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Sample records for age poor performance

  1. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs’ functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers. PMID:27667972

  2. Confronting Poor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Bruce L.

    Responsible and effective administrative leadership requires confronting those members of the teaching staff who are a negative influence on the institution. Importantly, the absence of expressed appreciation for good work can have a devastating impact on a principal's image if he or she suddenly begins to confront poor performances. Actually, the…

  3. Federal Supervisors and Poor Performers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    This report looks at the prevalence of poor performance in the Federal workplace from the perspective of employees and supervisors. The report also...examines what supervisors do about poor performers, the effects of supervisors’ actions, and the factors that influence supervisors’ decisions about how they will handle inadequate performance.

  4. The management of poor performance

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of poor performance is in an integral part of government policy. The suggested approach for the identification of such problems, advocated by the General Medical Council, is that of appraisal. However, traditionally, there has been a reluctance to deal with poor performers, as all doctors have made mistakes and are usually only too ready to forgive and be non‐critical of colleagues. The problems are widespread, and 6% of the senior hospital workforce in any 5‐year period may have problems. PMID:17308213

  5. Poor Performers: Supervisors’ and Subordinates’ Responses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Technical Report 517 POOR PERFORMERS: SUPERVISORS’ AND SUBORDINATES’ RESPONSES t--4 )0~ Daniel R. Ilgen Purdue University Terrence R. Mitchell and...NUMBER Technical Report 517 !’,- 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED POOR PERFORMERS: SUPERVISORS’ AND Technical Report...Continue on reverese aide if neceeeary and Identify by block number) Job performance Power Poor performers Performance feedback * Job interdependence

  6. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2014-01-01

    Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes. PMID:25049998

  7. Premorbid prevalence of poor academic performance in severe head injury.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, J F; Cope, D N; Hall, K

    1987-01-01

    A study of 80 head injured patients revealed poor premorbid academic performance in up to 50% of the sample. Poor academic performance, as defined by diagnosis of learning disability, multiple failed academic subjects, or school dropout during secondary education, is not a previously cited risk factor for head injury. These findings have important implications in the identification of a high risk population and in the subsequent ability to reduce the incidence of head injury. PMID:3819755

  8. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    PubMed Central

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship. PMID:27226912

  9. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  10. Early Oral Language Markers of Poor Reading Performance in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Tardif, Twila; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Shu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which language skills at ages 2 to 4 years could discriminate Hong Kong Chinese poor from adequate readers at age 7. Selected were 41 poor readers (age M = 87.6 months) and 41 adequate readers (age M = 88.3 months). The two groups were matched on age, parents' education levels, and nonverbal intelligence. The…

  11. Individual differences in young and older adults' spelling: do good spellers age better than poor spellers?

    PubMed

    Margolin, Sara J; Abrams, Lise

    2007-09-01

    Young and older adults' ability to retrieve the spellings of high- and low-frequency words was assessed via tests of spelling recognition and production. One of the spelling production tests required participants to write down the correct spellings of auditorily presented words, and accuracy was used to categorize participants in both age groups as good or poor spellers. The results showed that individual spelling ability and word frequency contributed to age differences. Older adults who were poor spellers were less accurate in recognizing and producing correct spelling than young adults who were poor spellers. In contrast, no age differences occurred for good spellers. Furthermore, low-frequency words were especially difficult for young adults and poor spellers, relative to older adults and good spellers. These results indicate that aging alone is not detrimental to the processes underlying recognition or production of spelling but instead compounds existing problems caused by poor spelling.

  12. Perineorrhaphy: Commonly performed yet poorly understood; a survey of surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gregory; Jeppson, Peter C; McGuire, Brenna Lynn; Rogers, Rebecca G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis Perineorrhaphy is performed for prevention of recurrent prolapse, improved sexual function, treatment of pain and cosmesis. Its use is based on expert opinion with little objective data. We aimed to describe factors important to surgeons when deciding to perform perineorrhaphy and to describe variations in surgical technique. Methods We administered an anonymous survey to surgeon attendees at the 2014 SGS annual scientific meeting regarding which factors are important when deciding to perform a perineorrhaphy and details of their surgical technique. Surgeons rated the importance of factors; 1-way ANOVA was used to rank the decision factors, post hoc pairwise comparisons with Fisher's least significant difference method were used to evaluate the importance between factors. Results 183/360 surgeon attendees responded. Most were between ages 36-60 (79%), 56% were female, 64% practiced in an academic environment and 64% had undergone subspecialty training. An enlarged genital hiatus (GH) ranked as the most important factor influencing the decision to perform a perineorrhaphy, followed by a concomitant prolapse procedure (p<0.001). Sexual function and cosmesis were rated less important. Decision to perform perineorrhaphy was made with the patient in 65% of cases, and otherwise in the operating room. Significant heterogeneity exists regarding surgeon suture preference and how muscles were re-approximated. Most (81%) reported incorporating structures both proximal and distal to the hymen in their repairs. Conclusion GH size and concomitant prolapse procedures ranked highest in surgeons’ decision to perform a perineorrhaphy. Significant heterogeneity exists in the indications for and technique used to perform perineorrhaphy. PMID:26142348

  13. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Developing performance and addressing poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  14. Diagnosis of a poorly performing liquid hydrogen bulk storage sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Angela Gray

    2012-06-01

    There are two 3,218 cubic meter (850,000 gallon) Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A, the other at Launch Pad B. The Sphere at Pad B had a high boiloff rate when brought into service in the 1960s. In 2001, the daily commodity loss was approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the maximum allowed by the specification. After being re-painted in the 1990s a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere that resulted in poor paint bonding and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of service, which provided a unique opportunity to perform a series of visual inspections of the insulation. Boroscope examinations revealed a large Perlite void in the region where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and offloaded into the annular void region until full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  15. Age Differences in Perceptions of Rich and Poor People: Is It Skill or Luck?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2013-01-01

    To gain new perspective on the development of understandings and perceptions of income inequality, this study compared the reactions of six, eight, and 10-year-olds to a rich man and a poor man and the winners and losers of a contest of skill and a game of chance. Age differences in attributions for outcomes reflected a strengthening with age of…

  16. Age Is the Only Predictor of Poor Bowel Preparation in the Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    McNabb-Baltar, Julia; Dorreen, Alastair; Al Dhahab, Hisham; Fein, Michael; Xiong, Xin; O' Byrne, Mike; Ait, Imene; Martel, Myriam; Barkun, Alan N

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of key variables on the likelihood of inpatient poor bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Records of inpatients that underwent colonoscopy at our institution between January 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively extracted. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effect of clinical variables on the odds of poor preparation. Tested predictors included age; gender; use of narcotics; heavy medication burden; comorbidities; history of previous abdominal surgery; neurological disorder; product used for bowel preparation, whether or not the bowel regimen was given as split or standard dose; and time of endoscopy. Overall, 244 patients were assessed including 83 (34.0%, 95% CI: 28.1-39.9%) with poor bowel preparation. Cecal intubation was achieved in 81.1% of patients (95% CI: 76.2-86.0%). When stratified by quality of bowel preparation, cecal intubation was achieved in only 65.9% (95% CI: 60.0-71.9%) of patients with poor bowel preparation and 89.9% (95% CI: 86.1-93.7%) of patient with good bowel preparation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only advancing age was an independent predictor of poor bowel preparation (OR = 1.026, CI: 1.006 to 1.045, and p = 0.008). Age is the only independent predictor of poor bowel preparation amongst hospitalized patients.

  17. Poor School Performance: Contributing Factors and Consequences, with Emphasis on the Nonwhite Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwinn, Diane G.

    Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…

  18. Increased reservoir ages and poorly ventilated deep waters inferred in the glacial Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Maria; Skinner, Luke; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Cacho, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence for a poorly ventilated deep Pacific Ocean that could have released its radiocarbon-depleted carbon stock to the atmosphere during the last deglaciation has long been sought. Such evidence remains lacking, in part due to a paucity of surface reservoir age reconstructions required for accurate deep-ocean ventilation age estimates. Here we combine new radiocarbon data from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) with chronostratigraphic calendar age constraints to estimate shallow sub-surface reservoir age variability, and thus provide estimates of deep-ocean ventilation ages. Both shallow- and deep-water ventilation ages drop across the last deglaciation, consistent with similar reconstructions from the South Pacific and Southern Ocean. The observed regional fingerprint linking the Southern Ocean and the EEP is consistent with a dominant southern source for EEP thermocline waters and suggests relatively invariant ocean interior transport pathways but significantly reduced air–sea gas exchange in the glacial southern high latitudes. PMID:26137976

  19. Halide Perovskites: Poor Man's High-Performance Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-07-01

    Halide perovskites are a rapidly developing class of medium-bandgap semiconductors which, to date, have been popularized on account of their remarkable success in solid-state heterojunction solar cells raising the photovoltaic efficiency to 20% within the last 5 years. As the physical properties of the materials are being explored, it is becoming apparent that the photovoltaic performance of the halide perovskites is just but one aspect of the wealth of opportunities that these compounds offer as high-performance semiconductors. From unique optical and electrical properties stemming from their characteristic electronic structure to highly efficient real-life technological applications, halide perovskites constitute a brand new class of materials with exotic properties awaiting discovery. The nature of halide perovskites from the materials' viewpoint is discussed here, enlisting the most important classes of the compounds and describing their most exciting properties. The topics covered focus on the optical and electrical properties highlighting some of the milestone achievements reported to date but also addressing controversies in the vastly expanding halide perovskite literature.

  20. Diagnosing the Poor Performance of Self-Worth Protective Students: A Product of Future Outcome Uncertainty, Evaluative Threat, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ted; Parker, Cathryn

    2007-01-01

    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform well on some occasions yet on other occasions they perform poorly. In this study, two accounts of the poor performance of self-worth protective students are assessed. The first is that their poor performance is an outcome of evaluative threat. The second is that their poor performance is an…

  1. Initial evidence linking synaptic superoxide production with poor short-term memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sameh S; Young, Jared W; Wallace, Chelsea K; Gresack, Jodi; Jeste, Dilip V; Geyer, Mark A; Dugan, Laura L; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2011-01-12

    Unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a marker of cellular and organismal aging linked to cognitive decline in humans and rodents. The sources of elevated ROS contributing to cognitive decline are unknown. Because NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibition may prevent memory decline with age, we hypothesized that Nox and not mitochondrial sources of synaptic ROS production are linked to individual variance in cognitive performance in aged mice. Young (8 months) and aged (26 months) mice were tested in the novel object recognition task (NORT). Mitochondrial and Nox ROS production was assayed in isolated synaptosomes using spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Aged mice exhibited variance in NORT performance, with some performing similar to young mice while others exhibited poorer short-term memory. EPR studies indicated that Nox rather than mitochondria was the major ROS source at the synapse, and Nox-induced but not mitochondrial-induced ROS levels correlated with NORT performance in aged mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that variance in Nox-specific synaptic ROS production may predict short-term memory deficits with age.

  2. A longitudinal study of poor performance and subclinical respiratory viral activity in Standardbred trotters

    PubMed Central

    Back, Helena; Penell, Johanna; Pringle, John; Isaksson, Mats; Ronéus, Nils; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Ståhl, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While clinical respiratory disease is considered a main cause of poor performance in horses, the role of subclinical respiratory virus infections is less clear and needs further investigation. Aims and objectives In this descriptive longitudinal study the relationship of markers of subclinical respiratory viral activity to occurrence of poor performance in racing Standardbred trotters was investigated. Material and methods 66 elite Standardbred trotters were followed for 13 months by nasal swabs analysed with qPCR for equine influenza virus, equine arteritis virus, equine rhinitis B virus (ERBV), equine herpesvirus type 1(EHV-1) and equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) and serology to equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV), ERBV, EHV-1 and EHV-4, as well as the acute phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA). Findings on lab analyses were subsequently assessed for possible correlations to workload performance and trainer opinion measures of poor performance. Results Despite occurrence of poor performance and subclinical viral activity the authors were unable to detect association neither between subclinical viral activity and poor performance, nor between SAA elevations and either viral activity or poor performance. Conclusions Consistent with earlier study results, antibody titres to ERBV remained high for at least a year and few horses two years or older were seronegative to either ERAV or ERBV. In absence of clinical signs, serology to common respiratory viruses appears to have little diagnostic benefit in evaluation of poor performance in young athletic horses. PMID:26392904

  3. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p < .05). Gymnasts' performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  4. Effect of Wii-intervention on balance of children with poor motor performance.

    PubMed

    Mombarg, Remo; Jelsma, Dorothee; Hartman, Esther

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training with the Wii-balance board on balance and balance-related skills of children with poor motor performance. Twenty-nine children (23 boys, 6 girls; aged 7-12 years) participated in this study and were randomly assigned to an experimental and control group. All children scored below the 16th percentile on a standardized test of motor ability and balance skills (Movement Assessment Battery for children (M-ABC-2)). Before and after a six-week Wii-intervention (M=8h, 22 min, SD=53 min), the balance skills of the experimental group and control group were measured with the M-ABC-2 and the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2). Both groups improved on all tests. The M-ABC-2 and the BOT-2 total balance-scores of the experimental group improved significantly from pre to post intervention, whereas those of the control group showed no significant progress. This resulted in significant interaction-effects, favoring the experimental children. No transfer-effects of the intervention on balance-related skills were demonstrated. Our findings showed that the Wii-balance board is an effective intervention for children with poor balance control. Further development and investigation of the intervention could be directed toward the implementation of the newly acquired balance-skills in daily life.

  5. Age-related changes in triathlon performances.

    PubMed

    Lepers, R; Sultana, F; Bernard, T; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was two-fold: i) to analyse age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for Olympic and Ironman triathlons, and ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between the Olympic and Ironman triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top 10 males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5 years intervals) were analysed for two consecutive world championships (2006 and 2007) for Olympic and Ironman distances. There was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (p<0.01) compared with running and swimming after 55 years of age for Olympic distance and after 50 years of age for Ironman distance. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (p<0.01) for Olympic than for Ironman triathlon in cycling (>55 years) and running (>50 years), respectively. In contrast, an age-related decline in swimming performance seemed independent of triathlon distance. The age-related decline in triathlon performance is specific to the discipline, with cycling showing less declines in performance with age than swimming and running. The magnitude of the declines in cycling and running performance at Ironman distance is greater than at Olympic distance, suggesting that task duration exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  6. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  7. Iron nutrition and premenopausal women: effects of poor iron status on physical and neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    McClung, James P; Murray-Kolb, Laura E

    2013-01-01

    Iron is a nutritionally essential trace element that functions through incorporation into proteins and enzymes, many of which contribute to physical and neuropsychological performance. Poor iron status, including iron deficiency (ID; diminished iron stores) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA; poor iron stores and diminished hemoglobin), affects billions of people worldwide. This review focuses on physical and neuropsychological outcomes associated with ID and IDA in premenopausal women, as the prevalence of ID and IDA is often greater in premenopausal women than other population demographics. Recent studies addressing the physiological effects of poor iron status on physical performance, including work productivity, voluntary activity, and athletic performance, are addressed. Similarly, the effects of iron status on neurological performance, including cognition, affect, and behavior, are summarized. Nutritional countermeasures for the prevention of poor iron status and the restoration of decrements in performance outcomes are described.

  8. Identification of risk factors associated with poor lifetime growth performance in pigs.

    PubMed

    Douglas, S L; Edwards, S A; Sutcliffe, E; Knap, P W; Kyriazakis, I

    2013-09-01

    During the production period from birth to slaughter there are some pigs that grow markedly slower, despite conditions that seem to support the growth of their contemporaries. This reduction in growth inevitably leads to weight variation within a group, causes difficulties with management, and results in system inefficiencies. By understanding the factors that contribute to poor growth, the performance of these slow growing pigs might be improved, thereby decreasing the overall variability at slaughter. The aim of this paper was to analyze the factors associated with poor growth performance in pigs from birth to slaughter, determine the effect of piglet birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW) on lifetime growth, and investigate the capacity of small piglets to compensate for any BW deficit. Two industry databases, with individual data for approximately 40,000 and 90,000 pigs, respectively, and containing BW profiles and relevant variables, were analyzed. Body weight at birth, weaning, intermediate, and finishing stages were available as well as sex, month of birth, litter size information (number born alive and total born including still born), sow parity number, and length of gestation. Absolute and relative growth rates, based on adjusted BW for age, were calculated for each time interval and 3 types of analysis were performed: a logistic regression, a continuous linear plateau model, and a weight category analysis. For both datasets poor absolute and relative growth from birth to final BW was associated with low BiW (P < 0.001), low WW (P < 0.001), sex (P < 0.001), breed code (P < 0.001), and month of birth (P < 0.001). The linear plateau model suggested that the relationship between BiW and lifetime growth was not linear beyond 1.91 (database 1) or 1.84 (database 2) kg; the same applied to the relationship between WW at 21 d and final BW (FW) growth, which was not linear beyond 7.53 kg. Finally, the weight category analysis revealed that piglets with the

  9. Bcl-2 expression is a poor predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma prognosis of andropause-age patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xin; Jia, Hu-Liang; Zhu, Wen-Wei; Lu, Lu; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Jin-Hong; Tao, Yi-Feng; Wang, Zheng-Xin; Yang, Jun; Wang, Lian-Xin; Lu, Ming; Zheng, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Dong, Qiong-Zhu; Qin, Lun-Xiu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) seems to be influenced by the endocrine environment. Numerous reports demonstrate the diverse expression of Bcl-2 family members under sex steroid regulation. With the exception of estrogen-related tumors, androgen-related tumors have shown their characteristics in Bcl-2 expression. In this study, the status of Bcl-2 expression in male hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients was examined to verify the high incidence of HCC in males. Methods: Tumor tissue microarray was used to examine Bcl-2 expression levels in 374 HCC cases including 306 males and 68 females. Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards model were applied to investigate the predictive value of Bcl-2 in HCC patients. Results: Immunohistochemistry analysis showed that male patients with higher Bcl-2 levels had significantly longer median survival time and recurrence time than those with lower levels. However, no significant differences in outcomes were found between different Bcl-2 levels in female patients. When the male patients were stratified into several age points, the level of Bcl-2 expression showed poorer predictive efficiency in the 45–49 and 55–60 age groups in andropause-age patients compared with other age groups. Bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival (P < 0.0001) and recurrence time (P = 0.0001) in male patients. After excluding male patients in the 45–60 age group, the predictive efficiency was enhanced (n = 147, OS, P = 0.0002, TTR, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Bcl-2 expression is an independent predictor of survival and recurrence in male HCC. Bcl-2 levels may also be regulated by androgens or androgen receptors in male HCC patients. Bcl-2 levels change and exhibit poor predictive efficiency when androgen levels vary dramatically (andropause age). PMID:28154777

  10. Lesions of the equine neck resulting in lameness or poor performance.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue J

    2011-12-01

    Lesions of the neck are an uncommon primary cause of pain resulting in either lameness or poor performance but should be considered if local analgesic techniques of the limbs fail to abolish lameness or if there are clinical signs directly referable to the neck such as pain, abnormal neck posture, stiffness, or patchy sweating. Accurate diagnosis requires careful clinical examination, exclusion of other causes of lameness or poor performance, and accurate interpretation of diagnostic imaging findings.

  11. Malaria is associated with poor school performance in an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Reyes-Lecca, Roberto C; Pinheiro, Tamam RA; Lacerda, Marcus VG

    2009-01-01

    Background Approximately 40% of the world's population is at risk for malaria. In highly endemic tropical areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality during infancy. There is a complex interrelationship between malaria, malnutrition and intestinal helminths, and this may impair cognitive development in children. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between malaria and school performance in children living in an endemic area where Plasmodium vivax is the species responsible for most of the cases. Methods The study was conducted in the Municipality of Careiro, Amazonas, Brazil, with five to14 year-old children, studying the first eight grades of public school, during the year 2008. After an initial active case detection, during nine months of follow-up, passive malaria cases detection was instituted, through a thick blood smear performed in every child with fever. School performance was evaluated by the final notes in Mathematics and Portuguese Language. Performance was considered poor when either of the final notes in these disciplines was below the 50th percentile for the respective class and grade. Results The total number of students followed-up in the cohort was 198. Malarial attacks were reported in 70 (35.4%) of these students, with no cases of severe disease. Plasmodium vivax was detected in 69.2% of the attacks, Plasmodium falciparum in 25.5% and both species in 5.3%. In the multivariate analysis, adjusting for age, mother's education, time living in the study area and school absenteeism, presenting with at least one episode of malaria independently predicted a poor performance at school [OR = 1.91 (1.04-3.54); p = 0.039]. Conclusion Non-severe malaria compromises the school performance of children even during a nine-month follow-up, potentially contributing to the maintenance of underdevelopment in countries endemic for malaria. This is the first evidence of such impact in Latin America, where P. vivax is responsible for

  12. Perinatal Factors Associated with Poor Neurocognitive Outcome in Early School Age Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Jennifer R.; Gustafson, Kathryn E.; Smith, P. Brian; Ellingsen, Kirsten M.; Tompkins, K. Brooke; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Cotten, C. Michael; Goldstein, Ricki F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Determine predictors of neurocognitive outcome in early school age congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) survivors. Study design Prospective study of infants with CDH at Duke University Medical Center. Neurocognitive delay (NCD) at school age (4 to 7 years) was defined as a score < 80 in any of the following areas: Verbal Scale IQ, Performance Scale IQ, Expressive Language, or Receptive Language. Logistic regression, Fisher’s exact, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the relationship between NCD at early school age and 6 demographic and 18 medical variables. Results Of 43 infants with CDH, twenty seven (63%) survived to hospital discharge, and 16 (59%) returned for school age testing at a median age of 4.9 years. Seven (44%) of the children evaluated had NCD. Patch repair (p=0.01), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO; p=0.02), days on ECMO (p=0.01), days of mechanical ventilation (p=0.049), and post-operative use of inhaled nitric oxide (p=0.02) were found to be associated with NCD at early school age. Conclusions CDH survivors are at risk for neurocognitive delay persisting into school age. Perinatal factors such as patch repair and ECMO treatment may aid in identifying CDH survivors at high risk for continued learning difficulties throughout childhood. PMID:23583126

  13. Tuberculosis in ageing: high rates, complex diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Hervert, Luis Pablo; García-García, Lourdes; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Bobadilla-del-Valle, Miriam; Cano-Arellano, Bulmaro; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Téllez-Vázquez, Norma; Nava-Mercado, Ariadna; Juárez-Sandino, Luis; Delgado-Sánchez, Guadalupe; Fuentes-Leyra, César Alejandro; Montero-Campos, Rogelio; Martínez-Gamboa, Rosa Areli; Small, Peter M.; Sifuentes-Osornio, José; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Background: worldwide, the frequency of tuberculosis among older people almost triples that observed among young adults. Objective: to describe clinical and epidemiological consequences of pulmonary tuberculosis among older people. Methods: we screened persons with a cough lasting more than 2 weeks in Southern Mexico from March 1995 to February 2007. We collected clinical and mycobacteriological information (isolation, identification, drug-susceptibility testing and IS6110-based genotyping and spoligotyping) from individuals with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients were treated in accordance with official norms and followed to ascertain treatment outcomes, retreatment, and vital status. Results: eight hundred ninety-three tuberculosis patients were older than 15 years of age; of these, 147 (16.5%) were 65 years of age or older. Individuals ≥65 years had significantly higher rates of recently transmitted and reactivated tuberculosis. Older age was associated with treatment failure (OR = 5.37; 95% CI: 1.06–27.23; P = 0.042), and death due to tuberculosis (HR = 3.52; 95% CI: 1.78–6.96; P < 0.001) adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables. Conclusions: community-dwelling older individuals participate in chains of transmission indicating that tuberculosis is not solely due to the reactivation of latent disease. Untimely and difficult diagnosis and a higher risk of poor outcomes even after treatment completion emphasise the need for specific strategies for this vulnerable group. PMID:22431155

  14. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica

    PubMed Central

    Colombara, Danny V.; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011–2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ2 tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0–5 months, those 6–23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  15. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  16. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to poor encoding and retrieval of over-learned information.

    PubMed

    Attali, Eve; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging is characterized by deficits that cross multiple cognitive domains including episodic memory and attention. Compared to young adults (YA), older adults (OA) not only show reduction in true memories, but also an increase in false memories. In this study we aim to elucidate how the production of confabulation is influenced by encoding and retrieval processes. We hypothesized that in OA, compared to YA, over-learned information interferes with the recall of specific, unique past episodes and this interference should be more prominent when a concurrent task perturbs the encoding of the episodes to be recalled. We tested this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm in which a group of OA and a group of YA had to recall three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Snow White), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf), in three different experimental conditions: (1) free encoding and free retrieval; (2) Divided attention (DA) at encoding and free retrieval; and (3) free encoding and DA at retrieval. Results showed that OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA, particularly, in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Moreover, DA at encoding markedly increased the number of confabulations, whereas DA at retrieval had no effect on confabulation. Our findings reveal the implications of two phenomena in the production of confabulation in normal aging: the effect of poor encoding and the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  17. Reading Comprehension: A Computerized Intervention with Primary-age Poor Readers.

    PubMed

    Horne, Joanna Kathryn

    2017-01-09

    The current study investigates the effectiveness of a computerized reading comprehension programme on the reading accuracy, reading comprehension and reading rate of primary-age poor readers. There is little published literature relating to computerized reading interventions in UK primary schools, and no previous studies have investigated the Comprehension Booster programme. Thirty-eight children (26 boys and 12 girls; aged 6:7 to 11:0) from two schools in East Yorkshire, UK, took part. Half of the participants (the intervention group) undertook the Comprehension Booster programme for a 6-week period, whilst the other half (the control group) continued with their usual teaching. Significant effects of the intervention were found, with increases in reading accuracy and reading comprehension for the intervention group. It is concluded that computerized reading programmes can be effective in improving reading skills, and these are particularly useful for pupils with reading difficulties in disadvantaged areas, where resources are limited and family support in reading is lower. However, such programmes are not a replacement for good teaching, and regular monitoring of children with reading difficulties is required. Further research is necessary to compare the programme used here to other conventional and computerized intervention programmes, using a larger sample. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. CAUSES OF POOR SEALANT PERFORMANCE IN SOIL-GAS- RESISTANT FOUNDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses causes of poor sealant performance in soil-gas-resistant foundations. ealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. odern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeabil...

