Techniques are described which were used to develop and establish the Young Parents Program, a pilot project used to develop and expand the homebound instruction function of Norwalk Hospital by providing broadening family functioning type experiences to pregnant girls in the Norwalk, Connecticut, schools. The instructional objectives listed are…
Kremen, William S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Waterman, Brian; Toomey, Rosemary; Neale, Michael C; Tsuang, Ming T; Lyons, Michael J
Although it is of lifelong importance, reading ability is studied primarily in children and adolescents. We examined variation in word recognition in 347 middle-aged male twin pairs. Overall heritability (a2) was 0.45, and shared environmental influences (c2) were 0.28. However, parental education moderated heritability such that a2 was 0.21 at the lowest parental education level and 0.69 at the highest level; c2 was 0.52 and 0.00, respectively. This constitutes a parental education x environment interaction. The higher heritability was due to a decrease in the magnitude of shared environmental factors, rather than an increase in the magnitude of genetic factors. Other cognitive studies have reported gene x environment interactions, but patterns may differ as a function of age or specific cognitive abilities. Our results suggest that shared environmental factors in families with low parental education have long-lasting effects on word recognition ability, well beyond any critical period for developing reading proficiency.
Braun, Maureen H.; Fuscaldo, Diane P.
This study evaluates the impact of the Parent Linking Project III (PLP III) on its participants. The PLP III is a comprehensive program for teenage mothers which offers workshops in parenting, mother-child interaction, and vocational awareness, and provides day care services that allow teen mothers to take the opportunity to complete their high…
Achievement, Inc., Hicksville, NY.
Directed at the parents of preschool and elementary school children, this document consists of a collection of the informational brochures, catalogs, promotional materials, price lists, and order forms for a series of audiocassette tapes. All tapes are commercially available from Achievement Inc. Titles of tapes available are as follows: (1)…
Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal—the Chitwan Valley Family Study—results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender. PMID:25866415
von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz
The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A. B.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.
Using data collected up to age 26 in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, this cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) is the first for a sustained publicly funded early intervention. The program provides services for low-income families beginning at age 3 in 20 school sites. Kindergarten and school-age services are provided up to age 9…
Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith
Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.
Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2014
Individualized Education Program (IEP) Facilitation is an optional process, not required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), that state educational agencies (SEA) or school districts may provide to parents and schools. The goal of a Facilitated IEP meeting is to develop an IEP that is supported by team members and benefits…
Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang
Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.
A study examined the readership of state cooperative extension offices' home learning programs--nine series of booklets of information about pregnancy, infant development, and parenting, mailed to parents in ten states to coincide with pregnancy stage and baby's age in months. The reading level of the series varied from sixth to eighth-grade…
Zwick, Mark L.
The focus of this article is on parents and how they should be involved in the education of their children. Viewing the parents as resources can only enhance the educational process. Discussion centers on ways parent cooperation can be developed in the school system. (Author/PC)
The author proposes that those most in need of parent education are non-parents; the basis for this contradictory conclusion is in the changes that have been taking place in the structure and position of the American family. (MM)
Arora, Tiny C. M. J.
This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…
Stanberry, J. Phillip; Stanberry, Anne M.
This study examined parents' feelings of confidence in their parenting ability among 56 individuals enrolled in 5 parent education programs in Mississippi, hypothesizing that there would be significant correlations between personal authority in the family system and a parent's confidence in performing the various roles of parenting. Based on…
Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A; White, Barry A B; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L
Using data collected up to age 26 in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, this cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) is the first for a sustained publicly funded early intervention. The program provides services for low-income families beginning at age 3 in 20 school sites. Kindergarten and school-age services are provided up to age 9 (third grade). Findings from a complete cohort of over 1,400 program and comparison group participants indicated that the CPCs had economic benefits in 2007 dollars that exceeded costs. The preschool program provided a total return to society of $10.83 per dollar invested (18% annual return). The primary sources of benefits were increased earnings and tax revenues and averted criminal justice system costs. The school-age program had a societal return of $3.97 per dollar invested (10% annual return). The extended intervention program (4-6 years) had a societal return of $8.24 (18% annual return). Estimates were robust across a wide range of analyses including Monte Carlo simulations. Males, 1-year preschool participants, and children from higher risk families derived greater benefits. Findings provide strong evidence that sustained programs can contribute to well-being for individuals and society.
Strom, Robert; And Others
Discusses findings from interviews with immigrant and refugee parents from Vietnam and Central and South America in Alberta, Canada, regarding concerns and educational needs. Reports concerns about children not speaking their native language and greater independence for children in Canada. Describes a multicultural parent education program…
Routh, Brianna; Langworthy, Sara; Jastram, Hannah
As more parents are using the Internet to answer their questions, Extension needs to provide practical, research-based resources in an accessible format. Pinterest is a platform that can be used by Extension educators to provide continued education and make reputable resources more discoverable for parents. Based on Knowles adult learning theory…
Knobel, Keila Alessandra Baraldi; Lima, Maria Cecília Marconi Pinheiro
Exposure to loud sound during leisure activities for long periods of time is an important area to implement preventive health education, especially among young people. The aim was to identify the relations among awareness about the damaging effects of loud levels of sounds, previous exposures do loud sounds, preferences-related to sound levels and knowledge about hearing protection with age, gender, and their parent's educational level among children. Prospective cross-sectional. Seven hundred and forty students (5-16 years old) and 610 parents participated in the study. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test and linear regression. About 86.5% of the children consider that loud sounds damage the ears and 53.7% dislike noisy places. Children were previously exposed to parties and concerts with loud music, Mardi Gras, firecrackers and loud music at home or in the car and loud music with earphones. About 18.4% of the younger children could select the volume of the music, versus 65.3% of the older ones. Children have poor information about hearing protection and do not have hearing protection device. Knowledge about the risks related to exposures to loud sounds and about strategies to protect their hearing increases with age, but preference for loud sounds and exposures to it increases too. Gender and parents' instructional level have little influence on the studied variables. Many of the children's recreational activities are noisy. It is possible that the tendency of increasing preference for loud sounds with age might be a result of a learned behavior.
Hare, Jo Ann; And Others
This curriculum for parent education through cooperative preschools has a sequential approach, with topics developed for parents with different age children enrolled in the various laboratory settings. Introductory materials include the goals and objectives for community college parent cooperative programs, methods of presentation, and a…
Doherty, William J.; Jacob, Jenet; Cutting, Beth
We introduce Community Engaged Parent Education as a model for civic engagement in parent education. In Community Engaged Parent Education, the parent educator weaves the public dimensions of parenting into the everyday practice of group parent education. It is not a curriculum but a community-collaborative way of teaching all parenting topics by…
Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2014
A resolution meeting is a dispute resolution process that takes place after a parent files a due process complaint. Resolution meetings offer parents and school districts the opportunity to resolve issues before a due process hearing happens. This publication describes Resolution Meetings generally for Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities…
Myers, Jane E.
This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…
David, Miriam E.
Discusses social justice in education, specifically gender issues. Explores how rightist governments in advanced industrialized societies have tried to implement an agenda of parental choice and standards, in contrast to earlier liberal administrations' efforts to reduce differences between families and involve mothers in children's education.…
Actions of school systems with respect to pregnant schoolgirls are neglectful and often hostile and punitive. The way schools treat such girls may influence what kinds of citizens and parents the girls will become and how they will relate to the school system as their children grow up in it. (Author/CB)
Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja
Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants' education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child's activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role.
Greenberg, Jan S.; Becker, Marion
Investigated extent to which aging parents experience stress when problems arise in lives of their adult children, and ways in which they serve as resources to their children in need. Findings from 29 couples over age 60 revealed that mothers experienced significant stress resulting from adult children's problems, whereas fathers experienced…
Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F
The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.
Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike
This study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8 years. One parent completed a questionnaire to measure their own and their child's fruit consumption, parenting style, education level and ethnicity. In mediation and moderation analyses, child fruit consumption was regressed on parental fruit consumption, parenting style, parental education and ethnicity. Participating children consumed on average 7.5 pieces of fruit per week. Fourteen percent met the recommended Dutch norm of two pieces of fruit per day. Parental and child fruit consumption were positively associated. The association was more pronounced under higher levels of psychological control and behavioural control, and among ethnic groups. Additionally, parental education and child fruit consumption were positively associated. Parental fruit consumption partially mediated this association. Interventions are needed to increase child fruit consumption. Interventions should focus on increasing parental fruit consumption and positive parental modelling, with particular focus on low-SES families. Additionally, interventions that combine positive modelling with positive general parenting skills (e.g. increasing behavioural control) may be more effective than interventions that focus on parental modelling alone.
Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Bier, Melinda C.
The study of effective character education programs shows that full parent involvement is a must, as it has a profound impact on the students' character development. The complexity of character educations and the benefits of parental involvement are discussed.
Powell, Brian; Steelman, Lala Carr; Carini, Robert M.
Using data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988, we identify parental age as influential in the parental provision of economic resources, social capital and cultural capital to adolescents, as well as in parental educational expectations for their children. At the bivariate level, the relationship is curvilinear, suggesting that…
Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others
This handbook is intended for parents in the Parent Education Program at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. It is designed to help them learn about their role as a participating parent, as an assistant teacher, as a group member, and as a student in a parent education cooperative group. The importance of parent education is emphasized. A…
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
The first in a series on parenting education, for American Indians, the booklet looks at preparation for parenthood. Learning to be a good parent begins when one is a child, watching our parents and copying their ways with our own children. The booklet recognizes problems and needs of new parents. Some problems are an unplanned pregnancy,…
Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik; Sleegers, Peter
Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the social and cognitive capacities of pupils. In addition, special attention is paid to the children of low-educated and ethnic minority parents. Various forms of both parental and school-initiated…
The Career Education and Training for Teen Parents Program was implemented at Kishwaukee College (Malta, Illinois) to provide educational and vocational services to teen parents (ages 14 to 21) and to establish a regional delivery system and community linkages that would integrate training, education, and support services for teen parents in the…
Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja
SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and
Health visitors, school nurses and other community nurses are sometimes asked for advice by parents and carers on the emerging sexuality of their children. Parents often lack knowledge about sexual development and are confused about whether to talk to their children about sex. They may have been brought up in a family where sex was not mentioned. They are worried that they do not have the skills or the knowledge to help their children. They do not know whether to leave it all to the school or not allow their children to have any information. All the evidence shows that children who have had their questions answered and who know about sex and relationships start sexual activity later, use contraception more reliably and are less likely to cause or have an unwanted pregnancy. Sex education should be part of the ordinary information and moral guidance that parents normally give and should start as early as possible. The type of advice to give to parents and carers is split into age ranges that they might find helpful. Examples of language and the level of information required are given. A list of resources for further guidance is included.
Smith, Bert Kruger; And Others
After an opening series of vignettes which describe the frustrations of adults who care for aging and infirm parents, this pamphlet addresses the issue of aging parents and the dilemmas they pose for their children. In particular, it describes a model entitled "As Parents Grow Older" (APGO) that originated as a service for families of…
Lu, Weichen V.
This study investigates Taiwanese parents' opinions on sex education for young children. Participants in the study included 97 randomly selected Taiwanese parents of 3 through 5-year old children at three different preschools in northern Taiwan. Results indicate that subjects' age and education influenced parental views toward sexual issues:…
Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others
This booklet provides parents with information to help them get the most from their enrollment in parent education cooperative groups. Orientation information is presented for both the Parent Walkabout/Parent Toddler Programs and the Parent Cooperative Preschool Programs at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. Informative material on the…
Eddinger, Lucy, Ed.
Day care services, educational programs and other supportive services for school-age parents of infants are surveyed in this publication. Mainstreaming pregnant students and improving care for the infants of students are discussed and two day care programs operating within high schools for student parents are presented in detail. A program…
Fisher, Christine M.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Price, James H.; Dake, Joseph A.; Glassman, Tavis
This study examined the preferences of parents of elementary school-aged children regarding when sexuality topics should be discussed in school and at home. The survey was mailed to a national random sample of parents of elementary school age children. Overall, 92% of parents believed that sexuality education should be taught in schools.…
Scherrer, Vsevolod; Roberts, Richard; Preckel, Franzis
Meta-analyses suggest that morning-oriented students obtain better school grades than evening-oriented students. This finding has generally been found for students in high school using self-report data for the assessment of circadian preference. Two studies (N = 2718/192) investigated whether these findings generalize across samples (i.e. elementary school-aged students) and methods (i.e. parent reports). These studies also explored whether the relation between circadian preference and school achievement could be explained within an expectancy-value framework. To this end, the Lark-Owl Chronotype Indicator (LOCI) was modified to obtain parents' evaluations of their children's circadian preference, while students completed a battery of assessments designed to explore the test-criterion evidence. Structural equation modeling and correlational analyses revealed: (1) morning and evening orientation were two separable factors of children's circadian preference; (2) correlations with behavioral (e.g. sleep and eating times) and psychological (e.g. cognitive ability) data supported the test-criterion validity of both factors; (3) morning orientation was positively related to school achievement and (4) consistent with an expectancy-value framework this relation was mediated by children's academic self-concept (ASC). These findings have important research and policy implications for considering circadian preference in the schooling of elementary students.
Technology is not just a tool but an amalgam of conceptual, institutional, and interactional issues that occupy the space of technical reason. In this space, parents' identity is becoming narrowed according to a limited conception in which the place of "caring" is in danger of being lost. Parents are increasingly required to adopt knowledge on…
Marjanovič-Umek, Ljubica; Fekonja-Peklaj, Urška; Sočan, Gregor
The aim of this longitudinal study, carried out on a sample of Slovenian-speaking toddlers, was to analyze developmental changes and stability in early vocabulary development; to establish relations between toddler's vocabulary and grammar; and to analyze the effects of parental education and the frequency of shared reading on toddlers' vocabulary and grammar. The sample included fifty-one toddlers, aged 1;4 at the time of the first, and 2;7 at the time of the last, assessment. Toddlers' vocabulary and grammar were assessed six times during a 15-month period using the Slovenian adaptation of the CDI. Our findings suggest great individual differences in both size and rate of toddlers' vocabulary development. Toddlers' vocabulary scores remained relatively stable across a 3-month period. Early vocabulary at 1;7 predicted vocabulary, sentence complexity, and mean length of utterance (MLU) at 2;7, while the frequency of shared reading mediated the effect of parental education on toddlers' vocabulary and grammar at 2;7.
McKenry, Patrick C.; Clark, Kathleen A.; Stone, Glenn
Compares participants in a parent education program [Parents' Education about Children's Emotions Program (PEACE)] mandated for divorcing parents with a similar sample of individuals who had not participated in such a program. Although the findings provide little evidence for the longer-term impact of this program, the program participants…
Ross, Catherine E; Mirowsky, John
The association between education and good health is well established, but whether the strength of the association depends on other social statuses is not. We test a theory of resource substitution which predicts a larger correlation between education and health (measured for physical impairment) for people who grew up in families with poorly-educated parents than for those whose parents were well educated. This is supported in the Aging, Status, and Sense of control (ASOC) survey, a representative national U.S. sample with data collected in 1995, 1998, and 2001. The reason that parental education matters more to people who are poorly educated themselves is due to an unhealthy lifestyle, specifically to smoking and being overweight. Finally, as the poorly educated age, the negative health effects of their parents' low educational attainment get worse.
Fine, Marvin J., Ed.; Lee, Steven W., Ed.
This collection of papers identifies programs designed to educate and meet the needs of diverse parents. The 16 papers are: (1) "American Families in the 1990s and Beyond" (Dennis H. Karpowitz); (2) "Gender Issues in Parenting: Parenting Teenage Girls" (Lauren Ayers); (3) "Teaching about Sexual Diversity: A New Frontier…
Seckinger, Donald; Day, Michael
Discusses the history of parenting education as an important component of adult education. Focuses on the first three years (1926 to 1929) of "Children: The Magazine for Parents." Relates concerns of parents in the 1920s to those of modern parents. (CH)
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
The second in a series on parenting education for American Indians, the booklet offers information on health and hygiene for the mother-to-be and the newborn baby. Chapters include care during pregnancy, mother's weight, mother's health, feeding newborns, washing the baby, baby's early diet, and baby's health care. (ERB)
Gibson, Jessie M.
It is apparent that the family, and the parents in particular, are powerful influences on the child's learning, even before the child reaches school. The home is the place where children learn first, and the extent to which they learn later in life is determined greatly by what goes on at home. The Affective Education Program, a Title I funded…
AT THE HEART OF THE EDUCATIONAL AND SOCIAL STATUS PROBLEMS OF THE MEXICAN-AMERICAN CHILD IS HIS CRITICAL NEED FOR THE OPPORTUNITY TO COME TO SCHOOL WITH HIS PARENTS AT THE AGE OF 3 TO PARTICIPATE IN A CAREFULLY PLANNED PROGRAM FOR HIS EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION, ACCOMPANIED BY A PLAN FOR THE EDUCATION OF HIS PARENTS. DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCY IN…
Golub, Judith S.; And Others
The article describes a parent education program based on group discussions of a videotape series, "Hugs 'n' Kids'" for abusive and high-risk-for-abuse parents. Over 200 parents have participated in the program, conducted by the San Fernando Valley (California) Child Guidance Clinic. (Author/DB)
Darling, Carol A.; Hicks, Mary W.
Positive and negative sexual messages are communicated by parents to their children, verbally and nonverbally. The impact of parental messages upon the sexuality of youth appears relatively straightforward for males but quite complex for females. Educational approaches are suggested to be used to recycle early parental sexual messages. (Author/PN)
Morlan, Donna; And Others
In 1974, the Facilitating Educational Achievement through Telecommunications (FEATT) project began a study to test the efficacy of specially produced video cassettes to teach parents of severely handicapped children how to instruct their children in basic psychomotor skills. Fifty families in Northern Indiana agreed to field test the tapes.…
Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John
Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents…
Mayberry, Maralee; And Others
Acknowledging the growing trend to educate school-aged children at home, this book provides a detailed account of home schooling, providing a vision of home education that reflects its multidimensional nature. The book consists of seven chapters: (1) "Learning about Home Schools" describes the research study from which this book is drawn…
Kucker, Marsha; Smith-Rockhold, Gloria; Bemis, Dodie; Wiese, Vickie
This document is a compilation of materials on improving parent involvement in career education. Section 1 contains the following informative materials and exercises: a parent's guide to the career development alphabet, involvement continuum, self-assessment, influences on parents' career decisions, and parental influence exercises; and sample…
Kim, Sangkyu; Welsh, David A; Cherry, Katie E; Myers, Leann; Jazwinski, S Michal
Various measures incorporated in geriatric assessment have found their way into frailty indices (FIs), which have been used as indicators of survival/mortality and longevity. Our goal is to understand the genetic basis of healthy aging to enhance its evidence base and utility. We constructed a FI as a quantitative measure of healthy aging and examined its characteristics and potential for genetic analyses. Two groups were selected from two separate studies. One group (OLLP for offspring of long-lived parents) consisted of unrelated participants at least one of whose parents was age 90 or older, and the other group of unrelated participants (OSLP for offspring of short-lived parents), both of whose parents died before age 76. FI34 scores were computed from 34 common health variables and compared between the two groups. The FI34 was better correlated than chronological age with mortality. The mean FI34 value of the OSLP was 31 % higher than that of the OLLP (P = 0.0034). The FI34 increased exponentially, at an instantaneous rate that accelerated 2.0 % annually in the OLLP (P = 0.024) and 2.7 % in the OSLP (P < < 0.0001) consequently yielding a 63 % larger accumulation in the latter group (P = 0.0002). The results suggest that accumulation of health deficiencies over the life course is not the same in the two groups, likely due to inheritance related to parental longevity. Consistent with this, sib pairs were significantly correlated regarding FI34 scores, and heritability of the FI34 was estimated to be 0.39. Finally, hierarchical clustering suggests that the OLLP and OSLP differ in their aging patterns. Variation in the FI34 is, in part, due to genetic variation; thus, the FI34 can be a phenotypic measure suitable for genetic analyses of healthy aging.
Center for Appropriate Dispute Resolution in Special Education (CADRE), 2014
A written state complaint is used to communicate that a public agency (such as your child's school) has not followed the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), and to request an investigation of the problem. This publication describes Written State Complaints generally for Part B of the Individuals with…
In 1980, Kentucky reported the nation's lowest percentage of adults, aged 25 and older, who had graduated from high school. Legislators were inundated with recommendations for reform. The result was the enactment of the Parent and Child Education (PACE) pilot program (1986). In the PACE program, parents without high school diplomas attend classes…
Räty, Hannu; Korhonen, Maija; Kasanen, Kati; Komulainen, Katri; Rautiainen, Riitta; Siivonen, Päivi
This study set out to investigate parental attitudes toward entrepreneurship education as evaluative directing components of social representations. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 625) was asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements about entrepreneurship education. The parents' attitudinal orientation suggested that they would…
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa
In this descriptive focus group study, we investigated parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education at home and in schools. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of 30 Australian adults who identified as the parent or caregiver of a child/children aged 0-5 years. The study explored (1) parents' "knowledge" about child…
This book provides adults with specific suggestions and advice for talking with children about the health and social hazards of tobacco use. The first two chapters provide background information and general principles for talking about tobacco with children up to the age of 10. Each of the following five chapters focuses on one topic about tobacco…
Cho, Charles Joon
Programs and resources are available to parents to inform and improve their parenting skills. Despite these resources, the need for parent education continues to increase as parents find existing networks unsatisfactory or inaccessible. Parenting programs have produced inconsistent results in meeting the needs of parents. This study identifies the…
Yahirun, Jenjira J; Sheehan, Connor M; Hayward, Mark D
This article asks how adult children's education influences older parents' physical health in Mexico, a context where older adults often lack access to institutional resources and rely on kin, primarily children, as a main source of support. Using logistic and negative binomial regression models and data from the first wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (N = 9,661), we find that parents whose children all completed high school are less likely to report any functional limitations as well as fewer limitations compared to parents with no children who completed high school. This association remains significant even after accounting for parent and offspring-level characteristics, including parents' income that accounts for children's financial transfers to parents. Future research should aim to understand the mechanisms that explain the association between adult children's education and changes to parents' health over time.
Oryan, Shlomit; Gastil, John
Some prominent parent education theories in the United States and other Western countries base their educational viewpoint explicitly on democratic values, such as mutual respect, equality and personal freedom. These democratic parenting theories advocate sharing power with children and including them in family decision making. This study presents a textual analysis of two such theories, the Adlerian model of parent education and the Parent Effectiveness Training (PET) model, as they are embodied in two original bestselling textbooks. Through content and argumentation analysis of these influential texts, this study examines the paradoxes inherent in these two theories when they articulate how to implement fully democratic principles within the parent-child relationship. We discover that in spite of their democratic rationale, both books offer communication practices that guide the child to modify misbehaviour, enforce parental power, and manipulate the child to make decisions that follow parental judgment, and thus do not endorse the use of a truly democratic parenting style. We suggest, as an alternative to the democratic parenting style, that parents be introduced to a guardianship management style, in which they do not share authority with children, but seek opportunities for enabling children to make more autonomous decisions and participate in more family decision making.
Hwang, Young Suk; Vrongistinos, Konstantinos
This study examined 32 Hispanic parents' perceptions of education, especially, (a) parent's motivation for their children's career choice, (b) their perceptions of education, and (c) informal means of education at home. The data were collected using openended questions and were analyzed using content analysis. Findings in this study provide…
Bazzarre, Terry L.
Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson
The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is an instrument used by family literacy programs to rate parents' support for children's literacy development. This article uses Critical Discourse Analysis to examine how the PEP constructs the ideal parent, the text's underlying assumptions about parenting and education, and its ideological effects. The…
Mulroy, Maureen T.; Goldman, Jane; Wales, Cassandra
Affluent mothers of preschoolers (n=85) expressed strong interest in most of the parent education topics in an extension survey. Their interests were largely similar to those of parents from other socioeconomic groups. They were more interested in changes in personal identity/role and in issues related to having partners in high power/high…
Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.
The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…
Chaapel, Holly; Columna, Luis; Lytle, Rebecca; Bailey, JoEllen
The purpose of this study was to characterize the expectations of parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education services. Participants ("N" = 10) were parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one semistructured interviews. Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative…
Khan, Mir Baiz
Examines parental involvement in school affairs as a means to forge school-community partnerships in education. Identifies fundamental barriers to meaningful parental involvement and suggests possible solutions, such as parent empowerment, administrators' support, home-school interdependency, awareness of current research, reorganized structures,…
In addition to own education and other socioeconomic resources, the education of one's children may be important for individual health and longevity. Mothers and fathers born between 1932 and 1941 were analyzed by linking them to their children in the Swedish Multi-generation Register, which covers the total population. Controlling for parents' education, social class, and income attenuates but does not remove the association between children's education and parents' mortality risk. Shared but unmeasured familial background characteristics were addressed by comparing siblings in the parental generation. In these fixed-effects analyses, comparing parents whose children had tertiary education with parents whose children completed only compulsory schooling (the reference group) yields a hazard ratio of 0.79 (95 % CI: 0.70-0.89) when the socioeconomic position of both parents is controlled for. The relationship is certainly not purely causal, but part of it could be if, for example, well-educated adult children use their resources to find the best available health care for their aging parents. I therefore introduce the concept of "social foreground" and suggest that children's socioeconomic resources may be an important factor in trying to further understand social inequalities in health.
