drivers towards the handbook, implying acceptance by its users. The characteristics of the drivers' who reported increased awareness after reading have been identified.

  10. Investigation of the acceptance of a handbook for safe driving at an older age.

    PubMed

    Vardaki, Sophia; Yannis, George

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is the investigation of older drivers' attitudes towards a handbook for safe driving at an older age. The handbook was developed with the purpose of increasing elderly drivers' awareness of their driving abilities and providing information about the effects of ageing on driving and about safe driving practices and compensation strategies. A survey was carried out in which 64 active drivers between 65 and 74 years of age participated. Participants regard the handbook for safe driving as useful, interesting, providing knowledge and relevant information. More than half of them reported that they had become more aware of changes in their driving after reading it. Binary logistic analysis was conducted to identify individual driver characteristics that might predict acceptance of the handbook by active older drivers in terms of reported increased awareness and intended repeated use. The findings of the research indicate a positive attitude of elderly active drivers towards the handbook, implying acceptance by its users. The characteristics of the drivers' who reported increased awareness after reading have been identified. PMID:21736438

  11. Examining Play among Young Children in Single-Age and Multi-Age Preschool Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youhne, Mia Song

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…

  12. Hospital Admission Patterns in Children with CAH: Admission Rates and Adrenal Crises Decline with Age

    PubMed Central

    Rushworth, R. Louise; Falhammar, Henrik; Munns, Craig F.; Maguire, Ann M.; Torpy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To examine patterns of hospitalisation for acute medical conditions in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Design. A retrospective study of hospitalisation using administrative data. Setting. All hospitals in NSW, Australia. Patients. All patients admitted with CAH and a random sample of admissions in patients aged 0 to 18 years without adrenal insufficiency (AI). Main Outcome Measures. Admissions and comorbidities by age and sex. Results. Of 573 admissions for medical problems in CAH children, 286 (49.9%) were in males, and 236 (41.2%) had a principal diagnosis of CAH or had an adrenal crisis (AC). 37 (6.5%) ACs were recorded. An infection was found in 43.5% (n = 249) of the CAH patient admissions and 51.7% (n = 1613) of the non-AI group, p < 0.001. Children aged up to one year had the highest number of admissions (n = 149) and six ACs (four in males). There were 21 ACs recorded for children aged 1–5 years. Older CAH children had fewer admissions and fewer ACs. No in-hospital deaths were recorded. Conclusions. Admission for medical problems in CAH children declines with age. An AC was recorded in 6.5% of the admissions, with the majority of ACs occurring in the 1 to 5 years age group and there were no deaths. PMID:26880914

  13. Mature maternity: long term associations in first children born to older mothers in 1970 in the UK.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, J I

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To identify the physical, behavioural, medical, and educational outcomes in first children born to women aged 30 or more compared with those born to younger women. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study design employing logistic regression analysis of data obtained from the British births survey of 1970 and the child health and education study follow ups to this cohort at ages 5 and 10. SETTING: One week birth cohort covering the whole of the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: The carers of 4315 first children born to women during the week of April 5th-11th 1970 inclusive in the whole of the United Kingdom except Northern Ireland, and followed up at both 5 and 10 years of age. In addition, information was obtained from health visitors, the child's teacher at 10, and the medical officer who completed an examination. At 10 the child also completed a questionnaire. MEASUREMENTS: Data were obtained from questionnaires administered to the carers of the child at each time point, from their teacher at age 10, and from the results of a medical examination at age 10. Educational tests were also conducted at this age. MAIN RESULTS: Having adjusted for the effects of confounding factors, late primiparity was significantly associated with a number of events in labour and delivery involving obstetric interventions ranging from induction to operative deliveries and general anaesthesia. At 5 years of age, controlling additionally for family size at that time, associations were found between late primiparity and fewer adverse measures of behaviour in the child. Both the child's head circumference and the score on a picture based vocabulary test at this age were slightly greater in the index group. At 10 years of age, adjusting for background factors and present family size, late primiparity was associated with few outcome measures. Children born to older mothers, however, scored slightly higher on a broad range of educational tests administered at school. CONCLUSIONS: No

  14. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A

    2013-04-01

    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  15. Age-associated cardiovascular changes in health: impact on cardiovascular disease in older persons.

    PubMed

    Lakatta, Edward G

    2002-01-01

    In the United States, cardiovascular disease, e.g., atherosclerosis and hypertension, that lead to heart failure and stroke, is the leading cause of mortality, accounting for over 40 percent of deaths in those aged 65 years and above. Over 80 percent of all cardio-vascular deaths occur in the same age group. Thus, age, per se, is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clinical manifestations and prognosis of these cardiovascular diseases likely become altered in older persons with advanced age because interactions occur between age-associated cardiovascular changes in health and specific pathophysiologic mechanisms that underlie a disease. A fundamental understanding of age-associated changes in cardiovascular structure and function ranging in scope from humans to molecules is required for effective and efficient prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in older persons. A sustained effort over the past two decades has been applied to characterize the multiple effects of aging in health on cardiovascular structure and function in a single study population, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging. In these studies, community dwelling, volunteer participants are rigorously screened to detect both clinical and occult cardiovascular disease and characterized with respect to lifestyle, e.g. exercise habits, in an attempt to deconvolute interactions among lifestyle, cardiovascular disease and the aging process in health. This review highlights some specific changes in resting cardiovascular structure and function and cardiovascular reserve capacity that occur with advancing age in healthy humans. Observations from relevant experiments in animal models have been integrated with those in humans to provide possible mechanistic insight.

  16. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.

  17. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    MedlinePlus

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...

  18. Older lesbians and work in the Australian health and aged care sector.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mark; Kentlyn, Sujay

    2015-01-01

    While research has identified challenges lesbians face in the workplace, there is limited understanding of the particular experiences of older lesbians, especially those working in the health and aged care sector. This article draws on the stories of four women who participated in a narrative research project on lesbian and gay people's experiences of health and aged care. It highlights the need for future research to examine the complexity of identity expression and community affiliation, how people negotiate "coming out" in the workplace, the impact of discrimination, and the resources (such as friends) available to lesbians in the workplace. PMID:25575323

  19. [Some disorder features of blood circulation in lungs in older age influenza patients].

    PubMed

    Roganova, I V

    2011-01-01

    Patients aged 51-65 years with influenza develop circulatory disorders of the lung. Tone of the arteries of small and medium-caliber and venular vessels of the vascular bed of the lungs persistently reduced during the illness and a month after its start. The flow of venous blood from the vessels of the lungs disturbs: it is slow, difficult and becomes unstable. Such circulatory disorders in the lungs of influenza patients of older age groups appear during the illness and persist for a long time in the recovery period, which is a risk factor associated with complications of the respiratory system, not only during the illness, but after the disease.

  20. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. PMID:25841726

  1. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful.

  2. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP): A Self-Report Measure of Sleep for School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Avis, Kristin T.; Biggs, Sarah; Reynolds, Amy C.; Crabtree, Valerie McLaughlin; Bevans, Katherine B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: (1) Present preliminary psychometrics for the Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP), a three-module measure of Sleep Patterns, Sleep Hygiene, and Sleep Disturbance; and (2) explore whether the CRSP provides information about a child's sleep above and beyond parental report. Methods: A multi-method, multi-reporter approach was used to validate the CRSP with 456 children aged 8-12 years (inclusive). Participants were recruited from pediatricians' offices, sleep clinics/laboratories, children's hospitals, schools, and the general population. Participants completed measures of sleep habits, sleep hygiene, anxiety, and sleepiness, with actigraphy and polysomnography used to provide objective measures of child sleep. Results: The CRSP demonstrated good reliability and validity. Differences in sleep hygiene and sleep disturbances were found for children presenting to a sleep clinic/laboratory (vs. community population); for younger children (vs. older children); and for children who slept less than 8 hours or had a sleep onset later than 22:00 on actigraphy. Further, significant associations were found between the CRSP and child-reported anxiety or sleepiness. Notably, approximately 40% of parents were not aware of child reported difficulties with sleep onset latency, night wakings, or poor sleep quality. Conclusions: The three modules of the CRSP can be used together or independently, providing a reliable and valid self-report measure of sleep patterns, sleep hygiene, and sleep disturbances for children ages 8-12 years. Children not only provide valid information about their sleep, but may provide information that would not be otherwise captured in both clinical and research settings if relying solely on parental report. Citation: Meltzer LJ; Avis KT; Biggs S; Reynolds AC; Crab-tree VM; Bevans KB. The Children's Report of Sleep Patterns (CRSP): a self-report measure of sleep for school-aged children. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(3):235-245. PMID

  3. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  4. Circumstances and Contributing Causes of Fall Deaths among Persons Aged 65 and Older: United States, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Judy A.; Rudd, Rose A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. DESIGN Analyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research system, which uses the National Center for Health Statistics’ Multiple Cause of Death data set. SETTING United States, 1999 to 2010. PARTICIPANTS People aged 65 and older with a fall listed on their death record as the underlying or a contributing cause of death. MEASUREMENTS Circumstances and contributing causes off all deaths—records listing International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes W00 to W19 as the underlying cause of death—and underlying causes for records with falls as a contributing cause were examined. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends in the proportion of fall and fall-associated deaths to total deaths for 1999 to 2010. RESULTS In 2010, there were 21,649 fall deaths and 5,402 fall-associated deaths among people aged 65 and older; 48.7% of fall deaths involved a head injury. Approximately half the fall death records included diseases of the circulatory system as contributing causes. From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more-specific reporting of falls circumstances, although total deaths remained unchanged. The proportion of fall deaths to total deaths increased 114.3%, and that of fall-associated deaths to total deaths increased 43.1%. CONCLUSION The reasons behind the increasing older adult fall death rate deserve further investigation. Possible contributing factors include changing trends in underlying chronic diseases and better reporting of falls as the underlying cause of death. PMID:24617970

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among School Age Palestinian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khamis, Vivian

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the prevalence of PTSD among Palestinian school-age children. Variables that distinguish PTSD and non-PTSD children were examined, including child characteristics, socioeconomic status, family environment, and parental style of influence. Method: Participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years.…

  6. Age Banding and Its Impact on Children and Their Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Claire; Maynard, Sally

    2012-01-01

    The study described here investigates the thoughts and opinions of young readers related to age banding on children's books. Emphasizing the views of children themselves, rather than adults such as parents, librarians, teachers and authors, the research involved a series of three focus groups involving children aged 11-13 years. The discussions…

  7. Mobile and Wearable Technology Needs for Aging in Place: Perspectives from Older Adults and Their Caregivers and Providers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Carroll, Deidra; Peck, Michelle; Myneni, Sahiti; Gong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing number of wearable trackers and mobile devices in the burgeoning world of digital health, the purpose of the study is to explore the role of these mobile and wearable tools among older adults aging in place. We conducted a cross sectional study using individual interviews with older adults and surveys with their caregivers or providers. We interviewed 29 residents living in a retirement community, and surveyed 6 caregivers or providers. The older adults had an average age of 88 years, most did not express interests on technology and heavily relied on providers for health tracking, while their professional caregivers or providers saw a great need to access older adults' health information collected from these mobile and wearable tools. Educating the older old on the benefits of mobile and wearable tools may address such discrepancy on needs of adopting mobile and wearable tools for aging in place.

  8. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  9. Income of People Aged 65 and Older: Overview From 1968 Survey of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Lenore E.

    1970-01-01

    In a 1968 survey of the income of the aged, 8,248 persons were interviewed out of a population of 19.3 million persons aged 65 or over, excluding approximately 95,000 federal annuitants, 30,000 aliens, and a small number of persons not enrolled. The Current Medicare Survey was utilized to obtain certain selected characteristics of aged persons.…

  10. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition in Mexican older adults: age and sex differences.

    PubMed

    López-Ortega, Mariana; Arroyo, Pedro

    2016-02-14

    Anthropometric reference data for older adults, particularly for the oldest old, are still limited, especially in developing countries. The aim of the present study was to describe sex- and age-specific distributions of anthropometric measurements and body composition in Mexican older adults. The methods included in the present study were assessment of height, weight, BMI, calf circumference (CC), waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference (HC) as well as knee height in a sample of 8883 Mexican adults aged 60 years and above and the estimation of sex- and age-specific differences in these measures. Results of the study (n 7865, 54% women) showed that men are taller, have higher BMI, and larger WC than women, whereas women presented higher prevalence of obesity and adiposity. Overall prevalence of underweight was 2·3% in men and 4·0% in women, with increasing prevalence with advancing age. Significant differences were found by age group for weight, height, WC, HC, CC, BMI and knee height (P<0·001), but no significant differences in waist-hip circumference were observed. Significant differences between men and women were found in height, weight, circumferences, BMI and knee height (P<0·001). These results, which are consistent with studies of older adults in other countries, can be used for comparison with other Mexican samples including populations living in the USA and other countries with similar developmental and socio-economic conditions. This information can also be used as reference in clinical settings as a tool for detection of individuals at risk of either underweight or overweight and obesity.