  19. Perception of Overweight Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in US Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florin, Todd A.; Shults, Justine; Stettler, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting the relationship between adolescent obesity and poor academic performance, we examined the association of overweight or perceived weight status with academic achievement. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 14-17-year-olds (N = 11,012) from the nationally representative…

  20. Poor Gait Performance and Prediction of Dementia: Results From a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Callisaya, Michele L.; De Cock, Anne-Marie; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Kressig, Reto W.; Srikanth, Velandai; Steinmetz, Jean-Paul; Blumen, Helena M.; Verghese, Joe; Allali, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor gait performance predicts risk of developing dementia. No structured critical evaluation has been conducted to study this association yet. The aim of this meta-analysis was to systematically examine the association of poor gait performance with incidence of dementia. Methods An English and French Medline search was conducted in June 2015, with no limit of date, using the medical subject headings terms “Gait” OR “Gait Disorders, Neurologic” OR “Gait Apraxia” OR “Gait Ataxia” AND “Dementia” OR “Frontotemporal Dementia” OR “Dementia, Multi-Infarct” OR “Dementia, Vascular” OR “Alzheimer Disease” OR “Lewy Body Disease” OR “Frontotemporal Dementia With Motor Neuron Disease” (Supplementary Concept). Poor gait performance was defined by standardized tests of walking, and dementia was diagnosed according to international consensus criteria. Four etiologies of dementia were identified: any dementia, Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VaD), and non-AD (ie, pooling VaD, mixed dementias, and other dementias). Fixed effects meta-analyses were performed on the estimates in order to generate summary values. Results Of the 796 identified abstracts, 12 (1.5%) were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Poor gait performance predicted dementia [pooled hazard ratio (HR) combined with relative risk and odds ratio = 1.53 with P < .001 for any dementia, pooled HR = 1.79 with P < .001 for VaD, HR = 1.89 with P value < .001 for non-AD]. Findings were weaker for predicting AD (HR = 1.03 with P value = .004). Conclusions This meta-analysis provides evidence that poor gait performance predicts dementia. This association depends on the type of dementia; poor gait performance is a stronger predictor of non-AD dementias than AD. PMID:26852960

  1. Carbon-enhanced Metal-poor Stars: Relics from the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-01

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (gsim 140 M ⊙) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  2. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: relics from the dark ages

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-20

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (≳ 140 M {sub ☉}) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  3. Morale, Self-Concept and Social Integration: A Comparative Study of Black and Jewish Aged, Urban Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitelman, Paul Jay

    The basic premise of this dissertation is that racial, ethnic, and religious differences although significant, are not sufficient in and of themselves, to account for aging individuals' self-appraisal. Two distinct groups of aged, urban poor, blacks and Jews, compose the study population. The sample resided in deteriorating urban areas…

  4. The Effects of Aging on Motor Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinman, Matthew

    A review of research on the effects of aging on motor performance provided evidence that age-induced changes within the central nervous system, particularly in the functioning of the non-dominant cortical hemisphere, result in diminished fluid abilities. The loss was most clearly manifested behaviorally as a decreased capacity to perform…

  5. Relative Age Difference Between the Metal-Poor Globular Clusters M53 and M92

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Dong-Hwan; Sung, Hyun-Il; Lee, Sang-Gak; Yoon, Tae Seog

    2016-10-01

    CCD photometric observations of the globular cluster (GC), M53 (NGC 5024), are performed using the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory in Korea on the same nights (2002 April and 2003 May) as the observations of the GC M92 (NGC 6341) reported by Cho and Lee using the same instrumental setup. The data for M53 is reduced using the same method as used for M92 by Cho and Lee, including preprocessing, point-spread function fitting photometry, and standardization etc. Therefore, M53 and M92 are on the same photometric system defined by Landolt, and the photometry of M53 and M92 is tied together as closely as possible. After complete photometric reduction, the V versus B-V, V versus V-I, and V versus B-I color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of M53 are produced to derive the relative ages of M53 and M92 and derive the various characteristics of its CMDs in future analysis. From the present analysis, the relative ages of M53 and M92 are derived using the Δ(B-V) method reported by VandenBerg et al. The relative age of M53 is found to be 1.6 ± 0.85 Gyr younger than that of M92 if the absolute age of M92 is taken to be 14 Gyr. This relative age difference between M53 and M92 causes slight differences in the horizontal-branch morphology of these two GCs.

  6. Right posterior brain-damaged patients are poor at assessing the age of a face.

    PubMed

    De Renzi, E; Bonacini, M G; Faglioni, P

    1989-01-01

    The ability to order unknown faces by age was investigated in right and left brain-damaged patients, divided into posterior and non-posterior groups on the basis of CT scan findings. A face recognition test and a figure ground discrimination test were also given. All three tests were affected by brain damage, but their sensitivity to the locus and side of lesion varied. While no hemispheric difference was found on the figure ground discrimination test, the face age test significantly discriminated patients with right posterior injury from any other brain-damaged group. The face recognition test occupied an intermediate position, with right posterior patients significantly impaired in comparison with right non-posterior patients and marginally impaired with respect to left posterior patients. Aphasia did not affect the performance of left brain-damaged patients on any of the tests. The findings are interpreted as evidence that damage of the right posterior hemisphere areas disrupts the structural encoding of visual information. Four prosopagnosic patients were also tested. Only those showing signs of apperceptive agnosia failed on the face age test.

  7. Poorly Performing Physicians: Does the Script Concordance Test Detect Bad Clinical Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Francois; Jacques, Andre; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Shabah, Abdo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of poorly performing physicians is a worldwide concern for licensing bodies. The College des Medecins du Quebec currently assesses the clinical competence of physicians previously identified with potential clinical competence difficulties through a day-long procedure called the Structured Oral Interview (SOI). Two peer…

  8. Experiences of Second-Class Citizenship Related to Continued Poor Academic Performance of Minority Xhosa Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyer, Lorna M.; Singh, Suzanne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the subjective life experiences of racial minority Xhosa speakers and the factors that contribute to their continued poor academic performance in a previously Whites-only school in South Africa. Vygotskian sociocultural perspective in relation to creating a democratic educational system and Bronfenbrenner's biosystemic theory…

  9. Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

  10. Principals' Perceptions of Barriers to Dismissal of Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandoy, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which factors influence items that school principals consider "barriers" to dismissal of "incompetent" or "poor performing" teachers. This study determines if specific characteristics of schools, principals, or a combination of the two can predict the specific barriers cited…

  11. Unimanual Performance across the Age Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryden, P.J.; Roy, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the age-related changes in the performance of the two hands on the Annett pegboard (Annett, 1970). The current study was part of a large-scale study investigating the development of unimanual and bimanual performance. Three hundred and two right-handed individuals participated in the present…

  12. Subclinical diseases underlying poor performance in endurance horses: diagnostic methods and predictive tests.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, A; Van Erck, E; Ramery, E; Richard, E; Denoix, J-M; Lekeux, P; Art, T

    2011-08-06

    Thirty-eight endurance horses underwent clinical and ancillary examinations, including haematological and biochemical evaluation, standardised exercise tests both on a treadmill and in the field, Doppler echocardiography, impulse oscillometry, video endoscopy and collection of respiratory fluids. All of the examined poorly performing horses were affected by subclinical diseases, and most of them had multiple concomitant disorders. On the contrary, the well-performing horses were free of any subclinical disease. The most frequently diagnosed diseases were respiratory disorders, followed by musculoskeletal and cardiac problems. Poor performers exhibited lower speeds at blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/l (VLA4) and at heart rates of 160 (V160) and 200 bpm (V200) on the treadmill and in the field, as well as slower recovery of heart rate.

  13. Self-Reported Sleep Quality Predicts Poor Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Buysse, Daniel J.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Houck, Patricia R.; Monk, Timothy H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation between sleep quality and cognitive performance in older adults, controlling for common medical comorbidities. Participants were community volunteers who, while not selected on the basis of their sleep, did report substantial variability in sleep quality. Good and poor sleepers differed on tests of working memory, attentional set shifting, and abstract problem solving but not on processing speed, inhibitory function, or episodic memory. Poor sleep was also associated with increased depressive symptomatology but only for functional symptoms (e.g., decreased concentration) and not for mood (e.g., sadness). The relationships between sleep quality and cognition were not explained by confound factors such as cerebrovascular disease, depression, or medication usage. Sleep problems may contribute to performance variability between elderly individuals but only in certain cognitive domains. PMID:19204069

  14. Poor Background or Low Returns? Why Immigrant Students in Germany Perform so Poorly in the Programme for International Student Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Student performance of natives and immigrants differed greatly in the Programme for International Student Assessment 2000 in Germany. This paper analyses the gap in test scores by estimating educational production functions, using an extension study with imputed data. The difference in test scores is assigned to various effects, using a…

  15. Designing Performance Interventions for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Steven; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic Online Performance Support Systems (DOPSS) are a new class of intervention that can meet the needs of a quickly changing work force in an information age environment. These systems are customized for the target population, with unique meta tags, unique function sets, and dynamic growth for and by users in use. These unique tag sets allow…

  16. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... constraints, a supervisor must— (1) Provide employees with the proper tools and technology to do the job;...

  17. Impact of Poor Oral Health on Children's School Attendance and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Vann, William F.; Kotch, Jonathan B.; Pahel, Bhavna T.; Lee, Jessica Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined school days missed for routine dental care versus dental pain or infection to determine the relationship between children's oral health status and school attendance and performance. Methods. We used 2008 data from the North Carolina Child Health Assessment and Monitoring Program. The study sample, weighted to reflect the state's population, included 2183 schoolchildren. Variables assessed included school absences and performance, oral health status, parental education, health insurance coverage, race, and gender. Results. Children with poor oral health status were nearly 3 times more likely (odds ratio = 3.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.75) than were their counterparts to miss school as a result of dental pain. Absences caused by pain were associated with poorer school performance (P < .05), but absences for routine care were not. Mediation analyses revealed that oral health status was associated with performance independent of absence for pain. Conclusions. Children with poorer oral health status were more likely to experience dental pain, miss school, and perform poorly in school. These findings suggest that improving children's oral health status may be a vehicle to enhancing their educational experience. PMID:21330579

  18. Poor performance on cognitive tasks in depression: Doing too much or not enough?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Neil P.; Siegle, Greg J.; Muelly, Emilie R.; Haggerty, Agnes; Ghinassi, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks – it is unclear whether these deficits are due to decreased devotion of task-related resources or increased attention to non-task-related information. We examined the degree to which depressed and healthy adults displayed pupillary motility which varied at the frequency of presented stimuli on a cognitive task, which we interpreted as task-related processing, and at other frequencies which we interpreted as reflecting intrinsic processing. Depressed participants made more consecutive errors compared to controls. More pupillary motility at other frequencies was associated with poorer performance whereas more pupillary motility at the frequency of presented stimuli was associated with better performance. Depressed participants had more pupillary motility at other frequencies which partially mediated observed deficits in cognitive performance. These findings support the hypothesis that allocating cognitive resources to intrinsic processing, contributes to observed cognitive deficits in depression. PMID:20233961

  19. Strategy Choice in Solving Arithmetic Word Problems: Are There Differences between Students with Learning Disabilities, G-V Poor Performance, and Typical Achievement Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Espinel, Ana Isabel Garcia

    2002-01-01

    A study was designed to test whether there are differences between Spanish children (ages 7-9) with arithmetic learning disabilities (n=60), garden-variety (G-V) poor performance (n=44), and typical children (n=44) in strategy choice when solving arithmetic word problems. No significant differences were found between children with dyscalculia and…

  20. Beyond the Critical Period: Processing-Based Explanations for Poor Grammaticality Judgment Performance by Late Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2006-01-01

    This research explores if poor grammaticality judgments of late (age of arrival greater than or equal to 12) second language learners often attributed to being beyond the critical period for language acquisition can be better explained by processing difficulties due to (1) low L2 working memory capacity, (2) poor L2 decoding, and/or (3) inadequate…

  1. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index

    PubMed Central

    Goetzel, Ron Z.; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C.; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K.; Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Methods: Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000–2014), Koop Award winners’ stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. Conclusions: This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation—an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors—of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms. PMID:26716843

  2. From top dog to bottom half: social comparison strategies in response to poor performance.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, F X; Benbow, C P; Gerrard, M

    1994-10-01

    Although the hypothesis that people will alter comparison behavior in response to threat is consistent with the formulation of social comparison theory, the empirical evidence for the natural occurrence of such shifts is weak. Two studies were conducted to examine this hypothesis. In the first study, adolescents' perceptions were assessed before, during, and 6 months after their participation in an academic program for gifted students. Male students who performed poorly, and also worse than they had expected in the program, demonstrated self-protective "strategies" by lowering the amount and level of academic comparison they reported engaging in and by lowering their perception of the importance of academics. Female students, who generally performed as well as expected, reported relatively little change. By follow-up, most of the male students' perceptions had returned to baseline. A second study found that both male and female college students who thought they had performed poorly academically also demonstrated these shifts in comparison. Motivations behind the strategies are discussed.

  3. Demand-specific work ability, poor health and working conditions in middle-aged full-time employees.

    PubMed

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Thorsen, Sannie Vester; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the prevalence of reduced demand-specific work ability, its association with age, gender, education, poor health, and working conditions, and the interaction between poor health and working conditions regarding reduced demand-specific work ability. We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from 3381 full-time employees responding to questions about vocational education, job demands and social support (working conditions), musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and major depression (MD) (poor health) and seven questions about difficulty managing different job demands (reduced demand-specific work ability). Reduced demand-specific work ability varied from 9% to 19% among the 46-year old and from 11% to 21% among the 56-year old. Age was associated with two, gender with four, and education with all measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. MSP was associated with four and MD was associated with six measures of reduced demand-specific work ability. We found no interaction between working conditions and poor health regarding reduced demand-specific work ability.

  4. Activity of gefitinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with very poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Yin, Ming-Chang; Lin, Ching-Pei; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with poor performance status (PS) are less likely to respond to chemotherapy, or to have an improvement in survival, but more likely to experience toxicity. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of gefitinib in patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor PS in Taiwan. Patients with stage IIIB, IV NSCLC with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS of 3-4 received oral gefitinib 250 mg once daily. Totally, 52 patients were included (25 men, 27 women). Forty-three patients (82.7%) were in a PS of 3. Tumor response rate was 25.0% (13/52). Tumor response rate to gefitinib was highest in chemonaive patients 38.1% (8/21) vs. failed 1 chemotherapy regimen 13.3% (2/15) vs. failed 2 or more chemotherapy regimens 18.8% (3/16), p = 0.015. The median overall survival was 2.5 months (response group 9.1 months, stable disease 3.1 months, and progressive group 0.8 month, p < 0.001). Adverse events, mainly skin reactions and diarrhea, were generally mild (grade 1 or 2) except paronychia and acne. Thus, gefitinib has clinically antitumor activity and good tolerability in Taiwan patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor performance status, with a higher response rate than that seen Europe or in European heritage Americans. Chemonaive patients responded better than patients with prior chemotherapy. Formal clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the role of gefitinib in this situation.

  5. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  6. Is there a threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury?

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R.; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-01-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care. PMID:26803373

  7. Young Age Predicts Poor Antiretroviral Adherence and Viral Load Suppression Among Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Milloy, M.-J.; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV among young injection drug users (IDU) have been limited because financial barriers to care disproportionately affect youth, thus confounding results. This study examines adherence among IDU in a unique setting where all medical care is provided free-of-charge. From May 1996 to April 2008, we followed a prospective cohort of 545 HIV-positive IDU of 18 years of age or older in Vancouver, Canada. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), we studied the association between age and adherence (obtaining ART≥95% of the prescribed time), controlling for potential confounders. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we also studied the effect of age on time to viral load suppression (<500 copies per milliliter), and examined adherence as a mediating variable. Five hundred forty-five participants were followed for a median of 23.8 months (interquartile range [IQR]=8.5–91.6 months). Odds of adherence were significantly lower among younger IDU (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.76 per 10 years younger; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.89). Younger IDU were also less likely to achieve viral load suppression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.75 per 10 years younger; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88). Adding adherence to the model eliminated this association with age, supporting the role of adherence as a mediating variable. Despite absence of financial barriers, younger IDU remain less likely to adhere to ART, resulting in inferior viral load suppression. Interventions should carefully address the unique needs of young HIV-positive IDU. PMID:22429003

  8. Poor functional immune recovery in aged HIV-1-infected patients following successfully treatment with antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Taissa M; Hygino, Joana; Andrade, Regis M; Monteiro, Clarice; Sacramento, Priscila M; Andrade, Arnaldo F B; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2015-10-01

    Aging is now a well-recognized characteristic of the HIV-infected population and both AIDS and aging are characterized by a deficiency of the T-cell compartment. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in recovering functional response of T cells to both HIV-1-specific ENV peptides (ENV) and tetanus toxoid (TT), in young and aged AIDS patients who responded to ARV therapy by controlling virus replication and elevating CD4(+) T cell counts. Here, we observed that proliferative response of T-cells to either HIV-1-specific Env peptides or tetanus toxoid (TT) was significantly lower in older antiretroviral (ARV)-treated patients. With regard to cytokine profile, lower levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-21, associated with elevated IL-10 release, were produced by Env- or TT-stimulated T-cells from older patients. The IL-10 neutralization by anti-IL-10 mAb did not elevate IFN-γ and IL-21 release in older patients. Finally, even after a booster dose of TT, reduced anti-TT IgG titers were quantified in older AIDS patients and it was related to both lower IL-21 and IFN-γ production and reduced frequency of central memory T-cells. Our results reveal that ARV therapy, despite the adequate recovery of CD4(+) T cell counts and suppression of viremia, was less efficient in recovering adequate immune response in older AIDS patients.

  9. Language Performance and Reading Ability at 8 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Rodney; Slaghuis, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Reports results from a detailed syntactic analysis of spoken language samples collected from poor and good readers at eight years of age. Results showed an undeniably strong association between reduced language comprehension and reading impairment at age eight, an association that appeared to strengthen by age nine. (SED)

  10. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397.

  11. Poorly recognized age-related downward deviation of the inguinal ligament

    PubMed Central

    Nawaz, Yassir; Barvalia, Mihir; Rana, Gurinder; Khakwani, M Zain; Azim, Khizr; Patel, Rahul; Idrees, Sohira; Baker, Gail; Cohen, Marc; Wasty, Najam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine factors affecting actual inguinal ligament course in live human subjects. Introduction and hypothesis: Although the expected inguinal ligament course is supposedly a straight line extending from anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle, the actual inguinal ligament course is frequently depicted a priori by a downward bowing dotted line. There are no studies in a live subject supporting this assumption. We hypothesized this assumption is indeed valid and is related to among other factors a lifelong effect of gravity and lax abdominal musculature on the inguinal ligament course. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 54 consecutive computed tomography scans of the abdomen and pelvis randomly distributed across all age groups. Actual inguinal ligament course was visualized by reconstructing images using Terracon software. Vertical distance from the lowest point of actual inguinal ligament course to the expected inguinal ligament course was measured. We used multiple linear regression analysis to study the correlation between degree of inguinal ligament deviation and several variables. Results: Actual inguinal ligament course was below the expected inguinal ligament course in 52 of 54 patients. The mean deviation was 8.2 ± 5.9 mm. Advanced age was significantly associated with greater downward bowing of the inguinal ligament (p = 0.001). Conclusion: Actual inguinal ligament course is often well below the expected inguinal ligament course; this downward bowing of the inguinal ligament is especially pronounced with advancing age. Operators need to be mindful as this downward bowing can lead to supra-inguinal sticks causing vascular complications. PMID:27826446

  12. Have the poor always been less likely to migrate? Evidence from inheritance practices during the age of mass migration☆

    PubMed Central

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah Platt; Eriksson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Using novel data on 50,000 Norwegian men, we study the effect of wealth on the probability of internal or international migration during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1913), a time when the US maintained an open border to European immigrants. We do so by exploiting variation in parental wealth and in expected inheritance by birth order, gender composition of siblings, and region. We find that wealth discouraged migration in this era, suggesting that the poor could be more likely to move if migration restrictions were lifted today. We discuss the implications of these historical findings to developing countries. PMID:26609192

  13. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  14. Early Detection of Poor Adherers to Statins: Applying Individualized Surveillance to Pay for Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zimolzak, Andrew J.; Spettell, Claire M.; Fernandes, Joaquim; Fusaro, Vincent A.; Palmer, Nathan P.; Saria, Suchi; Kohane, Isaac S.; Jonikas, Magdalena A.; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication nonadherence costs $300 billion annually in the US. Medicare Advantage plans have a financial incentive to increase medication adherence among members because the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) now awards substantive bonus payments to such plans, based in part on population adherence to chronic medications. We sought to build an individualized surveillance model that detects early which beneficiaries will fall below the CMS adherence threshold. Methods This was a retrospective study of over 210,000 beneficiaries initiating statins, in a database of private insurance claims, from 2008-2011. A logistic regression model was constructed to use statin adherence from initiation to day 90 to predict beneficiaries who would not meet the CMS measure of proportion of days covered 0.8 or above, from day 91 to 365. The model controlled for 15 additional characteristics. In a sensitivity analysis, we varied the number of days of adherence data used for prediction. Results Lower adherence in the first 90 days was the strongest predictor of one-year nonadherence, with an odds ratio of 25.0 (95% confidence interval 23.7-26.5) for poor adherence at one year. The model had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.80. Sensitivity analysis revealed that predictions of comparable accuracy could be made only 40 days after statin initiation. When members with 30-day supplies for their first statin fill had predictions made at 40 days, and members with 90-day supplies for their first fill had predictions made at 100 days, poor adherence could be predicted with 86% positive predictive value. Conclusions To preserve their Medicare Star ratings, plan managers should identify or develop effective programs to improve adherence. An individualized surveillance approach can be used to target members who would most benefit, recognizing the tradeoff between improved model performance over time and the advantage of earlier detection. PMID

  15. Unbiased feature selection through successive elimination of poor performers for EEG classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Khalid J.

    1996-04-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern recognition problem is considered as a composite of three subproblems: feature extraction, feature selection, and pattern classification. Focusing particularly on the feature selection issue, each subproblem is reviewed briefly and a new method for feature selection is proposed. The method suggests that first one shall extract as much information (features) as conveniently possible in several pattern information domains and then apply the proposed unbiased successive feature elimination process to remove redundant and poor features. From this set select a significantly smaller, yet useful, feature subset that enhances the performance of the classifier. The successive feature elimination process is formally described. The method is successfully applied to an EEG signal classification problem. The features selected by the algorithm are used to classify three signal classes. The classes identified were eye artifacts, muscle artifacts, and clean (subject in stationary state). Two hundred samples for each of the three classes were selected and the data set was arbitrarily divided into two subsets: design subset, and testing subset. A proximity index classifier using Mahalanobis distance as the proximity criterion was developed using the smaller feature subset. The system was trained on the design set. The recognition performance on the design set was 92.33%. The recognition performance on the testing set was 88.67% by successfully identifying the samples in eye-blinks, muscle response, and clean classes, respectively, with 80%, 97%, and 89%. This performance is very encouraging. In addition, the method is computationally inexpensive and particularly useful for large data set problems. The method further reduces the need for a careful feature determination problem that a system designer usually encounters during the initial design phase of a pattern classifier.

  16. Optimized finite-difference (DRP) schemes perform poorly for decaying or growing oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambley, E. J.

    2016-11-01

    Computational aeroacoustics often use finite difference schemes optimized to require relatively few points per wavelength; such optimized schemes are often called Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP). Similar techniques are also used outside aeroacoustics. Here the question is posed: what is the equivalent of points per wavelength for growing or decaying waves, and how well are such waves resolved numerically? Such non-constant-amplitude waves are common in aeroacoustics, such as the exponential decay caused by acoustic linings, the O (1 / r) decay of an expanding spherical wave, and the decay of high-azimuthal-order modes in the radial direction towards the centre of a cylindrical duct. It is shown that optimized spatial derivatives perform poorly for waves that are not of constant amplitude, under performing maximal-order schemes. An equivalent criterion to points per wavelength is proposed for non-constant-amplitude oscillations, reducing to the standard definition for constant-amplitude oscillations and valid even for pure growth or decay with no oscillation. Using this definition, coherent statements about points per wavelength necessary for a given accuracy can be made for maximal-order schemes applied to non-constant-amplitude oscillations. These features are illustrated through a numerical example of a one-dimensional wave propagating through a damping region.

  17. Reddening and age of six poorly studied star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, J. H.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Benítez-Llambay, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: To increase the number of studied star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (λ = 3700-6800 Å) for six poorly studied LMC SCs of IVA type. This type corresponds to the age range between 200 and 400 Myr. We also aim at creating a new template spectrum representative of this age range at the metallicity level of the LMC. Methods: Foreground reddening E(B - V) values and ages are derived by applying the template matching method that consists of comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties. The equivalent width (EW) of the Balmer lines and the diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines were also employed as age indicators. Results: For the first time, we provide estimates of the clusters' reddenings and ages. As expected, all the clusters appear to be of nearly the same age, their mean value being (400 ± 100) Myr, while the resulting mean E(B - V) values range between 0.00 and 0.10 mag. Conclusions: The present cluster sample complements previous ones in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. By averaging the reddening-corrected integrated spectra, weighted by their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), a new high S/N template spectrum of 400 Myr has been created. Integrated spectra for each star cluster are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A49

  18. Poor organ quality and donor-recipient age mismatch rather than poor donation rates account for the decrease in deceased kidney transplantation rates in a Germany Transplant Center.

    PubMed

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Thurow, Christian; Arwinski, Stephan; Schleicher, Christina; Hopt, Ulrich T; Bausch, Dirk; Drognitz, Oliver; Pisarski, Przemyslaw

    2015-02-01

    Kidney transplantation is limited not by technical or immunological challenges but by lack of donor organs. Whereas the number of patients on waiting list increased, the transplantation rate decreased. We analyzed the development of decline rates and reasons as well as the fate of declined organs. In total, 1403 organs offered to 1950 patients between 2001 and 2010 were included. Of 440 organs offered between 2009 and 2011 that were declined, we investigated whether these organs were transplanted elsewhere and requested delayed graft function, creatinine, graft and patient survival. Data were compared to results of transplantations at the same time at our center. Decline rate increased from 47% to 87%. Main reasons were poor organ quality and donor-recipient age or size mismatch. Of the rejected organs, 55% were transplanted at other centers with function, graft and patient survival equivalent to patients transplanted at our center during that period. The number of decline has increased over time mainly due to a growing number of marginal donors accounting for poor organ quality or a mismatch of donor and recipient. If proper donor-recipient selection is performed, many organs that would otherwise be discarded can be transplanted successfully.

  19. How Respiratory Pathogens Contribute to Lamb Mortality in a Poorly Performing Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Herd.