Martin, Delphine; Lange, Karin; Sima, Alexandra; Kownatka, Dagmar; Skovlund, Søren; Danne, Thomas; Robert, Jean-Jacques
Education is the keystone of diabetes care, and structured self-management education is the key to a successful outcome. Existing guidelines provide comprehensive guidance on the various aspects of education and offer general and organizational principles of education, detailed curricula at different ages and stages of diabetes, and recommendations on models, methods, and tools to attain educative objectives. The International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes guidelines give the most elaborate and detailed descriptions and recommendations on the practice of education, which other national guidelines address on specific aspects of education and care. The aim of the work package on education developed by Better Control in Paediatric and Adolescent Diabetes in the European Union: Working to Create Centers of Reference (SWEET) project was not to generate new guidelines but to evaluate how the existing guidelines were implemented in some pediatric diabetes reference centers. The SWEET members have completed a questionnaire that elaborates on the many aspects of delivery of education. This survey highlights a profound diversity of practices across centers in Europe, in terms of organization as well as the practices and the content of initial and continuing education. A toolbox is being developed within SWEET to facilitate exchanges on all aspects of education and to establish a process of validation of materials, tools, written structured age-adjusted programs, and evaluation procedures for the education of children and adolescents with diabetes.
St. Louis, Kathleen
This study critically analyzes parents' complex stories of engagement in school and science education. The purpose is not to essentialize parental involvement, but rather to understand the processes of parental involvement and push forward the current discourse on the engagement of low-income minority and immigrant parents in schools and specifically science education. Employing critical grounded theory methods over a four-year span, this study had three areas of focus. First, voices of marginalized parents in the context of various spaces within the school system are examined. Using a qualitative approach, informal, formal, and research spaces were explored along with how minority parents express voice in these various spaces. Findings indicate parents drew on capital to express voice differently in different spaces, essentially authoring new spaces or the type of engagement in existing spaces. Second, the values and beliefs of traditionally marginalized people, the Discourse of mainstream society, and how they can inform a third, more transformative space for parental engagement in science are considered. The voices of low-income, marginalized parents around science and parental engagement (i.e., first space) are contrasted with the tenets of major national science policy documents (i.e., second space). Findings indicate a disparity between the pathways of engagement for low-income parents and policymakers who shape science education. Third, methodological questions of responsibility and assumption in qualitative research are explored. The author's complex struggle to make sense of her positionality, responsibilities, and assumptions as a researcher is chronicled. Findings focused on insider/outsider issues and implications for culturally sensitive research are discussed. Finally, the implications for policy, teaching, and research are discussed.
AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A
Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in efforts to implement such programs. A representative statewide sample of households with children (N = 1,093) in California was employed to examine parent support for CEA and the potential influences of demographics (gender, age, and Hispanic ethnicity), sociodemographics (education, religious affiliation, religious service attendance, and political ideology), and condom-related beliefs (belief in condom effectiveness and belief that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible) on parent support for CEA. The parents in our sample reported a high level of support for CEA (M = 3.23 on a 4-point scale) and believing in a high level of condom effectiveness (M = 3.36 on a 4-point scale). In addition, 84% of the parents agreed that teens who use condoms during sex are being responsible. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that parents who were younger, Hispanic, with a lower educational attainment, without a religious affiliation, less religiously observant, and politically liberal were more supportive of CEA. After controlling for these demographic and sociodemographic factors, condom effectiveness and responsibility beliefs each added independently to the predictability of parent support for CEA. These findings suggest that parent education related to condom effectiveness could help increase support for school-based CEA programs.
Westwood-Robinette, Nicole M.
Educators and researchers have long considered parental involvement an integral part in the success of students and researchers have concluded that there is a connection between parental involvement and the retention rates of students who are involved in regular education curriculum. However, much less information is available regarding the…
Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati
This study explored parents' (N = 351) educational optimism in terms of their trust in the possibilities of school to develop children's intelligence. It was found that educational optimism could be depicted as a bipolar factor with optimism and pessimism on the opposing ends of the same dimension. Optimistic parents indicated more satisfaction…
Krappmann, Lothar; Uhlendorff, Harald
Although children of primary school age increasingly maintain friendships autonomously, they still are influenced by their parents. In particular, parents' behaviors supporting peer activities of their children, parental educational attitudes, and parents' own social relationships are expected to be relevant for children's social integration into…
Mikelić, Valentina Matijević; Bartolović, Jelena; Kosicek, Tena; Crnković, Maja
Involvement of children with minor motor impairments in early intervention programs is becoming a positive trend. Rehabilitation of young children is usually performed in family environment with continuous monitoring by a team of experts including a physiatrist, speech therapist, psychologist, and rehabilitator. For this reason, it is important to educate parents in proper procedures designed to encourage the child's global and language development. Parental competence in encouraging the child's language development and providing home learning environment is associated with the level of parental education. We performed a retrospective analysis of data on 50 children aged 1-3 years, hospitalized during 2010 at Department of Pediatric Rehabilitation, University Department of Rheumatology, Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center in Zagreb. The aim was to determine the percentage of children included in an early intervention program according to the level of parental education and to assess the impact of the program on the children's language development. The results showed a higher percentage of parents to have high school education and a smaller percentage of parents to have university degree. These data indicated the need of educational programs for parents on the procedures of encouraging child development, including language development.
Aldous, Joan; And Others
Despite the cultural norm that parents should love their children equally, parents do differ in their preferential treatment toward their children. To obtain information about the characteristics of the loved ones and the loving ones in parent child relationships among aging parents and adult children, 124 couples (in which the men graduated from…
Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif
Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…
Fuehrer, Ann; And Others
The specific purposes of this study were to examine (1) age differences in the sophistication of influence strategies children use to affect parents' consumption decisions, and (2) whether or not parents differentially reinforce such strategies according to the child's age. Data were gathered by observing the interactions of 145 parent-child dyads…
Parental role models are often put forward as an explanation for the choice of gender-atypical educational routes. This paper aims to test such explanations by examining the impact of family background variables like parental education and occupation, on choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. Using a sample of around 73,000 Swedish teenagers born between 1972 and 1976, girls' and boys' gender-atypical as well as gender-typical educational choices are analysed by means of logistic regression. Parents working or educated within a specific field increase the probability that a child will make a similar choice of educational programme at upper secondary school. This same-sector effect appeared to be somewhat stronger for fathers and sons, while no such same-sex influence was confirmed for girls. No evidence was found that, in addition to a same-sector effect, it matters whether parents' occupations represent gender-traditional or non-traditional models. Parents of the service classes or highly educated parents--expected to be the most gender egalitarian in attitudes and behaviours--have a positive influence upon children's choice of gender-atypical education.
Ridgway, John; And Others
Although the Migrant Education Program dates from 1965, parental involvement in it is governed by very recent statutory and regulatory requirements. Current statutory requirements come from the Elementary Secondary Education Amendments (ESEA) of 1978. They concern the establishment of and consultation by State and Local Education Agencies (SEAs…
One component of the final report of a 3-year project to train speech language pathologists and audiologists to deliver services to young children (birth to age 5) with communication disorders, the paper describes the parent education practicum model developed by the project. The underlying philosophical foundation of the training was to adapt to…
The author describes a parent art program, how it works, and ways to implement it. She emphasizes the strengths of parent programs as a way to support and enrich existing arts education, not as a replacement. Hansen describes the art kit--the adult's teaching resource--and the basic four-part process: presentation, demonstration, an art activity,…
McDonald, Sister Dale
Traces the history of parental rights in education since the landmark case Pierce vs. the Society of Sisters (1925), when the existence of private schools was validated. States that initiatives promoting parental choice include : (1) tax relief/credits; (2) vouchers or scholarships; (3) public school choice; and (4) home schooling. Provides a…
Young, Russell L.; Tran, MyLuong T.
A survey of 106 Vietnamese parents in San Diego found that most wanted Vietnamese to be included in their children's classroom, regardless of the child's level of English proficiency. In addition, most parents agreed with the main principles that are the foundations of bilingual education. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/SV)
Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…
Lee, Kristen Schultz
Previous models of parental educational investments focus on the composition of the sibship (number, gender, ordering, and spacing) and on the social and institutional context in which investment decisions are made. Social-institutional models predict that parents in Japan are likely to underinvest in girls because of their transient status in the…
This article offers suggestions on how to assess the abilities of young soccer athletes and ways to educate parents or guardians on how to maintain an attitude that most benefits and supports the players. The abilities of young athletes on a team vary, and the expectations of both team members and parents are high, thus presenting a major…
Martha Haakmat writes in this article that in some ways she understands why parents might have a harder time understanding why Montessori is education at its best, especially as their children progress past preschool. Haakmat goes on to say that the learning path at Montessori schools is more proactive. Montessori schools ask that parents partner…
Walker, Peter; Portnoy, Barry
This study sought to determine the effects of a high blood pressure education program for sixth graders on the preventive hypertension health attitudes and behaviors of their parents. Attention was focused on the role of students ("significant others") in affecting parental attitude and behavior changes relating to the three risk factors of…
Cloud, Kate; And Others
The Nuclear Education Project (NEP), a group of five women concerned about parenting in a nuclear age, developed this guide to help parents and others develop a sense of hope and promote a greater involvement in the democratic political process. Chapter I, "The Heart of the Matter," presents sections on answering possible questions children might…
LeBuffe, Leon A.; LeBuffe, James R.
Initiated in 1974 at Gallaudet College (District of Columbia), the Learning Vacation involves the entire family in learning about, accepting, and dealing with school-aged hearing impaired children. The program is described in terms of staff, parent education, family activities, funding, potential barriers, and benefits. (SB)
Sachs, Frank D.
In this article, the author explains how the process of educating parents about the college admission process has evolved during the last 30 years. He divides his recollections and observations of how this process has changed into three historical periods: the Dark Ages, the Renaissance and the Modern Era, as yet untitled by historians. [This…
This document presents techniques for family counselors to use in their existing family life education programs to incorporate parent-children communication into those programs. Twenty-four assignments, divided into junior and senior high age levels, are included as an adjunct to classroom programs which provide structured, at-home activities to…
Morris, Anne G.
A study was conducted to determine whether a medical facility could provide an ecologically viable base for an educational intervention program for low income parents of preschool children. A total of 518 mother/child dyads participated in the study. Children were 20 to 39 months of age; 60 percent were Hispanic, and 40 percent were Black. Since a…
Beale, Andrew V.
Presents two activities to use with groups of fathers as part of a comprehensive parent education program. The activities are designed to get fathers to become increasingly aware of the importance of their playing, listening, and being actively involved with their elementary age children. (Contains 17 references and 2 appendixes.) (GCP)
Duganne, Mary Ann; And Others
This handbook documents the ingredients necessary to create successful school-sponsored special education parent support groups. Common characteristics observed in parent groups are outlined, along with principles of effective group functioning, benefits accruing to parents, and benefits for school systems. Also discussed is the assistance offered…
McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna
Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…
Antonopoulou, Katerina; Koutrouba, Konstantina; Babalis, Thomas
The present study explores Greek parents' views on parental educational involvement and its impact on adolescent scholastic and social development. Specifically, aspects of parental involvement such as the achieved objectives of current parent-school communication, the psychological climate dominating teacher-parent interactions and parents'…
Lehan Mackin, Melissa; Loew, Nicole; Gonzalez, Alejandra; Tykol, Hannah; Christensen, Taylor
Primary responsibility for sexual education for adolescents with autism spectrum disorder falls on parents who have reported a lack of professional and material support. The purpose of this study was to 1) describe parent perceptions of sexual education needs of their children aged 14-20 with an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis and 2) determine parent-preferred mechanisms of delivery for tailored educational intervention strategies.
Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center (MPRRC), 2007
Children with disabilities enter school with unique educational needs. Federal and State laws provide special assurances that guarantee these unique needs are met and an appropriate education is provided. Among these assurances are rights making it possible for parents to act as advocates for their children and to work as partners with the school…
de Campoy, Antonia
The Yaqui Parent Education Demonstration Project was founded in 1975 with the aid of Maricopa County Head Start in Guadalupe, Arizona, to help foster the continuation of the Yaqui language, history, and culture. With a 1-year grant from the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare/Office of Child Development, organizers hired a coordinator,…
Syracuse Univ., NY. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Education.
This 149 item bibliography on parent, home, and family life education begins with descriptions of a number of periodicals and bibliographies, and several studies of trends in home economics education. These are followed by 27 surveys of role perception, needs, interests, and participation; 25 studies on the training of professionals and…
Puffert, Miriam Torvik
This model describes an educational intervention program, designed to meet the special needs of pregnant and parent teenagers by helping students to develop skills in optimal functioning and self-awareness and to build responsibility in fulfilling a new role. The program components deal with vocational and family life education to learn about…
Henniger, Michael L., Comp.
This comprehensive bibliography on parent involvement in education includes published and unpublished materials on this topic dating from January 1970 through October 1978. References were gathered from the following sources: "Education Index,""Reader's Guide to Periodical Literature,""Books in Print," and the ERIC data base ("Current Index to…
Gubrium, Aline C.; Shafer, Miriam B.
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women…
For the study reported in this article, Deaf couples were interviewed at two different times regarding their views on deaf education. Questions in the first interview focused on the parents' views of their preschool children's education as well as their opinion of their "own" school experiences. Questions also covered language use at school and…
Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This paper is based on a talk given at the conference of the Centre for Research on the Wider Benefits of Learning, September 2004. There is consistent evidence that parents' education predicts children's educational outcomes, alongside other distal family characteristics such as family income, parents' occupations and residence location. A…
PACER Center, 2014
Every child is unique and learns in different ways. Some children are identified as needing special education services to support his or her learning at school. Parents can play a major role in shaping the services a child receives. This guidebook has been written for parents, guardians, and surrogate parents of a child (ages 3 to 21 or…
Many faculty and staff working in higher education lament the increasing involvement of the parents of their college-aged students. They denigrate such individuals as "helicopter" parents, and when the contact occurs in person as opposed to through the phone or email, they call them "lawn mower" parents. The whole issue of…
Parent recognition of mathematical giftedness and involvement in their children's mathematics education is the focus of this case study. Data were collected from the parents of 15 children (aged 10-13 years) identified by their schools in New Zealand as mathematically gifted and talented. Many of the parents identified their child's propensity for…
Russo, Charles J.
When dealing with the issues of quality control and the rights of parents to direct the upbringing of their school-aged children, one of the key factors that affects parental rights is compulsory attendance laws. Put another way, insofar as parents must educate their children, whether in regular public or nonpublic schools or by homeschooling…
Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R; Matto, Holly C
This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All parents had relatively high educational aspirations for their children, and within each ethnic subgroup, parental education and children's academic performance were significantly and positively related to parental aspirations. However, moderating effects were found such that Caucasian parents with lower levels of education had significantly lower educational aspirations for their children than did parents of other ethnicities with similar low levels of education. Although the strength of the relationship between parental perceptions of school-related factors and parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment was not strong, it was most predictive of non-Caucasian parental aspirations for their children.
Carlson, Carol Gordon
This brochure discusses parents' involvement in their children's education. It is maintained that parent involvement in education is one of the most promising movements to have come out of the school reforms of the 1980s. Recent history of parent involvement in American schools; several American educators' ideas about parent involvement; and…
Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Pulkkinen, Lea; Silventoinen, Karri
To investigate how parental education modifies genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI during adolescence, self-reported BMI at 11-12, 14, and 17 years of age was collected from a population sample of 2,432 complete Finnish twin pairs born in 1983-1987. Based on parental report, twins were divided to those with high (both parents high school graduates), mixed level (one parent a graduate, the other not), and limited (neither parent a graduate) parental education. Genetic and environmental influences on variation in BMI in different education classes were modeled using twin analysis. Heritability of BMI among 11-12-year-olds with high parental education was 85-87% whereas it was 61-68% if parental education was limited or mixed level. Common environmental effect, i.e., effect of environmental factors shared by family members, was found (17-22%) if parental education was limited or mixed level but not if it was high. With increasing parental education, common environmental variance in BMI decreased at age 14 among boys (from 22 to 3%) and girls (from 17 to 10%); heritability increased among boys from 63 to 78%, but did not change among girls. The common environmental component disappeared and heritability of BMI was larger at the age of 17 in all parental education classes. To conclude, common environment did not affect variation of adolescent BMI in high-educated families but did so in families with limited parental education. This suggests that intervention and prevention campaigns could effectively target families identified by limited parental education.
Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson
The Parent Education Profile (PEP) is an instrument that rates parents' support for children's literacy development. This study examined how the PEP portrays the ideal parent, its assumptions about parenting and education, and the values and ideals it promotes. In sum, many aspects of the PEP evaluate parents by the mainstream (White,…
Innes, Ruth S.
A licensed counselor working in a privately owned mental health facility implemented a practicum study designed to improve the parenting skills and quality of family communication in families with children between 3 and 14 years of age. Practicum goals were to: (1) give parents information that would improve their parenting skills; and (2)…
Borelli, Jessica L.; St. John, H. Kate; Cho, Evelyn; Suchman, Nancy E.
Parental reflective functioning (RF) has garnered tremendous support as a predictor of secure attachment in infancy, though little work has examined RF among parents of older children. In this study, we used a high-risk community sample of parent–child dyads (N = 117) to explore whether parental RF comprises self- and child-focused factors, whether parental RF is associated with parent and child attachment security, and whether parental RF mediates the association between parent and child attachment security. Results suggested that parental RF can be characterized as having both self- and child-focused components, and that child-focused parental RF is associated with child but not parent attachment security. Further, child-focused parental RF indirectly mediates the association between parent attachment avoidance and child attachment security. These findings extend previous work on parental RF to parents of school-age children and, in so doing, inform developmental models of attachment relationships in middle childhood. Discussion focuses on the importance of these findings in informing theory, prevention, clinical practice, and policy. PMID:26618938
Lamb, Jackie; Lamb, Wesley A.
This monograph serves as an overview of theory and technique for parent training, most specifically through the implementation of programs led by the elementary school counselor and the school psychologist. This document explores the history, basic assumptions, goals, training procedures, training of trainers, and references and resources from a…
Umek, Ljubica Marjanovic; Fekonja, Urska; Kranjc, Simona; Bajc, Katja
Several studies have demonstrated that children's gender and parental education exert a significant, but not equal, effect on toddler language development at different ages. This study determined the effect of children's gender and parental education on the verbal competence of toddlers between 16 and 30 months. The sample included 953 Slovenian…
Harpin, Lisa J.
The research on parent involvement in education indicates that, in most cases, when parents play an active role in their children's education, academic achievement improves. As a result, schools are now mandated to incorporate parent involvement in the educational process. Educators are faced with the challenge of creating ways to engage parents…
Pfannenstiel, Judy C.; Seltzer, Dianne A.
An evaluation of the New Parents as Teachers (NPAT) program concluded that a high quality parent education and support program conducted during a child's first three years measurably increases the child's intellectual, achievement, and language abilities. Parental involvement with parent educators during home visits is the single most important…
Shade, Daniel David
The purpose of this exploratory study was to measure the impact of a specific style of parent education on parental behavior with their children. Six families, chosen by invitation from among parents participating in the Carbon County, Utah parent education programs, participated in the study. A BAB-ABBA single case experimental design was…
Gianaros, Peter J; Manuck, Stephen B; Sheu, Lei K; Kuan, Dora C H; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Craig, Anna E; Hariri, Ahmad R
Socioeconomic disadvantage experienced in early development predicts ill health in adulthood. However, the neurobiological pathways linking early disadvantage to adult health remain unclear. Lower parental education-a presumptive indicator of early socioeconomic disadvantage-predicts health-impairing adult behaviors, including tobacco and alcohol dependencies. These behaviors depend, in part, on the functionality of corticostriatal brain systems that 1) show developmental plasticity and early vulnerability, 2) process reward-related information, and 3) regulate impulsive decisions and actions. Hence, corticostriatal functionality in adulthood may covary directly with indicators of early socioeconomic disadvantage, particularly lower parental education. Here, we tested the covariation between parental education and corticostriatal activation and connectivity in 76 adults without confounding clinical syndromes. Corticostriatal activation and connectivity were assessed during the processing of stimuli signaling monetary gains (positive feedback [PF]) and losses (negative feedback). After accounting for participants' own education and other explanatory factors, lower parental education predicted reduced activation in anterior cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices during PF, along with reduced connectivity between these cortices and orbitofrontal and striatal areas implicated in reward processing and impulse regulation. In speculation, adult alterations in corticostriatal functionality may represent facets of a neurobiological endophenotype linked to socioeconomic conditions of early development.
Wooden, Cherie L.; Anderson, Frances R.
Engaging and supporting parents to provide sexuality education to their children is successful when parents take ownership of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the lessons learned from implementing a parent-designed, parent-led sexuality education curriculum for parents of preteens (10-14 year olds). The parents…
WARREN, MORRISON F.
THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES INNER-CITY EDUCATION IN THE CONTEXT OF CIVIL RIGHTS, NEGRO OPPORTUNITY, AND NEGRO CITIZENSHIP. IT IS SUGGESTED THAT NEGROES ARE NOT AFFORDED AN EQUAL OPPORTUNITY IN AN OPEN SOCIETY, AND THAT AS A RESULT THE NEGRO'S EDUCATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ACHIEVEMENTS ARE THWARTED. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS KINDS OF DEPRIVATION UPON THE…
This paper offers critical reflections on parenting education in its social context. The paper is informed by a feminist perspective, and by a structural approach to practice that emphasizes the importance of changing social structures. An introductory section explores the impact of the ideologies of the traditional family, and of motherhood and…
Roshchina, Ia. M.; Filippova, T. N.
Data from surveys of parents of students in Russian schools of various types in the years 2006 to 2011 show a high level of desire to invest in their children's education. There has been a high degree of stability in aspirations and investment in spite of the economic problems caused by global recession.
Gordon, Ira J.
Study objectives were to find out whether the use of disadvantaged women as parent educators of indigent mothers of infants and young children (1) enhanced the development of the infants and children, (2) increased the mother's competence and sense of personal worth, and (3) contributed to the knowledge of the home life of infants in the study. In…
Meza, Maria Lorena
Many universities grapple with Latino student retention issues. Latinos are the largest and fastest-growing ethnic group in the United States, yet they also are the group that has the least amount of formal education. The literature suggests that parental support helps Latinos succeed academically in elementary, middle, and high schools. However,…
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of new media resources for childbirth educators and for expectant and new parents. The topics of DVDs and books reviewed here include fatherhood, labor-support techniques, optimal labor positions, infant massage, breastfeeding, healthy nutrition during the childbearing year, understanding a newborn's cues, personal viewpoints on cesarean birth, and postpartum massage.
Rivers, Ian; Duncan, Neil; Besag, Valerie E.
"Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents" offers a comprehensive exploration of the bullying within public schools, drawing upon research conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and Canada. It offers insights into the immediate and long-term impact bullying can have upon the lives of students, their families,…
McAdoo, Harriette Pipes, Ed.; McAdoo, John Lewis, Ed.