  11. Developmental Changes in Natural Viewing Behavior: Bottom-Up and Top-Down Differences between Children, Young Adults and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Açık, Alper; Sarwary, Adjmal; Schultze-Kraft, Rafael; Onat, Selim; König, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest in fixation selection under natural conditions, there is a major gap in the literature concerning its developmental aspects. Early in life, bottom-up processes, such as local image feature – color, luminance contrast etc. – guided viewing, might be prominent but later overshadowed by more top-down processing. Moreover, with decline in visual functioning in old age, bottom-up processing is known to suffer. Here we recorded eye movements of 7- to 9-year-old children, 19- to 27-year-old adults, and older adults above 72 years of age while they viewed natural and complex images before performing a patch-recognition task. Task performance displayed the classical inverted U-shape, with young adults outperforming the other age groups. Fixation discrimination performance of local feature values dropped with age. Whereas children displayed the highest feature values at fixated points, suggesting a bottom-up mechanism, older adult viewing behavior was less feature-dependent, reminiscent of a top-down strategy. Importantly, we observed a double dissociation between children and elderly regarding the effects of active viewing on feature-related viewing: Explorativeness correlated with feature-related viewing negatively in young age, and positively in older adults. The results indicate that, with age, bottom-up fixation selection loses strength and/or the role of top-down processes becomes more important. Older adults who increase their feature-related viewing by being more explorative make use of this low-level information and perform better in the task. The present study thus reveals an important developmental change in natural and task-guided viewing. PMID:21833263

  12. Sex, Setting, and Personal Space: Changes as Children Grow Older.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Gay H.; Dabbs, James M., Jr.

    This study examined the effects of age, sex, and setting on interpersonal physical distance (IPD) preferences among 160 1st, 5th, 9th, and 12th grade white public school students. Within each grade, subjects were tested two at a time in same-sex pairs. Subjects' IPD preferences were tested by both direct and indirect modes of measurement in…

  13. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults.

  14. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  15. The Psychological Niche of Older Japanese and Americans Through Auto-Photography: Aging and the Search for Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okura, Yutaka; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To understand aging cross-culturally, used photography to perceive the perceiver. Asked persons averaging seventy-three years old from Japan and the United States to describe "Who are you?" by taking six photographs. Content analysis showed older Japanese to be inward and aesthetically oriented, while older Americans were more oriented toward…

  16. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Matthew R; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  17. Attributing heart attack and stroke to "Old Age": Implications for subsequent health outcomes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tara L; Chipperfield, Judith G; Perry, Raymond P; Hamm, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which older adults attribute a recent heart attack/stroke to "old age," and examined consequences for subsequent lifestyle behavior and health-care service utilization. Community-dwelling adults (N = 57, ages 73-98 years) were interviewed about their heart attack/stroke, and an objective health registry provided data on health-care utilization over a 3-year period. Endorsement of "old age" as a cause of heart attack/stroke negatively predicted lifestyle behavior change, and positively predicted frequency of physician visits and likelihood of hospitalization over the subsequent 3 years. Findings suggest the importance of considering "old age" attributions in the context of cardiovascular health events.

  18. Age differences in learning emerge from an insufficient representation of uncertainty in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Nassar, Matthew R.; Bruckner, Rasmus; Gold, Joshua I.; Li, Shu-Chen; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Eppinger, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging can lead to impairments in learning that affect many laboratory and real-life tasks. These tasks often involve the acquisition of dynamic contingencies, which requires adjusting the rate of learning to environmental statistics. For example, learning rate should increase when expectations are uncertain (uncertainty), outcomes are surprising (surprise) or contingencies are more likely to change (hazard rate). In this study, we combine computational modelling with an age-comparative behavioural study to test whether age-related learning deficits emerge from a failure to optimize learning according to the three factors mentioned above. Our results suggest that learning deficits observed in healthy older adults are driven by a diminished capacity to represent and use uncertainty to guide learning. These findings provide insight into age-related cognitive changes and demonstrate how learning deficits can emerge from a failure to accurately assess how much should be learned. PMID:27282467

  19. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture—A phenomenographic study based on older persons’ lived experiences

    PubMed Central

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons’ quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons’ experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons’ qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: “being independent in dependence,” “being at peace,” and “being a valuable person.” This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686

  20. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  1. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age

    PubMed Central

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G.; Hannan, Marian T.; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account. PMID:26339507

  2. Variations in Community Prevalence and Determinants of Recreational and Utilitarian Walking in Older Age.

    PubMed

    Procter-Gray, Elizabeth; Leveille, Suzanne G; Hannan, Marian T; Cheng, Jie; Kane, Kevin; Li, Wenjun

    2015-01-01

    Background. Regular walking is critical to maintaining health in older age. We examined influences of individual and community factors on walking habits in older adults. Methods. We analyzed walking habits among participants of a prospective cohort study of 745 community-dwelling men and women, mainly aged 70 years or older. We estimated community variations in utilitarian and recreational walking, and examined whether the variations were attributable to community differences in individual and environmental factors. Results. Prevalence of recreational walking was relatively uniform while prevalence of utilitarian walking varied across the 16 communities in the study area. Both types of walking were associated with individual health and physical abilities. However, utilitarian walking was also strongly associated with several measures of neighborhood socioeconomic status and access to amenities while recreational walking was not. Conclusions. Utilitarian walking is strongly influenced by neighborhood environment, but intrinsic factors may be more important for recreational walking. Communities with the highest overall walking prevalence were those with the most utilitarian walkers. Public health promotion of regular walking should take this into account. PMID:26339507

  3. Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holahan, Charles J; North, Rebecca J; Holahan, Carole K; Hayes, Rashelle B; Powers, Daniel A; Ockene, Judith K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence--general social support and living with a smoker--on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N=37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women.

  4. Cross-national comparison of disability in Latin American and Caribbean persons aged 75 and older.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A; Ostir, Glenn V; Pelaez, Martha; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare rates of instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) and activity of daily living (ADL) difficulties and examine sociodemographic and health correlates of IADL and ADL difficulties. Data were extracted from the first interview of Health, Well-Being and Aging in Latin America and the Caribbean Study (abbreviated from Spanish name as: SABE = salud, bienestar y envejecimiento en America Latina y el Caribe). This analysis included 3225 subjects aged 75 and older living in seven capital cities during 1999-2000. Reporting either IADL or ADL difficulties were the outcomes. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between IADL or ADL difficulties and sociodemographics, and health characteristics. The highest prevalence of IADL difficulties was reported in Sao Paulo (33.8%) and the lowest in Montevideo (12.0%). The highest prevalence of ADL difficulties was reported in Santiago (34.7%) and the lowest in Bridgetown (16.9%). In a combined analysis across cities, increased age, fewer years of education, lower body mass index (BMI) (<20), and high number of medical conditions were independently significantly associated with IADL and ADL difficulties. In conclusion, about a third of persons aged 75 and older reported difficulty in at least one IADL or ADL. There was a wide variation on disability rates and correlates across cities. PMID:16126289

  5. Sentence comprehension in post-institutionalized school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, post-institutionalized (PI) children. We compared the performance of these PI children to an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. We hypothesized that PI children would perform below clinical threshold on tasks of sentence comprehension and that poor sentence comprehension would be associated with poor performance in working memory. Method Twenty-three PI children and 36 comparison children were administered sentence comprehension and spatial memory tasks from standardized assessments. Results Some oral sentence comprehension skills and the spatial working memory skills were weaker in the school-aged PI children than in the age-matched comparison children. A mediational analysis demonstrated that poor spatial working memory performance partially explains the sentence comprehension differences between the two groups. Conclusion These findings provide valuable information to better plan early intervention and special education for PI children. PMID:22199198

  6. Oral health of children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, A C; O'Connell, S M; O'Mullane, E; Hoey, H M C V

    2010-10-01

    We sought to evaluate the oral health status of children born small for gestational age (SGA). Children now aged 4-8 years who were born SGA (birth weight < -2 SDS) were examined using standardised criteria. The parents completed a structured oral health questionnaire. Twenty females and 25 males, mean age 72.1 months, and mean birth weight 2.1 kg, participated in the study. Poor appetite was a concern; 32 (71%) children snacked between meals and 14 (30%) used carbonated beverages more than 3 times daily. Erosion was present in 9 (20%) children. Dental decay occurred in 22 (47%) children with 92% being untreated. Eight children had more than 5 decayed teeth. It is essential that clinicians working with children born SGA include oral health within the general health surveillance and refer these children for a dental assessment within the first 2 years to support parents in establishing safe feeding patterns for their children. PMID:21186752

  7. Validity of the gait variability index in older adults: effect of aging and mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Chitralakshmi K; Clark, David J; Gouelle, Arnaud

    2015-05-01

    Gait variability, defined as the fluctuation in spatiotemporal characteristics between steps, is suggested to be a sensitive indicator of mobility deficits with aging and pathological processes. A challenge in quantifying gait variability is the decision of which spatiotemporal parameters to assess because gait parameters may exhibit different amounts of variability and may differentially relate to mobility performance. The Gait Variability Index (GVI), a composite measure of variability across several gait parameters, was previously developed to overcome this challenge. The present study seeks to validate the use of GVI in the older adult population. A retrospective analysis of gait and clinical data was conducted using data pooled from five prior studies. The final data set included 105 younger adults (YA, age<65) and 81 older adults (OA, age≥65). The GVI of OA (91.92±8.75) was significantly lower compared to the GVI of YA (100.79±7.99). Within OA, the GVI was significantly lower (p<0.0001) in individuals with mobility deficits (84.35±9.03) compared to those with high mobility function (96.35±8.86). Furthermore, GVI was associated with mobility function, including walking speed and performance on the Berg Balance Scale. Our findings imply that the GVI is a valid assessment for gauging spatiotemporal gait variability in older adults, is sensitive to differentiate between high-functioning older adults and those with mild to moderate mobility deficits and is associated with some clinical measures of functional mobility and balance.

  8. Characteristics of middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders and burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Honda, Mika; Iida, Takashi; Komiyama, Osamu; Masuda, Manabu; Uchida, Takashi; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Okubo, Masakazu; Shimosaka, Michiharu; Narita, Noriyuki; Niwa, Hideo; Kubo, Hideyuki; De Laat, Antoon; Kawara, Misao; Makiyama, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in middle-aged and older patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Subjects were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (n = 705) and International Association for the Study of Pain criteria for BMS (n = 175). Patients were then divided into two age groups: 45-64 years (middle-aged, Group A) and 65-84 years (older, Group B). Pain intensity and depression and somatization scores were evaluated in both groups. In BMS patients, present and worst pain intensities were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A {4.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.0-5.2] vs. 3.5 [95% CI = 3.1-3.9] and 5.9 [95% CI = 5.2-6.4] vs. 5.0 [95% CI = 4.5-5.6], respectively; P < 0.05}, with no difference observed in TMD patients. The depression and somatization scores were significantly higher in Group A than in Group B among BMS patients [0.57 (95% CI = 0.45-0.69) vs. 0.46 (95% CI = 0.34-0.59) and 0.537 (95% CI = 0.45-0.63) vs. 0.45 (95% CI = 0.34-0.55); P < 0.05], with no difference observed in TMD patients. The results of the present study indicate that pain intensities and psychosocial characteristics in BMS appear to differ between middle-aged and older patients. PMID:26666859

  9. Transsphenoidal surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas in patients aged 80 years or older.

    PubMed

    Yunoue, Shunji; Tokimura, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Fujio, Shingo; Karki, Prasanna; Usui, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Yasuyuki; Habu, Mika; Moinuddin, F M; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

