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Sample records for age performance status

  1. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  2. Performance of San Joaquin Delta College Freshmen Students in Reading, Writing and Math by Ethnicity, High School Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; And Others

    A study was conducted in fall 1985 to determine how well students at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) were prepared in reading, writing, and mathematics, comparing students by ethnicity, high school status, and age. SJDC uses the Comparative Guidance Placement (CGP) Tests to to assess all new students who do not have an Associate of Arts degree or…

  3. Effects of Dietary Calcium Levels on Productive Performance, Eggshell Quality and Overall Calcium Status in Aged Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    An, S H; Kim, D W; An, B K

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets with varying levels of calcium on egg production, shell quality and overall calcium status in aged laying hens. A total of five hundred 70-wk-old Hy-Line Brown layers were divided five groups and fed one of the five experimental diets with 3.5%, 3.8%, 4.1%, 4.4%, or 4.7% Ca, for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences in feed intake, egg production and egg weight among groups. The cracked eggs were linearly reduced as dietary Ca levels increased to 4.7% (p<0.01). A significant linear improvement for eggshell strength and thickness were determined with increasing dietary Ca levels (p<0.01). The contents of serum Ca and phosphorus were not affected by dietary Ca levels. With increase in dietary Ca levels, the tibial breaking strength slightly increased. There were no significant differences in the tibial contents of ash, Ca and phosphorus among groups. In conclusion, eggshell quality, as measured by appearance, strength and thickness of eggshell, were influenced by dietary Ca content as expected (p<0.05). These results suggested that aged laying hens require relatively higher level of Ca than required levels from current Korean feeding standards for poultry. PMID:26954217

  4. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  5. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  6. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  7. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Deborah L; Schieve, Laura A; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2014-07-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case-control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n=198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n=253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference -21.4, 95% CI: -24.0, -18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference -5.1, 95% CI: -9.5, -0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born at both of the

  8. Socioeconomic status, child enrichment factors, and cognitive performance among preschool-age children: Results from the Follow-Up of Growth and Development Experiences study☆

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Deborah L.; Schieve, Laura A.; Devine, Owen; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Lower cognitive performance is associated with poorer health and functioning throughout the lifespan and disproportionately affects children from lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. Previous studies reporting positive associations between child home enrichment and cognitive performance generally had a limited distribution of SES. We evaluated the associations of SES and child enrichment with cognitive performance in a population with a wide range of SES, particularly whether enrichment attenuates associations with SES. Children were sampled from a case–control study of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) conducted in a public hospital serving a low SES population (final n = 198) and a private hospital serving a middle-to-high SES population (final n = 253). SES (maternal education and income) and perinatal factors (SGA, maternal smoking and drinking) were obtained from maternal birth interview. Five child home enrichment factors (e.g. books in home) and preschool attendance were obtained from follow-up interview at age 4.5 years. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a standardized psychometric test administered at follow-up. SES and enrichment scores were created by combining individual factors. Analyses were adjusted for perinatal factors. Children from the public birth hospital had a significantly lower mean DAS general cognitive ability (GCA) score than children born at the private birth hospital (adjusted mean difference −21.4, 95% CI: −24.0, −18.7); this was substantially attenuated by adjustment for individual SES, child enrichment factors, and preschool attendance (adjusted mean difference −5.1, 95% CI: −9.5, −0.7). Individual-level SES score was associated with DAS score, beyond the general SES effect associated with hospital of birth. Adjustment for preschool attendance and home enrichment score attenuated the association between individual SES score and adjusted mean DAS-GCA among children born

  9. Associations of vitamin D status, bone health and anthropometry, with gross motor development and performance of school-aged Indian children who were born at term with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Filteau, Suzanne; Rehman, Andrea M; Yousafzai, Aisha; Chugh, Reema; Kaur, Manpreet; Sachdev, H P S; Trilok-Kumar, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is little information regarding motor development of children born at term with low birth weight (LBW), a group that constitutes a large proportion of children in South Asia. We used data from infancy and at school age from a LBW cohort to investigate children's motor performance using causal inference. Design Cross-sectional follow-up study. Setting Delhi, India. Participants We recruited 912 children aged 5 years who had participated in a trial of vitamin D for term LBW infants in the first 6 months of life. Outcome measures We focused on gross motor development, using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) gross motor scale and several measures of motor performance. We examined the effects on these of current anthropometry, vitamin D status and bone health, controlling for age, sex, season of interview, socioeconomic variables, early growth, recent morbidity, sun exposure and animal food intake. Results In adjusted analyses, stunted children (height-for-age Z (HAZ) <−2) took longer to run 20 m (0.52 s, 95% CI 0.35 to 0.70; p<0.001) and had greater odds of a failing score on the ASQ (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 6.38, p=0.004). Greater arm muscle area was associated with faster run time, and the ability to perform more stands and squats in 15 s. Poorer vitamin D status was associated with the ability to perform more stands and squats. Lower tibia ultrasound Z score was associated with greater hand grip strength. Early growth and current body mass index had no associations with motor outcomes. Conclusions Current HAZ and arm muscle area showed the strongest associations with gross motor outcomes, likely due to a combination of simple physics and factors associated with stunting. The counterintuitive inverse associations of tibia health and vitamin D status with outcomes may require further research. PMID:26747034

  10. HSR Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, William P.; Antani, Tony; Ball, Doug; Calloway, Robert L.; Snyder, Phil

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes HSR (High Speed Research) Aerodynamic Performance Status and Challenges. The topics include: 1) Aero impact on HSR; 2) Goals and Targets; 3) Progress and Status; and 4) Remaining Challenges. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. Fluency in Parkinson's disease: disease duration, cognitive status and age.

    PubMed

    Brabo, Natalia Casagrande; Minett, Thais Soares C; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and to characterize the typology of dysfluencies in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), including the variables age, gender, schooling, disease duration, score on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and cognitive status (score on Mini-Mental State Examination). A cross-sectional study of a sample comprising 60 adults matched for gender, age and schooling was conducted. Group I comprised 30 adults with idiopathic PD, and Group II comprised 30 healthy adults. For assessment of fluency of speech, subjects were asked to utter a narrative based on a sequence of drawings and a transcription of 200 fluent syllables was performed to identify speech dysfluencies. PD patients exhibited a higher overall number of dysfluencies in speech with a large number of atypical dysfluencies. Additionally, results showed an influence of the variables cognitive status, disease duration and age on occurrence of dysfluencies. PMID:24863510

  12. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  13. Age-Status Labeling in Homosexual Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnigerode, Fred A.

    1976-01-01

    Homosexual men (N=95) between 25 and 68 years of age were asked to classify themselves as young, middle-aged, or old. The popular suggestion of accelerated aging in homosexual men was not supported. (Author)

  14. NPP VIIRS Geometric Performance Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Guoqing; Wolfe, Robert E.; Nishihama, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument on-board the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite is scheduled for launch in October, 2011. It is to provide satellite measured radiance/reflectance data for both weather and climate applications. Along with radiometric calibration, geometric characterization and calibration of Sensor Data Records (SDRs) are crucial to the VIIRS Environmental Data Record (EDR) algorithms and products which are used in numerical weather prediction (NWP). The instrument geometric performance includes: 1) sensor (detector) spatial response, parameterized by the dynamic field of view (DFOV) in the scan direction and instantaneous FOV (IFOV) in the track direction, modulation transfer function (MTF) for the 17 moderate resolution bands (M-bands), and horizontal spatial resolution (HSR) for the five imagery bands (I-bands); 2) matrices of band-to-band co-registration (BBR) from the corresponding detectors in all band pairs; and 3) pointing knowledge and stability characteristics that includes scan plane tilt, scan rate and scan start position variations, and thermally induced variations in pointing with respect to orbital position. They have been calibrated and characterized through ground testing under ambient and thermal vacuum conditions, numerical modeling and analysis. This paper summarizes the results, which are in general compliance with specifications, along with anomaly investigations, and describes paths forward for characterizing on-orbit BBR and spatial response, and for improving instrument on-orbit performance in pointing and geolocation.

  15. Ageing, status politics and sociological theory.

    PubMed

    Turner, B S

    1989-12-01

    As a feature of social change and as an aspect of social stratification, ageing and age groups have been seriously neglected by sociological theory. This article attempts to conceptualize age groups in a multi-dimensional model of stratification which considers ageing in relation to economic class, political entitlement, or citizenship, and cultural life-styles. This multi-dimensional model provides an analytical basis for rejecting functionalist theories of ageing, which emphasize the positive functions of social disengagement, activity theories, which show that self-esteem in ageing is an effect of continuing social involvement, and Marxist social gerontology, which argues that retirement is determined by labour-market requirements in capitalism. The article concludes by developing a reciprocity-maturation curve of ageing which explains age stigmatization through exchange theory as an effect of declining social reciprocity. Both young and elderly social groups in a period of economic recession are perceived to be socially dependent, and become the targets of 'the politics of resentment'. The processes of social ageing can be located in the core of sociological theory, because they are connected fundamentally to the conditions of social solidarity. PMID:2688794

  16. Ethnicity, Drug User Status and Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Arthur Lee; Barnes, Michael James

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the impact of drug use and race on school performance. Results based on 38 students show significant main effects for both race and user status, suggesting an interaction between the two. Black users and nonusers did not differ across academic areas, although large differences for Whites and Latinos emerged. (RJM)

  17. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  18. Birthdate and Performance: The Relative Age Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, Roger H.

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the concept of "relative age" and to review recent research findings that have demonstrated that relative age is related to a variety of academic and athletic performance measures. The paper is divided into six parts: (1) the relative age concept; (2) relative age and achievement in sports; (3) relative age…

  19. OMPS SDR Status and Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, S.; Weng, F.; Wu, X.; Flynn, L. E.; Jaross, G.; Buss, R. H.; Niu, J.; Seftor, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Launched on October 28, 2011, OMPS has successfully passed different operational phases from the Early Observation and Activation (LEO&A) to Early Orbit Checkout (EOC), and is currently in the Intensive CAL/Val (ICV) phase. OMPS data gathered during the on-orbit calibration and validation activities allow us to evaluate the instrument on-orbit performance and validate Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Detector performance shows that offset, gain, and dark current rate trends remain within 0.2% of the pre-launch values with significant margin below sensor requirements. Detector gain and offset performance trends are generally stable and observed solar irradiance is within an average of 2% of predicted values. This presentation will update the status of the OMPS SDRs with newly established calibration measurements. Examples of analysis of dark calibration, linearity performance, solar irradiance validation, sensor noise and wavelength change are provided.

  20. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  1. Depression, socioeconomic status, age, and marital status in black women: a national study.

    PubMed

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Beech, Bettina M; Naumann, Wendy; Kovach, Kristen W; Pugh, Letha; Fapohunda, Bolaji

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between an array of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators and depression among Black women; determined which SES indicator was most strongly associated with depression; and examined whether the relationship between SES and depression was the same across age and marital status. A sample of 1,407 Black women recruited through the National Black Women's Health Project completed a survey on psychological well-being. Independent variables included income, education, median income within zip codes, marital status, and age. The dependent variable was depression as measured by the CES-D. The average CES-D score among participants was 12.67 (SD = 10.54), and 31.9% screened positive for depression. An inverse relationship was found between income and education and depression. The higher the yearly household income and education level the lower the scores on the CES-D. Income was the SES indicator most strongly associated with depression. Younger women had higher scores on the CES-D. Never-married women exhibited significantly higher levels of depression compared to women who were married or living together with an intimate partner. There were no significant interactions between SES indicators, age, and marital status. These findings suggest that income, education level, marital status, and age may be important demographic variables to consider when designing interventions to address depression among Black women.

  2. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  3. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  4. Beyond Status: Relating Status Inequality to Performance and Health in Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Amy M.; Barling, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status…

  5. [Odor perception in relation to age, general health, nutritional status, and dental status].

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vogelaere, P; Collys, K; Laska, M; Massart, D L

    1997-02-01

    Many studies have shown that odour perception declines with age. Considering the possible role of age-related phenomena such as general health, dental health and nutrition in such a decline, their joint effect on variability in odour perception was evaluated in the present study. 73 apparently healthy adults aged from 53 to 86 years (median age = 66), living in the community, took part in this study. The SENIEUR protocol was used to assess the general health status and anthropometric measures were obtained to assess the nutritional status. The sensory detection threshold for isoamylacetate (banana odour) was determined as the lowest detectable odour concentration. Dental status was assessed by a questionnaire on the presence of natural teeth and wearing of dentures. Those in poor general health had significantly higher mean odour thresholds (2.35, SD = 1.34), where threshold concentration was expressed as -log(mol/l), than those in good (3.47, SD = 1.46) or reasonably general health (3.75, SD = 1.02). Partial denture wearers had significantly higher odour thresholds (2.99, SD = 1.12) than those having only natural teeth (4.24, SD = 1.43). Significant correlations between age and anthropometrical values were found, indicating that with age, muscle mass particularly in women decreases (r = -0.50). Odour perception of women correlated significantly inversely with triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.42), indicating that poor sense of small is associated with high body content of fat. Our results indicate that general health and dental state are important age-associated factors in odour perception. Since age does not show a significant independent effect, neither in an analysis of variance, nor in a multiple regression analysis, such factors tend to become more important than chronological age per se.

  6. ACCESS: Thermal Mechanical Design, Performance, and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, M. J.; McCandliss, S. R.; Rauscher, B. J.; Kimble, R. A.; Kruk, J. W.; Wright, E. L.; Bohlin, R.; Kurucz, R. L.; Riess, A. G.; Pelton, R.; Deustua, S. E.; Dixon, W. V.; Sahnow, D. J.; Benford, D. J.; Gardner, J. P.; Feldman, P. D.; Moos, H. W.; Lampton, M.; Perlmutter, S.; Woodgate, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, are now rivaling and exceeding the statistical errors associated with these measurements. ACCESS: Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35 - 1.7μm bandpass. Achieving this level of accuracy requires characterization and stability of the instrument and detector including a thermal background that contributes less than 1% to the flux per resolution element in the NIR. We will present the instrument and calibration status with a focus on the thermal mechanical design and associated performance data. The detector control and performance will be presented in a companion poster (Morris, et al). NASA APRA sounding rocket grant NNX08AI65G supports this work.

  7. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Groeller, Herbert; McGinn, Ryan; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-06-01

    The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function. Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts. Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness. PMID:27277571

  8. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  9. Designing Performance Interventions for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Steven; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic Online Performance Support Systems (DOPSS) are a new class of intervention that can meet the needs of a quickly changing work force in an information age environment. These systems are customized for the target population, with unique meta tags, unique function sets, and dynamic growth for and by users in use. These unique tag sets allow…

  10. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds.

  11. Boys' and Girls' Weight Status and Math Performance from Kindergarten Entry through Fifth Grade: A Mediated Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gable, Sara; Krull, Jennifer L.; Chang, Yiting

    2012-01-01

    This study tests a mediated model of boys' and girls' weight status and math performance with 6,250 children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Five data points spanning kindergarten entry (mean age = 68.46 months) through fifth grade (mean age = 134.60 months) were analyzed. Three weight status groups were identified: persistent…

  12. Beyond status: relating status inequality to performance and health in teams.

    PubMed

    Christie, Amy M; Barling, Julian

    2010-09-01

    Status structures in organizations are ubiquitous yet largely ignored in organizational research. We offer a conceptualization of team status inequality, or the extent to which status positions on a team are dispersed. Status inequality is hypothesized to be negatively related to individual performance and physical health for low-status individuals when uncooperative behavior is high. Trajectories of the outcomes across time are also explored. Analyses using multilevel modeling largely support our hypotheses in a sample of National Basketball Association players across six time points from 2000 to 2005.

  13. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  14. Pilot Performance With Predictive System Status Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.

    1997-01-01

    Research has shown a strong pilot preference for predictive information of aircraft system status in the flight deck. However, the benefits of predictive information have not been quantitatively demonstrated. The study described here attempted to identify and quantify these benefits if they existed. In this simulator experiment, three types of predictive information (none, whether a parameter was changing abnormally, and the time for a parameter to reach an alert range) and four initial times to an alert (1 minute, 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and ETA+ 45 minutes) were found to affect when subjects accomplished certain actions, such as accessing pertinent checklists, declaring emergencies, diverting, and calling the flight attendant and dispatch.

  15. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. PMID:24007209

  16. Kinematics, ages, and evolutionary status of UV Ceti stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poveda, A.; Allen, C.; Herrera, M. A.; Cordero, G.; Lavalley, C.

    1996-04-01

    The kinematic properties of 93 UV Ceti stars of the solar neighborhood are studied, based on a list of flares within 25 pc of the Sun (π>=0.04"). With updated values for their distances, proper motions and radial velocities, space velocity dispersions are calculated for these stars. It is found that the total velocity dispersion of the flare stars (σ=30+/-3km/s) is similar to that of the F5 V stars from the same catalogue, for which the conventionally estimated mean age is about 3x10^9^yr. Membership of the flare stars to some well-identified kinematic groups and superclusters is studied. A number of flares are identified as members of the Hyades, Sirius or Pleiades groups. The velocity dispersions found for the nearby flare stars and the membership of some of them to young kinematic groups indicate that they belong to the young disk population. The evolutionary status of the UV Ceti stars is discussed on the basis of these results. It is concluded that they do not differ significantly from the flash stars and that, indeed, they may be identified with the older remnants of the flash population of galactic clusters long ago disrupted. A small number (7) of UV Ceti stars have kinematics corresponding to thick disk or halo population. Their long-lived chromospheric activity is interpreted as due to coalescence of old short-period binaries. The question of the age of Proxima Centauri is examined in the context of our results, and found to be compatible with the ages of Alpha Centauri A and B.

  17. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  18. PPS-1350 Qualification Status and Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prioul, M.; Marchandise, F.; Dumazert, P.; Jolivet, K.; Estublier, D.; Lazurenko, A.; Vial, V.; Bouchoule, A.; Lasgorceix, P.; Albarade, L.; Mazouffre, S.; Pagnon, D.; Echegut, P.

    2004-10-01

    In parallel to in-flight operation as primary Electric Propulsion Subsystem (EPS) onboard the ESA SMART-1 spacecraft the PPS -1350-G qualification life test is on-going. On May 2004, 4200h firing and 3160 cycles have been achieved. Cold cycles tests have also been performed. This paper shows the evolution of the main performances along the life. This contribution also presents the results of characterisation tests in an extended voltage/flow domain (in the 250-1000V, 2-7.5 mg/s range), performed in the frame of the French research group on Plasma Propulsion involving CNRS, CNES, and Snecma Moteurs.

  19. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  20. Attraction to psychotherapy: influences of therapist status and therapist-patient age similarity.

    PubMed

    Lasky, R G; Salomone, P R

    1977-04-01

    Therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status were examined in relation to interpersonal attraction in the psychotherapy dyad. Psychiatric inpatients who comprised three age groupings were assigned randomly to one of four audiovisual treatments that depicted a dyadic psychotherapy situation (N = 60). For each treatment, therapist age and status were differentially presented on color slides with the same accompanying audiotape. Results indicated that age similarity was significantly (p less than .05) more relevant for the younger patients, whereas therapist status had greater significance for older patients. There were several significant interactions that concerned therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status effects on psychotherapeutic attraction. These results suggest that therapist-patient matching on age and/or therapist status should be considered carefully as a potential influence on therapeutic outcome. PMID:858795

  1. Risk factors for the severity and mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia: Importance of premorbid patients' performance status.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Kagiyama, Naho; Uozumi, Ryuji; Odashima, Kyuto; Kurashima, Kazuyoshi; Morita, Satoshi; Takayanagi, Noboru

    2016-10-01

    Comorbidity is known to be associated with the severity and mortality of pneumonia. The severity of each underlying disease varies, and performance status, which is known to be a prognostic factor of malignant diseases, reflects the overall patient condition as affected by his/her comorbidity and underlying diseases of various severity. We investigated whether premorbid patients' performance status is associated with the severity and mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia. This retrospective study assessed these factors in hospitalized patients suffering from pneumococcal pneumonia from 2002 to 2015. We included 424 patients aged 68.9 ± 14.1 years in the study, of which 68.9% were men. A multivariate analysis found that advanced age (≥65 years), diabetes mellitus, and poor performance status were independent factors associated with severity, whereas old pulmonary tuberculosis, poor performance status, pneumococcal bacteremia, and severe pneumonia were independent factors that were associated with non-survival. Poor performance status was associated with the severity and mortality of pneumococcal pneumonia. PMID:27593263

  2. On Gold Diggers: Status Gain or Loss in Age Heterogamous Marriages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berardo, Felix M.; And Others

    The term "gold digger" is often applied to women and to the younger spouse in marriages with unconventional age diffferences. While this follows the view that women derive their class position from their husbands, the status gain or loss in age heterogamous studies has not been empirically tested. To examine status gain or loss in these marriages,…

  3. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  4. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  5. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN (ADJARA REGION).

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, Ts; Jorjoliani, L; Adamia, N

    2016-06-01

    Goal of the research was complex evaluation of the health status of the primary-school aged children residing in various regions (urban, rural) of Adjaria. Cross-section, one-stage research was conducted in the City of Batumi and village Tsikhisdziri. In the process of survey health status of children of 4 public schools, from 6 to 9 years old was studied. Observations covered up to 800 school children in total. Screening included consultations of the multidisciplinary group of specialists, additional laboratory and instrumental studies intended for the purpose of accurate diagnostics. Performed studied showed that 28.3% of the studied population was actually healthy, 55% had functional disorders and 16.7% - chronic diseases. In both, urban and rural areas the share of the digestion system, blood and blood-generating organs, nervous system, ophthalmological pathologies and locomotion system diseases prevailed. PMID:27441536

  6. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  7. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  8. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  9. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  10. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  11. Maternal PUFA status and offspring allergic diseases up to the age of 18 months.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ya-Mei; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Calder, Philip C; Hardjojo, Antony; Soh, Shu-E; Lim, Ai Lin; Fisk, Helena L; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Anne; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Pan, An; Chong, Mary Foong Fong; van Bever, Hugo P S

    2015-03-28

    Studies have suggested that maternal PUFA status during pregnancy may influence early childhood allergic diseases, although findings are inconsistent. We examined the relationship between maternal PUFA status and risk of allergic diseases in early childhood in an Asian cohort. Maternal plasma samples from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort were assayed at 26-28 weeks of gestation for relative abundance of PUFA. Offspring (n 960) were followed up from 3 weeks to 18 months of age, and clinical outcomes of potential allergic diseases (rhinitis, eczema and wheezing) were assessed by repeated questionnaires. Skin prick testing (SPT) was also performed at the age of 18 months. Any allergic disease with positive SPT was defined as having any one of the clinical outcomes plus a positive SPT. The prevalence of a positive SPT, rhinitis, eczema, wheezing and any allergic disease with positive SPT was 14·1 % (103/728), 26·5 % (214/808), 17·6 % (147/833), 10·9 % (94/859) and 9·4 % (62/657), respectively. After adjustment for confounders, maternal total n-3, n-6 PUFA status and the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio were not significantly associated with offspring rhinitis, eczema, wheezing, a positive SPT and having any allergic disease with positive SPT in the offspring (P>0·01 for all). A weak trend of higher maternal n-3 PUFA being associated with higher risk of allergic diseases with positive SPT in offspring was observed. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the risk of early childhood allergic diseases is modified by variation in maternal n-3 and n-6 PUFA status during pregnancy in an Asian population.

  12. Library Literacy Program Project. Final Financial Status and Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anna L.

    The final financial status and performance report for a library literacy program project at the Yuma City-County Library (Arizona) begins with a brief statement of general information about the grant. This is followed by a narrative report that delineates the goal of the project--for the library to take a leadership role in developing,…

  13. Neuropsychological performance in cancer patients: the role of oral opioids, pain and performance status.

    PubMed

    Sjøgren, P; Olsen, A K; Thomsen, A B; Dalberg, J

    2000-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible influence of oral opioids, pain and performance status on some aspects of psychomotor function and cognition in cancer patients. One hundred and thirty cancer patients between 40 and 76 years of age were consecutively included in the study. In order to separate the impact of performance status, pain and oral opioids on neuropsychological functioning the patients were allocated in a cross-sectional design to five different groups. Group 1 (N=40), which was considered the control group, was characterized by being in Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) A ('Able to carry on normal activity and work. No special care is needed'), had no pain and received no oral opioid medication. Group 2 (N=19) was characterized by being in KPS B ('Unable to work. Able to live at home and care for most personal needs. A varying degree of assistance is needed'), had no pain and received no oral opioid medication. Group 3 (N=19) was characterized by being in KPS B, had pain, but received no oral opioid medication. Group 4a (N=31) was characterized by being in KPS B, had pain and received stable doses of oral opioids. Group 4b (N=21) was characterized by being in KPS B, had no pain and received stable doses of opioids. Assessments comprised pain intensity, sedation, opioid doses, time from ingestion of last opioid dose to testing and opioid side effects. The neuropsychological tests used were continuous reaction time (CRT), finger tapping test (FTT) and paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT). Regarding the neuropsychological tests group 1 was compared with each of the other groups and respecting the hierarchy of increasing numbers of stigmatizing factors group 1 was compared with group 2, group 2 with group 3 and so forth. Concerning CRT, group 1 performed statistically significantly faster than groups 2, 4a and 4b. Concerning FTT, group 1 performed statistically significantly faster than groups 3 and 4a. Concerning PASAT

  14. [The stomatologic status of people of elderly and senile age].

    PubMed

    Iordanishvili, A K; Soldatov, S V; Soldatova, L N; Zaborovskiĭ, K A; Ryzhak, G A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the data of epidemiological inspection of 1000 persons of average, elderly and senile age. Prevalence and intensity of a current of the basic stomatologic diseases (caries, pathology of a paradont and a mucous membrane of an oral cavity, a temporal-mandibular joint and chewing muscles) have been studied. Indicators of need of people of various age groups in tooth prosthetics are established. Level of rendering the stomatologic help is defined to be insufficient in groups of people of elderly and senile age. Recommendations aimed at improvement of stomatologic help to people of elderly and senile age are made. PMID:21510091

  15. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  16. Quality of Life, Motor Ability, and Weight Status among School-aged Children of Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Khodaverdi, F; Bahram, A; Jafarabadi, M Asghari

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between health Related quality of life (HRQOL), motor ability and weight status in children. Methods: Two hundred forty children ages 9–11 yr who were selected via multi stage cluster sampling design from primary schools in the Shahre Qods at Tehran, Iran in 2007. HRQOL was assessed by the pediatric quality of life inventory (PedsQL). Motor abilities were determined by a Basic Motor Ability Test (BMAT). Body mass index was calculated to determine weight status. Results: Psychosocial, physical, and total health related qualities of life (all P< 0.05) were significantly lowered for obese when compared to normal weight participants. In contrast, the mean scores for each HRQOL domain in motor ability category were not significant. No significant interaction was apparent when examining HRQOL scores, BMAT variables and weight status. Conclusion: Regardless of motor ability levels, reducing body weight among children is a potential avenue for promoting improved HRQOL. Over weight boys reported significantly worse school performance than over weight girls, suggesting the importance in considering such dimensions in programs aimed at further understanding obesity in children. PMID:23113200

  17. Status Report #1 on School-Age Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues and trends in school-age care. Topics discussed include (1) the population that needs care; (2) the providers of care; (3) challenges to providing care that relate to facility space, funding, affordability, staffing, and competition among providers; and (4) the future of school-age care. (HOD)

  18. Performing Literature in an Age of Textuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues of interpretation versus reading in oral interpretation, or the performance of literature. Offers an extended classroom example to make the case for alternative kinds of performance and their ability to keep practices of performing literature valuable in the current academic scene. (SR)

  19. Syllable Type Consistency is Related to Age, Social Status, and Reproductive Success in the Tropical Mockingbird.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Rossman, Rachel J; Caro, Lina M; Stenzler, Laura M; Lovette, Irby J; De Kort, Selvino R; Vehrencamp, Sandra L

    2009-03-01

    Many animals repeat standardized displays multiple times while attracting a mate or deterring a rival. In such contexts it is possible that the ability to perform each display or signal type in a consistent fashion is under direct selection. Studies on sexual selection on song learning in birds have focused on differences in repertoire size with less attention to the potential importance of being able to perform each song/syllable type with high consistency. We present evidence that tropical mockingbirds decrease the variation between renditions of each syllable type as they grow older (i.e., become more consistent) and that more consistent males in this species tend to have higher dominance status and reproductive success. These findings stress the importance of consistency in the performance of sexual displays and suggest that this parameter may be very relevant even in species that are selected for high vocal diversity (i.e., large repertoires). In addition to signalling dominance status and age, we hypothesize that syllable type consistency may also be an indicator of the integrity of brain function in birds analogous to the tests used for neuropsychological assessment in humans.

  20. Beneficial effects of folic acid on enhancement of memory and antioxidant status in aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Kanwar, Shalinder S; Sood, Pooja K; Nehru, Bimla

    2011-01-01

    As our population ages, diseases affecting memory and daily functioning will affect an increasing number of individuals, their families and the healthcare system. Therefore, there is a need to study and evaluate effects of certain conditions for anti-aging of the brain. Nutrient supplementation can modify the brain function. The chemistry and function of both the developing and the mature brain are influenced by diet (Fernstrom, Am J Clinical Nutrition 71:1669S-1673S, 2000). Clinical, biochemical, and pathological aspects have shown a correlation between mental symptoms, especially depression and cognitive decline, with high incidence of folate deficiency (Bottiglieri et al., J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69:562, 2000). In the present study, consequences of folic acid supplementation on brain dysfunction as a result of aging were studied in cerebral cortex, mid brain, and cerebellar regions of rat brain. This study was carried out on 6-, 11-, and 16-month-old rats, which received folic acid at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 8 weeks. Respective control groups of the same age groups were also taken. At the end of the treatment duration, behavioral studies were performed and later the animals were killed for various biochemical and histological investigations. Results indicated significant improvement in memory as assessed by active avoidance, passive avoidance, and plus maze tests in the folic acid supplemented aged animals. Significant improvement was also seen in the cellular protective mechanisms where by the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes increased in folic acid supplemented group and so was the glutathione content. Increased lipid peroxidation content, a marker of aging, was also found to be decreased during folic acid supplementation in all the three regions of brain in our study. Thus, it can be concluded that folic acid helps in improving the memory status by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining the integrity of

  1. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…

  2. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  3. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  4. Minority group status and healthful aging: social structure still matters.

    PubMed

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Angel, Ronald J

    2006-07-01

    During the last 4 decades, a rapid increase has occurred in the number of survey-based and epidemiological studies of the health profiles of adults in general and of the causes of disparities between majority and minority Americans in particular. According to these studies, healthful aging consists of the absence of disease, or at least of the most serious preventable diseases and their consequences, and findings consistently reveal serious African American and Hispanic disadvantages in terms of healthful aging. We (1) briefly review conceptual and operational definitions of race and Hispanic ethnicity, (2) summarize how ethnicity-based differentials in health are related to social structures, and (3) emphasize the importance of attention to the economic, political, and institutional factors that perpetuate poverty and undermine healthful aging among certain groups.

  5. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  6. Relaxation: its effect on the nutritional status and performance status of clients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D F; Dixon, J K; Sanderford, L D; Denicola, M A

    1984-02-01

    Relaxation was used to promote normal food consumption patterns among persons with cancer. As part of a larger study, 22 persons with cancer were randomly assigned to receive instruction and reinforcement in a relaxation technique to be used preprandially. The relaxation procedure included four components: (a) deep abdominal breathing, (b) tensing and relaxing of various body parts, (c) relaxation by autosuggestion, and (d) voluntary image control. Twelve clients complied with relaxation instructions in part, and 10 did not. Among compliers, 75% experienced desirable weight change over a six-week period. Performance status, measured by the Karnofsky scale, improved for 33% and worsened for 17% over eight weeks. Research has shown relaxation to be an effective measure in relation to pain, hypertension, and other conditions. These preliminary results now suggest that relaxation may also be effective in treating the eating problems of the person with cancer, leading to improvement in weight and performance status.

  7. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  8. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  9. Relations among Socioeconomic Status, Age, and Predictors of Phonological Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Kimberly D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Goldstein, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study simultaneously examined predictors of phonological awareness within the framework of 2 theories: the phonological distinctness hypothesis and the lexical restructuring model. Additionally, age as a moderator of the relations between predictor variables and phonological awareness was examined. Method: This cross-sectional…

  10. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  11. NEXT Ion Propulsion System Development Status and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Benson, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) project is developing next generation ion propulsion technologies to provide future NASA science missions with enhanced mission performance benefit at a low total development cost. The objective of the NEXT project is to advance next generation ion propulsion technology by producing engineering model and prototype model system components, validating these through qualification-level and integrated system testing, and ensuring preparedness for transitioning to flight system development. This paper describes the NEXT ion propulsion system development status, characteristics and performance. A review of mission analyses results conducted to date using the NEXT system is also provided.

  12. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  13. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  14. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  15. Thyroid function, depressed mood, and cognitive performance in older individuals: the Maastricht Aging Study.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, M P J; Menheere, P P C A; Bekers, O; Hogervorst, E; Jolles, J

    2004-08-01

    The hypothesis was tested that thyroid function, as indicated by serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, is associated with cognitive performance in a healthy aging population. In a random sample of 120 participants recruited from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS), aged between 49 and 71 years, we assessed TSH level, mood state (Symptom Check List, subscale depression), and three domains of cognitive function: verbal memory, general sensorimotor speed, and complex flexibility. After correction for age, sex, and educational level, a negative association between TSH and memory function was apparent: higher levels of TSH predicted lower levels of memory performance. Exclusion of individuals with TSH levels suspect for thyroid disorder (n=2) or who were on thyroid replacement (n=3) attenuated this association. Furthermore, additional control for mood status reduced the association below the significance level. No interaction between age and TSH on cognition was found, which indicated that the TSH-memory association was independent of age group level. We conclude that the association between TSH level and memory performance was small and dependent on mood status and the presence of (possible) thyroid disease in this relatively healthy population based sample. Prospective studies are needed to address the role of thyroid function in age-related cognitive decline.