The unique experiences and situations that are common to black children and their parents are examined in the 14 papers collected in this volume. The book is organized into five sections, each relecting one of the significant environments within which black children lead their lives: the theoretical, the socioeconomic, the educational, the…
This book is a reference guide to more than 100 Internet books. The book is divided into six chapters covering: (1) general Internet books; (2) books for educators and librarians; (3) books for parents, children, and students; (4) books for use in curriculum development; (5) juvenile fiction; and (6) books for web page design and creation. Within…
As the male prison population increases, so too does the number of children with fathers in prison. The negative impact of fatherlessness on children has been well documented. While parenting education is often seen as an effective tool to improve the quality of family relationships and foster positive outcomes for children, fathers in prison…
Debban, Barbara, Comp.; And Others
This handbook is designed to explain the structure and the existing regulations and procedures of the programs affiliated with the Parent Education Program at Columbia Basin College (CBC), Washington. Purpose of the program is to give parents the opportunity to increase their understanding of children. Section I addresses the importance of parent…
Colines, Betina; Rodríguez, Nahuel Cabrera; Hasson, Esteban R.; Carreira, Valeria; Frankel, Nicolás
The stochastic nature of biochemical processes is a source of variability that influences developmental stability. Developmental instability (DI) is often estimated through fluctuating asymmetry (FA), a parameter that deals with within-individual variation in bilateral structures. A relevant goal is to shed light on how environment, physiology and genotype relate to DI, thus providing a more comprehensive view of organismal development. Using Drosophila melanogaster isogenic lines, we investigated the effect of parental age, parental diet and offspring heterozygosity on DI. In this work, we have uncovered a clear relationship between parental age and offspring asymmetry. We show that asymmetry of the progeny increases concomitantly with parental age. Moreover, we demonstrate that enriching the diet of parents mitigates the effect of age on offspring symmetry. We show as well that increasing the heterozygosity of the progeny eliminates the effect of parental age on offspring symmetry. Taken together, our results suggest that diet, genotype and age of the parents interact to determine offspring DI in wild populations. These findings provide us with an avenue to understand the mechanisms underlying DI. PMID:25673675
Hooge, Sharon L; Benzies, Karen M; Mannion, Cynthia A
We evaluated the effects of a parenting program, Baby and You, on parenting knowledge, parenting morale, and social support using a single-group, pre-test, and post-test design with 159 Canadian mothers of infants aged 2 to 9 months old. Baby and You is a prevention-focused parenting program (PFPP) to improve maternal and infant health through education and social support. The 4-week curriculum focuses on infant development and safety, parent-child relationships, maternal self-care, and community resources. We computed repeated-measures ANOVAs separately for scores on Parenting Knowledge Scale, Parenting Moral Index, and Family Support Scale. We found a significant increase between pre-test and post-test on parenting knowledge, but not parenting morale or social support. Parenting morale may be a stable construct that shows little change over time. It may take more than 4 weeks of programming for mothers to identify and integrate new sources of social support.
Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.
Examined the impact of the loss of a parent on middle-aged children. A lifelong process of anticipatory orphanhood is suggested as helping to prepare for the impact of a parent's death. Reaction involves the dialectic between the persistence and breaking of the bond and between finitude and personal growth. (JAC)
Gordon, Ira J.
This monograph considers the effects of the family on the intellectual and personal development of the child, and the effects of culture upon the family's way of life, and thus, on the child. In a survey of early compensatory education projects, university based programs, and school and community programs are described. Program organizational…
Immigrant parents bring their values, language, culture, religion, and educational backgrounds to our schools, enriching our educational environments. The literature on immigrant parents, however, uses a deficit model. This study explored the value of and knowledge of immigrant parents on the margins of the public education system. Data were…
Rautiainen, Riitta; Räty, Hannu; Kasanen, Kati
This study set out to examine parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's educational resilience. As expected, the parents attributed greater levels of educational resilience to their children than did the teachers. However, both the parents and teachers assessed the sixth graders' educational resilience as higher than that of the third…
Gubrium, Aline C; Shafer, Miriam B
Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that incorporate sex positive and integrated approaches go beyond a presentation of facts and strategies for prevention to emphasize the promotion of sexual subjectivity and wellbeing. A pilot sensual sexuality education program was planned, implemented and informally evaluated with young parenting women at an alternative General Educational Development test preparation center. The program prioritized a sex positive framework, including topics such as pleasure, desire and sexual entitlement, and invited participants to explore sexuality through a multisensory orientation. Participants took part in small group discussions and activities that engaged their senses through arts-based methods. Grounded in holism, program topics were integrated with a focus on participants' everyday experiences. The pilot curriculum serves as a promising program for re-positioning young parenting women as sexual subjects, which is key to the promotion of health and wellbeing.
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of new media resources for childbirth educators and expectant and new parents. The books, CDs, DVDs, and kits reviewed in this issue's column include the following topics: the birth experiences of mothers who survived childhood sexual abuse; lively teaching techniques and ideas to help energize and enhance childbirth education classes; breastfeeding in the workplace; expectant fathers; perspectives on motherhood; unique, helpful tools for childbirth educators to use in designing their class content, addressing the stages of labor, and discussing planned cesarean birth; exercises for pregnant women on bedrest; and a compilation of presentations featured at Birthing the Future's international symposiums. PMID:20190851
... 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study A A A What's in this article? What ... edad ósea What It Is A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a child's ...
... to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study Print A A A What's in this ... la edad ósea What It Is A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a ...
Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)
Moore, Kristin A.
Federal programs and policies that affect pregnant and parenting teenagers, particularly those programs that are of relevance to schools, are briefly described. The main categories of programs and legislation described are: (1) those bearing on teenage parents and education; (2) pre-school programs; (3) day care; (4) welfare; (5) social services;…
Hao, Lingxin; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean
As consumption expenditures are increasingly recognized as direct measures of children’s material well-being, they provide new insights into the process of intergenerational transfers from parents to children. Little is known, however, about how parents allocate financial resources to individual children. To fill this gap, we develop a conceptual framework based on stratification theory, human capital theory, and the child-development perspective; exploit unique child-level expenditure data from Child Supplements of the PSID; and employ quantile regression to model the distribution of parental spending on children. Overall, we find strong evidence supporting our hypotheses regarding the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and parental expectation. Our nuanced estimates suggest that (1) parental education, occupation, and family income have differential effects on parental spending, with education being the most influential determinant; (2) net of SES, race continues to be a significant predictor of parental spending on children; and (3) parental expectation plays a crucial role in determining whether parents place a premium on child development in spending and how parents prioritize different categories of spending. PMID:25933638
Hao, Lingxin; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean
As consumption expenditures are increasingly recognized as direct measures of children's material well-being, they provide new insights into the process of intergenerational transfers from parents to children. Little is known, however, about how parents allocate financial resources to individual children. To fill this gap, we develop a conceptual framework based on stratification theory, human capital theory, and the child-development perspective; exploit unique child-level expenditure data from Child Supplements of the PSID; and employ quantile regression to model the distribution of parental spending on children. Overall, we find strong evidence supporting our hypotheses regarding the effects of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and parental expectation. Our nuanced estimates suggest that (1) parental education, occupation, and family income have differential effects on parental spending, with education being the most influential determinant; (2) net of SES, race continues to be a significant predictor of parental spending on children; and (3) parental expectation plays a crucial role in determining whether parents place a premium on child development in spending and how parents prioritize different categories of spending.
Kendig, Hal; Dykstra, Pearl A.; van Gaalen, Ruben I.; Melkas, Tuula
This article reviews and presents research findings on the relationships between parenthood and health over the life span. Existing research shows lacunae. The links between reproductive behavior and longevity generally focus on family size rather than contrasting parents and nonparents. Studies of marital status differentials in survival…
Lahniers, C E
Cumming and Henry's disengagement theory of aging was investigated by instructing 89 sons and daughters of parents in four aged groups to describe their parents in middle and old age. Various personality and social measures were used including bipolar adjective checklists, depression, optimism, and control scales. The results indicated that at least two factors, institutionalization and activity level, exert an effect on the perceived changes in aged parents. Two groups, one institutionalized and the other noninstitutionalized but without formal activities, were described as being disengaged: e.g., withdrawn socially, self-absorbed, as well as powerless, pessimistic, and depressed. The other two groups who were noninstitutionalized and involved in outer-world recreational and vocational activities were not seen as disengaged in any way in old age. The personality variable internal-external control of reinforcement may serve as an antecedent to withdrawal behaviors in the aged.
Alonso-Geta, Petra María
The aim of this paper was to establish which parenting style of Spanish families is associated with optimum children's outcomes. A random Spanish sample of 1,103 parents of children and teenagers from 6 to 14 years of age, of whom 47% were females, reported on their child-rearing practices. Families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or neglectful) based on the parents' answers. Socialization outcomes were 6 indicators of interpersonal relationship quality, 9 indicators of psychological adjustment, 7 indicators of personal competence, and 12 indicators of behavior problems. Results showed that indulgent and authoritative parenting styles were associated with better outcomes than authoritarian and neglectful parenting. Overall, our results supported the idea that, in Spain, the optimum parenting style is the indulgent one, as scores in the four sets of socialization outcomes among children and teenagers from indulgent families were always equal to, or even better than, the authoritative parenting style.
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.
We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…
Lam, Ching Man; Kwong, Wai Man
In an action research project designed to develop a new paradigm for parent education in alignment with the "strengths perspective," a social constructionist epistemology, and the empowerment discourse, it was found that parents joining two parent groups actually valued and sought expert knowledge. Seeking to empower these parents by adopting a…
Slavick, Carol A.
In 1968 the California Education Code section on physically handicapped minors was amended to include pregnant girls. This change was intended to give school districts the responsibility and the funds to develop special classes or schools for teenage pregmant girls. This special class makes it possible to provide more educational materials,…
Schultz, Tia R.; Schmidt, Carla T.; Stichter, Janine P.
Benefits of parent education have been demonstrated for decades. However, there exists a lack of formative evaluation of parent education for parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), limiting the interpretation of ongoing and future research. To understand the current status, key characteristics, and evaluation methods of parent…
Warren, Nancy J.; Amara, Ingrid A.
Describes a group that teaches parenting skills to divorced parents. Presents various elements of the group experience, including a focus on the child's needs and developmental stages, role-playing, and co-parenting issues. Response to the group suggests that parents with greater postdivorce stress benefit the most. (BH)
Shilling, Teri; Bingham, Stacie
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of new media resources for childbirth educators and for expectant and new parents. The books, CD, and DVDs reviewed in this issue's column address the following topics: natural, safe, and healthy birth practices; doula care; breastfeeding; empowering women to make healthy lifestyle choices during pregnancy; encouraging mothers to bond with their babies before birth; and fathers' and partners' supportive role during labor and birth.
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of new media resources for childbirth educators and for expectant and new parents. The books and DVDs reviewed in this issue's column address the following topics: new directions for childbirth education classes; pregnancy tips for expectant mothers; empowering women to give birth naturally; midwifery care; breastfeeding; labyrinths and “laborinths” (an alternative approach to preparing for birth); preterm labor; understanding newborns' language cues; and exercise programs during pregnancy and the postnatal period, as well as exercises that strengthen the pelvic floor and help new mothers deal with incontinence. PMID:20514118
von Otter, Cecilia
This paper draws on the concept of parental involvement, popular among educators and policy-makers, in investigating differences in level of attained education by family background. The question is if parental involvement in children's schooling at age 14 acts as a mediator between family resources and mid-life level of attained education. Using…
Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall
As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…
John Locke is often taken to be a staunch defender of parents' rights in the realm of education. In fact, Locke's pedagogical reasons for preferring home education to school education do not necessarily apply to similar choices in modern contexts. Locke's political argument for defining education as a duty of parents rather than the state does not…
Hallam, Susan; Rogers, Lynne; Shaw, Jacquelene; Rhamie, Jasmine
In recent years, there has been an increased recognition of the importance of parenting and the way in which parenting programmes can be an effective intervention in changing behaviour and parent-child interactions. The aim of this research, funded by the Department for Education and Skills, was to provide a map of parenting programme provision in…
White, JoAnna; Riordan, Richard
Presents some key concerns that are frequently raised by parents in parent education groups. Discusses several themes that are relevant in laying a common ground that crosses most of these parent issues. Includes examples of parent concerns and suggestions for the group leader. (Author/PVV)
Cole, T J; Cole, A J
It is well known that deprivation affects bone growth. The study was set up to investigate what aspects of deprivation are of greatest importance. Bone ages of 1593 child trauma patients aged 0-19 years from Middlesbrough General Hospital, Cleveland, were related to local authority ward indices of socioeconomic status (51 wards). After adjustment for chronological age and sex, the mean bone ages in each ward were highly significantly negatively associated with five ward indices of deprivation: the rate of single parent families, low care ownership, unemployment, rented housing, and overcrowding. There was a mean four month deficit in bone age among children living in wards with the highest single parent family rates. The inverse association between deprivation and bone age is unlikely to be causal throughout childhood, as older and younger children were affected to the same extent. However the bone age deficit could be caused by deprivation retarding skeletal maturation during a critical period in early life. PMID:1444529
Pinder, Margaret M.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.
The elderly death rate is somewhat higher than the death rate in general. Numbers of schools with gerontological curricula and frequency of death education courses are positively related to elderly death rates. The contention that elderly deaths have less social impact is not supported. (JAC)
PACER Center, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
This booklet for Minnesota parents of children with disabilities provides an overview of special education services. Information is provided on: (1) the purpose of special education; (2) disabilities that are covered under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; (3) eligibility age; (4) types of special education and related services; (5)…
The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)
The purpose of this study was to examine parents' and early childhood teachers' perceptions of the priorities for developmental areas targeted in the Turkish Early Childhood Education Curriculum for children aged 36-72 months. The sample of this study consisted of 1600 parents and 158 early childhood teachers. The study utilized a survey research…
Gordon, Ira J.
This article presents a longitudinal analysis of the Florida Parent Education Programs which were designed to provide intervention services to socioeconomically disadvantaged parents of young children through home visits by paraprofessional personnel. The programs include the: (1) Parent Education Project (PEP); (2) Early Child Stimulation through…
Bunnell, Peter Wayne
The issue of parental involvement in religious education is an important one for the family, the church, the Christian school, and society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe parents' concepts and practices of involvement in their children's religious education as evangelical Christian parents in Midwestern communities.…
Jensen, Mary Cihak
Nationally, interest in family life and parenting programs has grown amidst concern for "basic education." Parenting education in today's schools may be justified because of increased family stress and deteriorating family support systems. Most parenting and family life courses are offered within home economics departments, have a narrow…
To learn more about how parents understand the whole child approach to education, ASCD commissioned KRC Research to conduct a study that included parent focus groups in Richmond, Virginia; and Columbus, Ohio, as well as a survey of 800 parents across the United States to identify their perceptions of what a whole child education is, how it is…
Dake, Joseph A.; Price, James H.; Baksovich, Christine M.; Wielinski, Margaret
Background: A comprehensive review of the literature failed to find any studies to assess elementary school parents' preferred philosophical approach to teaching sexuality education and sexuality education topics discussed by parents. All previous research reported parent data for grades K-12 or grades 9-12 only. Methods: A random sample of 2400…
Turnbull, Ann P.; Blue-Banning, Martha; Turbiville, Vicki; Park, Jiyeon
This response to Mahoney et al. (EC 623 392) agrees that parent education can be philosophically compatible with family-centered approaches and suggests a view of parent education as partnership education. After identifying the problems of traditional parent education, partnership education is discussed in terms of ecological perspectives, parents…
Current theorizing and evidence suggest that parenting stress might be greater among parents from both low and high socioeconomic positions (SEP) compared with those from intermediate levels because of material hardship among parents of low SEP and employment demands among parents of high SEP. However, little is known about how this socioeconomic variation in stress relates to the support that parents receive. This study explored whether variation in maternal parenting stress in a population sample was associated with support deficits. To obtain a clearer understanding of support deficits among mothers of high and low education, we distinguished subgroups according to mothers’ migrant and single-parent status. Participants were 5,865 mothers from the Growing Up in Scotland Study, who were interviewed when their children were 10 months old. Parenting stress was greater among mothers with either high or low education than among mothers with intermediate education, although it was highest for those with low education. Support deficits accounted for around 50% of higher stress among high- and low-educated groups. Less frequent grandparent contact mediated parenting stress among both high- and low-educated mothers, particularly migrants. Aside from this common feature, different aspects of support were relevant for high- compared with low-educated mothers. For high-educated mothers, reliance on formal childcare and less frequent support from friends mediated higher stress. Among low-educated mothers, smaller grandparent and friend networks and barriers to professional parent support mediated higher stress. Implications of differing support deficits are discussed. PMID:26192130
Parkes, Alison; Sweeting, Helen; Wight, Daniel
Current theorizing and evidence suggest that parenting stress might be greater among parents from both low and high socioeconomic positions (SEP) compared with those from intermediate levels because of material hardship among parents of low SEP and employment demands among parents of high SEP. However, little is known about how this socioeconomic variation in stress relates to the support that parents receive. This study explored whether variation in maternal parenting stress in a population sample was associated with support deficits. To obtain a clearer understanding of support deficits among mothers of high and low education, we distinguished subgroups according to mothers' migrant and single-parent status. Participants were 5,865 mothers from the Growing Up in Scotland Study, who were interviewed when their children were 10 months old. Parenting stress was greater among mothers with either high or low education than among mothers with intermediate education, although it was highest for those with low education. Support deficits accounted for around 50% of higher stress among high- and low-educated groups. Less frequent grandparent contact mediated parenting stress among both high- and low-educated mothers, particularly migrants. Aside from this common feature, different aspects of support were relevant for high- compared with low-educated mothers. For high-educated mothers, reliance on formal childcare and less frequent support from friends mediated higher stress. Among low-educated mothers, smaller grandparent and friend networks and barriers to professional parent support mediated higher stress. Implications of differing support deficits are discussed.
The Parent Information Network (PIN) is an initiative of the Arizona Department of Education to involve families of special education students. Led by parents of children with special needs, PIN provides information and technical assistance to families and educators throughout the state. The primary role is to facilitate the volunteer steering…
The literature that is meant to guide parental participation in special education often refers to parents as vital team members who are critical in designing the best programs for their children (The Family and Advocates Partnership for Education, 2004; The State Education Department, May 2002). However, a disconnect can occur between the…
Connell, R. W.
Parents of upper-secondary students in public schools in New South Wales, Australia, gave accounts of their experience of education and their wider thinking about educational issues. Working-class families are bearers of educational histories which are often difficult or truncated, leaving parents with little familiarity with upper-secondary or…
Cultural beliefs about disability and related systems of special education affect the experience of children with disabilities and their parents. This article reviews research on the perceptions and experiences of parents who have preschool or elementary school-age children with disabilities in the United States and Japan. Parents' experiences…
Saranli, Adile Gülsah; Metin, Emine Nilgün
The purpose of this research is investigating effects of the SENG (Social Emotional Needs of Gifted Children) Parent Education Model on gifted children and their parents. The participants of this study were parents of 3rd, 4th and 5th grade gifted children attending Yasemin Karakaya Science and Art Center in Ankara, Turkey and the children…
Technical Assistance ALLIANCE for Parent Centers, 2009
Parents of children with disabilities usually receive little or no training in communication and partnership skills. These skills are very helpful in Individualized Education Program (IEP) planning. This guidebook offers parents of children with disabilities a variety of practical ideas to improve effective interaction between parents and school…
Pepe, Alessandro; Addimando, Loredana
The present paper examines the influence of parent's demographics (gender and educational level) and a contextual variable (school grade) on counterproductive parents' behavior during interaction with teachers. Data were gathered by administering the Italian version of the Challenging Parent Standard Questionnaire (Pepe 2010) to a sample of…
Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin
Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were…
Vargas Lascano, Dayuma I; Galambos, Nancy L; Krahn, Harvey J; Lachman, Margie E
This study examined trajectories of perceived control and their association with parents' education and personal educational experience (educational attainment and years of full-time postsecondary education) in 971 Canadian high school seniors tracked 7 times across 25 years. Latent growth models showed that, on average, perceived control increased from age 18 to age 25 and decreased by age 32, with a further slower decrease by age 43. Parents' education contributed to a growing gap in perceived control, however, such that among individuals with at least 1 university-educated parent, perceived control increased across 25 years, reaching its highest level at age 43. Personal educational attainment (completion of a university degree or not) was not associated with growth in perceived control, but individuals who were higher on perceived control at age 18 were more likely to complete a university degree. Parallel process modeling found that perceived control at age 19 predicted gains through age 32 in years of postsecondary education. Postsecondary enrollment at age 19 did not predict gains in perceived control over time. Parents' education predicted both higher levels of perceived control and enrollment in full-time postsecondary education at age 19. Family socioeconomic status contributes to perceived control early in the transition to adulthood and may lead to diverging trajectories over the next 25 years, and perceived control contributes to subsequent postsecondary educational experience. Further longitudinal research should explore the development and determinants of perceived control across the full life span.
Sweitzer, Sara J.; Briley, Margaret E.; Roberts-Gray, Cindy; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Staskel, Deanna M.; Almansour, Fawaz D.
Objectives: This exploratory study obtained parent suggestions about messages and activities to guide parents to pack healthful sack lunches for preschool-aged children. Methods: A facilitator conducted group interviews using a modified nominal group technique with a convenience sample of parents who pack daily lunches for their children.…
Building a strong relationship between parents and their preschool-aged child's teacher can be difficult when the parents and teachers speak different languages and come from different cultures. This paper discusses how a parent from east Africa with language and cultural differences dealt with a local school system to ensure that her young…
Our purpose was to use multidimensional polytomous item response modeling (MPIRM) to evaluate the psychometric properties of a television (TV) parenting practices (PP) instrument and to perform differential item functioning (DIF) analysis to test whether item parameter estimates differed across educ...
Columna, Luis; Pyfer, Jean; Senne, Terry; Velez, Luisa; Bridenthrall, Nancy; Canabal, Maria Yolanda
The purpose of this study was to identify the perspectives of Hispanic parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education (APE) professionals in relationship to their child's purposeful play and transition to school programming. Participants (N = 11) were Hispanic parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated…
Peter, Christina R.; Tasker, Timothy B.; Horn, Stacey S.
Purpose: Parents are sometimes perceived as barriers to providing comprehensive and inclusive sexuality education to young people. However, little is known about parents' actual attitudes towards providing such broad information to young people. The purpose of this paper is to examine two different approaches to measuring parents' attitudes…
Hornby, Garry; Lafaele, Rayleen
The issue of parental involvement (PI) in education is notable for the extensive rhetoric supporting it and considerable variation in the reality of its practice. It is proposed that the gap between rhetoric and reality in PI has come about because of the influence of factors at the parent and family, child, parent-teacher and societal levels…
Warnick, Bryan R.
In this article, Bryan R. Warnick explores parents' authority to make educational decisions for their children. In philosophical debates, three types of arguments are typically invoked to justify parents' rights: arguments based on the welfare interests of children, arguments based on the expressive interests of parents, and arguments based on the…
Schimmel, David; Fischer, Louis
This book is about the legal rights that parents have in the education of their children from kindergarten through high school. These rights are of two kinds: the rights that parents have on their own, as parents, and the rights they have as agents for their children. Currently, all the constitutional rights that apply to adults in the community…
Fox, Tricia A.
Presents an overview of parent drug education programs together with information regarding those problems, concerns, and needs faced by parents who are dealing with an offspring drug user/abuser. Emphasizes the unique, individual characteristics of parents and suggests that these influences may be the main determinants of the effectiveness of…
Grammatikopoulos, Vasilis; Gregoriadis, Athanasios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki
The aim of the current study was to examine the assessments of parents of the quality of early childhood education (ECE) in Greece. Five hundred and fifty three preschoolers' parents participated in this study providing quality and importance ratings based on the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale Parent Questionnaire (ECERSPQ) for the…
Grove, Kathleen A.; Fisher, Douglas
A study analyzed the process of inclusive education experienced by 20 parents of children with severe disabilities. Results found that the process of inclusion extended beyond the parents' initial placement decision to their ongoing involvement at the school site. At the schools, parents actively participated in the work of inclusion. (Author/CR)
Primiano, Melissa L.
Parents are important stakeholders in their children's special education program, but understanding the special education process can be complicated and overwhelming. Further, it is unclear how parents are informed about procedural safeguards within the process for their children and themselves, the extent of their understanding, and whether and…
Sunarsih, Tri; Murti, Bhisma; Anantanyu, Sapja; Wijaya, Mahendra
Parents often inhibit learning process organized by education, due to their ignorance about how to educate child well. Incapability of dealing with those changes leads to dysfunctional families, and problematic children. This research aimed: to analyzed the health promotion information access pattern of parent caretaking pattern through parenting…
Williams, Nathalie; Knodel, John; Kiry Kim, Sovan; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen
The advent of widespread ART provision in low- and middle-income countries requires not just medical attention, but also social and psychological support to encourage and monitor strict adherence to drug regimens. Developing innovative approaches to providing this broad support is a major challenge, especially within the financial constraints of resource-limited countries hardest hit by the epidemic. In this study, we examine the role of older-age parents in monitoring ART treatment and caring for their HIV-infected children and grandchildren in Cambodia. Our results are based on 25 open-ended interviews with older-age parents of people with AIDS (PWHA). A high level of co-residence when PWHA become ill and a sense of parental responsibility and emotional attachment facilitate high parental involvement in their children's and grandchildren's illness, care and treatment. Our interviews indicate that parents play an important role in encouraging their children to get tested and to access treatment if they test positive. They consistently monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and opportunistic infections and remind PWHA to attend medical appointments and support-group meetings. Parents also provide for the nutrition and hygiene of PWHA essential to the success of ART treatments. We find that despite low levels of education, older parents were able to express clear, correct and detailed knowledge of complicated ART treatment regimens, nutrition and hygiene. Overall, our findings show that older parents play a pivotal role in care and treatment if they are provided with proper resources and training and have the ability to understand the necessity and details of ensuring strict adherence to medications. Based on these results, we suggest that explicitly including older parents in policy and programs for care and treatment would allow Cambodia and other countries to take advantage of this unique and effective but overlooked asset in AIDS care and treatment.