    PubMed

    Wood, Mary E; Fox, Karen A; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica; Killion, Halcyon J; Amundson, Sierra; Miller, Michael W; Edwards, William H

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) ewes and their lambs in captivity to examine the sources and roles of respiratory pathogens causing lamb mortality in a poorly performing herd. After seven consecutive years of observed December recruitments of <10%, 13 adult female bighorn sheep from the remnant Gribbles Park herd in Colorado, US were captured and transported to the Thorne-Williams Wildlife Research Center in Wyoming in March 2013. Ewes were sampled repeatedly over 16 mo. In April 2014, ewes were separated into individual pens prior to lambing. Upon death, lambs were necropsied and tested for respiratory pathogens. Six lambs developed clinical respiratory disease and one lamb was abandoned. Pathology from an additional six lambs born in 2013 was also evaluated. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae , leukotoxigenic Mannheimia spp., leukotoxigenic Bibersteinia trehalosi , and Pasteurella multocida all contributed to lamb pneumonia. Histopathology suggested a continuum of disease, with lesions typical of pasteurellosis predominating in younger lambs and lesions typical of mycoplasmosis predominating in older lambs. Mixed pathology was observed in lambs dying between these timeframes. We suspected that all the ewes in our study were persistently infected and chronically shedding the bacteria that contributed to summer lamb mortality.

  20. Performance improvement of GPS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination with poor satellite visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wantong; Sun, Xingli

    2016-07-01

    Similar to global positioning system (GPS) positioning in urban canyons, a fast and successful attitude determination with limited satellite visibility is very significant. For land vehicles, the possible attitude candidates can be treated as a spherical zone with the center at the reference antenna and the baseline as the radius. This provides an important constraint, which can be exploited to improve the reliability of GPS single frequency and single epoch attitude determination in the case of poor satellite reception. First, we fully integrate the spherical zone constraint into the estimation procedure of ambiguity resolution, but not in the validation procedure. Combining both the coordinate domain search and the ambiguity domain search, allows development of a global minimizer of the fixed ambiguity objective function. This scheme also improves the precision of the float ambiguity solution, thus avoiding the problem of search halting. The performance of the new ambiguity resolution method was analyzed by means of several experimental tests, using simulated as well as actual GPS data in urban environments. The experimental results showed that this new, proposed method can utilize a priori spherical zone knowledge to improve the reliability of ambiguity resolution in difficult environments.

  1. CS 22873-139: A very metal-poor main-sequence spectroscopic binary with colors indicative of intermediate age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.

    1994-12-01

    CS 22873-139, a metal-deficient ((Fe/H) = -3.1), high-velocity (Vrad = +243 km/s) star with observed UBV colors (B-V = 0.37, U-B = -0.22) that locate it near the main-sequence turnoff of an old metal-poor population (Preston et al. (1991); Beers et al. (1992)), is, in fact, a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 19.16 days, eccentricity e = 0.26, and a mass ratio of approximately 0.88. The observed colors, corrected for reddening, can be matched by those for a family of artificial binaries constructed by use of colors and luminosities taken from isochrones for ages between 3 and 13 Gy, but the strengths of metal lines in the primary and secondary spectra require that the age of the system be less than approximately 8 Gy. The inferred unreddened colors of the primary, (B-V)0,p = 0.30, (U-B)0,p = -0.19, lie blueward of any globular cluster turnoff and near the low-abundance (upper) U-B boundary of BMP stars in the UBV two-color diagram, as discussed by Preston et al. (1994). Were the primary product of binary merger in an initial triple star system, Harrington's (1977) stability criterion requires for the initial close binary a1 less than 5.2 solar radii and P less than 1.5 days. According to Vilhu (1982) such a system will merge in about 109 years, a time much shorter than the main-sequence age deduced for this system, so even if binary merger had taken place the conclusion that CS 22873-139 must be a relatively young metal-poor star is preserved.

  2. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  3. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  4. Performance of Children with Good and Poor Articulation on Tasks of Tongue Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Linda Smith; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study determined whether first grade children (nine with good and nine with poor articulation skills) could learn to replicate four positions of lingual-palatal contact with and without topical anesthesia that eliminated touch-pressure sensations. (Author)

  5. Educational attainment in poor comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Jessie; Sperring, Rachael; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    To date, only one study has investigated educational attainment in poor (reading) comprehenders, providing evidence of poor performance on national UK school tests at age 11 years relative to peers (Cain and Oakhill, 2006). In the present study, we adopted a longitudinal approach, tracking attainment on such tests from 11 years to the end of compulsory schooling in the UK (age 16 years). We aimed to investigate the proposal that educational weaknesses (defined as poor performance on national assessments) might become more pronounced over time, as the curriculum places increasing demands on reading comprehension. Participants comprised 15 poor comprehenders and 15 controls; groups were matched for chronological age, nonverbal reasoning ability and decoding skill. Children were identified at age 9 years using standardized measures of nonverbal reasoning, decoding and reading comprehension. These measures, along with a measure of oral vocabulary knowledge, were repeated at age 11 years. Data on educational attainment were collected from all participants (n = 30) at age 11 and from a subgroup (n = 21) at 16 years. Compared to controls, educational attainment in poor comprehenders was lower at ages 11 and 16 years, an effect that was significant at 11 years. When poor comprehenders were compared to national performance levels, they showed significantly lower performance at both time points. Low educational attainment was not evident for all poor comprehenders. Nonetheless, our findings point to a link between reading comprehension difficulties in mid to late childhood and poor educational outcomes at ages 11 and 16 years. At these ages, pupils in the UK are making key transitions: they move from primary to secondary schools at 11, and out of compulsory schooling at 16. PMID:24904464

  6. A Western Dietary Pattern Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K.; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a ‘Healthy’ and a ‘Western’ dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the ‘Western’ dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = −13.14; 95% CI: −24.57; −1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = −19.16; 95% CI: −29.85; −8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = −17.28; 95% CI: −35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the ‘Western’ dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  7. Getting off on the Wrong Foot: Longitudinal Effects of Hispanic Students' Stability Attributions Following Poor Initial Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Though studies have established that following poor performance, attributions to stable causes affect the performance of minority students, few studies have explored the impact of stability attributions over time. This study explored attributions following initial failure among a predominantly Hispanic student population. We measured students'…

  8. High live birth rate in the subsequent IVF cycle after first-cycle poor response among women with mean age 35 and normal FSH.

    PubMed

    Moolenaar, Lobke M; Mohiuddin, Seema; Munro Davie, Moira; Merrilees, Margaret A; Broekmans, Frank J M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Johnson, Neil P

    2013-10-01

    Poor ovarian response in IVF cycles is associated with diminished ovarian reserve and poor pregnancy outcome. Little is known about pregnancy outcome after a poor response in women with a normal ovarian reserve. This retrospective study studied women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection between January 2003 to December 2008 in the FertilityPLUS Clinic in Auckland, New Zealand. All women with a poor response in the first cycle were selected. Primary outcome was live birth after the second cycle. Secondary outcomes were poor response in the second cycle and the predictive values of female age and basal FSH at first cycle and IVF outcome at second cycle. Of the 2487 women starting IVF, 142 women (5.7%) with a poor response in the first cycle were selected, of which 66 (46.5%) women had a repeated poor response in the second cycle. There were 31 live births in the second cycle (21.8%). Female age was the only significant predictor for repeated poor response (AUC 0.69, 95% CI 0.61-0.78) and clinical pregnancy (AUC 0.66, 95% CI 0.57-0.75), but the predictive value was low. Therefore poor response in women with a normal ovarian reserve should not be a reason to discontinue further IVF treatment. Poor ovarian response in IVF cycles is associated with diminished ovarian reserve and poor pregnancy outcome. Little is known about pregnancy outcome after a poor response in women with a normal ovarian reserve. In this retrospective study, we studied women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) between January 2003 to December 2008 in the FertilityPLUS Clinic in Auckland, New Zealand. All women with a poor response in the first cycle were selected. Primary outcome was live birth after the second cycle. Secondary outcomes were poor response in the second cycle and the predictive value of female age and basal FSH at first cycle and IVF outcome at the second cycle. Of the 2487 women starting wit IVF, a total of 142 women (5.7%) with a poor response in the

  9. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children with Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…

  10. Protective factors for child development at age 2 in the presence of poor maternal mental health: results from the All Our Babies (AOB) pregnancy cohort

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kehler, Heather L; Tough, Suzanne C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the combination of factors most protective of developmental delay at age 2 among children exposed to poor maternal mental health. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Pregnant women were recruited from primary healthcare offices, the public health laboratory service and community posters in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Participants 1596 mother–child dyads who participated in the All Our Babies study and who completed a follow-up questionnaire when their child was 2 years old. Among participants who completed the 2-year questionnaire and had complete mental health data (n=1146), 305 women (27%) were classified as high maternal mental health risk. Primary measures Child development at age 2 was described and a resilience analysis was performed among a subgroup of families at maternal mental health risk. The primary outcome was child development problems. Protective factors were identified among families at risk, defined as maternal mental health risk, a composite measure created from participants’ responses to mental health life course questions and standardised mental health measures. Results At age 2, 18% of children were classified as having development problems, 15% with behavioural problems and 13% with delayed social–emotional competencies. Among children living in a family with maternal mental health risk, protective factors against development problems included higher social support, higher optimism, more relationship happiness, less difficulty balancing work and family responsibilities, limiting the child's screen time to <1 hour per day and the child being able to fall asleep in <30 min and sleeping through the night by age 2. Conclusions Among families where the mother has poor mental health, public health and early intervention strategies that support interpersonal relationships, social support, optimism, work–life balance, limiting children's screen time and establishing good sleep habits in the child's first 2

  11. Do Poor Students Benefit from China's Merger Program? Transfer Path and Educational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinxin; Yi, Hongmei; Zhang, Linxiu; Mo, Di; Chu, James; Rozelle, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to provide better education facilities and improve the educational attainment of poor rural students, China's government has been merging remote rural primary schools into centralized village, town, or county schools since the late 1990s. To accompany the policy, boarding facilities have been constructed that allow (mandate) primary…

  12. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  13. Europe’s Tired, Poor, Huddled Masses: Self-Selection and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration†

    PubMed Central

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah Platt; Eriksson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During the age of mass migration (1850–1913), one of the largest migration episodes in history, the United States maintained a nearly open border, allowing the study of migrant decisions unhindered by entry restrictions. We estimate the return to migration while accounting for migrant selection by comparing Norway-to-US migrants with their brothers who stayed in Norway in the late nineteenth century. We also compare fathers of migrants and nonmigrants by wealth and occupation. We find that the return to migration was relatively low (70 percent) and that migrants from urban areas were negatively selected from the sending population. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”——Emma Lazarus (1883)1 PMID:26594052

  14. When Hearing Is Tricky: Speech Processing Strategies in Prelingually Deafened Children and Adolescents with Cochlear Implants Having Good and Poor Speech Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ortmann, Magdalene; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Knief, Arne; Baare, Johanna; Brinkheetker, Stephanie; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Dobel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Cochlear implants provide individuals who are deaf with access to speech. Although substantial advancements have been made by novel technologies, there still is high variability in language development during childhood, depending on adaptation and neural plasticity. These factors have often been investigated in the auditory domain, with the mismatch negativity as an index for sensory and phonological processing. Several studies have demonstrated that the MMN is an electrophysiological correlate for hearing improvement with cochlear implants. In this study, two groups of cochlear implant users, both with very good basic hearing abilities but with non-overlapping speech performance (very good or very poor speech performance), were matched according to device experience and age at implantation. We tested the perception of phonemes in the context of specific other phonemes from which they were very hard to discriminate (e.g., the vowels in /bu/ vs. /bo/). The most difficult pair was individually determined for each participant. Using behavioral measures, both cochlear implants groups performed worse than matched controls, and the good performers performed better than the poor performers. Cochlear implant groups and controls did not differ during time intervals typically used for the mismatch negativity, but earlier: source analyses revealed increased activity in the region of the right supramarginal gyrus (220–260 ms) in good performers. Poor performers showed increased activity in the left occipital cortex (220–290 ms), which may be an index for cross-modal perception. The time course and the neural generators differ from data from our earlier studies, in which the same phonemes were assessed in an easy-to-discriminate context. The results demonstrate that the groups used different language processing strategies, depending on the success of language development and the particular language context. Overall, our data emphasize the role of neural plasticity and use

  15. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Connick, Mark J.; Beckman, Emma M.; Tweedy, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key points Results showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners. Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups. Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification. PMID:26336355

  16. Relative Age Affects Marathon Performance in Male and Female Athletes.

    PubMed

    Connick, Mark J; Beckman, Emma M; Tweedy, Sean M

    2015-09-01

    Marathon runners are ranked in 5-year age groups. However the extent to which 5-year groupings facilitates equitable competition has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of relative age in male and female marathon running. Marathon finishing times for the top ten male (aged 20-69 years) and female athletes (aged 20-64 years) were obtained from the 2013 New York and Chicago marathons. Intra-class and inter-class validity were evaluated by comparing performances within (intra-class) and between (inter-class) the 5-year age groups. Results showed intra-class effects in all male age groups over 50 years, in all female age groups over 40 years, and in male and female 20-24 age groups (p < 0.05). Inter-class differences existed between the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups in both males and females, between all male age groups over 50 years, and between all female age groups over 40 years (p < 0.05). This study provided the first evaluation of the effects of relative age in male and female marathon running. The results provide preliminary but compelling evidence that the relatively older male athletes in age groups over 50 years and the relatively older females in age groups over 40 years are competitively disadvantaged compared to the younger athletes in these age groups. Key pointsResults showed a curvilinear relationship between age and marathon running performance with the negative effect of age becoming more pronounced in older runners.Relative age effects were found in all age groups over age 50 years in males and over age 40 years in females indicating that the relatively older runners were competitively disadvantaged compared to the relatively younger runners in these age groups.Relative age affected the 20-24 age classification which is consistent with the hypothesis that marathon performance improves until peak performance occurs in the 25-29 age classification.

  17. Violence exposure, sleep disturbance, and poor academic performance in middle school.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stephen J; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth.

  18. Effects of Antihistamine, Age, And Gender on Task Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-07-01

    This investigation was designed to study the effects of the antihistamine, chlorpheniramine maleate, as well as the influence of age and gender...singly and in combination with chlorpheniramine maleate, on selected types of performance tasks. It was hypothesized that chiorpheniramine maleate would... chlorpheniramine maleate on any dependent measure for any performance task. However, several interactions of age and gender with chlorpheniramine maleate

  19. Computers and the Academic Performance of Elementary School-Aged Girls in China's Poor Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yihua; Zhang, Linxiu; Zeng, Junxia; Pang, Xiaopeng; Lai, Fang; Rozelle, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Experts agree that computers and computing play an important role in education. Since the 1980s there has been a debate about gender as it relates to computers and education. However, results regarding gender differences concerning computer use in education are not consistent. In particular there is little work done in China on this issue.…

  20. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  1. The relationship between poor performance on attention tasks and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seog Ju; Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, In Hee; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2015-11-01

    Our goal was to examine the relationship between attention and suicidal ideation in a school-based adolescent population. This cross-sectional study involved 2,462 students from eight high schools in South Korea (1,021 males and 1,441 females, mean age 17.3 ± 0.6 years). The participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and took part in computerized attention tasks. Participants with high SSI scores (16 or higher) exhibited a higher mean number of omission errors (OEs) and commission errors (CEs) on the visual sustained attention tasks than did participants with low SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). On the divided attention tasks, the high SSI group exhibited a higher mean number of CEs than the low SSI group did (p < 0.001). In a general linear model adjusting for age, gender, and high BDI (10 or higher), membership in the high OE group in the visual sustained attention tasks was associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.015). Belonging to the high OE or CE group in the divided attention tasks were associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.024 and p = 0.035, respectively). For both the visual sustained and divided attention tasks, interactions between gender and high OE rates were significant (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). In the post hoc analysis, membership in the high OE group was associated with high SSI scores for girls. In a multiple linear regression analysis including all participants and controlling for age, gender, and BDI scores, higher numbers of OEs and CEs on the visual sustained attention tasks predicted higher SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively). On the divided attention task, the number of CEs was positively correlated with the SSI score (p = 0.031). The findings of this study indicate an association between attention deficits and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents after controlling for depressed mood. The current results suggest a direct

  2. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  3. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  4. "What if I make a mistake?": intolerance of uncertainty is associated with poor behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Michel A; Carleton, R Nicholas; Gómez-Pérez, Lydia; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2013-09-01

    Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been posited as ubiquitous across experiences of anxiety; however, studies testing how IU impacts behavior remain scant. The current study examined the impact of IU on performance during a keyboard typing task, a relatively complex and common behavior. A total of 40 members of the university community completed the task and measures of IU, trait anxiety, negative affect, and state anxiety. Heart rate and skin conductance were also assessed during the task as indices of state anxiety. IU was independently and substantially associated with slower typing speed (part r = -0.68) beyond other measured psychological and physiological variables but was not associated with typing errors. Prospective and inhibitory IU, as manifestations of IU, did not seemingly differ in their relationship with performance. IU may negatively impact day-to-day behaviors and contribute to undesired consequences. Further research is needed to explore whether this relationship warrants consideration in models of anxiety disorders.

  5. Cold homes are associated with poor biomarkers and less blood pressure check-up: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-04-01

    It has been known that outdoor temperature influences seasonal fluctuation of blood pressure and cholesterol levels, but the role of indoor temperature has been less studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the associations between indoor temperature and biomarkers in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, room temperature and a series of biomarkers measured in the blood and lung was obtained at household interviews. t test, chi-square test and a generalized linear model were performed cross-sectionally. Of 7997 older adults with the valid indoor temperature measurements, there were 1301 (16.3%) people who resided in cold homes (<18 °C). Age was inversely associated with people who resided in cold homes or who tended not to have blood pressure check-up. Those who resided in cold homes had higher blood pressure readings, worse handgrip, lower vitamin D levels, higher cholesterol levels, higher insulin-like growth factor levels, higher haemoglobin levels, lower level of white blood cell count and worse lung conditions. One in six older adults aged 50 and above in England resided in cold homes and had poor biomarker values. For the future research direction, studies with a longitudinal approach to systematically monitor indoor temperature, biomarkers and health and wellbeing would be suggested. From the practice and policy perspectives, increasing health knowledge on the adverse effect of low indoor temperature on risks of cardiac and respiratory conditions, affording to the heating and re-designing of residential buildings to keep warm by using efficient energy, should be kept as priority.

  6. AVCRI104P3, a novel multitarget compound with cognition-enhancing and anxiolytic activities: studies in cognitively poor middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Llort, L; Ratia, M; Pérez, B; Camps, P; Muñoz-Torrero, D; Badia, A; Clos, M V

    2015-06-01

    The present work describes, for the first time, the in vivo effects of the multitarget compound AVCRI104P3, a new anticholinesterasic drug with potent inhibitory effects on human AChE, human BuChE and BACE-1 activities as well as on the AChE-induced and self-induced Aβ aggregation. We characterized the behavioral effects of chronic treatment with AVCRI104P3 (0.6 μmol kg(-1), i.p., 21 days) in a sample of middle aged (12-month-old) male 129/Sv×C57BL/6 mice with poor cognitive performance, as shown by the slow acquisition curves of saline-treated animals. Besides, a comparative assessment of cognitive and non-cognitive actions was done using its in vitro equipotent doses of huprine X (0.12 μmol kg(-1)), a huperzine A-tacrine hybrid. The screening assessed locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors, cognitive function and side effects. The results on the 'acquisition' of spatial learning and memory show that AVCRI104P3 exerted pro-cognitive effects improving both short- and long-term processes, resulting in a fast and efficient acquisition of the place task in the Morris water maze. On the other hand, a removal test and a perceptual visual learning task indicated that both AChEIs improved short-term 'memory' as compared to saline treated mice. Both drugs elicited the same response in the corner test, but only AVCRI104P3 exhibited anxiolytic-like actions in the dark/light box test. These cognitive-enhancement and anxiolytic-like effects demostrated herein using a sample of middle-aged animals and the lack of adverse effects, strongly encourage further studies on AVCRI104P3 as a promising multitarget therapeutic agent for the treatment of cholinergic dysfunction underlying natural aging and/or dementias.

  7. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  8. Performance Lapses in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contribute to Poor Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate increased response variability compared with controls, which is thought to be associated with deficits in attention regulation and response control that subsequently affect performance of more cognitively demanding tasks, such as reading. The present study examined response variability during a computerized simple reaction time (RT) task in 67 children. Ex-Gaussian analyses separated the response time distribution into normal (mu and sigma) and exponential (tau) components; the association of each with reading fluency was examined. Children with ADHD had significantly slower, more variable, and more skewed RTs compared with controls. After controlling for ADHD symptom severity, tau (but not mu or mean RT) was significantly associated with reduced reading fluency, but not with single word reading accuracy. These data support the growing evidence that RT variability, but not simply slower mean response speed, is the characteristic of youth with ADHD and that longer response time latencies (tau) may be implicated in the poorer academic performance associated with ADHD. PMID:23838684

  9. Evaluation of poor performance and asymmetry in the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test.

    PubMed

    Victor, J D

    1988-03-01

    A statistical method for the analysis of errors on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test is introduced. The extent of asymmetry of errors are summarized by two indices, I1 and I2, derived from Fourier analysis of the error scores for the individual caps. The second index, I2, describes the (bipolar) color axis; the first index, I1, describes (monopolar) asymmetry of performance. The present analysis differs from previous approaches based on Fourier analysis of the errors in two ways: (1) a procedure is introduced which corrects the indices I1 and I2 for the biases that result from the segmentation of the test into four boxes; (2) statistics for the significance of I1 and I2 are derived by a Monte Carlo procedure, which properly handles the complex interdependence of individual error scores for each cap.

  10. Changes in Track and Field Performance with Chronological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Lena; Ha, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Examined official records of VIII World Veterans Championships to identify running, jumping, and throwing events whose performance was most affected by age. Found that 400-meter run and long jump were most affected by advancing age among both male and female master athletes whereas, in areas of throws, event most affected was javelin for men and…

  11. Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, M.

    2008-07-08

    The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.

  12. Age and practice effects on inter-manual performance asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Francis, Karen L; MacRae, Priscilla G; Spirduso, Waneen W; Eakin, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Manual dexterity declines with increasing age, however, the way in which inter-manual asymmetry responds to aging is unclear. Our purpose was to determine the effect of age and practice on inter-manual performance asymmetry in an isometric force pinch line tracing task that varied in difficulty within segments. Thirty right-handed participants, five males and five females in each of three age groups, young (Y20), young-old (O70), and old-old (O80), practiced an isometric force pinch task for 10 trials with each hand on each of five consecutive days. Inter-manual performance asymmetry of the right and left hands was analyzed with a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) of asymmetry with age groups, practice, task difficulty, and hand as factors. The within-individual magnitude of asymmetry was also analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA of manual asymmetry calculated as an asymmetry index (AI). Post hoc pair-wise comparisons were performed when significance was found. We observed no inter-manual performance asymmetry on this isometric tracing task among any of the age groups, either in the hand performance differences or in the magnitude of the AI. Age and practice interacted in terms of manual performance: the Y20 and O70 group improved accuracy and task time across the 5 days of practice but the O80 group did not. However, practice did not differentially affect the AI for accuracy or task time for any group. Accuracy of performance of the two hands was differentially affected by practice. All age groups exhibited poorer performance and larger AIs on the most difficult segments of the task (3 and 6) and this did not change with practice.

  13. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  14. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  15. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  16. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  17. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E.; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  18. Diet-induced ketosis improves cognitive performance in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O; Tsipis, Constantinos P; Puchowicz, Michelle A; LaManna, Joseph C

    2010-01-01

    Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1alpha levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions.

  19. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Quail, Stephanie L.; Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5–6, 8–9 and 27–28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2–3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27–28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27–28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27–28 months. Conclusion: this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed. PMID:26869921

  20. Aging affects spatial reconstruction more than spatial pattern separation performance even after extended practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Rachel; Tahan, Asli C; Watson, Patrick D; Severson, Joan; Cohen, Neal J; Voss, Michelle

    2017-03-21

    Although the hippocampus experiences age-related anatomical and functional deterioration, the effects of aging vary across hippocampal-dependent cognitive processes. In particular, whether or not the hippocampus is known to be required for a spatial memory process is not an accurate predictor on its own of whether aging will affect performance. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was to compare the effects of healthy aging on a test of spatial pattern separation and a test of spatial relational processing, which are two aspects of spatial memory that uniquely emphasize the use of multiple hippocampal-dependent processes. Spatial pattern separation supports spatial memory by preserving unique representations for distinct locations. Spatial relational processing forms relational representations of objects to locations or between objects and other objects in space. To test our primary objective, 30 young (18-30 years; 21F) and 30 older participants (60-80 years; 21F) all completed a spatial pattern separation task and a task designed to require spatial relational processing through spatial reconstruction. To ensure aging effects were not due to inadequate time to develop optimal strategies or become comfortable with the testing devices, a subset of participants had extended practice across three sessions on each task. Results showed that older adults performed more poorly than young on the spatial reconstruction task that emphasized the use of spatial relational processing, and that age effects persisted even after controlling for pattern separation performance. Further, older adults performed more poorly on spatial reconstruction than young adults even after three testing sessions each separated by 7-10 days, suggesting effects of aging are resistant to extended practice and likely reflect genuine decline in hippocampal memory abilities.

  1. Aging Behavior and Performance Projections for a Polysulfide Elastomer

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Quintana, Adam

    2015-05-01

    The accelerated aging behavior and aging state of a 30 year old field retrieved polysulfide elastomer was examined. The material is used as an environmental thread sealant for a stainless steel bolt in a steel threaded insert in an aluminum assembly. It is a two component curable polysulfide elastomer that is commercially available in a similar formulation as was applied 30 years ago. The primary goal of this study was to establish if aging over 30 years under moderate aging conditions (mostly ambient temperature and humidity) resulted in significant property changes, or if accelerated aging could identify developing aging pathways which would prevent the extended use of this material. The aging behavior of this material was examined in three ways: A traditional accelerated thermo-oxidative aging study between 95 to 140°C which focused on physical and chemical properties changes, an evaluation of the underlying oxidation rates between RT and 125°C, and an assessment of the aging state of a small 30 year old sample. All three data sets were used to establish aging characteristics, their time evolution, and to extrapolate the observed behavior to predict performance limits at RT. The accelerated aging study revealed a relatively high average activation energy of ~130 kJ/mol which gives overconfident performance predictions. Oxidation rates showed a decreasing behavior with aging time and a lower E a of ~84 kJ/mol from time - temperature superposition , but also predicted sufficient additional performance at RT. Consistent with these projections for extended RT performance, only small changes were observed for the 30 year old material. Extrapolations using this partially aged material also predict ongoing use as a viable option. Unexpected RT degradation could only develop into a concern should the oxidation rate not trend lower over time as was observed at elevated temperature. Considering all data acquired in this limited aging study , there are no immediately

  2. Enacting Dialogue: The Impact of Promoting Philosophy for Children on the Literate Thinking of Identified Poor Readers, Aged 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Philip; Lyle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Philosophy for Children in Schools Project (P4CISP) is a research project to monitor and evaluate the impact of Philosophy for Children (P4C) on classroom practices. In this paper the impact of P4C on the thinking skills of four children aged 10 is examined. Standardised tests indicated the children had below-average reading ages. The pupils…

  3. Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing Communities of Northern Nigeria: 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B.; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). Methods. We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. Results. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Conclusions. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013–November 2014. PMID:26908717

  4. Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid dysfunction supported by poor burst-speed performance in hybrid tiger salamanders.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, B M

    2008-01-01

    Speciation may result from 'complementary' genetic differences that cause dysfunction when brought together in hybrids despite having no deleterious effects within pure species genomes. The theory of complementary genes, independently proposed by Dobzhansky and Muller, yields specific predictions about the genetics of hybrid fitness. Here, I show how alternative models of hybrid dysfunction can be compared using a simple multivariate analysis of hybrid indices calculated from molecular markers. I use the approach to fit models of hybrid dysfunction to swimming performance in hybrid tiger salamander larvae. Poor burst-speed performance is a dysfunction suggesting low vigour and could translate directly into low survival. My analyses show that the Dobzhansky-Muller model fits these data better than heterozygote disadvantage. The approach demonstrated here can be applied to a broad array of nonmodel species, potentially leading to important generalizations about the genetics of hybrid dysfunction.