  16. Health status among young people in Slovakia: comparisons on the basis of age, gender and education.

    PubMed

    Sleskova, Maria; Salonna, Ferdinand; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; van Dijk, Jitse P; Groothoff, Johan W

    2005-12-01

    This study examines the health status of young people in Slovakia. Six subjective health indicators (self-rated health, long-standing illness, vitality, mental health, long-term well-being over the last year and occurrence of health complaints during the previous month) were used to assess the health status of three age groups: first grade secondary school students (mean age 15.9 years), third grade students (mean age 17.8 years) and secondary school leavers (mean age 19.6 years). Females rated their health worse than males on all six indicators (most of these differences were statistically significant). For males, younger age was associated with better self-rated health, less long-standing illness and higher levels of long-term well-being during the previous year. For females, the age differences were more complicated: third grade females reported significantly worse health status in terms of vitality, long-standing illness and number of health complaints than the other two age groups. An analysis of health status by educational level (attendance at or completion of grammar, technical or apprentice school), revealed that grammar school third grade females reported worse health than all other respondents on all six indicators. The third grade of grammar school in Slovakia puts particular stresses on students and, since it has been suggested that females may react more negatively than males to stressful events, this may contribute to their more negative self reports.

  17. Fatigue, Sleep, Pain, Mood and Performance Status in Patients with Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Goodwin, Julia A.; Coon, Sharon K.; Richards, Kathy; Enderlin, Carol; Kennedy, Robert; Stewart, Carol B.; McNatt, Paula; Lockhart, Kim; Anaissie, Elias J.; Barlogie, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Background Cancer-related fatigue and insomnia are common distressing symptoms and may affect mood and performance status. Objective to describe fatigue, sleep, pain, mood and performance status and the relationships among these variables in 187 patients newly diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM) and conduct an analysis using the correlates of fatigue. Interventions/Methods Data were from baseline measures from the study, using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Fatigue to assess fatigue, the Actigraph to measure sleep, the Wong/Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale to assess pain, the POMS to assess mood, and the 6-minute walk test along with a back/leg/chest dynamometer to test muscle strength to assess performance status. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman rho correlations and multiple regression using fatigue as the dependent variable. All p values were two-sided, and those with < .05 considered significant. Results Patients newly diagnosed with MM presented with fatigue, pain, sleep and mood disturbances, and diminished functional performance. The regression model, which included all of these variables along with age, gender and stage of disease, was statistically significant with a large measure of effect. Mood was a significant individual contributor to the model. Conclusions Among patients with MM, fatigue, pain, sleep, mood and functional performance are interrelated. Implications for Practice Interventions are needed to decrease fatigue and pain and to improve sleep, mood and functional performance. PMID:21522061

  18. Assessment of nutritional status: effects of different methods to determine age on the classification of undernutrition.

    PubMed

    Gorstein, J

    1989-01-01

    The evaluation of nutritional status using anthropometry has been widely employed in field studies and nutritional surveillance programmes. Two of the primary indicators used, weight-for-age and height-for-age, require accurate age information for proper assessments to be made. Three data sets on nutritional status were evaluated using different methods to determine age: rounding to the most recently attained month, rounding to the nearest whole month, and ages computed from birth dates and visit dates. The impact of these different methods on the classification of nutritional status were found to be dramatic, especially in infants during the first year of life. In some cases, when ages are rounded to the most recently attained month, as few as 43% of the children classified as malnourished based on the indicator, height-for-age, and the cut-off point, less than -2 Standard Deviations from the reference median, are identified relative to when ages are computed from birth and visit dates. Beyond the discrepancies in estimating prevalence below specific cut-off points to designate undernutrition, the use of the different methods also affects entire distributions. The problem of using different methods to estimate age, and the impact they have on the classification of undernutrition are of critical public health importance, especially when this information is used to identify individuals and groups as well as for planning and policy development.

  19. Status of GaN HEMT performance and reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Daniel S.; Brown, J. D.; Vetury, R.; Lee, S.; Gibb, S. R.; Krishnamurthy, K.; Poulton, M. J.; Martin, J.; Shealy, J. B.

    2008-02-01

    This report will focus on the status of GaN HEMT based amplifier technology development at RFMD. This technology is based around GaN on semi-insulating SiC substrates for optimal thermal performance. RFMD's 0.5μm gate technology features high performance advanced field plate structures, including a unit power cell producing high gain (21dB), high power density (3-5W/mm at 28V) and high efficiency (65-70 percent) at cellular frequencies. We will report on transistor and module performance relevant to applications ranging from high power, high bandwidth amplifiers, to switches and ICs for radar, electronic warfare, cellular infrastructure and homeland security. Additionally, we will report on reliability results that demonstrate capability for dependable, high voltage operation.

  20. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  1. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  2. Age, time, and cohort effects on functional status and self-rated health in elderly men.

    PubMed Central

    Hoeymans, N; Feskens, E J; van den Bos, G A; Kromhout, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated age-related changes in functional status and self-rated health in elderly men, taking into account changes over time and differences between birth cohorts. METHODS: The Zutphen Elderly Study is a longitudinal study of men born in the Netherlands between 1900 and 1920. Functional status and self-rated health were measured in 513 men in 1990, in 381 men in 1993, and in 340 men in 1995. Age, time, and cohort effects were analyzed in a mixed longitudinal model. RESULTS: Longitudinal analyses showed that during 5 years of follow-up, the proportion of men without disabilities decreased from 53% to 39%, whereas the percentage who rated themselves as healthy decreased from 50% to 35%. Cross-sectional analyses confirmed changes in functional status, suggesting an age effect. Time-series analyses confirmed changes in self-rated health, suggesting a time effect. No birth-cohort effects were found. CONCLUSIONS: Functional status deteriorates with age, whereas self-rated health is not related to age in men aged 70 years and older. The observed 5-year decline in self-rated health seemed to be due to a secular trend. PMID:9357342

  3. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  4. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  5. Health status of cloned cattle at different ages.

    PubMed

    Chavatte-Palmer, P; Remy, D; Cordonnier, N; Richard, C; Issenman, H; Laigre, P; Heyman, Y; Mialot, J-P

    2004-01-01

    The procedure of somatic cloning is associated with important losses during pregnancy and in the perinatal period, reducing the overall efficacy to less than 5% in most cases. A mean of 30% of the cloned calves die before reaching 6 months of age with a wide range of pathologies, including, for the most common, respiratory failure, abnormal kidney development, liver steatosis. Heart and liver weight in relation to body weight are also increased. Surviving animals, although mostly clinically normal, differ from controls obtained by artificial insemination (AI) within the first 1-2 months, to become undistinguishable from them thereafter. Hemoglobin concentrations, for instance, are lower, and leptin concentrations are elevated. In response to the lack of prospective studies addressing the health of adult clones, a long-term, 3-4-year study is currently being conducted to assess the health of mature bovine clones at INRA. Preliminary results over 1 year of study do not show any statistical difference between groups for hematological parameters. PMID:15268782

  6. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk.

  7. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  8. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  9. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks. PMID:19308873

  10. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  11. Changes in Track and Field Performance with Chronological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Lena; Ha, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Examined official records of VIII World Veterans Championships to identify running, jumping, and throwing events whose performance was most affected by age. Found that 400-meter run and long jump were most affected by advancing age among both male and female master athletes whereas, in areas of throws, event most affected was javelin for men and…

  12. Aging Study Of EPDM O-Ring Material For The H1616 Shipping Package - Three Year Status

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2015-11-05

    This is a 3-year status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments were performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) O-rings used in the H1616 shipping package. The test data provide a technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the H1616 shipping package to three years and to predict the life of the EPDM O-rings at the bounding service conditions.

  13. Midlife iron status is inversely associated with subsequent cognitive performance, particularly in perimenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Galan, Pilar; Arnaud, Josiane; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2013-12-01

    The link between iron status and cognition has been established in infants and children, yet evidence in adults is scant and heterogeneous. We examined sex- and menopause-specific cross-time associations of iron status with cognition in the French Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants Study cohort (1539 men, 1431 pre-/perimenopausal women, 962 postmenopausal women). Serum ferritin and hemoglobin data were obtained in 1995. Cognition was assessed after a mean of 13 y through 6 validated instruments, including the RI-48 cued recall test, phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, forward and backward digit span tasks, and a trail-making test. The standardized individual test scores were summed to form a composite cognitive performance measure. Associations between ferritin and hemoglobin and subsequent cognitive performance were examined through multivariable linear regression. Among men, no significant associations were observed. In postmenopausal women, an inverse association was found between ferritin and phonemic fluency (adjusted β: -0.11; 95% CI: -0.21, -0.01). Significant inverse associations between ferritin and both the composite cognitive measure (adjusted β: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.00) and the forward digit span scores (adjusted β: -0.13; 95% CI: -0.22, -0.03) were observed only among premenopausal women aged ≥ 46 y at baseline. No significant findings with hemoglobin emerged. This study supports an inverse association between midlife iron status and subsequent cognitive performance that is sex- and menopause-dependent. Given the urgent need for prevention research on age-related disorders, future investigations of iron status and cognition are warranted. The study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00272428. PMID:24089418

  14. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  15. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  16. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  17. Status of MODIS spatial and spectral characterization and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Dan; Wang, Zhipeng; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-05-01

    Since launch, both Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments have continued to operate and make measurements of the earth's top of atmospheric (TOA) radiances and reflectance. MODIS collects data in 36 spectral bands covering wavelengths from 0.41 to 14.4 μm. These spectral bands and detectors are located on four focal plane assemblies (FPAs). MODIS on-board calibrators (OBC) include a spectro-radiometric calibration assembly (SRCA), which was designed to characterize and monitor sensor spatial and spectral performance, such as on-orbit changes in the band-to-band registration (BBR), modulation transfer function (MTF), spectral band center wavelengths (CW) and bandwidths (BW). In this paper, we provide a status update of MODIS spatial and spectral characterization and performance, following a brief description of SRCA functions and on-orbit calibration activities. Sensor spatial and spectral performance parameters derived from SRCA measurements are introduced and discussed. Results show that on-orbit spatial performance has been very stable for both Terra and Aqua MODIS instruments. The large BBR shifts in Aqua MODIS, an issue identified pre-launch, have remained the same over its entire mission. On-orbit changes in CW and BW are less than 0.5 nm and 1 nm, respectively, for most VIS/NIR spectral bands of both instruments.

  18. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; Kizza, Florence N.; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L.; Sekandi, Juliet N.; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5∗SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU

  20. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  1. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  2. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Stukes, Taylor M; Shary, Judith R; Wei, Wei; Ebeling, Myla D; Dezsi, Kaleena B; Shary, Frank S; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  3. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  4. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E.; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  5. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  6. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  7. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  8. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  9. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Quail, Stephanie L.; Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5–6, 8–9 and 27–28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2–3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27–28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27–28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27–28 months. Conclusion: this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed. PMID:26869921

  10. Aging Behavior and Performance Projections for a Polysulfide Elastomer

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Quintana, Adam

    2015-05-01

    The accelerated aging behavior and aging state of a 30 year old field retrieved polysulfide elastomer was examined. The material is used as an environmental thread sealant for a stainless steel bolt in a steel threaded insert in an aluminum assembly. It is a two component curable polysulfide elastomer that is commercially available in a similar formulation as was applied 30 years ago. The primary goal of this study was to establish if aging over 30 years under moderate aging conditions (mostly ambient temperature and humidity) resulted in significant property changes, or if accelerated aging could identify developing aging pathways which would prevent the extended use of this material. The aging behavior of this material was examined in three ways: A traditional accelerated thermo-oxidative aging study between 95 to 140°C which focused on physical and chemical properties changes, an evaluation of the underlying oxidation rates between RT and 125°C, and an assessment of the aging state of a small 30 year old sample. All three data sets were used to establish aging characteristics, their time evolution, and to extrapolate the observed behavior to predict performance limits at RT. The accelerated aging study revealed a relatively high average activation energy of ~130 kJ/mol which gives overconfident performance predictions. Oxidation rates showed a decreasing behavior with aging time and a lower E a of ~84 kJ/mol from time - temperature superposition , but also predicted sufficient additional performance at RT. Consistent with these projections for extended RT performance, only small changes were observed for the 30 year old material. Extrapolations using this partially aged material also predict ongoing use as a viable option. Unexpected RT degradation could only develop into a concern should the oxidation rate not trend lower over time as was observed at elevated temperature. Considering all data acquired in this limited aging study , there are no immediately

  11. Performance status of the AIRS instrument thirteen years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Denis A.; Pagano, Thomas S.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Broberg, Steven E.

    2015-09-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) is a hyperspectral infrared instrument on the EOS Aqua Spacecraft, launched on May 4, 2002. AIRS has 2378 infrared channels ranging from 3.7 μm to 15.4 μm and a 13.5 km footprint at nadir. AIRS is a "facility" instrument developed by NASA as an experimental demonstration of advanced technology for remote sensing and the benefits of high resolution infrared spectra to science investigations. AIRS, in conjunction with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), produces temperature profiles with 1K/km accuracy on a global scale, as well as water vapor profiles and trace gas amounts for CO2 , CO, SO2 , O3 and CH4. AIRS data are used for weather forecasting, climate process studies and validating climate models. The AIRS instrument has far exceeded its required design life of 5 years, with nearly 13 years of routine science operations that began on August 31, 2002. While the instrument has performed exceptionally well, with little sign of wear, the AIRS Project continues to monitor and maintain the health of AIRS, characterize its behavior and improve performance where possible. Radiometric stability has been monitored and trending shows better than 16 mK/year stability. Spectral calibration stability is better than 1 ppm/year. At this time we expect the AIRS to continue to perform well into the next decade. This paper contains updates to previous instrument status reports, with emphasis on the last three years.

  12. Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age.

    PubMed

    Orff, Henry J; Meliska, Charles J; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L

    2012-12-01

    This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan.

  13. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  14. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  15. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged < 65 yrs and 1,349 aged > or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  16. [Investigation of stomatologic status of middle-aged and elderly people in Western Georgia].

    PubMed

    Morchadze, L A; Margvelashvili, V V; Lobzhanidze, T A

    2009-12-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. People aged 65 and over now comprise a greater share of the world's population than ever before, and this proportion will increase during the 21st century. Increased lifetime in old age is combined with a concern about its quality. Oral health care of the elderly is one of the important aspects affecting the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to describe stomatologic status among middle-aged and elderly people in western Georgia. 355 subjects aged 55-90 years old were surveyed. According to oral health survey data, a high prevalence and intensity of dental caries and periodontal disease were apparent. Prosthetic status and treatment need were recorded in standard condition using oral health assessment forms. It is concluded that a high percentage of elderly were dentate but the average number of teeth was low and their status was poor, with very high need for therapeutic and prosthetic treatment.

  17. Supervisor-subordinate age dissimilarity and performance ratings: the buffering effects of supervisory relationship and practice.

    PubMed

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Scholarios, Dora; Van der Schoot, Esther; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Bozionelos, Nikos; Epitropaki, Olga; Knauth, Peter; Marzec, Izabela; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Van der Heijde, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Using 394 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors working in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in three northern European countries, this study examined the effect of workplace moderators on the link between relational demography and supervisor ratings of performance. Directional age differences between superior and subordinate (i.e., status incongruence caused when the supervisor is older or younger than his/her subordinate) and non-directional age differences were used as predictors of supervisor ratings of occupational expertise. The quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship and the existence of positive age-related supervisory practices were examined as moderators of this relationship. The results provide no support for a relationship between directional age differences and age-related stereotyping by supervisors in ratings of performance, neither for the effects of age-related supervisory practices. However, high quality supervisor-subordinate relationships did moderate the effects of age dissimilarity on supervisory ratings. The implications of these findings for performance appraisal methodologies and recommendations for further research are discussed. PMID:21174640

  18. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  19. Relationship of body mass status with running and jumping performances in young basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Asadi, Abbas; Santos, Eduardo J.A.M.; Calleja-González, Julio; Padulo, Johnny; Chtourou, Hamdi; Zemkova, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Purpose the main purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of body mass (BM) status with running and jumping performances in young male basketball players. Methods basketball players (n=72, age 12.9±2.8 yrs), who were grouped into U-12 (9–12 yrs), U-15 (12–15 yrs) and U-18 (15–18 yrs), performed a battery of anthropometric, running and jumping tests. We examined differences among age groups, and between normal weight and overweight players. Results the results indicated significant and large differences among age groups in BM, height, body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass, speed, endurance, standing long jump, countermovement jump (CMJ), mean power in 30 s jumping test (Pmean) (p<0.001, η2≥0.23) with older players presenting higher values. Within each age group, overweight players had higher BM, BMI, body fat percentage and FM (p<0.05) than their normal weight counterparts. Overweight players had worst performance in running (sprint and endurance) and jumping (CMJ and Pmean) in U-12, and worst endurance in U-18 (p<0.05, |d|≥0.82) than normal-weight players, whereas there was no difference in U-15. Conclusions it was concluded that the relationship of BMI with running and jumping performances varied according to age. Based on these findings, trainers and coaches should focus on special intervention exercise and nutrition programs targeting optimal body mass especially in young basketball players, where the excess of body mass seemed to have the most detrimental effect on running and jumping performances. PMID:26605193

  20. The JWST/NIRSpec instrument: update on status and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Stephan M.; Ferruit, Pierre; Rawle, Tim; Sirianni, Marco; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Böker, Torsten; Giardino, Giovanna; Lützgendorf, Nora; Marston, Anthony; Stuhlinger, Martin; te Plate, Maurice B. J.; Jensen, Peter; Rumler, Peter; Dorner, Bernhard; Karl, Hermann; Mosner, Peter; Wright, Raymond H.; Rapp, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is one of the four instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) which is scheduled for launch in 2018. NIRSpec is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) with Airbus Defense and Space Germany as prime contractor. The instrument offers seven dispersers covering the wavelength range from 0.6 to 5.3 micron with resolutions from R ˜ 100 to R ˜ 2700. NIRSpec will be capable of obtaining spectra for more than 100 objects simultaneously using an array of micro-shutters. It also features an integral field unit with 3" x 3" field of view and a range of slits for high contrast spectroscopy of individual objects and time series observations of e.g. transiting exoplanets. NIRSpec is in its final flight configuration and underwent cryogenic performance testing at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Winter 2015/16 as part of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM). We present the current status of the instrument and also provide an update on NIRSpec performances based on results from the ISIM level test campaign.

  1. EUV lithography performance for manufacturing: status and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirati, Alberto; Peeters, Rudy; Smith, Daniel; Lok, Sjoerd; van Noordenburg, Martijn; van Es, Roderik; Verhoeven, Eric; Meijer, Henk; Minnaert, Arthur; van der Horst, Jan-Willem; Meiling, Hans; Mallmann, Joerg; Wagner, Christian; Stoeldraijer, Judon; Fisser, Geert; Finders, Jo; Zoldesi, Carmen; Stamm, Uwe; Boom, Herman; Brandt, David; Brown, Daniel; Fomenkov, Igor; Purvis, Michael

    2016-03-01

    NXE:3300B scanners have been operational at customer sites since almost two years, and the NXE:3350B, the 4th generation EUV system, has started shipping at the end of 2015. All these exposure tools operate using MOPA pre-pulse source technology, which enabled significant productivity scaling, demonstrated at customers and at ASML. Having achieved the required throughput to support device development, the main priority of the ASML EUV program has shifted towards improving stability and availability. Continuous progresses in defectivity reduction and in the realization of a reticle pellicle are taking place at increased speed. Today's overlay and imaging results are in line with the requirements of 7nm logic devices; Matched Machine overlay to ArF immersion below 2.5 nm and full wafer CDU performance of less than 1.0nm are regularly achieved. The realization of an intensity loss-less illuminator and improvements in resist formulation are significant progress towards enabling the use of EUV technology for 5nm logic devices at full productivity. This paper will present an overview of the status of the ASML EUV program and product roadmap by reviewing the current performance and on-going developments in productivity, imaging, overlay and mask defectivity reduction.

  2. The Influence of Age and Gender on the Pro/Antioxidant Status in Young Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of age and gender on the pro/antioxidant balance in young healthy subject aged 20-40 years. The individuals were divided into women: aged 20-25 years (group A), aged 32-39 years (group B), and men aged 20-25 years (group C). In blood, the metals, markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants were estimated. The Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio in group B was higher than in group A. There were no differences in metals concentrations between groups A and C. The similar levels of malondialdehyde concentrations and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were observed in all groups. The decrease in glutathione reduced and glutathione peroxidase was in group B than in group A. The higher glutathione reduced, lower glutathione oxidized concentrations and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were observed in group C when compared to group A. The superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were higher in groups B and C than in group A.The age and gender have an influence on the pro/antioxidant status in healthy people aged 20-40 years. The main antioxidants responsible for the removal of free radicals in men aged 20-25 years and women aged 32-39 years are superoxide dismutase and catalase, while the glutathione peroxidase activity declines. The detoxification being mediated through glutathione is weakened in women aged 32-39 years. PMID:27650614

  3. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. FIRST STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2010-01-08

    activities. This is an interim status report for experiments carried out per Task Technical Plan WSRC-TR-2008-00024 [2], which is part of the comprehensive 9975 package surveillance program [3]. The primary goal of this task is to validate the preliminary assessment that Knight-Celotex softwood fiberboard is an acceptable substitute for cane fiberboard in the 9975 shipping package overpack, and that the long-term performance of these two materials in a storage environment is comparable.

  5. Running on age in a 15-km road run: minor influence of age on performance.

    PubMed

    Celie, Floortje; Faes, Miriam; Hopman, Maria; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2010-04-01

    The importance of exercise in the elderly is widely recognized, but data on performances and drop-out in short running contests are lacking. This hinders stimulation and coaching of elderly persons in active aging. The aim of the study was to determine age-related changes in running performance in the most popular Dutch road run, and how this is influenced by gender, training, and increased participation rate over the last decade. This is a retrospective analysis of 194,560 participants of a 15-km run from 1995 to 2007. Multiple regression analysis of running time by age, gender, and training was performed. Trends in participation were examined by chi-square tests and ANOVA. Trends in running time and speed were examined by t tests. With aging, running time increased with 0.20% per year (P < 0.001). Running time was on average 13% (P < 0.001) shorter in men than in women and was 15.7% (P < 0.001) shorter in participants who trained on a regular basis. Decline in performance with age was 5.9% larger for men than women (P < 0.01) and 4.5% larger for trained than untrained participants (P < 0.01). Over the last decade, participation numbers increased most for elderly (≥60 years) and female participants, mean running performance declined with 9.9% (P < 0.001). Drop-out number was low at all ages (0.13-0.29%). It appears that aging has only minor negative influences on running performance, which can even be attenuated by training. Our data suggest that exercise by means of running is a safe and rewarding option for improvement of healthy and active aging. PMID:21124752

  6. Lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcome in pregnant women of advanced maternal age.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyun Sook

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how advanced maternal age influences lifestyle, nutrient intake, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women. The subjects of this study were 112 pregnant women who were receiving prenatal care at gynecologists located in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups according to their ages: those over age 35 were the advanced age group of pregnant women (AP) and those under age 35 were the young age group of pregnant women (YP). General factors, nutrient intakes, iron status, and pregnancy outcomes of the two groups were then compared. It was found that 72.5% of the YP group and 51.2% of the AP group had pre-pregnancy alcohol drinking experience; indicating that the YP group had more pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption than the AP group (P < 0.05). The only difference found in nutrient intake between the two groups was their niacin intakes which were 16.83 ± 8.20 mg/day and 13.76 ± 5.28 mg/day, respectively. When gestational age was shorter than 38.7 weeks, the average infant birth weight was 2.95 ± 0.08 kg, and when gestational age was longer than 40 weeks, it averaged at about 3.42 ± 0.08 kg. In other words, as gestational age increased, infant birth weight increased (P < 0.0001), and when maternal weight increased more than 15 kg, the infant birth weight increased significantly (P < 0.05). In conclusion, in order to secure healthy human resources, with respect to advanced aged women, it is necessary to intervene by promoting daily habits that consist of strategic increases in folate and calcium intake along with appropriate amounts of exercise.

  7. Performance efficiency and its changes among aging municipal employees.

    PubMed

    Suvanto, S; Huuhtanen, P; Nygård, C H; Ilmarinen, J

    1991-01-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance efficiency of aging municipal workers in different work categories and to determine the changes that occurred in visual search, short-term memory, and fine motor performance over a four-year follow-up period beginning at about 51 years of age. The mental capacity of the workers in mental work was better than that of the workers in physical and mixed physical and mental work, and the results between the physical and mixed work groups did not differ significantly. In four years, the workers' complex short-term memory weakened 6-7% in all three work content groups. Fine motor speed decreased 2-7% in the physical and mental work groups. It was concluded that the mental capacity of older workers depends on the mental demands of their work tasks. The weakening of performance is 2-7% between the ages of 51 to 55 years.

  8. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  9. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  10. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  11. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework.

  12. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework. PMID:26699731

  13. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age. PMID:25929653

  14. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  15. Food odor thresholds in relation to age, nutritional, and health status.

    PubMed

    Griep, M I; Mets, T F; Vercruysse, A; Cromphout, I; Ponjaert, I; Toft, J; Massart, D L

    1995-11-01

    Odor perception plays an important role in nutrition. In the present study, the effect of aging and health status on detection of food odors is shown and interrelations with nutritional status are explored. We have tested 26 healthy young (20-25 yrs) and 23 elderly (61-74 yrs) subjects who were screened according to the SENIEUR protocol. Anthropometric measures and blood samples provided 20 parameters of nutritional status. A validated measurement procedure under forced choice conditions was used to quantify the detection thresholds of two food odors of which one had a trigeminal effect and the other mainly had an olfactory effect. There is a significant declining sensitivity for both odors. Our observations indicate that a relation between nutrition and odor perception in the elderly population exists. Whether olfactory deficits cause or are caused by increased nutritional risk deserves further study.

  16. The AMS-02 Silicon Tracker:. Status and Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, D.

    2012-08-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) is a space based high energy physics experiment operating on the International Space Station (ISS) since May. AMS-02 will measure the different cosmic radiation components allowing the search of primordial antimatter and dark matter annihilation products. Exploiting a large acceptance and a data taking of at least 10 years, AMS-02 will detect more than 1010 charged particles in the GV-TV rigidity range. The tracking device is composed by 2 planes at the ends of the apparatus and 7 layers of silicon sensors in the permanent magnet (0.15T) bore. The measurement of the curvature radius of the charged particles bent trajectories allows the estimation of particle rigidity and charge sign. The tracker is composed by 2264 double-sided silicon sensors (72×41 mm2, 300 μm thick) assembled in 192 read-out units, for a total of ≈ 200.000 read-out channels. The status of the AMS-02 tracker, after these first months of data taking in space, its performances and potentialities will be presented.

  17. Status and Performance of HSTNVide Field Camera 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy; MacKenty, J. W.; OConnell, R. W.

    2004-01-01

    The HST Wide Field Camera 3 is a panchromatic UV-visible-near infrared camera whose development is currently nearing completion, for a planned installation into the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 4. WFC3 provides two imaging channels. The UVIS channel features a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD focal plane with sensitivity from 200 to 1000 nm and a 160 x 160 arcsec field of view. The UVIS channel provides unprecedented sensitivity and field of view in the near ultraviolet for HST. The IR channel features a 1014 x 1014 pixel HgCdTe focal plane covering 850 to 1700 nm with a 135 x 135 arcsec field of view, providing an order of magnitude increase in J+H band surveying efficiency for HST. WFC3 offers a rich complement of filters and grisms in each channel. The construction of WFC3 is nearly complete, and the instrument is well into its integration and test program. We present the current status of the instrument and its projected scientific performance.

  18. Association between educational status and dual-task performance in young adults.

    PubMed

    Voos, Mariana Callil; Pimentel Piemonte, Maria Elisa; Castelli, Lilian Zanchetta; Andrade Machado, Mariane Silva; Dos Santos Teixeira, Patrícia Pereira; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida; Ribeiro Do Valle, Luiz Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The influence of educational status on perceptual-motor performance has not been investigated. The single- and dual-task performances of 15 Low educated adults (9 men, 6 women; M age=24.1 yr.; 6-9 yr. of education) and 15 Higher educated adults (8 men, 7 women; M age=24.7 yr.; 10-13 yr. of education) were compared. The perceptual task consisted of verbally classifying two figures (equal or different). The motor task consisted of alternating steps from the floor to a stool. Tasks were assessed individually and simultaneously. Two analyses of variance (2 groups×4 blocks) compared the errors and steps. The Low education group committed more errors and had less improvement on the perceptual task than the High education group. During and after the perceptual-motor task performance, errors increased only in the Low education group. Education correlated to perceptual and motor performance. The Low education group showed more errors and less step alternations on the perceptual-motor task compared to the High education group. This difference on the number of errors was also observed after the dual-task, when the perceptual task was performed alone.

  19. Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Sara; Müller, Notger G; Melloni, Lucia

    2009-09-01

    Here we explore whether mental training in the form of meditation can help to overcome age-related attentional decline. We compared performance on the attentional blink task between three populations: A group of long-term meditation practitioners within an older population, a control group of age-matched participants and a control group of young participants. Members of both control groups had never practiced meditation. Our results show that long-term meditation practice leads to a reduction of the attentional blink. Meditation practitioners taken from an older population showed a reduction in blink as compared to a control group taken from a younger population, whereas, the control group age-matched to the meditators' group revealed a blink that was comparatively larger and broader. Our results support the hypothesis that meditation practice can: (i) alter the efficiency with which attentional resources are distributed and (ii) help to overcome age-related attentional deficits in the temporal domain.

  20. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  1. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  2. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  3. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Nystrand, M; Dowling, D K

    2014-11-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring.

  4. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained.

  5. Fail or flourish? Cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance.

    PubMed

    White, Judith B

    2008-09-01

    When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo.

  6. Hydration status moderates the effects of drinking water on children's cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Perry, Clinton S; Rapinett, Gertrude; Glaser, Nicole S; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-12-01

    Changes in hydration status throughout the day may affect cognitive performance with implications for learning success in the classroom. Our study tested the hypothesis that the benefit of drinking water on working memory and attention depends upon children's hydration status and renal response to water intake. Fifty-two children aged 9-12 years old were tested under two experimental conditions. The treatment session (Water session) consisted of a standard breakfast with 200 ml water, a baseline test, consumption of 750 ml of water over a period of two hours and subsequently retested. No water was provided after breakfast during the control session. Changes in hydration were assessed via urine samples. Cognitive testing consisted of digit span, pair cancellation, and delayed match to sample tasks. Children who exhibited smaller decreases in urine osmolality following water intake performed significantly better on the water day compared to the control day on a digit-span task and pair-cancellation task. Children who exhibited larger decreases in urine osmolality following water intake performed better on the control day compared to the water day on the digit-span task and pair-cancellation task. These results suggest that focusing on adequate hydration over time may be key for cognitive enhancement. PMID:26271221

  7. Hydration status moderates the effects of drinking water on children's cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Perry, Clinton S; Rapinett, Gertrude; Glaser, Nicole S; Ghetti, Simona

    2015-12-01

    Changes in hydration status throughout the day may affect cognitive performance with implications for learning success in the classroom. Our study tested the hypothesis that the benefit of drinking water on working memory and attention depends upon children's hydration status and renal response to water intake. Fifty-two children aged 9-12 years old were tested under two experimental conditions. The treatment session (Water session) consisted of a standard breakfast with 200 ml water, a baseline test, consumption of 750 ml of water over a period of two hours and subsequently retested. No water was provided after breakfast during the control session. Changes in hydration were assessed via urine samples. Cognitive testing consisted of digit span, pair cancellation, and delayed match to sample tasks. Children who exhibited smaller decreases in urine osmolality following water intake performed significantly better on the water day compared to the control day on a digit-span task and pair-cancellation task. Children who exhibited larger decreases in urine osmolality following water intake performed better on the control day compared to the water day on the digit-span task and pair-cancellation task. These results suggest that focusing on adequate hydration over time may be key for cognitive enhancement.

  8. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Luciane R; Merz, Emily C; He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  9. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  10. Influence of diet on iron, copper, and zinc status in children under 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Redworth, Edward Wallis; Morgan, Jane B

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether iron and micronutrient status is improved with an increased amount of meat in the diet. To this end, a longitudinal prospective study with infants recruited at 4 mo and followed until 24 mo of age was undertaken. One hundred ninety-eight infants formed the original study cohort; 48 withdrew before the end of the study. Subjects were classified as nonmeat eaters or as mixed (red and white)-meat eaters subgrouped into tertiles depending on the meat content reported in diet diaries. Seven-day weighed food records were recorded at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 mo. Blood samples taken at 4, 12, and 24 mo were analyzed for parameters of iron and micronutrient status. Iron intake increased during the first year, thereafter remaining constant. The percentages of subjects with hemoglobin values below 110 g/L were 34.1, 23.1, and 13.4 at 4, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. For parameters of iron status, the number of results below the reference range was determined for each diet group and a significant negative relationship between serum iron and meat intake at 12 mo of age was seen (p<0.023). There was a trend for hemoglobin concentrations to be inversely related to the meat intake, at the same age (p<0.068). No effects on zinc or copper status were seen. We conclude that a weak association between dietary meat and iron/Hb suggests a positive role for red meat. There was no disadvantage to the nonmeat-eating infants with respect to zinc or copper.