Nomaguchi, Kei M.; Brown, Susan L.
Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,198), this study examines the associations between education and parental strains and rewards among mothers of young children. Findings indicate that a college degree or more is related to less parenting anxiety, but more role captivity, and less new life meaning from parenting than lower levels of education. Differences by education are partly explained by variation in levels of progressive parenting values and work commitment, but remain significant. These patterns indicate that education provides greater resources that ease parental anxiety, but also leads to greater perceived demands of having a successful career, which contribute to more role captivity and less new life meaning from parenting. PMID:23136449
This article examines a grassroots parent organizing effort in a large, high-poverty, urban school district. Drawing from ethnographic field research at a community-based popular education organization, the study describes how parent organizers worked to educate and mobilize Latina/o immigrant parents on issues of educational justice and equity.…
Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.
The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…
The focus of this study was to investigate how parent involvement impacts student motivation in third grade special education. The study was conducted at Allen Elementary in Genoa, Ohio during the spring of 2011. After reviewing recent literature, it acknowledges the importance of parent participation on student academic education, the effects of…
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the earthquake education program which was prepared for 5 to 6 year old children and to draw attention to the importance of parent participation. The earthquake education program was applied to 93 children and 31 parents in the province of Denizli situated in the first degree seismic zone…
Collins, Christina L.
There are many parent education programs available for Extension professionals. How does a busy Extension professional decide which is best for his/her clients? This article provides a practical review and critique of 16 major parenting educational programs using three review criteria--program readiness, strength of scientific base, and empirical…
Harding, Jessica F.; Morris, Pamela A.
This research explores whether low-income mothers' participation in education influences a constellation of different parenting practices that are related to young children's academic outcomes. Importantly, understanding whether maternal participation in education influences mothers' parenting practices can illuminate a pathway by which increases…
BOCES Geneseo Migrant Center, Geneseo, NY.
This bilingual document stresses the importance of migrant parents being involved in their children's education and discusses ways for parents to help their children succeed in school. It provides information about migrant education and the various programs available for migrant children. The document covers the following topics: (1) important…
Risks are greater for infants born to mothers who drink, smoke, use drugs, have poor nutrition, lack adequate prenatal care, or who are in adolescence. Parenting education and promoting healthy lifestyles among expectant parents is an essential component of education for responsible sexuality. (JN)
Ceballo, Rosario; Maurizi, Laura K; Suarez, Gloria A; Aretakis, Maria T
Although myriad studies document the benefits of parental involvement in education on various indicators of children's academic performance, less research examines parental involvement among adolescents in low-income Latino families. Incorporating a multidimensional conceptualization of parental involvement, this study examined the relation between parental involvement and academic outcomes in a sample of 223 low-income, Latino adolescents. Results indicated that three types of parental involvement (gift/sacrifice, future discussions/academic socialization, and school involvement) had significant, positive associations with academic outcomes. Moreover, our results suggest that parents' stories about struggles with poverty and immigration are an important component of parental involvement, contributing to adolescents' desire to succeed academically and "give back" to parents. Additionally, our findings indicated that the positive relations between parental involvement and academic outcomes were stronger for immigrant youth and for those with higher endorsements of the Latino cultural value of respeto (respect).
Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Deveaux, Lynette; Wang, Bo; Lunn, Sonya; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita
The inclusion of parents in adolescent-targeted interventions is intended to benefit the adolescent. Limited research has explored whether parents participating in these programs also benefit directly. We examined the impact of Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together, the parenting portion of an adolescent-targeted HIV prevention…
Legitimate parental interests need to be distinguished from any putative rights parents "qua" parents may be said to possess. Parents have no right to insulate their children from conceptions of the good at variance with those of their own. Claims to the right to faith schools, private schools, home-schooling or to withdraw a child from…
Barton, Angela Calabrese; Drake, Corey; Perez, Jose Gustavo; St. Louis, Kathleen; George, Magnia
What we know about parental involvement in schools cuts across two areas: how and why parental involvement is important and the structural barriers that impede parental participation. However, it has been difficult to construct an account of parental involvement, grounded in everyday practice that goes beyond a laundry list of things that good…
Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell
We examine the prediction of individuals' educational and occupational success at age 48 from contextual and personal variables assessed during their middle childhood and late adolescence. We focus particularly on the predictive role of the parents' educational level during middle childhood, controlling for other indices of socioeconomic status and children's IQ, and the mediating roles of negative family interactions, childhood behavior, and late adolescent aspirations. Data come from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, which began in 1960 when all 856 third graders in a semi-rural county in New York State were interviewed along with their parents; participants were reinterviewed at ages 19, 30, and 48 (Eron et al, 1971; Huesmann et al., 2002). Parents' educational level when the child was 8 years old significantly predicted educational and occupational success for the child 40 years later. Structural models showed that parental educational level had no direct effects on child educational level or occupational prestige at age 48 but had significant indirect effects that were independent of the other predictor variables' effects. These indirect effects were mediated through age 19 educational aspirations and age 19 educational level. These results provide strong support for the unique predictive role of parental education on adult outcomes 40 years later and underscore the developmental importance of mediators of parent education effects such as late adolescent achievement and achievement-related aspirations.
Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Boizeau, Priscilla; Skurnik, David; Morin, Laurence; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Alberti, Corinne; Bourdon, Olivier
Objective To evaluate therapeutic education delivered in a pediatric emergency department to improve parents’ satisfaction and attitudes about judicious antibiotic use. Methods In an emergency department of a tertiary pediatric hospital, children aged 1 month to 6 years and discharged with an oral antibiotic prescription for an acute respiratory or urinary tract infection were randomized to a patient therapeutic education on antibiotic use (intervention group) or fever control (control group) delivered to the parents (in the presence of the children) by a pharmacist trained in therapeutic education. Education consisted in a 30-minute face-to-face session with four components: educational diagnosis, educational contract, education, and evaluation. The main outcome measure was parent satisfaction about information on antibiotics received at the hospital, as assessed by a telephone interview on day 14. The secondary outcome was attitudes about antibiotic use evaluated on day 14 and at month 6. Results Of the 300 randomized children, 150 per arm, 259 were evaluated on day 14. Parent satisfaction with information on antibiotics was higher in the intervention group (125/129, 96.9%, versus 108/130, 83.0%; P=0.002, exact Fisher test). Intervention Group parents had higher proportions of correct answers on day 14 to questions on attitudes about judicious antibiotic use than did control-group parents (P=0.017, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion Therapeutic education delivered by a clinical pharmacist in the pediatric emergency department holds promise for improving the use of antibiotics prescribed to pediatric outpatients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00948779 http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00948779 PMID:24086581
McBride, Sarah C
Four areas of pediatric office practice are again reviewed: office laboratory procedures, office economics, parenting and parent education, and urinary tract infection. Screening for celiac disease and the use of rapid antigen testing for extrapharyngeal group A Streptococcus infections are included in office laboratory procedures. Utilization of health care among patients with public insurance, electronic medical records, billing among pediatric residents, and satisfaction surveys are reviewed in office economics. Challenges related to breastfeeding, obesity management and timely immunizations are covered within parenting and parent education. Finally, the use of an augmented urinalysis and a discussion of imaging for first febrile urinary tract infections are included in the area of urinary tract infection.
Lin, Yen-Chin; Chu, Yuan-Hsiang; Lin, Helene H.
The purpose of this study was to understand the effectiveness of sexuality education training on the parents in the group regarding their sex knowledge, awareness of sexuality education, attitude towards sexuality education, self-efficacy in sexuality education, communication effectiveness and communication behavior in the hope that they would be…
Skrypnek, Berna J.
Reviews the history of parent education in Canada, describes the current scene, and identifies directions for future development of parent education policy and programming. (Contains 40 references.) (JOW)
Tanskanen, Antti O.; Erola, Jani; Kallio, Johanna
We study whether having several siblings decreases the level of educational performance of adolescents and whether this phenomenon can be compensated by other factors such as the economic or cultural resources of the parents. Based on this compensation model, parental resources should be associated with children’s educational attainments more strongly in families with a higher rather than a lower number of children. We analyzed the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) data from 20 Western countries and found that better family wealth, an increased level of parental education, and a higher parental occupational status were associated with increased educational attainments more strongly among 15-year-old children who have siblings than among children without siblings. The same effect was not found in the case of family cultural possessions. Although parental resources may matter more in larger families than in smaller families, some types of resources are more important than others regarding compensation. PMID:27942199
Chang, Cheng-Sian; Chen, Hsi-Mei
While parental involvement benefits the learning performance of elementary students and the internet changes the learning environment, few studies have examined how parents are involved in the virtual world. This two-year project analysed the effects of parental involvement at home, in school and on internet use. The first stage of our research…
Sticht, Thomas G.
Given the important intergenerational effects of parents' education level on the achievement of their children, education policies should shift from a focus on one life cycle to a focus on "multiple life cycles". Such a policy would explicitly recognize that adults transfer their educational achievements to the achievement of their…
This study examined the home environment of preschool children among 6 villages in Ludhiana district in Punjab state, India. The sample included 120 children aged 3-5 years. Eight composite scales were used to measure the home environment: learning stimulation, language stimulation, physical environment, warmth and affection, academic stimulation, role modeling, variety of experience, and acceptance. The sample reflected four educational groups for the father (illiterate, primary, matric, and graduate) and three educational groups for the mother (illiterate, primary, and matric). Findings clearly indicate that graduate level parents provided a more enriched home environment than less educated and illiterate parents. Education was unrelated to warmth and affection or acceptance between parents and children. Educated mothers showed slightly more warmth and affection. The stimulation in the growth of language and learning stimulation was significantly greater among graduate parents. Mothers encouraged their children to speak correctly, whereas illiterate mothers did not realize the importance. The lesser physical environment among lower educated parents supports findings of R.K. Srivastava (1974) on the association between lower scholastic achievement and overcrowding in the home. The study included homes where parents had sufficient financial resources to provide a safe and adequate physical environment but did not do so.
van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M
This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.
Weber, Christine L.; Stanley, Laurel
The focus of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a series of free workshops for parents of gifted children. The parent education workshops provided research-based information as recognized by experts in the field of counseling gifted children. Content areas include the characteristics of gifted children, identification, appropriate…
Parenting has come to play a pivotal role in breaking intergenerational disadvantage and increasing children's life chances and social mobility through practices such as parental support with their learning and education. Using a UK representative sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, the present study examined the unique and cumulative…
The main purpose of the study described in this article was to test the effectiveness of Little Books and Little Cooks, a 7-week integrated nutrition and parenting education intervention designed to improve eating habits of families, strengthen relationships between parents and their children, and improve preschoolers' cooking skills. Participant…
Ludwig, Denise Ann
The purpose of this study is to examine parent and early intervention professional perceptions and experiences of the legislative requirement of the parent participation and education component of Early Childhood Special Education. The study focuses on examination of reports of parent and early intervention professional experiences and analysis of…
Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn
Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.
Yucel, Gamze M. A.; Cavkaytar, Atilla
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a parent education program on parents' awareness about the Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (ACEC: in Turkish OCEM). The program was offered through a distance education program. Participants of the study included parents of 72 children with autism who were receiving…
Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Parents’ expectations for their children’s ultimate educational attainment have been hypothesized to play an instrumental role in socializing academically-relevant child behaviors, beliefs, and abilities. In addition to social transmission of educationally relevant values from parents to children, parental expectations and child characteristics may transact bidirectionally. We explore this hypothesis using both longitudinal and genetically informative twin data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study –Birth and Kindergarten cohorts. Our behavior genetic results indicate that parental expectations partly reflect child genetic variation, even as early as 4 years of age. Two classes of child characteristics were hypothesized to contribute to these child-to-parent effects: behavioral tendencies (approaches toward learning and problem behaviors) and achievement (math and reading). Using behavior genetic models, we find within-twin-pair associations between these child characteristics and parental expectations. Using longitudinal cross-lagged models, we find that initial variation in child characteristics predicts future educational expectations above and beyond previous educational expectations. These results are consistent with transactional frameworks in which parent-to-child and child-to-parent effects co-occur. PMID:25285965
International Journal of Special Education, 2016
Special education programmes must include high quality services to enhance children with disabilities (CWD) in all aspects of their development. This study aims to assess special education programmes (SEP) in Jordan from the perspectives of parents of CWD. Two different SEPs were assessed: inclusive education (IE) in regular schools, and special…
Nelson, Hal; And Others
The impact of providing alternative styles of education to single-parent families was analyzed as part of an experimental program, Southeast Alternatives (SEA), in Minneapolis, Minnesota. SEA is one of 18 experimental schools projects funded by the National Institute of Education to test innovations in educational practice in a long-term…
North Dakota State Dept. of Public Instruction, Bismarck.
This brochure is intended to inform parents and educators regarding the use of assistive technology devices and services in the special education evaluation process and programming. It is designed to help team participants develop the student's Individualized Education Program (IEP). Topics covered include: (1) the federal definition of assistive…
Adedze, Pascasie; Orr, Robin A.; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Donovan, Sharon M.
Childhood overweight remains a major public health problem and innovative nutrition education programs are still needed. Thus, the "Set the Pace" is a nutrition education DVD for Head Start parents which provides visual nutrition education and physical activities to incorporate in their daily routines. (Contains 1 table.)
The purpose of the research study was to explore the perceptions of Navajo mothers and Navajo fathers in the development and childrearing practices of their children and to what extent each parent was involved in their children by gender and age. The objective of the interviews was to capture the perceptions of each parent as to child development…
Wong, Meng Ee; Poon, Kenneth K.; Kaur, Sarinajit; Ng, Zi Jia
Relatively little work has focused on inclusive education in Singapore. This study examines the experiences and perceptions of parents whose children with disabilities are attending mainstream secondary schools in Singapore. Data was drawn from interviews with 13 parents of children with mild disabilities. Our findings reveal that parental…
Murray, Mary M.; Handyside, Lisa M.; Straka, Leslie A.; Arton-Titus, Tabatha V.
Parent empowerment includes the ability to meet the needs of one's family while feeling in control. This phenomenological study seeks to understand the experience of 71 parents of children with disabilities who participated with pre-service teachers in a 16-week special education course between 2006 and 2010. Analysis of pre-course and post-course…
Lehrman, Ray; Bomotti, Marty Jordan
This curriculum guide contains 11 units for a secondary consumer and homemaking education course in parenting. Unit titles include (1) The Individual, (2) The Family, (3) The Parent, (4) Family Planning, (5) Pregnancy, (6) Childbirth, (7) Care of Mother and Baby, (8) Adjustment of the New Family, (9) Developmental Stages of Children, (10) Guiding…
The study reported here examined Greek parents' perceptions of barriers to men entering the early childhood education and care profession and their recommendations for recruiting more males into the field. Parents were asked to respond on a Likert scale to statements regarding males' decision to enter the profession, possible benefits for male…
The importance of parental involvement in children's academic and social development has been widely accepted. For children's later school success, the first years are crucial. Majority of the research focuses on enhancing and supporting parental involvement in educational settings. The purpose of this study was to analyze dimensions of parental…
Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.
In 1 state's Part C early intervention (EI) program, families are afforded a unique opportunity to connect with parent educators (PEs), parents of children who have received EI services, and who are trained to support EI families and staff with a range of tailored duties. In an effort to continually reflect and improve upon the role of PEs, the…
Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.
This report describes how one school district developed a program of parent involvement in a Saturday early education program. The relationship between the home and the school is fostered primarily in two ways: through parental involvement in the Saturday School teaching team once every two months and through the home teaching visits. A crucial…
Boon, Helen J.
Low post-compulsory science enrolments for secondary students have been a growing concern across the Western world. Research has examined factors relating to science curricula and students' attitudes about science, but parental views of science education remain largely unexplored in Australia. Because parents have a strong role in shaping their…
Young, Mary Hahn; Balli, Sandra J.
This qualitative study explored student and parent perspectives on the extent to which gifted and talented programs met the educational needs of gifted students in Grades 4 to 7. Fifty-two interviews were conducted with students and parents from 10 public schools including seven neighborhood schools and three magnet schools. Participant…
Kotze, J. M. A.
The paper examines educational needs of the parents of handicapped children from an international perspective. Noted are common reactions and behaviors of parents including shock, embarrassment, denial of the problem, projection of blame and suspicion, fear and anxiety, and guilt and self-reproach. The impact of the handicapped child on the family…
Turley, Ruth N. Lopez; Desmond, Matthew; Bruch, Sarah K.
If today there exists a single transcendent idea about the family-school connection, it is that a positive parent-child relationship improves children's chances of succeeding in school. However, using data from the Texas Higher Education Opportunity Project (N = 5,836), we demonstrate that, although positive parent-child relations are associated…
The evidence base that explores Black African parents' experiences of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) is limited. This article describes an exploratory mixed methods research study undertaken during 2009-2011, that explored Black African parents' engagement with a UK EPS. Quantitative data were gathered from the EPS preschool database and…
Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn
Assessed the effectiveness of trained volunteers in leading parent education programs. Compared volunteer and professionally led groups in an ongoing extension-sponsored parenting program. Urban/rural comparisons were also made. There were no significant differences between volunteer and professionally led groups on child gains or parent…
Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.
In 1988, the Kentucky General Assembly enacted the Parenting and Family Life Skills Act, KRS 158.797, which requires the teaching of parenting and family life skills to pupils in Kentucky's schools. Pursuant to this Act, the Kentucky Department of Education developed the model curriculum presented in this document as a guide for local school…
This paper reports on a study designed to enhance knowledge and understanding of parent choice in relation to early childhood education and care (ECEC) services. It investigates the ways parents make their choices of early childhood services and examines and interprets the meanings they ascribe to those choices. An orthodox grounded theory…
Mellon, Robert C.; Moutavelis, Adrianos G.
This study explored the utility of a conception of parental educational involvement as the arrangement of contingency operations that normatively change: the frequency of children's school-related behaviour, the reinforcing potency of stimuli produced by studying, and children's tendencies to request parental intervention. A child-report measure…
Hasson, Rebecca E; Hsu, Ya-Wen J; Davis, Jaimie N; Goran, Michael I; Spruijt-Metz, Donna
Acculturation to the US culture is associated with suboptimal dietary choices in Latino youth. The role of parental education in shaping children's nutrition is less clear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental education, acculturation and dietary intake in 96 Latino youth ages 8-18 years. Parental education was assessed using a seven-category variable. Acculturation was assessed using the Acculturation, Habits, and Interests Multicultural Scale for Adolescents questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed via 24-h dietary recalls using the multiple pass technique. Parental education was associated with lower fat intake (β = -0.115, p = 0.02) and lower fiber intake (β = 0.144, p = 0.03); these associations remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI and acculturation. There were no significant associations between acculturation and dietary variables (all p's >0.05). This data suggests parental education may play an important role in shaping dietary intake in Latino youth.
Malow, Beth A.; Adkins, Karen W.; Reynolds, Ann; Weiss, Shelly K.; Loh, Alvin; Fawkes, Diane; Katz, Terry; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Madduri, Niru; Hundley, Rachel; Clemons, Traci
This study provided sleep education to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine whether an individual or group format was more effective in improving sleep and aspects of daytime behavior and family functioning. Eighty children, ages 2-10 years, with ASD and sleep onset delay completed the study. Actigraphy and parent questionnaires were collected at baseline and one month after treatment. Mode of education did not affect outcomes. Sleep latency, insomnia subscales on the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and other outcomes related to child and family functioning improved with treatment. Parent-based sleep education, delivered in relatively few sessions, was associated with improved sleep onset delay in children with ASD. Group vs. individualized education did not affect outcome. PMID:23754339
Hall, Stuart; Powney, Janet
A survey was conducted in Scotland's Lothian region to ascertain views on education provision for children under age 5. Subjects were over 400 nursery nurses, more than 1,100 parents, and staff members, at 175 nursery schools. The research questions covered six areas: (1) background information on parents and children; (2) benefits of nursery…
Beekman, Nancy R.
Research on parenting with particular attention to parental influence on such matters as self-esteem, academic achievement, social support, and parent-child communication is synthesized in this document. Parental concerns are noted and discussed from an historical vantage point and compared with what concerns parents most today. Sources of help…
The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various…
Costello, Cynthia B.
This report focuses on pathways to postsecondary education (PSE), including high school completion, for pregnant and parenting teens. Although birth rates among teens have declined in the United States over the last 20 years, one in seven adolescent females (14.4 percent) is expected to give birth before age 20 with females of color (24 percent of…
Kelly, Andrew P.; Schneider, Mark
You would not buy a car without knowing its mileage, or a home without knowing its age and condition. Why would you invest in a college education without knowing graduation rates? Over the next several months, high school seniors across the country will decide where to go to college. Many students and their parents will base the decision on…
Malow, Beth A.; Adkins, Karen W.; Reynolds, Ann; Weiss, Shelly K.; Loh, Alvin; Fawkes, Diane; Katz, Terry; Goldman, Suzanne E.; Madduri, Niru; Hundley, Rachel; Clemons, Traci
This study provided sleep education to parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine whether an individual or group format was more effective in improving sleep and aspects of daytime behavior and family functioning. Eighty children, ages 2-10 years, with ASD and sleep onset delay completed the study. Actigraphy and parent…
Women's and Family Programs Corp., Louisville, KY.
The Owensboro (Kentucky) Displaced Homemaker Program assists single parents/displaced homemakers in sustaining themselves and their families by enabling them to enter the workforce. Barriers of age, sex, lack of work experience, low self-esteem, low educational attainment, and little knowledge of the work environment affect their ability to enter…
Multicultural Education, Training and Advocacy (META), Inc., San Francisco, CA.
This handbook for immigrant parents outlines the legal rights of immigrant children to educational services. All children in the United States have a right to attend school. Schools may require proof of residency and vaccination before enrollment, but a signed sworn statement attesting to the child's age may be substituted for a birth certificate.…
Dannemann, A; Ernert, A; Rücker, P; Babitsch, B; Wiegand, S
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. In this study, the influence of migration background and parental education on the degree of obesity and the presence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) in children and adolescents (N=492) requiring sociopediatric care were investigated. Two regression models were computed with the dependent variables BMI-SDS and MS, respectively. Age, gender, migration background, and parental education were used as independent variables. When controlling for age and gender, higher BMI-SDS were found among Turkish patients (β=0.21; p=0.002) and patients with other migration backgrounds (β=0.11; p=0.085) compared to German patients. The BMI-SDS values were also higher among patients from families with a low parental education level compared to those with a higher education level (β=0.31; p<0.001). The key risk factor for MS is the BMI-SDS (OR: 8.9; p=0.011). No influence could be determined for migration background and parental education, when controlling for age, gender, and BMI-SDS. Obesity therapy should be increasingly tailored to the needs of identified risk groups. This will also allow for a targeted prevention of comorbidities.
Dodge, Diane Trister; Phinney, Joanna
This handbook was originally intended for parents whose children attend programs which use "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood" (CCEC), but the informaton is also useful to parents whose children attend early childhood programs using other curriculum models based on child development theories. The purpose of the handbook is to…
Healey, Paul M.
Describes a Pennsylvania elementary school's efforts to enhance school-community partnerships and thereby garner support for innovative programs such as whole language, cooperative learning, process writing, and authentic assessment. The keys to success were improved home-school communication and parent involvement. Parents were encouraged to…
Wilson, Kristina; Gonzalez, Patricia; Romero, Tony; Henry, Kimberly; Cerbana, Christine
This study evaluates the efficacy of the Parenting from Prison curriculum which was implemented across Colorado correctional institutions. Parenting from Prison is a skills-based program that aims to strengthen family relationships and promote positive behaviors by increasing parental knowledge about risks, resiliency and developmental assets. A…
Yoffe, Stuart J; McClellan, David A; Tolson, Homer; Moore, Robert W; McKay, Rebecca
This study was conducted to determine if a parent-oriented educational intervention reduces the use of emergency department (ED) services for the care of infants. Infants aged 7 days to 1 year and older children aged 2 to 10 years were tracked for 3 years in two separate primary care (PC) practices in Washington County, Texas, with the last year being the interventional study period. Also, infants aged 7 days to 1 year and older children aged 7 days to 5 years were tracked in a third PC practice in Burleson County, Texas. The study group consisted of all parents of patients aged 7 days to 1 year seen by the pediatric group in Washington County during the 1-year interventional period. Only parents of infants in the study group received a specific educational intervention booklet. Five separate control groups were followed in this study. The control groups received usual care with standardized patient information, but they did not receive the educational intervention booklet. Each group was evaluated by calculating its monthly ED utilization rate, which is the quotient derived from dividing the number of children from that particular group seen in the ED per month by the number of children from the same group seen in the PC clinic per month. A difference of proportions test was applied to test for statistical significance regarding ED utilization. Compared with parents in the control group, parents receiving the intervention booklet (the study group) showed significantly (P < .05) lower use of ED services for care of their infants. We found no change in ED utilization for children of parents receiving other standard educational information.