    2014-04-01

    To know the clinical characteristics of pituitary adenomas in the elderly patients aged 80 years or older who were surgically treated. From 1995 through 2012, 907 patients underwent surgery for the pituitary adenomas at Kagoshima- and Hiroshima University hospitals in Japan. Ten (1.1%) patients were aged 80 years or older. We retrospectively assessed the clinical characteristics including preoperative comorbidities, manifestations, neuroimaging findings, and endocrinologic features of these ten patients. The subjects included eight males and two females. Their ages ranged from 80 to 86 with mean of 83.1 years. Of these, besides one case of growth hormone-producing adenoma, others were clinically nonfunctioning adenoma. Six patients had modest comorbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, or chronic kidney dysfunction, and all patients were classified into grade 2-3 on American Society of Anesthesiologists' Physical Status grading. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed in all due to visual disturbance in eight, diabetes mellitus as an intercurrent illness of acromegaly in one, and for the purpose of preventing visual disturbance in one patient who had an adenoma impinging optic chiasm but still had normal visual field. The surgeries provided sufficient decompression of the optic pathways and improved visual disorder in all. In an acromegalic male, his comorbidities considerably improved. No permanent surgical morbidity ensued. More than three axes of anterior pituitary hormones were preoperatively impaired in all, which were rarely recovered. Transsphenoidal surgery is safe and efficient treatment way for patients aged 80 years or older with pituitary adenomas with chiasmatic symptoms when the patients' general condition is well preserved and pituitary hormonal deficiency is adequately replaced. PMID:24233259

  10. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  11. A Multicenter Retrospective Case Study of Anaphylaxis Triggers by Age in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Yeon; Ahn, Kangmo; Kim, Jihyun; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Min, Taek Ki; Yang, Hyeon-Jong; Pyun, Bok Yang; Kwon, Ji-Won; Sohn, Myung Hyun; Kim, Kyung Won; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Yu, Jinho; Hong, Soo-Jong; Kwon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Song, Tae Won; Kim, Woo Kyung; Kim, Hyung Young; Jeon, You Hoon; Lee, Yong Ju; Lee, Hae Ran; Kim, Hye-Young; Ahn, Youngmin; Yum, Hye Yung; Suh, Dong In; Kim, Hyun Hee; Kim, Jin-Tack; Kim, Jeong Hee; Park, Yong Mean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although anaphylaxis is recognized as an important, life-threatening condition, data are limited regarding its triggers in different age groups. We aimed to identify anaphylaxis triggers by age in Korean children. Methods We performed a retrospective review of medical records for children diagnosed with anaphylaxis between 2009 and 2013 in 23 secondary or tertiary hospitals in South Korea. Results A total of 991 cases (mean age=5.89±5.24) were reported, with 63.9% involving patients younger than 6 years of age and 66% involving male children. Food was the most common anaphylaxis trigger (74.7%), followed by drugs and radiocontrast media (10.7%), idiopathic factors (9.2%), and exercise (3.6%). The most common food allergen was milk (28.4%), followed by egg white (13.6%), walnut (8.0%), wheat (7.2%), buckwheat (6.5%), and peanut (6.2%). Milk and seafood were the most common anaphylaxis triggers in young and older children, respectively. Drug-triggered anaphylaxis was observed more frequently with increasing age, with antibiotics (34.9%) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (17.9%) being the most common causes. Conclusions The most common anaphylaxis trigger in Korean children was food. Data on these triggers show that their relative frequency may vary by age. PMID:27582405

  12. Health Outcomes of Midlife and Older Latina and Black American Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magana, Sandra; Smith, Matthew J.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of caring for a child with a developmental disability on the physical and mental health of Latina and Black American women was examined. We used the National Health Interview Survey to compare the health of older mothers who were co-residing with a child who had a developmental disability to the health of same age mothers without…

  13. Age-friendly primary health care: an assessment of current service provision for older adults in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jean; Mak, Benise; Yeung, Fannie

    2013-01-01

    There has been no study evaluating whether primary care services are sufficiently oriented towards the older population in Hong Kong, particularly those with increasing frailty. Since primary care is a key first interface in promotion and maintenance of health in older people, an assessment of the age-friendliness of service provisions is of critical importance in optimizing the health of aging populations. The age-friendliness of primary care services for older people was assessed using focus groups of elderly people and also of service providers who care for them. Discussion content was based on the WHO guidelines for age-friendly primary care in the following areas: Information, education and training, community-based health care management systems, and the physical environment. Desirable improvements were identified in all domains. The findings underscore the need for wider dissemination of health care needs of older people in the primary care setting.

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of three 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccines in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults: a double-blind and randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feng-Ji; Yang, Li-Qing; Ai, Xing; Bai, Yun-Hua; Wu, Jiang; Li, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Lu, Min; Li, Li; Wang, Zhao-Yun; Shi, Nian-Min

    2013-08-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic strain was for the first time included in the 2010-2011 seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). We conducted a double-blind, randomized trial in Chinese population to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the 2010-2011 TIV manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline and compared it with the counterpart vaccines manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur and Sinovac Biotech. Healthy toddlers (6-36 mo), children (6-12 y) and older adults (≥60 y) with 300 participants in each age group were enrolled to randomly receive two doses (toddlers, 28 d apart) or one dose (children and older adults). The immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. The solicited injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) were collected within 7 d after vaccination. All the three TIVs were well-tolerated with 15.1% of participants reporting AEs, most of which were mild. No serious AEs and unusual AEs were reported. Fever and pain were the most common systemic and injection-site AEs, respectively. The three TIVs showed good immunogenicity. The seroprotection rates against both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were more than 87% in toddlers after two doses and more than 95% in children and more than 86% in older adults after one dose. The seroprotection rates against B strain were 68-71% in toddlers after two doses, 70-74% in children and 69-72% in older adults after one dose. In conclusion, the three 2010-2011 TIVs had good immunogenicity and safety in Chinese toddlers, children and older adults and were generally comparable in immunogenicity and reactogenicity.

  15. What Do Children Know about Their Futures: Do Children's Expectations Predict Outcomes in Middle Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallerod, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Are children's statements about their futures related to outcomes in middle age? In 1966 almost 13,500 children ages 12-13 were asked whether they thought their futures would be worse, similar or better as compared to others of their own age. It was shown that children with low, and surprisingly high, expectations did suffer from increased…

  16. Theory of mind through the ages: older and middle-aged adults exhibit more errors than do younger adults on a continuous false belief task.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Thornton, Wendy Loken; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2011-10-01

    Theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to understand mental states, is a fundamental aspect of social cognition. Previous research has documented marked advances in ToM in preschoolers, and declines in ToM in older-aged adults. In the present study, younger (n=37), middle-aged (n=20), and older (n=37) adults completed a continuous false belief task measuring ToM. Middle-aged and older adults exhibited more false belief bias than did younger adults, irrespective of language ability, executive function, processing speed, and memory. The authors conclude that ToM declines from younger to older adulthood, independent of age-related changes to domain-general cognitive functioning.

  17. Aging and selective engagement: the moderating impact of motivation on older adults' resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Germain, Cassandra M; Swaim, Elizabeth L; Osowski, Nicole L

    2009-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine age differences in the impact of motivation in a social cognitive task. We tested the hypothesis that aging is associated with an increase in the selective engagement of cognitive resources in support of performance. Different-aged adults read descriptions of 2 people in order to determine which was better suited for a particular job. These descriptions contained behaviors that were either consistent or inconsistent with the job, and participants performed the task under conditions of high versus low accountability. Examination of memory for behavioral information revealed that accountability disproportionately affected older adults' performance, with the locus of this effect being in conscious recollection processes. This supports the aforementioned selective engagement hypothesis by demonstrating that the differential impact of the motivational manipulation was based in deliberative memory processes.

  18. A multi-organisation aged care emergency service for acute care management of older residents in aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Conway, Jane; Dilworth, Sophie; Hullick, Carolyn; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Turner, Catherine; Higgins, Isabel

    2015-11-01

    This case study describes a multi-organisation aged care emergency (ACE) service. The service was designed to enable point-of-care assessment and management for older people in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Design of the ACE service involved consultation and engagement of multiple key stakeholders. The ACE service was implemented in a large geographical region of a single Medicare Local (ML) in New South Wales, Australia. The service was developed over several phases. A case control pilot evaluation of one emergency department (ED) and four RACFs revealed a 16% reduction in presentations to the ED as well as reductions in admission to the hospital following ED presentation. Following initial pilot work, the ACE service transitioned across another five EDs and 85 RACFs in the local health district. The service has now been implemented in a further 10 sites (six metropolitan and four rural EDs) across New South Wales. Ongoing evaluation of the implementation continues to show positive outcomes. The ACE service offers a model shown to reduce ED presentations and admissions from RACFs, and provide quality care with a focus on the needs of the older person. PMID:25981903

  19. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  20. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-02

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group.

  1. Understanding socio-cultural influences on smoking among older Greek-Australian smokers aged 50 and over: facilitators or barriers? A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians' views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek-Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the "norm" by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants' social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers' family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking-both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  2. Understanding Socio-cultural Influences on Smoking among Older Greek-Australian Smokers Aged 50 and over: Facilitators or Barriers? A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadnezhad, Masoud; Tsourtos, George; Wilson, Carlene; Ratcliffe, Julie; Ward, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Smokers of all ages can benefit by quitting, but many smokers continue to smoke. Older Greek-Australian smokers, one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia, have higher rates of smoking than other groups of older Australians. This qualitative study aimed to explore older Greek-Australians’ views about socio-cultural influences on their smoking. A snowball sampling technique was used to identify twenty Greek–Australian smokers (12 males and eight females), aged ≥ 50 years. They were recruited through the Greek Orthodox Community Center of South Australia (GOCSA). Qualitative data were collected using semi-structured face-to-face interviews. The audio-taped interviews were translated and transcribed, and then analysed using content analysis. Results suggested that smoking was considered as the “norm” by older Greek-Australian smokers. There were four groups embedded in the participants’ social networks that were reported to be important in relation to either encouraging smoking or, smoking abstinence. These support groups included: family members, friends, the Greek community, and physicians. Smokers’ family members (brothers) and friends were identified as facilitators of smoking whereas non-smoker family members (children and spouses) were reported as providing barriers to smoking. Different approaches were used by supporter groups to assist smokers to quit smoking—both planned and unplanned. Knowledge, planning of social and cultural supports, and addressing barriers to smoking cessation are a important part of health planning for older Greek-Australians. Social norms, including those arising from social interactions, and predisposing traits can influence smoking behaviour. Addressing the specific barriers to smoking cessation of older Greek-Australians is critical to addressing the risk for chronic disease in this group. PMID:25739006

  3. The social modulation of imitation fidelity in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Lauren E; Ropar, Danielle; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2014-01-01

    Children copy the actions of others with high fidelity, even when they are not causally relevant. This copying of visibly unnecessary actions is termed overimitation. Many competing theories propose mechanisms for overimitation behaviour. The present study examines these theories by studying the social factors that lead children to overimitate actions. Ninety-four children aged 5- to 8-years each completed five trials of an overimitation task. Each trial provided the opportunity to overimitate an action on familiar objects with minimal causal reasoning demands. Social cues (live or video demonstration) and eye contact from the demonstrator were manipulated. After the imitation, children's ratings of action rationality were collected. Substantial overimitation was seen which increased with age. In older children, overimitation was higher when watching a live demonstrator and when eye contact was absent. Actions rated as irrational were more likely to be imitated than those rated as rational. Children overimitated actions on familiar objects even when they rated those actions as irrational, suggesting that failure of causal reasoning cannot be driving overimitation. Our data support social explanations of overimitation and show that the influence of social factors increases with age over the 5- to 8-year-old age range. PMID:24465913

  4. Factors Associated With Cancer Worry Among People Aged 50 or Older, Spain, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    Sotos, Joseba Rabanales; Herráez, María José Simarro; Rosa, Monchi Campos; López, Jaime López-Torres; Ortiz, María Pilar Sánchez

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cancer worry varies among patients and may influence their participation in preventive activities. We tested whether sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, locus of control, comorbidity, and perceived health status were associated with the level of cancer worry among adults aged 50 or older. Methods We conducted an observational cross-sectional study of 666 adults in Spain aged 50 or older. Participants were selected by simple random sampling and asked to visit their designated health center for a personal interview. The study variables were level of cancer worry (measured by Cancer Worry Scale [CWS]), sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, personal history or family history of cancer, comorbidity, self-perceived health, locus of control, and social support. Results More than half of participants, 58.1%, were women; mean age was 60.5 years (standard deviation [SD], 6.8 y). Measurement of the frequency and severity of cancer worry (possible scale of 6–24 points) yielded a mean CWS score of 9.3 (95% confidence interval, 9.0–9.5); 31.9% of participants reported being concerned about cancer. Scores were higher among women (9.7 [SD, 3.3]) than men (8.7 [SD, 2.7]) (P < .001) and among participants in rural settings (10.0 [SD, 3.4]) than in urban settings (9.0 [SD, 3.0]) (P < .001). Multiple linear regression showed a greater degree of cancer worry among people with personal or family history of cancer, more health problems, worse self-perceived health, and lower social support. Conclusion Cancer worry is frequent among older adults, and the level of such concern is related not only to personal characteristics but also to lifestyle and health status. Further research is required to understand how contextual factors can influence cancer worry and how such concern changes behavior patterns related to cancer prevention activities. PMID:26704444