  11. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  12. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  13. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P < 0.05), had longer legs (P < 0.01) and a larger fat-free mass (P < 0.05). Maturity offset was smaller in the older boys (P < 0.05); however, age at peak height velocity was similar. Older boys performed better in velocity and agility (P < 0.05) and particularly in the overall score of performance (P < 0.01). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that chronological age was the most important variable in the agility test and the overall score, after the skinfolds (negative effect). We report differences in anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  14. [Age-dependent characteristics of nutritional status and resting metabolism in overweight and obese children].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, E V; Strokova, T V; Surkov, A G; Bogdanov, A R; Borodina, G V; Kutyreva, E N; Sentsova, T B

    2014-01-01

    The age-dependent nutritional status and resting metabolism in overweight and obese children have been examined. The study included 625 children of 2.5-17 years old. Patients were divided into three groups: 1st--2.5-7 years old (n = 49), 2nd--8-12 years old (n = 204), 3rd--13-17 years old (n = 372). The diagnosis of overweight and obesity was based on CDC criteria: children with 85-94 BMI percentile according to age and gender had overweight, BMI 295 percentile--obesity. Anthropometry, bioelectric impedance analysis and indirect respiratory calorimetry were performed; lipid and carbohydrate parameters were measured. The fat mass percentages in children of studed groups were 41.3 ± 1.9, 39.8 ± 0.7 and 42.3 ± 0.4%, the mean percent of fat mass excess--163.6 ± 26.2, 113.7 ± 8.3 and 134.9 ± 8.2% respectively, p > 0.05. Prevalence of dyslipidemia in children increased with age: lipid metabolism disorders were revealed in 28.6, 49.0 u 53.2% children of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd groups respectively. The mean HDL level in the 1st and 2nd groups was significantly higher, and triglycerides--lower than in the 3rd group. The correlation of HDL level and breastfeeding duration (r1 = 0.94, p < 0.05) was found in the 1st group of children. Increased insulin level was revealed in 38.8% children in the 1st group (mean 12.8 ± 1.4 μIU/ml), 62.2% children in the 2nd group (21.1 ± 0.7 μIU/ml) and 64.8% children in the 3rd group (25.1 ± 0.9 μIU/ml); increased HOMA--in 36.7% (4.32 ± 0.6), 62.2% (4.65 ± 0.17) and 59.1% (5.56 ± 0.21) respectively. The negative correlation of insulin and HOMA level with breastfeeding duration (r1 = -0.38 and -0.37, respectively, p < 0.05) was found in the 1st group of children. Prevalence of hyperuricemia increased from 13% in the 1st group to 21.1% in the 2nd and 44.1% in the 3rd group. Prevalence and degree of resting metabolism changes increased with age and had tendency to the shift of proportion of energy-intensive substrates (fats and

  15. The Radiosurgical Treatment of Arteriovenous Malformations: Obliteration, Morbidities, and Performance Status

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Daniel Q.; Carson, Kathryn A.; Raza, Shaan M.; Batra, Sachin; Kleinberg, Lawrence R.; Lim, Michael; Huang, Judy; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2011-06-01

    Objective: This study examined the single-center treatment outcomes of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the brain using stereotactic radiosurgery, with regard to obliteration, predictive factors, morbidities, and patient performance status. Patients and Methods: 127 patients were treated between 1990 and 2008 by use of linear accelerator or Gamma Knife. Their median age was 37 years, the median AVM volume was 7.3 cc (range, 0.014-113.13 cc), and the median follow-up duration was 42 months (range, 6-209 months). Forty-two percent of patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, 31% received embolization, and 8% underwent prior resection. Thirty-one percent of patients received more than one round of radiosurgery. Results: 64% of patients had complete obliteration confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or angiography. Positive predictors of obliteration included pretreatment hemorrhage (p = 0.042), smaller AVM volume (odds ratio = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.52), and larger marginal dose (odds ratio = 0.292; 95% CI, 0.100-0.820), whereas embolization (p < 0.001) was a negative predictor . The annual risk of hemorrhage after radiosurgery was 2.2%, and the risk of death as a result of hemorrhage was 0.6-1.3%. Eleven percent of patients reported new or worsened neurologic symptoms. Radiosurgery was effective in treating AVM-related headaches (p < 0.001) but did not improve the performance status of patients. Conclusions: Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective tool in the treatment of AVMs and amelioration of AVM-related headaches, but it did not affect the patients' performance status. Factors affecting obliteration include prior hemorrhage, marginal dose, prior embolization, and AVM volume. Risk of hemorrhage persists in the latency period after radiosurgery, and it remains finite even after complete obliteration.

  16. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  17. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

  18. Influence of age, previous health status, and severity of acute illness on outcome from intensive care.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, J R; Brun-Buisson, C; Trunet, P; Latournerie, J; Chantereau, S; Rapin, M

    1982-09-01

    Age, previous health status (HS), and severity of acute illness were assessed prospectively on 228 unselected patients admitted over 1 yr to the multidisciplinary ICU, to determine their influence on outcome. One hundred and fifty patients (66%) were discharged from the ICU, but the survival rate fell to 50% at 6 months, and was similar after 1 yr (49%). Over a 6-month period, there was improved HS in survivors which gradually leveled off. Compared to prior HS, the final HS was worsened in 37% of survivors. Three factors were important predictors of late survival: age under 50, good previous HS, and less than two visceral failures. We conclude that evaluation of ICU outcome should provide information on 6-month survival and HS and include important variables as age, previous HS, and severity of acute illness. PMID:7105766

  19. Infants of adolescent mothers. Maternal characteristics and developmental status at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W; Burgess, D; Morgan, L; Malpiede, D

    1984-03-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered at 1 year of age to 54 healthy infants of adolescent mothers. Information was obtained regarding maternal cognitive and emotional maturity, child-rearing attitudes, attitudes toward the infant, and psychosocial status at one year. The average Bayley Mental Scale score was 113, and the average Bayley Motor Scale score was 105. There was a negative correlation between the Bayley Mental Scale score and maternal age and education. Bayley Motor Scale scores were predictable from a combination of maternal authoritarian attitudes, abuse potential, and infant's birth weight. Although high authoritarian attitudes in mothers have been associated with poor cognitive development at later ages, they may represent an important strength in adolescent mothers during the first year. PMID:6702768

  20. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  1. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  2. Prognostic role of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in patients with breast cancer: relation to age and lymph node status.

    PubMed Central

    Collett, K; Hartveit, F; Skjaerven, R; Maehle, B O

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To consider the prognostic role of oestrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status in relation to the age at surgery, length of follow up and lymph node status. METHODS: The study population comprised 977 patients with histologically confirmed breast carcinoma, with a median follow up of nine years. The actuarial life table method was used to test for survival differences. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to test for interaction effects between each hormone receptor and age, lymph node status and length of follow up. As the analysis involved multiple subgroups, significance was set at the 1% level (p < 0.01). RESULTS: When the patients were subdivided into groups according to lymph node status and age, progesterone and oestrogen receptor status predicted prognosis in middle aged (46-60 years) patients with lymph node positive breast cancer. Their prognostic effect in this subgroup, however, was restricted to the first five years after surgery. Progesterone receptor status was the strongest predictor of outcome. CONCLUSION: The prognostic power of oestrogen and progesterone receptor status varies depending on age, lymph node status and length of follow up after surgery. PMID:8944613

  3. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  4. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non

  5. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  6. The increase in marital status differences in mortality up to the oldest age in seven European countries, 1990-99.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Grundy, Emily; Kalogirou, Stamatis

    2007-11-01

    We investigate mortality differentials by marital status among older age groups using a database of mortality rates by marital status at ages 40 and over for seven European countries with 1 billion person-years of exposure. The mortality advantage of married people, both men and women, continues to increase up to at least the age group 85-89, the oldest group we are able to consider. We find the largest absolute differences in mortality levels between marital status groups are at high ages, and that absolute differentials are: (i) greater for men than for women; (ii) similar in magnitude across countries; (iii) increase steadily with age; and (iv) are greatest at older age. We also find that the advantage enjoyed by married people increased over the 1990s in almost all cases. We note that results for groups such as older divorced women need to be interpreted with caution. PMID:17979003

  7. STATUS REPORT FOR AGING STUDIES OF EPDM O-RING MATERIAL FOR THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2012-08-31

    This is an interim status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments are being performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) Orings used in the H1616 shipping package. The data will support the technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the EPDM O-rings in the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. Current expectations are that the O-rings will maintain a seal at bounding normal temperatures in service (152 F) for at least 12 months. The baseline aging data review suggests that the EPDM O-rings are likely to retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at bounding service temperatures to provide a service life of at least 2 years. At lower, more realistic temperatures, longer service life is likely. Parallel compression stress relaxation and vessel leak test efforts are in progress to further validate this assessment and quantify a more realistic service life prediction. The H1616 shipping package O-rings were evaluated for baseline property data as part of this test program. This was done to provide a basis for comparison of changes in material properties and performance parameters as a function of aging. This initial characterization was limited to physical and mechanical properties, namely hardness, thickness and tensile strength. These properties appear to be consistent with O-ring specifications. Three H1616-1 Containment Vessels were placed in test conditions and are aging at temperatures ranging from 160 to 300 F. The vessels were Helium leak-tested initially and have been tested at periodic intervals after cooling to room temperature to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97 (< 1E-07 std cc air/sec at room temperature). To date, no leak test failures have occurred. The cumulative time at

  8. Keeping Track: National Disability Status and Program Performance Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report is the result of a year-long effort by the National Council on Disability (NCD) to identify valid federal data and to describe the status of the U.S. population of Americans with disabilities. During the past 30 years, advocates, policymakers, and a variety of public and private organizations have undertaken significant efforts to…

  9. Aging-Related Geniohyoid Muscle Atrophy Is Related to Aspiration Status in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related muscle weakness due to atrophy and fatty infiltration in orofacial muscles may be related to swallowing deficits in older adults. An important component of safe swallowing is the geniohyoid (GH) muscle, which helps elevate and stabilize the hyoid bone, thus protecting the airway. This study aimed to explore whether aging and aspiration in older adults were related to GH muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration. Method. Eighty computed tomography scans of the head and neck from 40 healthy older (average age 78 years) and 40 younger adults (average age 32 years) were analyzed. Twenty aspirators and 20 nonaspirators from the 40 older adults had been identified previously. Two-dimensional views in the sagittal and coronal planes were used to measure the GH cross-sectional area and fatty infiltration. Results. GH cross-sectional area was larger in men than in women (p < .05). Decreased cross-sectional area was associated with aging (p < .05), and cross-sectional area was significantly smaller in aspirators compared with nonaspirators, but only among the older men (p < .01). Increasing fatty infiltration was associated with aging in the middle (p < .05) and posterior (p < .01) portions of the GH muscle. There was no significant difference in fatty infiltration of the GH muscle among aspirators and nonaspirators. Conclusion. GH muscle atrophy was associated with aging and aspiration. Fatty infiltration in the GH muscle was increased with aging but not related to aspiration status. These findings suggest that GH muscle atrophy may be a component of decreased swallowing safety and aspiration in older adults and warrants further investigation. PMID:23112114

  10. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  11. The Effect of Age, Gender, Refractive Status and Axial Length on the Measurements of Hertel Exophthalmometry

    PubMed Central

    Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples. PMID:26089994

  12. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  13. Educational intervention on water intake improves hydration status and enhances exercise performance in athletic youth.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, S A; Arnaoutis, G; Makrillos, M; Garagouni, C; Nikolaou, E; Chira, O; Ellinikaki, E; Sidossis, L S

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention program emphasizing in increased fluid intake can improve exercise performance in children exercising in the heat. Ninety-two young athletes participated in the study (age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years, weight: 54.9 ± 1.5 kg). Thirty-one (boys: 13, girls: 18) children served as the control group (CON) and 61 (boys: 30, girls: 31) as the intervention (INT). Volunteers had free access to fluids. Hydration was assessed on the basis of first morning urine. A series of field tests were used to evaluate exercise performance. All tests occurred outdoors in the morning (mean ambient temperature=28°C). After baseline testing, INT attended a lecture on hydration, and urine color charts were mounted in all bathrooms. Additionally, water accessibility was facilitated in training, dining and resting areas. Hydration status was improved significantly in the INT [USG: pre=1.031 ± 0.09, post=1.023 ± 0.012, P<0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water): pre=941 ± 30, post=782 ± 34, P<0.05], while no statistically significant changes were found in the CON [USG: pre=1.033 ± 0.011, post=1.032 ± 0.013, P>0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water) 970 ± 38 vs 961 ± 38, P>0.05]. Performance in an endurance run was improved significantly only in INT (time for 600 m: pre=189 ± 5 s, post=167 ± 4 s, P<0.05). Improving hydration status by ad libitum consumption of water can enhance performance in young children exercising in the heat.

  14. Educational intervention on water intake improves hydration status and enhances exercise performance in athletic youth.

    PubMed

    Kavouras, S A; Arnaoutis, G; Makrillos, M; Garagouni, C; Nikolaou, E; Chira, O; Ellinikaki, E; Sidossis, L S

    2012-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate whether an intervention program emphasizing in increased fluid intake can improve exercise performance in children exercising in the heat. Ninety-two young athletes participated in the study (age: 13.8 ± 0.4 years, weight: 54.9 ± 1.5 kg). Thirty-one (boys: 13, girls: 18) children served as the control group (CON) and 61 (boys: 30, girls: 31) as the intervention (INT). Volunteers had free access to fluids. Hydration was assessed on the basis of first morning urine. A series of field tests were used to evaluate exercise performance. All tests occurred outdoors in the morning (mean ambient temperature=28°C). After baseline testing, INT attended a lecture on hydration, and urine color charts were mounted in all bathrooms. Additionally, water accessibility was facilitated in training, dining and resting areas. Hydration status was improved significantly in the INT [USG: pre=1.031 ± 0.09, post=1.023 ± 0.012, P<0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water): pre=941 ± 30, post=782 ± 34, P<0.05], while no statistically significant changes were found in the CON [USG: pre=1.033 ± 0.011, post=1.032 ± 0.013, P>0.05; urine osmolality (mOsm/kg water) 970 ± 38 vs 961 ± 38, P>0.05]. Performance in an endurance run was improved significantly only in INT (time for 600 m: pre=189 ± 5 s, post=167 ± 4 s, P<0.05). Improving hydration status by ad libitum consumption of water can enhance performance in young children exercising in the heat. PMID:21410548

  15. Health status and well-being of older adults living in the community and in residential care settings: are differences influenced by age?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Blazquez, Carmen; Forjaz, Maria João; Prieto-Flores, Maria-Eugenia; Rojo-Perez, Fermina; Fernandez-Mayoralas, Gloria; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The objective is to identify the differences and the main factors influencing health status and well-being variables between institutionalized and non-institutionalized older adults, as well as the interaction effect of institutionalization and age. Data on a total of 468 older adults from a national survey on non-institutionalized and from a study on institutionalized older people were analyzed. Socio-demographic variables and measures on well-being (Personal Well-being Index, PWI), health status (EQ-5D), functional ability (Barthel Index), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression subscale), loneliness and comorbidity were used. Analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests to examine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses to identify factors associated to health and well-being were performed. Significant differences in health status variables, but not in well-being were detected between groups. Controlling for age, differences in health status (EQ-VAS) were found to be not significant in both groups. In the non-institutionalized group, people aged 78 years or more reported a significantly lower well-being (PWI) than younger counterparts. Step-wise multiple regression analysis showed that depression, functional dependence, loneliness and sex were associated with health status; while depression, health status, loneliness and the interaction of age-institutionalization were related to well-being. The results suggest that age influences community-dwelling older adults' well-being to a greater extent than it does to institutionalized older people. This finding has implications for resource allocation and interventions addressed to improve health and well-being in older adults.

  16. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  17. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

  18. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  19. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  20. The BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter: Status and Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Johannes M.; /SLAC

    2006-01-20

    The electromagnetic calorimeter at the BABAR detector, part of the asymmetric B Factory at SLAC, measures photons in the energy range from 20 MeV to 8 GeV with high resolution. The current status of the calorimeter, now in its seventh year of operation, is being presented, as well as details on improvements made to the analysis code during the last years.

  1. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  2. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  3. AGING PERFORMANCE OF MODEL 9975 PACKAGE FLUOROELASTOMER O-RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.

    2011-05-31

    The influence of temperature and radiation on Viton{reg_sign} GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings is an ongoing research focus at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The O-rings are credited for leaktight containment in the Model 9975 shipping package used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials. At the Savannah River Site, the Model 9975 packages are being used for interim storage. Primary research efforts have focused on surveillance of O-rings from actual packages, leak testing of seals at bounding aging conditions and the effect of aging temperature on compression stress relaxation behavior, with the goal of service life prediction for long-term storage conditions. Recently, an additional effort to evaluate the effect of aging temperature on the oxidation of the materials has begun. Degradation in the mechanical properties of elastomers is directly related to the oxidation of the polymer. Sensitive measurements of the oxidation rate can be performed in a more timely manner than waiting for a measurable change in mechanical properties, especially at service temperatures. Measuring the oxidation rate therefore provides a means to validate the assumption that the degradation mechanisms(s) do not change from the elevated temperatures used for accelerated aging and the lower service temperatures. Monitoring the amount of oxygen uptake by the material over time at various temperatures can provide increased confidence in lifetime predictions. Preliminary oxygen consumption analysis of a Viton GLT-based fluoroelastomer compound (Parker V0835-75) using an Oxzilla II differential oxygen analyzer in the temperature range of 40-120 C was performed. Early data suggests oxygen consumption rates may level off within the first 100,000 hours (10-12 years) at 40 C and that sharp changes in the degradation mechanism (stress-relaxation) are not expected over the temperature range examined. This is consistent with the known long-term heat aging resistance of

  4. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean ± standard deviation age of the mothers was 29 ± 6 years and family size was 7.0 ± 2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI < 18.5. Anthropometric assessment of children revealed 29% to be stunted (height-for-age z-score < -2) and 12% to be underweight (weight-for-age z-score < -2). Mothers' education significantly contributed to prediction of both mothers' and children's cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r = 0.42, P < 0.001), and visual processing (r = 0.42, P < 0.001) indices and weight-for-age z-scores were also correlated with scores of short-term memory (r = 0.41, P < 0.001) and visual processing (r = 0.43, P < 0.001) indices. Malnutrition in the community likely contributed to the cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function.

  5. The influence of age and weight status on cardiac autonomic control in healthy children: a review.

    PubMed

    Eyre, E L J; Duncan, M J; Birch, S L; Fisher, J P

    2014-12-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analyses can provide a non-invasive evaluation of cardiac autonomic activity. How autonomic control normally develops in childhood and how this is affected by obesity remain incompletely understood. In this review we examine the evidence that childhood age and weight status influence autonomic control of the heart as assessed using HRV. Electronic databases (Pubmed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library) were searched for studies examining HRV in healthy children from birth to 18 years who adhered to the Task Force (1996) guidelines. Twenty-four studies met our inclusion criteria. Seven examined childhood age and HRV. A reduction in 24-hour LF:HF was reported from birth to infancy (1 year), while overall HRV (SDNN) showed a marked and progressive increase. From infancy to early-to-late childhood (from 12 months to 15 years) LF:HF ratio was reported to decline further albeit at a slower rate, while RMSSD and SDNN increased. Twenty studies examined the effects of weight status and body composition on HRV. In a majority of studies, obese children exhibited reductions in RMSSD (n = 8/13), pNN50% (n = 7/9) and HF power (n = 14/18), no difference was reported for LF (n = 10/18), while LF:HF ratio was elevated (n = 10/15). HRV changes during childhood are consistent with a marked and progressive increase in cardiac parasympathetic activity relative to sympathetic activity. Obesity disrupts the normal maturation of cardiac autonomic control.

  6. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  7. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  8. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  9. Effect of daily supplementation with iron and zinc on iron status of childbearing age women.

    PubMed

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Borja, Angélica; Pizarro, Fernando; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of daily supplementation with 30 mg of iron (Fe) plus 30 mg of zinc (Zn) for 3 months on Fe status of women of childbearing age. This was a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eighty-one women (18-45 years) were randomly assigned to receive either a daily single dose of 30 mg of Fe (group 1; n = 28) and 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn (group 2; n = 26) or placebo (n = 27) for 3 months. Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume, serum Fe, total iron-binding capacity, transferrin saturation, erythrocyte Zn protoporphyrin, serum ferritin (SF), serum transferrin receptor (TfR), total body Fe, serum Zn, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. At baseline, 3.7, 28.4, and 3.7 % of women had iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), Fe deficiency without anemia, and depleted Fe stores, respectively. No significant differences on Fe status were found between groups before supplementation. After supplementation, group 2 showed a significant increase of Hb and total body Fe and a significant decrease of TfR compared with placebo (p < 0.05). Moreover, serum Zn increased significantly in group 2 compared with group 1 (p < 0.01) and placebo (p < 0.01). In conclusion, daily supplementation with 30 mg of Fe plus 30 mg of Zn for 3 months improved significantly the Fe and Zn status of women, compared with those who received placebo. The positive effect of Fe supplementation on Fe status is enhanced by combined Zn supplementation.

  10. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  11. Performance of bolted closure joint elastomers under cask aging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verst, C.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-23

    The bolted closure joint of a bare spent fuel cask is susceptible to age-related degradation and potential loss of confinement function under long-term storage conditions. Elastomeric seals, a component of the joint typically used to facilitate leak testing of the primary seal that includes the metallic seal and bolting, is susceptible to degradation over time by several mechanisms, principally via thermo-oxidation, stress-relaxation, and radiolytic degradation under time and temperature condition. Irradiation and thermal exposure testing and evaluation of an ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomeric seal material similar to that used in the CASTOR® V/21 cask for a matrix of temperature and radiation exposure conditions relevant to the cask extended storage conditions, and development of semiempirical predictive models for loss of sealing force is in progress. A special insert was developed to allow Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) measurements before and after the irradiation and/or thermal exposure without unloading the elastomer. A condition of the loss of sealing force for the onset of leakage was suggested. The experimentation and modeling being performed could enable acquisition of extensive coupled aging data as well as an estimation of the timeframe when loss of sealing function under aging (temperature/radiation) conditions may occur.

  12. Global industry status report and roadmap for high performance displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardsley, J. Norman; Pinnel, M. Robert

    2003-09-01

    A summary is provided of a comprehensive industry status report and roadmap available from www.usdc.org. Continued improvements in LCD technology are being driven by home entertainment applications, leading to better color and video response. Competing technologies, such as PDP and OLED and electronic paper must either exploit inherent advantages for such applications or focus on other market niches that are not being addressed well by mainline LCD technology. Flexible displays provide an opportunity for innovative technologies and manufacturing methods, but appear to bring no killer applications.

  13. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  14. Age-related changes in the performance of forward reach.

    PubMed

    Lin, S I; Liao, C F

    2011-01-01

    Aging is widely considered to be associated with limited balance capacity. It is not clear if forward reach ability is also affected by aging. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging was associated with reduced ability of forward reach or changes in movement patterns. Thirty-three young and 31 older adults were instructed to reach forward as far as possible without losing balance. A motion analysis system was used to record the body kinematics to calculate the joint angle and estimate the motion of center of mass (COM) using a five-segment model. Reach distance (measured from the finger marker), COM displacement, and the distance that the COM exceeded the 2nd toe marker (COM-toe) were used to represent reach performance. The movement patterns were classified as hip, ankle or mixed strategies based upon joint kinematics. It was found that the initial location of the COM was significantly more anterior in the older adults. Older adults were found to have significantly smaller COM displacement and greater hip flexion, but did not differ from young adults in reach distance or COM-toe. Older adults overwhelmingly adopted a hip strategy, but none adopted an ankle strategy. The distribution of the different strategies also differed significantly between groups. These findings suggest that aging appears to be associated with modifications in movement patterns, but not necessarily with a reduction in the ability to approach the boundary of stability. Clinically, balance training for older adults may include the exploration and instruction of atypical movement patterns. PMID:20951591

  15. Looking at Employment through a Lifespan Telescope: Age, Health, and Employment Status of People with Serious Visual Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Corinne; Schmeidler, Emilie; Todorov, Alexander

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined employment issues for people with serious visual impairments. The study reviewed data from the 1994 and 1995 National Health Interview Survey that included 128,001 people (ages 18-69) with and without visual impairments. Chapter 1 highlights age (seen as lifestage) and health status as…

  16. The Status of School-Age Child Care in Florida: An Oversight Report Prepared for the Education K-12 Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida House of Representatives, Tallahassee. Committee on Education, K-12.

    This comprehensive report provides current information on the status of school age child care in Florida, an overview of Florida Statutes, a summary of benefits and problems with state involvement, and recommendations for action. An estimated 138,000 children ages 5 to 13 in Florida may be without care every day after school. Florida's school…

  17. Onion flesh and onion peel enhance antioxidant status in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyeon; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2007-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary onion flesh or onion peel on lipid peroxides and DNA damage in aged rats. Sprague Dawley male rats (n=40, 16 mo old) were blocked into five groups and raised for 3 mo with either an onion-free control diet or onion diets (Allium cepa L., intermediate-day variety) containing either 5% (w/w) powdered dried onion flesh, 5% (w/w) powdered dried onion peel or ethanol extracts of the two powdered forms of onion. Total antioxidant status (TAS) and levels of total polyphenols and quercetin were greatest in onion peel ethanol extract, followed by onion peel powder, onion flesh ethanol extract, and onion flesh powder. Plasma quercetin and isorhamnetin levels were markedly increased by onion peel powder and onion peel ethanol extract. Rats fed onion flesh powder or onion peel powder had a higher plasma TAS than rats fed the control diet. Onion peel powder reduced liver thiobarbituric reactive substances relative to those of the control diet in aged rats (p<0.05). Brain 8-isoprostane levels were markedly decreased by all four onion diets and the decrease was significant for the onion flesh powder and onion peel powder diets (p<0.05). There was no significant decrease in cellular DNA damage in the kidney or brain tissue among rats fed the four onion diets. Onion flesh or onion peel enhanced antioxidant status in aged rats and may be beneficial for the elderly as a means of lowering lipid peroxide levels. PMID:17484375

  18. Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Débora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task. PMID:23760222

  19. The Relationship between School Absence, Academic Performance, and Asthma Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moonie, Sheniz; Sterling, David A.; Figgs, Larry W.; Castro, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background: Children with asthma experience more absenteeism from school compared with their nonasthma peers. Excessive absenteeism is related to lower student grades, psychological, social, and educational adjustment. Less is known about the relationship between the presence of asthma and the academic achievement in school-aged children. Since…

  20. Impact of age and socioeconomic status on treatment and survival from aggressive lymphoma: a UK population-based study of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Alexandra; Crouch, Simon; Howell, Debra; Burton, Cathy; Patmore, Russell; Roman, Eve

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine the influence of patient’s age and socio-economic status on treatment and outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); an aggressive curable cancer, with an incidence rate that increases markedly with age but varies little with socio-economic status. Methods Set within a representative UK population of around 4 million, data are from an established patient cohort. This report includes all patients (≥18years) newly diagnosed with DLBCL 2004–2012, with follow-up to February 2015. Results Of the 2137 patients (median age 70.2 years) diagnosed with denovo DLBCL, 1709 (80%) were treated curatively/intensively and 1161(54.3%) died during follow-up. Five-year overall and relative survival (RS) estimates were 46.2% (95% CI 44.0–48.4%) and 54.6% (52.1%-57.0%) respectively for all patients, and 58.5% (56.1–60.9%) and 67.0% (64.3–69.6%) for intensively treated patients. 96.3% of patients <55 years (366/380) and 96.4% of those with the best performance status (543/563) were treated curatively: 5-year RSs being 77.9% (73.1–82%) and 87.1% (82.5–90.6%) respectively. At the other end of the age/fitness spectrum, 33.3% of those ≥85 years (66/198) and 41.1% with the worst performance (94/225) were treated curatively: the corresponding 5-year RSs being 50.5% (27.1–69.0%) and 22.9% (14.0–33.2%). The proportion of patients whose cancer was fully staged fell with increasing age and worsening performance status. No socio-economic variations with treatment, stage at presentation or outcome were detected. Conclusions Performance status is more discriminatory of survival than chronological age, with fitter patients benefiting from treatment across all ages. Socio-economic factors are not predictive of outcome in patients with DLBCL in the UK. PMID:26341588

  1. Antioxidant status of pair-fed labrador retrievers is affected by diet restriction and aging.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Howard D; Lawler, Dennis F; Kealy, Richard D

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-four sibling pairs of 8-wk-old Labrador Retrievers were assigned to an experiment to determine the effects of diet restriction (75% of control-fed pair mate) on the quality and span of canine life and to identify biological markers of aging in dogs. The antioxidant status of these dogs was monitored by annual assays for serum retinol (RT), retinyl palmitate (RP), total vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and ceruloplasmin (Cp), plasma ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA), and total peroxyl-radical trapping activity (TRAP), and whole-blood glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). Data in this report are for the 6-y period of the experiment when the dogs were between 5 and 10 y of age. Diet restriction reduced RT, VE, Cu, and Cp. Aging was associated with decreased RP, VA, VE, Se, and Cu and with increased RT, Cp, and Gpx. Female dogs had lower RP, VA, Cu, and Cp than male dogs. Litter effects were observed for VE, Cu, UA, and Gpx. Treatment effects on serum RT and Cu suggest that these variables are not as regulated homeostatically by hepatic storage as in most other species. Although the antioxidant profiles did not elucidate how diet restriction contributes to longevity, they have the potential to enhance our understanding of canine clinical nutrition and to have practical applications in formulating canine diets. PMID:16772447

  2. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success.

  3. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. PMID:26439783

  4. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  5. Teacher Pay for Performance: Context, Status, and Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Gardner, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    After earlier plans fell out of favor, pay for performance plans are becoming more popular. Factors that make those plans more viable include new data systems and ways to measure performance, increased attention on the importance of effective teaching, the need for efficiencies in salary schedules during tough economic conditions, and a change in…

  6. [Evaluation of nutritional habits, nutritional status and physical performance in selected group of adolescents].

    PubMed

    Jeszka, J; Zielke, M; Bajerska, J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the assessment of nutritional status and nutritional habits as well as physical fitness in a group of 74 adolescents (44 girls and 30 boys) aged 13-19 years, spending their holidays in a recreation centre in Klodzko Valley and the evaluation of correlation coefficients between these parameters. The nutritional status (NS) was evaluated on the basis of body mass index (BMI), skin folds thickness and total body fat (FM). Nutritional habits (NH) were estimated by the method of dietary history with special attention paid to consumption of selected food products and regularity of meals. Physical performance (PhP) of the group was assessed by Harvard's step-test. Evaluation of nutritional habits indicated only a few cases of improper nutrition but about 33% of total examined group followed nutrition guidelines and the scores of NH received by the main part of this group (ca. 66%) were recognised as sufficient. Differences of NS, in adolescents were found, but there was no case of obesity. Significant number of girls (21-55%) showed low values of BMI (<18.4 kg/m2) which could indicate insufficient energy intake. No correlation between NH and NS was however found. Level of physical fitness of the examined group was quite high and strongly correlated with nutritional habits (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). The results proved that the relationship between NH and PhP can be noticed in relatively young persons and that the evaluation of NS of youngsters should include a simple physical performance test.

  7. Clinical Implication of Performance Status in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Complicating with Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Hiroki; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Ohara, Yoshiaki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Saito, Sumio; Nishijima, Norihiro; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Osaki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims: The aims of our study were to elucidate the relationship between baseline characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients complicating with liver cirrhosis (LC) and performance status (PS) and to investigate the impact of PS on survival in patients with HCC complicating with LC. Methods: In a total of 1003 patients diagnosed with HCC complicating with LC, we divided into two groups of PS ≥1 (n=251) and PS 0 (n=752) as evaluated by using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group criteria at the time of HCC diagnosis. Baseline characteristics between these two groups were compared. We also performed univariate and multivariate analyses of factors contributing to overall survival (OS). Results: The median follow-up period was 1.6 years in the PS ≥1 group and 3.1 years in the PS 0 group. The 1-, 3- and 5-year OS rates after each initial therapy for HCC were 90.3%, 67.4% and 49.8%, respectively, in the PS 0 group and 73.4%, 42.0% and 17.7%, respectively, in the PS ≥1 group (P<0.001). A worse PS was significantly associated with age, gender, Child-Pugh classification, HCC stage, Japan Integrated Staging score, initial treatment option for HCC, maximum tumor size, alanine aminotransferase value, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, renal insufficiency, hyponatremia, prothrombin time prolongation, platelet count and tumor marker level. In multivariate analyses, poorer PS was an independent predictor linked to OS with a hazard ratio of 1.773 (P<0.001). Conclusions: PS was closely associated with status of HCC patients with LC and could be an important predictor for these populations. PMID:25767611

  8. Hormonal status and age differentially affect tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Winsauer, Peter J.; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Weed, Peter F.; Sutton, Jessie L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of hormone status and age on the development of tolerance to Δ9-THC were assessed in sham-operated (intact) or ovariectomized (OVX) female rats that received either intraperitoneal saline or 5.6 mg/kg of Δ9-THC daily from postnatal day (PD) 75–180 (early adulthood onward) or PD 35–140 (adolescence onward). During this time, the four groups for each age (i.e., intact/saline, intact/THC, OVX/saline, and OVX/THC) were trained in a learning and performance procedure and dose-effect curves were established for Δ9-THC (0.56–56 mg/kg) and the cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist rimonabant (0.32–10 mg/kg). Despite the persistence of small rate-decreasing and error-increasing effects in intact and OVX females from both ages during chronic Δ9-THC, all of the Δ9-THC groups developed tolerance. However, the magnitude of tolerance, as well as the effect of hormone status, varied with the age at which chronic Δ9-THC was initiated. There was no evidence of dependence in any of the groups. Hippocampal protein expression of CB1R, AHA1 (a co-chaperone of CB1R) and HSP90β (a molecular chaperone modulated by AHA-1) was affected more by OVX than chronic Δ9-THC; striatal protein expression was not consistently affected by either manipulation. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression varied with age, hormone status, and chronic treatment. Thus, hormonal status differentially affects the development of tolerance to the disruptive effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) on learning and performance behavior in adolescent, but not adult, female rats. These factors and their interactions also differentially affect cannabinoid signaling proteins in the hippocampus and striatum, and ultimately, neural plasticity. PMID:26191005

  9. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  10. Symmetry of the face in old age reflects childhood social status.