Prendergast, Susan G.; Lartz, Maribeth Nelson; Fiedler, Barbara Casson
A survey interviewed parents of 77 children with severe to profound hearing loss while attending an educational program at an Illinois state residential school. The children had lower ages of identification than those reported in national studies and in an early study in Illinois. Delays in early intervention are discussed. (Contains references.)…
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Mann, Emily A.
Researchers conducted the first cost-benefit analysis of a federally-financed, comprehensive early childhood program involving the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers, which are located in public schools and provide educational and family support services to low-income children ages 3-9 years. Data came from a cohort of children born in 1980 who…
Lipscomb, Shannon T.; Laurent, Heidemarie; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D.
The current study examined interactions among genetic influences and children’s early environments on the development of externalizing behaviors from 18 months to 6 years of age. Participants included 233 families linked through adoption (birth parents and adoptive families). Genetic influences were assessed by birth parent temperamental regulation. Early environments included both family (overreactive parenting) and out-of-home factors (center-based Early Care and Education; ECE). Overreactive parenting predicted more child externalizing behaviors. Attending center-based ECE was associated with increasing externalizing behaviors only for children with genetic liability for dysregulation. Additionally, children who were at risk for externalizing behaviors due to both genetic variability and exposure to center-based ECE were more sensitive to the effects of overreactive parenting on externalizing behavior than other children. PMID:25067867
Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Dopkins Stright, Anne; Yen, Lee-Lan
The study examined how child and parent characteristics, and contextual sources of stress, such as marital conflict predict initial status and trajectories of parent involvement, support, and harsh control, over a 4-year period in families in Taiwan (n = 4,754). Based on Belsky's (1984) ecological model of parenting, three domains predicting parenting were tested, child characteristics (age cohort and gender), father and mother characteristics (education and depressive symptoms), and contextual sources of stress (marital conflict). The study followed two cohorts of children; the younger cohort was followed from first to fourth grade and the older cohort from fourth to seventh grade. Initially, fourth graders reported more parental involvement, support, and harsh control than first graders. However, involvement, support, and harsh control decreased across the 4 years for the older cohort as they transitioned to early adolescence. In the first year, girls reported more parental involvement and support and less harsh control than boys. Across the 4 years, involvement and support increased, and harsh control decreased for boys; whereas involvement stayed the same, support slightly decreased, and harsh control slightly increased for girls. Children whose parents were more educated reported more parent involvement, support, and harsh control in the first year. Children whose fathers were chronically depressed and whose parents were experiencing marital conflict reported decreasing parent involvement and support over the years.
Norwood, Pamela M.; Atkinson, Sue Ellen; Tellez, Kip; Saldana, Deborah Carr
Describes a collaborative effort among a university college of education, its graduate school of social work, and a community school to develop a culturally responsive parent education/involvement program. Program participants indicate they had more knowledge and confidence enabling them to interact more effectively with their children at home, as…
Columna, Luis; Pyfer, Jean; Senne, Terry; Velez, Luisa; Bridenthrall, Nancy; Canabal, Maria Yolanda
The purpose of this study was to identify the perspectives of Hispanic parents of children with disabilities regarding adapted physical education (APE) professionals in relationship to their child's purposeful play and transition to school programming. Participants (N=11) were Hispanic parents of children with disabilities. Parents participated in one-on-one interviews in their preferred language (Spanish or English). Transcripts were analyzed through a constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) qualified APE professionals, (b) challenges for the family, and (c) normalcy. These themes were supported by subthemes. The results indicated that Hispanic families were not as familiar with APE services as Caucasian families were. Parental expectations among Hispanic parents were similar to Caucasian parents, but the preference for modes of communication and information differed.
Parcel, G S; Coreil, J
Parental evaluations of their children's participation in a school-based sex education program for young adolescents were conducted by interview using a structured questionnaire. Parents were asked questions concerning: course objectives, course content, instructional materials, expectations, perceived effectiveness, and important outcomes of the instruction. The sex education course was six weeks in length, meeting for 50 minutes daily. The program was comprehensive and did not avoid areas typically thought of as controversial. The results indicated parental support for the sex education program and the evaluation provided useful information for program revision. An examination of the findings suggest a paradox in that parents want their children to be informed about sexuality and to be able to make decisions that would avoid problems, but they are uneasy about dealing directly with sexual behavior.
Garaigordobil, Maite; Aliri, Jone
The aims of this study were to analyze the differences in the mothers' and fathers' socialization styles depending on their children's sex; whether there are differences in hostile, benevolent, and ambivalent sexism, and neosexism as a function of both parents' socialization styles; and whether the parents' educational level affects their level of sexism and their children's sexism. The sample included 1,455 adolescents and their parents (764 mothers and 648 fathers). The results showed no differences in the socialization style of the father with his children's sexism, but the mother used a more authoritarian style with her daughters. The parents' socialization style had little influence on their children's sexism, although it had a higher impact on the sons' sexism. The father's style had less influence than the mother's on their sons' sexism, and it had no influence on their daughters' sexism. The indulgent style of both parents had the highest relation with a low level of sexism. Moreover, a negative correlation was found between the parents' educational level and their level of sexism, as well as between the mother's educational level and her daughters' sexism. To conclude, the indulgent style and the mother's high educational level promote fewer sexist attitudes.
This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…
Byars, Sean G.; Boomsma, Jacobus J.
Background and objectives: Effects of maternal and paternal age on offspring autism and schizophrenia risks have been studied for over three decades, but inconsistent risks have often been found, precluding well-informed speculation on why these age-related risks might exist. Methodology: To help clarify this situation we analysed a massive single population sample from Denmark including the full spectrum of autistic and schizophrenic disorders (eliminating between-study confounding), used up to 30 follow-up years, controlled for over 20 potentially confounding factors and interpret the ultimate causation of the observed risk patterns using generally accepted principles of parent-offspring conflict and life-history theory. Results: We evaluated the effects of paternal age, maternal age and parental age difference on offspring mental disorders and found consistently similar risk patterns for related disorders and markedly different patterns between autistic and schizophrenic disorders. Older fathers and mothers both conferred increased risk for autistic but not schizophrenic disorders, but autism risk was reduced in younger parents and offspring of younger mothers had increased risk for many schizophrenic disorders. Risk for most disorders also increased when parents were more dissimilarly aged. Monotonically increasing autism risk is consistent with mutation accumulation as fathers’ age, but this explanation is invalid for schizophrenic disorders, which were not related to paternal age and were negatively correlated with maternal age. Conclusions and implications: We propose that the observed maternally induced risk patterns ultimately reflect a shifting ancestral life-history trade-off between current and future reproduction, mediated by an initially high but subsequently decreasing tendency to constrain foetal provisioning as women proceed from first to final pregnancy. PMID:27637201
Fidler, Deborah J.; Lawson, John E.; Hodapp, Robert M.
An analysis of educational desires found parents of children with Down syndrome (n=39) wanted changes in speech therapy and reading services, parents of children with Prader-Willi syndrome (n=25) wanted increases in adaptive physical education services, and parents of children with Williams syndrome (n=26) wanted increases in music services and…
Shaw, D S; Emery, R E
In this study, several factors related to psychological adjustment of school-age children were examined in a sample of 40 lower-class families in which the parents were separated. It was hypothesized that parental conflict and other indices of family adversity, including maternal depression, income, and the length of time past since parental separation, would be important predictors of children's behavioral adjustment. Parental acrimony was found to be a significant correlate of children's behavioral problems, even when other family variables were taken into account. In addition, independent and additive effects on children's functioning were found for parental discord and maternal depression, with some support found for an additional variable, family income. In contrast to some prior investigations, the length of time since parental separation was unrelated to children's functioning. Results are discussed in terms of Rutter's cumulative stress hypothesis and previous research on parental discord.
Carranza, Francisco D; You, Sukkyung; Chhuon, Vichet; Hudley, Cynthia
As the number of Mexican American school-aged children continues to increase, researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are in critical need of information to better understand and serve them. This study used structural equation modeling to examine the relationship among perceived parental educational involvement (PPEI), acculturation, gender, and self-esteem on the academic achievement and aspirations of Mexican American high school students (N = 298). Results revealed direct effects of perceived parental educational involvement, students' level of acculturation, and students' self-esteem on students' achievement and aspirations. Acculturation and self-esteem also revealed indirect effects on aspirations and achievement through parental educational expectations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Colorado Office of the Governor, Denver.
This report contains the recommendations of Colorado Governor Romer's Task Force on Parent Education and Involvement, a task force comprised of parents, advocates, and professionals charged with discussing the importance of parenting, the state's role in supporting parents, and the best lessons about the outcomes of parent education, support, and…
Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook
The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged < or = 8 years. Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism
If trust is born in strong relationships, then first encounters are critical. Parents of students with disabilities undergo a great deal of stress and come to educational professionals for help with vital specialized tasks, including assessment, placement, progress monitoring, and maintenance of their child's ongoing needs. Special education is a…
Sweet, Robert; Anisef, Paul; Walters, David
This paper examines relationships between the resources available to immigrant families and the amount parents are willing and able to save for their children's post-secondary education (PSE). We use data from Statistics Canada's 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning to compare immigrant and native-born PSE saving. The results indicate…
Tyree, Carolyn L.; And Others
Although the current educational climate stresses a back-to-basics approach, there is nonetheless overwhelming evidence of a need for an appropriately structured parenting education program in the public school curriculum. Reasons for this need include the large number of teenage pregnancies and abortions. These lead teens to miss high school…
AugsJoost, Brett; Jerman, Petra; Deardorff, Julianna; Harley, Kim; Constantine, Norman A.
Expanding condom-related knowledge and skills and reducing barriers to condom use have the potential to help reduce pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections among youth. These goals are sometimes addressed through condom education and availability (CEA) programs as part of sexuality education in school. Parents are a key constituency in…
Cheng, Albert; Tuchman, Sivan; Wolf, Patrick J.
Homeschooling is controversial for a variety of reasons. One concern is whether families are sufficiently equipped to serve students with disabilities. We investigate this issue by assessing parental satisfaction with the special education services that their child is receiving in various educational sectors (e.g., homeschool, traditional public,…
Steadman, Mindy; Crookston, Benjamin; Page, Randy; Hall, Cougar
Sexuality education programs can be broadly categorized as either risk-avoidance or risk-reduction approaches. Health educators in Utah public schools must teach a state mandated risk-avoidance curriculum which prohibits the advocacy or encouragement of contraception. Multiple national surveys indicate that parents prefer a risk-reduction approach…
In this study the emphasis of selecting a school and profession is put onto the family role in educational and professional guidance in order to help the students to obtain the necessary information for further education, by the help of their parents, more efficiently and more functionally. The study was conducted in Virovitica and Podravina…
This paper examines the contribution of parents' education and children's gender on parental expectations of their children's future education and the role of parental perceptions of their child's competencies in the formation of their expectations. A group of university and vocationally educated parents (N = 418) were asked to estimate the…
Aram, Dorit; Besser-Biron, Shira
The study aimed to deepen the understanding of parental sensitivity to their children's abilities and the nature of their scaffolding during writing tasks. We compared the parent-child writing interactions of three groups: precocious readers (PRs), same age preschoolers (SA), and older children with the same reading level (SRL) as the PRs. Each of…
Yáñez, Aina M.; Leiva, Alfonso; Estela, Andreu
We examined whether personality traits and parental education are associated with smoking initiation in a sample of Spanish secondary school students. Participants, taken from the ITACA study (842 adolescents aged 14–15 years), completed a questionnaire assessing personality traits of the Five Factor Model, smoking behaviours and parental education. Multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age and sex were used to determine the independent associations and interactions of personality traits and parental education with risk of ever trying smoking, as well as with being a regular smoker in adolescence. Higher conscientiousness was related to a lower chance of trying smoking at least once (OR = 0.57, 95% CIs = 0.46, 0.71) as well as being a regular smoker (OR = 0.39, 95% CIs = 0.27, 0.55). Higher emotional instability (neuroticism) was associated with higher risk of being in either smoking category (OR = 1.33, 95% CIs = 1.10, 1.60 and OR = 1.76, 95% CIs = 1.31, 2.35, respectively). Higher extraversion was also associated with a higher risk of both types of smoking behaviour (OR = 1.38, 95% CIs = 1.12, 1.70 and OR = 2.43 (1.67, 3.55, respectively). Higher parental education was significantly related to lower risk of being a regular smoker (OR = 0.70, 95% CIs = 0.54, 0.89), but not with trying smoking in the past. Finally, we found no evidence of the interactions between adolescents’ personality and parental education in predicting adolescent smoking behaviours. We conclude that personality factors and parental education are important and independent factors associated with smoking behaviour in adolescents. PMID:28333969
Yáñez, Aina M; Leiva, Alfonso; Estela, Andreu; Čukić, Iva
We examined whether personality traits and parental education are associated with smoking initiation in a sample of Spanish secondary school students. Participants, taken from the ITACA study (842 adolescents aged 14-15 years), completed a questionnaire assessing personality traits of the Five Factor Model, smoking behaviours and parental education. Multinomial logistic regression models controlling for age and sex were used to determine the independent associations and interactions of personality traits and parental education with risk of ever trying smoking, as well as with being a regular smoker in adolescence. Higher conscientiousness was related to a lower chance of trying smoking at least once (OR = 0.57, 95% CIs = 0.46, 0.71) as well as being a regular smoker (OR = 0.39, 95% CIs = 0.27, 0.55). Higher emotional instability (neuroticism) was associated with higher risk of being in either smoking category (OR = 1.33, 95% CIs = 1.10, 1.60 and OR = 1.76, 95% CIs = 1.31, 2.35, respectively). Higher extraversion was also associated with a higher risk of both types of smoking behaviour (OR = 1.38, 95% CIs = 1.12, 1.70 and OR = 2.43 (1.67, 3.55, respectively). Higher parental education was significantly related to lower risk of being a regular smoker (OR = 0.70, 95% CIs = 0.54, 0.89), but not with trying smoking in the past. Finally, we found no evidence of the interactions between adolescents' personality and parental education in predicting adolescent smoking behaviours. We conclude that personality factors and parental education are important and independent factors associated with smoking behaviour in adolescents.
In this paper we report on testing the 'role-model' and 'opportunity-structure' hypotheses about the parents whom scientists mentioned as career influencers. According to the role-model hypothesis, the gender match between scientist and influencer is paramount (for example, women scientists would disproportionately often mention their mothers as career influencers). According to the opportunity-structure hypothesis, the parent's educational level predicts his/her probability of being mentioned as a career influencer (that is, parents with higher educational levels would be more likely to be named). The examination of a sample of American scientists who had received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships resulted in rejecting the role-model hypothesis and corroborating the opportunity-structure hypothesis. There were a few additional findings. First, women scientists were more likely than men scientists to mention parental influencers. Second, fathers were more likely than mothers to be mentioned as influencers. Third, an interaction was found between the scientist's gender and parental education when predicting a parent's nomination as influencer.
Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Čulić, Vida
The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707
Rahimpour, Parivash; Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh
Introduction Parenting styles are effective in the educational performance of their child. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the parenting styles and students’ educational performance among Iranian girl high school students. Materials and Methods In a cross–sectional survey, female students in high schools of Ilam (Iran) evaluated during the academic year 2014-15. Multistage cluster random sampling was used to select the participants. Data were collected by two demographic and Baumrind’s parenting styles questionnaire. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was measured as an index of internal identicalness of the questionnaire to verify its reliability. Results: A total 400 students were studied. The Mean±SD of the students’ age were 14±1.08. The students’ school grades were the first year of high school to pre-university course. The Mean±SD of parenting styles were 35.37±5.8, 34.69±6.34 and 19.17±6.64 for permissive parenting style, authoritarian parenting style and authoritative parenting styles, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the score of permissive parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.151), authoritarian parenting style (p= 0.001, r= 0.343) and authoritative parenting style (p=0. 001, r= 0.261) with the students’ average score for studying. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that parental influence plays an important role in students’ educational performance. PMID:26813692
SPENCER, MYRTLE B.
A STUDY WAS MADE TO COLLECT INFORMATION AND DETERMINE THE NEEDS AND INTERESTS OF PARENTS IN ESTABLISHING PUBLIC SCHOOL PARENT EDUCATION CLASSES AND TO OFFER SUGGESTIONS, RECOMMEND SOURCES OF INFORMATION, AND GIVE ASSISTANCE IN DEVELOPING PARENT EDUCATION PROGRAMS. DATA ON NEED FOR PARENT EDUCATION IN TYLER, TEXAS WAS OBTAINED THROUGH…
Parenting education needs assessment surveys were collected from a large group of the parents or caregivers of 698 0-5-year-old children in southern Nevada. Survey questions addressed parenting education interests, family characteristics, and preferred delivery methods of parenting education. Cluster analysis was used to empirically determine if…
Gofen, Anat; Blomqvist, Paula
Parental involvement in public education is an expression of joint responsibility between parents and the state in which parents are expected to "comply" with current educational policy. Moreover, parents are often perceived as "reactive," whereas the educational administration is seen as proactive, mainly by reducing barriers…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.
The authors studied multiple parenting cognitions and practices in European American mothers (N=262) who ranged from 15 to 47 years of age. All were 1st-time parents of 20-month-old children. Some age effects were 0; others were linear or nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects determined by spline regression showed significant associations to a "knot"…
What is the impact of the international school experience on the children of educators who live and study in close proximity with their parents and parents' colleagues? In this study, educators, who are teachers, counselors, specialists and administrators, describe their impressions of the benefits and challenges of this unique expatriate family…
This paper presents the findings and implications of a qualitative study conducted in Guatemala, which focused on rural, indigenous parents' perceptions of their children's schooling and educational quality. For these parents, the simple fact that their children had improved access to school signifies a satisfactory educational accomplishment;…
Integrated education in Poland has been implemented since 1993. This alternative form of education very quickly resulted in an increased number of integrated classes in mainstream schools and a decreased percentage of students with disabilities in segregated education. Research indicates that the process of "opening of society to…
Rimkute, Laura; Hirvonen, Riikka; Tolvanen, Asko; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik
The present study examined the extent to which mothers' and fathers' expectations for their offspring's future education, their level of education, and adolescents' academic achievement predict adolescents' educational expectations. To investigate this, 230 adolescents were examined twice while they were in comprehensive school (in the 7th and 9th…
NICU nurses have an important role to play in many aspects of parent education. This article stresses the need for an increased focus on teaching parents about the central role that self-regulation will play in their infant's neurobehavioral development not only during the early infancy period but throughout all of childhood and adolescence. Suggestions are made about how to conceptualize the relation between cognition and emotions in humans and how to help parents understand that continued vigilance concerning potential problems in attention and self-regulation will be necessary.
Randolph, Karen A.; Radey, Melissa
Objectives: The objective of this study is to establish the factor structure of the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (APQ), an instrument designed to measure parenting practices among parents of elementary school children. Methods: Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) procedures are used to validate the APQ with 790 parents of…
Ashley, Julia R.; Cates, Dennis L.
A survey of teachers of the visually impaired and adults with albinism or parents of children with albinism (total responses=144) found no use of Braille by the adults or children with albinism, awareness of the condition by almost all teachers, support for mainstreaming by all, and specific teaching suggestions from teachers. (DB)
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of books and CDs that address topics related to the politics of midwifery in the United States, preparing expectant parents for childbirth, babywearing techniques, breastfeeding guides, and a child's perspective of home birth.
Spock, Benjamin; And Others
Various aspects of child-rearing are covered in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Authors of current popular books on parenting are interviewed. Benjamin Spock discusses changes (including sex role revisions) in his "Baby and Child Care" since the 1946…
Butz, Arlene; Pham, Luu; Lewis, LaPricia; Lewis, Cassis; Hill, Kim; Walker, Jennifer; Winkelstein, Marilyn
The goal of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an asthma educational intervention in improving asthma knowledge, self-efficacy, and quality of life in rural families. Children 6 to 12 years of age (62% male, 56% white, and 22% Medicaid) with persistent asthma (61%) were recruited from rural elementary schools and randomized into the control standard asthma education (CON) group or an interactive educational intervention (INT) group geared toward rural families.Parent/caregiver and child asthma knowledge, self-efficacy, and quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 10 months post enrollment. Despite high frequency of symptom reports, only 18% children reported an emergency department visit in the prior 6 months. Significant improvement in asthma knowledge was noted for INT parents and young INT children at follow-up (Parent: CON = 16.3; INT = 17.5, p < 0.001; Young children: CON = 10.8, INT = 12.45, p < 0.001). Child self-efficacy significantly increased in the INT group at follow-up; however, there was no significant difference in parent self-efficacy or parent and child quality of life at follow-up. Asthma symptom reports were significantly lower for the INT group at follow-up. For young rural children, an interactive asthma education intervention was associated with increased asthma knowledge and self-efficacy, decreased symptom reports, but not increased quality of life.
Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J
The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.
Bitterman, Amy; Daley, Tamara C; Misra, Sunil; Carlson, Elaine; Markowitz, Joy
The Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS) examines the preschool and early elementary school experiences of a nationally representative sample of 3,104 children ages 3-5 with disabilities from 2004 through 2009. This paper describes the special education and related services received by a subsample of 186 preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in 2003-2004 and parental satisfaction with those services. Past research and patterns of litigation suggest that parents of children with ASD are not wholly satisfied with the special education and related services their children receive. In the current study, the authors found many similarities between children with ASD and children with other disabilities in the type of services received under IDEA and in parent satisfaction with these services. Still, some significant differences emerged in the number of services received, the amount of time children with ASD spent in special education settings, and parent satisfaction with the amount of time children spent with typically developing peers. Implications about the importance of parent satisfaction and social validity measures are discussed.
Apfelbacher, Christian Joachim; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Krämer, Ursula
Whether or not associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy are homogeneous across social strata has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to estimate the association between animal contact (cat, dog) and allergy/atopy in 6-yr-old school beginners, stratified by parental educational level. A total of 30794, 6-yr old children participated in cross-sectional studies between 1991 and 2000 in Germany. Allergic sensitization to common aeroallergens and symptoms and diagnoses of atopic diseases (asthma, eczema, hay fever) were the dependent variables. Contact with dog/cat were the independent variables. Logistic regression was used to adjust for confounding. Analyses were stratified for parental education. Prevalences of hay fever, eczema, specific sensitization to pollen and house dust mite increased, while the prevalence of contact to cat and dog decreased with parental educational level. Globally significant positive associations between cat contact and sensitization to cat (interaction significant) and between dog contact and wheezing remained significant in the highest and medium/highest educational strata respectively. A globally significant inverse association between cat contact and hay fever remained significant in the highest educational stratum only. The inverse association of contact to dog with eczema was globally significant, but not in the strata. When estimating the associations between animal contact and allergy/atopy in children, effect modification by social status should be considered. Cat contact seems to increase the odds of sensitization to cat only in children whose parents have a high level of education.
McGroder, S M
Dimensions and patterns of parenting were examined in a sample of 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschool-age children. Factor analyses yielded three dimensions: Aggravation, Nurturance, and Cognitive Stimulation. Cluster analysis yielded four patterns of parenting: Aggravated but Nurturant; Cognitively Stimulating; Patient and Nurturant; and Low Nurturance. Discriminant function analysis was used to predict membership in each of the four parenting clusters. Two composite functions emerged, the first representing maternal well-being (locus of control, depressive symptoms), the second representing sociodemographic characteristics (maternal education, duration on welfare, age at first birth), accounting for 93% of between-groups variability. Children's scores on measures of cognitive school readiness and personal maturity were significantly related to parenting pattern, even after controlling for significant predictors of parenting pattern; children's verbal ability was no longer related to parenting pattern once significant maternal characteristics were controlled. Findings are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature on parenting and in terms of implications for welfare policy and programs.