  5. A Multi-Step Pathway Connecting Short Sleep Duration to Daytime Somnolence, Reduced Attention, and Poor Academic Performance: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study in Teenagers

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J.; Richaudeau, Alba; Vigo, Daniel; Rossi, Malco; Cardinali, Daniel P.; Perez-Chada, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Background: A multi-step causality pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence and sleepiness leading to reduced attention and poor academic performance as the final result can be envisaged. However this hypothesis has never been explored. Objective: To explore consecutive correlations between sleep duration, daytime somnolence, attention levels, and academic performance in a sample of school-aged teenagers. Methods: We carried out a survey assessing sleep duration and daytime somnolence using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep duration variables included week-days' total sleep time, usual bedtimes, and absolute weekdayto-weekend sleep time difference. Attention was assessed by d2 test and by the coding subtest from the WISC-IV scale. Academic performance was obtained from literature and math grades. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the independent relationships between these variables, while controlling for confounding effects of other variables, in one single model. Standardized regression weights (SWR) for relationships between these variables are reported. Results: Study sample included 1,194 teenagers (mean age: 15 years; range: 13-17 y). Sleep duration was inversely associated with daytime somnolence (SWR = -0.36, p < 0.01) while sleepiness was negatively associated with attention (SWR = -0.13, p < 0.01). Attention scores correlated positively with academic results (SWR = 0.18, p < 0.01). Daytime somnolence correlated negatively with academic achievements (SWR = -0.16, p < 0.01). The model offered an acceptable fit according to usual measures (RMSEA = 0.0548, CFI = 0.874, NFI = 0.838). A Sobel test confirmed that short sleep duration influenced attention through daytime somnolence (p < 0.02), which in turn influenced academic achievements through reduced attention (p < 0.002). Conclusions: Poor academic achievements correlated with reduced attention, which in turn was related to daytime somnolence. Somnolence

  6. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  7. Cognitive Profiles of Korean Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Ji, Yu-Kyong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 30 poor readers in the third grade with those of 30 average readers of the same age and 30 younger readers matched with the same reading level on phonological, visuo-perceptual, orthographic, and naming speed tasks. Individual data revealed heterogeneous profiles for the poor readers: six (20%) exhibited…

  8. Age and diagnostic performance of Alzheimer disease CSF biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Rosén, E.; Hansson, O.; Andreasen, N.; Parnetti, L.; Jonsson, M.; Herukka, S.-K.; van der Flier, W.M.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Ewers, M.; Rich, K.; Kaiser, E.; Verbeek, M.M.; Olde Rikkert, M.; Tsolaki, M.; Mulugeta, E.; Aarsland, D.; Visser, P.J.; Schröder, J.; Marcusson, J.; de Leon, M.; Hampel, H.; Scheltens, P.; Wallin, A.; Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, M.; Minthon, L.; Winblad, B.; Blennow, K.; Zetterberg, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Core CSF changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) are decreased amyloid β1–42, increased total tau, and increased phospho-tau, probably indicating amyloid plaque accumulation, axonal degeneration, and tangle pathology, respectively. These biomarkers identify AD already at the predementia stage, but their diagnostic performance might be affected by age-dependent increase of AD-type brain pathology in cognitively unaffected elderly. Methods: We investigated effects of age on the diagnostic performance of CSF biomarkers in a uniquely large multicenter study population, including a cross-sectional cohort of 529 patients with AD dementia (median age 71, range 43–89 years) and 304 controls (67, 44–91 years), and a longitudinal cohort of 750 subjects without dementia with mild cognitive impairment (69, 43–89 years) followed for at least 2 years, or until dementia diagnosis. Results: The specificities for subjects without AD and the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves decreased with age. However, the positive predictive value for a combination of biomarkers remained stable, while the negative predictive value decreased only slightly in old subjects, as an effect of the high AD prevalence in older ages. Conclusion: Although the diagnostic accuracies for AD decreased with age, the predictive values for a combination of biomarkers remained essentially stable. The findings highlight biomarker variability across ages, but support the use of CSF biomarkers for AD even in older populations. PMID:22302554

  9. Performance of cell-penetrating peptide-linked polymers physically mixed with poorly membrane-permeable molecules on cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Shinji; Suita, Masaya; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Nakajima, Noriko; Shinkai, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Hitoshi; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Hashizume, Akio; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Yuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2012-05-01

    We are investigating a new class of penetration enhancers that enable poorly membrane-permeable molecules physically mixed with them to effectively penetrate cell membranes without their concomitant cellular uptake. Since we previously revealed that poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) modified with d-octaarginine, which is a typical cell-penetrating peptide, significantly enhanced the nasal absorption of insulin, we examined the performance of the polymers on cell membranes. When Caco-2 cells were incubated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) for 30 min, approximately 0.1% of applied CF was internalized into the cells. This poor membrane permeability was dramatically enhanced by d-octaarginine-linked polymers; a 25-fold increase in the cellular uptake of CF was observed when the polymer concentration was adjusted to 0.2mg/mL. None of the individual components, for example, d-octaarginine, had any influence on CF uptake, demonstrating that only d-octaarginine anchored chemically to the polymeric platform enhanced the membrane permeation of CF. The polymer-induced CF uptake was consistently high even when the incubation time was extended to 120 min. Confocal laser scanning microphotographs of cells incubated with d-octaarginine-linked polymers bearing rhodamine red demonstrated that the cell outline was stained with red fluorescence. The polymer-induced CF uptake was significantly suppressed by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, which is an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Results indicated that d-octaarginine-linked polymers remained on the cell membrane and poorly membrane-permeable CF was continuously internalized into cells mainly via macropinocytosis repeated for the individual peptidyl branches in the polymer backbone.

  10. According to Age: Longitudinal Profiles of AFDC Recipients and the Poor by Age Group. Prepared for the Working Seminar on the Family and American Welfare Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Charles; Laren, Deborah

    Using findings of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), this report discusses how people become poor and why they stay that way. The PSID reveals that the requirements for getting out of poverty in the United States are so minimal that it takes a mutually reinforcing cluster of behaviors to remain in poverty, even for blacks and females. The…

  11. Implications of Advancing Paternal Age: Does It Affect Offspring School Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Anna C.; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI −3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30–34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers. PMID:21957460

  12. Motor skill performance of school-age children with visual impairments.

    PubMed

    Houwen, S; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M; Hartman, E

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Their performance was compared with 48 children without VI (33 males, 15 females; mean age 8y 9mo [SD 1y 1mo]). Children with VI showed the poorest performance compared with peers without VI on unimanual speed, eye-hand coordination, catching, static balance, and dynamic balance while moving slowly. There was no significant difference between children with moderate and severe VI, except for bimanual coordination in 7- to 8-year-olds and eye-hand coordination in both the 7- to 8-year-olds and 9- to 10-year-olds, favouring the children with moderate VI. The poor performance compared with children without VI is related to vision, but the degree of the VI does not appear to relate to motor performance, except when associated with bimanual and eye-hand coordination. For children with VI, it seems very important to adjust the environmental context and task to enhance motor performance.

  13. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  14. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Poor Sleep Quality among Chinese Elderly in an Urban Community: Results from the Shanghai Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qianhua; Guo, Qihao; Meng, Haijiao; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disorders causes a significant negative effect on mental and physical health, particularly among the elderly. The disease burden and risk factors of poor sleep quality of the elderly need to be verified using a validated form of measurement in urban mainland China. Methods This study included 1086 community residents aged ≥60 years who completed the Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (CPSQI). Poor sleeper was defined by a CPSQI global score of >5. Subjects also accepted the neurological and neuropsychological assessments, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (ZSAS). A history of chronic diseases was confirmed by the medical records of each participant. Results The prevalence of poor sleep quality in this population was 41.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38.6–44.5%), with a higher rate observed in elderly females (45.8% [95% CI = 41.9–49.7%]) than that in elderly males (35.8% [95% CI = 31.4–40.1%]). The prevalence rate increased with age, from 32.1% (95% CI = 27.8–36.4%) in those aged 60–69 years to 52.5% (95% CI = 45.9–59.1%) in those aged ≥80 years (p value for trend<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.03[95% CI = 1.01–1.05], p<0.001), less education duration (OR = 1.04 [95% CI = 1.01–1.08, p = 0.014), living alone (OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.02–2.58], p = 0.04), anxiety (ZSAS score: OR = 1.09 [95% CI = 1.05–1.12], p<0.001), number of chronic disease (OR = 1.18 [95% CI = 1.07–1.30], p = 0.14) and arthritis (OR = 1.45[95% CI = 1.05–2.01], p = 0.025) were risk factors of poor sleep quality. Conclusions Poor sleep quality is highly prevalent among elderly Chinese residents in urban Shanghai. Growing attention and comprehensive countermeasures involving psycho-social and personal activities

  15. Effects of fiber inclusion on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets reared under optimal or poor hygienic conditions.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Menoyo, D; Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of inclusion of additional fiber in the Phase I diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglets reared under "optimal" or "poor" hygienic conditions. In both experiments, the design was completely randomized with a control diet that contained 2.2% crude fiber and 8 additional isonutritive diets that included 2.5 or 5.0% of sugar beet pulp (SBP), straw, oat hulls (OH), or wheat middlings (WHM). Preplanned polynomial contrasts were used to study the effects of 1) fiber inclusion (control diet vs. average of the 8 fiber-containing diets), 2) source of fiber, 3) level of fiber, and 4) interaction between source and level of fiber. In Exp. 1 (clean barn), fiber inclusion increased ( < 0.01) the incidence of postweaning diarrhea (PWD) and reduced ( < 0.05) feed efficiency and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of all nutrients except that of CP, which was not affected. Piglet performance was not affected by source or level of dietary fiber. The ATTD of all nutrients decreased ( < 0.05) as the level of fiber increased and was lower in pigs fed straw or OH than in pigs fed SBP or WHM. The apparent ileal digestibility of GE and DM decreased ( < 0.05) with fiber inclusion, a reduction that was more pronounced ( < 0.05) with straw or SBP than with OH inclusion, with WHM inclusion being intermediate. Fiber inclusion did not affect villous height to crypt depth ratio of the ileum mucosa. The inclusion of 5% of a fiber source increased and counts in the cecum ( < 0.001) but the to ratio was not affected. In Exp. 2 (dirty barn), fiber inclusion did not affect piglet performance but tended to increase PWD ( = 0.07). Also, fiber inclusion reduced ( < 0.05) the ATTD of all dietary components except that of CP, which was not affected. Source and level of fiber did not affect ATTD of nutrients except for DM, which was greater for pigs fed SBP than for pigs fed straw ( < 0.05). In conclusion, in the current

  16. A phase II study of cetuximab and radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (N0422)

    PubMed Central

    Jatoi, A.; Schild, S. E.; Foster, N.; Henning, G. T.; Dornfeld, K. J.; Flynn, P. J.; Fitch, T. R.; Dakhil, S. R.; Rowland, K. M.; Stella, P. J.; Soori, G. S.; Adjei, A. A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a disease of the elderly. Seeking a tolerable but effective regimen, we tested cetuximab + radiation in elderly and/or poor performance status patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Patients and methods: Older patients [≥65 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0, 1, or 2] or younger patients (performance status of 2) received cetuximab 400 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1 followed by weekly cetuximab 250 mg/m2 i.v. with concomitant radiation of 6000 cGy in 30 fractions. The primary end point was the percentage who lived 11+ months. Results: This 57-patient cohort had a median age (range) of 77 years (60–87), and 12 (21%) had a performance status of 2. Forty of 57 (70%) lived 11+ months, thus exceeding the anticipated survival rate of 50%. The median survival was 15.1 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 13.1–19.3 months], and the median time to cancer progression was 7.2 months (95% CI 5.8–8.6 months). No treatment-related deaths occurred, but 31 patients experienced grade 3+ adverse events, most commonly fatigue, anorexia, dyspnea, rash, and dysphagia, each of which occurred in <10% of patients. Conclusion: This combination merits further study in this group of patients. PMID:20570832

  17. Coenzyme Q10 prevents accelerated cardiac aging in a rat model of poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Tarry-Adkins, Jane L; Blackmore, Heather L; Martin-Gronert, Malgorzata S; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; McConnell, Josie M; Hargreaves, Iain P; Giussani, Dino A; Ozanne, Susan E

    2013-01-01

    Studies in human and animals have demonstrated that nutritionally induced low birth-weight followed by rapid postnatal growth increases the risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Although the mechanisms underlying such nutritional programming are not clearly defined, increased oxidative-stress leading to accelerated cellular aging has been proposed to play an important role. Using an established rodent model of low birth-weight and catch-up growth, we show here that post-weaning dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10, a key component of the electron transport chain and a potent antioxidant rescued many of the detrimental effects of nutritional programming on cardiac aging. This included a reduction in nitrosative and oxidative-stress, telomere shortening, DNA damage, cellular senescence and apoptosis. These findings demonstrate the potential for postnatal antioxidant intervention to reverse deleterious phenotypes of developmental programming and therefore provide insight into a potential translatable therapy to prevent cardiovascular disease in at risk humans.

  18. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  19. Poor airway function in early infancy and lung function by age 22 years: a non-selective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Debra A.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Wright, Anne L.; Guerra, Stefano; Martinez, Fernando D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Together with smoking, the level of lung function attained in early adulthood is among the strongest predictors of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Whether airway function measured shortly after birth is a determinant of this level is currently unknown. Methods Non-selected infants were enrolled at birth in the Tucson Children's Respiratory Study in 1980-84. Infant maximal expiratory flows at functional residual capacity (V'maxFRC) were measured by the chest compression technique at 2 months (mean±SD: 2.3±1.9m); values were logarithmically transformed and adjusted for length. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of FVC (FEF25-75) were measured at ages 11, 16 and 22 years before and after 180μg of albuterol. Participant characteristics were determined at enrollment and at each time of testing. Findings Airway function was available for 123 participants in infancy and at least once at ages 11, 16 or 22 years. Using a random effects model, participants in the lowest quartile for infant V'maxFRC had persistently lower values for FEV1/FVC ratio (-5.2%, p<0.001), FEF25-75 (-663ml/s, p<0.001) and FEV1 (-233ml, p=0.001) through age 22 compared to the upper three quartiles, after adjusting for height, weight, age and sex. The magnitude and significance of the effect did not change appreciably after additionally adjusting for current wheeze, smoking, atopy and parental asthma. Interpretation Diminished airway function present shortly after birth is a risk factor for airflow obstruction in early adult life. PMID:17765525

  20. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.

  1. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  2. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  3. Phase II Clinical Trial of Gefitinib for the Treatment of Chemonaïve Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer with Poor Performance Status

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nagla Abdel; Musaad, Salma; Zarzour, Ahmad; Patil, Sadanand; Jazieh, Abdul Rahman

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have no curative treatment options; therefore, improving their quality of life (QOL) is an important goal. Gefitinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, is a safe oral agent that may be of benefit to a specific population of NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS A Phase II clinical trial included chemonaïve patients with advanced NSCLC and poor performance status (PS). Response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, QOL using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung (FACT-L) questionnaire, and Trial Outcome Index (TOI) were evaluated. RESULTS Twelve out of 19 enrolled patients were evaluable. The median age for the evaluable patients was 68.8 years (59.7–74.6). Out of all the patients, 7 (58.3%) had adenocarcinoma and 5 (41.7%) had squamous cell carcinoma. The median duration of treatment was 62.5 days (26.5–115.0) in the evaluable patients. Grade 3/4 toxicities included fatigue, rash, diarrhea, and nausea. One patient had partial response, eight patients had stable disease (SD), and three patients progressed. The median overall survival for the evaluable population was 4.9 months (2.3–16). The median progression-free survival was 3.7 months (1.9–6.6). TOI was marginally associated with the overall survival, with a hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.84, 1.0) (P = 0.061). FACT-L score and the TOI were highly correlated (r = 0.96, P < 0.0001). TOI scores were higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians and increased with age. CONCLUSION Our results suggest that gefitinib use in patients with NSCLC and poor PS may improve the QOL of older patients and African American patients. PMID:25520566

  4. Age differences in simulated driving performance: compensatory processes.

    PubMed

    Andrews, E C; Westerman, S J

    2012-03-01

    In the context of driving, the reported experiment examines compensatory processes for age-related declines in cognitive ability. Younger (26-40 years) and older (60+ years) participants (n=22 each group) performed a car following task in a driving simulator. Several performance measures were recorded, including assessments of anticipation of unfolding traffic events. Participants also completed a range of measures of cognitive ability - including both fluid and crystallised abilities. Three examples of age-related compensation are reported: (i) older drivers adopted longer headways than younger drivers. Data were consistent with this being compensation for an age-related deficit in complex reaction time; (ii) older drivers with relatively higher cognitive ability anticipated traffic events more frequently, whereas the reverse pattern was found for younger drivers; and, (iii) older drivers with greater crystallised ability were less reliant on spatial ability to maintain lane position. Consistent with theories of 'cognitive reserve', interactions between crystallised ability and age for self-report workload suggested that compensation for age-related cognitive ability deficits required investment of additional effort. Results are considered in the context of the prospects of further assessment of older drivers.

  5. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.; Carson, John M., III

    2017-01-01

    On December 11, 1972, Apollo 17 marked the last controlled U.S. lunar landing and was followed by an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides scientific measurement of the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau and the first post-Apollo U.S. soft lunar landing. It includes the first demonstration of a crew survivability-enhancing autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  6. Reduction of advanced glycation end-product (AGE) levels in nervous tissue proteins of diabetic Lewis rats following islet transplants is related to different durations of poor metabolic control.

    PubMed

    Sensi, M; Morano, S; Morelli, S; Castaldo, P; Sagratella, E; De Rossi, M G; Andreani, D; Caltabiano, V; Vetri, M; Purrello, F; Di Mario, U

    1998-09-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are irreversible compounds which, by abnormally accumulating over proteins as a consequence of diabetic hyperglycaemia, can damage tissues and thus contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. This study was performed to evaluate whether restoration of euglycaemia by islet transplantation modifies AGE accumulation in central and peripheral nervous tissue proteins and, as a comparison, in proteins from a non-nervous tissue. Two groups of streptozotocin diabetic inbred Lewis rats with 4 (T1) or 8 (T2) months disease duration were grafted into the liver via the portal vein with 1200-1500 islets freshly isolated from normal Lewis rats. Transplanted rats, age-matched control and diabetic rats studied in parallel, were followed for a further 4-month period. At study conclusion, glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin and body weight were measured in all animals, and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) performed in transplanted rats. AGE levels in cerebral cortex, spinal cord, sciatic nerve proteins and tail tendon collagen were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transplanted animal OGTTs were within normal limits, as were glycaemia and glycated haemoglobin. Diabetic animal AGEs were significantly higher than those of control animals. Protein AGE values were reduced in many transplanted animals compared to diabetic animals, reaching statistical significance in spinal cord (P < 0.05), sciatic nerve (P < 0.02) and tail tendon collagen (P < 0.05) of T1 animals. Thus, return to euglycaemia following islet transplantation after 4 months of diabetes with poor metabolic control reduces AGE accumulation rate in the protein fractions of the mixed and purely peripheral nervous tissues (spinal cord and sciatic nerve, respectively). However, after a double duration of bad metabolic control, a statistically significant AGE reduction has not been achieved in any of the tissues, suggesting the importance of an early

  7. Age and task parameters in continuous performance tests for preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Hagelthorn, Kathleen M; Hiemenz, Jennifer R; Pillion, Joseph P; Mahone, E Mark

    2003-06-01

    66 children (M=56.2 mo., SD=10.9), recruited from preschool and daycare centers, were administered two continuous performance tests, one auditory and one visual. Both tests utilized a format with one target and one nontarget. Interstimulus interval was fixed at 1350 msec. for the visual test and 5000 msec. for the auditory test. The visual test produced greater rates of omission and commission errors than the auditory test. Age was significantly related to mean reaction time and response variability for both tests; however, the visual test produced an unexpected pattern of increasing response time across age groups. On both tests omission rates improved significantly with age, while commission rates were consistent across ages 3-6 years. When considering continuous performance test paradigms for preschoolers, 3-yr.-olds may need at least a 4000-msec. interstimulus interval to make a choice for the stimulus cue. Hits following an interstimulus interval shorter than 1400 msec. may reflect younger preschoolers' response to a previous stimulus.

  8. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AGE AND MODERATE ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON SIMULATED DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Fillmore, Mark T.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is a substantial body of literature documenting the deleterious effects of both alcohol consumption and age on driving performance. There is, however, limited work examining the interaction of age and acute alcohol consumption. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine if moderate alcohol doses differentially affect the driving performance of older and younger adults. Methods Healthy older (55 – 70) and younger (25 – 35) adults were tested during a baseline session and again following consumption of one of three beverages (0.0% (placebo), 0.04% or 0.065% target breath alcohol concentration). Measures of driving precision and average speed were recorded. Results Older adults performed more poorly on precision driving measures and drove more slowly than younger adults at baseline. After controlling for baseline performance, interactions between alcohol and age were observed following beverage consumption on two measures of driving precision with older adults exhibiting greater impairment as a result of alcohol consumption. Conclusions These data provide evidence that older adults may be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol on certain measures of driving performance. An investigation of mechanisms accounting for alcohol’s effects on driving in older and younger adults is required. Further evaluation using more complex driving environments is needed to assess the real-world implication of this interaction. PMID:24030469

  9. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  10. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  11. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  12. Funnel plot control limits to identify poorly performing healthcare providers when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark.

    PubMed

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Evans, T Alun

    2016-12-01

    There is an increasing use of statistical methods, such as funnel plots, to identify poorly performing healthcare providers. Funnel plots comprise the construction of control limits around a benchmark and providers with outcomes falling outside the limits are investigated as potential outliers. The benchmark is usually estimated from observed data but uncertainty in this estimate is usually ignored when constructing control limits. In this paper, the use of funnel plots in the presence of uncertainty in the value of the benchmark is reviewed for outcomes from a Binomial distribution. Two methods to derive the control limits are shown: (i) prediction intervals; (ii) tolerance intervals Tolerance intervals formally include the uncertainty in the value of the benchmark while prediction intervals do not. The probability properties of 95% control limits derived using each method were investigated through hypothesised scenarios. Neither prediction intervals nor tolerance intervals produce funnel plot control limits that satisfy the nominal probability characteristics when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark. This is not necessarily to say that funnel plots have no role to play in healthcare, but that without the development of intervals satisfying the nominal probability characteristics they must be interpreted with care.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA integrity changes with age but does not correlate with learning performance in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Hystad, E M; Amdam, G V; Eide, L

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee is a well-established model organism to study aging, learning and memory. Here, we used young and old forager honey bees to investigate whether age-related learning capacity correlates with mitochondrial function. The bees were selected for age and learning performance and mitochondrial function was evaluated by measuring mtDNA integrity, mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial gene expression. Quite unexpectedly, mtDNA from young bees showed more damage than mtDNA from older bees, but neither mtDNA integrity, nor mtDNA copy number nor mitochondrial gene expression correlated with learning performance. Although not statistically significant (p=0.07) the level of L-rRNA increased with age in good learners whereas it decreased in poor learners. Our results show that learning performance in honey bee does not correlate with absolute mitochondrial parameters like mtDNA damage, copy number or expression of mitochondrial genes, but may be associated with the ability to regulate mitochondrial activity.

  14. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  15. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children With Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439

  16. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  17. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  18. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  19. AGING PERFORMANCE OF MODEL 9975 PACKAGE FLUOROELASTOMER O-RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.

    2011-05-31

    The influence of temperature and radiation on Viton{reg_sign} GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings is an ongoing research focus at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The O-rings are credited for leaktight containment in the Model 9975 shipping package used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials. At the Savannah River Site, the Model 9975 packages are being used for interim storage. Primary research efforts have focused on surveillance of O-rings from actual packages, leak testing of seals at bounding aging conditions and the effect of aging temperature on compression stress relaxation behavior, with the goal of service life prediction for long-term storage conditions. Recently, an additional effort to evaluate the effect of aging temperature on the oxidation of the materials has begun. Degradation in the mechanical properties of elastomers is directly related to the oxidation of the polymer. Sensitive measurements of the oxidation rate can be performed in a more timely manner than waiting for a measurable change in mechanical properties, especially at service temperatures. Measuring the oxidation rate therefore provides a means to validate the assumption that the degradation mechanisms(s) do not change from the elevated temperatures used for accelerated aging and the lower service temperatures. Monitoring the amount of oxygen uptake by the material over time at various temperatures can provide increased confidence in lifetime predictions. Preliminary oxygen consumption analysis of a Viton GLT-based fluoroelastomer compound (Parker V0835-75) using an Oxzilla II differential oxygen analyzer in the temperature range of 40-120 C was performed. Early data suggests oxygen consumption rates may level off within the first 100,000 hours (10-12 years) at 40 C and that sharp changes in the degradation mechanism (stress-relaxation) are not expected over the temperature range examined. This is consistent with the known long-term heat aging resistance of

  20. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Westover, Kenneth D.; Loo, Billy W.; Gerber, David E.; Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak; Diehn, Maximilian; Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan; Wardak, Zabi; Sher, David; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Corona, Irma; Sharma, Akanksha; Wadsworth, Margaret E.; Timmerman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long

  1. Does Taking One Step Back Get You Two Steps Forward? Grade Retention and School Performance in Poor Areas in Rural China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinxin; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Despite the rise in grade retention in poor areas in rural China recently, little work has been done to understand the impact of grade retention on the educational performance of students in these areas in rural China. This paper seeks to redress this shortcoming and examines the effect of grade retention on educational performance on 1649…

  2. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  3. Performance of bolted closure joint elastomers under cask aging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verst, C.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-23

    The bolted closure joint of a bare spent fuel cask is susceptible to age-related degradation and potential loss of confinement function under long-term storage conditions. Elastomeric seals, a component of the joint typically used to facilitate leak testing of the primary seal that includes the metallic seal and bolting, is susceptible to degradation over time by several mechanisms, principally via thermo-oxidation, stress-relaxation, and radiolytic degradation under time and temperature condition. Irradiation and thermal exposure testing and evaluation of an ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomeric seal material similar to that used in the CASTOR® V/21 cask for a matrix of temperature and radiation exposure conditions relevant to the cask extended storage conditions, and development of semiempirical predictive models for loss of sealing force is in progress. A special insert was developed to allow Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) measurements before and after the irradiation and/or thermal exposure without unloading the elastomer. A condition of the loss of sealing force for the onset of leakage was suggested. The experimentation and modeling being performed could enable acquisition of extensive coupled aging data as well as an estimation of the timeframe when loss of sealing function under aging (temperature/radiation) conditions may occur.