    PubMed

    Hope, David; Bates, Timothy; Penke, Lars; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-03-01

    The association of socioeconomic status (SES) with a range of lifecourse outcomes is robust, but the causes of these associations are not well understood. Research on the developmental origins of health and disease has led to the hypothesis that early developmental disturbance might permanently affect the lifecourse, accounting for some of the burden of chronic diseases such as coronary heart disease. Here we assessed developmental disturbance using bodily and facial symmetry and examined its association with socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood, and attained status at midlife. Symmetry was measured at ages 83 (facial symmetry) and 87 (bodily symmetry) in a sample of 292 individuals from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (LBC1921). Structural equation models indicated that poorer SES during early development was significantly associated with lower facial symmetry (standardized path coefficient -.25, p=.03). By contrast, midlife SES was not significantly associated with symmetry. The relationship was stronger in men (-.44, p=.03) than in women (-.12, p=.37), and the effect sizes were significantly different in magnitude (p=.004). These findings suggest that SES in early life (but not later in life) is associated with developmental disturbances. Facial symmetry appears to provide an effective record of early perturbations, whereas bodily symmetry seems relatively imperturbable. As bodily and facial symmetries were sensitive to different influences, they should not be treated as interchangeable. However, markers of childhood disturbance remain many decades later, suggesting that early development may account in part for associations between SES and health through the lifecourse. Future research should clarify which elements of the environment cause these perturbations.

  11. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  12. The ATLAS Detector: Status and Performance in Run-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, Steven

    2016-07-01

    During the first extended shutdown of the LHC, in 2013 and 2014, the ATLAS detector has undergone several improvements. A new silicon pixel detector layer has been added inside of the existing layers, enhancing vertex identification, while the coverage of the muon detector has been significantly expanded. Many other detector systems have been upgraded to handle the higher expected pileup conditions in the coming years and to generally improve their performance. This document describes these upgrades and the resulting impact on the reconstruction and performance of standard physics objects. Preliminary results using the first ˜ 80pb-1 of 2015 data at s = 13 Tev are presented, demonstrating the capability of ATLAS to perform both searches and measurements.

  13. Updated Status and Performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Michael A.; Dixon, W. V.; Mason, E.; Proffitt, C.; Aloisi, A.; Oliveira, C.; Bohlin, R. C.; Osten, R.; Bostroem, K. A.; Zheng, W.; Pascucci, I.; Niemi, S.; York, B.; Sonnentracker, P.; Diaz, R.; Ely, J. C.

    2011-05-01

    A description is provided of the overall performance of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph after Cycle 17 and through the first half of Cycle 18. Most aspects of performance are still found to be consistent with extrapolations of the trends seen during Cycle 17 calibrations. Many of the characteristics of the instrument have changed over time, and we present here an update on its current performance based on the latest Cycle 18 calibration observations. We discuss changes in the CCD and MAMA dark currents, provide updates on the sensitivity of STIS modes, echelle blaze function, discuss changes, if any, in number of hot pixels, flat fields, charge transfer inefficiency, read noise, and spurious charge.

  14. Sex and Age Differences in Global Pain Status Among Patients Using Opioids Long Term for Chronic Noncancer Pain

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Kathleen; Dublin, Sascha; Thielke, Stephen; Merrill, Joseph O.; Shortreed, Susan M.; Campbell, Cynthia; Von Korff, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The use of chronic opioid therapy (COT) has risen dramatically in recent years, especially among women. However, little is known about factors influencing overall pain and function (global pain status) among COT users. Characterizing the typical experiences of COT patients by age–sex group could help clinicians and patients better weigh the risks and benefits of COT. Thus, we sought to characterize global pain status among COT users in community practice by age and sex. Methods: Telephone survey of 2,163 health plan members aged 21–80 years using COT. We assessed average/usual pain (0–10 scale); pain-related interference (0–10); activity limitation days, last 3 months; and pain impact, last 2 weeks (0–11). Status on each indicator was classified as low (better pain/function), moderate, or high (worse pain/function). Global pain status was categorized as favorable if 2–4 indicators were low and 0–1 was high and unfavorable if 2–4 indicators were high and 0–1 was low. Results: Among female COT patients, 15% (vs. 26% of males) had favorable global pain status and 59% (vs. 42% of males) had unfavorable status. Under age 65 years, women fared more poorly than men on every indicator. Among 65- to 80-year-olds, women and men had similar global pain status. Conclusions: Although pain and function among COT users vary considerably, only one in five reported low pain levels and high levels of function. Young and middle-aged women seem to be at particularly high risk for unfavorable global pain status. More research is needed about how to best manage pain in this group. PMID:26153668

  15. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  16. [Nutritional status of students according to sex and age. Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile, 1986-1987].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Ivanovic, R

    1990-08-01

    A representative sample of 4509 schoolers from elementary and high schools in the Metropolitan area of Santiago was randomly chosen and their nutritional status analyzed by anthropometric measurements. Percentages of weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were evaluated according to WHO tables. Undernutrition (low W/A) was diagnosed in 31% of males and 28% of females, obesity (increased W/H) in 9% of males and 17% of females and overweight in 18% and 22%, respectively. Undernutrition increased while obesity decreased with age. To a large extent, differences found in nutritional status could be explained by mild growth failure which existed in 27% of males and 28% of females. Therefore, W/H better expresses the nutritional status of these schoolers. The high prevalence of obesity and overweight is a serious health problem demanding preventive measures in order to avoid complications in later life. PMID:2152235

  17. [Nutritional status of students according to sex and age. Metropolitan area of Santiago, Chile, 1986-1987].

    PubMed

    Ivanovic, D; Olivares, M; Ivanovic, R

    1990-08-01

    A representative sample of 4509 schoolers from elementary and high schools in the Metropolitan area of Santiago was randomly chosen and their nutritional status analyzed by anthropometric measurements. Percentages of weight for age (W/A), height for age (H/A) and weight for height (W/H) were evaluated according to WHO tables. Undernutrition (low W/A) was diagnosed in 31% of males and 28% of females, obesity (increased W/H) in 9% of males and 17% of females and overweight in 18% and 22%, respectively. Undernutrition increased while obesity decreased with age. To a large extent, differences found in nutritional status could be explained by mild growth failure which existed in 27% of males and 28% of females. Therefore, W/H better expresses the nutritional status of these schoolers. The high prevalence of obesity and overweight is a serious health problem demanding preventive measures in order to avoid complications in later life.

  18. Saving Performance in Individual Development Accounts: Does Marital Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grinstein-Weiss, Michal; Zhan, Min; Sherraden, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Research indicates that marriage has a large effect on reducing the risk of poverty and is associated with a higher probability of attaining affluence over the life course when compared with nonmarriage. Using data from the American Dream Demonstration (N = 2,364), this study compares savings performances of married and unmarried low-income…

  19. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  20. Chemical signals in the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, indicate caste, gender, age, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Túlio M; Turatti, Izabel C C; Lopes, Norberto P; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-10-01

    Chemical compounds on the cuticle are a rich source of information used during interactions among social insects. Despite the multitude of studies on these substances and their function in ants, wasps, and honeybees, little is known about this subject in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini). We studied the chemical composition of the cuticle of the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to investigate potential chemical variation among castes, gender, age, and reproductive status. We found differences in the cuticular hydrocarbon composition among workers, males, and queens, recording both qualitative and quantitative differences among individuals of different ages and gender. The cuticle of physogastric queens presented a chemical profile that was distinct from all other groups in the analysis, with high relative abundances of alkenes and alkadienes with 27, 29, and 31 carbon atoms. We discuss the possibility that these compounds signal a queen's presence to the colony, thereby initiating all vital worker-queen interactions. PMID:19813058

  1. Intelligibility of foreign-accented speech: Effects of listening condition, listener age, and listener hearing status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2005-09-01

    It is well known that, for listeners with normal hearing, speech produced by non-native speakers of the listener's first language is less intelligible than speech produced by native speakers. Intelligibility is well correlated with listener's ratings of talker comprehensibility and accentedness, which have been shown to be related to several talker factors, including age of second language acquisition and level of similarity between the talker's native and second language phoneme inventories. Relatively few studies have focused on factors extrinsic to the talker. The current project explored the effects of listener and environmental factors on the intelligibility of foreign-accented speech. Specifically, monosyllabic English words previously recorded from two talkers, one a native speaker of American English and the other a native speaker of Spanish, were presented to three groups of listeners (young listeners with normal hearing, elderly listeners with normal hearing, and elderly listeners with hearing impairment; n=20 each) in three different listening conditions (undistorted words in quiet, undistorted words in 12-talker babble, and filtered words in quiet). Data analysis will focus on interactions between talker accent, listener age, listener hearing status, and listening condition. [Project supported by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association AARC Award.

  2. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults.

  3. Natural analogue studies: present status and performance assessment implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, John A. T.; Karlsson, Fred; Alexander, W. Russell

    1997-04-01

    Studies of natural geological and archaeological systems as analogues to long-term processes, which are predicted to occur within a radioactive waste repository environment, have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years or so, to the extent that such studies form an integral part of many national programmes for radioactive waste disposal. There is now a common consensus that the natural analogue approach is a very useful scientific methodology to: (a) identify and understand processes and mechanisms analogous to those which could occur in the vicinity of a repository over realistic timescales, (b) derive input data which have been successfully used to test some of the laboratory-based models which form the basis of long-term repository performance assessment, and (c) to produce data which can be input directly to performance assessment models. Increasingly, analogues are playing an important role in public awareness, enabling the layman to understand better the concept of radioactive disposal and demonstrating the reliability of the disposal system over long periods of geological time. The complexity of geological systems means that it is very often difficult and sometimes impossible to quantify precisely the physico-chemical boundary conditions necessary to model a particular geochemical process or mechanism. Consequently, the availability of quantitative analogue data is limited when repository performance assessments are considered. However, this in no way detracts from their value in building confidence by demonstrating that important processes do exist and by showing qualitatively that they behave in a way predicted by models based on laboratory-derived data. The transfer of natural analogue data from the complexity of field studies to simplistic models which, by necessity, are used in performance assessments, is an area of activity which is presently being addressed. Field analogue studies are now being planned to interface with laboratory

  4. Relationships between Personnel Tests, Age, and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Winfred, Jr.; Fuentes, Rick

    The age decrement model has traditionally been a fairly popular model of the human life span. This model has the basic premise that with increasing age there is a corresponding decrease in a wide range of abilities. Not all research has agreed with the unqualified age decrement model. This study examined the relationship between an…

  5. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems.

  6. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    PubMed

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome. PMID:23213958

  7. Nutritional zinc status in weaning infants: association with iron deficiency, age, and growth profile.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Su; Chang, Ju Young; Hong, Jeana; Ko, Jae Sung; Seo, Jeong Kee; Shin, Sue; Lee, Eun Hee

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the correlation between iron deficiency (ID) and zinc deficiency (ZD) and explored the demographic, anthropometric, and feeding-related factors associated with hypozincemia and hair zinc content in weaning infants. Infants aged 6-24 months were recruited, their feeding history was recorded, and their heights and weights were measured. Hemoglobin content, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin and zinc concentrations of serum and hair (using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy) were assessed. Among 101 infants, 64 (63.4 %) infants exhibited ID. The median serum zinc concentration in iron-deficient infants was lower than that in non-iron-deficient infants, respectively, 73.5 μg/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 65.0-83.8) vs. 87.0 μg/dL (IQR, 77.5-97.0; p = 0.001). The frequency of hypozincemia was also significantly higher in the iron-deficient group than in the non-iron-deficient group (21 out of 64 [32.8 %] vs. 4 out of 37 [10.8 %], respectively; p = 0.014). In multiple regression analysis, the risk of hypozincemia was significantly increased in infants with ID (p = 0.026), mildly underweight infants (weight-for-age Z score < -1; p = 0.034), and infants with mild wasting (weight-for-height Z score < -1; p = 0.028). Hair zinc concentrations (n = 81) were not significantly associated with ID status (p > 0.1); however, there was an inverse relationship between hair zinc concentrations and age of infants (r = -0.250; p = 0.024). In weaning infants, ID is a risk factor for hypozincemia. Hair zinc concentrations appeared to decrease as the age of infants increased during late infancy. Further large-scale studies are needed to validate the relationship between hypozincemia and mild degrees of weight gain impairment in this age group.

  8. Updated Status and Performance for the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joanna M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Debes, John H.; Ely, Justin; Fix, Mees B.; Fox, Andrew; Jedrzejewski, Robert I.; Lockwood, Sean A.; Monroe, TalaWanda R.; Oliveira, Cristina M.; Peeples, Molly S.; Penton, Steven V.; Plesha, Rachel; Proffitt, Charles R.; Roman-Duval, Julia; Sahnow, David J.; Sonnentrucker, Paule; Walborn, Nolan R.; White, James

    2016-06-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May 2009. COS is designed to perform high-sensitivity medium- and low-resolution spectroscopy of astronomical objects in the far-ultraviolet (FUV) and near-ultraviolet (NUV) wavelength regimes. We present updates on the time-dependent sensitivities of both the NUV and FUV detectors. Additionally, we discuss the appearance and mitigation of transient, isolated regions of increased count rates on the COS FUV detector called “hot spots”. We also present updates to the COS calibration pipeline, CalCOS, that provide improvements to COS data products.

  9. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation.

  10. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  11. Landsat 8: status and on-orbit performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markham, Brian L.; Barsi, Julia A.; Morfitt, Ron; Choate, Mike; Montanaro, Matthew; Arvidson, Terry; Irons, James R.

    2015-10-01

    Landsat 8 and its two Earth imaging sensors, the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) have been operating on-orbit for 2 ½ years. Landsat 8 has been acquiring substantially more images than initially planned, typically around 700 scenes per day versus a 400 scenes per day requirement, acquiring nearly all land scenes. Both the TIRS and OLI instruments are exceeding their SNR requirements by at least a factor of 2 and are very stable, degrading by at most 1% in responsivity over the mission to date. Both instruments have 100% operable detectors covering their cross track field of view using the redundant detectors as necessary. The geometric performance is excellent, meeting or exceeding all performance requirements. One anomaly occurred with the TIRS Scene Select Mirror (SSM) encoder that affected its operation, though by switching to the side B electronics, this was fully recovered. The one challenge is with the TIRS stray light, which affects the flat fielding and absolute calibration of the TIRS data. The error introduced is smaller in TIRS band 10. Band 11 should not currently be used in science applications.

  12. Run performance of middle-aged and young adult runners in the heat.

    PubMed

    de Paula Viveiros, J; Amorim, F T; Alves, M N M; Passos, R L F; Meyer, F

    2012-03-01

    The aging process may impair exercise tolerance in the heat. It is not clear whether this impairment is partly due to a reduction in aerobic capacity. To compare the exercise performance and thermoregulatory responses of middle-aged and young adults with similar aerobic capacities and training statuses, 7 middle-aged (54±2 years; 58±4 ml·kg - 1·min - 1) and 7 young (28±1 years; 61±5 ml·kg - 1·min - 1) male competitive endurance runners underwent 2 10-km self-paced and 2 fixed-workload (90% of race speed) runs until fatigue on a treadmill in hot (40°C) and moderate (20°C) environments on separate days. The runners' total time, average speed, rectal temperature, heat storage rate, physiological strain index, sweat rate, sweat sensitivity, number of heat-activated sweat glands and sweat rate per sweat gland were measured or calculated. Body fat, body surface area, body surface area per body mass, training volume and VO2max were similar between the 2 groups. No differences were observed in total time (59±3; 49±3; 27±2; 54±5 min in the middle-aged and 60±2; 49±3; 27±2; 51±4 min in the young group), average speed, rectal temperature, heat storage rate, physiological strain index, sweat rate (17±7; 15±3; 23±7; 13±2 g.m - 2.min - 1 in the middle-aged and 20±5; 14±4; 22±5; 15±4 g.m - 2.min - 1 in the young group) or sweat sensitivity between age groups (p>0.05) in any trial. The number of heat-activated sweat glands (88±14; 80±18; 90±16; 66±14 cm - 2 in the middle-aged and 43±10; 32±10; 37±11; 31±11 cm - 2 in the young group) was higher, and the sweat rate per sweat gland was smaller, in the middle-aged than the young group (p<0.05) in all of the trials. We conclude that running performance and body thermoregulation are similar between young and middle-aged runners with similar aerobic capacities and training statuses under hot and moderate conditions in self-paced and fixed-intensity runs. The

  13. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  14. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  15. The Current Status of Performing Left Ventriculography in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Hao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Chiu, Cheng-An; Chu, Chun-Yuan; Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventriculography (LVG) is a gold standard examination of left ventricular function, although it also involves a small but significant risk of complications. However, it was recently reported to be overused in the USA in comparison to an alternative imaging modality. In this study, our aim was to analyze the real-world use of LVG in Taiwan. Methods This cohort study analyzed the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Bureau database for patients undergoing coronary angiography from 1996-2008. The most recent imaging modalities were used to evaluate left ventricular function including echocardiography and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) within 30-day. The primary outcome was the concomitant use of LVG during coronary angiography. Results Of 8653 patients who underwent coronary angiography, LVG was performed on 4634 (53.6%) of those study participants. The frequency of LVG use was lower in the groups indicating left ventricular function evaluation, including acute myocardial infarction, heart failure and shock (49.5 vs. 57.1%, p < 0.001). In the population that had undergone a recent left ventricular assessment, the use of LVG was lower (52.2% vs. 54.7%, p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis found that 30-day imaging tests are not a predictor for use of LVG. Conclusions In Taiwan, about one half of those patients whose data we reviewed actually received coronary angiography and LVG at the same time. Ultimately, we found that there was no overuse of LVG in those patients with recent alternative imaging modality performed. PMID:27122930

  16. FIFTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.

    2014-04-15

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Additional samples will be added to each aging environment, to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Two additional softwood fiberboard source packages have been obtained and will begin to provide data on the range of variability of this material.

  17. Effects of Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Early Academic Performance on Postsecondary Education Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Jerry; Robinson, Chester R.; Plata, Maximino; Ng, Kok-Mun

    2000-01-01

    Examines the effects of gender, socioeconomic status (SES), and four types of eighth-grade academic performance on postsecondary educational choices at late adolescence. Gender had strongest influences on educational choice. Gender also interacted with SES and academic performance. Implications for theory and counseling practice are discussed.…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Obesity, Weight Status Change, and Subsequent Academic Performance in Taiwanese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Jung; Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Wang, Ching-Hui

    2012-01-01

    Backround: This study examined the association among childhood obesity, weight status change, and subsequent academic performance at 6-year follow-up. Methods: First-grade students from one elementary school district in Taichung City, Taiwan were followed for 6 years (N = 409). Academic performance was extracted from the school records at the end…

  19. The Influence of Test Familiarity and Student Disability Status upon Teachers' Judgments of Students' Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Jason T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Braden, Jeffery P.

    2007-01-01

    Two questions motivated this study: (a) Does test familiarity influence teachers' judgments of their students' test performance? and (b) Does the disability status of students influence their teachers' judgments? Teachers (n=19) judged item performances for one student with disabilities and one student without disabilities (n pairs=19) from their…

  20. A Structural Model of Academic Performance, Socioeconomic Status, and Spearman's "g."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodnik, R. J.; Ree, Malcolm James

    1995-01-01

    Covariance structure modeling was applied to the study of psychometric "g" in relation to collegiate academic performance and socioeconomic status. Results with 339 college students showed that psychometric "g" accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in academic performance. (SLD)

  1. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. PMID:22222317

  2. FOURTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-03-05

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAMS environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  3. Status of CFDLIB performance tests on the T3D

    SciTech Connect

    Padial, N.T.; Kashiwa, B.A.; Kothe, D.B.

    1994-11-01

    CFDLIB is a collection of two- and three-dimensional computer codes for problems in computational fluid dynamics. The library handles a wide range of flow regimes both single and multiphase, from fully incompressible to hypersonic, chemically reacting or inert materials. The method uses the Implicity Continuous-fluid Eulerian scheme (ICE) which becomes essentially identical to the Marker and Cell (MAC) method in the incompressible limit. The method, a Finite-Volume scheme, with cell-centered state variables, utilizes an Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) split computational cycle in the sense that the mesh is allowed to move in an arbitrary fashion. In addition, CFDLIB employs a multiblock data structure that proved extremely convenient for implementation on parallel computers. CFDLIB is now available in sequential or parallel environments, is written in standard FORTRAN 77, and is highly portable. Results are given for a selection of specialized applications that illustrate the kind of problems of interest to CFDLIB users. Finally, initial results are given for performance studies comparing the Cray Y-MP, T3D, and an IBM workstation cluster. For certain problems, a Y-MP-equivalent real solution time is achieved with less than eight processors on the T3D.

  4. Status of Terra MODIS Operation, Calibration, and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, X.; Wenny, B.; Wu, A.; Angal, A.; Geng, X.; Chen, H.; Dodd, J.; Link, D.; Madhavan, S.; Chen, N.; Li, Y.; Iacangelo, S.; Barnes, W.; Salomonson, V.

    2014-01-01

    Since launch in December 1999, Terra MODIS has successfully operated for nearly 15 years, making continuous observations. Data products derived from MODIS observations have significantly contributed to a wide range of studies of key geophysical parameters of the earth's eco-system of land, ocean, and atmosphere, and their changes over time. The quality of MODIS data products relies on the dedicated effort to monitor and sustain instrument health and operation, to calibrate and update sensor parameters and properties, and to improve calibration algorithms. MODIS observations are made in 36 spectral bands, covering wavelengths from visible to long-wave infrared. The reflective solar bands (1-19 and 26) are primarily calibrated by a solar diffuser (SD) panel and regularly scheduled lunar observations. The thermal emissive bands (20-25 and 27- 36) calibration is referenced to an on-board blackbody (BB) source. On-orbit changes in the sensor spectral and spatial characteristics are monitored by a spectroradiometric calibration assembly (SRCA). This paper provides an overview of Terra MODIS on-orbit operation and calibration activities and implementation strategies. It presents and summarizes sensor on-orbit performance using nearly 15 years of data from its telemetry, on-board calibrators, and lunar observations. Also discussed in this paper are changes in sensor characteristics, corrections applied to maintain MODIS level 1B (L1B) data quality, and efforts for future improvements.

  5. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment. PMID:12806505

  6. Characteristics influencing changes in aerobic performance of children aged 7-9.

    PubMed

    Faludi, J; Farkas, A; Zsidegh, M; Petrekanits, M; Pavlik, G

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of the actual level of aerobic endurance in a growing child is difficult. Endurance capacity per se is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. by genetic endowment, developmental rate, body composition and habitual physical activity. The respective effects of these factors cannot be distinctly separated from one another, so their particular role is not clearly definable in the various age periods. The aim of our investigation was to define the actual level of aerobic endurance performance in children aged 7-9, and to analyse the relevant factors that may affect this kind of performance according to the different level of sport activities. Two primary school classes (N=42) were selected for the experiment. Both groups had physical education classes every day (five times a week). One group (AG, N=31) consisted of children taking part in regular sport courses at least twice a week (e.g. basket ball, karate, triathlon swimming and gymnastics), as well, the other group (NAG, N=11) served as comparison group. Aerobic performance was estimated by measuring cardiorespiratory response during a Jaeger treadmill run using a "vita maxima" (all-out) testing protocol. The subjects were measured in the Laboratory for Spiroergometry of the Hungarian University of Physical Education twice, in 1997 and 1998. Body composition was assessed by the Drinkwater-Ross [4] body mass fractionation technique. Robustness of the body was described by using the plastic index (PLX) of Conrad's growth type [2], morphological age (MORF AGE) was estimated by using the method of Mészáros and Mohácsi [5]. Exercise performance was studied in the laboratory by using a Jaeger 6000 LE model treadmill and a Jaeger mu-DATASPIR model gas analyser. The functional status of the subjects' cardiopulmonary system was estimated by spiroergometric parameters and total mechanical work (WORK). The AG group had a better endurance performance in 1998 than that of non-athletic group. A factor analytic

  7. Nutritional Status and Food Habits of Middle-aged Adults in Selected Areas of Selangor.

    PubMed

    Karim, Norimah A; Mydenkather, Hajamohaideen

    2003-09-01

    A food habits and health status study was carried out among 100 Malay adults aged 40 years and above. The study protocol incorporated anthropometric measurements, evaluation of food habits and determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women were 27.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2 and 27.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2 respectively, which on average showed that the subjects were overweight. Food habits evaluation indicated that rice, fish and vegetables were the foods consumed almost everyday by the majority of the subjects. Meat, dairy products and fruits were eaten once to three times per week. Food intake score for sugar and salt demonstrated that a majority of men and women consumed moderate amounts of these foods. Most subjects exercised twice to three times a week for 15 min per session. Blood glucose tests revealed a mean of 5.04 ± 1.60 mmol/l in men and 4.86 ± 2.10 mmol/l for women. Mean cholesterol for men was 5.06 ± 1.22 mmol/l while it was 4.90 ± 1.34 mmol/l in women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men was normal of 127.69 ± 13.60 mm Hg dan 85.87 ± 7.97 mm Hg, while in women it was 127.42 ± 17.54 mm Hg, 83.53 ± 9.50 mm Hg. The mean value for glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure increased with age. The food habits of these adults were satisfactory; however blood test for the nutrients of interest exhibited an increasing trend towards blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose with age. Middle-aged adults should adapt to a more active lifestyle and be more cautious of their food habits. This is to ensure a healthy well being throughout their life span.

  8. The Influence of Subordinate Age on Performance Ratings and Causal Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the role of subordinate age in performance evaluations. Results found that supervisors rated older subordinates lower than younger subordinates doing the same job; differences between self-ratings of performance and supervisory ratings seemed to be a function of the subordinate's age; and a significant age by performance interaction was…

  9. The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in

  10. Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer by Age and Hormone Receptor Status: A Cost-Utility Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, William; Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Nair, Nisha; Blakely, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Background The anti–human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) monoclonal antibody trastuzumab improves outcomes in patients with node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer. Given trastuzumab’s high cost, we aimed to estimate its cost-effectiveness by heterogeneity in age and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status, which has previously been unexplored, to assist prioritisation. Methods and Findings A cost-utility analysis was performed using a Markov macro-simulation model, with a lifetime horizon, comparing a 12-mo regimen of trastuzumab with chemotherapy alone using the latest (2014) effectiveness measures from landmark randomised trials. A New Zealand (NZ) health system perspective was adopted, employing high-quality national administrative data. Incremental quality-adjusted life-years for trastuzumab versus chemotherapy alone are two times higher (2.33 times for the age group 50–54 y; 95% CI 2.29–2.37) for the worst prognosis (ER−/PR−) subtype compared to the best prognosis (ER+/PR+) subtype, causing incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for the former to be less than half those of the latter for the age groups from 25–29 to 90–94 y (0.44 times for the age group 50–54 y; 95% CI 0.43–0.45). If we were to strictly apply an arbitrary cost-effectiveness threshold equal to the NZ gross domestic product per capita (2011 purchasing power parity [PPP]–adjusted: US$30,300; €23,700; £21,200), our study suggests that trastuzumab (2011 PPP-adjusted US$45,400/€35,900/£21,900 for 1 y at formulary prices) may not be cost-effective for ER+ (which are 61% of all) node-positive HER2+ early breast cancer patients but cost-effective for ER−/PR− subtypes (37% of all cases) to age 69 y. Market entry of trastuzumab biosimilars will likely reduce the ICER to below this threshold for premenopausal ER+/PR− cancer but not for ER+/PR+ cancer. Sensitivity analysis using the best-case effectiveness measure for ER+ cancer had

  11. Gaia: Astrometric Performance and Current Status of the Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegren, Lennart

    2009-05-01

    The ESA Gaia mission is an all-sky astrometric and spectrophotometric survey of all point-like objects between 6th and 20th magnitude. Some 1 billion stars, a few million galaxies, half a million quasars, and a few hundred thousand asteroids will be observed over 5-6 years with typically 80 field-of-view transits per object. Expected accuracies for stellar parallaxes, annual proper motions and mean epoch positions are 7-25 microarcsec down to 15th magnitude and 100-300 microarcsec at 20th magnitude. The astrometric data are complemented by low-resolution spectrophotometric data in the 330-1000 nm wavelength range and, for the brighter stars, radial velocity measurements. The primary scientific objective of Gaia is to study galactic structure and evolution by correlating the spatial distributions and kinematics of stars with their astrophysical properties. However, a much wider range of topics in stellar astrophysics, solar system and exoplanet science, cosmology and fundamental physics will benefit from the mission data. A very accurate, dense and faint non-rotating optical reference frame will be established through direct observations of quasars. The project is in its advanced implementation phase, on schedule for a targeted launch in late 2011. Critical payload elements such as SiC telescope mirrors and optical bench, CCDs and electronic units, have been or are in the process of being manufactured. In parallel, preparations for the scientific data processing are well under way within the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium. Final mission results are expected around 2021, but early releases of preliminary data are expected. This review summarizes the main science goals and overall organisation of the project, then focuses on the expected performance and certain key issues of the measurement principle and its technical implementation.

  12. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  13. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…

  14. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  15. Self-Defined Community Satisfactions of Mexican American Families in Metropolitan South Texas: Age Status and Place of Residence Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Chester C.

    Trained, indigenous, bilingual people conducted interviews with 172 Mexican American families from the Southmost area of Brownsville and rural communities in Brooks County, Texas, to ascertain metro-nonmetro community satisfaction, as determined by place of residence and age status differentiations among family members. Complete family study units…

  16. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  17. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  18. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  19. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults.

  20. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults. PMID:27545519

  1. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    PubMed

    Kirrane, Maria J; de Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E; Frake, Amanda M; Wagnitz, Jeremy; Whelan, Pádraig M

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to Varroa mites of different ages and reproductive statuses in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four classes of mites: gravid, phoretic foundresses, phoretic daughters and a combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites. Each cage received 20 mites belonging to one of these classes. Our results showed that, 1 day after mite inoculation, phoretic daughter mites were the most prone to grooming by honey bees with an average mite drop of 49.8 ± 2.6 %. The lowest mite drop was recorded for bees inoculated with phoretic foundresses (30.3 ± 3.6 %) but was comparable to bees inoculated with gravid mites (31.8 ± 3.8 %) and the combination of gravid and phoretic foundress mites (34.2 ± 3.2 %). No differences among mite types were detected during the second and third days of observation. Regardless of mite type, the highest mite drop was recorded on the first day (35 ± 2.1 %) compared to the drop for any subsequent day (<10 %). Because of the great reproductive potential of daughter mites, their inclusion in assessments of grooming behaviour may increase our insight into the importance of grooming in mite resistance.

  2. Taking the reins: the effects of new leader status and leadership style on team performance.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Stephen J

    2011-05-01

    New leaders face a challenging task when they take charge of their teams. They have to determine how best to guide the work process, and they must understand how their behaviors will affect the members of their team. This research examines how a newly assigned team leader's status moderates subordinates' reactions to different leadership styles to affect assessments of the leader's self-confidence and effectiveness, and how this impacts team performance. Across 2 experimental studies, results demonstrate that low-status leaders are rated as more effective when they use a directive style, whereas high-status leaders are viewed as more effective when they use a participative style, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of self-confidence. In addition, teams whose leaders are viewed more favorably perform better on a complex group task. These findings imply that low-status individuals are able to enhance their level of personal power by drawing on whatever positional power they hold, whereas high-status individuals are better off relying solely on their personal power to influence others. This research also provides a clear demonstration that assessments of new leaders' behaviors are subject to an appraisal that is clouded by observers' status perceptions and attributions.

  3. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  4. Peak performance and age among superathletes: track and field, swimming, baseball, tennis, and golf.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Curnow, C

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the age of peak performance in a broad range of athletic events incorporating multiple, diverse biological systems, learned skills, and motivation. Although many researchers have noted that the absolute levels of peak performance among superathletes have improved dramatically in the last 100 years, to date no one has answered the question of stability of peak performance age over this time period. Analyses of Olympic track and field and swimming data show that the age at which peak performance is achieved has remained remarkably consistent. For both men and women, the age of peak performance increases with the length of the foot race, and women generally achieve peak performance at younger ages. The pattern of increased age with increasing distance is reversed for female swimmers, where younger ages are associated with increasing distance. For most categories of performance in baseball, the peak age of performance is equivalent to that of a long distance runner, about 28 years of age, while top tennis players reach their highest levels of performance at age 24. Golfers, in comparison, peak at about 31 years of age, although recent data suggest movement toward younger ages. A task analysis of each event is carried out, and the relative roles of biology and learning are discussed as determinants of peak performance.