  5. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    PubMed

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  6. Blood Glucose, Diet-Based Glycemic Load and Cognitive Aging Among Dementia-Free Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Andel, Ross; McEvoy, Cathy; Dahl Aslan, Anna K.; Finkel, Deborah; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although evidence indicates that Type II Diabetes is related to abnormal brain aging, the influence of elevated blood glucose on long-term cognitive change is unclear. In addition, the relationship between diet-based glycemic load and cognitive aging has not been extensively studied. The focus of this study was to investigate the influence of diet-based glycemic load and blood glucose on cognitive aging in older adults followed for up to 16 years. Methods. Eight-hundred and thirty-eight cognitively healthy adults aged ≥50 years (M = 63.1, SD = 8.3) from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging were studied. Mixed effects growth models were utilized to assess overall performance and change in general cognitive functioning, perceptual speed, memory, verbal ability, and spatial ability as a function of baseline blood glucose and diet-based glycemic load. Results. High blood glucose was related to poorer overall performance on perceptual speed as well as greater rates of decline in general cognitive ability, perceptual speed, verbal ability, and spatial ability. Diet-based glycemic load was related to poorer overall performance in perceptual speed and spatial ability. Conclusion. Diet-based glycemic load and, in particular, elevated blood glucose appear important for cognitive performance/cognitive aging. Blood glucose control (perhaps through low glycemic load diets) may be an important target in the detection and prevention of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25149688

  7. Speech Recognition Across the Life Span: Longitudinal Changes From Middle-Age to Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of evidence of age-related declines in speech recognition in middle age to older adulthood; to review contributions of pure-tone thresholds, age, and gender; and to report preliminary results from a longitudinal study. Method Pure-tone thresholds and word recognition in quiet and babble are being measured in a large sample of adults yearly or every 2 to 3 years. Analyses included >16,000 audiograms and speech recognition scores from >1,200 adults whose ages ranged from the 40s to the 90s. A multivariable generalized linear repeated mixed model assessed changes in thresholds and speech recognition over time. Results Word recognition in quiet declined significantly while controlling for threshold increases, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 65 to 70 years. Scores for men were poorer than those for women even after controlling for gender differences in thresholds, but rates of decline did not differ by gender. Smaller declines in key word recognition in babble were observed, and declines appeared to accelerate near ages 75 to 80 years. Conclusions Additional evidence is needed from large-scale longitudinal cohort studies to determine rates of change of auditory function across the life span. These studies can identify associations with modifiable risk factors and potential mechanisms to reduce, to prevent, or to delay the onset of age-related hearing loss. PMID:25767998

  8. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  9. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  10. Digital Inclusion for Older Adults based on Physical Activities: an Age Concern.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Cristine; Menezes, Júlio; Pina, Carmelo; Lima, Juliana; Barbosa Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in an interdependent and interconnected world during an age that is driven by technological progress. It has extraordinary potential to improve the quality of later life: creating social networks to tackle isolation and loneliness; transforming services to help people live independently at home for longer; empowering consumers; and enabling civil participation. In light of this, this poster aims to present the development process of a digital booklet for mobile devices--smartphones and tablets that illustrate the benefits of doing physical exercises for older adults aiming to improve life quality and minimizing digital exclusion.

  11. Digital Inclusion for Older Adults based on Physical Activities: an Age Concern.

    PubMed

    Gusmão, Cristine; Menezes, Júlio; Pina, Carmelo; Lima, Juliana; Barbosa Neto, João

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, we are living in an interdependent and interconnected world during an age that is driven by technological progress. It has extraordinary potential to improve the quality of later life: creating social networks to tackle isolation and loneliness; transforming services to help people live independently at home for longer; empowering consumers; and enabling civil participation. In light of this, this poster aims to present the development process of a digital booklet for mobile devices--smartphones and tablets that illustrate the benefits of doing physical exercises for older adults aiming to improve life quality and minimizing digital exclusion. PMID:26262272

  12. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  13. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education. PMID:21547828

  14. [Analysis of Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Elderly Patients Aged 75 Years or Older].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Masahiro; Shimizu, Junzo; Koga, Chikato; Hitora, Toshiki; Kawabata, Ryohei; Oda, Naofumi; Hirota, Masaki; Yoshikawa, Masato; Morishima, Hirotaka; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Matsunami, Nobuteru; Hasegawa, Junichi

    2015-11-01

    The feasibility of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for elderly patients is controversial. Of 51 patients with pancreatic or bile duct tumor who underwent PD (except portal vein resection), the surgical results of 27 elderly patients aged 75 years or older (elderly group) we retrospectively evaluated and compared with those of 24 patients younger than 75 years (younger group). Although ASA-PS was significantly higher in the elderly group, we did not observe any significant difference in other background characteristics, complications, or length of hospital stay between the two groups. This study suggests that PD is probably safe and feasible with the appropriate surgical indication for elderly patients.

  15. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  16. Habitually exercising older men do not demonstrate age-associated vascular endothelial oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Gary L; Donato, Anthony J; LaRocca, Thomas J; Eskurza, Iratxe; Silver, Annemarie E; Seals, Douglas R

    2011-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older men who perform habitual aerobic exercise do not demonstrate age-associated vascular endothelial oxidative stress compared with their sedentary peers. Older exercising men (n=13, 62±2 years) had higher (P<0.05) physical activity (79±7 vs. 30±6 MET hours per week) and maximal exercise oxygen consumption (42±1 vs. 29±1 mL kg(-1) per minute) vs. sedentary men (n=28, 63±1 years). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of vascular endothelial function, was greater (P<0.05) in the exercising vs. sedentary older men (6.3±0.5 vs. 4.9±0.4%Δ) and not different than young controls (n=20, 25±1 years, 7.1±0.5%Δ). In vascular endothelial cells sampled from the brachial artery, nitrotyrosine, a marker of oxidative stress, was 51% lower in the exercising vs. sedentary older men (0.38±0.06 vs. 0.77±0.10 AU). This was associated with lower endothelial expression of the oxidant enzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (p47(phox) subunit, 0.33±0.05 vs. 0.61±0.09 AU) and the redox-sensitive transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) (p65 subunit, 0.36±0.05 vs. 0.72±0.09 AU). Expression of the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD) (0.57±0.13 vs. 0.30±0.04 AU) and activity of endothelium-bound extracellular SOD were greater (6.4±0.5 vs. 5.0±0.6 U mL(-1) per minute) in the exercising men (both P<0.05), but differences no longer were significant after correcting for adiposity and circulating metabolic factors. Overall, values for the young controls differed with those for the sedentary, but not the exercising older men. Older men who exercise regularly do not demonstrate vascular endothelial oxidative stress, and this may be a key molecular mechanism underlying their reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Enterobius vermicularis infection among children aged 1-8 years in a rural area in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norhayati, M; Hayati, M I; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S; Ismail, G; Minudin, Y M

    1994-09-01

    The infection rate and relationship of enterobiasis with socio-economic status were determined in children aged 1-8 years, living in a rural area in Malaysia. Of the 178 subjects 40.4% were infected with Enterobius vermicularis. The distribution of enterobiasis among these children were analyzed in relation to age groups and sex. The rate of infection was significantly higher in older children (5-7 years). The association of enterobiasis with other factors studied such as number of persons per house, household income per months and mother's employment status were not significant. The sensitivity of three successive days anal swabs compared to a single swab was found to be statistically significant.

  18. Brain regions for perceiving and reasoning about other people in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Saxe, Rebecca R; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Scholz, Jonathan; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies with adults have identified cortical regions recruited when people think about other people's thoughts (theory of mind): temporo-parietal junction, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex. These same regions were recruited in 13 children aged 6-11 years when they listened to sections of a story describing a character's thoughts compared to sections of the same story that described the physical context. A distinct region in the posterior superior temporal sulcus was implicated in the perception of biological motion. Change in response selectivity with age was observed in just one region. The right temporo-parietal junction was recruited equally for mental and physical facts about people in younger children, but only for mental facts in older children. PMID:19630902

  19. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens. PMID:26191955

  20. Modern Attitudes Toward Older Adults in the Aging World: A Cross-Cultural Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Prevailing beliefs suggest that Eastern cultures hold older adults in higher esteem than Western cultures do, due to stronger collectivist traditions of filial piety. However, in modern, industrialized societies, the strain presented by dramatic rises in population aging potentially threatens traditional cultural expectations. Addressing these competing hypotheses, a literature search located 37 eligible papers, comprising samples from 23 countries and 21,093 total participants, directly comparing Easterners and Westerners (as classified per U.N. conventions) in their attitudes toward aging and the aged. Contradicting conventional wisdom, a random-effects meta-analysis on these articles found such evaluations to be more negative in the East overall (standardized mean difference = -0.31). High heterogeneity in study comparisons suggested the presence of moderators; indeed, geographical region emerged as a significant moderating factor, with the strongest levels of senior derogation emerging in East Asia (compared with South and Southeast Asia) and non-Anglophone Europe (compared with North American and Anglophone Western regions). At the country level, multiple-moderator meta-regression analysis confirmed recent rises in population aging to significantly predict negative elder attitudes, controlling for industrialization per se over the same time period. Unexpectedly, these analyses also found that cultural individualism significantly predicted relative positivity-suggesting that, for generating elder respect within rapidly aging societies, collectivist traditions may backfire. The findings suggest the importance of demographic challenges in shaping modern attitudes toward elders-presenting considerations for future research in ageism, cross-cultural psychology, and even economic development, as societies across the globe accommodate unprecedented numbers of older citizens.

  1. Prediction of endurance running performance for middle-aged and older runners.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, N; Tanaka, K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations that would sufficiently predict the endurance running performance (ERP) of middle-aged and older runners (n = 55, 43-79 years). Among many independent variables which were selected as possible predictors of the ERP, oxygen uptake corresponding to the lactate threshold (VO2@LT), or age was found to be the single best predictor. Some variables representing training habits correlated significantly but only moderately with the ERP. Linear multiple regression equations developed in this study were: V5km = 4.203 + 0.054X1 - 0.028X2 (r = 0.87) V5km = 4.436 + 0.045X1 - 0.033X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.89) V10km = 4.252 + 0.042X1 - 0.026X2 (r = 0.79) V10km = 4.371 + 0.037X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.82) VM = 3.207 + 0.048X1 - 0.022X2 (r = 0.91) VM = 3.707 + 0.038X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.93) where V5km, V10km and VM are the mean running velocity at 5 km, 10 km and marathon races, respectively, and X1 = VO2@LT (ml kg-1 min-1), X2 = age (year), and X3 = average running duration per workout (min). We suggest that the ERP of middle-aged and older runners can be predicted from a linear combination of VO2@LT and age or a combination of these variables plus average running duration per workout. PMID:7788211

  2. Religion, spirituality, and older adults with HIV: critical personal and social resources for an aging epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E; Brennan, Mark; Enah, Comfort; Smith, Glenda L; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2011-01-01

    By 2015, approximately half of adults with HIV in the United States will be 50 and older. The demographic changes in this population due to successful treatment represent a unique challenge, not only in assisting these individuals to cope with their illness, but also in helping them to age successfully with this disease. Religious involvement and spirituality have been observed to promote successful aging in the general population and help those with HIV cope with their disease, yet little is known about how these resources may affect aging with HIV. Also, inherent barriers such as HIV stigma and ageism may prevent people from benefitting from religious and spiritual sources of solace as they age with HIV. In this paper, we present a model of barriers to successful aging with HIV, along with a discussion of how spirituality and religiousness may help people overcome these barriers. From this synthesis, implications for practice and research to improve the quality of life of this aging population are provided. PMID:21753865

  3. Characteristics of problem gamblers 56 years of age or older: a statewide study of casino self-excluders.

    PubMed

    Nower, Lia; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2008-09-01

    Gambling among older adults appears to be increasing, though little is known about the characteristics of older adult problem gamblers. The purpose of this study was to compare older adults to younger and middle-aged adults in a cohort of problem gamblers participating in a state-administered casino self-exclusion program. Self-reported problem gamblers (N = 1,601) who voluntary banned themselves from Missouri casinos from 2001 to 2003 were categorized by age as younger adults (ages 21 to 35; n = 490), middle-aged adults (ages 36 to 55; n = 950), and older adults (ages 56 to 79; n = 161), and were compared with respect to demographic variables, gambling participation, and reasons for self-exclusion. Older adult self-excluders typically began gambling in midlife, experienced gambling problems around age 60, reported preferences for nonstrategic forms of gambling, and identified fear of suicide as the primary reason for self-excluding. Implications for intervention, prevention and treatment are discussed.