Pellerin, D; Rethoré, M O; Pellerin, P
The longevity increase which characterises the society evolution at the end of the 20th century, also concerns the handicapped people. The fact is particularly outstanding for mentally handicapped people such as the Down's Syndrome population. We are nowadays discovering the first generation of the "over 40 year-old people". Among the eldest, many of them have never left home as specialised structures were non existent when they were young. Even those, not many of them in that age group, who have been able to have access to a CAT and to profit by a specialised centre, cannot carry on working after their 35th birthday, because of their early ageing, and because of their tiredness. Therefore, they are early excluded from the CAT, they lose their advantage of being in a specialised centre and they finely have to go back home. Many parents of mentally handicapped people who live at home, even though they are not yet too old, seem to get more and more tired with their ageing advance, which, day after day, makes their unremitting action harder and harder towards their child who is also getting older. The makers relate the innovating and experimental initiative of a "Hameau Services", nowadays located at Sommières-du-Clain, a rural parish in the south of Vienne country, which offers to welcome still valid ageing parents and their mentally handicapped ageing child who lives in their own house. The collective services which are assured by the managing association, tend to relieve them in their daily material tasks in the aim of contributing to the prejudice of the unexpected arrival of the manifestations of the subordination through a proposition of a better life quality of the handicapped adult and his parents.
Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto
Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.
Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto
Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271
Walker, Joy; Milton, Jan
There is little international research focusing on parents' and teachers' roles in sexuality education during children's primary school years. This paper focuses on teachers' and parents' key experiences as sexuality educators of primary-school-age children in both Leeds, UK and in Sydney, Australia. Based on research findings from both the United…
Garg, Rashmi; Melanson, Stella; Levin, Elizabeth
Youth from single-parent families report lower educational aspirations than those from two-parent families. This study explored the influence of background factors (gender, grade, parental education and SES), parental involvement with education, academic self-concept, and peer influences on educational aspirations. The participants were Canadian…
Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonca, Denisa
The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child's adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal,…
Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.
Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…
Willson, Andrea E.; Shuey, Kim M.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.
Investigates ambivalence in adult children's relationships with their aging parents and in-laws. Focuses on factors predicting adult children's ambivalence toward parents and in-laws within a gendered kinship structure that shapes these relations. Concludes that ambivalence is a useful concept for representing the complexity of parent-child…
Hartlep, Nicholas D.; Ellis, Antonio
The authors used data from the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program 2007 Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007) (N=10,681) to examine household income, gender, and race of parents, and their importance in shaping parental involvement in children's education. The study finds…
Waite, Polly; Creswell, Cathy
Parental behaviors, most notably overcontrol, lack of warmth and expressed anxiety, have been implicated in models of the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders in children and young people. Theories of normative development have proposed that different parental responses are required to support emotional development in childhood and adolescence, yet age has not typically been taken into account in studies of parenting and anxiety disorders. In order to identify whether associations between anxiety disorder status and parenting differ in children and adolescents, we compared observed behaviors of parents of children (7-10 years) and adolescents (13-16 years) with and without anxiety disorders (n = 120), while they undertook a series of mildly anxiety-provoking tasks. Parents of adolescents showed significantly lower levels of expressed anxiety, intrusiveness and warm engagement than parents of children. Furthermore, offspring age moderated the association between anxiety disorder status and parenting behaviors. Specifically, parents of adolescents with anxiety disorders showed higher intrusiveness and lower warm engagement than parents of non-anxious adolescents. A similar relationship between these parenting behaviors and anxiety disorder status was not observed among parents of children. The findings suggest that theoretical accounts of the role of parental behaviors in anxiety disorders in children and adolescents should distinguish between these different developmental periods. Further experimental research to establish causality, however, would be required before committing additional resources to targeting parenting factors within treatment.
Wahl, R A; Shapiro, E; Elliott, S P; Walter, J J
We again review four areas of interest to office-based pediatricians: office laboratory procedures, office economics, parenting and patient education, and urinary tract infections. Sean Elliott provides an update on the Clinical Laboratories Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and their impact of office practice. Eve Shapiro reviews office economics, focusing on measuring quality of care, use of performance data, costs of new technologies, and the impact of managed care on the medical marketplace. John Walter offers an update on parenting and parent education, with approaches to counseling families about overuse of antibiotics, teen pregnancy, hyperactivity, violence, and asthma. Richard Wahl reviews the recent research on urinary tract infection, with special attention paid to office diagnosis and management, longitudinal studies of children with urinary tract infections, and the controversy surrounding the American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Circumcision report.
Park, Sira; Holloway, Susan D.
Numerous studies have investigated the utility of the Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler (HDS) model for predicting parents' involvement in students' education. Yet, the model has yet to be thoroughly evaluated with respect to youth who are (a) in high school and (b) from sociodemographically diverse families. Using a nationally representative sample of…
From the 1980s and 1990s, governments around the world began to champion "parental choice" over schooling. Much of the existing scholarship has been based on examples taken from the global North. In such settings, where nuclear families are common, a major theme has been the privileged educational strategies and outcomes of middle-class…
Antman, Francisca M
Estimation of the causal effect of parental migration on children's educational attainment is complicated by the fact that migrants and non-migrants are likely to differ in unobservable ways that also affect children's educational outcomes. This paper suggests a novel way of addressing this selection problem by looking within the family to exploit variation in siblings' ages at the time of parental migration. The basic assumption underlying the analysis is that parental migration will have no effect on the educational outcomes of children who are at least 20 because they have already completed their educations. Their younger siblings, in contrast, may still be in school, and thus will be affected by the parental migration experience. The results point to a statistically significant positive effect of paternal U.S. migration on education for girls, suggesting that pushing a father's U.S. migration earlier in his daughter's life can lead to an increase in her educational attainment of up to 1 year relative to delaying migration until after she has turned 20. In contrast, paternal domestic migration has no statistically significant effect on educational attainment for girls or boys, suggesting that father absence does not play a major role in determining children's educational outcomes. Instead, these results suggest that the marginal dollars from U.S. migrant remittances appear to enable families to further educate their daughters. Thus, policymakers should view international migration as a potential pathway by which families raise educational attainments of girls in particular. JEL: O15; J12; J13; J16; J24; F22.
Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, KS.
This publication offers information that may be of assistance in the development of programs or activities in aviation education. This report includes a listing of: the number of schools in each state offering high school aviation courses, state aerospace education advisory committees, high school teacher associations, full-time state personnel…
Students in special education programs can have widely divergent experiences. For some, special education amounts to a dumping ground where schools unload their problem students, while for others, it provides access to services and accommodations that drastically improve chances of succeeding in school and beyond. "Distinguishing…
Singh, Amit Kumar; Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gurumoorthy, Viswanathan; Ramakrishnan, Anantha Maharasi; Dhanapal, Shanmuhapreya; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy
In humans, it is well known that the parental reproductive age has a strong influence on mutations transmitted to their progeny. Meiotic nondisjunction is known to increase in older mothers, and base substitutions tend to go up with paternal reproductive age. Hence, it is clear that the germinal mutation rates are a function of both maternal and paternal ages in humans. In contrast, it is unknown whether the parental reproductive age has an effect on somatic mutation rates in the progeny, because these are rare and difficult to detect. To address this question, we took advantage of the plant model system Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where mutation detector lines allow for an easy quantitation of somatic mutations, to test the effect of parental age on somatic mutation rates in the progeny. Although we found no significant effect of parental age on base substitutions, we found that frameshift mutations and transposition events increased in the progeny of older parents, an effect that is stronger through the maternal line. In contrast, intrachromosomal recombination events in the progeny decrease with the age of the parents in a parent-of-origin-dependent manner. Our results clearly show that parental reproductive age affects somatic mutation rates in the progeny and, thus, that some form of age-dependent information, which affects the frequency of double-strand breaks and possibly other processes involved in maintaining genome integrity, is transmitted through the gametes. PMID:25810093
Jones, B. A.; Gansle, K. A.
Poor parent participation in multidisciplinary team meetings can be a concern for parents and educators, as it might lead to less relevant and effective programs for students with disabilities. This study sought to extend the literature on parent participation in the Individual Education Program (IEP) process by investigating the relationship…
Meloni, Fabio; Federici, Stefano; Dennis, John Lawrence
The present research tested whether children's disability representations are influenced by cultural variables (e.g., social activities, parent education, custom complex variables) or by cognitive constraints. Four questionnaires were administered to a sample of 76 primary school aged children and one of their parents (n = 152). Questionnaires included both open-ended and closed-ended questions. The open-ended questions were created to collect uncensored personal explanations of disability, whereas the closed-ended questions were designed to elicit a response of agreement for statements built on the basis of the three most widespread disability models: individual, social, and biopsychosocial. For youngest children (6-8 years old), people with disabilities are thought of as being sick. This early disability representation of children is consistent with the individual model of disability and independent from parents' disability explanations and representations. As children grow older (9-11 years old), knowledge regarding disability increases and stereotypical beliefs about disability decrease, by tending to espouse their parents representations. The individual model remains in the background for the adults too, emerging when the respondents rely on their most immediately available mental representation of disability such as when they respond to an open-ended question. These findings support that the youngest children are not completely permeable to social representations of disability likely due to cognitive constraints. Nevertheless, as the age grows, children appear educable on perspectives of disability adhering to a model of disability representation integral with social context and parent perspective.
Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita
Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood.
Early childhood education and care is a multifaceted institution. Based on children's age, a number of different settings operate, which have usually two distinct aims. Kindergartens provide mainly education whereas day care centres provide care. Yet, in recent years, the need to establish programmes which provide both education and care to…
Apouey, Bénédicte H; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves
This paper explores the relationship between parental education and offspring body weight in France. Using two large datasets spanning the 1991-2010 period, we examine the existence of inequalities in maternal and paternal education and reported child body weight measures, as well as their evolution across childhood. Our empirical specification is flexible and allows this evolution to be non-monotonic. Significant inequalities are observed for both parents' education--maternal (respectively paternal) high education is associated with a 7.20 (resp. 7.10) percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese, on average for children of all ages. The gradient with respect to parents' education follows an inverted U-shape across childhood, meaning that the association between parental education and child body weight widens from birth to age 8, and narrows afterward. Specifically, maternal high education is correlated with a 5.30 percentage points decrease in the probability that the child is reported to be overweight or obese at age 2, but a 9.62 percentage points decrease at age 8, and a 1.25 percentage point decrease at age 17. The figures for paternal high education are respectively 5.87, 9.11, and 4.52. This pattern seems robust, since it is found in the two datasets, when alternative variables for parental education and reported child body weight are employed, and when controls for potential confounding factors are included. The findings for the trajectory of the income gradient corroborate those of the education gradient. The results may be explained by an equalization in actual body weight across socioeconomic groups during youth, or by changes in reporting styles of height and weight.
Purwati; Japar, Muhammad
The objective of this present is to test the effects of the parents' parenting patterns, education, jobs, and assistance to children in watching television on the children's aggressive behavior. This present research employed a quantitative approach with an ex-post factor design. The data were collected from 175 parents of which the children…
Lam, Ching Man
With the recognition of the crucial role of family and with the belief that parents have the greatest influence on a child's life, family and parent education has been widely practiced in Hong Kong and many other countries as measure for poverty alleviation. A study, employed quantitative method of a cross-sectional parent survey (N = 10,386) was…
Bardhoshi, Gerta; Duncan, Kelly; Schweinle, Amy
This study examined demographic factors as predictors of parent involvement (engagement with school, support of learning, support of child) among parents of children that attended a school implementing a college access program. The authors also examined whether involvement predicted access of postsecondary education facilitators in parents, when…
Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Gini, Motti
The role of maternal chronological age in prenatal and perinatal history, social support, and parenting practices of new mothers (N=335) was examined. Primiparas of 5-month-old infants ranged in age from 13 to 42 years. Age effects were zero, linear, and nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects were significantly associated up to a certain age with little…
Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Floyd, Frank; Song, Jieun; Greenberg, Jan; Hong, Jinkuk
Using population data, this study included parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (n = 220) and parents of individuals without disabilities (n = 1,042). Parents of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities were further divided into those who co-resided with their adult child and those whose adult…
Gonzalez, Raquel-Amaya Martinez
Discusses four parent education programs carried out in a school in Gijon, Spain. Describes the social impetus for these programs, key components of their development and implementation, and the results for parents and the schools. Considers the effects of parenting education on parents' confidence and abilities and the limitations of the…
Jacobson, Arminta, Ed.; And Others
The goals of the 2-day interdisciplinary conference covered in these proceedings were to: (1) present a spectrum of program models, curriculum, and knowledge related to parent education, parent involvement, and parenting; (2) provide in-depth training in parent education; and (3) promote interaction and exchange of ideas. Included in the…
Steiner, Amanda Mossman
Despite the ubiquitous nature of parent education in autism treatment, relatively few studies directly address "how" parent education should be conducted. Given that the literature on parental well-being suggests that treatments that facilitate positive parental adaptation to their child's disability may be beneficial, this study…
Kaiser, Robert M; Kaiser, Susan L
As professionals in geriatric medicine and social work, we are caregivers for our widowed mother of 90 years, a woman with neurocognitive disorder and multiple medical conditions. She has had repeated, problematic encounters with the health care system over the past 4 years. Caring successfully for an aging parent requires a comprehensive understanding of her unique medical, psychological, and functional status; need for social support; and overall goals of care. Poor communication between and among clinical teams-and with patients and families-is ubiquitous. The patient and family are not consistently listened to, or integrated, into the clinical team. We recount our experiences of one hospitalization and how we addressed the recurring obstacles we faced. Our training and experience gave us a firm understanding of the hazards of hospitalizing an elderly person and the need to be present, engaged, attentive, active, and vigilant. We caught and corrected major mistakes: failure to follow-up abnormal test results, multiple medication errors, undertreatment of pain, poor fall prevention, and inappropriate assessment and placement for rehabilitation. In a dysfunctional health care system, the family is, and must be, the ultimate fail-safe mechanism. We identify potentially effective solutions for the problems we encountered: adoption of dementia-sensitive and patient- and family-centered care, improved communication, better management of information (including better systems for monitoring lab results and for dispensing and reconciling medications), expediting care, changing reimbursement and regulation, and improving discharge planning and placement.
Li, Shenghui; Jin, Xinming; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Shenghu; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming
Objective: The objective was to survey the prevalence of parent-reported ADHD diagnosis and to assess its associations with sleep problems among urban school-aged children in China. Method: A random sample of 20,152 school-aged children participated in a cross-sectional survey in eight cities of China. A parent-administered questionnaire and the…
Kalil, Ariel; Wightman, Patrick
Objectives. We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle-class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle-class families.Methods. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), following those children “born” into the survey between 1968 and 1979 and followed through age 21. We conduct multivariate regression analyses to test the association between parental job loss during childhood and youth's educational attainment by age 21.Results. We find that parental job loss is associated with a lesser likelihood of obtaining any postsecondary education for all offspring, but that the association for blacks is almost three times as strong. A substantial share of the differential impact of job loss on black and white middle-class youth is explained by race differences in household wealth, long-run measures of family income, and, especially, parental experience of long-term unemployment.Conclusions. These findings highlight the fragile economic foundation of the black middle class and suggest that intergenerational persistence of class status in this population may be highly dependent on the avoidance of common economic shocks.
Pahic, Tea; Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek; Miljevic-Ridicki, Renata
This article compares Roma and mainstream parents' involvement in the education of their children, based on Epstein's six-dimensional model of parent-school partnership. The survey was conducted in Croatia on two sub-samples: 60 Roma parents and 908 mainstream parents. Results suggest that Roma parents show lower interest in participating in…
Burke, Meghan M.; Hodapp, Robert M.
Although parents often advocate for the best educational services for their children with disabilities, few studies examine parents' advocacy activities; identify parent-school relationship, parent, and student correlates of advocacy; or describe the conditions of advocacy. Responding to a national, web-based survey, 1087 parents of students with…
This study provides an extensive review of the literature on distance education and of representative distance education projects and institutions in the United States and abroad, emphasizing those using telecommunications technologies. The introductory section includes a sketch of the information age and its implications for adult education and…
Pstross, Mikulas; Rodríguez, Ariel; Knopf, Richard C.; Paris, Cody Morris
This article emphasizes the role of parental involvement in the college preparation of Latino elementary and secondary school students. Although literature shows that education is highly valued in Latino families, actual college enrollment rates for Latino youth are below average. This has been attributed to barriers including lack of financial…
Brown, Amber L.; Harris, Mary; Jacobson, Arminta; Trotti, Judy
This article describes the Parent Teacher Education Curriculum, a Web-based curriculum focused on instructing teachers about best practices in family involvement and assesses its impact on the knowledge and attitudes of preservice teachers related to family involvement. Pre- and post-measures of preservice teacher candidate knowledge of and…
Bartkowiak, Elaine T.; Goupil, Mary Ann
This study examined parental beliefs regarding developmentally appropriate preschool programming. A survey instrument based on National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) guidelines for developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) was designed to assess beliefs concerning: (1) curricular goals; (2) teaching strategies; (3)…
Gordon, Ira J.; And Others
Activities of the Institute for Development of Human Resources provide the information contained in this document. This first large-scale project of the institute was in parent education of disadvantaged mothers in the north central Florida area. The purpose of the project was to investigate a way in which early intervention into the lives of…
Hess, Frederick M.; Lautzenheiser, Daniel K.
While US parents have historically played supporting roles in schooling, they are becoming increasingly involved in education advocacy and policy. Contemporary school reform requires political muscle to enact controversial changes, meaning entrenched interest groups such as teachers unions have traditionally enjoyed an outsized impact in the realm…
National PTA, Chicago, IL.
This guide is designed to help parents determine what is being taught to their children about sex education in school, offering tips on how to talk to children about these issues. The first section presents pointers from the "Talking with Kids" campaign: start early; initiate conversations; talk about sex and relationships; create an open…
Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin
The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…
Lindberg, E. Nihal
This study has aimed to determine the knowledge, skills, and views held by pre-service teachers attending different teacher training programs about parent involvement. A total of 520 4th year students receiving education in primary school teaching and in branch teaching programs participated in the study. Data were collected by the "Parent…
Chen, Jing; Pisani, Lauren; White, Sheida; Soroui, Jaleh
This study uses data from the 2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy to identify relationships between parents' demographic/socioeconomic backgrounds and their self-reported frequencies of engaging in early childhood education activities. It also examines race/ethnicity-related disparities in the frequency of reading to children and using…
Chan, Angel; Ritchie, Jenny
This article interrogates notions of teacher "partnership with parents" within early childhood care and education settings in the context of Aotearoa (New Zealand). "Te Whariki," the New Zealand early childhood curriculum, clearly positions children's learning and development as being fostered when their families' cultures and…
This booklet allows parents to participate in the special education process to encounter an unfamiliar language often referred to as ?acronyms.? It may seem like a foreign language, but it is really just a language of initials, which this booklet explains and defines. Often during school meetings, many of these acronyms are used frequently, and it…
Kelly, Andrew P.
Families are the primary clients of public schools, but they are one of many constituencies who have a say in how schools actually operate. In all the technocratic fervor around "education reform"--the broad effort to implement standards and accountability, reform teacher tenure and evaluation, and increase parental choice--it is easy to…
Magsino, Romulo F.
Attempts by courts in the United States and Canada to define the rights of children, parents, and educators are described, and their shortcomings and contradictions are pointed out. The author suggests another approach based on utilitarian values and pre-suppositions presented in works by John Stuart Mill. (PP)
Lohse, Julie L.
This study examined parental perceptions of the benefits and barriers to bicycle helmet use and their level of knowledge about bicycle safety issues. A school-based bicycle safety education program was taught to first- and second-grade students in a rural/suburban school district by a graduate nursing student. Pender's Health Promotion Model was…
On 8 November 1968 the French Ministry of Education issued a ministerial decree, the purpose of which was to set up a workable and durable system of parental participation in the day-to-day life of schools. The machinery proposed was complex, and a sequence of ministerial orders and circulars clarifying and modifying the original decree soon made…
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…
Macias, Michelle M; Saylor, Conway F; Rowe, Brandy P; Bell, Nancy L
This study examined whether ages of child and parent were risk factors for general parenting stress and disability-specific stress in families of children with spina bifida. Parents of 64 children with spina bifida completed the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory, and measures of family support and resources. Scores of families with children under 6 years (preschool) versus 6- to 12-yr.-old children (school age) were compared, as were scores of mothers above or below Age 35. Parents of school-aged children reported significantly higher stress on the Concerns for the Child domain of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. Mothers over 35 tended to report higher stress in the Concerns for the Child and Medical/Legal Concerns domains of the Parents of Children with Disabilities Inventory. No associations with medical severity, socioeconomic status, family resources, or family support were detected. As the children age and disability-related differences become more apparent, the same level of functioning and severity of disability may be associated with additional parenting stress. Older mothers and those with school-age children may need more resources than current social support systems typically provide.
Przybylski, Grzegorz; Gołda, Ryszard; Pyskir, Jerzy; Pasińska, Magdalena; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuziemski, Arkadiusz; Kopiński, Piotr
The allergies of respiratory system are at children the frequent illnesses. Among favorable them factors, risk on passive smoking tobacco can be also. Passive smoking is defined as risk non-smoking on tobacco smoke in environment. Recent reports represent that smoking in home environment tobacco increase on passive smokers' asthma morbidity, especially children in school age. It in it was report the necessity of leadership of anti-nicotine education was underlined in the face of smoking parents. It bets that she should motivate she better parents to cessation smoking, using authority of doctor and love parental. Acting we decided with these principles to analyze effectiveness two year anti-nicotine education which be applied in the face of all treated smoking parents of children with reason of chronic allergic diseases of respiratory system in out-patients. The study comprised parents of 146 children at the Allergy out-Patients clinic, who were diagnosed and cured in years 2003-2005. Generally were 292 persons. The children be treated with reason of bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. It the data on subject of smoking of tobacco were collected was on basis of interview got from parents during visits at information bureau on beginning the treatment the children, in his track as well as after two years of education. The anti-nicotine education was applied by whole period of observation during routine medical visits. In moment beginning of treatment in studied group the parents' and education children (n = 292) it 79 the parents' couple did not smoke. Smoking parents among remaining 67 steams were. From among them parents 13 children smoked both, only father in 36 cases smoked and mother in remaining 18 parents' couple smoked. 80 parents smoked with generally. 63 persons after two years of anti-nicotine education the nonsmoking committed one from group smoking. 22 persons among them were from among 24 fathers and 17 mothers' peer in which smoked both parents
Stover, Carla Smith; Zhou, Yuchun; Kiselica, Andrew; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David
Objective The spillover hypothesis suggests that childhood aggression results from spillover of inter-parental conflict to poor parenting, which promotes aggressive child behavior. This study was designed to examine the spillover hypothesis in non-genetically related parent – child dyads from the toddler period through age 6. Method A sample of 361 sets of children, adoptive parents, and birth parents from the Early Growth and Development Study (EGDS) was assessed from child age 9 months to 6 years on measures of adoptive parent financial strain, antisocial traits, marital hostility, hostile parenting, and child aggression. Structural equation modeling was used to examine links from financial strain, parent antisocial traits, and marital hostility in infancy and toddlerhood to hostile parenting and child aggression at age 4.5 and 6 years. Results Spillover of marital conflict from child age 18 to 27 months was associated with more parental hostility in mothers and fathers at 27 months. In turn, adoptive fathers’ parental hostility, but not mothers’, was associated with aggression in children at age 4.5 years. However, there was no significant spillover from hostile parenting at 4.5 years to child aggression at 6 years. Birth mother antisocial traits were unassociated with child aggression. Conclusion This study is the first to examine spillover of marital hostility to parenting to child aggression from toddlerhood through age 6 years in an adoption design, highlighting the impact of these environmental factors from the toddler to preschool period. The findings support the potential benefit of early identification of marital hostility. PMID:26903257
An, Jihoun; Hodge, Samuel R
The purpose of this phenomenological inquiry was to explore the experiences and meaning of parental involvement in physical education from the perspectives of the parents of students with developmental disabilities. The stories of four mothers of elementary aged children (3 boys, 1 girl), two mothers and one couple (mother and father) of secondary-aged youth (1 girl, 2 boys) with developmental disabilities, were gathered by using interviews, photographs, school documents, and the researcher's journal. Bronfenbrenner's (2005) ecological system theory provided a conceptual framework to interpret the findings of this inquiry. Three themes emerged from thematic analysis: being an advocate for my child, understanding the big picture, and collaborative partnerships undeveloped in GPE. The findings lend additional support to the need for establishing collaborative partnerships in physical education between home and school environments (An & Goodwin, 2007; Tekin, 2011).
Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.