  5. The level of association between functional performance status measures and patient-reported outcomes in cancer patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa F.; Roberts, Kailey E.; Saracino, Rebecca M.; Hernandez, Marisol; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The process of assessing patient symptoms and functionality using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and functional performance status (FPS) is an essential aspect of patient-centered oncology research and care. However, PRO and FPS measures are often employed separately or inconsistently combined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the level of association between PRO and FPS measures to determine their differential or combined utility. Methods A systematic search was conducted using five databases (1966 to February 2014) to identify studies that described an association between PRO and FPS. Studies were excluded if they were non-cancer specific, did not include adults aged 18 or older, or were review articles. Publications were selected for review by consensus among two authors, with a third author arbitrating as needed. Results A total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. FPS was primarily assessed by clinicians using the ECOG Performance Status or Karnofsky Performance Status measures. PROs were captured using a variety of measures, with numerous domains assessed (e.g., pain, fatigue, and general health status). Concordance between PROs and FPS measures was widely variable, falling in the low to moderate range (0.09–0.72). Conclusions Despite consistency in the method of capture of PROs or FPS, domain capture varied considerably across reviewed studies. Irrespective of the method of capturing PROs or FPS, the quantified level of association between these two areas was moderate at best, providing evidence that FPS and PRO assessments offer unique information to assist clinicians in their decision-making. PMID:26314706

  6. Effect of weaning status and implant regimen on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics of steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Turner, T B; Moeller, S J; Wulf, D M

    2001-05-01

    One hundred forty-three Angus x Simmental crossbred steers (initial BW = 155.1 +/- 4.5 kg) were used in a 2-yr study (yr 1, n = 67; yr 2, n = 76) to determine the effects of weaning age, implant regimen, and the weaning age x implant regimen interaction on steer growth and performance, organ mass, carcass characteristics, and cooked beef palatability. Steers were early-weaned at an average age of 108 d (EW) or normally weaned at an average age of 202 d (NW) and allotted by weight to an aggressive or nonaggressive implant regimen. On their respective weaning dates, EW and NW steers were penned individually and fed a grain-based diet until they were slaughtered at a final BW of 546 kg. A subsample of steers (n = 2 per treatment) were slaughtered at 254 kg. At 254 kg, EW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 64% greater backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen; conversely, NW steers implanted with the aggressive implant regimen had 52% lower backfat depth than those implanted with the nonaggressive implant regimen (weaning status x implant regimen interaction; P < 0.01). A similar interaction was observed for empty visceral organ weights. Early-weaned steers were younger (354.7 vs 372.4 d; P < 0.01) at final slaughter but were in the feedlot longer (246.5 vs 169.6 d; P < 0.01) than NW steers, whereas the aggressive implant regimen decreased days fed (203.3 vs 212.7; P < 0.07) compared to the nonaggressive implant regimen. Overall ADG was greater for EW than for NW steers (1.61 vs 1.50 kg/d; P < 0.01) and for the aggressive compared with the nonaggressive implant regimen (1.59 vs 1.52 kg/d; P < 0.02). Early-weaned steers consumed less DM per day (7.4 vs 8.5 kg/d; P < 0.01) and were more efficient (0.217 vs 0.208 kg/kg; P < 0.02) but consumed more total DM (1,817 vs 1,429 kg; P < 0.01) than NW steers while in the feedlot. Implant regimen did not affect DMI (P > 0.37) or feed efficiency (P > 0.15). Weaning status did

  7. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  8. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  9. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jecca Rhea; Sanders, Lee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes. Methods Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome-adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use. Results The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20-2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34-2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14-2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships. Conclusions for Practice Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth. PMID:27007984

  10. Effect of social ranks and gestation housing systems on oxidative stress status, reproductive performance, and immune status of sows.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Flowers, W L; Saraiva, A; Yeum, K-J; Kim, S W

    2013-12-01

    Ninety-six multiparous sows were randomly assigned into 2 different gestation housing systems on d 35 of gestation: individual gestational crates (n = 24) or small groups with 3 sows in gestational pens (n = 24). Sows were classified into 4 treatments based on gestation housing systems and social ranks within each gestational pen: sows housed in individual gestational crates were in control treatment (CON), and sows destined to high, middle, or low social ranks within each pen were classified into high social rank treatment (HR), middle social rank treatment (MR), and low social rank treatment (LR). The social rank of sows within a pen was determined by their winning percentage during aggressive interactions observed for a 4-d period after mixing on d 35 of gestation. Plasma samples collected from each sow on d 35, 60, 90, and 109 of gestation and d 1 and 18 of lactation were used to determine concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), IgG, and IgM. Sows in HR had higher (P < 0.05) body weight during gestation and lactation, smallest (P < 0.05) litter weight at birth, increased (P < 0.05) number of stillborn than sows in MR and LR, and tended to have decreased (P = 0.073, P = 0.064) number of born alive compared with sows in CON and LR. Sows in LR had lower farrowing rate compared with sows in MR. Plasma concentration of protein carbonyl in HR was higher (P < 0.05) than that in MR on d 3 of lactation. Plasma concentrations of 8-OHdG in LR was greater (P < 0.05) than that in HR on d 90 of gestation, d 3 and 18 of lactation, and greater (P < 0.05) than CON on d 18 of lactation. The reproductive performance of sows from all of the social ranks was related to their oxidative stress status during gestation and lactation. Collectively, the reproductive performance, oxidative stress status, and immune status did not differ between sows housed in gestational crates (CON) and pens (HR + MR + LR). Sows in CON and MR did not

  11. From Social Class to Self-Efficacy: Internalization of Low Social Status Pupils' School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiederkehr, Virginie; Darnon, Céline; Chazal, Sébastien; Guimond, Serge; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has largely documented that socioeconomic status (SES) is a strong and consistent predictor of pupils' school performance in several countries. In this research, we argue that children internalize the SES achievement gap in the form of a lower/higher sense of school self-efficacy. In two studies, teenaged students' (Study 1) and…

  12. Socio-Economic Status and Language Acquisition: Children's Performance on the New Reynell Developmental Language Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letts, Carolyn; Edwards, Susan; Sinka, Indra; Schaefer, Blanca; Gibbons, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in recent years have indicated a link between socio-economic status (SES) of families and children's language development, including studies that have measured children's language through formal standardized test procedures. High numbers of children with low performance have been found in lower socio-economic groups in…

  13. Immigrant Status and Home Language Background: Implications for Australian Student Performance in PISA 2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresswell, John

    2004-01-01

    The primary focus of this report is to examine the effect that immigrant status and home language background may have on the performance of Australian students who participated in the OECD/Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA 2000). Approximately 5,477 students from 231 schools across Australia participated in the study. In this…

  14. The Effects of Solo Status on Women's and Men's Success: The Moderating Role of the Performance Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viallon, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that being the only representative of one's gender group (solo status) when performing an activity affects women more than men. The aim of our two experiments was to show that the performance context can moderate the effects of numerical status (majority vs. solo) on performance and that men can also be…

  15. Age and distraction are determinants of performance on a novel visual search task in aged Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; Christie, Lori-Ann; De Rivera, Christina; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-02-01

    Aging has been shown to disrupt performance on tasks that require intact visual search and discrimination abilities in human studies. The goal of the present study was to determine if canines show age-related decline in their ability to perform a novel simultaneous visual search task. Three groups of canines were included: a young group (N = 10; 3 to 4.5 years), an old group (N = 10; 8 to 9.5 years), and a senior group (N = 8; 11 to 15.3 years). Subjects were first tested for their ability to learn a simple two-choice discrimination task, followed by the visual search task. Attentional demands in the task were manipulated by varying the number of distracter items; dogs received an equal number of trials with either zero, one, two, or three distracters. Performance on the two-choice discrimination task varied with age, with senior canines making significantly more errors than the young. Performance accuracy on the visual search task also varied with age; senior animals were significantly impaired compared to both the young and old, and old canines were intermediate in performance between young and senior. Accuracy decreased significantly with added distracters in all age groups. These results suggest that aging impairs the ability of canines to discriminate between task-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli. This is likely to be derived from impairments in cognitive domains such as visual memory and learning and selective attention.

  16. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State.

    PubMed

    Omitola, O O; Mogaji, H O; Oluwole, A S; Adeniran, A A; Alabi, O M; Ekpo, U F

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  17. Geohelminth Infections and Nutritional Status of Preschool Aged Children in a Periurban Settlement of Ogun State

    PubMed Central

    Omitola, O. O.; Mogaji, H. O.; Oluwole, A. S.; Adeniran, A. A.; Alabi, O. M.; Ekpo, U. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the geohelminth and nutritional status of preschoolers in a periurban community of Ogun state. Fresh stool specimens were collected for laboratory analysis, processed using ether concentration method, and examined under the microscope for geohelminth ova. Demographic characteristics and daily nutrient intake of children were subjectively assessed during an interview session with parents, following anthropometric data collection. Data obtained were analysed using a statistical software for Windows. Nutritional indicators such as underweight, stunting, and wasting were computed from anthropometric data. Results showed an overall prevalence of 39.2% and 12.4% for Ascariasis and Hookworm infection, respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the sexes. Prevalence of nutritional indicators was 52.6%, 35.1%, 34.0%, and 9.3% for underweight, stunting, wasting, and thinness conditions, respectively. A good proportion of the malnourished preschoolers were free of Ascaris infection but infected with Hookworm parasite. The adverse effect of geohelminth infection cannot still be ignored in impaired growth, reduced survival, poor development, and cognitive performance of preschoolers. Therefore promotion of adequate health education program on measures of preventing geohelminth infections is needed. PMID:27034905

  18. Improving Age Appropriate Social Skills To Enhance Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara

    This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…

  19. Academic Performance Difficulties: Age and Grade at First Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Archival records of 43 children referred for diagnosis and treatment for academic difficulties were examined. Results revealed a significant difference for age at first referral and diagnoses. Those with disorders such as learning disability and severe emotional disturbance tended to be older, while the ADHD and dysthymic disorders tended to be…

  20. Checking dwelling performance for Aging-in-Place.

    PubMed

    van der Vlies, Remy D; Nauta, Joram; Smit-Rietveld, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    About 90% of persons aged 55 and older would prefer to stay in their current residences as long as possible because older adults value their independence. However, aging-in-place is not always a choice. Recently, the Dutch government tightened the criteria for older adults to be admitted in a nursing home. Throughout the past 5 years TNO was requested by the trade association for building service contractors in the Netherlands to develop a number of tools for building service professionals. The 'dwelling check' was developed as a 'basic' check on the possibility for aging-in-place. A pilot study was conducted to assess the added value of the dwelling check for older adults. During this pilot study the occupants of over 200 dwellings were interviewed by 11 building services contractors using the dwelling check. Based on these interviews a personal advice was written. After which the interviewees were asked to evaluate this service, comprising the interview and written advice. The dwelling check contributed most to the awareness of and interest in possible alterations for aging-in-place. In a few cases the decision (17%) or even action (5%) was taken to make alterations. Overall the dwelling check was rated 8 out of 10 by the interviewees and may therefore be considered of added value. PMID:26294608

  1. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16-0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2-3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67-30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%-64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58-0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65-0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27-0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48-0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01-4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57-2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  2. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Berhanu Elfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47-0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16-0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2-3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67-30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%-64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58-0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65-0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27-0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48-0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01-4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57-2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection. PMID:27656219

  3. Age-related development profiles of the antioxidative defense system and the peroxidative status of the pig heart.

    PubMed

    Das, D K; Flansaas, D; Engelman, R M; Rousou, J A; Breyer, R H; Jones, R; Lemeshow, S; Otani, H

    1987-01-01

    The developmental profiles of the antioxidative defense system and the peroxidative status of the heart during growth and development were studied in pigs of three different age groups. A unique age-specific myocardial lipid peroxidation expressed in terms of malonaldehyde formation occurred after incubation of neonatal and adult pig heart homogenates in the absence of any added factors. Very little malonaldehyde release was noticed in the 0- to 2-day age group, while considerably higher activity was found in the 8- to 10-day-old animals. The 2-month-old pig heart again formed very little malonaldehyde. Myocardial injury from lipid peroxidation was highest in the 0- to 2-day age group, as evidenced by the release of oxidized glutathione, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. Release of glutathione, LDH and CK decreased with age and was minimal in the adult group. The antioxidative enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase, increased during the first 10 days of neonatal growth and then levelled off. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was present in appreciably lower amounts in adult hearts compared to neonatal hearts. Heart weight increased with aging, but myocardial water content decreased. Protein and DNA contents of hearts increased with age, such that the protein/DNA ratio almost doubled from the newborn to adult age. The results indicate that the newborn pig hearts are equipped with the antioxidative defense system, which undergoes significant development during the initial phase of neonatal growth and does not change appreciably thereafter. The results further suggest that the change in activity profile with aging is different for different enzymes, and the peroxidative status of the myocardium is not a function of these enzyme activities. PMID:3567255

  4. The roles of COMT val158met status and aviation expertise in flight simulator performance and cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Q; Taylor, J L; Noda, A; Adamson, M; Murphy, G M; Zeitzer, J M; Yesavage, J A

    2011-09-01

    The polymorphic variation in the val158met position of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is associated with differences in executive performance, processing speed, and attention. The purpose of this study is: (1) replicate previous COMT val158met findings on cognitive performance; (2) determine whether COMT val158met effects extend to a real-world task, aircraft navigation performance in a flight simulator; and (3) determine if aviation expertise moderates any effect of COMT val158met status on flight simulator performance. One hundred seventy two pilots aged 41-69 years, who varied in level of aviation training and experience, completed flight simulator, cognitive, and genetic assessments. Results indicate that although no COMT effect was found for an overall measure of flight performance, a positive effect of the met allele was detected for two aspects of cognitive ability: executive functioning and working memory performance. Pilots with the met/met genotype benefited more from increased levels of expertise than other participants on a traffic avoidance measure, which is a component of flight simulator performance. These preliminary results indicate that COMT val158met polymorphic variation can affect a real-world task.

  5. Undernutrition, fatty acid and micronutrient status in relation to cognitive performance in Indian school children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Eilander, Ans; Muthayya, Sumithra; van der Knaap, Henk; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Thomas, Tinku; Kok, Frans J; Kurpad, Anura V; Osendarp, Saskia J M

    2010-04-01

    While undernutrition and anaemia have previously been linked to poor development of children, relatively little is known about the role of B-vitamins and fatty acids on cognition. The present study aims to explore the associations between indicators of body size, fatty acid and micronutrient status on cognitive performance in 598 Indian school children aged 6-10 years. Baseline data of a clinical study were used to assess these associations by analyses of variance adjusting for age, sex, school, maternal education and cognitive tester. The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children II was used to measure four cognitive domains, including fluid reasoning, short-term memory, retrieval ability and cognitive speediness. Scores were combined into an overall measure, named mental processing index (MPI). Body size indicators and Hb concentrations were significantly positively related to cognitive domains and MPI, such that increases of 1 sd in height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores would each translate into a 0.09 sd increase in MPI, P = 0.0006 and 0.002, respectively. A 10 g/l increase in Hb concentrations would translate into a 0.08 sd increase in MPI, P = 0.0008. Log-transformed vitamin B12 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with short-term memory, retrieval ability and MPI (beta (95 % CI) = - 0.124 (- 0.224, - 0.023), P = 0.02). Other indicators of Fe, iodine, folate and fatty acid status were not significantly related to cognition. Our findings for body size, fatty acids and micronutrients were in agreement with previous observational studies. The inverse association of vitamin B12 with mental development was unexpected and needed further study. PMID:20003612

  6. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse; Biensø, Rasmus; Schmidt, Jakob; Hellsten, Ylva; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Healthy, physically inactive men (60–72 years old) were randomized to either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250 mg resveratrol or placebo or to 8 weeks of high-intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased skeletal muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α mRNA ∼1.5-fold, cytochrome c protein ∼1.3-fold, cytochrome c oxidase I protein ∼1.5-fold, citrate synthase activity ∼1.3-fold, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity ∼1.3-fold, inhibitor of κB-α and inhibitor of κB-β protein content ∼1.3-fold and time to exhaustion in the one-legged knee-extensor endurance exercise test by ∼1.2-fold, with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ∼25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably, however, resveratrol blunted an exercise training-induced decrease (∼20%) in protein carbonylation and decrease (∼40%) in tumour necrosis factor α mRNA content in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, resveratrol did not elicit metabolic improvements in healthy aged subjects; in fact, resveratrol even impaired the observed exercise training-induced improvements in markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in skeletal muscle. Collectively, this highlights the metabolic efficacy of exercise training in aged subjects and does not support the contention that resveratrol is a potential exercise mimetic in healthy aged subjects. PMID:24514907

  7. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  8. [Aging of residents of St. Petersburg: current status and near-future prospects].

    PubMed

    Safarova, G L

    2002-01-01

    Population ageing, an increase in the proportion of elderly, is a worldwide process. Having numerous economic, social and political consequences, population ageing has now risen to the top of developed nations' agendas. The evolution of ageing characteristics during 1970-2000 for Saint-Petersburg and their future trends have been considered. Comparisons with characteristics of ageing for Russia have been done. Special attention has been paid to gender disparities of ageing characteristics.

  9. Age-Related Changes in Performance and Recovery Kinetics in Masters Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nattai; Reaburn, Peter; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.

  10. Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Narksawat, Kulaya; Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Boonthum, Angsana

    2009-03-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition and identified oral hygiene indicators among older children aged 12-14 years in primary schools in Thailand. The study was comprised of 862 schoolchildren from five provinces representing five regions of Thailand, from both rural and urban areas, including Bangkok. The dental hygeine status was assessed by evaluating for decayed teeth, missing teeth due to decay, and filled teeth index (DMFT index). Weight and height were measured to evaluate the nutritional status; hygiene practices assessed by interview. The results show a negative relationship between nutritional status and the DMFT index, which increased when the nutritional status decreased (Spearman's rho correlation = -0.140, p < 0.001). The results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed normal weight and thin schoolchildren were more likely to have a DMFT of at least 1 by 1.94 times (OR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.25-3.00, p = 0.004) and 2.22 times (OR = 2.22; 95%CI = 1.20-4.09, p = 0.001), respectively, compared to overweight and obese children. Normal and thin schoolchildren had a higher risk for dental caries than overweight and obese children aged 12-14 years in Thailand. School health promotion activities should emphasize eating habit improvement in order to reduce the incidence of caries.

  11. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes-Filho, Jose A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-15

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 {mu}g/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 {mu}g/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 {mu}g/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; {beta} coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's ({beta}=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  12. Adolescent weight status and self-reported school performance in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Young Kyung; Finkelstein, Eric Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Using a nationally representative sample of 142 783 middle school (13-15 years old) and high school (16-18 years old) students in South Korea, this study examined whether (1) overweight and obesity are more likely to be associated with lower self-reported school performance; (2) overweight and obese students are more likely to enrol in a vocational high school as opposed to a general high school; (3) the association between obesity and poorer self-reported school performance is mediated through body image stress and health status. We found that excess weight was negatively associated with self-reported school performance among middle and general high school students, and that obese students had a higher probability of being enrolled in a vocational over a general high school. We did not find strong evidence on the mediating role of body image stress and health status.

  13. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Menger, Katja E; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Harbour, Michael E; Chouchani, Edward T; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P

    2015-06-30

    Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  14. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  15. The Age-Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that…

  16. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  17. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  18. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  19. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  20. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  1. The influence of physiological status on age prediction of Anopheles arabiensis using near infra-red spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining the age of malaria vectors is essential for evaluating the impact of interventions that reduce the survival of wild mosquito populations and for estimating changes in vectorial capacity. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-destructive method that has been used to determine the age and species of Anopheles gambiae s.l. by analyzing differences in absorption spectra. The spectra are affected by biochemical changes that occur during the life of a mosquito and could be influenced by senescence and also the life history of the mosquito, i.e., mating, blood feeding and egg-laying events. Methods To better understand these changes, we evaluated the influence of mosquito physiological status on NIR energy absorption spectra. Mosquitoes were kept in individual cups to permit record keeping of each individual insect’s life history. Mosquitoes of the same chronological age, but at different physiological stages, were scanned and compared using cross-validations. Results We observed a slight trend within some physiological stages that suggest older insects tend to be predicted as being physiologically more mature. It was advantageous to include mosquitoes of different chronological ages and physiological stages in calibrations, as it increases the robustness of the model resulting in better age predictions. Conclusions Progression through different physiological statuses of An. arabiensis influences the chronological age prediction by the NIRS. Entomologists that wish to use NIR technology to predict the age of field-caught An. gambiae s.l from their study area should use a calibration developed from their field strain using mosquitoes of diverse chronological ages and physiological stages to increase the robustness and accuracy of the predictions. PMID:24499515

  2. Vitamin E Status and Metabolism in Adult and Aged Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G.; Mustacich, Debbie J.; Sullivan, Laura C.; Leonard, Scott W.; Ahern-Rindell, Amelia; Kerkvliet, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in regulation of mechanisms for detoxification of xenobiotics, as well as vitamin A metabolism. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient whose metabolism is initialized via the cytochrome P450 system. Thus, AhR absence could alter hepatic regulation of α-tocopherol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we assessed vitamin E status in adult (2–5 m) and old (21–22 m), wildtype and AhR-null mice. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in AhR null mice (2.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L, n= 19) were lower than those of wildtype mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n=17, P=0.0131); those in old mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n= 20) were higher than those of adults (2.2 ± 1.0, n=16, p=0.0075). Hepatic α-tocopherol concentrations were not different between genotypes, but were nearly double in old (32 ± 8 nmol/g, n=20) as compared with adult mice (17 ± 2, n=16, p<0.0001). Hepatic Cyp3a concentrations in AhR-null mice were greater than those in wildtypes (p=0.0011). Genotype (p=0.0047), sex (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.0001) were significant modifiers of liver α-tocopherol metabolite (α-CEHC) concentrations. In general, Cyp3a concentrations correlated with hepatic α-tocopherol (r= 0.3957, p<0.05) and α-CEHC (r=0.4260, p<0.05) concentrations. Since there were no significant genotype differences in the hepatic α- or γ-tocopherol concentrations, AhR null mice did not have dramatically altered vitamin E metabolism. Since they did have higher hepatic α-CEHC concentrations, these data suggest metabolism was up-regulated in the AhR null mice in order to maintain the hepatic tocopherol concentrations similar to those of wildtypes. PMID:20153623

  3. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  4. Influence of Diet, Menstruation and Genetic Factors on Iron Status: A Cross-Sectional Study in Spanish Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Blanco-Rojo, Ruth; Toxqui, Laura; López-Parra, Ana M.; Baeza-Richer, Carlos; Pérez-Granados, Ana M.; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; Vaquero, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined influence of diet, menstruation and genetic factors on iron status in Spanish menstruating women (n = 142). Dietary intake was assessed by a 72-h detailed dietary report and menstrual blood loss by a questionnaire, to determine a Menstrual Blood Loss Coefficient (MBLC). Five selected SNPs were genotyped: rs3811647, rs1799852 (Tf gene); rs1375515 (CACNA2D3 gene); and rs1800562 and rs1799945 (HFE gene, mutations C282Y and H63D, respectively). Iron biomarkers were determined and cluster analysis was performed. Differences among clusters in dietary intake, menstrual blood loss parameters and genotype frequencies distribution were studied. A categorical regression was performed to identify factors associated with cluster belonging. Three clusters were identified: women with poor iron status close to developing iron deficiency anemia (Cluster 1, n = 26); women with mild iron deficiency (Cluster 2, n = 59) and women with normal iron status (Cluster 3, n = 57). Three independent factors, red meat consumption, MBLC and mutation C282Y, were included in the model that better explained cluster belonging (R2 = 0.142, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the combination of high red meat consumption, low menstrual blood loss and the HFE C282Y mutation may protect from iron deficiency in women of childbearing age. These findings could be useful to implement adequate strategies to prevent iron deficiency anemia. PMID:24663082

  5. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection. PMID:27656219

  6. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection.

  7. Children's nutrient intake variability is affected by age and body weight status according to results from a Brazilian multicenter study.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Michelle A; Verly, Eliseu; Fisberg, Mauro; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge in nutritional studies focusing on children is estimating "true" intake because the type and amount of foods eaten change throughout growth and development, thereby affecting the variability of intake. The present study investigated the hypothesis that age and body weight status affect the ratio of the within- and between-subject variation of intakes (VR) as well as the number of days of dietary assessment (D) of energy and nutrients. A total of 2,981 Brazilian preschoolers aged 1-6 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Weighed food records and estimated food records were used to assess dietary intake inside and outside of school. Within- and between-subject variations of intakes were estimated by multilevel regression models. VR and D were calculated according to age group and body weight status. VR ranged from 1.17 (calcium) to 8.70 (fat) in the 1- to 2-year-old group, and from 1.47 (calcium) to 8.95 (fat) in the 3- to 6-year-old group. Fat, fiber, riboflavin, folate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron exhibited greater VR and D in the 3- to 6-year-old group. For energy, carbohydrates, and protein, both within- and between-subject variation increased with increasing age. In both body weight groups, calcium showed the lowest VR. Fat showed the highest VR in nonoverweight/obese children (9.47), and fiber showed the highest VR in overweight/obese children (8.74). For most nutrients, D = 7 was sufficient to correctly rank preschoolers into tertiles of intake. In conclusion, age and body weight status affected the within- and between-subject variation and the VR of energy and nutrient intakes among Brazilian preschool children.

  8. The effect of depression and anxiety on the performance status of end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Emilda Juidth Ezhil; Subramanian, Somasundaram

    2016-03-01

    Individuals who are diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergo major changes in lifestyle. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the relationship between patients who undergo hemodialysis (HD) and their performance status, and how it is influenced by the presence of the level of depression and anxiety. A total of 50 patients were recruited from HD centers in and around Chennai. The patients were screened using the General Health Questionnaire to screen for co-morbid psychiatric conditions. The patients were assessed for depression and anxiety, and their performance status was assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory, Beck's Anxiety Inventory, and Karnofsky Performance Status. The study findings indicate that there is a positive correlation between anxiety and depression in ESRD patients. The findings also indicated that depression and anxiety are positively correlated with the performance status of ESRD patients. The duration on, as well as the frequency of dialysis, also correlated with the performance status of ESRD patients. It can be concluded that anxiety and depression are prevalent among ESRD patients and that they interfere with the performance status; additionally, duration on dialysis also interferes with performance status. Addressing depression and anxiety can help in enhancing the patient's performance status.

  9. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  10. Mobility in Old Age: Capacity Is Not Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mellone, Sabato; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outcomes of laboratory-based tests for mobility are often used to infer about older adults' performance in real life; however, it is unclear whether such association exists. We hypothesized that mobility capacity, as measured in the laboratory, and mobility performance, as measured in real life, would be poorly linked. Methods. The sample consisted of 84 older adults (72.5 ± 5.9 years). Capacity was assessed via the iTUG and standard gait parameters (stride length, stride velocity, and cadence). Performance was assessed in real life over a period of 6.95 ± 1.99 days using smartphone technology to calculate following parameters: active and gait time, number of steps, life-space, mean action-range, and maximum action-range. Correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression analyses were applied. Results. All laboratory measures demonstrated significant associations with the real-life measures (between r = .229 and r = .461). The multiple regression analyses indicated that the laboratory measures accounted for a significant but very low proportion of variance (between 5% and 21%) in real-life measures. Conclusion. In older adults without mobility impairments, capacity-related measures of mobility bear little significance for predicting real-life performance. Hence, other factors play a role in how older people manage their daily-life mobility. This should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of mobility deficits in older people. PMID:27034932

  11. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  12. Effects of age on plasma levels of calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in male SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Wang, Ming-Fu; Liu, Mei-Hui; Lin, Wu-Ting; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2004-03-31

    This study was undertaken to examine whether the plasma levels of calcium-regulating hormones and bone status alter with age in male senescence accelerated mice (SAM), SAMP8. Age-matched senescence-resistant mice, SAMR1, were used as controls. The blood and femur samples were collected at 2.5 months of age (M) and then monthly from 3 to 12 M for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. With advancing age, the plasma calcitonin (CT) levels decreased progressively, and the plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) levels increased in both SAMR1 and SAMP8. The plasma calcium concentrations were maintained within a narrow range throughout the experimental period, while the plasma phosphorus (P) concentrations decreased with age in both strains. In contrast to SAMR1, the curves of age-related changes in the plasma CT levels and P concentrations were lower, and those in the plasma PTH levels were higher in SAMP8. The femoral bone densities and calcium contents increased gradually with age from the beginning of the experiment and peaked at 6 M in both strains, then declined. Those peaks were lower in SAMP8 than in SAMR1. These results indicate that the male SAMP8 develops osteoporotic signs earlier than SAMR1, and is proved to be a satisfactory animal model for longitudinal studies related to osteoporosis for men. PMID:15239589

  13. The relationship between age and major league baseball performance: implications for development.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Musa, D; Staszewski, J; Siegler, R S

    1994-06-01

    Lifetime performance data of 388 baseball players active in 1965 were analyzed to determine the age of peak performance for skills required to play baseball, to derive age-performance curves for athletic productivity, and to assess the magnitude of individual differences among elite and less able players. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses show that athletic performance on key indicators rises relatively quickly from age 19 to a peak age of 27 and then declines. The primary difference between elite and less able players is that performance of the elite players remains high for a longer period of time and decays more gradually. The performance of the most elite players is superior to that of less able players even at very early ages. These results parallel findings reported for other achievement domains and can be explained in terms of basic developmental processes involving the interaction of experience, physiological capacity, and motivation.

  14. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain. PMID:27379504

  15. Comparison of Physical Fitness Status between Middle-aged and Elderly Male Laborers According to Lifestyle Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yong, Mi-Hyun; Shin, Joong-Il; Yang, Dong-Joo; Yang, Yeong-Ae

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] We sought to examine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and physical fitness in middle-aged and elderly laborers. [Subjects] In total, 2,469 male laborers between 45 and 64 years of age residing in eight cities in South Korea were studied between January and December 2007. [Methods] Age, height, and weight were evaluated as general characteristics. Lifestyle behavior items included exercise, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours. Physical fitness was assessed by measuring muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and agility. [Results] In terms of physical fitness status, all items except handgrip strength showed significant changes according to exercise frequency. Dietary habits were associated with significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. Smoking and drinking were associated with significant differences in sit-ups between subgroups. Sleeping hours demonstrated significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. [Conclusion] Although there were differences according to physical fitness status, exercise frequency, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours showed significant associations with physical fitness. Thus, healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise, regular dietary habits, not smoking, moderate drinking, and adequate sleep, are important for physical fitness management and work capacity improvement in middle-aged and elderly laborers.

  16. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Devinder KA; Manaf, Zahara A; Yusoff, Noor Aini M; Muhammad, Nur A; Phan, Mei Fang; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions. Methods Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females) aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63) years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test), biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels), and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered. Results The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL), and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L). A significant correlation (P<0.05) was demonstrated between hand grip strength and ferritin, between self-reported mobility dependence and prealbumin levels, and between self-reported mobility tiredness and body mass index. Conclusion These results confirm that older adults with undernutrition have poor physical function, higher falls risk, and depression

  17. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models.

  18. Performance Status in Elderly Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Exploring Gene Expression Signatures of Cytokines and Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Nipp, Ryan D.

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease that predominantly affects elderly patients. Cytokines and chemokines are major players in the pathogenesis of AML. They regulate the disease course and play a deleterious role in the progression of AML. The geriatric population is particularly vulnerable to these mediators as these cytokines and chemokines are also implicated in the development of frailty, fatigue, and declining cognitive function. It is the combination of these adverse effects of cytokines and chemokines that affect performance status and, in turn, the poor prognosis in this age group. Cytokines and chemokines are emerging as therapeutic targets in AML. Future endeavors to treat AML will likely involve cytokines and chemokines as attempts are made to disrupt the bone marrow environment. By modulating the bone marrow stroma, the goal is to create an environment less favorable to AML cells and more favorable to the effects of chemotherapy against AML. PMID:23783402

  19. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  20. Anticoccidial drugs and duckling performance to four weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Holderread, D; Nakaue, H S; Arscott, G H

    1983-06-01

    Frequently, publications pertaining to waterfowl state that medicated feeds should not be fed to ducklings and goslings. In some localities, producers and hobbyists who raise a small number of ducklings and goslings can purchase only medicated chick, turkey, or gamebird starter and grower feeds. Because of the lack of documented information on this subject and the numerous requests for advice on this matter, anticoccidial drugs, zoalene, sulfaquinoxaline, and amprolium, were mixed in mash feed and fed to Khaki Campbell male ducklings to 4 weeks of age. No significant differences in mean body weight, mortality, and anatomical development were observed among the treatments. Medicated commercial crumble turkey and chick starter feeds produced significantly better feed conversion than the mash medicated or nonmedicated feeds. These differences can be attributed to greater feed spillage with the mash feed. Some ducklings in all treatments showed unsteadiness of gait and shaky legs. These conditions disappeared when the ducklings were moved from the battery brooder to an outside pen. Zoalene, sulfaquinoxaline, and amprolium used at the recommended levels for chickens and turkeys did not cause any leg or anatomical problems in ducklings.

  1. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  2. The Impact of Perceived Worker Age on Treatment of Experienced and Inexperienced Poor Performers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Ross, Cheryl L.

    Although there have been numerous studies of age discrimination in the workplace, little research has addressed the issue of corrective actions taken against poorly performing older workers. This study was conducted to examine the effects of both age and tenure on corrective actions recommended for poor performers. Subjects (N=84) were working age…

  3. Food Provisioning and Parental Status in Songbirds: Can Occupancy Models Be Used to Estimate Nesting Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Corbani, Aude Catherine; Hachey, Marie-Hélène; Desrochers, André

    2014-01-01

    Indirect methods to estimate parental status, such as the observation of parental provisioning, have been problematic due to potential biases associated with imperfect detection. We developed a method to evaluate parental status based on a novel combination of parental provisioning observations and hierarchical modeling. In the summers of 2009 to 2011, we surveyed 393 sites, each on three to four consecutive days at Forêt Montmorency, Québec, Canada. We assessed parental status of 2331 adult songbirds based on parental food provisioning. To account for imperfect detection of parental status, we applied MacKenzie et al.'s (2002) two-state hierarchical model to obtain unbiased estimates of the proportion of sites with successfully nesting birds, and the proportion of adults with offspring. To obtain an independent evaluation of detection probability, we monitored 16 active nests in 2010 and conducted parental provisioning observations away from them. The probability of detecting food provisioning was 0.31 when using nest monitoring, a value within the 0.11 to 0.38 range that was estimated by two-state models. The proportion of adults or sites with broods approached 0.90 and varied depending on date during the sampling season and year, exemplifying the role of eastern boreal forests as highly productive nesting grounds for songbirds. This study offers a simple and effective sampling design for studying avian reproductive performance that could be implemented in national surveys such as breeding bird atlases. PMID:24999969

  4. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  5. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  6. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  7. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  8. The influence of age on reproductive performance of the predatory ladybird beetle, Propylea dissecta.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Ahmad; Omkar; Richmond, Aaron S

    2004-01-01

    The influence of age on reproductive performance of an aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Propylea dissecta was examined using male and female beetles of varying ages (1-30 days) after a single mating stimulus. All the intermediate (10 to 20 days old) and old (30 days old) age females mated with all intermediate and old age males, while only a fraction (0.29%) of younger females, 1 to 5 days old, mated with males of similar or older age. The willingness to mate was male age dependent. It increased sigmoidally with increase in adult age. Adult males were more willing to mate with females irrespective of age. Mating duration was longest amongst older adults (30 day-old males and 20 day-old females). Male age did not contribute to shaping the fecundity of the female ladybird. Fecundity was female age dependent and it increased with age up to 20 days and thereafter decreased. 20 day-old females were most fecund producing 867 eggs after a single mating. Progeny production was male age dependent and eggs sired by 20-30 day-old males had significantly higher viability than those sired by younger males. Prolonged mating increased fecundity and egg viability. The results reveal that males of intermediate age were better mates. This information may improve our understanding of the effect of aging on reproduction in ladybirds and may help mass-multiplication of the ladybird beetles using adults of optimal age.