  4. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  5. Current smoking is associated with a poor visual acuity improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab therapy in patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmoon; Song, Su Jeong; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the risk factors that may influence visual improvement after intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment for exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) were examined. From 2008 to 2012, 420 patients (448 eyes) with exudative AMD were prospectively registered at Seoul National University Hospital. From this group of patients, 125 eyes were included in this study. All patients were treated with 3 consecutive IVR injections. The visual acuity (VA) was evaluated at baseline and 1 month after the third ranibizumab injection. To evaluate the risk factors associated with VA improvement after IVR, patient demographic data and systemic risk factors were analyzed. Patients were divided into a poor VA improvement group and a good VA improvement group, with reference to the median visual improvement in all eyes. Among 125 eyes, 66 eyes (52.8%) were included in the responder group and 59 eyes (47.2%) in the non-responder group. The median VA improvement after 3 monthly ranibizumab injections was -0.05 logMAR. Multivariate analyses revealed that current smoking (adjusted OR, 7.540; 95% CI, 1.732-32.823) was independently associated with poor VA improvement after IVR treatment for exudative AMD. In conclusion, cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for lower VA gains with IVR treatment for exudative AMD.

  6. Not self-focused attention but negative beliefs affect poor social performance in social anxiety: an investigation of pathways in the social anxiety-social rejection relationship.

    PubMed

    Voncken, Marisol J; Dijk, Corine; de Jong, Peter J; Roelofs, Jeffrey

    2010-10-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) not only fear negative evaluation but are indeed less likeable than people without SAD. Previous research shows social performance to mediate this social anxiety-social rejection relationship. This study studied two pathways hypothesized to lead to poor social performance in social anxiety: increased self-focused attention and negative beliefs. State social anxiety was experimentally manipulated in high and low-blushing-fearful individuals by letting half of the participants believe that they blushed intensely during a 5 min getting-acquainted interaction with two confederates. Participants rated their state social anxiety, self-focused attention, and level of negative beliefs. Two confederates and two video-observers rated subsequently likeability (i.e., social rejection) and social performance of the participants. In both groups, the social anxiety-social rejection relationship was present. Although state social anxiety was related to heightened self-focused attention and negative beliefs, only negative beliefs were associated with relatively poor social performance. In contrast to current SAD models, self-focused attention did not play a key-role in poor social performance but seemed to function as a by-product of state social anxiety. Beliefs of being negatively evaluated seem to elicit changes in behavioral repertoire resulting in a poor social performance and subsequent rejection.

  7. White matter integrity supports BOLD signal variability and cognitive performance in the aging human brain.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing-moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)-to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network "hubs" that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity.

  8. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  9. Increase of elderly poor in developing nations--the implications of dependency theory and modernization theory for the aging of world population.

    PubMed

    Osako, M

    1982-12-01

    specific countries. Taiwan shares with many other developing countries a background of colonialism and war. Between 1952-1963, Taiwan received massive amounts of US economic aid (US$1.7 billion) and of US military aid (US$2.3 billion). Despite this influx of aid, Taiwan achieved economic development without increasing income differences. Between 1953-73 the gross domestic product increased by 400%, while the Gini coefficient index declined from .56-.29. Furthermore, the elderly were not excluded from the development process. Taiwan's economic development was achieved by the adoption of policies which: 1) encouraged both agricultural and industrial development; 2) promoted cottage and small industries, as well as large industries; and 3) stressed labor intensive industries during the early phases of development. The government did not launch any major welfare programs. The stress on cottage and small industries, labor intensive industries, and rural development ensured that the elderly would remain in the work force. 51.4% of all males, 65 years of age or over, are economically active. This is a higher proportion than in most other countries. Given the lack of welfare programs, the elderly tend to live with their adult children. Those who are ill are cared for by their children. Those who are healthy are encouraged to undertake household and child rearing chores. The Taiwan experience indicates that foreign aid and policies that provide productive roles for the elderly and the poor, can have a beneficial impact on all segments of the population. The effect of these policies in all settings may not be equally beneficial.

  10. Temporal stability and moderating effects of age and sex on CNTRaCS task performance.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Milton E; McLouth, Christopher J; Barch, Deanna M; Carter, Cameron S; Gold, James M; Luck, Steven J; MacDonald, Angus W; Ragland, J Daniel; Ranganath, Charan; Keane, Brian P; Silverstein, Steven M

    2014-07-01

    Research in schizophrenia has increasingly focused on incorporating measures from cognitive neuroscience, but little is known about their psychometric characteristics. Here, we extend prior research by reporting on temporal stability, as well as age and sex effects, for cognitive neuroscience paradigms optimized as part of the Cognitive Neuroscience Test Reliability and Clinical applications for Schizophrenia consortium. Ninety-nine outpatients with schizophrenia and 131 healthy controls performed 5 tasks assessing 4 constructs at 3 sessions. The constructs were (1) Goal maintenance (Dot Probe Expectancy [DPX] and AX continuous performance tasks [AX-CPT]); (2) Episodic memory (Relational and Item-Specific Encoding and Retrieval task [RiSE]); (3) Visual integration (Jittered Orientation Visual Integration task [JOVI]); and (4) Perceptual gain control (Contrast-Contrast Effect Task [CCE]). Patients performed worse than controls on all but the CCE, and the magnitude of these group differences was stable across sessions, with no sex differences observed. Improvements over sessions were seen for the AX-CPT, the DPX, and the JOVI though practice effects for the AX-CPT and the DPX were primarily present in older participants. For the AX-CPT and the JOVI, practice effects were larger for T1 to T2 than for T2 to T3. Age was associated with poor associative recognition on the RiSE and accuracy on the JOVI. Test-rest reliability ranged from poor for the JOVI threshold score to adequate to good for the DPX, AX-CPT, and JOVI accuracy measures, with RiSE and CCE measures in the moderate range. These results suggest that group differences in DPX, AX-CPT, RiSE, and JOVI are robust and consistent across repeated testing.

  11. Examining credentialing criteria and poor performance indicators for IROC Houston’s anthropomorphic head and neck phantom

    PubMed Central

    Molineu, Andrea; Taylor, Paige A.; Followill, David S.; Stingo, Francesco C.; Kry, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the most recent results of the Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston Quality Assurance Center’s (IROC-H) anthropomorphic head and neck (H&N) phantom to determine the nature of failing irradiations and the feasibility of altering credentialing criteria. Methods: IROC-H’s H&N phantom, used for intensity-modulated radiation therapy credentialing for National Cancer Institute–sponsored clinical trials, requires that an institution’s treatment plan agrees within ±7% of measured thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) doses; it also requires that ≥85% of pixels pass ±4 mm distance to agreement (7%/4 mm gamma analysis for film). The authors re-evaluated 156 phantom irradiations (November 1, 2014–October 31, 2015) according to the following tighter criteria: (1) 5% TLD and 5%/4 mm, (2) 5% TLD and 5%/3 mm, (3) 4% TLD and 4%/4 mm, and (4) 3% TLD and 3%/3 mm. Failure rates were evaluated with respect to individual film and TLD performance by location in the phantom. Overall poor phantom results were characterized qualitatively as systematic errors (correct shape and position but wrong magnitude of dose), setup errors/positional shifts, global but nonsystematic errors, and errors affecting only a local region. Results: The pass rate for these phantoms using current criteria was 90%. Substituting criteria 1–4 reduced the overall pass rate to 77%, 70%, 63%, and 37%, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated that the probability of noise-induced TLD failure, even at the 5% criterion, was <0.5%. Phantom failures were generally identified by TLD (≥66% failed TLD, whereas ≥55% failed film), with most failures occurring in the primary planning target volume (≥77% of cases). Results failing current criteria or criteria 1 were primarily diagnosed as systematic >58% of the time (11/16 and 21/36 cases, respectively), with a greater extent due to underdosing. Setup/positioning errors were seen in 11%–13% of all failing cases (2/16 and 4

  12. Areca nut is associated with younger age of diagnosis, poor chemoradiotherapy response, and shorter overall survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang-Han; Lu, Hung-I; Wang, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yen-Hao; Lo, Chien-Ming; Huang, Wan-Ting; Li, Shau-Hsuan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Areca nut chewing is carcinogenic to humans. However, little is known about the impact of areca nut chewing on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 286 ESCC patients who received surgery or preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery at our institution. Background characteristics including areca nut chewing history were analyzed. The 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO)-induced murine ESCC model was used to test the impact of arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, on ESCC. Results Compared to patients without areca nut chewing history, patients with areca nut chewing history had overall a younger age of onset (Mean age: 56.75 versus 52.68 yrs, P<0.001) and significantly worse overall survival than those without areca nut chewing history (P = 0.026). Among patients who received surgery, the overall survival rates were not significantly different between those with or without areca nut chewing history. Among patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, those with areca nut chewing history had a significantly lower pathologic complete response rate (P = 0.002) and lower overall survival rate (P = 0.002) than those without. In the murine ESCC model, the incidence of esophageal invasive squamous cell carcinoma was 40% in mice exposed to concomitant 4-NQO and arecoline treatment for 8 weeks and 6% in mice exposed to 4-NQO only for 8 weeks (P = 0.037). Conclusions Our results indicate that areca nut chewing history is significantly associated with younger age of onset, poor response to chemoradiotherapy, and shorter overall survival in ESCC patients. Arecoline, a main constituent of areca nut, accelerates esophageal tumorigenesis in the 4-NQO-induced murine ESCC model. PMID:28245263

  13. Resolution of mitochondrial oxidant stress improves aged-cardiovascular performance

    PubMed Central

    Owada, Takashi; Yamauchi, Hiroyuki; Miura, Shunsuke; Machii, Hirofumi; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2017-01-01

    Background Senescence is a major factor that increases oxidative stress in mitochondria, which contributes toward the pathogenesis of heart disease. However, the effect of antioxidant therapy on cardiac mitochondria in aged-cardiac performance remains elusive. Objectives We postulated that the mitochondrial targeting of superoxide scavenging would have benefits in the aged heart. Methods and results Generation of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity increased in the heart of old mice compared with that in young mice. In old mice treated with a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO (180 µg/kg/day, 28 days) co-infusion using a subcutaneously implanted minipump, levels of superoxide in the mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity as well as hydrogen peroxide decreased markedly in cardiomyocytes. Treatment with MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the systolic and diastolic function assessed by echocardiography. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in isolated coronary arteries and endothelial nitric-oxide synthase phosphorylation were impaired in old mice compared with that in young mice and were improved by MitoTEMPO treatment. Mitochondria from the old mice myocardium showed lower rates of complex I-dependent and II-dependent respiration compared with that from young mice. Supplementation of MitoTEMPO in old mice improved the respiration rates and efficiency of ATP generation in mitochondria to a level similar to that of young mice. Conclusion Resolution of oxidative stress in mitochondria by MitoTEMPO in old mice restored cardiac function and the capacity of coronary vasodilation to the same magnitude observed in young mice. An antioxidant strategy targeting mitochondria could have a therapeutic benefit in heart disease with senescence. PMID:27740971

  14. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... performance agreed to under § 666.310 for the core indicators of performance or customer satisfaction... or customer satisfaction indicators for a program for two consecutive program years, the...

  15. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... performance agreed to under § 666.310 for the core indicators of performance or customer satisfaction... or customer satisfaction indicators for a program for two consecutive program years, the...

  16. Effectiveness of community-based complementary food supplement (Yingyangbao) distribution in children aged 6-23 months in poor areas in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Liyun; Yu, Wentao; Zhang, Jian; Man, Qingqing; He, Li; Duan, Yifan; Wang, Hui; Scherpbier, Robert; Yin, Shi-an

    2017-01-01

    Background Poor growth and micronutrient deficiency mainly attack older infants and young children. Some countries have adopted clinically effective measures to combat malnutrition, but the compliance and improvement in efficacy of intervention vehicles in national programs require evaluation. Methods Baseline and follow-up cross-sectional surveys were conducted before and after a nutrition intervention program in 3 national poverty counties in China. Soybean-based complementary food supplements called Yingyangbao (YYB) in Chinese and training materials on child feeding were distributed to households with children aged 6–23 months for 18 months. Representative children were selected by probability proportional to size sampling methods to assess compliance of YYB and the intervention efficacy. A questionnaire was designed to collect data on basic characteristics of children, breastfeeding, 24-hour dietary intake, and consumption and appetite of YYB. Anthropometrics and hemoglobin were measured in the field, and anemia prevalence was evaluated. Venous blood was drawn from children aged 12–35 months to evaluate micronutrient status. Logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for children’s anemia. Results Of the children involved in the follow-up survey (n = 693), the P50 (P25, P75) intake of YYB was 6.7 (3.5, 7.0) sachets weekly, and 54.7% of the children liked the taste of YYB. Compared with the baseline situation (n = 823), the proportion of children fed a diverse diet and foods rich in iron or vitamin A increased (P < 0.01) in the follow-up study. The prevalence of stunting and underweight decreased (P < 0.05), the prevalence of anemia decreased from 28.0% to 19.9% (P < 0.01), and the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency decreased from 26.8% to 15.4% (P < 0.01). For children aged 12–23 months, those who liked YYB and consumed 6 or more sachets of YYB weekly were at lower risk for anemia (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.13–0.90, P < 0.05), but the risk

  17. Relationships between Personnel Tests, Age, and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Winfred, Jr.; Fuentes, Rick

    The age decrement model has traditionally been a fairly popular model of the human life span. This model has the basic premise that with increasing age there is a corresponding decrease in a wide range of abilities. Not all research has agreed with the unqualified age decrement model. This study examined the relationship between an…

  18. Sensory processing, school performance, and adaptive behavior of young school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jirikowic, Tracy; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Kartin, Deborah

    2008-05-01

    This study described sensory processing behaviors and sensory-motor abilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and explored their relationship to home and school function. A clinic-referred sample of 25 children with FASD, ages 5 to 8 years, was compared with 26 children with typical development, balanced for age, gender, and race/ethnicity, on standardized tests examining sensory processing, sensory-motor performance, school performance, and adaptive behavior. Children with FASD scored significantly more poorly on sensory processing, sensory-motor, adaptive, and academic achievement measures, and demonstrated more problem behaviors at home and school. Correlations were significant between measures of sensory processing and sensory-motor performance, adaptive behavior, and some aspects of academic performance. Sensory processing and related foundational sensory-motor impairments should be considered when determining the developmental needs of children with FASD. These impairments may co-occur with and contribute, at least in part, to decreased adaptive and school function.

  19. Recruitment and Retention Strategies for Minority or Poor Clinical Research Participants: Lessons From the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Life Span Study

    PubMed Central

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H.; Mason, Marc A.; Cromwell, Bridget C.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. Design and Method: The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. Results: This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Implications: Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied PMID:21565817

  20. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China.

  1. Cognitive Performance in Women Aged 50 Years and Older With and Without Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Persons with fibromyalgia (FM) report having cognitive dysfunction. Neuropsychological performance was compared across a variety of domains in 43 women with FM (M age = 63 years) and in 44 women without FM (M age = 65 years). Method. Measures included explicit memory (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease [CERAD] immediate/delayed recall, delayed recognition), aspects of executive function including interference/inhibition (Stroop Color/Word test), working memory (Digit Span Forward/Backward), set-shifting/complex sequencing (Trails B), monitoring (verbal fluency: naming animals), processing speed (Trails A, Digit Symbol Substitution Coding), and problem solving (Everyday Problems Test). Results. Women with FM performed more poorly than controls on executive function (Stroop Color/Word) and one processing speed measure (Digit Symbol Substitution Coding). Discussion. Results partly support altered cognitive function in FM. Mixed findings across cognitive domains among individuals with or without FM is consistent with the literature and suggest that factors beyond those typically controlled for (e.g., heterogeneity in FM) may be influencing findings. Future research is warranted. PMID:23275498

  2. Age-related decline in olympic triathlon performance: effect of locomotion mode.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Thierry; Sultana, Frédéric; Lepers, Romuald; Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the decline in performance with age during Olympic triathlon Age Groups World Championships among the different locomotion modes. Mean performance of top 10 performers were analyzed for each group of age using the exponential model proposed by Baker, Tang, and Turner (2003, Experimental Aging Research, 29, 47-65). Comparison in performance decline was done between locomotion modes. Decline in performance in triathlon as a function of age follows an exponential model. A significant interaction effect between age and locomotion mode was observed on performance values. In swimming, a significant decrease was observed close to 5% per year after 45 years. Decline in performance was less pronounced in cycling until 60 years. Analysis of the effect of age in the different locomotion modes of a triathlon could provide information for maintaining quality of life with aging.

  3. Changes in Memory Prediction Accuracy: Age and Performance Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Ann; Trujillo, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Memory performance predictions are subjective estimates of possible memory task performance. The purpose of this study was to examine possible factors related to changes in word list performance predictions made by younger and older adults. Factors included memory self-efficacy, actual performance, and perceptions of performance. The current study…

  4. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  5. White Matter Integrity Supports BOLD Signal Variability and Cognitive Performance in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing–moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)—to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network “hubs” that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity. PMID:25853882

  6. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in‐depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0–23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one‐third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5‐fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96–3.27]; children 6–23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24–2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two‐fold increased odds of stunting in children 6–23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19–3.61); children whose mother's height was < 145 cm, had two‐fold higher odds of being stunted (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.46–2.81); lastly, children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17–3.02). Attained linear growth (height‐for‐age z‐score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was < 145 cm, children born with a low birthweight and children 6–23 months old who were not fed dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0–23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one‐third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted.Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor

  7. Floating lipid beads for the improvement of bioavailability of poorly soluble basic drugs: in-vitro optimization and in-vivo performance in humans.

    PubMed

    Abouelatta, Samar M; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Khalil, Rawia M; ElGazayerly, Omaima N

    2015-01-01

    The challenge in developing oral drug delivery systems of poorly soluble basic drugs is primarily due to their pH dependent solubility. Cinnarizine (CNZ), a model for a poorly soluble basic drug, has pH dependent solubility; where it dissolves readily at low pH in the stomach and exhibits a very low solubility at pH values greater than 4. It is also characterized by a short half life of 3-6h, which requires frequent daily administration resulting in poor patient compliance. In an attempt to solve these problems, extended release floating lipid beads were formulated. A 2(4) full factorial design was utilized for optimization of the effects of various independent variables; lipid:drug ratio, % Pluronic F-127, % Sterotex, and Gelucire 43/01:Gelucire 50/13 ratio, on the loading efficiency and release of CNZ from the lipid beads. In-vivo pharmacokinetic study of the optimized CNZ-lipid beads compared to Stugeron® (reference standard) was performed in healthy human volunteers. A promising approach for enhancing the bioavailability of the poorly soluble basic drug, CNZ, utilizing novel and simple floating lipid beads was successfully developed. Zero order release profile of CNZ was achieved for 12h. Mean AUC0-24 and AUC0-∞ of the optimized CNZ-loaded lipid beads were 4.23 and 6.04 times that of Stugeron® tablets respectively.

  8. From Poor Performance to Success under Stress: Working Memory, Strategy Selection, and Mathematical Problem Solving under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beilock, Sian L.; DeCaro, Marci S.

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate how individual differences in working memory (WM) impact the strategies used to solve complex math problems and how consequential testing situations alter strategy use. In Experiment 1, individuals performed multistep math problems under low- or high-pressure conditions and reported their problem-solving strategies.…

  9. Excessive Video Game Use, Sleep Deprivation, and Poor Work Performance Among U.S. Marines Treated in a Military Mental Health Clinic: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Erin; Yung, Kathryn; Davis, Diane L; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Excessive use of video games may be associated with sleep deprivation, resulting in poor job performance and atypical mood disorders. Three active duty service members in the U.S. Marine Corps were offered mental health evaluation for sleep disturbance and symptoms of blunted affect, low mood, poor concentration, inability to focus, irritability, and drowsiness. All three patients reported insomnia as their primary complaint. When asked about online video games and sleep hygiene practices, all three patients reported playing video games from 30 hours to more than 60 hours per week in addition to maintaining a 40-hour or more workweek. Our patients endorsed sacrificing sleep to maintain their video gaming schedules without insight into the subsequent sleep deprivation. During the initial interviews, they exhibited blunted affects and depressed moods, but appeared to be activated with enthusiasm and joy when discussing their video gaming with the clinical provider. Our article illustrates the importance of asking about online video gaming in patients presenting with sleep disturbances, poor work performance, and depressive symptoms. Because excessive video gaming is becoming more prevalent worldwide, military mental health providers should ask about video gaming when patients report problems with sleep.

  10. Seeding experiments demonstrate poor performance of the hatching test for detecting small numbers of Schistosoma mansoni eggs in feces.

    PubMed

    Borges, Dieli Souza; de Souza, Juliana Schilling; Romanzini, Juliano; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Parasitological methods for the evaluation of schistosomiasis tend to be limited when parasitic burdens are low, which is a major characteristic of low intensity transmission areas. While the hatching test (HT) method has been considered to be "very sensitive", reports of its capacity to detect low numbers of eggs remain scarce in the published literature. Our main hypothesis is that HT has limitations and cannot be recommended for diagnosing light infections or as a control of cure. Hence, this study aims to describe the performance of HT in detail, with respect to seeding experiments for egg numbers in the range of 4 to 24 eggs per gram (epg) of feces. Different numbers of eggs of Schistosoma mansoni were seeded in normal human feces. The first set of experiments evaluated the amount of feces (higher than 0.5 g prevented hatching), the proximity of the light source (50 cm was preferred), and the observation time required for the detection of miracidia (more than 3h did not add to sensitivity). HT was subsequently performed with 12, 10, 8, 6, 4, and 2 eggs in 0.5 g of feces. The final set of experiments was performed to analyze the initial filtration step, in which surgical gauze versus a 500 μm nylon mesh was compared and demonstrated losses of eggs that occurred with washing and gauze (better with nylon) sieving steps. The proposed method was found to produce 100% positivity for up to 12 epg, with a sharp decrease to 33% for 8 epg and less. In conclusion, HT is not recommended for diagnosing intestinal schistosomiasis in populations with light infections, considering the complexity of the procedure and its lack of effectiveness with fecal amounts higher than 0.5 g even at optimized conditions.

  11. Age 60 Study, Part 4: Experimental Evaluation of Pilot Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    and aging. Computerized cognitive test batteries, COGSREEN and WOMBAT , were selected as the domain-independent measures. Flitescript and whole task...were assessed. COGSCREEN total composite scores were significantly correlated with evaluator ratings on emergency/abnormal maneuvers. Neither WOMBAT ...B-3 WOMBAT Questionnaire .......................................... B-4 Sim ulator Post-flight Questionnaire

  12. Age-Related Differences in complex Monitoring Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    of- a low density oF active eccrine sweat glands in this age group and not necessarily an indication of lower autonomic arousal. If this is the case...and T. E. Bowman: Comparisons of Sweat Gland Counts, Electrodermal Activity, and liabitua- tion Behavior in Young and Old Groups of Subjects

  13. Improving Age Appropriate Social Skills To Enhance Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara

    This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…

  14. Verbosity and Projective Test Performance in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the extent to which response length influences Holtzman Inkblot Technique (HIT) scores in (N=102) elderly. Results suggest that response length has a pervasive effect on HIT scores and bears out the productivity of effects found in previous research with younger age cohorts. (JAC)

  15. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  16. A Decade Comparison of Preterm Motor Performance at Age 4

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Mary C.; Hawes, Katheleen

    2012-01-01

    This was a prospective longitudinal study of two cohorts comprised of one full term and three premature infant groups born 10 years apart. Birth cohort, perinatal morbidity, and birth weight effects were investigated at age 4. Cohort 1 (1985–1989) had longer gestation, higher birth weight, and better Apgar scores than Cohort 2 (1996–1999), which had more intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Cohort and perinatal morbidity group, but not birth weight, predicted motor scores. Preterm Cohort 2 children had better oral motor, fine motor, and total motor scores, but lower visual motor integration scores than Cohort 1. Motor problems continue to affect preterm children at age 4, in particular those who experience perinatal morbidity, despite a decade of neonatal intensive care advancements. PMID:18022834

  17. Viral load of equine herpesviruses 2 and 5 in nasal swabs of actively racing Standardbred trotters: Temporal relationship of shedding to clinical findings and poor performance.

    PubMed

    Back, Helena; Ullman, Karin; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Riihimäki, Miia; Penell, Johanna; Ståhl, Karl; Valarcher, Jean-François; Pringle, John

    2015-09-30

    The equine gamma herpesviruses 2 and 5 (EHV-2 and -5) have frequently been observed in the equine population and until recently presumed low to nonpathogenic. However, recent reports linking presence of equine gamma herpesviruses with clinical signs of mild to severe lung disease, suggest that the role of these viruses in respiratory disease and poor performance syndrome is still unclear. Moreover, baseline data regarding the temporal pattern of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within stables and within individual actively racing horses have been lacking. In a prospective longitudinal study, we followed elite racing Standardbred trotters at monthly intervals for 13 months, to investigate whether the amount of EHV-2 and EHV-5 shedded in nasal secretions varied over time within and between individual horses. Sixty-six elite horses were investigated by analyzing nasal swabs and serum samples, a health check and evaluation of athletic performance monthly during the study period. Nasal swabs were analyzed with two newly developed qPCR assays for EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Of 663 samples, 197 (30%) were positive for EHV-2 and 492 (74%) positive for EHV-5. Furthermore, 176 (27%) of the samples were positive for both EHV-2 and EHV-5 simultaneously. There was considerable variation in the amount and frequency of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within and between individual horses. Viral load varied seasonally, but neither EHV-2 nor EHV-5 viral peaks were associated with clinical respiratory disease and/or poor performance in racing Standardbred trotters.

  18. Age-Related Changes in Performance and Recovery Kinetics in Masters Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nattai; Reaburn, Peter; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.