  4. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  5. Sentence Comprehension in Postinstitutionalized School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmarais, Chantal; Roeber, Barbara J.; Smith, Mary E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated sentence comprehension and spatial working memory abilities in a sample of internationally adopted, postinstitutionalized (PI) children. The authors compared the performance of these PI children with that of an age-matched group of children living with their birth families. They hypothesized that PI…

  6. Temperament and Friendship in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Tracy R.; Gower, Amy L.; Hohmann, Lisa M.; Gleason, Terry C.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of three components of temperament (activity level, impulsivity, and soothability) on children's friendships was investigated. Children (40 girls, 35 boys) aged 43 to 69 months responded to a sociometric interview and teachers provided temperament ratings. The probability of children choosing particular classmates as friends was…

  7. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  8. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  9. Measuring Children's Age Stereotyping Using a Modified Piagetian Conservation Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong See, Sheree T.; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pertman, S. Quinn

    2012-01-01

    We examined five-year-old-children's age stereotyping using a modified Piagetian conservation task. Children were asked if two lines of objects were the "same" after one line had been made longer (transformed). A conversational account posits that children's answers reflect assumptions about the asker's motivation for the question (Schwarz, 1996).…

  10. Communicating with Assistive Listening Devices and Age-Related Hearing Loss: Perceptions of Older Australians.

    PubMed

    Aberdeen, Lucinda; Fereiro, David

    2014-01-31

    Abstract Age-related hearing loss can impact adversely on the delivery of primary care and cannot necessarily be remedied by hearing aid technology. A study of 20 older Australians living in a Queensland retirement village and residential hostel complex was undertaken to investigate how communication might be advanced through an assistive listening device (ALD). Most participants were women aged over 85 years; almost all had hearing loss and wore hearing aids. Tests with an ALD found very high levels of satisfaction with understanding speech and sound quality amongst participants. However, few had heard previously of ALDs, all required individualised assistance to fit and use the device and rated ease of use less highly. The findings affirm those of previous studies that ALD technology has a role in communication for older hearing-impaired people and for hearing rehabilitation. Its potential to enhance quality of life can be facilitated and promoted through nursing practice, but requires professional and consumer education so that it is not overlooked as a communication option. PMID:24484316

  11. Communicating with assistive listening devices and age-related hearing loss: Perceptions of older Australians.

    PubMed

    Aberdeen, Lucinda; Fereiro, David

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Age-related hearing loss can impact adversely on the delivery of primary care and cannot necessarily be remedied by hearing aid technology. A study of 20 older Australians living in a Queensland retirement village and residential hostel complex was undertaken to investigate how communication might be advanced through an assistive listening device (ALD). Most participants were women aged over 85 years; almost all had hearing loss and wore hearing aids. Tests with an ALD found very high levels of satisfaction with understanding speech and sound quality amongst participants. However, few had heard previously of ALDs, all required individualised assistance to fit and use the device and rated ease of use less highly. The findings affirm those of previous studies that ALD technology has a role in communication for older hearing impaired people and for hearing rehabilitation. Its potential to enhance quality of life can be facilitated and promoted through nursing practice, but requires professional and consumer education so that it is not overlooked as a communication option. PMID:25267134

  12. Assessing Age Differences in the Relationship Between Emotional Support and Health Among Older Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Krause, Neal

    2016-02-01

    Research reveals that people tend to place greater value on emotional support as they move through the life course. Older people are likely to do so because emotional support benefits them in some way. The purpose of this study was to see whether there are age differences in the relationship between emotional support and the number of chronic health conditions. In the process, an effort is made to contribute to the literature in three ways. First, an emphasis placed on assessing the relationship between emotional support and health within late life. Second, variations in the source of support are taken into account by contrasting support within religious institutions with support that is received outside church. Third, these issues are examined with data provided by a nationally representative sample of older Mexican Americans (N = 663). The findings suggest that age differences in the relationship between emotional support and health are present within late life. Moreover, the data indicate that this relationship holds for church-based social support but not support that is received outside the church. PMID:26423065

  13. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Using Grafts From Donors Older Than the Age of 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, A V; Alvarez, M J; Méndez, C S M; Villegas, M T; MGraneroa, K; Becerra, A; Dominguez, M; Raya, A M; Exposito, M; Suárez, Y F

    2015-11-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study between 2002 and 2014 to compare liver transplantation outcomes between recipients of grafts from donors older than and younger than the age of 80 years. Numerical variables were compared with the Student t test when their distribution was normal and the Mann-Whitney test when it was not, whereas categorical variables were compared with Pearson chi-squared test or Fisher test, as appropriate; P < .05 was considered significant. The study included 312 patients with organs from donors younger than 80 years of age and 17 with organs from older donors. The 2 recipient groups did not significantly differ in weight, height, gender, body mass index (BMI), CHILD or MELD score, intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital stay, need for intraoperative hemoderivatives, postreperfusion syndrome, biliary or vascular complications, ischemic cholangiopathy, number of repeat surgeries, graft rejection, retransplantation, or survival at 6 months. Although earlier studies considered livers from elderly donors to be suboptimal, our results support the proposition that octogenarian donors can be an excellent source of liver grafts.

  14. Quality of Life and Health State of Long - Term Unemployed in Older Production Age.

    PubMed

    Worach-Kardas, Halina; Kostrzewski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes in the subjective quality of life (QoL) and health state of unemployed people at the age of 45 and older in the city environment. The study also aimed at evaluating some social and demographic factors on the quality of life and health of the unemployed. A group of 454 unemployed people aged 45 and older, registered in labour offices in the city of Łódź, Poland were included in the study. Two groups were formed: short-term and long-term unemployed. QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-Bref questionnaire. The main problems formulated in the study were: Does QoL and health state decrease during the period of unemployment and in what aspects? What factors can modify the changes of QoL of the unemployed? The findings of the analysis indicate that unemployment entails many negative health consequences and the long-term stress connected with being out of work leads to the decline in the quality of life and worsening of mental state. The multidimensional effects of unemployment depend not only on the economic situation of the particular household, but also on perceived health status, personal relationships and the sense of ability to work. PMID:24834137

  15. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Using Grafts From Donors Older Than the Age of 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Rabelo, A V; Alvarez, M J; Méndez, C S M; Villegas, M T; MGraneroa, K; Becerra, A; Dominguez, M; Raya, A M; Exposito, M; Suárez, Y F

    2015-11-01

    We performed a retrospective cohort study between 2002 and 2014 to compare liver transplantation outcomes between recipients of grafts from donors older than and younger than the age of 80 years. Numerical variables were compared with the Student t test when their distribution was normal and the Mann-Whitney test when it was not, whereas categorical variables were compared with Pearson chi-squared test or Fisher test, as appropriate; P < .05 was considered significant. The study included 312 patients with organs from donors younger than 80 years of age and 17 with organs from older donors. The 2 recipient groups did not significantly differ in weight, height, gender, body mass index (BMI), CHILD or MELD score, intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital stay, need for intraoperative hemoderivatives, postreperfusion syndrome, biliary or vascular complications, ischemic cholangiopathy, number of repeat surgeries, graft rejection, retransplantation, or survival at 6 months. Although earlier studies considered livers from elderly donors to be suboptimal, our results support the proposition that octogenarian donors can be an excellent source of liver grafts. PMID:26680060

  16. Potential consequences of raising the Social Security eligibility age on low-income older workers.

    PubMed

    Choi, N G

    2000-01-01

    To examine the potential consequences of raising the Social Security retirement age on future cohorts of low-income elders, this study, based on data from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-1994, identifies factors that may hinder or facilitate continuous employment among older workers born between 1931 and 1941. Specifically, following the analysis of labor-force participation rates and self-reported reasons for non-work, multivariate logistic regression models tested the relationship between individual strengths and constraints, social-structural opportunities and constraints, and economic need variables and the likelihood of work. The findings show that for both men and women, having disabilities was the most significant predictor of non-work. Racial differences, especially in men's labor-force participation rates, appeared to be due in large part to significant racial differences in disability rates. A higher proportion of blacks and Hispanics than whites also reported that they were unemployed. Based on the findings, raising the Social Security eligibility age is likely to result in increased numbers of Disability Insurance (DI) claimants, and the fiscal impact of such an increase needs to be examined. The need to assist unemployed older persons is also discussed. PMID:11148829

  17. Lexical influences on competing speech perception in younger, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Karen S; Jesse, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    The influence of lexical characteristics of words in to-be-attended and to-be-ignored speech streams was examined in a competing speech task. Older, middle-aged, and younger adults heard pairs of low-cloze probability sentences in which the frequency or neighborhood density of words was manipulated in either the target speech stream or the masking speech stream. All participants also completed a battery of cognitive measures. As expected, for all groups, target words that occur frequently or that are from sparse lexical neighborhoods were easier to recognize than words that are infrequent or from dense neighborhoods. Compared to other groups, these neighborhood density effects were largest for older adults; the frequency effect was largest for middle-aged adults. Lexical characteristics of words in the to-be-ignored speech stream also affected recognition of to-be-attended words, but only when overall performance was relatively good (that is, when younger participants listened to the speech streams at a more advantageous signal-to-noise ratio). For these listeners, to-be-ignored masker words from sparse neighborhoods interfered with recognition of target speech more than masker words from dense neighborhoods. Amount of hearing loss and cognitive abilities relating to attentional control modulated overall performance as well as the strength of lexical influences. PMID:26233036

  18. The emotional overlay: older person and carer perspectives on negotiating aging and care in rural Ontario.

    PubMed

    Herron, Rachel V; Skinner, Mark W

    2013-08-01

    This paper extends the burgeoning interest in emotion, health and place by investigating the emotionally complex experiences of aging and care in rural settings. Featuring a thematic analysis of 44 semi-structured interviews and two focus groups with older people and their carers in rural Ontario (Canada) we examine the importance and implications of emotions within and across multiple scales at which care relationships, expectations and responsibilities are negotiated. With the aim of broadening the discussion surrounding geographical dimensions of ethical care, our approach draws on feminist care ethics to understand the multifaceted ways in which emotions shape and are shaped by experiences of aging and caring at the interpersonal, household and community scales. The findings reveal how emotions are central, yet often-overlooked and even hidden within care relationships among older rural people and their carers. We argue that ethical care is contingent on recognizing and valuing the situated emotions involved in doing care work, sustaining care relationships and asking for care. In doing so, we demonstrate how qualitative research on the emotional geographies of care can contribute to the development of informed policies that are contextually sensitive and, ultimately, have the potential to build more ethical rural conditions of care.

  19. 24 CFR 100.306 - Intent to operate as housing designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... persons 55 years of age or older. (b) Phrases such as “adult living”, “adult community”, or similar... designed for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.306 Section 100.306 Housing and Urban... HOUSING ACT Housing for Older Persons § 100.306 Intent to operate as housing designed for persons who...

  20. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  1. Endovascular treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients 70 years of age and older

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Hashimoto, Takao; Koyama, Shunichi; Ohashi, H. Tomoo; Okada, Hirohumi; Ichimasu, Norio; Kohno, Michihiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of elderly patients present with intracranial aneurysms. In addition to female gender, an older age is associated with a higher risk of developing a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and these patients often fare poorly in terms of long-term outcome. It is often thought that elderly patients would especially benefit from endovascular aneurysm treatment. We assessed the clinical outcomes in elderly patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms (RIAs) who were treated by endovascular procedures. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a prospective database of elderly patients treated with coil embolization for RIAs. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the modified Glasgow Outcome Scale. The rates of procedural complications and adverse events were also recorded. Results: During a period of 5 years, 162 patients with 183 intracranial aneurysms were treated in our hospital by means of an endovascular approach. Among them, 51 patients (31.5%) with a ruptured aneurysm were aged 70 years or older. These patients aged 70-91 years (mean age, 74 years) were treated by coil embolization for RIAs. Among them, seven had a Hunt and Hess (HH) grade of I or II, 42 had an HH grade of III or IV, and 2 had an HH grade of V. Endovascular treatment resulted in 32 complete occlusions (62.7%), 15 neck remnants (22%), and 4 body fillings (7.9%). Procedural complications occurred in five patients (9.8%). The outcomes were good or excellent in 17 patients (33.3%). Three patients (5.8%) who died had an HH grade of IV or V. Rebleeding occurred during follow-up in one patient (1.9%). Conclusions: Coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms is safe and effective in the elderly. However, the morbidity and mortality rates are higher in patients with high HH grades. This finding suggests that the timing of treatment should be based on the patient's initial clinical status. PMID:25101199

  2. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  3. The Special Value of Children's Age-Mixed Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Peter