  9. Nutrient Status Assessment in Individuals and Populations for Healthy Aging-Statement from an Expert Workshop.

    PubMed

    Péter, Szabolcs; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Feskens, Edith; Schols, Annemie; Navis, Gerjan; Kuipers, Folkert; Weber, Peter; Eggersdorfer, Manfred

    2015-12-16

    A workshop organized by the University Medical Center Groningen addressed various current issues regarding nutrient status of individuals and populations, tools and strategies for its assessment, and opportunities to intervene. The importance of nutrient deficiencies and information on nutrient status for health has been illustrated, in particular for elderly and specific patient groups. The nutrient profile of individuals can be connected to phenotypes, like hypertension or obesity, as well as to socio-economic data. This approach provides information on the relationship between nutrition (nutrient intake and status) and health outcomes and, for instance, allows us to use the findings to communicate and advocate a healthy lifestyle. Nutrition is complex: a broader profile of nutrients should be considered rather than focusing solely on a single nutrient. Evaluating food patterns instead of intake of individual nutrients provides better insight into relationships between nutrition and health and disease. This approach would allow us to provide feedback to individuals about their status and ways to improve their nutritional habits. In addition, it would provide tools for scientists and health authorities to update and develop public health recommendations.

  10. Early Childbearing, Marital Status, and Women's Health and Mortality after Age 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henretta, John C.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional on reaching…

  11. Effects of age, tenure, training, and job complexity on technical performance.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, P R; Davies, D R

    1988-09-01

    Effects on performance of age, tenure, training level, and job complexity were investigated in a cross-sectional study using a sample of 1,308 service engineers employed by a multinational office equipment company. Two measures of job performance were derived from production record data, one relating to the quality of servicing and the other to the speed with which services were completed. Scores for each performance measure were analyzed by analysis of variance. For the quality of servicing measure, a significant main effect of age and a significant Age X Training interaction were obtained, and the relation between age and job performance took the form of an inverted U. For the speed of servicing measure, the main effects of age, tenure, training level, and job complexity were significant and there were no significant interactions. However, for both performance measures, age accounted for only a very small proportion of the variance. We discuss these results with reference to the existing literature on age and technical job performance, and conclude that training, especially if it is recent, may moderate adverse effects of age on job performance. PMID:3268273

  12. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  13. Vitamin B6 status assessment in relation to dietary intake in high school students aged 16-18 years.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sue-Joan; Hsiao, Li-Ju; Lee, Yi-Chun; Hsuen, Shou-Ying

    2007-04-01

    The vitamin B6 status of high school students and its relationship with dietary intake were investigated in this cross-sectional study by face-to-face interview. A total of 157 healthy students aged 16-18 years (eighty-three boys and seventy-four girls) were randomly recruited from two out of nineteen senior high schools in Tainan, Taiwan. Vitamin B6 intakes were calculated from three 24-h dietary records. Direct and indirect vitamin B6 status indicators were measured in plasma, erythrocytes and urine. The anthropometric data, being similar to those of the first Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (1993-1996), showed the normal growth and development of these students. All students except one girl (28.7 nmol/l) had plasma pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) levels >35 nmol/l, indicating an adequate vitamin B6 status. The mean dietary vitamin B6 intakes of boys and girls were 1.04 (sd 0.29) and 0.96 (sd 0.27) mg/d, respectively. Vitamin B6 status indicators, including plasma PLP, erythrocyte alanine aminotransferase activity coefficient (EALT-AC), aspartate aminotransferase activity coefficient (EAST-AC) and urinary 4-pyridoxic acid (4-PA), were correlated with vitamin B6 intake. Students with adequate values of plasma PLP (>35 nmol/l), EALT-AC ( < 1.25), EAST-AC ( < 1.8) and urinary 4-PA (>3.0 micromol/d) had median intakes of 1.08 and 1.01 mg/d, respectively, for boys and girls. This study suggests that vitamin B6 requirements for boys and girls aged 16-18 years were approximately 1.1 and 1.0 mg/d, respectively.

  14. WWER Steam Generators Tubing Performance and Aging Management

    SciTech Connect

    Trunov, Nikolay B.; Davidenko, Stanislav E.; Grigoriev, Vladimir A.; Popadchuk, Valery S.; Brykov, Sergery I.; Karzov, Georgy P.

    2006-07-01

    At WWER NPPs the horizontal steam generators (SGs), are used that differ in design concept from vertical SGs mostly used at western NPPs. Reliable operation of SG heat-exchanging tubes is the crucial worldwide problem for NPP of various types. According to the operation feedback the water chemistry is the governing factor affecting operability of SG tubing. The secondary side corrosion is considered to be the main mechanism of SG heat-exchanging tubes damage at WWER plants. To make the assessment of the tubing integrity the combination of pressure tests and eddy-current tests is used. Assessment of the tubing performance is an important part of SG life extension practice. The given paper deals with the description of the tube testing strategy and the approach to tube integrity assessment based on deterministic and probabilistic methods of fracture mechanics. Requirements for eddy-current test are given as well. Practice of condition monitoring and implementing the database on steam generators operation are presented. The approach to tubes plugging criteria is described. The research activities on corrosion mechanism studies and residual lifetime evaluation are mentioned. (authors)

  15. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance.

  16. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance. PMID:11766912

  17. Time of Day and Training Status Both Impact the Efficacy of Caffeine for Short Duration Cycling Performance

    PubMed Central

    Boyett, James C.; Giersch, Gabrielle E. W.; Womack, Christopher J.; Saunders, Michael J.; Hughey, Christine A.; Daley, Hannah M.; Luden, Nicholas D.

    2016-01-01

    This project was designed to assess the effects of time of day and training status on the benefits of caffeine supplementation for cycling performance. Twenty male subjects (Age, 25 years; Peak oxygen consumption, 57 mL·kg−1·min−1) were divided into tertiles based on training levels, with top and bottom tertiles designated as ‘trained’ (n = 7) and ‘untrained’ (n = 7). Subjects completed two familiarization trials and four experimental trials consisting of a computer-simulated 3-km cycling time trial (TT). The trials were performed in randomized order for each combination of time of day (morning and evening) and treatment (6mg/kg of caffeine or placebo). Magnitude-based inferences were used to evaluate all treatment effects. For all subjects, caffeine enhanced TT performance in the morning (2.3% ± 1.7%, ‘very likely’) and evening (1.4% ± 1.1%, ‘likely’). Both untrained and trained subjects improved performance with caffeine supplementation in the morning (5.5% ± 4.3%, ‘likely’; 1.0% ± 1.7%, ‘likely’, respectively), but only untrained subjects rode faster in the evening (2.9% ± 2.6%, ‘likely’). Altogether, our observations indicate that trained athletes are more likely to derive ergogenic effects from caffeine in the morning than the evening. Further, untrained individuals appear to receive larger gains from caffeine in the evening than their trained counterparts. PMID:27754419

  18. Nutritional status of breast-fed and non-exclusively breast-fed infants from birth to age 5 months in 8 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defu; Ning, Yibing; Gao, Hongchong; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Junkuan; Zheng, Yingdong; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Peiyu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status of infants aged 0 to 5 months by different feeding approaches. A cross-sectional study on infant nutrition was performed in eight cities in China. A total of 622 infants from birth to 2 months of age and 456 infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were included in this study. Mix-fed infants received breast milk and complementary foods from birth to 2 months of age. Approximately 38.2% of mix-fed infants received excessive vitamin A, and 15.6% of infants exceeded the tolerable upper intake levels (ULs) of zinc. For artificially fed infants who received only complementary foods, approximately 20% and 12.5% infants received inadequate dietary vitamin A and zinc intakes, respectively. The vitamin A and zinc intakes of half of the infants exceeded the ULs. Results showed that the usual intake distribution of the infants from 3 months to 5 months of age were similar to that of the infants from birth to 2 months of age. The common vitamin A and zinc intakes were also severely imbalanced. In addition, higher disease prevalence and lower Z scores of length-forage, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length were found in artificially fed infants and mix-fed infants compared with those in breast-fed infants. In conclusion, the usual nutrient intakes were adequate for the majority of Chinese infants, except for an important number of infants at risk for imbalance of vitamin A and zinc intakes.

  19. Vitamin D status is associated with bone mineral density and bone mineral content in preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Hazell, Tom J; Pham, Thu Trang; Jean-Philippe, Sonia; Finch, Sarah L; El Hayek, Jessy; Vanstone, Catherine A; Agellon, Sherry; Rodd, Celia J; Weiler, Hope A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between vitamin D status, bone mineral content (BMC), areal bone mineral density (aBMD), and markers of calcium homeostasis in preschool-aged children. Children (n=488; age range: 1.8-6.0 y) were randomly recruited from Montreal. The distal forearm was scanned using a peripheral dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scanner (Lunar PIXI; GE Healthcare, Fairfield, CT). A subset (n=81) had clinical dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (cDXA) scans (Hologic 4500A Discovery Series) of lumbar spine (LS) 1-4, whole body, and ultradistal forearm. All were assessed for plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone concentrations (Liaison; Diasorin), ionized calcium (ABL80 FLEX; Radiometer Medical A/S), and dietary vitamin D and calcium intakes by survey. Age (p<0.001) and weight-for-age Z-score (p<0.001) were positively associated with BMC and aBMD in all regression models, whereas male sex contributed positively to forearm BMC and aBMD. Having a 25(OH)D concentration of >75 nmol/L positively associated with forearm and whole body BMC and aBMD (p<0.036). Sun index related to (p<0.029) cDXA forearm and LS 1-4 BMC and whole-body aBMD. Nutrient intakes did not relate to BMC or aBMD. In conclusion, higher vitamin D status is linked to higher BMC and aBMD of forearm and whole body in preschool-aged children.

  20. Effects of trace mineral injections on measures of performance and trace mineral status of pre- and postweaned beef calves.

    PubMed

    Arthington, J D; Moriel, P; Martins, P G M A; Lamb, G C; Havenga, L J

    2014-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of injectable trace minerals (ITM) on measures of trace mineral status and performance in pre- and postweaned Brangus-crossbred beef calves. In Exp. 1, calves were assigned to treatments in alternating birth order (n = 150; 75/treatment), consisting of a 1-mL subcutaneous injection of ITM (MultiMin 90; MultiMin USA, Inc., Fort Collins, CO) or sterile saline. The ITM formulation consisted of 60, 10, 15, and 5 mg/mL of Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se. Treatments were readministered at 100 and 200 d of age. Calf BW was recorded at birth and on d 100, 150, 200, and 250 (weaning). Trace mineral status was assessed in liver biopsy samples (n = 12/treatment) collected on d 150, 200, and 250. Administration of ITM had no impact on BW gain (P ≥ 0.55) but did result in greater (P ≤ 0.02) concentrations of liver Cu and Se and lesser (P = 0.05) liver Fe concentrations compared to saline-injected calves. In Exp. 2, 24 heifers were selected from the weaned calves of Exp. 1 (n = 12/treatment) and transported 1,600 km. Remaining on their original treatments, heifers were administered 5 mL of ITM or saline following transport (d 0). Blood samples, for acute phase protein (APP) analysis, were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 13 and liver biopsy samples for assessment of trace mineral status on d 13. Plasma APP concentrations increased in all calves following weaning and transport but concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in ITM- vs. saline-injected heifers on d 6 and 9. Liver concentrations of Cu, Se, and Zn were greater (P ≤ 0.04) but ADG lesser (P = 0.05) for heifers receiving ITM vs. saline. In Exp. 3, 34 heifers, without previous exposure to ITM, were enrolled in a 177-d development study (n = 17/treatment). Treatments consisted of 2.5-mL injections of ITM or sterile saline on d 0, 51, and 127. Humoral immune response to an injection of porcine red blood cells (PRBC) was evaluated on d 51. Trace mineral status was evaluated in

  1. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Methods Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). Results The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences

  2. Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192

  3. The Effects of Employment Status and Daily Stressors on Time Spent on Daily Household Chores in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Jen D.; Almeida, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study: This study examines how employment status (worker vs. retiree) and life course influences (age, gender, and marital status) are associated with time spent on daily household chores. Second, this study assesses whether the associations between daily stressors and time spent on daily household chores differ as a function of…

  4. Effects of quality of opposition and match status on technical and tactical performances in elite volleyball.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Sampaio, Jaime

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of quality of opposition and match status on technical and tactical volleyball performances, as measured by block, attack, serve, and set actions related to the tasks, space, players, and efficacy of selected game actions. Twenty-five matches from the men's World Cup 2007 were notated and through cluster analysis were classified as "high" (HIGH), "intermediate" (INT) or "low" (LOW) quality. The difference between points scored and points allowed was used to define match status. Multinomial logistic regression identified an association of match status with: set direction (likelihood ratio test [LRT] = 15.5, P = 0.017) and block typology (LRT = 9.6, P = 0.047) in HIGH vs. HIGH matches; attack player (LRT = 17.4, P = 0.026) and block typology (LRT = 9.2, P = 0.010) in LOW vs. LOW matches; and serve type (LRT = 17.4, P = 0.002), block strategy (LRT = 53.7, P <0.001), and serve efficacy (LRT = 26.0, P = 0.001) in HIGH vs. LOW matches. Results suggest that volleyball teams took more risky decisions in unbalanced situations. They also carried less risk through technical and tactical decisions in balanced and moderate situations whether they had the advantage or not. Therefore, strategic behaviour was affected by the interaction of quality of opposition and match status, providing a better understanding of volleyball game performance and new insights for practice, competition, and research. PMID:21424980

  5. Dietary habits and nutritional status of school aged children in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández San Juan, P M

    2006-01-01

    The different dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish schoolchildren have been analyzed. Nutrition affects health throughout the life cycle, and it is best to begin to prevent harm early on. Habits are formed early in life, and habits are a major determinant of food choice in later life. Two trends in particular are worthy of mention in this regard: the progressive globalisation of the food supply and the increase of food intake such as snacks, soft drinks and fast food, wich tipically apport a significant part of daily diet. In Spain, young people are abandoning the "Mediterranean Diet" in favour of industrial products, full of calories and saturated fatty acids but low in nutritional components, wich is contributing to obesity and rising cholesterol levels. Also, breakfast consumption has been identified as an important factor in the nutritional status of children and in Spain we are observing that an increasing percentage of children are omitting breakfast. PMID:16771121

  6. Dietary habits and nutritional status of school aged children in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández San Juan, P M

    2006-01-01

    The different dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish schoolchildren have been analyzed. Nutrition affects health throughout the life cycle, and it is best to begin to prevent harm early on. Habits are formed early in life, and habits are a major determinant of food choice in later life. Two trends in particular are worthy of mention in this regard: the progressive globalisation of the food supply and the increase of food intake such as snacks, soft drinks and fast food, wich tipically apport a significant part of daily diet. In Spain, young people are abandoning the "Mediterranean Diet" in favour of industrial products, full of calories and saturated fatty acids but low in nutritional components, wich is contributing to obesity and rising cholesterol levels. Also, breakfast consumption has been identified as an important factor in the nutritional status of children and in Spain we are observing that an increasing percentage of children are omitting breakfast.

  7. Moving beyond Karnofsky and ECOG Performance Status Assessments with New Technologies.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Ciara M; Shahrokni, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Progress in cancer research is coupled with increased treatment complexity reliant upon accurate patient selection. Oncologists rely upon measurement instruments of functional performance such as the Karnofsky or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status scales that were developed over fifty years ago to determine a patient's suitability for systemic treatment. These standard assessment tools have been shown to correlate with response to chemotherapy, chemotherapy tolerability, survival, and quality of life of cancer patients. However, these scales are subjective, subject to bias and high interobserver variability. Despite these limitations important clinical decisions are based on PS including eligibility for clinical trials, the "optimal" therapeutic approach in routine practice, and the allocation of healthcare resources. This paper reviews the past, present, and potential future of functional performance status assessment in an oncology setting. The potential ability of electronic activity monitoring systems to provide an objective, accurate measurement of patient functional performance is explored. Electronic activity monitoring devices have the potential to offer positive health-related opportunities to patients; however their introduction to the healthcare setting is not without difficulty. The potential role of this technology in healthcare and the challenges that these new innovations pose to the healthcare industry are also examined. PMID:27066075

  8. Moving beyond Karnofsky and ECOG Performance Status Assessments with New Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Ciara M.; Shahrokni, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Progress in cancer research is coupled with increased treatment complexity reliant upon accurate patient selection. Oncologists rely upon measurement instruments of functional performance such as the Karnofsky or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status scales that were developed over fifty years ago to determine a patient's suitability for systemic treatment. These standard assessment tools have been shown to correlate with response to chemotherapy, chemotherapy tolerability, survival, and quality of life of cancer patients. However, these scales are subjective, subject to bias and high interobserver variability. Despite these limitations important clinical decisions are based on PS including eligibility for clinical trials, the “optimal” therapeutic approach in routine practice, and the allocation of healthcare resources. This paper reviews the past, present, and potential future of functional performance status assessment in an oncology setting. The potential ability of electronic activity monitoring systems to provide an objective, accurate measurement of patient functional performance is explored. Electronic activity monitoring devices have the potential to offer positive health-related opportunities to patients; however their introduction to the healthcare setting is not without difficulty. The potential role of this technology in healthcare and the challenges that these new innovations pose to the healthcare industry are also examined. PMID:27066075

  9. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when

  10. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kasumovic, Michael M.; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn’t explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player’s attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when

  11. The influence of maternal age, birth order and socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Chile.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, R

    1980-01-01

    In Chile between 1969 and 1974 the birth rate declined by 10 per cent and the infant mortality rate by 18.6 per cent. In 1974 there were proportionately fewer births at high birth order than in 1969. Such births carry significantly higher risk to the infant in both the neonatal and postneonatal period of life. Comparison of data from urban areas of high and low socioeconomic status yield similar findings. PMID:7352614

  12. Determining soil-transmitted helminth infection status and physical fitness of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , they often go unnoticed, are considered a normal condition by affected individuals, or are treated as symptoms of other diseases that might be more common in a given setting. Hence, it is conceivable that the true burden of STH infections is underestimated by assessment tools relying on self-declared signs and symptoms as is usually the case in population-based surveys. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Stephenson and colleagues highlighted the possibility of STH infections lowering the physical fitness of boys aged 6-12 years. This line of scientific inquiry gained new momentum recently. The 20-meter (m) shuttle run test was developed and validated by Léger et al. and is used worldwide to measure the aerobic fitness of children. The test is easy to standardize and can be performed wherever a 20-m long and flat running course and an audio source are available, making its use attractive in resource-constrained settings. To facilitate and standardize attempts at assessing whether STH infections have an effect on the physical fitness of school-aged children, we present methodologies that diagnose STH infections or measure physical fitness that are simple to execute and yet, provide accurate and reproducible outcomes. This will help to generate new evidence regarding the health impact of STH infections. PMID:22951972

  13. Determining Soil-transmitted Helminth Infection Status and Physical Fitness of School-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Peiling; Fürst, Thomas; Müller, Ivan; Kriemler, Susi; Utzinger, Jürg; Steinmann, Peter

    2012-01-01

    unspecific and subtle, they often go unnoticed, are considered a normal condition by affected individuals, or are treated as symptoms of other diseases that might be more common in a given setting. Hence, it is conceivable that the true burden of STH infections is underestimated by assessment tools relying on self-declared signs and symptoms as is usually the case in population-based surveys. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Stephenson and colleagues highlighted the possibility of STH infections lowering the physical fitness of boys aged 6-12 years11,12. This line of scientific inquiry gained new momentum recently13,14,15. The 20-meter (m) shuttle run test was developed and validated by Léger et al.16 and is used worldwide to measure the aerobic fitness of children17. The test is easy to standardize and can be performed wherever a 20-m long and flat running course and an audio source are available, making its use attractive in resource-constrained settings13. To facilitate and standardize attempts at assessing whether STH infections have an effect on the physical fitness of school-aged children, we present methodologies that diagnose STH infections or measure physical fitness that are simple to execute and yet, provide accurate and reproducible outcomes. This will help to generate new evidence regarding the health impact of STH infections. PMID:22951972

  14. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles.

  15. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles. PMID:24558867

  16. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Filho, José A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives We investigated these children’s and caregivers’ cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results Children’s mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 µg/L (2.7 – 23.4) and 5.83 µg/g (0.1 −86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 µg/g (0.10 – 77.45) and correlated to children’s MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children’s MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; β coefficients for MnH were −5.78 (95% CI −10.71 to −0.21) and −6.72 (−11.81 to −0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven’s (β = −2.69, 95% CI −5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver’s IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children’s cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure. PMID:20943219

  17. Declines in physiological functional capacity with age: a longitudinal study in peak swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    DONATO, ANTHONY J.; TENCH, KATHLEEN; GLUECK, DEBORAH H.; SEALS, DOUGLAS R.; ESKURZA, IRATXE; TANAKA, HIROFUMI

    2016-01-01

    We followed up swimming performance times of 321 women and 319 men who participated in the US Masters Swimming Championships over a 12-yr period. All swimmers placed in the top 10 in their age group over 3 yr (mean = 5 yr). A random coefficients model for repeated measures was used to derive a line of best fit from a group of regression lines for each subject. Both 50- and 1,500-m swimming performance declined modestly until ~70 yr of age, where a more rapid decline was observed in both men and women. Compared with 1,500-m swimming, the 50-m freestyle declined more modestly and slowly with age. The rate and magnitude of declines in swimming performance with age were greater in women than in men in 50-m freestyle; such sex-related differences were not observed in 1,500-m freestyle. Overall, the variability along a population regression line increased markedly with advancing age. The present longitudinal findings indicate that 1) swimming performance declines progressively until age 70, where the decrease becomes quadratic; 2) the rates of the decline in swimming performance with age are greater in a long-duration than in a short-duration event, suggesting a relatively smaller loss of anaerobic muscular power with age compared with cardiovascular endurance; 3) the age-related rates of decline are greater in women than in men only in a short-duration event; and 4) the variability of the age-related decline in performance increases markedly with advancing age. PMID:12391125

  18. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables.

  19. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables. PMID:24486976

  20. The Investigation of Physical Performance Status of Visually and Hearing Impaired Applying Judo Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakoc, Onder

    2016-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the physical performances of visually and hearing impaired doing judo training in this study. 32 male athletes, who were doing judo training, volunteer and, visually and hearing impaired, participated in this study. The investigation was applied to visually impaired (N = 12, mean ± SD; age: 25.75 ± 3.55 years, height:…

  1. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs’ functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers.

  2. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs’ functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers. PMID:27667972

  3. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs' functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers. PMID:27667972

  4. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  5. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages. PMID:22921374

  6. Effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial memory of the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Languille, Solène; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2012-12-01

    The data are inconsistent about the ability of dietary omega-3 fatty acids to prevent age-associated cognitive decline. Indeed, most clinical trials have failed to demonstrate a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids against cognitive decline, and methodological issues are still under debate. In contrast to human studies, experiments performed in adult rodents clearly indicate that omega-3 fatty acids supplement can improve behavioural and cognitive functions. The inconsistent observations between human and rodent studies highlight the importance of the use of non-human primate models. The aim of the present study was to address the impact of omega-3 fatty acids (given in the form of dietary fish oil) on exploratory activity, emotional status and spatial reference memory in the aged mouse lemur, a non-human primate. Aged animals fed fish oil exhibited decreased exploratory activity, as manifested by an increase in the latency to move and a reduced distance travelled in an open-field. The fish oil-supplemented animals exhibited no change in the anxiety level, but they were more reactive to go into the dark arms of a light/dark plus-maze. In addition, we found that fish oil supplementation did not significantly improve the spatial memory performance in the Barnes maze task. This study demonstrated for the first time that a fish oil diet initiated late in life specifically modifies the exploratory behaviour without improving the spatial memory of aged non-human primates. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may be effective when started early in life but less effective when started at later ages.

  7. Serum vitamin A status is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome among school-age children in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoping; Peng, Rong; Cao, Jiaoyang; Kang, Yu; Qu, Ping; Liu, Youxue; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association of vitamin A status with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in school-age children in Chongqing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,928 children aged 7~11 years from 5 schools in Chongqing, China. Body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured. Blood glucose, lipids and vitamin A were determined. Overall prevalences for overweight, obesity and MS were 10.1%, 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. There were 274 (14.2%) marginally vitamin A deficient (MVAD) children and 53 (2.8%) vitamin A deficient (VAD) children, respectively. Serum vitamin A in the obese group was significantly lower than in the overweight and normal weight groups (p<0.001). Body mass index (BMI), WC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose were strongly associated with vitamin A status (p<0.05). In a separate model adjusted for age and sex, compared with normal children, participants with obesity had a significantly higher risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (<=1.05 μmol/L) (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 3.55) (p<0.001), and participants with MS had a 1.99-fold (95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) greater risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (p=0.016), while participants with VAD had significantly higher risk of having MS (OR: 3.82; 95% CI: 1.44, 10.2) (p=0.007). Vitamin A insufficiency among Chongqing urban school-age children was found to be a severe health problem, significantly associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and MS. PMID:27440692

  8. Clinical relevance of optimizing vitamin D status in soldiers to enhance physical and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Wentz, Laurel M; Eldred, Jerad D; Henry, Michael D; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency initiates a loss of combat effectiveness by impairing physical and cognitive functioning of combat Operators. Synthesized in response to sunlight and consumed in the diet, vitamin D functions as a hormone and regulates gene expression for nearly 300 genes throughout the human body. These target genes are involved processes essential to combat operations, such as immune function, response to stress, inflammation, and regulation of calcium movement. Since widespread vitamin D deficiency is observed across the U.S. population, poor vitamin D status is expected in Servicemembers. Physical conditions linked to vitamin D deficiency include increased risk for muscle or bone injury, muscle weakness, and reduced neuromuscular function. Hormonally, vitamin D levels have been positively correlated with testosterone levels. Vitamin D deficiency is also associated with cognitive decline, depression, and may prolong recovery following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Since vitamin D deficiency elevates systemic inflammation, poor vitamin D status at the time of brain injury may prolong the inflammatory response and exacerbate postconcussive symptoms. Furthermore, veterans with mTBI experience chronic endocrine dysfunction. While vitamin D status has not been assessed post-mTBI, it is plausible that vitamin D levels are altered along with testosterone and growth hormone, raising the question of whether vitamin D deficiency results from trauma-related hormonal abnormalities or whether vitamin D deficiency increases the risk for endocrine dysfunction. Through its association with testosterone production, vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) since testosterone levels are altered in veterans with PTSD. Therefore, vitamin D status has a significant impact on Operator health and performance. Supplementing vita-min D to deficient Operators provides a noninvasive and low-cost intervention to maintain combat force

  9. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  10. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  11. Developmental changes in word recognition threshold from two to five years of age in children with different middle ear status.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda J; Munro, Kevin J; Heron, Jon

    2007-07-01

    The aims were to: (1) provide word recognition thresholds (WRTs) at 31, 43, and 61 months of age; (2) investigate developmental changes over time; (3) investigate the relationship between OME and WRT, and (4) investigate the relationship between WRT and hearing thresholds. Around 1000 children were tested longitudinally as part of the ALSPAC study, using an adaptive measure of word recognition in quiet. Mean WRTs were 28, 23, and 23 dB (A) at 31, 43, and 61 months, respectively. Normal auditory development is associated with a mean improvement in WRT of 5 dB between age 31 and 61 months. There was a mean increase in WRT of +5 dB and +15 dB when OME was present in one and two ears, respectively. Thus, both unilateral and bilateral OME results in a detrimental effect on hearing ability for speech. Additionally, early and 'persistent' OME is associated with greater disability. However by 61 months, previous OME status was not significant. To our knowledge, this is the largest longitudinal study reporting WRT in preschool children with different middle ear status. PMID:17680467

  12. Association of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Serum Total Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Katusic, Damir; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Bucan, Kajo; Tandara, Leida; Rogosic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to estimate association of the oxidative stress with the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and additionally serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress level. 57 AMD patients (32 early and 25 late AMD) and 50 healthy, age and gender matched controls were included. GPx activity (P < 0.001) and serum TAS (P = 0.015) were significantly lower in AMD patients. The difference was not significant for SOD or CAT activities. Significant interaction between GPx and SOD was detected (P = 0.003). At high levels of SOD activity (over 75th percentile), one standard deviation decrease in GPx increases the odds for AMD for six times (OR = 6.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that combined values of GPx activity and TAS are significant determinants of AMD status. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75%, 95%, 52%, 69%, and 90%, respectively. The study showed that low GPx activity and TAS are associated with AMD. SOD modulates the association of GPx and AMD. The results suggest that erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity and serum TAS could be promising markers for the prediction of AMD. PMID:25815109

  13. Oral health status and oral hygiene habits among children aged 12-13 years in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Phyo, Aung Zaw Zaw; Chansatitporn, Natkamol; Narksawat, Kulaya

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study among children aged 12-13 years in Yongon, Myanmar to assess the oral health status and oral hygiene habits. The studied 220 students were from two high schools, one urban and the other rural. We conducted an oral health examination following WHO criteria and used a self-administrated questionnaire. The prevalence rate of dental caries among the study population was 53.2%. The mean number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) was 1.7 +/- 2.1 teeth per person (decayed, 1.5 +/- 1.9); missing 0.0 +/- 0.2; filled, 0.1 +/- 0.4). Multivariate analysis revealed significant risk factors for dental caries were: the geographical location of the school (adjusted OR=2.24; 95% CI: 1.01-4.94), occupational status of the father (adjusted OR=2.83; 95% CI: 1.05-7.62) and the child's attitude about dental caries (adjusted OR=2.35; 95% CI: 1.18-4.67). Knowledge and oral hygiene habits were not associated with dental caries. The results of this study suggest the need to change from restoration orientated dentistry to dental public health care services, to reduce of the high level of dental caries in this age group.

  14. Comorbidity and performance status in acute myeloid leukemia patients: a nation-wide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Østgård, L S G; Nørgaard, J M; Sengeløv, H; Severinsen, M; Friis, L S; Marcher, C W; Dufva, I H; Nørgaard, M

    2015-03-01

    As the world population ages, the comorbidity burden in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients increases. Evidence on how to integrate comorbidity measures into clinical decision-making is sparse. We determined the prognostic impact of comorbidity and World Health Organization Performance Status (PS) on achievement of complete remission and mortality in all Danish AML patients treated between 2000 and 2012 overall and stratified by age. Comorbidity was measured using a modified version of the Charlson Comorbidity Index, with separate adjustment for pre-leukemic conditions. Of 2792 patients, 1467 (52.5%) were allocated to intensive therapy. Of these patients, 76% did not have any comorbidities, 19% had one comorbid disease and 6% had two or more comorbidities. Low complete remission rates were associated with poor PS but not with comorbidity. Surprisingly, among all intensive therapy patients, presence of comorbidity was not associated with an increased short-term mortality (adjusted 90 day mortality rate (MR)=1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76-1.48)) and, if any, only a slight increase in long-term mortality (91 day-3 year adjusted MR=1.18 (95%CI=0.97-1.44). Poor PS was strongly associated with an increased short- and long-term mortality (adjusted 90 day MR, PS⩾2=3.43 (95%CI=2.30-5.13); adjusted 91 day-3 year MR=1.35 (95%CI=1.06-1.74)). We propose that more patients with comorbidity may benefit from intensive chemotherapy.