  19. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  20. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  1. Discrimination against the Poor and Disabled in Nursing Homes. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This Congressional oversight hearing was convened to examine evidence that many of the nation's nursing homes restrict or deny access to the elderly poor and disabled, leaving the 18 million Americans dependent on Medicaid especially vulnerable to neglect and exploitation. Evidence was heard on discriminatory admissions, on the practice of…

  2. Age 60 Study, Part 2: Airline Pilot Age and Performance - A Review of the Scientific Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    accomplish the research objectives of Tasks 4 and 5 of the Age 60 Project, two preliminary steps must be taken. Step 1 is to develop a high -level...investigate an information processing model of pilot decision making that takes into account pilot experience and stress. They found that low and high ...the third of a year (grouping months 1, 4 , 7 and 10; months 2, 5, 8, and 11; and months 3, 6, 9, and 12) before computing accident rates. Then three

  3. Mitoxantrone, teniposide, chlorambucil and prednisone (MVLP) for relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The impact of advanced age and performance status.

    PubMed

    Haak, H L; Gerrits, W B; Wijermans, P W; Kerkhofs, H

    1993-04-01

    Fifty-seven patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of low, intermediate and high-grade malignancy were treated with mitoxantrone, teniposide (Vm26), chlorambucil (Leukeran) and prednisone (MVLP). The median age was 71 years; none of the patients was excluded due to poor performance status (PS). Out of 44 patients with PS (according to WHO) < or = 2, 38 responded with a median progression free survival (PFS) of 21.5 months. Of 13 patients with PS > 2, 6 responded with a median PFS of 8.2 months. Haematopoietic toxicity was related to PS rather than to dose intensity or bone marrow involvement. Three patients died within a short time due to toxicity; another two died later as a result of cardiac failure probably due to accumulated toxicity of adriamycin and mitoxantrone. MVLP chemotherapy is effective and feasible and has only moderate toxicity in patients with relapsed NHL and PS < or = 2, despite advanced age.

  4. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  5. Effects of Age and Visual-Motor Skills on Preschool Children's Computer-Game Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strein, William

    1987-01-01

    The relationship of both age and visual-motor skills to performance on an arcade-like video game was studied with 16 preschool children. While age was positively related to performance, no significant relationship was found for the visual-motor skills variable. (Author/CB)

  6. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  7. Longitudinal psychomotor speed performance in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive individuals: impact of age and serostatus.

    PubMed

    Sacktor, Ned; Skolasky, Richard L; Cox, Christopher; Selnes, Ola; Becker, James T; Cohen, Bruce; Martin, Eileen; Miller, Eric N

    2010-10-01

    Older human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive (HIV+) individuals (greater than age 50 years) are twice as likely to develop HIV dementia compared to younger HIV+ individuals. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of both age and serostatus on longitudinal changes in psychomotor speed/executive functioning performance among HIV+ and HIV− individuals. Four hundred and seventy-seven HIV+ and 799 HIV− individuals from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) were subdivided into three age groups: (1) <40 years, (2) 40-50 years, and (3) >50 years. Psychomotor speed/executive functioning test performance was measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Trail Making (TM) Test Parts A and B. Changes in performance were compared among the three age groups for both HIV+ and HIV− individuals. Among HIV+ individuals, on the TM Test Part B the younger group demonstrated improvement in performance over time (P = .007). The older and middle age groups demonstrated decline in performance over time (P = .041 and .030). The older group had a significantly different trajectory relative to the younger group (P = .046). Among the HIV− individuals, there was no effect of age on longitudinal performance. In conclusion, older HIV+ individuals show greater decline over time than younger HIV+ individuals on the TM Test Part B. Our results suggest that both HIV serostatus and age together may impact longitudinal performance on this test. Mild neurocognitive changes over time among older HIV+ individuals are likely to reflect age associated pathophysiological mechanisms including cerebrovascular risk factors.

  8. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  9. Variability and reduced performance of preschool- and early school-aged children on psychoacoustic tasks: What are the relevant factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Prudence

    2003-04-01

    Young children typically perform more poorly on psychoacoustic tasks than do adults, with large individual differences. When performance is averaged across children within age groups, the data suggest a gradual change in performance with increasing age. However, an examination of individual data suggests that the performance matures more rapidly, although at different times for different children. The mechanisms of development responsible for these changes are likely very complex, involving both sensory and cognitive processes. This paper will discuss some previously suggested mechanisms including attention and cue weighting, as well as possibilities suggested from more recent studies in which learning effects were examined. In one task, a simple frequency discrimination was required, while in another the listener was required to extract regularities in complex sequences of sounds that varied from trial to trial. Results suggested that the ability to select and consistently employ an effective listening strategy was especially important in the performance of the more complex task, while simple stimulus exposure and motivation contributed to the simpler task. These factors are important for understanding the perceptual development and for the subsequent application of psychoacoustic findings to clinical populations. [Work supported by the NSERC and the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

  10. Motor Skill Performance of School-Age Children with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houwen, S.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.; Hartman, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the performance of children with visual impairments (VI) aged 7 to 10 years on different types of motor skills. Furthermore, the association between the degree of the VI and motor performance was examined. The motor performance of 48 children with VI (32 males, 16 females; mean age 8y 10mo [SD 1y 1mo]) was…

  11. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    PubMed

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas.

  12. Low cord-serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with poor lung function performance and increased respiratory infection in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Shen-Hao; Liao, Sui-Ling; Tsai, Ming-Han; Hua, Man-Chin; Chiu, Chih-Yung; Yeh, Kuo-Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Perinatal vitamin D deficiency is associated with a higher risk of wheezing in childhood. However, the relationship between vitamin D levels and lung function in infancy has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of perinatal vitamin D levels on respiratory function and disease outcome in infancy. Materials and methods Full-term infants without any chronic diseases or major anomalies were enrolled in the Prediction of Allergies in Taiwanese Children cohort study. Maternal and cord blood were collected for determining the 25(OH)D level. Questionnaires were recorded at birth and 6 months of age. Infant lung function, including tidal breathing analysis, respiratory mechanics, and forced tidal expiration, was tested at 6 months of age. Results A total of 122 mother—infant pairs were enrolled in this study, and 71 infants underwent lung function testing at 6 months of age. 25(OH)D levels in maternal and cord serum were highly correlated (r2 = 0.457, p < 0.0001). Infants with lower cord serum 25(OH)D levels (< 13.7 ng/ml) had higher resistance of respiratory system (p < 0.01) and a higher risk of a respiratory tract infection before the age of 6 months (p < 0.01). Conclusion Although a high correlation was found between maternal and cord vitamin D levels, the effect on respiratory outcome was different. Our study is the first to show that low cord 25(OH)D levels significantly relationship with poorer lung function performance and higher likelihood of a respiratory tract infection before 6 months of age. PMID:28267792

  13. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  14. Poor Utility of the Age of Onset Criterion for DSM-IV Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Recommendations for DSM-V and ICD-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Huang, Hongyan; Henderson, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To test whether the retrospective reporting of the age of onset impairment criterion for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) required in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV" (DSM-IV) complicates identification of new and known child and adolescent cases later in life. Methods: A birth-records-based…

  15. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  16. Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  17. Development of Self-Consciousness: At What Age Does Audience Pressure Disrupt Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tice, Dianne M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hypothesized that audience pressure would prove most detrimental to the skilled performance of adolescents (due to vulnerability to self-awareness) but not of children. Performances of skilled players of video games with and without audience indicated a curvilinear relationship between age and performance change which confirmed the hypothesis.…

  18. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  19. The Impact of Simulated Aging on Nursing Staff Self Reports of Job Satisfaction and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, James D.; Nussbaum, Jon F.

    A study examined the impact of a simulated aging experience on nursing staff perceptions of job satisfaction and job performance. It was hypothesized that nurses and nurse aides who participated in the simulated aging experience would be more satisfied with their jobs and would receive fewer complaints from residents than those who did not…

  20. Relationship of Age and Education to Halstead Test Performance in Different Patient Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigatano, George P.; Parsons, Oscar A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of age and education on Halstead test performance were examined in this cross-validation of the Vega and Parsons study. Differences between correlation in psychiatric patients and medical-surgical control subjects are discussed, as is the importance of age, and differences in reference groups when making clinical inferences about brain…

  1. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  2. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  3. Preschool Experience in 10 Countries: Cognitive and Language Performance at Age 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montie, Jeanne E.; Xiang, Zongping; Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2006-01-01

    The IEA Preprimary Project is a longitudinal, cross-national study of preprimary care and education designed to identify how process and structural characteristics of the settings children attended at age 4 are related to their age-7 cognitive and language performance. Investigators collaborated to develop common instruments to measure family…

  4. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2017-02-01

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling.

  5. Aging performance for masters records in athletics, swimming, rowing, cycling, triathlon, and weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Baker, A Barry; Tang, Yong Q

    2010-10-01

    Record performances for Masters sporting events for swimming, cycling, triathlon, rowing, and weightlifting were analyzed and then compared with the authors' previously published results for Masters running, walking, and jumping sports events. Records were normalized using the 30s age records as a baseline, and studied through the various age ranges to the 90s. A curvilinear mathematical model [y = 1 - exp((T - T(0))/τ)] was again used for the major comparisons, along with slope changes using a linear model [y = α(T -T'0)] across the age groupings. All sports declined with increasing age, with rowing showing the least deterioration. Performances in running, swimming, and walking were reasonably well maintained, followed by greater decline with age for cycling, triathlon, and jumping events. Weightlifting showed the fastest and greatest decline with increasing age. The relative performances for women, when compared with men's performances for these Masters events, was approximately 80% to 85%, with jumping at 73% and weightlifting at 52%. These relative performances compared with World Record comparisons of approximately 90% (with weightlifting at approximately 75%). All these results show no greater decline with age for endurance events over the sprint events, though there was a greater decline for the strength events of weightlifting and jumping. There may be real physiological differences for these strength events, or there may be other explanations such as training or competitive considerations or smaller numbers participating.

  6. Add-on bevacizumab can prevent early clinical deterioration and prolong survival in newly diagnosed partially resected glioblastoma patients with a poor performance status

    PubMed Central

    Hata, Nobuhiro; Yoshimoto, Koji; Hatae, Ryusuke; Kuga, Daisuke; Akagi, Yojiro; Sangatsuda, Yuhei; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Shono, Tadahisa; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Iihara, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The AVAglio trial established the beneficial effect of add-on bevacizumab (BEV) for the treatment of newly diagnosed glioblastomas (nd-GBMs) that led to the approval of BEV for the treatment of these patients in Japan. However, the rationality of using BEV as a first-line treatment for nd-GBMs remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcomes of a case series of nd-GBM patients. Patients and methods The outcomes of 69 nd-GBM patients treated after 2006 were retrospectively analyzed. Clinical and genetic analyses were performed, and estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Since add-on BEV therapy was only used for partially resected GBMs (pr-GBMs) after its approval in 2013, the patients were subdivided into 3 treatment groups: Type I, partial removal with temozolomide (TMZ)/BEV and concurrent radiotherapy (CCRT); Type II, partial removal with TMZ and CCRT; and Type III, gross total removal with TMZ and CCRT. Results The PFS rate of Type I patients was significantly higher than that of Type II patients (P=0.014), but comparable to that of Type III patients. Differences in OS rates between Type I and Type II patients were less apparent (P=0.075), although the median OS of Type I patients was ~8 months higher than that of Type II patients (17.4 vs 9.8 months, respectively). The clinical deterioration rate during initial treatment was significantly (P=0.024) lower in Type I than in Type II patients (7.7% vs 47.4%, respectively). Differences in OS rates between Type I and Type II patients with a poor performance status (PS) were significant (P=0.017). Conclusion Our findings suggest that add-on BEV can prevent early clinical deterioration of pr-GBM patients and contribute to a prolonged survival, especially for those with a poor PS. PMID:28176936

  7. Early effects of ageing on the mechanical performance of isolated locomotory (EDL) and respiratory (diaphragm) skeletal muscle using the work-loop technique.

    PubMed

    Tallis, Jason; James, Rob S; Little, Alexander G; Cox, Val M; Duncan, Michael J; Seebacher, Frank

    2014-09-15

    Previous isolated muscle studies examining the effects of ageing on contractility have used isometric protocols, which have been shown to have poor relevance to dynamic muscle performance in vivo. The present study uniquely uses the work-loop technique for a more realistic estimation of in vivo muscle function to examine changes in mammalian skeletal muscle mechanical properties with age. Measurements of maximal isometric stress, activation and relaxation time, maximal power output, and sustained power output during repetitive activation and recovery are compared in locomotory extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and core diaphragm muscle isolated from 3-, 10-, 30-, and 50-wk-old female mice to examine the early onset of ageing. A progressive age-related reduction in maximal isometric stress that was of greater magnitude than the decrease in maximal power output occurred in both muscles. Maximal force and power developed earlier in diaphragm than EDL muscle but demonstrated a greater age-related decline. The present study indicates that ability to sustain skeletal muscle power output through repetitive contraction is age- and muscle-dependent, which may help rationalize previously reported equivocal results from examination of the effect of age on muscular endurance. The age-related decline in EDL muscle performance is prevalent without a significant reduction in muscle mass, and biochemical analysis of key marker enzymes suggests that although there is some evidence of a more oxidative fiber type, this is not the primary contributor to the early age-related reduction in muscle contractility.

  8. Dissociating Effects of Global SWS Disruption and Healthy Aging on Waking Performance and Daytime Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Groeger, John A.; Stanley, Neil; Deacon, Stephen; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To contrast the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) disruption and age on daytime functioning. Design: Daytime functioning was contrasted in three age cohorts, across two parallel 4-night randomized groups (baseline, two nights of SWS disruption or control, recovery sleep). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: 44 healthy young (20-30 y), 35 middle-aged (40-55 y), and 31 older (66-83 y) men and women. Interventions: Acoustic stimulation contingent on appearance of slow waves. Measurements and Results: Cognitive performance was assessed before sleep latency tests at five daily time-points. SWS disruption resulted in less positive affect, slower or impaired information processing and sustained attention, less precise motor control, and erroneous implementation, rather than inhibition, of well-practiced actions. These performance impairments had far smaller effect sizes than the increase in daytime sleepiness and differed from baseline to the same extent for each age group. At baseline, younger participants performed better than older participants across many cognitive domains, with largest effects on executive function, response time, sustained attention, and motor control. At baseline, the young were sleepier than other age groups. Conclusions: SWS has been considered a potential mediator of age-related decline in performance, although the effects of SWS disruption on daytime functioning have not been quantified across different cognitive domains nor directly compared to age-related changes in performance. The data imply that two nights of SWS disruption primarily leads to an increase in sleepiness with minor effects on other aspects of daytime functioning, which are different from the substantial effects of age. Citation: Groeger JA, Stanley N, Deacon S, Dijk DJ. Dissociating effects of global sws disruption and healthy aging on waking performance and daytime sleepiness. SLEEP 2014;37(6):1127-1142. PMID:24882908

  9. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  10. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  11. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  12. Do negative views of aging influence memory and auditory performance through self-perceived abilities?

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit

    2015-12-01

    Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.

  13. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  14. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  15. Cortical grey matter content is associated with both age and bimanual performance, but is not observed to mediate age-related behavioural decline.

    PubMed

    van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Serbruyns, Leen; Solesio-Jofre, Elena; Meesen, Raf; Cuypers, Koen; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2017-01-01

    Declines in both cortical grey matter and bimanual coordination performance are evident in healthy ageing. However, the relationship between ageing, bimanual performance, and grey matter loss remains unclear, particularly across the whole adult lifespan. Therefore, participants (N = 93, range 20-80 years) performed a complex Bimanual Tracking Task, and structural brain images were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Analyses revealed that age correlated negatively with task performance. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed that age was associated with grey matter declines in task-relevant cortical areas and that grey matter in these areas was negatively associated with task performance. However, no evidence for a mediating effect of grey matter in age-related bimanual performance decline was observed. We propose a new hypothesis that functional compensation may account for the observed absence of mediation, which is in line with the observed pattern of increased inter-individual variance in performance with age.

  16. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).

  17. Age and organ damage correlate with poor survival in myeloma patients: meta-analysis of 1435 individual patient data from 4 randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Bringhen, Sara; Mateos, Maria Victoria; Zweegman, Sonja; Larocca, Alessandra; Falcone, Antonietta Pia; Oriol, Albert; Rossi, Davide; Cavalli, Maide; Wijermans, Pierre; Ria, Roberto; Offidani, Massimo; Lahuerta, Juan Jose; Liberati, Anna Marina; Mina, Roberto; Callea, Vincenzo; Schaafsma, Martijn; Cerrato, Chiara; Marasca, Roberto; Franceschini, Luca; Evangelista, Andrea; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; van der Holt, Bronno; Montefusco, Vittorio; Ciccone, Giovannino; Boccadoro, Mario; Miguel, Jesus San; Sonneveld, Pieter; Palumbo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Thalidomide and bortezomib are extensively used to treat elderly myeloma patients. In these patients, treatment-related side effects are frequent and full drug doses difficult to tolerate. We retrospectively analyzed data from 1435 elderly patients enrolled in 4 European phase III trials including thalidomide and/or bortezomib. After a median follow up of 33 months (95%CI: 10–56 months), 513 of 1435 patients (36%) died; median overall survival was 50 months (95%CI: 46–60 months). The risk of death was increased in patients aged 75 years or over (HR 1.44, 95%CI: 1.20–1.72; P<0.001), in patients with renal failure (HR 2.02, 95%CI: 1.51–2.70; P<0.001), in those who experienced grade 3–4 infections, cardiac or gastrointestinal adverse events during treatment (HR 2.53, 95%CI: 1.75–3.64; P<0.001) and in those who required drug discontinuation due to adverse events (HR 1.67, 95%CI; 1.12–2.51; P=0.01). This increased risk was restricted to the first six months after occurrence of adverse events or drug discontinuation and declined over time. More intensive approaches, such as the combination of bortezomib-thalidomide, negatively affected outcome. Bortezomib-based combinations may overcome the negative impact of renal failure. Age 75 years or over or renal failure at presentation, occurrence of infections, cardiac or gastrointestinal adverse events negatively affected survival. A detailed geriatric assessment, organ evaluation and less intense individualized approaches are suggested in elderly unfit subjects. PMID:23445873

  18. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  19. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  20. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  1. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  2. Personality Traits, Facets and Cognitive Performance: Age Differences in Their Relations

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Eileen K.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associated with faster reaction time, yet lower reasoning. The association between neuroticism and performance was found primarily among younger adults. In older adulthood, better performance was associated with positive emotional aspects of personality. We discuss how personality may have different associations with performance across age and the implications for possible interventions. PMID:24821992

  3. Professional expertise does not eliminate age differences in imagery-based memory performance during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Kliegl, R; Baltes, P B

    1992-12-01

    Using a testing-the-limits paradigm, the authors investigated the modulation (attenuation) of negative adult age differences in imagery-based memory performance as a function of professional expertise. Six older graphic designers, 6 normal older adults, 6 younger graphic design students, and 6 normal younger students participated in a 19-session program with a cued-recall variant of the Method of Loci. Older graphic designers attained higher levels of mnemonic performance than normal older adults but were not able to reach younger adults' level of performance; a perfect separation of age groups was achieved. Spatial visualization was a good predictor of mnemonic performance. Results suggest that negative adult age differences in imagery-based memory are attenuated but not eliminated by the advantages associated with criterion-relevant ability (talent) and experience.

  4. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball.

  5. Personality Traits, Facets and Cognitive Performance: Age Differences in Their Relations.

    PubMed

    Graham, Eileen K; Lachman, Margie E

    2014-03-01

    Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associated with faster reaction time, yet lower reasoning. The association between neuroticism and performance was found primarily among younger adults. In older adulthood, better performance was associated with positive emotional aspects of personality. We discuss how personality may have different associations with performance across age and the implications for possible interventions.

  6. Supervisor-subordinate age dissimilarity and performance ratings: the buffering effects of supervisory relationship and practice.

    PubMed

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Scholarios, Dora; Van der Schoot, Esther; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Bozionelos, Nikos; Epitropaki, Olga; Knauth, Peter; Marzec, Izabela; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Van der Heijde, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Using 394 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors working in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in three northern European countries, this study examined the effect of workplace moderators on the link between relational demography and supervisor ratings of performance. Directional age differences between superior and subordinate (i.e., status incongruence caused when the supervisor is older or younger than his/her subordinate) and non-directional age differences were used as predictors of supervisor ratings of occupational expertise. The quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship and the existence of positive age-related supervisory practices were examined as moderators of this relationship. The results provide no support for a relationship between directional age differences and age-related stereotyping by supervisors in ratings of performance, neither for the effects of age-related supervisory practices. However, high quality supervisor-subordinate relationships did moderate the effects of age dissimilarity on supervisory ratings. The implications of these findings for performance appraisal methodologies and recommendations for further research are discussed.

  7. Cognitive performance and age-related changes in the hippocampal proteome

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Bennett, Colleen; Sonntag, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Declining cognitive performance is associated with increasing age, even in the absence of overt pathological processes. We and others have reported that declining cognitive performance is associated with age-related changes in brain glucose utilization, long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation, protein expression, neurotransmitter levels, and trophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these changes are causes or symptoms of the underlying alterations in dendritic and synaptic morphology that occur with age. In this study, we examined the hippocampal proteome for age- and cognition-associated changes in behaviorally stratified young and old rats, using 2-DIGE and MS/MS-MS. Comparison of old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired animals revealed additional changes that would not have been detected otherwise. Interestingly, not all age-related changes in protein expression were associated with cognitive decline, and distinct differences in protein expression were found when comparing old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired rats. A large number of protein changes with age were related to the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway. In total, the proteomic changes suggest that age-related alterations act synergistically with other perturbations to result in cognitive decline. This study also demonstrates the importance of examining behaviorally-defined animals in proteomic studies, as comparison of young to old animals regardless of behavioral performance would have failed to detect many cognitive impairment-specific protein expression changes evident when behavioral stratification data was used. PMID:19135133

  8. Infants with complex congenital heart diseases show poor short-term memory in the mobile paradigm at 3 months of age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Ying; Harrison, Tondi; Heathcock, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine learning, short-term memory and general development including cognitive, motor, and language domains in infants with Complex Congenital Heart Defects (CCDH). Ten infants with CCHD (4 males, 6 females) and 14 infants with typical development (TD) were examined at 3 months of age. The mobile paradigm, where an infant's leg is tethered to an overhead mobile, was used to evaluate learning and short-term memory. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development 3rd edition (Bayley-III) was used to evaluate general development in cognitive, motor, and language domains. Infants with CCHD and infants with TD both showed learning with significant increase in kicking rate (p<0.001) across periods of the mobile paradigm, but only infants with TD demonstrated short-term memory (p=0.017) in the mobile paradigm. There were no differences on cognitive, motor, and language development between infants with CCHD and infants with TD on the Bayley-III. Early assessment is necessary to guide targeted treatment in infants with CCHD. One-time assessment may fail to detect potential cognitive impairments during early infancy in infants with CCHD. Supportive intervention programs for infants with CCHD that focuses on enhancing short-term memory are recommended.

  9. Cross-age effect in recognition performance and memory monitoring for faces.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Margaret S; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-03-01

    The cross-age effect refers to the finding of better memory for own- than other-age faces. We examined 3 issues about this effect: (1) Does it extend to the ability to monitor the likely accuracy of memory judgments for young and old faces? (2) Does it apply to source information that is associated with young and old faces? And (3) what is a likely mechanism underlying the cross-age effect? In Experiment 1, young and older adults viewed young and old faces appearing in different contexts. Young adults exhibited a cross-age effect in their recognition of faces and in their memory-monitoring performance for these faces. Older adults, by contrast, showed no age-of-face effects. Experiment 2 examined whether young adults' cross-age effect depends on or is independent of encoding a mixture of young and old faces. Young adults encoded either a mixture of young and old faces, a set of all young faces, or a set of all old faces. In the mixed-list condition we replicated our finding of young adults' superior memory for own-age faces; in the pure-list conditions, however, there were absolutely no differences in performance between young and old faces. The fact that the pure-list design abolishes the cross-age effect supports social-cognitive theories of this phenomenon.

  10. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  11. Low Blood Long Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acids in UK Children Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Performance and Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the DOLAB Study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Paul; Burton, Jennifer R.; Sewell, Richard P.; Spreckelsen, Thees F.; Richardson, Alexandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid) are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools. Participants 493 schoolchildren aged 7–9 years from mainstream Oxfordshire schools, selected for below average reading performance in national assessments at age seven. Method Whole blood fatty acids were obtained via fingerstick samples. Reading and working memory were assessed using the British Ability Scales (II). Behaviour (ADHD-type symptoms) was rated using the revised Conners’ rating scales (long parent and teacher versions). Associations were examined and adjusted for relevant demographic variables. Results DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), accounted for only 1.9% and 0.55% respectively of total blood fatty acids, with DHA showing more individual variation. Controlling for sex and socio-economic status, lower DHA concentrations were associated with poorer reading ability (std. OLS coeff. = 0.09, p = <.042) and working memory performance (0.14, p = <.001). Lower DHA was also associated with higher levels of parent rated oppositional behavior and emotional lability (−0.175, p = <.0001 and −0.178, p = <.0001). Conclusions In these healthy UK children with below average reading ability, concentrations of DHA and other Omega-3 LC-PUFA were low relative to adult cardiovascular health recommendations, and directly related to measures of cognition and behavior. These findings require confirmation, but suggest that the benefits from dietary supplementation with Omega-3 LC

  12. Finisher and performance trends in female and male mountain ultramarathoners by age group

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Eichenberger, Evelyn; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined changes according to age group in the number of finishers and running times for athletes in female and male mountain ultramarathoners competing in the 78 km Swiss Alpine Marathon, the largest mountain ultramarathon in Europe and held in high alpine terrain. Methods The association between age and performance was investigated using analysis of variance and both single and multilevel regression analyses. Results Between 1998 and 2011, a total of 1,781 women and 12,198 men finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon. The number of female finishers increased (r2 = 0.64, P = 0.001), whereas the number of male finishers (r2 = 0.18, P = 0.15) showed no change. The annual top ten men became older and slower, whereas the annual top ten women became older but not slower. Regarding the number of finishers in the age groups, the number of female finishers decreased in the age group 18–24 years, whereas the number of finishers increased in the age groups 30–34, 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, and 70–74 years. In the age groups 25–29 and 35–39 years, the number of finishers showed no changes across the years. In the age group 70–74 years, the increase in number of finishers was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. For men, the number of finishers decreased in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, and 35–39 years. In the age groups 40–44, 45–49, 50–54, 55–59, 60–64, 70–74, and 75–79 years, the number of finishers increased. In the age group 40–44 years, the increase was linear. For all other age groups, the increase was exponential. Female finishers in the age group 40–44 years became faster over time. For men, finishers in the age groups 18–24, 25–29, 30–34, 40–44, and 45–49 years became slower. Conclusion The number of women older than 30 years and men older than 40 years increased in the Swiss Alpine Marathon. Performance improved in women aged 40–44 years but

  13. The role of spatial abilities and age in performance in an auditory computer navigation task.

    PubMed

    Pak, Richard; Czaja, Sara J; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2006-01-01

    Age-related differences in spatial ability have been suggested as a mediator of age-related differences in computer-based task performance. However, the vast majority of tasks studied have primarily used a visual display (e.g., graphical user interfaces). In the current study, the relationship between spatial ability and performance in a non-visual computer-based navigation task was examined in a sample of 196 participants ranging in age from 18 to 91. Participants called into a simulated interactive voice response system and carried out a variety of transactions. They also completed measures of attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. The results showed that age-related differences in spatial ability predicted a significant amount of variance in performance in the non-visual computer task, even after controlling for other abilities. Understanding the abilities that influence performance with technology may provide insight into the source of age-related performance differences in the successful use of technology.