    2011-01-01

    From an evolutionary perspective, the normal social play of children involves kids of various ages. Our human and great-ape ancestors most likely lived in small groups with low birth rates, which made play with others of nearly the same age rare. Consequently, the evolutionary functions of children's social play are best understood by examining…

  4. Relative Weights of the Backpacks of Elementary-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Benjamin P.; Bryant, Judith B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the range of relative backpack weights of one group of elementary-aged children and the extent to which they exceeded recommended levels. A second purpose was to explore whether gender and age help predict the relative weight of children's backpacks. Ninety-five 8- to 12-year-old elementary school…

  5. School-Age Children in CCDBG: 2012 Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah; Reeves, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    The Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) is the primary funding source for federal child care subsidies to low-income working families, as well as improving child care quality. CCDBG provides child care assistance to children from birth to age 13. This fact sheet highlights key information about school-age children and CCDBG. This…

  6. Understanding Participation of Preschool-Age Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiarello, Lisa Ann; Palisano, Robert J.; Orlin, Margo N.; Chang, Hui-Ju; Begnoche, Denise; An, Mihee

    2012-01-01

    Participation in home, school, and community activities is a primary outcome of early intervention services for children with disabilities and their families. The objectives of this study were to (a) describe participation of preschool-age children with cerebral palsy (CP); (b) determine effects of sex, age, and gross motor function on intensity…

  7. Head Injuries in School-Age Children Who Play Golf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin; Krebs, Madelyn; Eads, Julia K.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. We conducted a prospective study, which examined injury characteristics and outcomes of school-age children of 5.0-15.0 years (N = 10) who were admitted to hospital for a TBI. This study evaluated the role of age, gender, the Glasgow Coma Scale, mechanisms and…

  8. Hearing Levels of Children by Age and Sex: United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean; Huber, Paul

    This report contains estimates of hearing levels for children 6 to 11 years of age in the United States as determined in the second cycle of the Health Examination Survey, conducted during 1963-1965. A probability sample (N=7,119) was selected to represent the 24 million children 6 to 11 years of age in the noninstitutional population. Hearing…

  9. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  10. Gray-matter macrostructure in cognitively healthy older persons: Associations with age and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Debra A.; Leurgans, Sue; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Arvanitakis, Zoe; Barnes, Lisa L.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Han, S. Duke; Bennett, David A.

    2013-01-01

    A deeper understanding of brain macrostructure and its associations with cognition in persons who are considered cognitively healthy is critical to the early detection of persons at risk of developing dementia. Few studies have examined the associations of all three gray-matter macrostructural brain indices (volume, thickness, surface area) with age and cognition, in the same persons who are over the age of 65 and do not have cognitive impairment. We performed automated morphometric reconstruction of total gray matter, cortical gray matter, subcortical gray matter and 84 individual regions in 186 participants (60% over the age of 80) without cognitive impairment. Morphometric measures were scaled and expressed as difference per decade of age and an adjusted score was created to identify those regions in which there was greater atrophy per decade of age compared to cortical or subcortical brain averages. The results showed that there is substantial total volume loss and cortical thinning in cognitively healthy older persons. Thinning was more widespread than volume loss, but volume loss, particularly in temporoparietal and hippocampal regions, was more strongly associated with cognition. PMID:23955313

  11. Successful aging: Advancing the science of physical independence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anton, Stephen D; Woods, Adam J; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W; Carter, Christy S; Clark, David J; Cohen, Ronald A; Corbett, Duane B; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A; Fillingim, Roger B; Foster, Thomas C; Gundermann, David M; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T; Mutchie, Heather L; Perri, Michael G; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J; Sibille, Kimberly T; Solberg, Laurence M; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The concept of 'successful aging' has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. A consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  12. Number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years.

    PubMed

    Dos, Santos Flávia Heloisa; Da Silva, Paulo Adilson; Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Dias, Ana Luiza Ribeiro Pereira; Frigério, Michele Cândida; Dellatolas, Georges; von Aster, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Numerical cognition is based on two components - number processing and calculation. Its development is influenced by biological, cognitive, educational, and cultural factors. The objectives of the present study were to: i) assess number processing and calculation in Brazilian children aged 7-12 years from public schools using the Zareki-R (Battery of neuropsychological tests for number processing and calculation in children, Revised; von Aster & Dellatolas, 2006) in order to obtain normative data for Portuguese speakers; ii) identify how environment, age, and gender influences the development of these mathematical skills; iii) investigate the construct validity of the Zareki-R by the contrast with the Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The sample included 172 children, both genders, divided in two groups: urban (N = 119) and rural (N = 53) assessed by the Zareki-R. Rural children presented lower scores in one aspect of number processing; children aged 7-8 years demonstrated an inferior global score than older; boys presented a superior performance in both number processing and calculation. Construct validity of Zareki-R was demonstrated by high to moderate correlations with Arithmetic subtest of WISC-III. The Zareki-R therefore is a suitable instrument to assess the development of mathematical skills, which is influenced by factors such as environment, age, and gender. PMID:22774425

  13. Sports can protect dynamic visual acuity from aging: A study with young and older judo and karate martial arts athletes.

    PubMed

    Muiños, Mónica; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    A major topic of current research in aging has been to investigate ways to promote healthy aging and neuroplasticity in order to counteract perceptual and cognitive declines. The aim of the present study was to investigate the benefits of intensive, sustained judo and karate martial arts training in young and older athletes and nonathletes of the same age for attenuating age-related dynamic visual acuity (DVA) decline. As a target, we used a moving stimulus similar to a Landolt ring that moved horizontally, vertically, or obliquely across the screen at three possible contrasts and three different speeds. The results indicated that (1) athletes had better DVA than nonathletes; (2) the older adult groups showed a larger oblique effect than the younger groups, regardless of whether or not they practiced a martial art; and (3) age modulated the results of sport under the high-speed condition: The DVA of young karate athletes was superior to that of nonathletes, while both judo and karate older athletes showed better DVA than did sedentary older adults. These findings suggest that in older adults, the practice of a martial art in general, rather than the practice of a particular type of martial art, is the crucial thing. We concluded that the sustained practice of a martial art such as judo or karate attenuates the decline of DVA, suggesting neuroplasticity in the aging human brain.

  14. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  15. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment.

  16. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment. PMID:27145363

  17. Academic, Behavioral, and Cognitive Effects of OROS® Methylphenidate on Older Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wigal, Sharon B.; Wigal, Tim; Schuck, Sabrina; Brams, Matthew; Williamson, David; Armstrong, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of Osmotic-Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate (MPH) on a variety of measures evaluating academic performance, cognition, and social behavior in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover laboratory school study enrolled 78 children aged 9–12 years with ADHD who responded to OROS MPH. After determining individualized OROS MPH dosing (18–54 mg/day), 71 subjects received blinded treatment (OROS MPH or placebo then vice versa) on each of 2 laboratory school days, separated by 1 week. Primary efficacy was measured by Permanent Product Measure of Performance at 4 hours after study drug administration. Results Treatment with OROS MPH resulted in statistically significant improvement in Permanent Product Measure of Performance and Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn, and Pelham scores, measures of response time, and of working memory compared to placebo. Other measures did not meet all pre-established criteria for significance (maintenance of the overall type I error rate at 5%). Adverse events were consistent with previous reports of stimulant medications used in the management of ADHD. There were no discontinuations due to adverse events, and no serious adverse events or deaths. Conclusions OROS MPH dosed to reduce core symptoms of ADHD to within the normal range also improved performance on a variety of academic tasks in school-aged children compared to placebo. Adverse effects reported were consistent with prior studies. Clinical Trial Registry Information Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study Evaluating the Academic, Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of Concerta on Older Children with ADHD, URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00799409, unique identifier: NCT00799409. PMID:21488750

  18. Age-related affective modulation of the startle eyeblink response: older adults startle most when viewing positive pictures.

    PubMed

    Feng, Michelle C; Courtney, Christopher G; Mather, Mara; Dawson, Michael E; Davison, Gerald C

    2011-09-01

    Previous studies reveal age by valence interactions in attention and memory, such that older adults focus relatively more on positive and relatively less on negative stimuli than younger adults. In the current study, eyeblink startle response was used to measure differences in emotional reactivity to images that were equally arousing to both age groups. Viewing positive and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System had opposite effects on startle modulation for older and younger adults. Younger adults showed the typical startle blink pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing negative pictures compared to positive pictures. Older adults, on the other hand, showed the opposite pattern, with potentiated startle when viewing positive pictures compared to viewing negative and neutral pictures. Potential underlying mechanisms for this interaction are evaluated. This pattern suggests that, compared with younger adults, older adults are more likely to spontaneously suppress responses to negative stimuli and process positive stimuli more deeply.

  19. 'Only old ladies would do that': age stigma and older people's strategies for dealing with winter cold.

    PubMed

    Day, Rosie; Hitchings, Russell

    2011-07-01

    Concerns over the welfare of older people in winter have led to interventions and advice campaigns meant to improve their ability to keep warm, but older people themselves are not always willing to follow these recommendations. In this paper we draw on an in-depth study that followed twenty one older person households in the UK over a cold winter and examined various aspects of their routine warmth-related practices at home and the rationales underpinning them. We find that although certain aspects of ageing did lead participants to feel they had changing warmth needs, their practices were also shaped by the problematic task of negotiating identities in the context of a wider stigmatisation of older age and an evident resistance to ageist discourses. After outlining the various ways in which this was manifest in our study, we conclude by drawing out the implications for future policy and research. PMID:21606000

  20. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  1. Down Syndrome Disintegrative Disorder: New-Onset Autistic Regression, Dementia, and Insomnia in Older Children and Adolescents With Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Worley, Gordon; Crissman, Blythe G; Cadogan, Emily; Milleson, Christie; Adkins, Deanna W; Kishnani, Priya S

    2015-08-01

    Over a 10-year period in a Down syndrome Clinic, 11 children and adolescents were encountered with a history of new-onset (8) or worsening (3) autistic characteristics. Ten of the 11 (91%) had cognitive decline to a dementia-like state and 9 of the 11 (82%) new-onset insomnia. The mean age at which symptoms developed was 11.4 years (standard deviation = 3.6 years; range 5-14 years), an older age than usual for autistic regression in Down syndrome. Ten of 11 cases (91%) had elevated ("positive") thyroperoxidase antibody titers compared to only 5 of 21 (23%) age-matched control subjects with Down syndrome (P < .001). At follow-up at a mean age of 20.7 years (standard deviation = 3.9 years), 8 of the 11 (73%) were at least somewhat better. Down syndrome disintegrative disorder seems an appropriate name for this newly recognized clinical association, which may be due to autoimmunity.

  2. Expectations of filial obligation and their impact on preferences for future living arrangements of middle-aged and older Asian Indian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Sadhna; Lee, Sang E; Sen, Soma

    2011-03-01

    Filial obligation, described as culturally-defined rights and duties that prescribe how family members are expected to care for and provide support to each other, is an important variable that influences older immigrants' preferences for living and care arrangements. This exploratory study examined variables associated with expectations of filial obligation among middle-aged and older, Asian Indian, first generation immigrants and explored the relationship between variations in expectations of filial obligation and expressed preferences for future living arrangements. Data were collected through telephone surveys of 226 English-speaking immigrants in Atlanta, GA. Although no significant relationships were observed between filial obligation expectations and length of residence in the U.S., respondents indicated a variety of preferred future living arrangements. Contrary to current living arrangement patterns found among older immigrants, very few respondents preferred to move in with their children. The most popular preference was to "move closer to children," followed by "moving to a retirement community" with the majority preferring a retirement community geared to Asian Indians. Other preferences included "not moving" and "returning to India." Variations in expectations of filial obligation, length of residence in the U.S., and self-rated health were significantly associated with these preferences. Implications are discussed for building capacity within ethnic communities to address living arrangement preferences and their repercussions for caregiving in ethnic families and in communities.

  3. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  4. Young Children's Engagement and Learning Opportunities in a Cooking Activity with Parents and Older Siblings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Lauren; Vandermaas-Peeler, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Parents teach their children through informal social interactions in a process known as guided participation (Rogoff, 1990). Although most research focuses on parent-child dyads, young children also learn from older siblings and parents through shared participation in daily activities. Utilizing a structured observational design, the authors…

  5. Perceived Income Adequacy among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends…

  6. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  7. Race and Gender Differences in Perceived Caregiver Availability for Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Howard, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Informal family caregivers are increasingly recognized as critical for meeting the needs of individuals with chronic diseases associated with aging. This study examined race and gender differences in perceived informal caregiver availability for participants aged 45 and older in a large national epidemiological study. Design and Methods:…

  8. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1585 - Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trial work period for persons age 55 or older who are blind. 404.1585 Section 404.1585 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness...