  15. The Effect of Age, Sex, Speed and Practice on C/A Performance of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This study investigated whether age, sex, speed, and practice affects the acquisition of coincidence-anticipation (C/A) performance accuracy of children ages seven to twelve. (C/A refers to the ability to make a motor response coincident with the arrival of an object at a designated point.) The subjects used in this study were 84 elementary…

  16. Age-Related Decline and Diagnostic Performance of More and Less Prevalent Clinical Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Onge, Christina; Landry, Marjolaine; Xhignesse, Marianne; Voyer, Gilles; Tremblay-Lavoie, Stéphanie; Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy

    2016-01-01

    Since cognitive abilities have been shown to decrease with age, it is expected that older physicians would not perform as well as their younger counterparts on clinical cases unless their expertise can counteract the cognitive effects of aging. However, studies on the topic have shown contradictory results. This study aimed to further investigate…

  17. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  18. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  19. A higher oxidative status accelerates senescence and aggravates age-dependent disorders in SAMP strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant, longer-lived) strains. Comparing with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains of mice show a more accelerated senescence process, shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders observed in humans, including senile osteoporosis, degenerative joint disease, age-related deficits in learning and memory, olfactory bulb and forebrain atrophy, presbycusis and retinal atrophy, senile amyloidosis, immunosenescence, senile lungs, and diffuse medial thickening of the aorta. The higher oxidative stress observed in the SAMP strains of mice are partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be one cause of the senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function, including neuronal cell degeneration. This senescence acceleration is also observed during senescence/crisis in cultures of isolated fibroblast-like cells from SAMP strains of mice, and was associated with a hyperoxidative status. These observations suggest that the SAM strains are useful tools in the attempt to understand the mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration of cells and tissues, and their aggravation, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:12470893

  20. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: the role of chronic inflammation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Zaninotto, Paola; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of type 2 diabetes at older ages, ascertaining the extent to which adult lifestyle factors and systemic inflammation explain this relationship. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) which, established in 2002, is a representative cohort study of ≥50-year olds individuals living in England. SES indicators were paternal social class, participants’ education, participants’ wealth, and a lifecourse socioeconomic index. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) and lifestyle factors were measured repeatedly; diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over 7.5 years of follow-up. Of the 6218 individuals free from diabetes at baseline (44% women, mean aged 66 years), 423 developed diabetes during follow-up. Relative to the most advantaged people, those in the lowest lifecourse SES group experienced more than double the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.81–3.71). Lifestyle factors explained 52% (95%CI:30–85) and inflammatory markers 22% (95%CI:13–37) of this gradient. Similar results were apparent with the separate SES indicators. In a general population sample, socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of type 2 diabetes extend to older ages and appear to partially originate from socioeconomic variations in modifiable factors which include lifestyle and inflammation. PMID:27101929

  1. Iodine intake and status of UK women of childbearing age recruited at the University of Surrey in the winter

    PubMed Central

    Bath, Sarah C.; Sleeth, Michelle L.; McKenna, Marianne; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Rayman, Margaret P.

    2015-01-01

    As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid-hormone production of pregnancy, women who may become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/day [US Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)]. As few UK data exist in this population group, our aim was to assess iodine intake and status in women of childbearing age in a cross-sectional study at the University of Surrey. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24-h urine samples in 57 women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90% of ingested iodine was excreted. Average iodine intake was also estimated from 48-h food diaries that the women completed. The median urinary-iodine concentration (63.1 μg/L) classified the group as mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24-h iodine excretion (149.8 μg/24-h), suggested a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. Median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/day, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/day, when estimated from the 48-h food-diaries. Iodine intake from food diaries and 24-h iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r=0.75, p<0.001). Intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. Our study highlights a need for revised cut-offs for iodine deficiency that are method- and age-group specific. PMID:25274294

  2. EIGHTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2013-09-03

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 61 - 85 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KArea Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leaktight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 41 - 45 months. Aging and periodic leak testing will continue for the remaining PCV fixtures.

  3. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  4. Association of Insurance Status and Age With Cervical Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: National Cancer Database, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Virgo, Katherine S.; Bandi, Priti; Saslow, Debbie; Ward, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship of age at diagnosis and insurance status with stage among cervical cancer patients aged 21 to 85 years. Methods. We selected data on women (n = 69 739) diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer between 2000 and 2007 from the National Cancer Database. We evaluated the association between late stage (stage III/IV) and both insurance and age, with adjustment for race/ethnicity and other sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used multivariable log binomial models to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. The proportion of late-stage disease increased with age: from 16.53% (21–34 years) to 42.44% (≥ 70 years). The adjusted relative risk of advanced-stage disease among women aged 50 years and older was 2.2 to 2.5 times that of patients aged 21 to 34 years. Uninsured (RR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.40, 1.49), Medicaid (RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.41), younger Medicare (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.19), and older Medicare (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.26) patients had a higher risk of late-stage disease than did privately insured patients. Conclusions. Screening should be encouraged for women at high risk for advanced-stage disease. PMID:22742058

  5. Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

  6. Satisfaction with Life and Hope: A Look at Age and Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas C.; Snyder, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Adult Trait Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) typically has been administered to samples of college students, and previous researchers have not explored key demographic variables. In a large sample of community persons who were not in college (N = 215), significant differences were detected in Hope Scale scores across differing age groups and…

  7. [Comparative characteristics of antioxidant status in women with diabetes type 2 of different age groups].

    PubMed

    Ishonina, O G; Mikashinovich, Z I; Olempieva, E V; Kovalenko, T D

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic processes in women with diabetes mellitus type 2 of different age groups. It is established that hyperglycemia in aged women is characterized by the development of pronounced oxidative stress, which is the result of changes in the primary structure of protein molecules due to non enzymatic glycosylation of amino acid residues in the active sites. It is known that observed depletion of reduced glutathione pool is associated with high risk of genotoxicity, because it correlates with activation of mitochondrial, chromatin dysfunction and fragmentation of the DNA. In addition, hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids formation leads to necrosis and apoptosis. It can be assumed that the diabetes mellitus type 2 triggers processes of apoptosis, which leads to the activation of aging programs and increase the mortality of patients. Obviously, the change in the concentration of thiol antioxidants, as well as the change in concentration of LPO molecular products may be one of the criteria for evaluation of aging and the efficiency of the treatment of patients.

  8. THIRD STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-12-13

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. There is no clear trend thus far to indicate one material ages in a manner significantly different from the other material. Some softwood fiberboard properties degrade faster in some environments, while cane fiberboard degrades faster with regards to other properties and environments. Given the limited aging time accumulated to date in the elevated humidity environments, it is recommended that aging and testing of softwood fiberboard continue for another year. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  9. Ageing and Health Status in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results of the European POMONA II Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Meindert; Perry, Jonathan; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Walsh, Patricia Noonan; Kerr, Mike; Lantman-De Valk, Henny Van Schrojenstein; Van Hove, Geert; Berger, Dasa Moravec; Azema, Bernard; Buono, Serafino; Cara, Alexandra Carmen; Germanavicius, Arunas; Linehan, Christine; Maatta, Tuomo; Tossebro, Jan; Weber, Germain

    2011-01-01

    Background: POMONA II was a European Commission public health-funded project. The research questions in this article focus on age-specific differences relating to environmental and lifestyle factors, and the 17 medical conditions measured by the POMONA Checklist of Health Indicators (P15). Method: The P15 was completed in a cross-sectional design…

  10. Physiological Reactivity to Cognitive Stressors: Variations by Age and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neupert, Shevaun D.; Miller, Lisa M. Soederberg; Lachman, Margie E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study focused on age and SES differences in stress reactivity in response to cognitively challenging tasks. Specifically, we assessed within-person trajectories of cortisol, a steroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stressors, before, during, and after exposure to cognitively challenging tasks. We extend the…

  11. FIFTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.

    2010-11-01

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{sup reg.} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for six years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Sixty-seven mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested at nominal six month intervals to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 36 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200--350 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in 5 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 and 350 F, and in all 3 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at higher temperatures. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 30--48 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KAMS. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200--300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 or 300 F for 19 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51--95%. This is significantly greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAMS field surveillance (23% average). For GLT O-rings, service life based on the room temperature leak rate criterion is comparable to that predicted by compression stress relaxation (CSR) data at higher temperatures (350--400 F). While there are no comparable failure data yet at aging temperatures below 300 F, extrapolations of the data for GLT O-rings suggests that CSR model predictions provide a conservative prediction of

  12. FIFTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Hoffman, E.

    2011-04-11

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for six years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Sixty-seven mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested at nominal six month intervals to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 36 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-350 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in 6 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 and 350 F, and in all 3 of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at higher temperatures. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 30-48 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in KAMS. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 or 300 F for 19 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-95%. This is significantly greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAMS field surveillance (23% average). For GLT O-rings, service life based on the room temperature leak rate criterion is comparable to that predicted by compression stress relaxation (CSR) data at higher temperatures (350-400 F). While there are no comparable failure data yet at aging temperatures below 300 F, extrapolations of the data for GLT O-rings suggests the CSR model predictions provide a conservative prediction of service

  13. Health status and productive performance of somatic cell cloned cattle and their offspring produced in Japan.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Shinya; Nagai, Takashi

    2008-02-01

    Since the first somatic cell cloned calves were born in Japan in 1998, more than 500 cloned cattle have been produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer and many studies concerning cloned cattle and their offspring have been conducted in this country. However, most of the results have been published in Japanese; thus, the data produced in this country is not well utilized by researchers throughout the world. This article reviews the 65 reports produced by Japanese researchers (62 written in Japanese and 3 written in English), which employed 171 clones and 32 offspring, and categorizes them according to the following 7 categories: (1) genetic similarities and muzzle prints, (2) hematology and clinical chemistry findings, (3) pathology, (4) growth performance, (5) reproductive performance, (6) meat production performance and (7) milk production performance. No remarkable differences in health status or reproductive performance were found among conventionally bred cattle, somatic cell cloned cattle surviving to adulthood and offspring of somatic cell cloned cattle. Similarities in growth performance and meat quality were observed between nuclear donor cattle and their clones. The growth curves of the offspring resembled those of their full siblings.

  14. Effects of vitamin C supplementation on growth performance and antioxidant status of layer ducklings.

    PubMed

    Wang, A; Xie, F; Wang, Y H; Wu, J L

    2011-08-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing dietary vitamin C supplements on growth performance, antioxidant status and humoral immunity of layer ducklings. The results showed that the body weight and daily body weight gain of ducklings increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary vitamin C supplementations and reached a maximum at 400 mg vitamin C/kg feed. The dietary vitamin C supplementations reduced the malondialdehyde concentration (p < 0.05) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.05) in serum and liver of ducklings at day 5 and 28. Additionally, feeding 400 mg/kg or 800 mg vitamin C/kg feed increased IgM and IgA concentrations in sera (p < 0.05) and serum IgG concentrations increased (p < 0.05) following supplementation in concentrations of 150-800 mg vitamin C/kg feed. In conclusion, the results suggested that dietary vitamin C supplements of 400 mg/kg feed provide optimal effects on growth performance, antioxidant status and parameters of humoral immunity.

  15. Performance status and comorbidity predict transplant-related mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Artz, Andrew S; Pollyea, Daniel A; Kocherginsky, Masha; Stock, Wendy; Rich, Elizabeth; Odenike, Olatoyosi; Zimmerman, Todd; Smith, Sonali; Godley, Lucy; Thirman, Michael; Daugherty, Christopher; Extermann, Martine; Larson, Richard; van Besien, Koen

    2006-09-01

    Comorbidity measurements have recently been used to improve estimation of tolerance to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We sought to determine the independent effect of comorbidity and performance status on HCT outcome and to devise a simple risk classification system for transplant-related mortality. We analyzed 105 consecutively enrolled patients who underwent HCT and received reduced intensity conditioning with fludarabine, melphalan, and alemtuzumab. Comorbid conditions were tabulated using 2 scales, the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the Kaplan-Feinstein Scale (KFS). Comorbid conditions were found in 47% of patients by the KFS and in 27% by the CCI (P < .001). Using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (PS) scale, 34% had a PS score >0 (range, 0-2). A simple scale combining the KFS and PS enabled separation of high- from low-risk patients, with 6-month cumulative incidences 50% and 15%, respectively for transplant-related mortality (P = .001) and enhanced prognostic power over the CCI alone (P = .018). Prospective studies evaluating more comprehensive functional and comorbidity measurements are warranted.

  16. Childlessness and Psychological Well-Being in Midlife and Old Age: An Examination of Parental Status Effects across a Range of Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Thomas; Slagsvold, Britt; Moum, Torbjorn

    2009-01-01

    The study explores and distinguishes links between parental status (childless persons, parents with residential children, and empty nest parents) and a range of psychological well-being outcomes in midlife and old age. Data are from the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG) study (n = 5,189). We separate outcomes…

  17. The Mediating Effects of Lifestyle Factors on the Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Health among Middle-Aged and Older Adults in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinhyun

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how different lifestyle factors mediate the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health among middle-aged and older adults in Korea. Using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, this study examined the direct effects of SES on self-rated health and how lifestyle factors mediate the relationships…

  18. Consumption of folic acid-fortified bread improves folate status in women of reproductive age in Chile.

    PubMed

    Hertrampf, Eva; Cortés, Fanny; Erickson, J David; Cayazzo, Marisol; Freire, Wilma; Bailey, Lynn B; Howson, Christopher; Kauwell, Gail P A; Pfeiffer, Christine

    2003-10-01

    Since January 2000 the Chilean Ministry of Health has required the fortification of wheat flour with folic acid (FA) at a concentration of 2.2 mg FA/kg in order to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD) in newborns. This policy was expected to result in a mean additional intake of approximately 400 microg FA/d. We assessed the effectiveness of the FA flour fortification program on bread folate content and on blood folate concentration in women of childbearing age in Santiago, Chile. The prefortification folate status of 751 healthy women of reproductive age was assessed. The folate content of 100 bread samples bought at retail bakeries was measured, average wheat flour consumption was estimated and postfortification FA dietary intake was calculated. The effect of flour fortification on blood folate concentration in this group of women (n = 605) was evaluated in a follow-up study. Blood folate concentrations of the 605 women in the follow-up group increased (P < 0.0001) following fortification. Before fortification the mean serum and red blood cell folate concentrations were 9.7 +/- 4.3 and 290 +/- 102 nmol/L, respectively, compared with 37.2 +/- 9.5 and 707 +/- 179 nmol/L postfortification, respectively. The mean FA content of bread was 2020 +/- 940 micro g/kg. The median FA intake of the group evaluated postfortification was 427 microg/d (95% CI 409-445) based on an estimated intake of 219 g/d (95% CI 201-229) of wheat flour, mainly as bread. Fortification of wheat flour substantially improved folate status in a population of women of reproductive age in Chile. The effect of the FA fortification program on the occurrence of NTD is currently being assessed.

  19. Grape extract improves antioxidant status and physical performance in elite male athletes.

    PubMed

    Lafay, Sophie; Jan, Caroline; Nardon, Karine; Lemaire, Benoit; Ibarra, Alvin; Roller, Marc; Houvenaeghel, Marc; Juhel, Christine; Cara, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Excessive physical exercise overproduces reactive oxygen species. Even if elite sportsmen increase their antioxidant status by regular physical training, during the competition period, this improvement is not sufficient to limit free radical production which could be detrimental to the body. The aim of this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, and crossover study on 20 elite sportsmen (handball = 10, basketball = 5, sprint = 4, and volleyball = 1) during the competition period was to determine if the consumption of a grape extract (GE; Vitis vinifera L.) was able to improve the parameters related to (i) anti-oxidative status and oxidative stress and (ii) physical performance. Specific biomarkers of antioxidant capacity, oxidative stress, skeletal cell muscle damage, and other general biomarkers were determined in plasma and urine before (D0) and after one month (D30) of placebo or GE supplementation (400mg·d(-1)). Effort tests were conducted using the Optojump(®) system, which allows determining the total physical performance (EnRJ45), explosive power (RJ110), and fatigue (RJL5). The plasma ORAC value was not modified in the placebo group; however, GE increased the ORAC value compared to the placebo at D30 (14 966+/-335 vs 14 242+/-339 dµmol Teq·L(-1); p < 0.05). The plasma FRAP value was significantly reduced in the placebo group, but not in the GE group. Therefore, GE limited the reduction of FRAP compared to the placebo at D30 (1 053.7+/-31.5 vs 993.7+/-26.7 µmol Teq·L(-1); p < 0.05). Urinary isoprostane values were increased in the placebo group, but were not modified in the GE group. Consequently, GE limited the production of isoprostanes compared to the placebo at D30 (1.24+/-0.12 vs 1.26+/-0.13 ng·mg(-1) creatinine; p < 0.05). GE administration, compared to the placebo at D30, reduced the plasmatic creatine phosphokinase concentration (CPK, 695.7+/-177.0 vs 480.0+/-81.1 IU·L(-1), p = 0.1) and increased hemoglobin levels (Hb, 14.5+/-0.2 vs 14

  20. Response to Comment on "The National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status"

    SciTech Connect

    Haynam, C A; Sacks, R A; Moses, E I; Manes, K; Haan, S; Spaeth, M L

    2007-12-11

    We appreciate Stephen Bodner's continuing interest in the performance of the NIF laser system. However, we find it necessary to disagree with the conclusions he reached in his comments [Appl. Opt. 47, XXX (2008)] on 'National Ignition Facility Laser Performance Status' [Appl. Opt. 46, 3276 (2007)]. In fact, repeated and ongoing tests of the NIF beamlines have demonstrated that NIF can be expected not only to meet or exceed its requirements as established in the mid-1990s in the document National Ignition Facility Functional Requirements and Primary Criteria [Revision 1.3, Report NIF-LLNL-93-058 (1994)], but also to have the flexibility that provides for successfully meeting an ever expanding range of mission goals, including those of ignition.

  1. Influence of nutritional status, age and sex on infant hair zinc concentration.

    PubMed

    Duarte, M A; Leão, E; Penna, F J

    1989-01-01

    1. Zinc concentration was measured in hair samples from 57 infants (27 boys and 30 girls) aged 7 to 24 months. Twenty-eight infants were considered eutrophic and 29 presented chronic and severe malnutrition. 2. Hair segments less than 3-cm long were cut close to the scalp in the occipital area and washed in deionized water and acetone. Zinc levels were measured by neutron-activation. 3. Hair zinc concentration decreased with age in both eutrophic and malnourished infants from 160 micrograms/g at 7 months to 90 micrograms/g at 24 months. 4. No statistically significant difference in hair zinc concentration was detected between eutrophic and malnourished infants (148 +/- 60 vs 128 +/- 57 micrograms/g hair, mean +/- SD) or between sexes.

  2. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  3. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  4. Variation in the apparent density of human mandibular bone with age and dental status

    PubMed Central

    KINGSMILL, V. J.; BOYDE, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the variability in the anatomy of mandibles of differing ages and different stages of tooth loss. Mandibles from individuals between 19 and 96 y were sectioned into 2 mm thick vertical plane-parallel slices and cleaned of marrow and periosteum. The apparent density (mass per unit volume in g/ml) from midline (MID) and mental foramen region (MF) sites was determined by weighing the slices and dividing by a volume calculated as the product of section thickness and the mean area of the 2 sides of the section. The cortical thickness of the inferior border and the basal and alveolar bone heights were measured in radiographs of the slices. Mandibular apparent density was negatively correlated with the cross sectional area (midline r=−0.48, mental foramen r=−0.45), and at the midline was significantly greater in edentulous than in dentate individuals (means (± s.e.m.) edentulous n=13: 1.43 (±0.07) g/ml; dentate n=17: 1.27 (±0.04) g/ml, P<0.05). Where a large enough age range was available, mandibular apparent bone density showed a significant increase with age (midline males: r=0.53, n=18) especially for dentate individuals (r=0.91, n=8). There was a correlation between the apparent densities at the two sites in the same mandible (r=0.64), with the values obtained for the midline being significantly greater than for the mental foramen region (midline 1.34 (±0.04) g/ml; mental foramen 1.19 (±0.04) g/ml, P<0.001, paired t test). The mandible shows great interindividual variability, but there may be a considerable reduction in cross sectional girth of the mandible following tooth loss, and, unlike postcranial sites, an increase in apparent density with age. PMID:9643424

  5. Do negative views of aging influence memory and auditory performance through self-perceived abilities?

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit

    2015-12-01

    Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.

  6. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. PMID:23558056

  7. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures either through formal channels such as pension plans or through health or socioeconomic security measures such as the provision of subsidies for health care, home help or any form of nursing care. This means that an older person is forced to be dependent upon family support if it exists. We examine demographic trends of population ageing in Lebanon between 1970 and 1995 and provide projections until 2025. Variations in population ageing within the country are also considered. We also assess health care and social policy implications of demographic changes in the context of health and economic sector reforms initiated recently by the state, and explore their impact upon the expanding population of elderly people. PMID:15112011

  8. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  9. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  10. Dietary inclusion level and time effects of taurine on broiler performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content.

    PubMed

    Huang, C X; Wang, B; Min, Z; Yuan, J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on growth performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content in broilers. In Experiment 1, 50 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 0, 0.125, 0.50, 2.00 or 8.00 g/kg taurine from 1 to 42 d of age. In Experiment 2, 80 22-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 4.00 g/kg taurine for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Taurine contents of thigh and breast muscle increased linearly with increasing dietary taurine. Taurine supplementation for 1, 2 and 3 weeks significantly increased the taurine content of breast muscle. The taurine contents of liver and thigh meat were significantly increased by taurine supplementation for 3 weeks. The taurine contents of thigh and breast meat from broilers given a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg taurine for 3 weeks increased to 1.89 times the concentrations of the control group. There were no detrimental effects on growth performance, breast or thigh muscle yield, pH value or drip-water loss, and taurine supplementation did not affect the serum carbonyl content. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly decreased by taurine supplementation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks. PMID:25022619

  11. Discrimination performance in aging is vulnerable to interference and dissociable from spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Sacks, Patricia K; Turner, Sean M; Gaynor, Leslie S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Maurer, Andrew P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Burke, Sara N

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal model. In the present study, young and aged F344×BN F1 hybrid rats were cross-characterized on the Morris water maze test of spatial memory and a dentate gyrus-dependent match-to-position test of spatial discrimination ability. Aged rats showed overall impairments relative to young in spatial learning and memory on the water maze task. Although young and aged learned to apply a match-to-position response strategy in performing easy spatial discriminations within a similar number of trials, a majority of aged rats were impaired relative to young in performing difficult spatial discriminations on subsequent tests. Moreover, all aged rats were susceptible to cumulative interference during spatial discrimination tests, such that error rate increased on later trials of test sessions. These data suggest that when faced with difficult discriminations, the aged rats were less able to distinguish current goal locations from those of previous trials. Increasing acetylcholine levels with donepezil did not improve aged rats' abilities to accurately perform difficult spatial discriminations or reduce their susceptibility to interference. Interestingly, better spatial memory abilities were not significantly associated with higher performance on difficult spatial discriminations. This observation, along with the finding that aged rats made more errors under conditions in which interference was high, suggests that match-to-position spatial discrimination performance may rely on extra-hippocampal structures such as the prefrontal cortex, in addition to the dentate gyrus.

  12. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  13. Breast cancer risk associations with birth order and maternal age according to breast-feeding status in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Hazel B.; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Sprague, Brian L.; Hampton, John M.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Early life risk factors for breast cancer have been investigated in relation to hormonal, nutritional, infectious, and/or genetic hypotheses. Recently, studies of potential health effects associated with exposure to environmental contaminants in breastmilk have been considered. Methods We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of female Wisconsin residents. Cases (N=2,016) had an incident diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in 2002−2006 reported to the statewide tumor registry. Controls (N=1,960) of similar ages were randomly selected from driver's license lists. Risk factor information was collected during structured telephone interviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression. Results In multivariable models, maternal age and birth order were not associated with breast cancer risk in the full study population. The odds ratio for breast cancer risk associated with having been breastfed in infancy was 0.83 (95% CI 0.72−0.96). In analyses restricted to breastfed women, maternal age associations with breast cancer were null (p-value=0.2). Increasing maternal age was negatively associated with breast cancer risk among women who were not breastfed; the odds ratio for breast cancer associated with each 5-year increase in maternal age was 0.90 (95% CI 0.82−1.00). Higher birth order was inversely associated with breast cancer risk among breastfed women (OR=0.58; 95% CI 0.39−0.86 for women with ≥3 older siblings compared to first-born women) but not among non-breastfed women (OR=1.13; 95% CI 0.81−1.57). Conclusion These findings suggest that early life risk factor associations for breast cancer may differ according to breastfeeding status in infancy. PMID:18379425

  14. Micronutrient intakes among children and adults in Greece: the role of age, sex and socio-economic status.

    PubMed

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Bos, Rolf; Singh-Povel, Cécile

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to report the usual nutrient intakes of sixteen micronutrients by schoolchildren, adults and the elderly in Greece and to further explore the role of age, sex and socio-economic status (SES) on meeting the recommended nutrient intakes. Dietary intake, demographic and SES data from three existing studies conducted in Greece (in 9-13-year-old children; 40-60-year-old adults; and 50-75-year-old women) were collected. The prevalence of study participants with inadequate micronutrient intakes were assessed using the estimated average requirement (EAR) cut-point method. Regarding sex and age differences, the highest prevalences of inadequate nutrient intakes occurred in post-menopausal women. In both sexes and all age groups, the prevalence of vitamin D intake below EAR reached 100%. Furthermore, nutrient intakes of 75% or more below EAR were found for vitamin E in all age groups, folate in women and for calcium and magnesium in post-menopausal women (p < 0.05). Regarding SES differences, the prevalences of inadequate calcium and vitamin C intakes were higher for children and postmenopausal women of lower SES compared to their higher SES counterparts (p < 0.05). The current study reported the highest prevalences of inadequate intakes for both sexes and all age and SES groups for calcium, folate and vitamins D and E. These findings could provide guidance to public health policy makers in terms of updating current dietary guidelines and fortifying foods to meet the needs of all population subgroups. PMID:25285410

  15. Aging and cognitive performance: challenges and implications for physicians practicing in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance and potential implications associated with aging. We discuss important findings from other fields and draw parallels to the practice of medicine. In particular, we discuss the possible effects of aging through the lens of situated cognition theory, and we outline the potential impact of aging on expertise, information processing, neurobiology, intelligence, and self-regulated learning. We believe that work done in related fields can provide a better understanding of physician aging and cognition, and thus can inform more effective approaches to continuous professional development and lifelong learning in medicine. We conclude with implications for the health care system and areas of future research.

  16. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  17. Socioeconomic status and self-reported health among middle-aged Japanese men: results from a nationwide longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Koji; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Smith, Derek R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine potential associations between socioeconomic factors and self-rated health among a national sample of Japanese men aged 50–59 years between 2005 and 2010, including the 2008 global financial crisis. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Randomly selected 2515 census areas from a total of 1.8 million census areas in Japan. Participants This study utilised data from a national, longitudinal survey conducted by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Starting in 2005, 16 738 Japanese men aged 50–59 years were recruited and sent a questionnaire each year. We analysed data for the 6-year period (2005–2010) from participants who had worked for over 20 years in the same industry (n=9727). Main outcome measures We focused on worsening self-rated health status by occupation, education and employment contract. Results Working in the manufacturing industry was associated with worsening self-rated health scores when compared to those working in management (HR=1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37). A relationship between education level and worsening self-rated health was also identified as follows: junior high school (HR=1.49; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.69), high school (HR=1.29; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.42), and vocational college (HR=1.25; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.46), when compared with those holding university-level qualifications. Precarious employment (HR=1.17; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.37) was also associated with worsening self-rated health status in the current study. Conclusions This study suggests that working in manufacturing for more than 20 years and having lower education levels may have a significant impact on the self-rated health of middle-aged Japanese men. This may reflect a progressive decline in Japanese working conditions following the global financial crisis and/or the impact of lower socioeconomic status. PMID:26109119

  18. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  19. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants' physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  20. Understanding white matter integrity stability for bilinguals on language status and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Cummine, Jacqueline; Boliek, Carol A

    2013-03-01

    Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have described overall white matter integrity in bilinguals but have not related structural neural pathways to language functions. The current study examined white matter integrity and its relationship to reading skill in monolingual English and bilingual Chinese-English speakers. Eleven monolingual speakers (mean age 28.5 years) and 13 bilingual speakers (mean age 24.2 years; English as a second language was acquired post 5 years of age) participated. Behavioural response times and accuracy rates to name regular and exception words were recorded. Participants were then scanned using a standardized DTI protocol. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity values were derived from a voxelwise statistical analysis for comparisons between participant groups. Tests for relationships between response time and FA were also conducted. Our results show minimal regions of higher FA for monolinguals when compared to bilinguals and no regions of higher FA for bilinguals when compared to monolinguals, which indicates that white matter integrity may not stabilize in bilinguals until late adulthood. We do show several regions where an increase in FA is associated with faster response times. Interestingly, the FA-response time relationship varies between groups and between word types, which may reflect an increased processing demand for retrieval of difficult words (e.g., exception words). These results provide some support for the interference control and reduced frequency hypotheses outlined by Jones et al. (Cerebr Cortex 22:892-902, 2012). The current findings advance our understanding of the underlying cortical networks associated with language status and reading skill in monolingual and bilingual adults.

  1. SEVENTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-08-30

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 54-72 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 ºF will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at an intermediate temperature of 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 ºF. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200 - 300 ºF for 30 - 36 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the O-rings displayed a compression set ranging from 51 – 96%. This is greater than seen to date for any packages inspected during KAC field

  2. Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI.

  3. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  4. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack.

  5. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  6. Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Memory Performance, and Depressive Affect in Old Age: A Change-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimprich, Daniel; Martin, Mike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether and how subjective cognitive complaints are related to actual cognitive performance represents a central issue in applied cognitive aging research. Until recently, however, many studies have failed to find a strong association between subjective cognitive complaints and actual cognitive performance. In our study, we examine…

  7. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  8. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  9. Locomotor performance and muscle metabolic capacities: impact of temperature and energetic status.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga

    2004-11-01

    In aquatic ectotherms, muscle metabolic capacities are strongly influenced by exogenous factors, principally temperature and food availability. Seasonal changes in temperature lead many organisms to modify their metabolic machinery so as to maintain capacity even in "slower" cold habitats. Modifications of mitochondrial capacities are central in this response. The increases in protein-specific oxidative capacities of mitochondria during cold acclimation of temperate fishes do not occur during the evolutionary adaptation to cold in Antarctic species. Instead, Antarctic fishes tend to increase the proportion of fibre volume devoted to mitochondria, perhaps to facilitate intracellular distribution of oxygen and metabolites. Variation in energetic status can drastically modify muscle metabolic status, with glycolytic muscle changing more than oxidative muscle. This in turn impacts swimming performance. A decrease in the condition of cod leads endurance at speeds above Ucrit to drop by 70%. Sprint swimming is less affected, perhaps as it does not exhaust glycolytic muscle. We used interindividual variation in muscle metabolic capacities to identify correlates of swimming performance in stickleback and cod. Activities of cytochrome c oxidase in glycolytic muscle are a correlate of sprint swimming in stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and cod (Gadus morhua), whereas lactate dehydrogenase activities in glycolytic muscle are a correlate of cod endurance swimming. In scallops, gonadal maturation leads to virtually complete mobilisation of glycogen from muscle. This does not reduce the capacity of the scallops, Chlamys islandica and Euvola ziczac, to mount escape responses, but significantly slows their recuperation from exhaustive exercise. Muscle metabolic capacities fall in parallel with glycogen mobilisation. In the compromise between muscles' dual roles as a motor and a macromolecular reserve, a significant loss in locomotory ability occurs during gametogenesis and

  10. The relative utility of health-related fitness tests and skilled motor performance tests as measures of biological age in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Tanaka, K; Nakagaichi, M; Nakadomo, F; Watanabe, K; Takeshima, N; Hiyama, T; Chodzko-Zaiko, W

    1996-05-01

    In the present paper we report the results of a study in which we compared 2 different approaches to the computation of biological age (BA) in a sample of 322 Japanese men (age range 20 to 79 years). In the first approach, 4 commonly used measures of health-related fitness (VO2peak, trunk flexion from a standing position, body fat, and grip strength) were reduced to a single BA score (HRF Age) using principal component analysis. In contrast, in the second approach, 3 commonly used measures of skilled motor performance and agility (vertical jump, stepping side-to-side, and balancing on one leg with eyes closed) were reduced to a single BA score (SMP Age) using similar multivariate procedures. The criterion-related validity of both of the BA measures was examined by assessing each measure's ability to discriminate between healthy and active groups of subjects. This was achieved by classifying the original subject pool into regularly active (ACT; n = 108) and healthy (HLTH; n = 169) subgroups on the basis of self-reported activity levels. Analyses revealed that HRF Age was a more powerful discriminator between the two activity groups than SMP Age. While HRF Age of HLTH subjects was very close to their chronological age (CA), in the ACT group, HRF Age was on average 15 years less than their CA (P < 0.05). In a separate analysis, we assessed the HRF Age of patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes (PAT; n = 45). The HRF Age of these subjects averaged 10 years above their CA. Our data suggest that commonly used measures of health-related fitness can be usefully employed as indices of BA which differentiate between individuals of similar ages but differing health and physical activity status. In contrast, measures of skilled motor performance were found to be less valuable measures of BA. The implication of our findings for future experimental design in exercise and aging research is discussed.