  14. The role of spatial abilities and age in performance in an auditory computer navigation task

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Richard; Czaja, Sara J.; Sharit, Joseph; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2008-01-01

    Age-related differences in spatial ability have been suggested as a mediator of age-related differences in computer-based task performance. However, the vast majority of tasks studied have primarily used a visual display (e.g., graphical user interfaces). In the current study, the relationship between spatial ability and performance in a non-visual computer-based navigation task was examined in a sample of 196 participants ranging in age from 18 to 91. Participants called into a simulated interactive voice response system and carried out a variety of transactions. They also completed measures of attention, working memory, and spatial abilities. The results showed that age-related differences in spatial ability predicted a significant amount of variance in performance in the non-visual computer task, even after controlling for other abilities. Understanding the abilities that influence performance with technology may provide insight into the source of age-related performance differences in the successful use of technology. PMID:18997876

  15. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  16. The impact of green roof ageing on substrate characteristics and hydrological performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De-Ville, Simon; Menon, Manoj; Jia, Xiaodong; Reed, George; Stovin, Virginia

    2017-04-01

    Green roofs contribute to stormwater management through the retention of rainfall and the detention of runoff. However, there is very limited knowledge concerning the evolution of green roof hydrological performance with system age. This study presents a non-invasive technique which allows for repeatable determination of key substrate characteristics over time, and evaluates the impact of observed substrate changes on hydrological performance. The physical properties of 12 green roof substrate cores have been evaluated using non-invasive X-ray microtomography (XMT) imaging. The cores comprised three replicates of two contrasting substrate types at two different ages: unused virgin samples; and 5-year-old samples from existing green roof test beds. Whilst significant structural differences (density, pore and particle sizes, tortuosity) between virgin and aged samples of a crushed brick substrate were observed, these differences did not significantly affect hydrological characteristics (maximum water holding capacity and saturated hydraulic conductivity). A contrasting substrate based upon a light expanded clay aggregate experienced increases in the number of fine particles and pores over time, which led to increases in maximum water holding capacity of 7%. In both substrates, the saturated hydraulic conductivity estimated from the XMT images was lower in aged compared with virgin samples. Comparisons between physically-derived and XMT-derived substrate hydrological properties showed that similar values and trends in the data were identified, confirming the suitability of the non-invasive XMT technique for monitoring changes in engineered substrates over time. The observed effects of ageing on hydrological performance were modelled as two distinct hydrological processes, retention and detention. Retention performance was determined via a moisture-flux model using physically-derived values of virgin and aged maximum water holding capacity. Increased water holding

  17. Interaction between age of irradiation and age of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in rats exposed to (56)Fe particles as a function of age. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of age of irradiation independently of the age of testing. Male Fischer-344 rats, 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of age, were exposed to 25-200 cGy of (56)Fe particles (1,000 MeV/n). Following irradiation, the rats were trained to make an operant response on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. When performance was evaluated as a function of both age of irradiation and testing, the results showed a significant effect of age on the dose needed to produce a performance decrement, such that older rats exposed to lower doses of (56)Fe particles showed a performance decrement compared to younger rats. When performance was evaluated as a function of age of irradiation with the age of testing held constant, the results indicated that age of irradiation was a significant factor influencing operant responding, such that older rats tested at similar ages and exposed to similar doses of (56)Fe particles showed similar performance decrements. The results are interpreted as indicating that the performance decrement is not a function of age per se, but instead is dependent upon an interaction between the age of irradiation, the age of testing, and exposure to HZE particles. The nature of these effects and how age of irradiation affects cognitive performance after an interval of 15 to 16 months remains to be established.

  18. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  19. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  20. Age-dependent effects of carotid endarterectomy or stenting on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Wasser, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Gröschel, Sonja; Stojanovic, Tomislav; Schmidt, Holger; Gröschel, Klaus; Pilgram-Pastor, Sara M; Knauth, Michael; Kastrup, Andreas

    2012-11-01

    Although evidence is accumulating that age modifies the risk of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) versus endarterectomy (CEA) for patients with significant carotid stenosis, the impact of age on cognition after either CEA or CAS remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of age on cognitive performance after either CEA or CAS using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery with parallel test forms and a control group to exclude a learning effect. The neuropsychological outcomes after revascularization were determined in 19 CAS and 27 CEA patients with severe carotid stenosis. The patients were subdivided according to their median age (<68 years and ≥68 years); 27 healthy subjects served as a control group. In all patients clinical examinations, MRI scans and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed four major cognitive domains were performed immediately before, within 72 h, and 3 months after CEA or CAS. While patients <68 years of age showed no significant cognitive alteration after either CEA or CAS, a significant cognitive decline was observed in patients ≥68 years in both treatment groups (p = 0.001). Notably, this cognitive deterioration persisted in patients after CEA, whereas it was only transient in patients treated with CAS. These results demonstrate an age-dependent effect of CEA and CAS on cognitive functions. In contrast to the recently observed increased clinical complication rates in older subjects after CAS compared with CEA, CEA appears to be associated with a greater, persistent decline in cognitive performance than CAS in this subgroup of patients.

  1. Handwriting performance in preterm children compared with term peers at age 6 to 7 years.

    PubMed

    Feder, Katya P; Majnemer, Annette; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Platt, Robert; Blayney, Marc; Synnes, Anne

    2005-03-01

    Preterm infants are at high risk for developmental impairments at school age. However, the impact of these impairments on important life skills, such as handwriting, is unknown. Forty-eight first-grade children (27 males, 21 females; mean age 6y 7mo, SD 3.9mo; range 6y 1mo to 7y 3mo) born preterm (birthweight < 1250g; gestational age < 34wks), without major physical or cognitive disabilities, were matched to 69 healthy, term control children (32 males, 37 females; mean age 6y 10mo, SD 3.6mo; range 6y 3mo to 7y 4mo) by sex and school class. All children were assessed using the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting-Manuscript and several sensorimotor measures. Preterm children demonstrated significantly lower legibility and slower speed scores (p < 0.01) compared with control children for most of the handwriting tasks. Factors associated with legibility were visual perception and eye-hand coordination (r < 0.50; p < 0.05) and sex (r < 0.12; p = 0.01). In-hand manipulation and finger identification (r < 0.43; p < 0.01) were significantly correlated with slow handwriting speeds. Behaviour difficulties associated with hyperactivity and poor attention (Connors Abbreviated Symptoms Questionnaire) had a confounding influence on both legibility and speed. These findings may help guide early identification efforts and medical/therapeutic interventions for preterm children.

  2. Association of pulsatile and mean cerebral blood flow velocity with age and neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew; Pipingas, Andrew

    2014-05-10

    Low cerebral blood flow velocity is associated with cognitive decline. However, the association between pulsatile brain blood flow velocity and cognition has not been investigated. High pulsatile hemodynamic stress in the brain may impair cognitive function through damage to small cerebral vessels. The current objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of pulsatile and mean cerebral blood flow velocity with age and neuropsychological performance. We also examined whether cerebral blood flow velocity was associated with aortic pulse pressure, a measure of arterial ageing and aortic stiffness. Cerebral blood flow velocity was measured in the middle cerebral artery using Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography (TDU) while neuropsychological performance was measured using a computerized cognitive test battery. Aortic pulse pressure was non-invasively derived from applanation tonometry of the radial artery. The sample comprised 160 healthy adults aged 50-70 years. Results indicated that increasing age correlated with lower mean (r=-0.23, p<0.01) and higher pulsatile (r=0.27, p<0.01) brain blood flow velocity. In multivariate adjusted models, both peripheral (β=0.28, p<0.05) and aortic (β=0.24, p<0.05) pulse pressure were associated with higher pulsatile flow velocity through the middle cerebral artery. In adjusted models, neither mean nor pulsatile cerebral blood flow velocity was associated with performance on any cognitive task. In conclusion, arterial ageing was associated with increased pulsatile hemodynamic stress in the brain. However, this was not associated with impaired neuropsychological performance.

  3. Aging's effects on marathon performance insights from the New York City race.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.

  4. Performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Among Women Aged 75 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, “Gail model”) is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older. Methods: We used Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) data beginning in 2004 and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data beginning in 2005 to compare BCRAT’s performance among women age 75 years and older with that in women age 55 to 74 years in predicting five-year breast cancer incidence. BCRAT risk factors include: age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, age at first birth, family history, history of benign breast biopsy, and atypia. We examined BCRAT’s calibration by age by comparing expected/observed (E/O) ratios of breast cancer incidence. We examined discrimination by computing c-statistics for the model by age. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Seventy-three thousand seventy-two NHS and 97 081 WHI women participated. NHS participants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (96.2% vs 84.7% in WHI, P < .001) and were less likely to develop breast cancer (1.8% vs 2.0%, P = .02). E/O ratios by age in NHS were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.23, age 57–74 years) and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.45, age ≥ 75 years, P = .02), and in WHI 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.09, age 55–74 years) and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.21, age ≥ 75 years, P = .21). E/O ratio 95% confidence intervals crossed one among women age 75 years and older when samples were limited to women who underwent mammography and were without significant illness. C-statistics ranged between 0.56 and 0.58 in both cohorts regardless of age. Conclusions: BCRAT accurately predicted breast cancer for women age 75 years and older who underwent mammography and were without significant illness but had modest discrimination. Models that consider individual competing risks of non–breast cancer death may improve breast cancer risk prediction for older women. PMID:26625899

  5. Age-related changes in 100-km ultra-marathon running performance.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the participation and performance trends at the '100 km Lauf Biel' in Switzerland from 1998 to 2010, and (2) to compare the age-related changes in 100-km running performance between males and females. For both sexes, the percent of finishers significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for the 18-29 and the 30-39-year age groups, while it significantly (P < 0.01) increased for the 40-49 and the 50-59-year age groups over the studied period. From 1998 to 2010, the mean age of the top ten finishers increased by 0.4 years per annum for both females (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.003). The running time for the top ten finishers remained stable for females, while it significantly (P = 0.001) increased by 2.4 min per annum for males. There was a significant (P < 0.001) age effect on running times for both sexes. The best 100-km running times was observed for the age comprised between 30 and 49 years for males, and between 30 and 54 years for females, respectively. The age-related decline in running performance was similar until 60-64 years between males and females, but was greater for females compared to males after 65 years. Future studies should investigate the lifespan from 65 to 75 years to better understand the performance difference between male and female master ultra-marathoners.

  6. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  7. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  8. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  9. Interaction between age of irradiation and age of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to HZE particles produces deficits in cognitive performance. While previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in radiated rats as a function of age, the present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of age of irradiation independently of the ...

  10. Effect of Preexercise Creatine Ingestion on Muscle Performance in Healthy Aging Males.

    PubMed

    Baker, Taylor P; Candow, Darren G; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Preexercise creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect on aging muscle performance. Using a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover design, healthy males (N = 9, 54.8 ± 4.3 years; 92.9 ± 11.5 kg; 179.2 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to consume creatine (20 g) and placebo (20 g corn starch maltodextrin), on 2 separate occasions (7 days apart), 3 hours before performing leg press and chest press repetitions to muscle fatigue (3 sets at 70% 1-repetition maximum; 1 minute rest between sets). There was a set main effect (p ≤ 0.05) for the leg press and chest press with the number of repetitions performed decreasing similarly for creatine and placebo. These results suggest that a bolus ingestion of creatine consumed 3 hours before resistance exercise has no effect on upper or lower-body muscle performance in healthy aging males.

  11. The age of the best ultramarathon performance - the case of the "Comrades Marathon".

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the age of the fastest running speed in 202,370 runners (34,090 women and 168,280 men) competing in the "Comrades Marathon" between 1994 and 2015 using non-linear regression analysis (second order polynomial function). When all runners were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest running speed (9.61 ± 1.65 km/h) was achieved at the age of 29.89 years in men, whereas women achieved it at the age of 35.96 years 8.60 ± 1.10 km/h. When the fastest runners were considered in 1-year intervals, the fastest running speed (16.65 km/h) was achieved in men at the age of 36.38 years. For the fastest women, the age of the fastest running speed (13.89 km/h) was 32.75 years. To summarize, for all runners, men achieved the best ultramarathon performance ~6 years earlier than women. When the fastest runners were considered, however, men achieved the best performance ~4 years later than women.

  12. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  13. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215

  14. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  15. [Determination of writing age of blue ballpoint pen inks by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Fan; Li, Xin-Qian; Xu, Ying-Jian; Wang, Jing-Han; Wang, Yan-Ji

    2006-09-01

    As it is a frequently encountered problem in the laboratory of forensic science nowadays to distinguish whether the questioned documents, such as deeds, contracts, and receipts, written in ballpoint pen inks are true or not, and identify the writing age of them, it is very essential to establish a simple, sensitive and accurate method to examine the similarities and differences of the ballpoint pen inks and identify the writing age. The present paper introduces a technique that allows identifying the kind and the writing age of the blue ballpoint pen inks. The technique is based on using a high performance liquid chromatographic method for distinguishing the similarities and differences in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks and determining changes in dyes of blue ballpoint pen inks developed with age, and these changes can be evaluated by the ratio of peak areas.

  16. Effects of reaction time variability and age on brain activity during Stroop task performance.

    PubMed

    Tam, Angela; Luedke, Angela C; Walsh, Jeremy J; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Garcia, Angeles

    2015-09-01

    Variability in reaction time during task performance may reflect fluctuations in attention and cause reduced performance in goal-directed tasks, yet it is unclear whether the mechanisms behind this phenomenon change with age. Using fMRI, we tested young and cognitively healthy older adults with the Stroop task to determine whether aging affects the neural mechanisms underlying intra-individual reaction time variability. We found significant between-group differences in BOLD activity modulated by reaction time. In older adults, longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in frontoparietal attentional areas, while in younger adults longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in default mode network areas. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of reaction time variability change with healthy aging, reinforcing the concept of functional plasticity to maintain high cognitive function throughout the lifespan.

  17. [The association between paid or voluntary employment and neuropsychological test performance at an older age].

    PubMed

    Weghorst, Ronan B W M; Scherder, Erik J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2017-04-01

    Studies have convincingly shown that both physical and mental activity are positively associated with cognitive task performance in aging. Little is known, however, about whether still being employed or doing volunteer work, which obviously engages physical and/or mental activity, is similarly associated with cognitive ability at an older age. The current study explored this relationship in 28 volunteers aged sixty years and older. Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, and data regarding the number of working hours (paid and voluntary) per week were collected. A total of 28 participants were included, 13 of whom worked three or more hours per week. As a group, these active participants achieved better episodic memory, sustained attention and psychomotor speed results. This study shows that older people who are still working demonstrate better neuropsychological task performance. An important question for future research concerns the causality of this relationship.

  18. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (≥60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  19. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

  20. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence From Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic control (ATC), would enable older controllers to perform at high levels of proficiency. The authors also investigated whether older controllers would show diminished age-related decrements on domain-relevant cognitive abilities. Both young and old controllers and noncontrollers performed a battery of cognitive and ATC tasks. Results indicate that although high levels of experience can reduce the magnitude of age-related decline on the component processes that underlie complex task performance, this sparing is limited in scope. More important, however, the authors observed experience-based sparing on simulated ATC tasks, with the sparing being most evident on the more complex air traffic control tasks. These results suggest that given substantial experience, older adults may be quite capable of performing at high levels of proficiency on fast-paced demanding real-world tasks. The implications of these findings for global skilled labor shortages are discussed. PMID:19309213

  1. Age-Related Visual Changes and Their Impications for the Motor Skill Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Trick, Linda R.

    Physical changes in and conditions of the eye associated with the normal aging process are discussed with reference to their impact on performance in physical and recreational activities. Descriptions are given of characteristic changes in visual acuity in the areas of: (1) presbyopia (inability to clearly focus near images); (2) sensitivity to…

  2. Age-Related Differences in Reaction Time Task Performance in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselev, Sergey; Espy, Kimberlay Andrews; Sheffield, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Performance of reaction time (RT) tasks was investigated in young children and adults to test the hypothesis that age-related differences in processing speed supersede a "global" mechanism and are a function of specific differences in task demands and processing requirements. The sample consisted of 54 4-year-olds, 53 5-year-olds, 59…

  3. Supervisor-Subordinate Age Dissimilarity and Performance Ratings: The Buffering Effects of Supervisory Relationship and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Scholarios, Dora; Van der Schoot, Esther; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Bozionelos, Nikos; Epitropaki, Olga; Knauth, Peter; Marzec, Izabela; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Van der Heijde, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Using 394 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors working in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in three northern European countries, this study examined the effect of workplace moderators on the link between relational demography and supervisor ratings of performance. Directional age differences between superior…

  4. The Effects of Age at Arrival and Enclave Schools on the Academic Performance of Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between age at arrival and immigrant-receiving high schools (i.e., enclave schools) on the academic performance of first- and second-generation immigrant children using data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study (CILS). The CILS survey was conducted in two major immigrant-receiving cities in the…

  5. Cognitive Functioning and Driving Simulator Performance in Middle-aged and Older Adults with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Fazeli, Pariya L.; Ball, David A.; Slater, Larry Z.; Ross, Lesley A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40+ years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., Useful Field of View) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

  6. The Mediating Effect of Age on the Relationship between Hyperactivity and Neuropsychological Test Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massman, Paul J.; Nussbaum, Nancy L.

    The relationship between hyperactivity and neuropsychological test performance at different age levels was investigated with 90 children 6-8 years old and 92 children 9-12 years old. Subjects were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, and a parent completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBC). Young children demonstrated no…

  7. Interindividual Differences in Learning Performance: The Effects of Age, Intelligence, and Strategic Task Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliegel, Matthias; Altgassen, Mareike

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigated fluid and crystallized intelligence as well as strategic task approaches as potential sources of age-related differences in adult learning performance. Therefore, 45 young and 45 old adults were asked to learn pictured objects. Overall, young participants outperformed old participants in this learning test. However,…

  8. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  9. Age, Gender, and Training in Children's Performance of Piaget's Horizontality Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parameswaran, Gowri

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children (n=600), ages five to nine, completed Jean Piaget's horizontality task using a square water bottle. Finds a significant sex difference in the pretest performance of the horizontality task beginning with eight year olds. Includes references. (CMK)

  10. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P < 0.05), had longer legs (P < 0.01) and a larger fat-free mass (P < 0.05). Maturity offset was smaller in the older boys (P < 0.05); however, age at peak height velocity was similar. Older boys performed better in velocity and agility (P < 0.05) and particularly in the overall score of performance (P < 0.01). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that chronological age was the most important variable in the agility test and the overall score, after the skinfolds (negative effect). We report differences in anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  11. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests, included…

  12. The Effects of Person versus Performance Praise on Children's Motivation: Gender and Age as Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…

  13. Performance and agreement of risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium in persons aged 50 years or older.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Carolien J; Absalom, Anthony R; de Bock, Geertruida H; van Leeuwen, Barbara L; Izaks, Gerbrand J

    2014-01-01

    Several risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium in older people have been developed because early interventions may prevent delirium. We investigated the performance and agreement of nine commonly used risk stratification instruments in an independent validation cohort of consecutive elective and emergency surgical patients aged ≥50 years with ≥1 risk factor for postoperative delirium. Data was collected prospectively. Delirium was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The observed incidence of postoperative delirium was calculated per risk score per risk stratification instrument. In addition, the risk stratification instruments were compared in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and positive and negative predictive value. Finally, the positive agreement between the risk stratification instruments was calculated. When data required for an exact implementation of the original risk stratification instruments was not available, we used alternative data that was comparable. The study population included 292 patients: 60% men; mean age (SD), 66 (8) years; 90% elective surgery. The incidence of postoperative delirium was 9%. The maximum observed incidence per risk score was 50% (95%CI, 15-85%); for eight risk stratification instruments, the maximum observed incidence per risk score was ≤25%. The AUC (95%CI) for the risk stratification instruments varied between 0.50 (0.36-0.64) and 0.66 (0.48-0.83). No AUC was statistically significant from 0.50 (p≥0.11). Positive predictive values of the risk stratification instruments varied between 0-25%, negative predictive values between 89-95%. Positive agreement varied between 0-66%. No risk stratification instrument showed clearly superior performance. In conclusion, in this independent validation cohort, the performance and agreement of commonly used risk stratification instruments for postoperative delirium was poor. Although some caution is needed

  14. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  15. Blue metal-poor stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preston, George W.; Sneden, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    We review the discovery of blue metal-poor (BMP) stars and the resolution of this population into blue stragglers and intermediate-age Main-Sequence stars by use of binary fractions. We show that the specific frequencies of blue stragglers in the halo field and in globular clusters differ by an order of magnitude. We attribute this difference to the different modes of production of these two populations. We report carbon and s-process enrichment among very metal-poor field blue stragglers and discuss how this result can be used to further resolve field blue stragglers into groups formed during RGB and AGB evolution of their erstwhile primary companions.

  16. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  17. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. EFFECT OF ENGINE-BASED THERMAL AGING ON SURFACE MORPHOLOGY AND PERFORMANCE OF LEAN NOX TRAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Toops, Todd J; Bunting, Bruce G; Nguyen, Ke; Gopinath, Ajit

    2007-01-01

    A small single-cylinder diesel engine is used to thermally age model (Pt + Rh/Ba/{gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) lean NOx traps (LNTs) under lean/rich cycling at target temperatures of 600 C, 700 C, and 800 C. During an aging cycle, fuel is injected into the exhaust to achieve reproducible exotherms under lean and rich conditions with the average temperature approximating the target temperature. Aging is performed until the cycle-average NOx conversion measured at 400 C is approximately constant. Engine-based NOx conversion decreased by 42% after 60 cycles at 600 C, 36% after 76 cycles at 700 C and 57% after 46 cycles at 800 C. The catalyst samples were removed and characterized by XRD and using a microreactor that allowed controlled measurements of surface area, precious metal size, NOx storage, and reaction rates. Three aging mechanisms responsible for the deactivation of LNTs have been identified: (i) loss of dispersion of the precious metals, (ii) phase transitions in the washcoat materials, and (iii) loss of surface area of the storage component and support. These three mechanisms are accelerated when the aging temperature exceeds 850 C--the {gamma} to {delta} transition temperature of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Normalization of rates of NO reacted at 400 C to total surface area demonstrates the biggest impact on performance stems from surface area losses rather than from precious metal sintering.

  19. Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills. PMID:24155717

  20. Effects of age and experience on reproductive performance of wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Hepp, G.R. ); Kennamer, R.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Data from a long-term study of Wood Ducks breeding in South Carolina were used to test whether reproductive performance was age specific and to evaluate several hypotheses proposed for age-specific variation. We used known-aged females from 1 through 5 yr of age. Yearling females initiated nests 11-19 d later than older females; heavier females, independent of age, nested earlier than lighter females. One-way analyses of covariance using female body mass and nesting date as covariates indicated that clutch size, mean egg mass, number of ducklings per nest, and the percentage of eggs hatching (hatching success) were independent of female age. Probability of nests producing at least one duckling (nest success) also was not related to female egg. We separately tested effects of breeding experience and female age class (yearling vs. adult) on reproductive performance. In the context of this study, females were considered as experienced if they previously were captured using nest boxes and inexperienced if there was no record of nest box use. Adult females with previous breeding experience initiated nests an average of 26 d earlier than adults without previous experience; body mass of experienced adults was greater than that of inexperienced adults. Adult females designated as [open quotes]inexperienced[close quotes] may have nested previously in natural cavities and were simply changing to nest boxes. Nest-site fidelity is known to affect nesting date, so we also compared nesting dates of inexperienced adults with a subset of of experienced females that changed nest sites.

  1. Influence of schooling and age on cognitive performance in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Bento-Torres, N V O; Bento-Torres, J; Tomás, A M; Costa, V O; Corrêa, P G R; Costa, C N M; Jardim, N Y V; Picanço-Diniz, C W

    2017-03-23

    Few studies have examined the influence of a low level of schooling on age-related cognitive decline in countries with wide social and economic inequalities by using the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery (CANTAB). The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of schooling on age-related cognitive decline using unbiased cognitive tests. CANTAB allows cognitive assessment across cultures and education levels with reduced interference of the examiner during data acquisition. Using two-way ANOVA, we assessed the influences of age and education on test scores of old adults (61-84 years of age). CANTAB tests included: Visual Sustained Attention, Reaction Time, Spatial Working Memory, Learning and Episodic Memory. All subjects had a minimum visual acuity of 20/30 (Snellen Test), no previous or current history of traumatic brain/head trauma, stroke, language impairment, chronic alcoholism, neurological diseases, memory problems or depressive symptoms, and normal scores on the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Subjects were grouped according to education level (1 to 7 and ≥8 years of schooling) and age (60-69 and ≥70 years). Low schooling level was associated with significantly lower performance on visual sustained attention, learning and episodic memory, reaction time, and spatial working memory. Although reaction time was influenced by age, no significant results on post hoc analysis were detected. Our findings showed a significantly worse cognitive performance in volunteers with lower levels of schooling and suggested that formal education in early life must be included in the preventive public health agenda. In addition, we suggest that CANTAB may be useful to detect subtle cognitive changes in healthy aging.

  2. Working memory training and transfer in older adults: effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains.

    PubMed

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity.

  3. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species.