  13. Aging in Place vs. Relocation for Older Adults with a Neurocognitive Disorder: Applications of Wiseman’s Behavioral Model

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Daniel; Andersen, Troy; Lehning, Amanda; Perry, Tam Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Some older adults are more vulnerable to housing concerns due to physical and cognitive challenges, including those with a neurocognitive disorder who need extensive support. Environmental gerontology frameworks, including Wiseman’s (1980) Behavioral Model of Elderly Migration, have informed scholarship on aging in place and relocation. It remains unclear, however, the extent to which this conceptual work informs services and supports for older adults, and the Wiseman model has not been applied to people with a neurocognitive disorder. Understanding Wiseman’s model, including considerations for working with families confronting a neurocognitive disorder, can help practitioners ensure that older clients live in settings that best meet their wants and needs. PMID:26016530

  14. Lap time variation and executive function in older adults: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Resnick, Susan M.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: poor cognitive and motor performance predicts neurological dysfunction. Variable performance may be a subclinical indicator of emerging neurological problems. Objective: examine the cross-sectional association between a clinically accessible measure of variable walking and executive function. Methods: older adults aged 60 or older from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 811) with data on the 400-m walk test and cognition. Based on ten 40-m laps, we calculated mean lap time (MLT) and variation in time across ten 40-m laps (lap time variation, LTV). Executive function tests assessed attention and short-term memory (digit span forward and backward), psychomotor speed [Trail Making Test (TMT) part A] and multicomponent tasks requiring cognitive flexibility [TMT part B, part B-A (Delta TMT) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST)]. Multivariate linear regression analysis examined the cross-sectional association between LTV and executive function, adjusted for MLT, age, sex and education, as well as the LTV × MLT interaction. Results: the LTV was univariately associated with all executive function tests except digit span (P < 0.001); after adjustment, the association with TMT part A remained (standardised β = 0.142, P = 0.002). There was an interaction between MLT and LTV; among fast walkers, greater LTV was associated with a greater Delta TMT (β for LTV × MLT = −1.121, P = 0.016) after adjustment. Conclusion: at any walking speed, greater LTV is associated with psychomotor slowing. Among persons with faster walking speed, variation is associated with worse performance on a complex measure of cognitive flexibility. A simple measure of variability in walking time is independently associated with psychomotor slowing. PMID:26082177

  15. Outcomes and Tolerability of Chemoradiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer Patients Aged 75 Years or Older

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, David T.; Mamon, Harvey J.

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review the outcomes and tolerability of full-dose chemoradiation in elderly patients aged 75 years or older with localized pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed patients aged 75 years or older with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer treated with chemoradiation therapy at two institutions from 2002 to 2007. Patients were analyzed for treatment toxicity, local recurrences, distant metastases, and survival. Results: A total of 42 patients with a median age of 78 years (range, 75-90 years) who received chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic cancer were identified. Of the patients, 24 had locally advanced disease treated with definitive chemoradiation, and 18 had disease treated with surgery and chemoradiation. Before chemoradiotherapy, the mean Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1.0 {+-} 0.8, and the mean 6-month weight loss was 5.3 {+-} 3.8 kg. The mean radiation dose delivered was 48.1 {+-} 9.2 Gy. All patients received fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy. In all, 8 patients (19%) were hospitalized, 7 (17%) had an emergency room visit, 15 (36%) required a radiation treatment break, 3 (7%) required a chemotherapy break, 9 (21%) did not complete therapy, and 22 (49%) had at least one of these adverse events. The most common toxicities were nausea, pain, and failure to thrive. Median overall survival was 8.6 months (95% confidence interval, 7.2-13.1) in patients who received definitive chemoradiation therapy and 20.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.5-{infinity}) in patients who underwent resection and chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: In this dataset of very elderly patients with pancreatic cancer and good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, outcomes after chemoradiotherapy were similar to those among historic controls for patients with locally advanced and resected pancreatic cancer, although many patients experienced substantial treatment

  16. Spoken language scores of children using cochlear implants compared to hearing age-mates at school entry.

    PubMed

    Geers, Ann E; Moog, Jean S; Biedenstein, Julia; Brenner, Christine; Hayes, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated three questions: Is it realistic to expect age-appropriate spoken language skills in children with cochlear implants (CIs) who received auditory-oral intervention during the preschool years? What characteristics predict successful spoken language development in this population? Are children with CIs more proficient in some areas of language than others? We analyzed language skills of 153 children with CIs as measured by standardized tests. These children (mean age = 5 years and 10 months) attended programs in the United States (N = 39) that used an auditory-oral educational approach. Age-appropriate scores were observed in 50% of the children on measures of receptive vocabulary, 58% on expressive vocabulary, 46% on verbal intelligence, 47% on receptive language, and 39% on expressive language. Regression analysis indicated that, after controlling for the effects of nonverbal intelligence and parent education level, children who received their implants at young ages had higher scores on all language tests than children who were older at implantation. On average, children with CIs performed better on certain language measures than others, indicating that some areas of language may be more difficult for these children to master than others. Implications for educators of deaf children with CIs are discussed.

  17. HIV after 40 in rural South Africa: A life course approach to HIV vulnerability among middle aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Mojola, Sanyu A; Williams, Jill; Angotti, Nicole; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier

    2015-10-01

    South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV in the world (over 6 million) as well as a rapidly aging population, with 15% of the population aged 50 and over. High HIV prevalence in rural former apartheid homeland areas suggests substantial aging with HIV and acquisition of HIV at older ages. We develop a life course approach to HIV vulnerability, highlighting the rise and fall of risk and protection as people age, as well as the role of contextual density in shaping HIV vulnerability. Using this approach, we draw on an innovative multi-method data set collected within the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System in South Africa, combining survey data with 60 nested life history interviews and 9 community focus group interviews. We examine HIV risk and protective factors among adults aged 40-80, as well as how and why these factors vary among people at older ages.

  18. Sources of Older Parents’ Ambivalent Feelings Toward Their Adult Children: The Case of Rural China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Relying on the concept of sociological ambivalence, this study investigated the sources of intergenerational ambivalence in rural China, a traditional society that undergoes dramatic demographic, economic, and social changes. Methods. Data were derived from a survey of 1,162 older adults and their 4,396 children in rural Anhui province. Two-level mixed-effects model was carried out to predict ambivalent feelings reported by the older parents toward their adult children. Results. The findings yielded both similar and distinctive predictors of intergenerational ambivalence among the Chinese elderly population compared with their Western counterparts. The Chinese elderly population reported greater ambivalence toward sons than toward daughters. Adult children’s higher socioeconomic status, represented by a more prestigious job and an urban household registry status (hukou), was associated with reduced ambivalence among parents. Parents’ monetary support to children and assistance with childcare, which is common in rural China due to the massive out-migration, were also associated with higher levels of ambivalent feelings. Discussion. We interpreted the findings in the larger social context of strong son preference, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and rigid rural–urban division in China due to the household registration system. Our findings demonstrate that individual feelings of ambivalence are culturally structured and are determined within complex social environment. PMID:23591570

  19. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills

  20. Successful Aging: Advancing the Science of Physical Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Woods, Adam J.; Ashizawa, Tetso; Barb, Diana; Buford, Thomas W.; Carter, Christy S.; Clark, David J.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Corbett, Duane B.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Dotson, Vonetta; Ebner, Natalie; Efron, Philip A.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Foster, Thomas C.; Gundermann, David M.; Joseph, Anna-Maria; Karabetian, Christy; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Marsiske, Michael; Mankowski, Robert T.; Mutchie, Heather L.; Perri, Michael G.; Ranka, Sanjay; Rashidi, Parisa; Sandesara, Bhanuprasad; Scarpace, Philip J.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Solberg, Laurence M.; Someya, Shinichi; Uphold, Connie; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie; Wu, Samuel Shangwu; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The concept of ‘Successful Aging’ has long intrigued the scientific community. Despite this long-standing interest, a consensus definition has proven to be a difficult task, due to the inherent challenge involved in defining such a complex, multi-dimensional phenomenon. The lack of a clear set of defining characteristics for the construct of successful aging has made comparison of findings across studies difficult and has limited advances in aging research. The domain in which consensus on markers of successful aging is furthest developed is the domain of physical functioning. For example, walking speed appears to be an excellent surrogate marker of overall health and predicts the maintenance of physical independence, a cornerstone of successful aging. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview and discussion of specific health conditions, behavioral factors, and biological mechanisms that mark declining mobility and physical function and promising interventions to counter these effects. With life expectancy continuing to increase in the United States and developed countries throughout the world, there is an increasing public health focus on the maintenance of physical independence among all older adults. PMID:26462882

  1. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  2. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  3. Cognitive and Psychosocial Consequences of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Among Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Su, L Joseph; Welsh, David A; Galea, Sandro; Jazwinski, S Michal; Silva, Jennifer L; Erwin, Marla J

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the impact of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita on cognitive and psychosocial functioning among middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-89 years) and oldest-old adults (90 years and over) in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Analyses of pre- and post-disaster cognitive data showed storm-related decrements in working memory for the middle-aged and older adults, but not for the oldest-old adults. Regression analyses confirmed that measures of social engagement and storm-related disruption significantly predicted pre- to post-disaster differences in short-term and working memory performance for the middle-aged and older adults only. These results are consistent with a burden perspective on post-disaster psychological reactions. Implications for current views of disaster reactions are discussed.

  4. Variation in Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening in Men Aged 80 and Older in Fee-for-Service Medicare

    PubMed Central

    Bynum, Julie; Song, Yunjie; Fisher, Elliott

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the rate of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men aged 80 and older in Medicare and to examine geographic variation in screening rates across the U.S. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study of variation across hospital referral regions using administrative data. SETTING National random sample in fee-for-service Medicare. PARTICIPANTS Medicare beneficiaries aged 80 and older in 2003. MEASUREMENTS Percentage of men aged 80 and older screened using the PSA test. RESULTS The national rate of PSA screening in men aged 80 and older was 17.2%, but there was wide variation across regions (<2–38%). Higher PSA screening in a region was positively associated with greater total costs (correlation coefficient (r) = 0.49, P<.001), greater intensive care unit use at the end of life (r = 0.46, P<.001), and greater number of unique physicians seen (r = 0.36, P<.001). PSA screening was negatively associated with proportion of beneficiaries using a primary care physician as opposed to a medical subspecialist for the predominance of ambulatory care (r = −0.38, P<.001). CONCLUSION PSA screening in men aged 80 and older is common practice, although its frequency is highly variable across the United States. Its association with fragmented physician care and aggressive end-of-life care may reflect less reliance on primary care and consequent difficulty informing patients of the potential harms and low likelihood of benefit of this procedure. PMID:20345867

  5. Age-Related Differences in Attentional Networks of Alerting and Executive Control in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Chinese Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Shan-shan; Fan, Jin; Lee, Tatia M. C.; Wang, Chang-qing; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that aging is associated with impairment of attention. However, it is not known whether this represents a global attentional deficit or relates to a specific attentional network. We used the attention network test to examine three groups of younger, middle-aged, and older participants with respect to the efficiency of…

  6. Dental age assessment among Tunisian children using the Demirjian method

    PubMed Central

    Aissaoui, Abir; Salem, Nidhal Haj; Mougou, Meryam; Maatouk, Fethi; Chadly, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Since Demirjian system of estimating dental maturity was first described, many researchers from different countries have tested its accuracy among diverse populations. Some of these studies have pointed out a need to determine population-specific standards. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the suitability of the Demirjian's method for dental age assessment in Tunisian children. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study previously approved by the Research Ethics Local Committee of the University Hospital Fattouma Bourguiba of Monastir (Tunisia). Panoramic radiographs of 280 healthy Tunisian children of age 2.8–16.5 years were examined with Demirjian method and scored by three trained observers. Statistical Analysis Used: Dental age was compared to chronological age by using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Cohen's Kappa test was performed to calculate the intra- and inter-examiner agreements. Results: Underestimation was seen in children aged between 9 and 16 years and the range of accuracy varied from −0.02 to 3 years. The advancement in dental age as determined by Demirjian system when compared to chronological age ranged from 0.3 to 1.32 year for young males and from 0.26 to 1.37 year for young females (age ranged from 3 to 8 years). Conclusions: The standards provided by Demirjian for French-Canadian children may not be suitable for Tunisian children. Each population of children may need their own specific standard for an accurate estimation of chronological age. PMID:27051223

  7. Word fluency in relation to severity of closed head injury, associated frontal brain lesions, and age at injury in children.