  11. Cognitive performance and age-related changes in the hippocampal proteome

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Bennett, Colleen; Sonntag, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Declining cognitive performance is associated with increasing age, even in the absence of overt pathological processes. We and others have reported that declining cognitive performance is associated with age-related changes in brain glucose utilization, long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation, protein expression, neurotransmitter levels, and trophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these changes are causes or symptoms of the underlying alterations in dendritic and synaptic morphology that occur with age. In this study, we examined the hippocampal proteome for age- and cognition-associated changes in behaviorally stratified young and old rats, using 2-DIGE and MS/MS-MS. Comparison of old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired animals revealed additional changes that would not have been detected otherwise. Interestingly, not all age-related changes in protein expression were associated with cognitive decline, and distinct differences in protein expression were found when comparing old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired rats. A large number of protein changes with age were related to the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway. In total, the proteomic changes suggest that age-related alterations act synergistically with other perturbations to result in cognitive decline. This study also demonstrates the importance of examining behaviorally-defined animals in proteomic studies, as comparison of young to old animals regardless of behavioral performance would have failed to detect many cognitive impairment-specific protein expression changes evident when behavioral stratification data was used. PMID:19135133

  12. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. PMID:25264353

  13. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  14. Seasonal variation in the nutritional status of children aged 6 to 60 months in a resettlement village in West Timor.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jacqueline; Ritchie, Brett; Tran, Cuong; Beggs, Sean; Lada, Christina Olly; Whetter, Kathryn; Cobiac, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition remains a public health issue in Indonesia with a national prevalence of wasting of 13% and stunting of 36%. In rural areas nutritional status depends on local agriculture and may fluctuate in relation to harvest time. The aim of this study was to characterise seasonal variations in nutritional status in two resettlement villages in the Oesao district, Nusa Tenggara Timur. A cross sectional study was conducted in a convenience sample of children after the wet season (March). Children aged 6 to 60 months were assessed for nutritional status using anthropometric and biochemical measures. A subset of these children was re-assessed for anthropometry after the dry season (November). Weight-for-height z scores improved significantly from mean±SD of -1.7± 0.9 in March to -1.3±0.9 in November (p<0.001). There was no significant change in height between seasons. Prevalence of wasting, (weight-for-height z score <-2), was 42% in March and 19% in November (p<0.001). However, stunting rates increased significantly from 42% in March to 45% in November (p<0.001). Thirty six per cent of children were anaemic (Hb level <11 mg/100 mL), 68% were vitamin A deficient (plasma vitamin A level <0.8 μmol/L) and 50% were zinc deficient (plasma zinc <9.94 μmol/L). All children except one were positive for intestinal parasites. These data indicate seasonal changes in anthropometry with inconsistent effects depending on the anthropometric index measured. Wasting and stunting were higher than the national average, alongside high rates of anaemia, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. PMID:23945416

  15. Age-specific oxidative status and the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexually selected traits in male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Noguera, Jose C; Dean, Rebecca; Isaksson, Caroline; Velando, Alberto; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2012-09-01

    Oxidative stress is emerging as a key factor underpinning life history and the expression of sexually selected traits. Resolving the role of oxidative stress in life history and sexual selection requires a pluralistic approach, which investigates how age affects the relationship between oxidative status (i.e., antioxidants and oxidative damage) and the multiple traits contributing to variation in reproductive success. Here, we investigate the relationship between oxidative status and the expression of multiple sexually selected traits in two-age classes of male red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, a species which displays marked male reproductive senescence. We found that, irrespective of male age, both male social status and comb size were strongly associated with plasma oxidative status, and there was a nonsignificant tendency for sperm motility to be associated with seminal oxidative status. Importantly, however, patterns of plasma and seminal antioxidant levels differed markedly in young and old males. While seminal antioxidants increased with plasma antioxidants in young males, the level of seminal antioxidants remained low and was independent of plasma levels in old males. In addition, old males also accumulated more oxidative damage in their sperm DNA. These results suggest that antioxidant allocation across different reproductive traits and somatic maintenance might change drastically as males age, leading to age-specific patterns of antioxidant investment. PMID:23139875

  16. SIXTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2011-08-31

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton{reg_sign} GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing for seven years at the Savannah River National Laboratory. Seventy tests using mock-ups of 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 F. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they meet the criterion of leak-tightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 F. High temperature aging continues for 33 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 F and higher temperatures, and in 7 fixtures aging at 300 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 F for 41-60 months, which is still bounding to O-ring temperatures during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the fixtures aging at 200 F will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging within the past year at an intermediate temperature of 270 F, with hopes that they may leak before the 200 F fixtures. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200-300 F. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 350 and 400 F. No failures have yet been observed in GLT-S O-ring fixtures aging at 200-300 F for up to 26 months. For O-ring fixtures that have failed the room temperature leak test and been disassembled, the Orings displayed a compression set ranging from 51-96%. This is greater than seen to date for packages inspected during KAC field surveillance (24% average). For GLT O-rings, separate service life estimates have been made based on the O-ring fixture leak test data and based on compression stress relaxation

  17. NINTH INTERIM STATUS REPORT: MODEL 9975 PCV O-RING FIXTURE LONG-TERM LEAK PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-08-06

    A series of experiments to monitor the aging performance of Viton® GLT O-rings used in the Model 9975 package has been ongoing since 2004 at the Savannah River National Laboratory. One approach has been to periodically evaluate the leak performance of O-rings being aged in mock-up 9975 Primary Containment Vessels (PCVs) at elevated temperatures. Other methods such as compression-stress relaxation (CSR) tests and field surveillance are also on-going to evaluate O-ring behavior. Seventy tests using PCV mock-ups were assembled and heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 450 ºF. They were leak-tested initially and have been tested periodically to determine if they continue to meet the leak-tightness criterion defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97. Due to material substitution, fourteen additional tests were initiated in 2008 with GLT-S O-rings heated to temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 ºF. High temperature aging continues for 23 GLT O-ring fixtures at 200 – 270 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all of the GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 350 ºF and higher temperatures, and in 8 fixtures aging at 300 ºF. The earliest 300 °F GLT O-ring fixture failure was observed at 34 months. The remaining GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 300 ºF have been retired from testing following more than 5 years at temperature without failure. No failures have yet been observed in GLT O-ring fixtures aging at 200 ºF for 72 - 96 months, which bounds O-ring temperatures anticipated during storage in K-Area Complex (KAC). Based on expectations that the 200 ºF fixtures will remain leak-tight for a significant period yet to come, 2 additional fixtures began aging in 2011 at 270 ºF, with hopes that they may reach a failure condition before the 200 ºF fixtures, thus providing additional time to failure data. High temperature aging continues for 6 GLT-S O-ring fixtures at 200 – 300 ºF. Room temperature leak test failures have been experienced in all 8 of the

  18. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  19. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  20. [Neuromuscular status of children of different gestational age on the stage of transition from intrauterine immersion to the earth's gravity].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The work was aimed at describing the neuromuscular status of premature baby in the context of the ontogenetic and zero gravity model using the results of superficial interference electromyography (IEMG). Throughout six postnatal weeks, IEMG of premature babies is similar to EMG of full-term child on the first days of extrauterine life; IEMG is characterized by a "simplified" temporal structure, low amplitude and frequency, IEMG dynamics of fullterm child is slow in contrast to premature baby; the reason seems to be maximum long intrauterine life during which the motor system gets better prepared and maturates. On the other hand, complexity and high amplitude of premature baby IEMG as compared with full-term child of the same postconceptual age are associated with the inevitable sensory stimulation after birth. Abilitation procedures provided to premature baby could be adapted to the purposes of post-flight rehabilitation of cosmonauts.

  1. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies.

  2. Androgens in a female primate: Relationships with reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and secondary sexual color.

    PubMed

    Setchell, Joanna M; Smith, Tessa E; Knapp, Leslie A

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the role of androgens in reproduction, behavior and morphology requires the examination of female, as well as male, hormone profiles. However, we know far less about the biological significance of androgens in females than in males. We investigated the relationships between fecal androgen (immunoreactive testosterone) levels and reproductive status, age, dominance rank, fetal sex and a secondary sexual trait (facial color) in semi-free-ranging female mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx), using samples collected from 19 reproductively mature females over 13months. Fecal androgens varied with reproductive status, being highest during gestation. Fecal androgens began to increase at 3months of gestation, and peaked at 5months. This pattern is more similar to that found in a platyrrhine than in other cercopithecine species, suggesting that such patterns are not necessarily phylogenetically constrained. Fecal androgens did not vary systematically with rank, in contrast to the relationship we have reported for male mandrills, and in line with sex differences in how rank is acquired and maintained. Offspring sex was unrelated to fecal androgens, either prior to conception or during gestation, contrasting with studies of other primate species. Mean facial color was positively related to mean fecal androgens across females, reflecting the same relationship in male mandrills. However, the relationship between color and androgens was negative within females. Future studies of the relationship between female androgens and social behavior, reproduction and secondary sexual traits will help to elucidate the factors underlying the similarities and differences found between the sexes and among studies. PMID:25936819

  3. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-06-22

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  4. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  5. A Longitudinal Assessment of Associations between Adolescent Environment, Adversity Perception, and Economic Status on Fertility and Age of Menarche

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Dorsa; Jordan, Matthew R.; Bribiescas, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Perceptions of environmental adversity and access to economic resources in adolescence can theoretically affect the timing of life history transitions and investment in reproductive effort. Here we present evidence of correlations between variables associated with subjective extrinsic mortality, economic status, and reproductive effort in a nationally representative American population of young adults. Methods We used a longitudinal database that sampled American participants (N ≥ 1,579) at four points during early adolescence and early adulthood to test whether perceptions of environmental adversity and early economic status were associated with reproductive effort. Results We found that subjectively high ratings of environmental danger and low access to economic resources in adolescence were significantly associated with an earlier age of menarche in girls and earlier, more robust fertility in young adulthood. Conclusion While energetics and somatic condition remain as possible sources of variation, the results of this study support the hypothesis that perceptions of adversity early in life and limited access to economic resources are associated with differences in reproductive effort and scheduling. How these factors may covary with energetics and somatic condition merits further investigation. PMID:27249338

  6. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  7. Diet, age, and prior injury status differentially alter behavioral outcomes following concussion in rats.

    PubMed

    Mychasiuk, Richelle; Hehar, Harleen; van Waes, Linda; Esser, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion affects a large portion of the population and although many of these individuals recover completely, a small subset of people experience lingering symptomology and poor outcomes. Little is known about the factors that affect individual susceptibility or resilience to poor outcomes after mTBI and there are currently no biomarkers to delineate mTBI diagnosis or prognosis. Based upon the growing literature associated with caloric intake and altered neurological aging and the ambiguous link between repetitive mTBI and progressive neurodegeneration, the current study was designed to examine the effect of a high fat diet (HFD), developmental age, and repetitive mTBI on behavioral outcomes following a mTBI. In addition, telomere length was examined before and after experimental mTBI. Sprague Dawley rats were maintained on a HFD or standard rat chow throughout life (including the prenatal period) and then experienced an mTBI/concussion at P30, P30 and P60, or only at P60. Behavioral outcomes were examined using a test battery that was administered between P61-P80 and included; beam-walking, open field, elevated plus maze, novel context mismatch, Morris water task, and forced swim task. Animals with a P30 mTBI often demonstrated lingering symptomology that was still present during testing at P80. Injuries at P30 and P60 rarely produced cumulative effects, and in some tests (i.e., beam walking), the first injury may have protected the brain from the second injury. Exposure to the high fat diet exacerbated many of the behavioral deficits associated with concussion. Finally, telomere length was shortened following mTBI and was influenced by the animal's dietary intake. Diet, age at the time of injury, and the number of prior concussion incidents differentially contribute to behavioral deficits and may help explain individual variations in susceptibility and resilience to poor outcomes following an mTBI. PMID:25270295

  8. Nutritional status survey of children with autism and typically developing children aged 4-6 years in Heilongjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Xia, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Nannan; Zhao, Dong; Wu, Lijie

    2013-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disability that may affect nutritional management of children with autism. This study aimed to compare the nutritional status of children with autism with that of typically developing children (aged 4-6 years) in China. Nutritional status was assessed by means of nutritional data, anthropometric data, biochemical assessment, physical examination for nutrient deficiencies and providing a questionnaire to parents. A total of fifty-three children with autism and fifty-three typically developing children were enrolled in this study. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire regarding the eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms of their children. They were also asked to provide a 3 d food diary. Children with autism exhibited several abnormalities in terms of eating behaviour and gastrointestinal symptoms. The levels of vitamins A and B6, Zn and Ca intakes were <80 % of the dietary reference intakes in both groups. In addition, the proportions of vitamin C and Ca intake deficiencies in the autism group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum Zn level was less than the normal reference range in both the groups. Serum Ca, vitamin A and folate levels in children with autism were significantly lower when compared with children without autism. According to the anthropometric data, the mean BMI, weight-for-height Z-score (Z WH) and BMI for age Z-score (Z BMIA) of children with autism were significantly higher than those of the typically developing children. Thus, nutritional inadequacies were observed in children with autism and typically developing children in China, which were, however, more pronounced among children with autism.

  9. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  10. Age and hormonal status as determinants of cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation. I. Densely ionizing (high-LET) radiation.

    PubMed

    Dynlacht, Joseph R; Valluri, Shailaja; Garrett, Joy; Mendonca, Marc S; Lopez, Jennifer T; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; Bigsby, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts participating in extended lunar missions or the projected mission to Mars would likely be exposed to significant doses of high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy energetic charged (HZE) particles. Exposure to even relatively low doses of such space radiation may result in a reduced latent period for and an increased incidence of lens opacification. However, the determinants of cataractogenesis induced by densely ionizing radiation have not been clearly elucidated. In the current study, we show that age at the time of exposure is a key determinant of cataractogenesis in rats whose eyes have been exposed to 2 Gy of (56)Fe ions. The rate of progression of cataractogenesis was significantly greater in the irradiated eyes of 1-year-old rats compared to young (56-day-old) rats. Furthermore, older ovariectomized rats that received exogenous estrogen treatment (17-β-estradiol) commencing 1 week prior to irradiation and continuing throughout the period of observation of up to approximately 600 days after irradiation showed an increased incidence of cataracts and faster progression of opacification compared to intact rats with endogenous estrogen or ovariectomized rats. The same potentiating effect (higher incidence, reduced latent period) was observed for irradiated eyes of young rats. Modulation of estrogen status in the 1-year-old animals (e.g., removal of estrogen by ovariectomy or continuous exposure to estrogen) did not increase the latent period or reduce the incidence to that of intact 56-day-old rats. Since the rapid onset and progression of cataracts in 1-year-old compared to 56-day-old rats was independent of estrogen status, we conclude that estrogen cannot account for the age-dependent differences in cataractogenesis induced by high-LET radiation. PMID:21175345

  11. Pasteurella multocida in scavenging family chickens and ducks: carrier status, age susceptibility and transmission between species.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, P G; Njagi, L W; Nyaga, P N; Bebora, L C; Minga, U; Kamundia, J; Olsen, J E

    2008-02-01

    Pasteurella multocida causes fowl cholera, a highly contagious and severe disease in chickens and water fowls. The disease is not well described in less intensive production systems, including scavenging family poultry production in developing countries. P. multocida was isolated from 25.9% of healthy-looking ducks and 6.2% of chickens from free-range family poultry farms and at slaughter slabs at market. On experimental infection with 1.2 to 2.0 x 10(8) organisms of the P. multocida type strain (NCTC 10322(T)), 12-week-old chickens expressed fowl cholera clinical signs significantly more times (372 signs) than those of 4-week-old, 8-week-old and 16-week-old chickens (173, 272 and 187 signs) and more signs were severe. In family ducks the 8-week-old birds expressed clinical signs significantly more times (188 signs) than those of the other age groups (117, 80, and 83 signs, respectively) and severe signs were more frequent. P. multocida transmitted from seeder birds (n=12) to sentinel birds (n=30), which developed clinical signs, and in some cases lesions of fowl cholera allowed bacterial re-isolation, whether infected ducks served as seeders for chickens or chickens served as seeder for ducks. This study has documented the occurrence of P. multocida among healthy-appearing family poultry in a tropical setting, and demonstrated that age susceptibility is highest in 12-week-old family chickens and 8-week-old family ducks when challenged with a low-virulent strain of P. multocida. It has further demonstrated that cross-transmission of fowl cholera may happen between family ducks and chickens, and vice versa. PMID:18202950

  12. Anal Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men by Geographical Origin, Age, and Cytological Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  13. Anal human papillomavirus genotype distribution in HIV-infected men who have sex with men by geographical origin, age, and cytological status in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients.

  14. Field performance assessment of synthetic liners for uranium tailings ponds: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, D.H.; Spanner, G.E.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a database to support US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of uranium tailings leachate isolation impoundments. This objective is being accomplished by determining the effectiveness of design, installation, and quality assurance practices associated with uranium mill tailings impoundments with flexible membrane liners. The program includes testing of chemical resistance and physical performance of liners, leak detection systems, and seam inspection techniques. This report presents the status of the program through September 1983. The report addresses impoundment design, installation, and inspection techniques used by the uranium milling industry. To determine the relative successes of these techniques, information has been collected from consultants, mill operators, and the synthetic liner industry. Progress in experimental tasks on chemical resistance of liners, physical properties of liners, and nondestructive examination of seams is reported. 25 references, 9 figures, 13 tables.

  15. Cesium and Rubidium Frequency Standards Status and Performance on the GPS Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanMelle, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper is an update of the on-orbit operational performance of the frequency standards on the last Block 1 Navstar satellite (GPS-10), the complete Block 2 Navstar satellites (GPS-13 to 21) and the Block 2A Navstar (GPS-22 to 40) satellites. Since the status of the GPS constellation is now at full operational capability (FOC), a minimum of twenty-four satellites are in position with all the necessary tests successfully completed. The evolution of frequency standards on board the GPS vehicles will be presented with corresponding results. Various methods and techniques will be presented to show on-orbit life time, down time, state of health telemetry, on-orbit trending and characterization of all the frequency standards. Other topics such as reliability, stability, clock quirks and idiosyncrasies of each vehicle will be covered.

  16. Co-Phasing the Large Binocular Telescope:. [Status and Performance of LBTI-PHASECam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Downey, E.; Ashby, D.; Bailey, V.; Brusa, G.; Christou, J.; Danchi, W. C.; Grenz, P.; Hill, J. M.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Leisenring, J.; Lozi, J.; McMahon, T.; Mennesson, B.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Montoya, M.; Powell, K.; Skemer, A.; Vaitheeswaran, V.; Vaz, A.; Veillet, C.

    2014-01-01

    The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer is a NASA-funded nulling and imaging instrument designed to coherently combine the two 8.4-m primary mirrors of the LBT for high-sensitivity, high-contrast, and high-resolution infrared imaging (1.5-13 micrometer). PHASECam is LBTI's near-infrared camera used to measure tip-tilt and phase variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations. We report on the status of the system and describe its on-sky performance measured during the first semester of 2014. With a spatial resolution equivalent to that of a 22.8-meter telescope and the light-gathering power of single 11.8-meter mirror, the co-phased LBT can be considered to be a forerunner of the next-generation extremely large telescopes (ELT).

  17. Status of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter and Its Performance after One Year of LHC Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Julia; ATLAS Collaboration

    The ATLAS experiment is designed to study the proton-proton collisions produced at the LHC with a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Liquid Argon (LAr) sampling calorimeters are used in ATLAS for all electromagnetic calorimetry covering the pseudorapidity region |η| <3.2, as well as for hadronic calorimetry from η = 1.4 to η = 4.8. An overview of the system is shown as well as a discussion of its operation and performance at √s=900 GeV and 7 TeV since the start of LHC running. The latest status of the detector as well as problems and solutions addressed during the last years are also discussed.

  18. A neutron guide installation status and its first performance test result at KAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S. J.; Cho, Y. G.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, K. H.; Kim, K. P.

    2011-04-01

    A neutron guide system that includes neutron guides, a main shutter, and a vacuum system was successfully installed at the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) last year, and is now operating with 5 cold neutron instruments. The neutron flux and spectrum were measured by using gold wire and a disc chopper. The total measured neutron fluxes for various position are about 10-25% lower than the calculated fluxes, which is probably caused by neutron guide misalignment, larger gap between neutron guides, low reflectivity, imperfect cold neutron source data, and so on. But the measured neutron fluxes of the neutron guides are very high. The status of the neutron guide installation and its first performance test result is described in this paper.

  19. Solo status and self-construal: being distinctive influences racial self-construal and performance apprehension in African American women.

    PubMed

    Sekaquaptewa, Denise; Waldman, Andrew; Thompson, Mischa

    2007-10-01

    A preliminary study and main experiment tested the hypothesis that racial solo status (being the only member of one's race in a group) increases racial self-construal among African Americans. The preliminary study showed that African American men and women reported greater collectivist (i.e., group-based) over individualist self-construal under solo compared to nonsolo status, whereas Whites did not. The main experiment showed that the increased collectivism among African American solo women appears to be strongly reflected in racial identity becoming a salient aspect of self-construal. African American participants were also more likely than Whites to perceive that their anticipated performance would be generalized to their race, to feel like representatives of their race, and to show greater performance apprehension (indirectly evidenced by increased self-handicapping) when in racial solo status. The implications of solo status for African Americans in evaluative situations (such as academic testing sessions) are discussed.

  20. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life.

  1. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life. PMID:26499818

  2. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  3. Interaction between age of irradiation and age of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in rats exposed to (56)Fe particles as a function of age. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of age of irradiation independently of the age of testing. Male Fischer-344 rats, 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of age, were exposed to 25-200 cGy of (56)Fe particles (1,000 MeV/n). Following irradiation, the rats were trained to make an operant response on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. When performance was evaluated as a function of both age of irradiation and testing, the results showed a significant effect of age on the dose needed to produce a performance decrement, such that older rats exposed to lower doses of (56)Fe particles showed a performance decrement compared to younger rats. When performance was evaluated as a function of age of irradiation with the age of testing held constant, the results indicated that age of irradiation was a significant factor influencing operant responding, such that older rats tested at similar ages and exposed to similar doses of (56)Fe particles showed similar performance decrements. The results are interpreted as indicating that the performance decrement is not a function of age per se, but instead is dependent upon an interaction between the age of irradiation, the age of testing, and exposure to HZE particles. The nature of these effects and how age of irradiation affects cognitive performance after an interval of 15 to 16 months remains to be established.

  4. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance.

  5. Performance of four age groups of normal elderly on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, M; Satz, P; Chervinsky, A; D'Elia, L

    1991-05-01

    This study explored effect of age on encoding, retention, and retrieval components of memory functioning in a sample of 156 healthy, elderly subjects between the ages of 57 and 85, partitioned into four age groups. Memory assessment was based on subjects' performance on the RAVLT, which consisted of five free-recall trials, recall after interference, and recognition trial. Significant group differences in recall were found on all five learning trials, whereas rates of learning, forgetting, and recognition did not differ for four age groups. In addition, primacy/recency effect was equally strong for all groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms, whereas encoding and retention processes did not prove to be affected by aging.

  6. Coming of Age: Polarization as a Probe of Plant Canopy Water Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Kupinski, Meredith; Bradley, Christine Lavella; Dahlgren, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    COTS camera system. Unlike remotely sensed estimates of canopy equivalent water thickness, our estimates of the RWC of sunlit canopy leaves provide leaf physiological information. We propose RWC estimates based upon sunlit leaves are more relevant to assessing the water status of a plant canopy than would be RWC estimates based upon large FOV canopy measurements.

  7. Coming of Age: Polarization as a Probe of Plant Canopy Water Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Kupinski, M.; Bradley, C. L.; Dahlgren, R. P.

    2015-12-01

    COTS camera system. Unlike remotely sensed estimates of canopy equivalent water thickness, our estimates of the RWC of sunlit canopy leaves provide leaf physiological information. We propose RWC estimates based upon sunlit leaves are more relevant to assessing the water status of a plant canopy than would be RWC estimates based upon large FOV canopy measurements.

  8. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  9. Age and weathering status of granite tors in Arctic Finland (~ 68° N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmody, R. G.; Thorn, C. E.; Seppälä, M.; Campbell, S. W.; Li, Y. K.; Harbor, J.

    2008-02-01

    Cold-based ice along the Fennoscandian glacial ice divide in northern Finland allowed preservation of old landscape features. Because there was little or no movement at the ice-land surface contact, erosion was at a minimum, and relict landscape features such as tors can be found. We investigated two such granitic tors located at Pyhä-Nattanen (68°07.335' N, 27°22.207' E, 508 m asl) and Riestovaara (68°02.613' N, 27°09.003' E, 390 m asl) in subarctic Finland. At Pyhä-Nattanen, the sampling sequence included bedrock material and grus taken from within horizontal cracks, which are so prevalent at the site as to make the tor resemble a stack of pancakes. At Riestovaara, where the outcrop is more subdued, in addition to bedrock and grus samples, soil samples were also extracted from a pit dug in an embryonic soil forming on the bedrock surface. Based on cosmogenic nuclide dating, both tors greatly predate recent glaciation. The tor at Pyhä-Nattanen, which is a more prominent landscape feature, had longer minimum 10Be and 26Al apparent exposure ages, 89.1 ± 6.7 kyr and 69.6 ± 6.4 kyr, respectively, than did the tor at Riestovaara, 55.8 ± 4.5 kyr and 46.5 ± 4.0 kyr, respectively. Both of them are significantly older than the regional last deglaciation age, indicating that both sites have survived multiple episodes of glaciation. Analyses of the 10Be and 26Al measurements in accordance with marine oxygen isotope records (DSDP 607) indicate that the tors have undergone a minimum estimated total exposure-burial durations of 997 kyr (Pyhä-Nattanen) and 858 kyr (Riestovaara) and survived at least 14-16 episodes of glaciation. Weathering, as measured by porosity determined with a microprobe, was somewhat more advanced in the Pyhä-Nattanen granite samples than in the Riestovaara granite. However, with both granites, rock porosity did not change to a depth of 4 cm below the rock surface or vary by lichen cover/noncovered surfaces, indicating that weathering had

  10. Schoolteachers' awareness about scholastic performance and nutritional status of Egyptian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Galal, Osman M; Ismail, Ibrahim; Gohar, Azza S; Foster, Zoë

    2005-06-01

    Malnutrition disorders affect more than 30% of schoolchildren in Egypt. This problem appears to be largely attributable to poor dietary quality and micronutrient deficiencies, such as iron and vitamin A. Inadequate nutrition intake has important implications because malnutrition has been shown to negatively affect the cognitive development of primary schoolchildren. This study assesses the awareness of schoolteachers about the impact of malnutrition on the scholastic performance of primary schoolchildren living in Egypt. Two focus group discussions were conducted with Egyptian schoolteachers from the Quena and Kharbia Governorates. The study indicates that schoolteachers consider low body weight and thinness as the primary signs of malnutrition. They do not prioritize malnutrition as a factor for poor scholastic performance. They also suggest that unhealthful eating habits, especially a lack of breakfast, negatively affect children's interaction with schoolteachers and their ability to excel in their studies. Schoolteachers endorse a more reliable and nutritionally valuable school-feeding program as a way to increase the scholastic performance of their students. The teachers advocate developing integrated programs between the Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Health and Population, teachers, children, and parents that provide nutrition education. A lack of awareness among teachers about the relationship of nutrition and cognitive function can lead to the misdiagnosis or delayed management of malnourished and scholastically challenged schoolchildren. This paper suggests that proper school-feeding programs and nutrition education programs, which integrate government ministries, teachers, children and parents, should be developed to improve the physical and cognitive health status of Egyptian schoolchildren.

  11. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  12. Motor structures in female volleyball players aged 14-17 according to technique quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Grgantov, Zoran; Jurko, Damir

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify motor structures in elite female volleyball players aged 14-17, and to assess the effect of these motor structures on their technical and situation efficiency. For this purpose, a battery of 12 motor tests as predictor variables, and a set of six technical elements and evaluation of performance quality as criterion variables were applied in a sample of 147 female volleyballers aged 14-15 and a sample of 50 female volleyballers aged 16-17. Analysis of variance between subgroups within the groups of volleyballers aged 14-15 and those aged 16-17 showed the results on all motor tests to improve with the increase in situation performance, which was especially pronounced in the tests assessing explosive strength and agility. The same held true for the results on all tests assessing volleyball techniques, spike and block in particular. In both samples, factor analysis of motor tests isolated two factors underlain by the generation and regulation of strength, and the mechanism of speed regulation. Canonical correlation analysis between the motor regulatory mechanisms and technical elements revealed determination of the mechanisms of strength and technical efficiency in both samples. Regression correlation analysis showed the mechanisms of strength regulation and speed to be good predictors of game performance in female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17, whereby the mechanism of strength regulation had greater effect on the game performance than the mechanism of speed regulation. Regression correlation analysis also revealed the set of 6 techniques evaluated to be a good predictor of situation efficiency in both groups of female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17. The block and spike techniques were found to be the best predictors of game performance quality in the former, and the techniques of spike and block in the latter. Based on the results obtained, a possible model of selection for supreme score achievement in female volleyball

  13. Does Nativity Status Matter in the Relationship between Perceived Racism and Academic Performance of Asian American College Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Castro, Kimberly S.

    2011-01-01

    The moderation effect of nativity status on the relationship between perceived racism and academic performance of Asian American college students was investigated. We hypothesized that perceived racism would negatively correlate with academic performance and that this relationship would be stronger for US-born students compared to foreign-born…

  14. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  15. Changes in Brain Network Efficiency and Working Memory Performance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Simpson, Sean L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory. PMID:25875001

  16. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  17. SECOND STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2010-12-27

    Samples have been prepared from a softwood fiberboard lower subassembly. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. On the positive side, the softwood fiberboard data to date shows less sample-to-sample variation in physical properties than cane fiberboard, and the thermal conductivity decreases at a slower rate at 250F for softwood fiberboard than for cane fiberboard. On the other hand, the softwood fiberboard physical property samples generally show degradation rates greater than cane fiberboard samples in the 185F 30%RH environment. Testing following additional conditioning will continue and the addition of samples in other elevated humidity environment(s) will be pursued to identify the extent of these trends. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  18. The effect of age at weaning on the health status of bull calves in a feedlot

    PubMed Central

    Makarechian, Mahmoud; Kubisch, Hans-Michael

    1988-01-01

    Incidence of morbidity and mortality in a feedlot were compared among 381 bull calves weaned one month apart (October 3 and November 1). The calves were 156 and 192 days old at weaning in the earlier and later weaned groups, respectively. Following an adjustment period, the calves were fed a mixed finishing diet containing 90% concentrate ad lib for 140 days in a feedlot. The rate of morbidity did not differ significantly between the two weaning groups. Sick calves in the earlier weaned group had a longer treatment period than those in the later weaned group (3.2 vs 1.4 days, p<0.05). Infections of the respiratory tract were the major cause of sickness and most of the respiratory infections occurred in the early stages of the feedlot period. The frequency of respiratory infections was higher among the earlier weaned calves compared with that in the later weaned group (p<0.01) indicating a higher susceptibility to these infections when calves were weaned at younger ages. Bloat was the second most common health problem among the bulls; however, its incidence did not differ between the two groups (p>0.05). The rate of mortality did not differ significantly between the two groups. PMID:17423140

  19. Differences in body esteem by weight status, gender, and physical activity among young elementary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Lenka H; Harrist, Amanda W; Page, Melanie; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Moulton, Michelle; Topham, Glade

    2013-01-01

    Body satisfaction is important for the prevention of disordered eating and body image disturbances. Yet, little is known about body esteem and what influences it among younger children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate body esteem and the relationships between body esteem, weight, gender, and physical activity in elementary school children. A total of 214 third graders in a U.S. Midwestern state participated in this correlational study. The Body Mass Index-for-age, the Body Esteem Scale (BES), BE-Weight, BE-Appearance, and a Physical Activity Checklist were used to examine the relationships between the variables using bivariate correlations and analysis of variance. While children's body esteem did not differ by physical activity, important interactions were identified between weight status and gender in global body esteem and BE-Appearance. It is critical to examine attitudes about weight and appearance and the relationship between body esteem and self-esteem further among middle childhood-aged children. PMID:23228485

  20. Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is associated with a decreased folate status in women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Borradale, D; Isenring, E; Hacker, E; Kimlin, M G

    2014-02-01

    In vitro studies indicate that folate in collected human blood is vulnerable to degradation after exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This has raised concerns about folate depletion in individuals with high sun exposure. Here, we investigate the association between personal solar UV radiation exposure and serum folate concentration, using a three-week prospective study that was undertaken in females aged 18-47years in Brisbane, Australia (153 E, 27 S). Following two weeks of supplementation with 500μg of folic acid daily, the change in serum folate status was assessed over a 7-day period of measured personal sun exposure. Compared to participants with personal UV exposures of <200 Joules per day, participants with personal UV exposures of 200-599 and >600 Joules per day had significantly higher depletion of serum folate (p=0.015). Multivariable analysis revealed personal UV exposure as the strongest predictor accounting for 20% of the overall change in serum folate (Standardised B=-0.49; t=-3.75; p=<0.01). These data show that increasing solar UV radiation exposures reduces the effectiveness of folic acid supplementation. The consequences of this association may be most pronounced for vulnerable individuals, such as women who are pregnant or of childbearing age with high sun exposures.

  1. Factors associated with nutritional status in children aged 5-24 months in the Republic of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Chikako; Tchuani, Jean Paul; Yamauchi, Taro

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify nutritional status and associated factors in 5-24 month old children in the district of Batouri, Republic of Cameroon. Mothers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and the child's weight, length, head circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference was collected. The data were compared with child growth standards proposed by the World Health Organization using Z-scores; χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to determine variables associated with malnutrition. A total of 100 mother-child pairs participated in this study; valid data from 100 pairs were subjected to analysis. The percentages of children with malnutrition indicators were wasting (6%), stunting (31%), underweight (14%), and low mid-upper arm circumference (16%). Five factors were found to be statistically significant in their association with the children's malnutrition: mother's age, child's age, mother's educational level, mothers who had family planning information, and the source of tap water. A high percentage of stunting was positively associated with a high percentage of chronic malnutrition. We speculate that insufficient nutrition was more likely to begin after weaning. PMID:25818304

  2. Factors associated with nutritional status in children aged 5-24 months in the Republic of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Chikako; Tchuani, Jean Paul; Yamauchi, Taro

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify nutritional status and associated factors in 5-24 month old children in the district of Batouri, Republic of Cameroon. Mothers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and the child's weight, length, head circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference was collected. The data were compared with child growth standards proposed by the World Health Organization using Z-scores; χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to determine variables associated with malnutrition. A total of 100 mother-child pairs participated in this study; valid data from 100 pairs were subjected to analysis. The percentages of children with malnutrition indicators were wasting (6%), stunting (31%), underweight (14%), and low mid-upper arm circumference (16%). Five factors were found to be statistically significant in their association with the children's malnutrition: mother's age, child's age, mother's educational level, mothers who had family planning information, and the source of tap water. A high percentage of stunting was positively associated with a high percentage of chronic malnutrition. We speculate that insufficient nutrition was more likely to begin after weaning.

  3. Aging's effects on marathon performance insights from the New York City race.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.

  4. Current status of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Shaker A; Mousa, Shaymaa S

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the process by which new vessels are created from pre-existing vasculature, has become the subject of intense research in recent years. Increased rates of angiogenesis are associated with seve