Stanganelli, Ignazio; Naldi, Luigi; Falcini, Fabio; Magi, Serena; Mazzoni, Laura; Medri, Matelda; Bertoncini, Rita; Calderoni, Ombretta; Agnoletti, Veronica; Nadiani, Luca; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Pagliarello, Calogero; Gandini, Sara
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sunbed use among teenagers and the association between familial behavior and the adoption of UV-protective practices in this age group. We also assessed the impact of an educational program on students' knowledge about the potential risks of sunbed use. The educational intervention focused on: (i) skin effects of UV radiation, (ii) photoaging and photocarcinogenesis, (iii) risk factors for skin cancer, (iv) indoor sun tanning and misleading concepts such as possible protective effect of sunbed use on skin cancer risk, (v) sun protection and relation with skin phototype, and (vi) early diagnosis of melanoma using the ABCDE check list and the ugly duckling sign. We carried out a survey of 3098 students and found a strong association between parental sunbed use and students' use of the same (P < 0.0001). Students who attended the educational intervention were more aware that sunbed use cannot prevent sunburns (P = 0.03) than those who did not attend, making adjustments for confounding variables. However, sunbed use by parents influenced the desire to use a sunbed more than participation in the educational intervention (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, although our results indicate that educational interventions can improve knowledge of the risk of sunbed use. They also reveal a strong correlation between sunbed use by teenagers and parental behavior that highlights the importance of educational interventions involving families.
Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…
National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.
This Project PRISM SourceBook was written for community leaders who wish to increase the awareness of parents about the need for reforming science and mathematics education and what they can do at home and in the schools and communities to work for better science and mathematics education. Resource sheets address 10 important topics for parents in…
Secord, Deborah K.
The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of the custodial parents' level of educational attainment on the quantity of parental involvement in the areas of assistance with homework, time spent in home activities with the child, communication with teachers, participation in school events, educational discussions with the child,…
... parents, people are always ready to offer advice. Parenting tips, parents' survival guides, dos, don'ts, shoulds ... right" way to be a good parent. Good parenting includes Keeping your child safe Showing affection and ...
This study attempts to define the principle tasks of secondary education as perceived by parents, educators, and students in one Canadian suburban school district in 1971. In addition, it compares their opinions with those of similar groups in the United States and Canada surveyed a decade earlier. The Task of Public Education (TPE) Opinionnaire…
Hoyt, Kenneth B.
Conceptualized as an equal partner with the formal education system and the business/labor/industry/professional/government community in effective delivery of career education, the home/family structure has not received proper emphasis. Career education coordinators participating in a miniconference recognized parents' rights and responsibilities…
Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.
This Vocational Education Resource Package (VERP) was developed to provide materials useful in replicating an exemplary vocational education program for special student populations in the California Community Colleges. This VERP describes Bakersfield College's Single Parent Adults Choosing Education (SPACE) II program, (an expansion of the…
Lau, Won-Fong K.
The current study is a preliminary investigation of the psychometric properties of a brief seven-item Parent Involvement Survey (PIS) as developed by the researcher, that could potentially be used in schools. In an effort to test for construct validity, the relation of the PIS to elementary-aged students' receptive vocabulary skills and four…
Blodget, Alden S.
People tend to do things because that's how they have always done them or because that's the way others have done them. Schools are no different. The rigid factory model of education--a conveyor belt that moves children through a standard curriculum of books and lessons in a strict sequence--assumes that all brains are basically the same. They…
Cooper-Martin, Elizabeth; Wilson, Heather M.
This report presents parent feedback from a study that focused on experiences at Individualized Education Program (IEP) team meetings and also explored parent satisfaction with delivery of special education services. The study included all parents of Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) students who had educational disabilities, were…
Bryan, George M., Jr.; DeBord, Karen; Schrader, Karen
Designing a professional development system for parent educators requires weaving together multiple pieces from within the network of organizations providing parenting education. North Carolina examined how to build a system using the influence of evidence-based programs as well as professional credentialing for parenting educators. A system built…
Colwell, Brian; Smith, Dennis; Zhang, James J.; Hill, Mike
Surveyed Mexican-American (MA) and non-MA parents regarding their attitudes toward school health education and its place in the curriculum. There was widespread support for quality comprehensive school health education. MA parents considered school health education more important than non-MA parents. They also considered health was more important…
Myers, Martin; McGhee, Derek; Bhopal, Kalwant
This article uses empirical data gathered during a pilot study funded by a local education authority to consider Gypsy and Traveller parents' perceptions of education. It examines the changing role of education within the lives of Gypsy and Traveller parents and children reflecting changing social circumstances, in particular how many parents now…
Baker, R A
Providing child health education for the foreign-born parent presents unique concerns related to language and culture. An innovative approach in a transcultural format used a presentation of basic child health information in English, with translators as facilitators. Foreign-born parents who need partial or complete language interpretation have ready access to translation support. The parents offer questions, comments, suggestions and evaluate the presentation through the translator. Each presentation can accommodate more than one language, since participants are grouped with the appropriate translator. The presentation is done in English and paced to allow for translation to be completed as material is offered. This type of presentation allows discussion of child health in a forum apart from the pediatric care setting. Because the presentation is the only focus, parents do not have the additional concern of immediate care of the child added to communication issues. Vocabulary relative to health care is developed from English into the parents' primary language, with the support of the translator. The pediatric nurse presenter has an opportunity to review health care practices that parents prefer, as well as interpret safety and efficacy.
Gibbons, Stephen; Chevalier, Arnaud
This paper summarises our research into the relationship between pupil assessment at age 14 (Key Stage 3) and participation in age 16+ education. We question whether a systematic gap between teacher-based assessment and externally marked tests indicates assessment bias or uncertainty, either in testing procedures or through teachers' perceptions…
Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel
This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…
Vasa, Stanley F.; And Others
This paper explores the procedures utilized in developing a program model to assist parents of handicapped students in learning about their roles in enhancing the development of their children's skills and attitudes necessary for the work world. The first section discusses three basic assumptions about parents and their role in education: (1)…
Dever, Martha T.
Describes the Family Literacy Bags program, objectives of which include engaging parents and children in reading and emphasizing parent education by providing instruction on effective ways to support literacy development. Offers recommendations for program implementation and improvement. Notes that the program has been a success and has continued…
Research demonstrates that parental involvement can have a positive impact on students' academic, emotional, and social success; however, there are few studies of how to improve parent advocacy and home-school collaboration in special education. The focus of this qualitative case study was to understand perceptions of the special educators…
Boonen, Hannah; van Esch, Lotte; Lambrechts, Greet; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Van Leeuwen, Karla; Noens, Ilse
Although parents of children with ASD face specific challenges in parenting, only a few studies have empirically investigated parenting behaviors among these parents. The current study examined differences in parenting behaviors between mothers of school-aged children with ASD (n = 30) and mothers of typically developing children (n = 39), using…
Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…
Burdman, Geral Dene M.
This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)
Parisette-Sparks, Alyssa; Bufferd, Sara J; Klein, Daniel N
Shame and guilt are self-conscious emotions that begin to develop early in life and are associated with various forms of psychopathology. However, little is known about the factors that contribute to these emotions in young children. Specifically, no longitudinal studies to date have examined a range of parent factors that shape the expression of children's shame and guilt. The current multimethod, longitudinal study sought to determine whether parenting style, parental psychopathology, and parents' marital satisfaction assessed when children were age 3 predict expressions of shame and guilt in children at age 6. A large community sample of families (N = 446; 87.4% Caucasian) with 3-year-old children (45.7% female) was recruited through commercial mailing lists. Parent variables were assessed when children were age 3 with mother- and father-report questionnaires and a diagnostic interview. Children's expressions of shame and guilt were observed in the laboratory at age 6. Fathers', but not mothers', history of depression and permissive parenting assessed when children were age 3 predicted children's expressions of shame and guilt when children were age 6; parents' marital dissatisfaction also predicted children's shame and guilt. These findings suggest that parents, and fathers in particular, contribute to expressions of self-conscious emotions in children. These data on emotional development may be useful for better characterizing the risk and developmental pathways of psychopathology.
Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes
The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.
East, Patricia L.; Barber, Jennifer S.
On the basis of theories of maternal identity development, role conflict, and childbearing motivation, the authors tested whether high educational aspirations among pregnant adolescents are related to the unwantedness of the pregnancy and whether pregnancy unwantedness leads to subsequent parenting stress and inadequacy. Longitudinal data from 100 first-time-pregnant, unmarried Latina adolescents (M age = 17.3 years) were analyzed. Results from structural equation path modeling confirmed these associations, with strong educational ambitions related to greater unwantedness of the pregnancy, which led to feeling trapped by parenting at 6 months postpartum, which in turn was related to unaffectionate parenting and feeling inadequate in mothering at 1 year postpartum. The potential long-term negative consequences of high educational aspirations for pregnant adolescents’ adjustment to parenting are discussed. PMID:25641985
Brady, C P; Bray, J H; Zeeb, L
Behavior problems of 703 children seen in a clinical setting were examined for interactions between and effects of family type (i.e., parental marital status) and age and sex of child. Significant differences were found based on family type, with children of separated, divorced, and remarried parents having more problems. Expected interactions between marital status and age and sex of child were not obtained, although results support prior research with regard to the effects of age and sex.
The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of the parenting styles on social skills of children aged 5-6. The problem sentence of the research is; Do the parenting styles' have any effects on social skills of children aged 5-6?. The sub-problems of the research are in the form as; Does the social skills of children aged 5-6 differs from…
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah; Mounts, Nina S
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Control Scale for Children). Results revealed that there were significant negative relationships between fathers' authoritative parenting style (r = -.243, p < .001) and authoritarian parenting style (r = -.130, p < .01) with adolescents' internal locus of control. Furthermore, the findings indicated that father's high level of education moderated the relationship between perceived paternal authoritarian parenting and locus of control (b = -0.147, p < .001). The findings underscore the need to include the role of parents' education when assessing the links between parenting styles and adolescents' locus of control.
Long, David E.
A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.
Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome
Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity.
Brown, Courtney M; Girio-Herrera, Erin L; Sherman, Susan N; Kahn, Robert S; Copeland, Kristen A
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents' views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. We sought to understand low-income parents' experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing ECE with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children's individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians' advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants' decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age.
Brady, Deon LaMount
Parent education programs have been very successful in meeting the pre-established goals and expectations of their program without the input of parent participants prior to program implementation. Although programs continue to improve, it is important that programs begin to consider the specific needs of their target population. One parent…
Davis-Kean, Pamela E
This study examined the process of how socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and income, indirectly relates to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors. Data from a national, cross-sectional study of children were used for this study. The subjects were 868 8-12-year-olds, divided approximately equally across gender (436 females, 433 males). This sample was 49% non-Hispanic European American and 47% African American. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the author found that the socioeconomic factors were related indirectly to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors but that the process of these relations was different by racial group. Parents' years of schooling also was found to be an important socioeconomic factor to take into consideration in both policy and research when looking at school-age children.
Hansen, Caitlin E; Credle, Marisol; Shapiro, Eugene D; Niccolai, Linda M
Routine vaccination with three doses of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine is recommended for adolescent girls and boys at 11 or 12 years of age; however, vaccine uptake remains suboptimal. To understand the reasons why parents may accept or refuse HPV vaccine for their children at age 11 or 12 years, we conducted a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents or guardians (n = 45) whose adolescents receive care at an urban, hospital-based primary care practice. Data were analyzed using an iterative thematic approach. We found that many parents expressed high levels of support for HPV vaccine, including a majority who agreed with vaccination at age 11-12 years. Parents recognized that for prevention of consequences of HPV infection, vaccination of their child early in adolescence was desirable conceptually. However, many parents also expressed that in practice, HPV vaccine should be given to adolescents at the onset of sexual activity, a perception that led to preferences to delay administration of HPV vaccine among certain parents. These apparently contradictory views indicate the need for interventions focused on the benefits of vaccination at the recommended ages. Our findings may be useful in providers' discussions with parents about the vaccine, as pediatric and adolescent health care providers have the unique opportunity to educate parents and clarify misconceptions about vaccination.
Walker, Joan M. T.
Grounded in Hoover-Dempsey and Sandler's parent involvement process model, the Realizing the American Dream (RAD) parent education program targets Latino parents' involvement beliefs and knowledge to enhance their involvement behaviors. Comparison of more than 2,000 parents' self-reported beliefs, knowledge, and behavior before and after RAD…
Rehm, Roberta S; Fisher, Lucille T; Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Chesla, Catherine A
In an ethnographic study of planning for the transition to adulthood, we explored parental advocacy styles in special education settings for youth and young adults with chronic health conditions and developmental disabilities. Of 61 parents, 43 were satisfied with outcomes in negotiations for school services for their children. We identified three parental advocacy styles for these parents: (a) high-profile parents, who insisted on specific, wide-ranging services for their children that often resulted in conflict with educators; (b) strategic parents, who negotiated for selected goals and were willing to compromise, and (c) grateful-gratifier parents, who formed close relationships with educators and trusted them to make appropriate decisions. Eighteen parents were overwhelmed, burned out, or unfocused, and generally dissatisfied with outcomes of educational planning meetings. Professional efforts to enhance parental advocacy can target development of skills and strategies that have worked for successful negotiators.
... What Parents Can Do: School Age Children Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents As kids get older, they still need a parent's help to keep their teeth sparkling clean and healthy. Here are five tips— 1. Find out if your water has fluoride in it (check with your local ...
Morehouse, Ellen R.; Richards, Tarpley
Describes how parental functions essential to children's growth and development are damaged or destroyed by alcoholism and examines interpersonal problems of latency age children of alcoholic parents. Also describes therapist's problems in working with such children and offers recommendations for helping them work through faulty relationship…
Beam, Minna R.; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Mathews, Laura
To examine the eating-related cognitions and behaviors of college-age women who had experienced parental death, parental divorce, or neither loss condition, we recruited 48 women from science and social science departments at a state university in the Southeast. All participants completed the Mizes Anorectic Cognitions Scale (MAC) and the Bulimia…
Akben-Selcuk, Elif; Altiok-Yilmaz, Ayse
This study assessed financial literacy and its correlates among Turkish college students, with special emphasis on the role of formal education, learning approaches, and parental influences. Financial literacy was measured by the College Student Financial Literacy Survey, which assesses knowledge in four areas: general financial management, saving and borrowing, insurance, and investing. 853 Turkish university students were administered the survey (416 men, 437 women; M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 0.6). The mean percentage of correct responses was 45% (SD = 12.8%). Regression results showed that formal finance education in college, a deep approach to learning, and direct financial teaching by parents were significantly associated with higher financial literacy scores.
Blanchard, R; Zucker, K J
The authors compared parental age, birth order, and sex ratio of siblings for 575 homosexual men and 284 heterosexual men, matched on age and education. They were originally part of Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith's large-scale study of male and female homosexuality. The results confirmed the previous findings that homosexual men have older fathers and later births than do heterosexual men but not the finding that homosexual men have larger proportions of brothers. The collective findings suggest that birth order is perhaps the single most reliable demographic difference between homosexual and heterosexual men.
Chan, Kwok-wai; Chan, Siu-mui
Two achievement goals and three perceived parenting styles were identified in a sample of Hong Kong teacher education students. Significant correlations exist within the perceived parenting styles and the achievement goals. Parental authoritativeness was significantly and positively related to learning goal, and parental authoritarianism was…
Although children and parents often feature in philosophical literature on education, the nature of the parent-child relationship remains occluded by the language of rights, duties and entitlements. Likewise, talk of "parenting" in popular literature and culture implies that being a parent is primarily about performing tasks. Drawing on popular…
Patton, Michael Quinn
Parental reaction to open education in North Dakota was studied. The hypotheses predicted that there would be less parental acceptance of and support for the open classroom according to: the greater the classroom openness; the less the parents' cosmopoliteness, the smaller the town population, the older the parents, the lower the informational…
Yamamoto, Yoko; Holloway, Susan D.; Suzuki, Sawako
Studies conducted in the US consistently demonstrate that parenting self-efficacy and construction of the parent role are critical elements associated with parents' involvement in their children's elementary school education. Less is known about the dynamics of parent involvement during the preschool period, or in nations outside the US. This…
Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine; Makasi, Daphne; Nikelo, Joy
Increasing evidence demonstrates negative psychological, health, and developmental outcomes for children associated with parental HIV/AIDS illness and death. However, little is known about how parental AIDS leads to negative child outcomes. This study used a structural equation modelling approach to develop an empirically-based theoretical model of interactive relationships between parental or primary caregiver AIDS-illness, AIDS-orphanhood and predicted intervening factors associated with children's psychological distress, educational access and sexual health. Cross-sectional data were collected in 2009-2011, from 6002 children aged 10-17 years in three provinces of South Africa using stratified random sampling. Comparison groups included children orphaned by AIDS, orphaned by other causes and non-orphans, and children whose parents or primary caregivers were unwell with AIDS, unwell with other causes or healthy. Participants reported on psychological symptoms, educational access, and sexual health risks, as well as hypothesized sociodemographic and intervening factors. In order to build an interactive theoretical model of multiple child outcomes, multivariate regression and structural equation models were developed for each individual outcome, and then combined into an overall model. Neither AIDS-orphanhood nor parental AIDS-illness were directly associated with psychological distress, educational access, or sexual health. Instead, significant indirect effects of AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness were obtained on all measured outcomes. Child psychological, educational and sexual health risks share a common set of intervening variables including parental disability, poverty, community violence, stigma, and child abuse that together comprise chain effects. In all models, parental AIDS-illness had stronger effects and more risk pathways than AIDS-orphanhood, especially via poverty and parental disability. AIDS-orphanhood and parental AIDS-illness impact
Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong
Background: To examine whether different dimensions of parenting at different ages help small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children "catch-up" the normal children in cognition and psychomotor. Methods: We analyzed data of 800 children born SGA and 3,000 children born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) from the Early Childhood…
O'Connor, Una; McConkey, Roy; Hartop, Brendan
Within the UK educational authorities have a legal duty to undertake an assessment of children who are deemed to have 'special educational needs' and to draw up plans for meeting these needs. The procedures used are currently under review, and as a contribution to this a study of parental views was commissioned in Northern Ireland. Over 1000…
Kane, Jean; Riddell, Sheila; Banks, Pauline; Baynes, Anne; Dyson, Alan; Millward, Alan; Wilson, Alastair
Interviews with 17 key informants and surveys of 278 schools in Scotland explored policy and practices related to parent and student participation in the development and implementation of individualized educational programs (IEPs). While finding such participation desirable, education professionals did not agree on what constitutes participation,…
Matthews, Dona J.; Foster, Joanne F.
Written for both parents and educators who work with children of advanced abilities, the authors present practical strategies to identify and nurture exceptionally high ability in children. They promote the "mastery" (rather than the "mystery") model of gifted education, and challenge several common practices and assumptions. They offer ways to…
Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn.
Compiled as a component of the United States Department of Agriculture's Student, Parent, Educator, Administrator, Children SPEAC for Nutrition Demonstration Project, this selected, annotated bibliography was designed to aid concerned individuals in developing and/or operating a preschool nutrition education curriculum. Topics include early…
Biddle, Kevin J.
This study surveyed parents of elementary students in the small Midwestern community of Montpelier, Indiana to elicit their opinions toward the educational technology in their children's school and the role it plays in their education. Montpelier Elementary School (MES) has 223 students from 161 families. A phone survey was done to which about 42%…
Barrett, Frances Ziehr
For a student with a disability to receive special education services, an IEP team composed of education professionals and the student's parents must reach consensus on eligibility, programming, and placement. Conflict, mistrust, and dissatisfaction contributed to the breakdown in the IEP process. These three factors were examined through a…
Nepper, Martha J; Chai, Weiwen
The home environment is considered one of the most important settings in regards to the development of healthy eating habits among children. The primary purpose of this study was to explore parents' barriers and strategies in promoting healthy eating in the home. The secondary objective was to determine whether the barriers and strategies parents had were different between healthy weight and overweight/obese school-age children. Semi-structured individual interviews with 14 parents of healthy weight and 11 parents of overweight/obese children (6-12 years) were conducted in family homes from August 2014 to March 2015. Transcripts were recorded and codes and themes were verified by the research team and one qualitative expert. Themes emerging from both parents of healthy weight and overweight/obese children were: 1) Parents are busy and strapped for time; 2) Cost is a barrier in providing healthy food, but parents are resourceful; 3) Children ask for junk food regularly, but parents have strategies to manage; 4) Picky eaters are a challenge but parents know they have to overcome this barrier; and 5) Early exposure to unhealthy eating influences children's food choices but strategies can help. However, parents of overweight/obese children felt a lack of support from their spouses/partners for healthy eating in the home, which was not expressed among parents of healthy weight children. Additionally, barriers and strategies were similar among parents of children from different age groups [6-9 years vs. 10-12 years (pre-adolescents)]. Our results suggest while parents faced some challenges in promoting healthy eating in the home, they utilized several strategies to overcome these barriers, which are valuable for direct intervention to improve home food environment and manage children's weight.
Keshavarz, Somayeh; Baharudin, Rozumah
The authors investigated the moderating role of father's education on the associations between perceived paternal parenting styles and locus of control among 382 Malaysian adolescents with an average age of 14.27. Data were collected by means of adolescents' self-report using standardized instruments (i.e., parental authority questionnaire and…
Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn; Hinz, Serena E.
As more state legislatures join the debate on school-choice and parent-trigger legislation, their discussions draw attention to an evolving landscape outside school walls where parental action shapes educational opportunity. Parents wield their political, social, economic, and cultural capital to secure the best educational outcomes for their…
Epler, Charles A.
As part of Tennessee's educational needs assessment strategy, a study was conducted to determine parental perceptions of educational needs. In 1971, 3,150 copies of two forms (randomly distributed) of the School Assessment Questionnaire for Parents were distributed to the parents in six target school systems. Data were analyzed using the Sigma-9…
Briley, Daniel A.; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.
Parents' expectations for their children's ultimate educational attainment have been hypothesized to play an instrumental role in socializing academically relevant child behaviors, beliefs, and abilities. In addition to social transmission of educationally relevant values from parents to children, parental expectations and child…
Baquedano-Lopez, Patricia; Alexander, Rebecca Anne; Hernandez, Sera J.
In this article, the authors examine the literature on parental involvement highlighting the equity issues that it raises in educational practice. They begin with a brief historical overview of approaches to parent involvement and the ways in which "neodeficit" discourses on parents permeate current education reform efforts. Next, they address how…
Valle, Jan W.
This article examines what we know about the experience of parents in the special education system--in particular, parents of children with learning disabilities since the passage of PL-94-142. Toward this end, I offer a review of special education literature about parent and professional collaboration, a rationale for relying upon a plurality of…
Drazen, Shelley M.; Haust, Mary
A study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent education program in increasing school readiness in poor and high-needs children. Participants in the Parents and Children Together program (PACT) of Binghamton, New York, receive home visits from trained and certified parent educators, beginning when a child is born and continuing until he or she is…
Nespor, Jan; Hicks, David
Drawing on interviews with parents of children with significant disabilities, as well as administrators and special education consultants, between the early 1990s and 2008 in a mid-Atlantic US state, this paper examines the work of parental advocates as they translate special education policies to negotiate concessions for parents, bring issues…
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
Jerves, Elena; López, Silvia; Castro, Cecilia; Ortiz, William; Palacios, María; Rober, Peter; Enzlin, Paul
Parents' contribution to sex education is increasingly receiving research attention. This growing interest stems from recognition of the influence that parental attitudes may have both on young people's sexual attitudes and behaviour, and on school-based sex education. Studies regarding parental attitudes towards sexuality are, however, still…
Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Pai, Tzu-Chi
The research goal is to ascertain the current beliefs of the parents of preschool children regarding art education in Taiwan. Background factors on the parents were tested to show the differences between the parents' beliefs regarding art education and the actual art achievements of the children. From there, relationships between the beliefs and…
Hsiao, Ching-Yuan; Kuo, Ting-Yin
The research purpose was to investigate kindergarten parents' selection of after-school art education settings in Taiwan. A review of the literature and interviews with parents were conducted to identify several possible factors that would impact on parents' selection of after-school art education settings for their children. Then, the researcher…
Fey, Marc E.; Warren, Steven F.; Brady, Nancy; Finestack, Lizbeth H.; Bredin-Oja, Shelley L.; Fairchild, Martha; Sokol, Shari; Yoder, Paul J.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of a 6-month course of responsivity education/prelinguistic milieu teaching (RE/PMT) for children with developmental delay and RE/PMT's effects on parenting stress in a randomized clinical trial. Method: Fifty-one children, age 24-33 months, with no more than 10 expressive words or signs, were randomly assigned to…
Kikah, Ngum; Ekokobe, Fonkem; Atem, Folefac D.