    PubMed

    Levin, H S; Song, J; Ewing-Cobbs, L; Chapman, S B; Mendelsohn, D

    2001-01-01

    Effects of closed head injury (CHI) severity, focal brain lesions, and age at injury on word fluency (WF) were studied longitudinally in 122 children (78 severe, 44 mild); 112 CHI patients (68 severe, 44 mild CHI) and 104 uninjured normal controls participated in a cross-sectional study. WF was measured by asking the child to generate as many words as possible beginning with a designated letter within 60 s, repeated for three letters. Intellectual ability, receptive vocabulary, narrative discourse, and word list recall were also measured. Results of the cross-sectional study showed a significant group effect with poorer WF in severe CHI than mild CHI and control groups. Growth curve analysis of longitudinal data revealed an interaction of age, follow-up interval, and CHI severity as WF recovery was slower after severe CHI in younger children as compared to severe CHI in older children or mild CHI in younger children. An interaction of left frontal lesion with age and interval indicated a more adverse effect on WF in older children. Right frontal lesion effect was nonsignificant and did not interact with age. Correlations of WF with receptive vocabulary, word list recall, and narrative discourse were moderate and weak with estimated intellectual ability. Differences in focal lesion effects after traumatic versus nontraumatic brain injury in children, the contribution of diffuse white matter injury, reduced opportunity for language development, and functional commitment of left frontal region at time of CHI were discussed. PMID:11163370

  8. A cross-sectional observational study of pneumococcal carriage in children, their parents, and older adults following the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Hamaluba, Mainga; Kandasamy, Rama; Ndimah, Susan; Morton, Richard; Caccamo, Marisa; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Field, Aimee; Norman, Lily; Plested, Emma; Thompson, Ben A V; Zafar, Azhar; Kerridge, Simon A; Lazarus, Rajeka; John, Tessa; Holmes, Jane; Fenlon, Shannon N; Gould, Katherine A; Waight, Pauline; Hinds, Jason; Crook, Derrick; Snape, Matthew D; Pollard, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Using nasopharyngeal carriage as a marker of vaccine impact, pneumococcal colonization and its relation to invasive disease were examined in children, their parents, and older adults in the United Kingdom following introduction of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and prior to 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13).A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, collecting nasopharyngeal swabs from children aged 25 to 55 months who had previously received 3 doses of PCV7, their parents, and adults aged ≥65 years. Pneumococcal serotyping was conducted according to World Health Organization guidelines with nontypeable isolates further analyzed by molecular serotyping. A national invasive disease surveillance program was conducted throughout the corresponding period.Pneumococcus was isolated from 47% of children, 9% of parents, and 2.2% of older adults. For these groups, the percentage of serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.5%, 0.0%, and 15.4%, with a further 20.1%, 44.4%, and 7.7% coverage added by those in PCV13. In each group, the percentage of disease due to serotypes covered by PCV7 were 1.0%, 7.4% and 5.1% with a further 65.3%, 42.1%, and 61.4% attributed to those in PCV13.The prevalence of carriage is the highest in children, with direct vaccine impact exemplified by low carriage and disease prevalence of PCV7 serotypes in vaccinated children, whereas the indirect effects of herd protection are implied by similar observations in unvaccinated parents and older adults. PMID:25569650

  9. Age and learning environment: Are children implicit second language learners?

    PubMed

    Lichtman, Karen

    2016-05-01

    Children are thought to learn second languages (L2s) using primarily implicit mechanisms, in contrast to adults, who primarily rely on explicit language learning. This difference is usually attributed to cognitive maturation, but adults also receive more explicit instruction than children, which may influence their learning strategies. This study crosses instruction condition with age, teaching forty children aged 5;3 to 7;11 and forty adults an artificial mini-language under implicit or explicit training conditions. Participants produced novel sentences and judged sentence grammaticality equally well in either condition, but both children and adults in the explicit training condition developed greater awareness of the mini-language's structures - and greater awareness was associated with better performance for both age groups. Results show that explicit instruction affects children and adults in the same way, supporting the hypothesis that age differences in implicit vs. explicit L2 learning are not exclusively caused by maturation, but also influenced by instruction. PMID:26915737

  10. The two faces of selective memory retrieval: Earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect with older age.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Alp; Schlichting, Andreas; John, Thomas; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2015-12-01

    Recent work with young adults has shown that, depending on study context access, selective memory retrieval can both impair and improve recall of other memories (Bäuml & Samenieh, 2010). Here, we investigated the 2 opposing effects of selective retrieval in older age. In Experiment 1, we examined 64 younger (20-35 years) and 64 older participants (above 60 years), and manipulated study context access using list-method directed forgetting. Whereas both age groups showed a detrimental effect of selective retrieval on to-be-remembered items, only younger but not older adults showed a beneficial effect on to-be-forgotten items. In Experiment 2, we examined 112 participants from a relatively wide age range (40-85 years), and manipulated study context access by varying the retention interval between study and test. Overall, a detrimental effect of selective retrieval arose when the retention interval was relatively short, but a beneficial effect when the retention interval was prolonged. Critically, the size of the beneficial but not the detrimental effect of retrieval decreased with age and this age-related decline was mediated by individuals' working memory capacity, as measured by the complex operation span task. Together, the results suggest an age-related dissociation in retrieval dynamics, indicating an earlier decline of the beneficial than the detrimental effect of selective retrieval with older age. PMID:26652723

  11. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  12. Older Characters in Teen Movies from 1980-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tom; Callister, Mark; Magoffin, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Although children as young as age three have already begun to manifest negative stereotypes toward older adults, attitudes toward older adults likely crystallize during late childhood and adolescence and become entrenched by the time an individual reaches young adulthood. Studies have shown that young people view older people in general as…

  13. Everyday challenges in context: the influence of contextual factors on everyday problem solving among young, middle-aged, and older adults.

    PubMed

    Artistico, Daniele; Orom, Heather; Cervone, Daniel; Krauss, Stephen; Houston, Eric

    2010-04-01

    The authors examined the experimental effects of social context on everyday problem-solving performance by older, middle-aged, and younger adults. Participants were presented with six everyday problems constructed by framing two behavioral challenges in social contexts representative of the lives of older, middle-aged, and younger adults. As predicted, participants performed best when problems were situated in contexts representative of their own age group. Older adults also outperformed the other age groups on problems set in older adult contexts, suggesting that when problems are set in ecologically relevant contexts, one may not observe previously reported age-related declines in performance.

  14. Behavioural correlates of the P3b event-related potential in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, O.; Bastien, C. H.; Muckle, G.; Saint-Amour, D.; Jacobson, S. W.; Jacobson, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    The latency and amplitude of the P3b component of event-related potentials (ERPs) have been related to behavioural performance on several attention and memory tasks in adult populations. However, the extent to which these results apply to children is unknown. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of the P3b component in a longitudinal sample of school-age children from Arctic Québec. Children (N = 110; mean age = 11.3 years) were assessed on an ERP auditory oddball paradigm and a neurobehavioral evaluation targeting several aspects of cognition, including the Stewart Extended Continuous Performance Test (E-CPT), California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, and five subtests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Fourth edition (WISC-IV). P3b latency was positively related to reaction time measures and negatively associated with performance on the WISC-IV Digit Span Forward subtest. Amplitude of the P3b was associated with shorter completion time on the Stroop test and better delayed recognition memory performance among children who did not use semantic strategies on the CVLT. Profile analyses revealed no difference in scalp distribution of the P3b according to performance on these tests. The results are consistent with previous studies with older participants and suggest that, despite age-related differences in waveform and scalp distribution, the P3b component relates to similar neurocognitive processes in children and adults. PMID:20338199

  15. Predicting cisplatin ototoxicity in children: the influence of age and the cumulative dose.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Womer, R B; Silber, J H

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for high-frequency hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin. We scored off-treatment pure-tone audiograms from 153 children (age 6 months to 18 years) who had completed cisplatin therapy (40-200 mg/m(2)/cycle) for germ cell tumours, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma or osteosarcoma. The risk of developing bilateral moderate to severe high-frequency hearing loss was significantly related to the age at treatment (P<0.001), and individual and cumulative cisplatin dosages (both P<0.005). Logistic regression showed that children younger than 5 years were at a greater risk of sustaining cisplatin ototoxicity than children older than 15 years, controlling for individual and cumulative doses of cisplatin (Odds Ratio (OR)=21.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 2.48-180.94). Age at treatment and the cumulative dose of cisplatin were the two most important risk factors in predicting moderate to severe high-frequency hearing loss in children treated with cisplatin. PMID:15519518

  16. Health behaviour changes after diagnosis of chronic illness among Canadians aged 50 or older.

    PubMed

    Newson, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Ramage-Morin, Pamela L; McCarthy, Michael J; Bernier, Julie; Kaplan, Mark S; McFarland, Bentson H

    2012-12-01

    Changes in health behaviours (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and fruit and vegetable consumption) after diagnosis of chronic health conditions (heart disease, cancer, stroke, respiratory disease, and diabetes) were examined among Canadians aged 50 or older. Results from 12 years of longitudinal data from the Canadian National Population Health Survey indicated relatively modest changes in behaviour. Although significant decreases in smoking were observed among all groups except those with respiratory disease, at least 75% of smokers did not quit. No significant changes emerged in the percentage meeting physical activity recommendations, except those with diabetes, or in excessive alcohol consumption, except those with diabetes and respiratory disease. The percentage reporting the recommended minimum fruit and vegetable intake did not increase significantly among any group.

  17. Income Inequities in Health Care Utilization among Adults Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to and utilization of health services is a primary goal for many health care systems, particularly in countries with universal publicly funded systems. Despite concerns regarding potentially adverse implications of the 1990s' health care policy and other reforms, whether and how income inequalities in service utilization changed remains unclear. This study addressed the impact of income on physician and hospital utilization from 1992-2002 among adults aged 50 and older in British Columbia. Those with lower incomes were found less likely to access general practitioner and specialist services but more likely to access hospital services. Income-related disparities in physician care increased over time; hospital care declined. Volume of GP and hospital care was inversely associated with income; these differences increased regarding GP services only. Findings of declines in hospital-care access, accompanied by increasing income-related disparities in physician-services access, show that inequities are increasing within Canada's health care system.

  18. Income Inequities in Health Care Utilization among Adults Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to and utilization of health services is a primary goal for many health care systems, particularly in countries with universal publicly funded systems. Despite concerns regarding potentially adverse implications of the 1990s' health care policy and other reforms, whether and how income inequalities in service utilization changed remains unclear. This study addressed the impact of income on physician and hospital utilization from 1992-2002 among adults aged 50 and older in British Columbia. Those with lower incomes were found less likely to access general practitioner and specialist services but more likely to access hospital services. Income-related disparities in physician care increased over time; hospital care declined. Volume of GP and hospital care was inversely associated with income; these differences increased regarding GP services only. Findings of declines in hospital-care access, accompanied by increasing income-related disparities in physician-services access, show that inequities are increasing within Canada's health care system. PMID:26757886

  19. Overt and covert verbal problem-solving strategies: developmental trends in use, awareness, and relations with task performance in children aged 5 to 17.

    PubMed

    Winsler, Adam; Naglieri, Jack

    2003-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's use, self report, and awareness of verbal problem-solving strategies (private speech) and strategy effectiveness were explored with a large (N = 2,156) cross-sectional sample of children aged 5 to 17. Children's verbal strategies moved from overt, to partially covert, to fully covert forms with age. Self-reports of verbal strategy use were accurate yet incomplete. Awareness of children's use of verbal strategies was low and increased with age. Although verbal strategies were associated with competence among the youngest children, self-talk was unrelated to task performance for older children, suggesting considerable persistence over time of a relatively ineffective strategy. Awareness was not a prerequisite for children's verbal strategy use but was positively associated with strategy effectiveness among those who talked.

  20. Self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanzhang; Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes in three population groups: urban residents, migrants in urban settings, and rural residents. Methods We used data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The sample included 993 participants age 45 and older who reported having diabetes diagnosed from a health professional. We performed multilevel regressions performed to examine the associations between characteristics and different aspects of diabetes education received. Findings Our study shows that 20.24% of the participants received no diabetes education at all. Among those who received information, 46.82% of respondents with diabetes received weight control advice from a health care provider, 90.97% received advice on exercise, 60.37% received diet advice, 35.12% were spoken to smoking control, and only 17.89% of persons were informed of foot care. After controlling socioeconomic factors, life style, number of comorbidities and community factors, we found that compared with migrant population and rural residents, urban residents were more likely to receive diabetes education on diet. Urban residents were also more likely to obtain diabetes education and more aspects of diabetes education comparison with migrants and rural residents. Conclusions Our study suggests diabetes education is a serious concern in China, and a significant proportion of the participants did not receive advice on smoking control and foot care. Rural residents and migrants from rural areas received much less diabetes education compared with urban residents. Efforts to improve diabetes educations are urgently needed in China.