Objective The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is higher for individuals with a first-degree relative who developed premature CVD (with a threshold at age 55 years for a male or 65 years for a female). However, little is known about the effect that each unit increase or decrease of maternal or paternal age of onset of CVD has on offspring age of onset of CVD. We hypothesized that there is an association between maternal and paternal age of onset of CVD and offspring age of onset of CVD. Methods We used the Framingham Heart Study database and performed conditional imputation for CVD-censored parental age (i.e. parents that didn’t experience onset of CVD) and Cox proportional regression analysis, with offspring’s age of onset of CVD as the dependent variable and parental age of onset of CVD as the primary predictor. Modifiable risk factors in offspring, such as cigarette smoking, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure (SBP), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, were controlled for. Separate analyses were performed for the association between maternal age of onset of CVD and offspring age of onset of CVD and the association between paternal age of onset of CVD and offspring age of onset of CVD. Results Parental age of onset of CVD was predictive of offspring age of onset of CVD for maternal age of onset of CVD (P < .0001; N = 1401) and for paternal age of onset of CVD (P = 0.0134; N = 1221). A negative estimate of the coefficient of interest signifies that late onset of cardiovascular events in parents is protective of onset of CVD in offspring. Cigarette smoking and HDL level were important associated confounders. Conclusions Offspring age of onset of cardiovascular disease is significantly associated with both maternal and paternal age of onset CVD. The incorporation of the parameters, maternal or paternal age of onset of CVD, into risk estimate calculators may improve accuracy of
Data Quality Campaign, 2016
The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) believes that when parents and educators have the right information to make decisions, students excel. Parents agree, according to a recent survey. DQC's Parent Poll, conducted online by Harris Poll in November 2015, surveyed 1,093 US parents with children ages 5-17 about their attitudes toward data collection and…
Colwell, B; Smith, D; Zhang, J J; Hill, M
The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes of Mexican-American (MA) parents of children toward school health education programs in South Texas. The Parent Attitude Scale (PAS) was developed and validated by American Cancer Society (ACS) staff and volunteer health educators. The validated survey was used to question randomly selected parents in the McAllen, Texas, school district regarding their attitudes toward school health education. Of 253 parents contacted, 235 (92.9%) parents were interviewed. Mann-Whitney U-Tests indicated that Mexican-American (MA) parents consider school health education to be more important than non-Mexican-American parents do. MA parents, overall, felt that it was more important that their child has good health habits and more important that their child's teacher provide support to them by teaching good health habits than non-MA parents. MA parents also felt that health was more important relative to other subjects at school than non-MA parents. The data indicate strong support for school health education efforts among MA parents in southern Texas. Such support may grow stronger with appropriate parent-recruitment efforts, including those by the ACS. Mexican-American parents may also represent an untapped resource for social and political support for school health programming.
Bahadourian, Ara J.; Greer, R. Douglas
This study examined the efficacy of the parent education/training program of the Comprehensive Application of behavior Analysis to Schooling (CABAS) model (Greer, 2000) in increasing rates of child compliance. Five parents of children attending a CABAS special needs preschool received both didactic instruction and home-based in vivo training in…
Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.
This study investigates delayed college entry, including how college enrollment differs based on students' plans while in high school. Results confirm that low-SES students are repeatedly disadvantaged in the college transition, but add complexity concerning the influences of family income, parental education, and parental occupational status.…
Lau, Eva Yi Hung; Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala
This study developed and validated an instrument, the Chinese Early Parental Involvement Scale (CEPIS), that can be widely used in both local and international contexts to assess Chinese parental involvement in early childhood education. The study was carried out in two stages: (1) focus group interviews were conducted with 41 teachers and 35…
The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…
Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.
As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…
Davies, Mark; Kandel, Denise B.
A study of adolescent perceptions found that parents have more influence on their children's educational aspirations than do their children's best friends. Parental influence appears to grow stronger over time. Best friends influence girls' aspirations more than boys. (AM)
Popkin, Michael H.
Based largely on the theories of Alfred Adler and Rudolf Dreikurs, this parent education curriculum is a video-based interactive learning experience that teaches a comprehensive model of parenting to parents of children ages 5 to 12 years. The kit provides parents with the skills needed to help their children develop courage, responsibility, and…
Castillo, Ruth; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Chillón, Palma; Jiménez-Pavón, David; Esperanza-Díaz, Ligia; Moreno, Luis A; Ortega, Francisco B
We examined the associations between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents. Cognitive performance was measured by a validated Scholar Aptitudes test in 2,162 participants. Parental educational and occupational levels were positively associated with all specific cognitive abilities and the overall score (p<001 to .04). The odds ratios of having a high cognitive performance (top quartile) in adolescents with high parental educational level were 1.6 to 1.7 times higher than for those with a low parental educational level. Similarly, the odds ratios were 1.9 to 2.4 times higher for adolescents with high parental occupational level. These findings suggest an association between parental educational/occupational levels and cognitive performance in Spanish adolescents and support the parents' role in the creation of a stimulating intellectual environment.
Anello, Alene; Reichenberg, Abraham; Luo, Xiaodong; Schmeidler, James; Hollander, Eric; Smith, Christopher J.; Puleo, Connor M.; Kryzak, Lauren A.; Silverman, Jeremy M.
The male-to-female (M:F) ratio for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), typically about 4:1, appears to decrease with increasing paternal age, but this relationship has not been systematically tested. With 393 ASD cases from families with two or more ASD cases, we categorized paternal age into five age groups (less than 30, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45+)…
This booklet, directed to parents, advocates parent involvement in New Zealand playcenter groups, discusses parental duties in the playcenter, and suggests ways parents can help children to learn. The booklet has three chapters. Chapter I discusses the value of parent involvement from the point of view of the child, the parent, and the community.…
Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.
Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…
Kincheloe, Joe L., Ed.; Hayes, Kecia, Ed.; Rose, Karel, Ed.; Anderson, Philip M., Ed.
Maintaining that urban teaching and learning is characterized by many contradictions, this book proposes that there is a wide range of social, cultural, psychological, and pedagogical knowledge urban educators must possess in order to engage in effective and transformative practice. It is necessary for those teaching in urban schools to be…
Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Cohen, Morris J; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W
Clinical trial designs need to control for genetic and environmental influences when examining cognitive outcomes in children for whom clinical considerations preclude randomization. However, the contributions of maternal and paternal IQ and education to pediatric cognitive outcomes are uncertain in disease populations. The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) Study is an ongoing prospective observational multicenter study in the United States and United Kingdom, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Here, we examined the relationship of IQ and education in both parents to child IQ at age 3 years. IQ and education for both parents were statistically correlated to child IQ. However, paternal IQ and education were not significant after accounting for maternal IQ effects. Because maternal IQ and education are independently related to child cognitive outcome, both should be assessed in studies investigating the effects of fetal drug exposures or other environmental factors that could affect the child's cognitive outcome.
Nghipondoka-Lukolo, Linda Ndeshipandula; Charles, Kimera Lukanga
The purpose of the study was to empower rural parents to participate in the sexuality education of their children. The study was designed to be qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual in nature. It was performed in three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a situational analysis to explore and describe how parents provide sexuality education. Phase 2 consisted of the development of a conceptual framework that facilitated the development of an educational programme. In phase 3 the programme was implemented and evaluated, recommendations were made and conclusions drawn. The main findings revealed two themes: factors influencing parental participation in their children's sexuality education, and the need for parental participation in their children's sexuality education. This article is part of series of three article stems from a study on the topic of sexuality education empowerment programme of rural parents in Namibia. The three articles have the following titles: one: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis; two: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a conceptual framework and an educational programme to enhance action, and three: parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: programme implementation and evaluation. The previous paper dealt with parent's participation in sexuality education of their children: a situational analysis: the results from the in-depth interviews and focus group discussions on sexuality education with children and parents were presented. This paper focuses on describing Phase 2 and 3, namely the process of devising a conceptual framework for the development of an educational programme to empower parents to participate in the sexuality education of their children. Discussions included a description of the conceptual framework, based on the researcher's paradigmatic assumptions, and the focus group and individual in-depth interviews results
Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; Robertson, Dylan L.; Mann, Emily A.
We conducted the first cost-benefit analysis of a federally financed, comprehensive early childhood program. The Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers are located in public schools and provide educational and family support services to low-income children from ages 3 to 9. Using data from a cohort of children born in 1980 who participate in the…
Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Losinski, Mickey
Parental participation is a crucial component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. When developing students' Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), school-based teams must place a high priority on involving students' parents in a collaborative effort to develop their children's educational programs and determine their placements.…
Fish, Wade W.
The author investigated parental perceptions of the individualized education program (IEP) meeting among 51 parents of students who were receiving special education services from 1 family support service agency. Survey questions pertained to the following areas: (a) IEP meeting experiences, (b) knowledge level of special education law, (c)…
Stein, Rachel; Sharkey, Jill
Parents currently have the unilateral ability to reject special education services. Yet, it is unclear how schools should support students with special education needs in this situation as schools may not challenge a parent's choice to revoke special education assessment consent or the provision of services. Guidelines for school…
Koki, Stan; Lee, Harvey
Increasing parent involvement in the Pacific region requires an understanding of the traditional system of Pacific education. While historically Pacific education involved parents and community members as children's first teachers, the American model of education virtually ignores this tradition. The school assumes the entire responsibility for…
Stolz, Heidi E.; Henke, Teri M.; Brandon, Denise J.; Sams, Juli M.
The study reported here examined professional preparation systems (PPS) for parenting educators via an online survey of 324 Extension Specialists and members of the National Parenting Education Network (NPEN) and Certified Family Life Educator (CFLE) listservs. Eighty-one PPS of six general types were identified. Curriculum-specific training and…
Glaesser, Judith; Cooper, Barry
We investigate the relations between gender, parental education, ability, and educational achievement in Britain, focusing on the way in which gender and parental education interact with ability to contribute to a pupil's obtaining secondary school qualifications. This allows us to provide evidence relevant to claims concerning the effects of…
The reluctance of parents to provide sex education has been a problem for educators since the first attempts at the modernisation of sex education in the early twentieth century, yet the sexual needs, desires and fears of parents are rarely even mentioned in pedagogical debates. This article examines the intense anxiety and embarrassment felt by…
Michigan Association for the Education of Young Children, East Lansing.
Noting the important role that parents can play in preparing their child to learn to read, the Read, Educate and Develop Youth (READY) Reading Plan for Michigan provides kits to parents of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The kits contain suggestions for age-appropriate activities parents can do with their children to help them learn. In…
Objectives. Middle-aged adults often provide beneficial support to grown children. Yet, in some relationships, grown children may feel beholden or intruded upon when they receive parental help. The purpose of this study was to examine such conflicted support in relationships between middle-aged parents and young adults. Methods. Middle-aged parents (aged 40–60, n = 399) and their grown children (n = 592) participated. Parents rated perceptions of providing support and relationship quality with each child. Grown children indicated whether their mothers and fathers provided conflicted support and rated their perceptions of parental support, relationship quality, and other factors. Results. Multilevel models revealed that offspring’s perceptions of conflicted support were associated with (a) parents’ evaluations about providing support (e.g., greater stress and beliefs that grown children should be autonomous), (b) poorer quality relationships, and (c) offspring having more problems. Discussion. Findings suggest that perceptions of conflicted support are embedded in a larger constellation of relationship problems and underlying distress for parents and children. These patterns may reflect lifelong difficulties in the tie or that arise in adulthood. Researchers might seek to understand how dyads experiencing such conflicted support differ from more normative relationships characterized by warmth and well-received support. PMID:23707999
Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.
Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…
Schwab, Charles M.
Parents of children with special needs are beginning to realize that a home designed for their child who might now use a wheelchair may benefit them as well in the future as they "Age in Place". As the boomers age and Medicare and Medicaid seem to possibly decline in the not so distant future as a source of funding for elderly and special needs…
Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.
Among aging parents (mean age = 65, "N" = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas…
Seelbach, Wayne C.
This paper presents a taxonomy of variables which may be involved in the designation of one of the aged parents' offspring to fill the caretaker role in times of crisis. Extended family structures have become more nucleated under the influences of urbanization and industrialization. As a consequence, caring for the aged has become the…
Taddio, Anna; Parikh, Chaitya; Yoon, Eugene W; Sgro, Michael; Singh, Harvinder; Habtom, Erita; Ilersich, Andrew F; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca; Shah, Vibhuti
Educating parents about ways to minimize pain during routine infant vaccine injections at the point of care may positively impact on pain management practices. The objective of this cluster randomized trial was to determine the impact of educating parents about pain in outpatient pediatric clinics on their use of pain treatments during routine infant vaccinations. Four hospital-based pediatric clinics were randomized to intervention or control groups. Parents of 2- to 4-month-old infants attending the intervention clinics reviewed a pamphlet and a video about vaccination pain management on the day of vaccination, whereas those in the control clinics did not. Parent use of specific pain treatments (breastfeeding, sugar water, topical anesthetics, and/or holding of infants) on the education day and at subsequent routine vaccinations 2 months later was the primary outcome. Altogether, 160 parent-infant dyads (80 per group) participated between November 2012 and February 2014; follow-up data were available for 126 (79%). Demographics did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). On the education day and at follow-up vaccinations, use of pain interventions during vaccinations was higher in the intervention group (80% vs 26% and 68% vs 32%, respectively; P < 0.001 for both analyses). Educating parents about pain management in a hospital outpatient setting leads to higher use of pain interventions during routine infant vaccinations.
... Everyone forgets things from time to time. Modest memory problems are a fairly common part of aging, ... medication side effects or underlying conditions contribute to memory loss. There's a difference, though, between normal changes ...
van der Kamp, Max
By the year 2000, at least 20 percent of Europeans will be over 60 years old. As the labor force ages, older employees will have to contribute more to the productivity of organizations. Due to rapid technological changes, more retraining will be required. Education can fulfill important functions for older adults, but their learning style must be…
Turer, Christy Boling; Mehta, Megha; Durante, Richard; Wazni, Fatima; Flores, Glenn
To identify parental perspectives regarding weight-management strategies for school-age children, focus groups were conducted of parents of overweight and obese (body mass index ≥ 85th percentile) 6-12-year-old children recruited from primary-care clinics. Questions focused on the role of the primary-care provider, effective components of weight-management strategies and feasibility of specific dietary strategies. Focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed using margin coding and grounded theory. Six focus groups were held. The mean age (in years) for parents was 32, and for children, eight; 44% of participants were Latino, 33%, African-American and 23%, white. Parents' recommendations on the primary-care provider's role in weight management included monitoring weight, providing guidance regarding health risks and lifestyle changes, consistent follow-up and using discretion during weight discussions. Weight-management components identified as key included emphasising healthy lifestyles and enjoyment, small changes to routines and parental role modelling. Parents prefer guidance regarding healthy dietary practices rather than specific weight-loss diets, but identified principles that could enhance the acceptability of these diets. For dietary guidance to be feasible, parents recommended easy-to-follow instructions and emphasising servings over counting calories. Effective weight-management strategies identified by parents include primary-care provider engagement in weight management, simple instructions regarding healthy lifestyle changes, parental involvement and deemphasising specific weight-loss diets. These findings may prove useful in developing primary-care weight-management strategies for children that maximise parental acceptance.
Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Stephan, Yannick; Robins, Richard W; Terracciano, Antonio
Why do some individuals have more self-control or are more vulnerable to stress than others? Where do these basic personality traits come from? Although a fundamental question in personality, more is known about how traits are related to important life outcomes than their developmental origins. The present research took an intergenerational life span approach to address whether a significant aspect of the childhood environment-parental educational attainment-was associated with offspring personality traits in adulthood. We tested the association between parents' educational levels and adult offspring personality traits in 7 samples (overall age range 14-95) and meta-analytically combined the results (total N > 60,000). Parents with more years of education had children who were more open, extraverted, and emotionally stable as adults. These associations were small but consistent, of similar modest magnitude to the association between life events and change in personality in adulthood, and were also supported by longitudinal analyses. Contrary to expectations, parental educational attainment was unrelated to offspring Conscientiousness, except for a surprisingly negative association in the younger cohorts. The results were similar in a subsample of participants who were adopted, which suggested that environmental mechanisms were as relevant as shared genetic variants. Participant levels of education were associated with greater conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness and partially mediated the relation between parent education and personality. Child IQ and family income were also partial mediators. The results of this research suggest that parental educational attainment is 1 intergenerational factor associated with offspring personality development in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record
The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) joined with the Office of Special Education and Student Services (OSESS) to gather feedback from parents of students who receive special education services. The goal was to use the information to improve services and implement staff development. This brief concerns a pilot study for gathering parent…
Vallado, Andres Nicolas
The purpose of this study was to examine the role, practices, and status of Parent Advisory Committees (PAC) as required by Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, and the extent of PAC involvement in the educational decision making process in selected school districts in Texas. The sample consisted of 637 Title I PAC…
Nichols, Emily B; Loper, Ann B; Meyer, J Patrick
The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world, and as a result, one of the largest populations of incarcerated parents. Growing evidence suggests that the incarceration of a parent may be associated with a number of risk factors in adolescence, including school drop out. Taking a developmental ecological approach, this study used multilevel modeling to examine the association of parental incarceration on truancy, academic achievement, and lifetime educational attainment using the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (48.3 % female; 46 % minority status). Individual characteristics, such as school and family connectedness, and school characteristics, such as school size and mental health services, were examined to determine whether they significantly reduced the risk associated with parental incarceration. Our results revealed small but significant risks associated with parental incarceration for all outcomes, above and beyond individual and school level characteristics. Family and school connectedness were identified as potential compensatory factors, regardless of parental incarceration history, for academic achievement and truancy. School connectedness did not reduce the risk associated with parental incarceration when examining highest level of education. This study describes the school related risks associated with parental incarceration, while revealing potential areas for school-based prevention and intervention for adolescents.
Presents a spiritually based view of needs and potentials of children and youth, from birth through age 21, based on works of Rudolf Steiner, Sri Aurobindo Ghose, and Hazrat Inayat Khan. Focuses on their common vision of the true nature of human beings, the course of human growth, and the desired functions of child rearing and education.…
Lwin, May O; Shin, Wonsun; Yee, Andrew Z H; Wardoyo, Reidinar Juliane
This study proposes that parental mediation of television advertising and parental guidance of food consumption differentially influence children's attitude, intention, and behavior toward the consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. Structural equation modeling based on a survey of 1,119 children aged 9-12 supported our model, revealing that parental education strategies influence children's food consumption in a complex manner that is highly context-dependent. Parental guidance of food consumption enhanced children's healthy food attitude and intention to consume, while reducing the intention to consume unhealthy food. However, parental mediation of television advertising influenced unhealthy food attitude to a greater extent than healthy food attitude. Implications for health promotion and education, as well as parents and policy makers are discussed.
Botsford, Anne L; Rule, David
More than three-fourths of older adults with developmental disabilities and mental illness live in the community with aging parents, the majority of whom do not complete plans for the residential, financial, and legal future of their offspring. The authors used a true experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-week psychoeducational group intervention with 27 older mothers. Data collected in pre- and posttest telephone interviews were analyzed with repeated measures MANCOVA to test five hypotheses. Significant multivariate effects were found for mothers' knowledge and awareness about permanency planning, confidence and competence to plan, planning activities, and stage of planning. Findings support use of group interventions with older parents and underscore the need for professional education about planning for adults with special needs.
Yang, Yanjie; Sun, Hailian; Pan, Hui; He, Jincai; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Sui, Hong; Wang, Wenbo; Qiu, Xiaohui; Qiao, Zhengxue; Yang, Xiuxian; Yang, Jiarun; Yu, Yunmiao; Ban, Bo; He, Changzhi
Background Depression is a major health concern for college students due to its substantial morbidity and mortality. Although low parental education has been identified as a factor in depression in college students, the mechanisms through which parental educational achievement affects students’ depression are not well understood. We tested whether adverse family and college environments mediate the relationship between parental educational level and depression among Chinese college students. Methods A total of 5180 respondents were selected using a cross-sectional survey. We examined the association of parental education, adverse family and college environments with depression in college students using the Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Checklist, Beck Depression Inventory and socio-demographic questionnaires. Results Lower parental educational level is significantly correlated with depression in college students in our sample. Additionally, low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, having been scolded and beaten by parents, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends, heavy course load and failure in selection processes are also associated with parental education. Low family economic status, paternal or maternal unemployment, long periods spent apart from family, family conflicts, poor or dissatisfying test performance, conflict with friends and heavy course load mediated the relationship between parental education and depression in college students. Conclusions Adverse family and college environments could explain the influence of parental educational level on depression in college students. PMID:26991783
One hundred and ninety-one parents attending an urban, community college were surveyed about what topics schools should teach their children about sexuality education, and how they communicate with their child about sexuality topics. The quantitative data was collected using a "School Sexuality Education Questionnaire" (SSEQ), and the "Parenting…
Chaparro, M P; Koupil, Ilona
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of grandparental and parental education and parental educational trajectory on their adult offspring's overweight/obesity. We used register data from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study, based on a representative cohort born in Sweden 1915-1929 (G1). Our sample included 5122 women and 11,204 men who were grandchildren of G1 (G3), their parents (G2), and grandparents. G3's overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m2) was based on pre-pregnancy weight/height for women before their first birth (average age=26 years), and measured weight/height at conscription for men (average age=18 years). G1's, G2's, and G3's highest educational attainment was obtained from routine registers and classified as low, intermediate, or high based on respective sample distributions. Parental (G2) educational trajectory was defined as change in education between their own and their highest educated parent (G1), classified into 5 categories: always advantaged (AA), upward trajectory (UT), stable-intermediate (SI), downward trajectory (DT), and always disadvantaged (AD). We used hierarchical gender-stratified logistic regression models adjusted for G3's age, education, year of BMI collection, lineage and G2's year of birth and income. Grandparental and parental education were negatively associated with men's odds of overweight/obesity and parental education affected women's overweight/obesity risk. Furthermore, men and women whose parents belonged to the UT, SI, DT, and AD groups had greater odds of overweight/obesity compared to men and women whose parents belonged to the AA group (adjusted for G3's age, year of BMI collection, lineage, and G2's year of birth). These associations were attenuated when further adjusting for parental income and G3's own education. Socioeconomic inequalities can have long-term consequences and impact the health of future generations. For overweight/obesity in concurrent young cohorts, this inequality
This report presents the findings from Project Tomorrow's 2007 Speak Up Survey, informing international discussions about how to improve science learning in the 21st century through an exploration of student, teacher, parent, and school leader attitudes about science education. Project Tomorrow administered its survey in all 50 United States, the…
de Bellaigue, Christina
This article examines the work of educationist Charlotte Mason (1842-1923) to explore the practice of home education in the late nineteenth century. Mason's work reflected and responded to the particular circumstances and concerns of her clientele. She provided a way for parents to compensate for the practical deficiencies of contemporary…
Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen
Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…
Weaver, Angela D.; Byers, E. Sandra; Sears, Heather A.; Cohen, Jacqueline N.; Randall, Hilary E. S.
Examined New Brunswick parents' attitudes toward sexual health education (SHE) at school and home. Surveys of parents with K-8 children indicated that most parents believed: SHE should be provided in the school and shared between home and school; SHE should begin in elementary or middle school; and a broad range of topics should be included. Most…
Tekin, Ali Kemal
The purpose of this study was to discover Turkish parents' perceptions of life context variables, including personal knowledge and skills and personal time and energy for involvement activities in their young children's education. The scales used in this study were based on parents' self-report, and included: (1) Parental Perceptions of Personal…
Longtain, Melinda; And Others
Investigations of (1) the extent to which parent involvement training is included in the pre-service training of elementary and preschool teachers, (2) external and mediational influences on parent models of child socialization, and (3) the relevance of parent education programs to changing family structures are reported. Data were gathered from…
Ji, Cheng Shuang; Koblinsky, Sally A.
This exploratory study examined the involvement of Chinese immigrant parents in children's elementary and secondary education. Participants were 29 low-income, urban parents of public school children working primarily in the hospitality sector. Parents were interviewed about their academic expectations, knowledge of school performance, parent…
Vryonides, Marios; Gouvias, Dionysios
This paper focuses on parents and the way they perceive and formulate expectations and aspirations about their children's educational and occupational outcomes. Drawing on evidence from a survey among more than 700 parents of primary school pupils this paper demonstrates that interesting patterns in parental aspirations can be observed. These…
Polulech, Joan Burgess; Nuttall, Paul
This document presents the fourth of five newsletters on sex education for parents. The newsletters were designed to help parents increase their ability to communicate with their adolescents about sexual issues. They explore the origins of the parents' feelings about sex; teach the importance of a healthy self-concept and how to build it in the…
Polulech, Joan Burgess; Nuttall, Paul
This document presents the first of five newsletters on sex education for parents. The newsletters were designed to help parents increase their ability to communicate with their adolescents about sexual issues. They explore the origins of the parents' feelings about sex; teach the importance of a healthy self-concept and how to build it in the…