  4. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  5. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  6. Accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound in determining gestational age in first trimester pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient reported menstrual history, physician clinical evaluation, and ultrasonography are used to determine gestational age in the pregnant female. Previous studies have shown that pregnancy dating by last menstrual period (LMP) and physical examination findings can be inaccurate. An ultrasound performed in the radiology department is considered the standard for determining an accurate gestational age. The aim of this study is to determine the accuracy of emergency physician performed bedside ultrasound as an estimation of gestational age (EDUGA) as compared to the radiology department standard. Methods A prospective convenience sample of ED patients presenting in the first trimester of pregnancy (based upon self-reported LMP) regardless of their presenting complaint were enrolled. EDUGA was compared to gestational age estimated by ultrasound performed in the department of radiology (RGA) as the gold standard. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between EDUGA compared to RGA. Results Sixty-eight pregnant patients presumed to be in the 1st trimester of pregnancy based upon self-reported LMP consented to enrollment. When excluding the cases with no fetal pole, the median discrepancy of EDUGA versus RGA was 2 days (interquartile range (IQR) 1 to 3.25). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.978. When including the six cases without a fetal pole in the data analysis, the median discrepancy of EDUGA compared with RGA was 3 days (IQR 1 to 4). The correlation coefficient of EDUGA with RGA was 0.945. Conclusion Based on our comparison of EDUGA to RGA in patients presenting to the ED in the first trimester of pregnancy, we conclude that emergency physicians are capable of accurately performing this measurement. Emergency physicians should consider using ultrasound to estimate gestational age as it may be useful for the future care of that pregnant patient. PMID:23216683

  7. Performance of an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: nutrient dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, R; Sharma, E; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Nutrient cycling, nutrient use efficiency and nitrogen fixation in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations were studied in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the nutrient dynamics of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was assessed. Foliar nutrient concentrations of Alnus decreased with advancing age groups of plantations and showed an inverse relationship with stand age. Annual N fixation increased from the 5-year-old stand (52 kg ha(-1)), peaking in the 15-year-old stand (155 kg ha(-1)) and then decreased with increasing plantation age. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake was lowest in the 40-year-old stand, and highest in the 15- and 5-year-old stand, respectively. Nutrient storage in understorey cardamom was very high: up to 31 % N and 59 % P of the stand total in the 15-year-old stand. Nutrient use efficiency was higher (with faster turnover times) in younger stands and decreased (with slower turnover times) in older plantations. Nitrogen retranslocation showed a strong positive relationship with stand age, while that of P was inversely related to stand age. Nutrient standing stock, uptake and return were also highest in the 15-year-old stand. Nitrogen and P cycling in Alnus-cardamom plantations was functionally balanced. Nutrient cycling and dynamics indicated that Alnus-cardamom plantations performed sustainably up to 15-20 years. The management practice should be altered to incorporate replantation after this age.

  8. Temporal associations of cigarette smoking with social influences, academic performance, and delinquency: a four-wave longitudinal study from ages 13-23.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Joan S; Martínez, José Felipe; Ellickson, Phyllis L; Edelen, Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    This study examined the temporal associations of cigarette smoking with prosmoking social influences, academic performance, and delinquency in a cohort of 6,527 adolescents surveyed at ages 13, 16, 18, and 23 years. Prosmoking peer and family influences were risk factors for future smoking throughout adolescence, with family influences perhaps also operating indirectly through the adolescent's exposure to prosmoking peers. There were reciprocal associations of youth smoking with parental approval, peer smoking, and poor grades (but not delinquency), with youth smoking emerging as a stronger antecedent than consequence of these psychosocial factors. Few gender differences in these associations were observed. Implications of these findings for efforts to prevent youth smoking are discussed.

  9. Mechanisms underlying age- and performance-related differences in working memory.

    PubMed

    Daffner, Kirk R; Chong, Hyemi; Sun, Xue; Tarbi, Elise C; Riis, Jenna L; McGinnis, Scott M; Holcomb, Phillip J

    2011-06-01

    This study took advantage of the subsecond temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate mechanisms underlying age- and performance-related differences in working memory. Young and old subjects participated in a verbal n-back task with three levels of difficulty. Each group was divided into high and low performers based on accuracy under the 2-back condition. Both old subjects and low-performing young subjects exhibited impairments in preliminary mismatch/match detection operations (indexed by the anterior N2 component). This may have undermined the quality of information available for the subsequent decision-making process (indexed by the P3 component), necessitating the appropriation of more resources. Additional anterior and right hemisphere activity was recruited by old subjects. Neural efficiency and the capacity to allocate more resources to decision-making differed between high and low performers in both age groups. Under low demand conditions, high performers executed the task utilizing fewer resources than low performers (indexed by the P3 amplitude). As task requirements increased, high-performing young and old subjects were able to appropriate additional resources to decision-making, whereas their low-performing counterparts allocated fewer resources. Higher task demands increased utilization of processing capacity for operations other than decision-making (e.g., sustained attention) that depend upon a shared pool of limited resources. As demands increased, all groups allocated additional resources to the process of sustaining attention (indexed by the posterior slow wave). Demands appeared to have exceeded capacity in low performers, leading to a reduction of resources available to the decision-making process, which likely contributed to a decline in performance.

  10. Aging and work: how do SOC strategies contribute to job performance across adulthood?

    PubMed

    Yeung, Dannii Y; Fung, Helene H

    2009-12-01

    The authors examined the impacts of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) strategies-elective selection, loss-based selection, optimization, and compensation-on job performance across adulthood. A cross-sectional survey (Study 1, N=355) and a 5-day experience sampling study (Study 2, N=87) were conducted to assess Chinese insurance sales workers' global and momentary employment of SOC strategies at work and compare the effectiveness of these strategies in predicting their job performance. Study 1 revealed that the use of compensation predicted higher performance maintenance among older workers, whereas the use of elective selection contributed positively to sales productivity for both age groups, with stronger association for younger workers. Study 2 demonstrated that the positive impact of SOC strategies on global and momentary measures of job performance differed across tasks with various difficulty levels. When the task was perceived as highly difficult, older workers' greater use of elective selection predicted higher self-rated task performance; however, the positive association was weaker among younger workers. Older workers' greater use of the 4 SOC strategies was positively associated with sales increases when the task was not difficult or moderately difficult, yet the relationship was negative when the task was highly difficult. A reverse pattern was observed among younger workers. This article contributes to the understanding of working adults' psychological adaptation to the process of aging and reveals the moderating role of task difficulty on the association between SOC strategies and performance outcomes.

  11. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  12. Age-related declines in car following performance under simulated fog conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Rui; Kang, Julie J.; Andersen, George J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in car following performance when contrast of the driving scene was reduced by simulated fog. Older (mean age of 72.6) and younger (mean age of 21.1) drivers were presented with a car following scenario in a simulator in which a lead vehicle (LV) varied speed according to a sum of three sine wave functions. Drivers were shown an initial following distance of 18m and were asked to maintain headway distance by controlling speed to match changes in LV speed. Five simulated fog conditions were examined ranging from a no fog condition (contrast of 0.55) to a high fog condition (contrast of 0.03). Average LV speed varied across trials (40, 60, or 80 km/h). The results indicated age-related declines in car following performance for both headway distance and RMS (root mean square) error in matching speed. The greatest decline occurred at moderate speeds under the highest fog density condition, with older drivers maintaining a headway distance that was 21% closer than younger drivers. At higher speeds older drivers maintained a greater headway distance than younger drivers. These results suggest that older drivers may be at greater risk for a collision under high fog density and moderate speeds. PMID:20380908

  13. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  14. Age-related declines in car following performance under simulated fog conditions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Kang, Julie J; Andersen, George J

    2010-05-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in car following performance when contrast of the driving scene was reduced by simulated fog. Older (mean age of 72.6) and younger (mean age of 21.1) drivers were presented with a car following scenario in a simulator in which a lead vehicle (LV) varied speed according to a sum of three sine wave functions. Drivers were shown an initial following distance of 18 m and were asked to maintain headway distance by controlling speed to match changes in LV speed. Five simulated fog conditions were examined ranging from a no fog condition (contrast of 0.55) to a high fog condition (contrast of 0.03). Average LV speed varied across trials (40, 60, or 80 km/h). The results indicated age-related declines in car following performance for both headway distance and RMS (root mean square) error in matching speed. The greatest decline occurred at moderate speeds under the highest fog density condition, with older drivers maintaining a headway distance that was 21% closer than younger drivers. At higher speeds older drivers maintained a greater headway distance than younger drivers. These results suggest that older drivers may be at greater risk for a collision under high fog density and moderate speeds.

  15. The electrical performance of polymeric insulating materials under accelerated aging in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S.; Cherney, E.A.; Hackam, R. ); Orbeck, T. )

    1988-07-01

    A comparative study of the ac (60 Hz) surface aging in a fog chamber is reported on cylindrical rod samples of high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber containing various amounts of alumina trihydrate (ATH) and/or silica fillers. In low conductivity (250 ..mu..S/cm) fog, silicone rubber performed better than EPDM samples whereas in high conductivity (1000 ..mu..S/cm) fog, the order of performance was reversed. The mechanisms by which fillers impart tracking and erosion resistance to materials is discussed as influenced by the experimental conditions of the accelerated aging tests. Surface studies by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of silicone rubber, despite the accumulation of surface contamination, can be attributed to migration of low molecular weight polymer chains and/or mobile fluids, such as silicone oil.

  16. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level.

  17. Social-Economic Status and Cognitive Performance among Chinese Aged 50 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Ma, Wenjun; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous population-based studies have suggested that socio-economic status (SES) is associated with cognitive performance, but few nationally representative epidemiological studies on cognitive performance with a large sample of older adults are available in China. And many studies explore the factors associated with cognitive performance, mainly focusing on individual level and more rarely on multiple levels that include the individual and community. Methods This study uses SAGE-China Wave 1 data which consisted of 13,157 adults aged 50 years and older to explore socioeconomic inequalities in the cognitive performance from a multilevel perspective (individual and community levels). The overall cognition score was based on the seven separate components of the cognition tests, including the four verbal recall trials, the verbal fluency test, the forward digit span test and the backward digit span test. Factor analysis was applied to evaluate and generate a single overall score. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used to evaluate the association between SES at these two levels and the overall cognition score adjusted for age, sex and marital status. Results At individual level, years of education was significantly associated with overall cognition score for both urban and rural dwellers. At the community level, a positive association was obtained between median household income and median years of education and overall cognition score among urban participants. Conclusion A significant association between SES at both individual-level and community-level (only for urban area) and cognitive performance were found in this study of a national sample of 13,157 Chinese aged 50 years and older, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Identifying community-based SES variables that are associated with cognitive performance in the older population provides further evidence for the need to address community characteristics associated with

  18. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  19. Performance testing of aged hydrogen getters against criteria for interim safe storage of plutonium bearing materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Nissen, April; Buffleben, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen getters were tested for use in storage of plutonium-bearing materials in accordance with DOE's Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials. The hydrogen getter HITOP was aged for 3 months at 70 C and tested under both recombination and hydrogenation conditions at 20 and 70 C; partially saturated and irradiated aged getter samples were also tested. The recombination reaction was found to be very fast and well above the required rate of 45 std. cc H2h. The gettering reaction, which is planned as the backup reaction in this deployment, is slower and may not meet the requirements alone. Pressure drop measurements and {sup 1}H NMR analyses support these conclusions. Although the experimental conditions do not exactly replicate the deployment conditions, the results of our conservative experiments are clear: the aged getter shows sufficient reactivity to maintain hydrogen concentrations below the flammability limit, between the minimum and maximum deployment temperatures, for three months. The flammability risk is further reduced by the removal of oxygen through the recombination reaction. Neither radiation exposure nor thermal aging sufficiently degrades the getter to be a concern. Future testing to evaluate performance for longer aging periods is in progress.

  20. Variability in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV subtest performance across age.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Nick M; Mignogna, Joseph; Collins, Robert L

    2012-06-01

    Normal Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-IV performance relative to average normative scores alone can be an oversimplification as this fails to recognize disparate subtest heterogeneity that occurs with increasing age. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the patterns of raw score change and associated variability on WAIS-IV subtests across age groupings. Raw WAIS-IV subtest means and standard deviations for each age group were tabulated from the WAIS-IV normative manual along with the coefficient of variation (CV), a measure of score dispersion calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean and multiplying by 100. The CV further informs the magnitude of variability represented by each standard deviation. Raw mean scores predictably decreased across age groups. Increased variability was noted in Perceptual Reasoning and Processing Speed Index subtests, as Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, Picture Completion, Symbol Search, and Coding had CV percentage increases ranging from 56% to 98%. In contrast, Working Memory and Verbal Comprehension subtests were more homogeneous with Digit Span, Comprehension, Information, and Similarities percentage of the mean increases ranging from 32% to 43%. Little change in the CV was noted on Cancellation, Arithmetic, Letter/Number Sequencing, Figure Weights, Visual Puzzles, and Vocabulary subtests (<14%). A thorough understanding of age-related subtest variability will help to identify test limitations as well as further our understanding of cognitive domains which remain relatively steady versus those which steadily decline.

  1. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  2. Energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during strenuous hill walking: the effect of age.

    PubMed

    Ainslie, P N; Campbell, I T; Frayn, K N; Humphreys, S M; MacLaren, D P M; Reilly, T; Westerterp, K R

    2002-08-01

    We aimed to examine the effect of age on energy balance, metabolism, hydration, and performance during 10 days of strenuous hill walking. Seventeen male subjects were divided into two groups according to their age. The nine subjects in group 1 constituted the younger group (age 24 +/- 3 yr), whereas eight older subjects were in group 2 (age 56 +/- 3 yr). Both groups completed 10 consecutive days of high-intensity hill walking. Mean (range) daily walking distances and ascent were 21 km (10-35 km) and 1,160 m (800-2,540 m), respectively. Energy intake was calculated from weighed food intake, and energy expenditure was measured by the doubly labeled water method. Blood and urine were sampled on alternative days to determine any changes in metabolism and hydration during the 10 days. Subjects also completed a battery of tests that included muscular strength (handgrip), jump performance, cognitive processing time, and flexibility. The younger group remained hydrated, whereas the older group became progressively dehydrated, indicated by a near twofold increase in urine osmolality concentration on day 11. This increased urine osmolality in the older group was highly correlated with impairment in vertical-jump performance (r = -0.86; P < 0.05) and decreased cognitive processing time (r = 0.79; P < 0.05). Despite energy expenditure of approximately 21 MJ/day, body mass was well maintained in both groups. Both groups displayed a marked increase in fat mobilization, reflected in significantly lowered prewalk insulin concentrations and elevated postwalk glycerol and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Despite the dehydration and impaired performance in the older group, blood glucose concentrations were well maintained in both groups, probably mediated via the increased mobilization of fat.

  3. Static stretching does not impair performance in active middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Handrakis, John P; Southard, Veronica N; Abreu, Jairo M; Aloisa, Mariella; Doyen, Mellissa R; Echevarria, Licet M; Hwang, Hyun; Samuels, Christine; Venegas, Steven A; Douris, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations with young, healthy adult subjects suggest that static stretching before activity decreases performance and should, therefore, be avoided. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute static stretching protocol on balance and jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Ten subjects (6 men and 4 women aged 40-60 yr) from a martial arts school volunteered to take part in this research study. This was a repeated measures design. Subjects who stretched for 10 minutes using a 30-second hold during 1 session sat quietly for 10 minutes during the alternate session. Sessions were randomly assigned. The following dependent variables were compared: Dynamic Stability Index (DSI) for single-leg dynamic balance (smaller DSI = improved balance); distances for broad jump, single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop; elapsed time for a 6-m timed hop. Group means for balance were significantly different between the stretch and no-stretch conditions (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 DSI, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group means of the stretch and no-stretch conditions for the dependent measures of broad jump, single hop, triple hop, crossover hop, and 6-m timed hop performance. Ten minutes of acute static stretching enhances dynamic balance and does not affect jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Static stretching should be included before competition and before exercise in fitness programs of active middle-aged adults.

  4. Age-related differences in performance and stimulus processing in dual task situation.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Melanie; Wild-Wall, Nele; Falkenstein, Michael

    2011-09-26

    Competition for limited processing resources is most critical in dual-tasks which incorporate cognitive and motor demands. Performance is usually diminished with increasing age in such tasks. This decline is relevant for activities in real life like driving. In the present study we aim to examine if there are age-related differences in stimulus processing in a dual-task and if these differences have an impact on performance of a driving-like tracking task. Young and older participants performed a dual-task consisting of a tracking task and a visual attention task. Alongside, the EEG was recorded for calculating the P300 (P3) of the event-related potential as a reflection of controlled stimulus processing. In the visual attention task older vs. young participants showed more misses and false alarms. For young participants the P3 shows an expected pattern of higher amplitudes for relevant compared to irrelevant stimuli. This was not found for the older participants. A general age-related decline in tracking performance was relatively more pronounced if a secondary motor response was required in the visual attention task and also after irrelevant stimuli. The results suggest that older compared to young participants had greater difficulties to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant stimuli in a dual-task situation as they probably apply comparable attentional resources to all stimuli. This may also explain the higher error rates. These results have important implications for the understanding of age-related stimulus processing in dual and multi task situations in real life as for instance driving.

  5. Altered left ventricular performance in aging physically active mice with an ankle sprain injury.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Guderian, Sophie; Wikstrom, Erik A; Huot, Joshua R; Peck, Bailey D; Arthur, Susan T; Marino, Joseph S; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-02-01

    We assessed the impact of differing physical activity levels throughout the lifespan, using a musculoskeletal injury model, on the age-related changes in left ventricular (LV) parameters in active mice. Forty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three running wheel groups (transected CFL group, transected ATFL/CFL group, SHAM group) or a SHAM Sedentary group (SHAMSED). Before surgery and every 6 weeks after surgery, LV parameters were measured under 2.5 % isoflurane inhalation. Group effects for daily distance run was significantly greater for the SHAM and lesser for the ATLF/CFL mice (p = 0.013) with distance run decreasing with age for all mice (p < 0.0001). Beginning at 6 months of age, interaction (group × age) was noted with LV posterior wall thickness-to-radius ratios (h/r) where h/r increased with age in the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice while the SHAM and CFL mice exhibited decreased h/r with age (p = 0.0002). Passive filling velocity (E wave) was significantly greater in the SHAM mice and lowest for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice (p < 0.0001) beginning at 9 months of age. Active filling velocity (A wave) was not different between groups (p = 0.10). Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio (E/A ratio) was different between groups (p < 0.0001), with higher ratios for the SHAM mice and lower ratios for the ATFL/CFL and SHAMSED mice in response to physical activity beginning at 9 months of age. Passive-to-active filling velocity ratio decreased with age (p < 0.0001). Regular physical activity throughout the lifespan improved LV structure, passive filling velocity, and E/A ratio by 6 to 9 months of age and attenuated any negative alterations throughout the second half of life. The diastolic filling differences were found to be significantly related to the amount of activity performed by 9 months and at the end of the lifespan.

  6. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R = −0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared = 0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R = −0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ≤ 49 = 0.361; ≥50 = 0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because

  7. Preserved Discrimination Performance and Neural Processing during Crossmodal Attention in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Gazzaley, Adam

    2013-01-01

    In a recent study in younger adults (19-29 year olds) we showed evidence that distributed audiovisual attention resulted in improved discrimination performance for audiovisual stimuli compared to focused visual attention. Here, we extend our findings to healthy older adults (60-90 year olds), showing that performance benefits of distributed audiovisual attention in this population match those of younger adults. Specifically, improved performance was revealed in faster response times for semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli during distributed relative to focused visual attention, without any differences in accuracy. For semantically incongruent stimuli, discrimination accuracy was significantly improved during distributed relative to focused attention. Furthermore, event-related neural processing showed intact crossmodal integration in higher performing older adults similar to younger adults. Thus, there was insufficient evidence to support an age-related deficit in crossmodal attention. PMID:24278464

  8. The effect of administered dose of lipid-based formulations on the in vitro and in vivo performance of cinnarizine as a model poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-02-01

    The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered.

  9. Self-prediction of hedonic trajectories for repeated use of body products and foods: poor performance, not improved by a full generation of experience.

    PubMed

    Rozin, Paul; Hanko, Karlene; Durlach, Paula

    2006-05-01

    This study extends earlier work by [Kahneman, D., and Snell, J. (1992). Predicting a changing taste: Do people know what they will like? Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 5, 187-200.]. suggesting that people are poor at predicting changes in liking. This is an important issue because an absence of this ability would make it difficult for people to optimize their own choices. Twenty undergraduates and 20 of their parents sampled four relatively unfamiliar consumer products, two foods and two body products, for 8 days. On Day 1, participants rated their initial liking and predicted their liking after seven daily uses of the products. Predictions were compared to actual liking on Day 8. Consistent with prior work, participants were poor at predicting their actual hedonic trajectories because they underestimated the degree to which their preferences would change. Contrary to predictions, parents were no better than students at this task, even though they had some 20-39 years more experience in observing their own hedonic trajectories. There is no evidence for any parent-child resemblance in either liking for the products or ability to accurately predict hedonic trajectory, and no evidence for consistency in ability to predict trajectories across the four different products. In general, participants underestimate the degree to which their preferences will change.

  10. ERP correlates of item recognition memory: effects of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Sen, N Mandu; Chong, Hyemi; Riis, Jenna L; McGinnis, Scott M; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2009-01-23

    Decline in episodic memory is a common feature of healthy aging. Event-related potential (ERP) studies in young adults have consistently reported several modulations thought to index memory retrieval processes, but relatively limited work has explored the impact of aging on them. Further, work with functional imaging has demonstrated differential neural recruitment in elderly subjects depending on their level of cognitive performance which may reflect compensatory or, alternatively, inefficient processing. In the present study we examined the effect of aging and level of performance on both early (FN400, LPC) and later [late frontal effect (LFE)] ERP indices of recognition memory. We found that the FN400 and LPC were absent or attenuated in the older group relative to young adults, but that the LFE was actually increased, analogous to findings in the functional imaging literature. Additionally, the latter effect was most prominent in the poorer performing older participants. These findings suggest that weak memory retrieval supported by earlier ERP modulations, may lead to an enhanced LFE in the service of additional retrieval attempts.

  11. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  12. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  13. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Exercise Performance in Middle-Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Kan, Nai-Wen; Ho, Chin-Shan; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Pei-Yu; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-05-18

    Resveratrol (RES) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET) improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16 months old) were randomly divided into four groups: an older control group (OC group), supplementation with RES group (RES group), ET group (ET group), and a combination of ET and RES supplementation group (ET+RES group). Other 10-week-old mice were used as a young control group (Y-Ctrl group). In this study, exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. Our results showed that the forelimb grip strength of mice in the ET+RES group was significantly higher than those in the OC, RES, and ET groups (by 1.3-, 1.2-, and 1.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.05), and exhibited no difference with the Y-Ctrl group. The endurance swimming test showed that swimming times of the ET and ET+RES groups were significantly longer than those of the OC and RES groups. Moreover, plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the ET + RES group after acute swimming exercise were significantly lower compared to the OC group (p < 0.05). Thus, it was suggested that by combining RES supplementation with ET for 4 weeks, the muscle strength and endurance performance of aged mice were significantly improved compared to the single intervention with either RES or ET alone. This combination might help shorten the extent of deterioration accompanying the aging process.

  14. Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kai, O; Sakemi, K; Suzuki, Y; Sonoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-10-01

    Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of the gerbil were studied throughout the reproductive life. Six groups of 7-30 female gerbils were paired monogamously with males at different ages. Out of 101 pairs in 6 groups, 79 (78.2%) produced 1 or more litters. The mean litter size at birth and mean weaning rate of 846 litters were 4.4 (totally 3,733 pups) and 67.4% (2,517 pups), respectively. Reproduction was compared in the 6 age groups. The littering rate (No. of females with litters/No. of female paired) was significantly lower in two groups in which mature females were paired with age-matched males (Group 4) or the oldest females with younger, sexually mature males (Group 6). The interval from pairing to the first litter was shortest in two groups in which mature females were paired with one month older, sexually mature males (Groups 3 and 5). Although the oldest pairs (Group 6) produced about 7 litters, the pairs from the other 5 groups produced about 10 or more litters throughout their reproductive life. The weaning rate was significantly higher in Group 6 (the oldest pairs) than in the younger groups. The effects of parity on reproduction were estimated from the data for the 61 pairs which produced more than 8 litters in the 6 groups. The number of pups at birth and the weaning rate were decreased in last 20-30% of the total parity in all 6 groups, although the age at the last litter in all groups was significantly different. The data suggest that any decline in reproduction may be due to not age but parity in the Mongolian gerbil.

  15. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.

  16. Preservation of Cognitive Performance with Age during Exertional Heat Stress under Low and High Air Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn M.; Hardcastle, Stephen G.; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be at greater risk for occupational injuries given their reduced capacity to dissipate heat, leading to greater thermal strain and potentially cognitive decrements. Purpose. To examine the effects of age and increased air velocity, during exercise in humid heat, on information processing and attention. Methods. Nine young (24 ± 1 years) and 9 older (59 ± 1 years) males cycled 4 × 15 min (separated by 15 min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (low) and 3.0 (high) m·s−1 air velocity wearing coveralls. At rest, immediately following exercise (end exercise), and after the final recovery, participants performed an abbreviated paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT, 2 sec pace). Results. PASAT numbers of correct responses at end exercise were similar for young (low = 49 ± 3; high = 51 ± 3) and older (low = 46 ± 5; high = 47 ± 4) males and across air velocity conditions, and when scored relative to age norms. Psychological sweating, or an increased sweat rate with the administration of the PASAT, was observed in both age groups in the high condition. Conclusion. No significant decrements in attention and speeded information processing were observed, with age or altered air velocity, following intermittent exercise in humid heat. PMID:25874223

  17. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  18. Concurrent language and motor performance in bilinguals: a test of the age of acquisition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, J C; Webster, W G

    1991-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age at which a second language is acquired influences the pattern of cerebral lateralization associated with that language. Subjects who differed in terms of the age at which they had acquired their second language (English or French) were tested on a concurrent task paradigm involving motor and language performance. Hemispheric processing was inferred from the pattern of lateralized and generalized interference between the tasks. No support was found for the age-of-acquisition hypothesis. Instead, the data indicated a language-specific effect. Regardless of age of acquisition and of whether the first language was English or French, bilingual subjects showed lateralized interference effects consistent with left-hemisphere processing when reading in English and translating from French into English, but no lateralized interference when reading in French and translating from English into French. Whether this effect reflects characteristics of the two languages or the influence of social factors in subject-experimenter interaction is considered.

  19. The age-related performance decline in Ironman triathlon starts earlier in swimming than in cycling and running.

    PubMed

    Käch, Ilja; Rüst, Christoph A; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2017-02-21

    In Ironman triathlon, the number of overall male and female finishers increased in the last 30 years, while an improvement in performance has been reported. Studies concluding these numbers only analysed the top ten athletes per age group instead of all finishers, therefore a selection bias might have occurred. The aim of the present study was to investigate participation, performance and the age-related performance decline of all pro and age group triathletes ranked in all Ironman triathlons held worldwide between 2002 and 2015. Split and overall race times of 329,066 (80%) male and 81,815 (20%) female athletes competing in 253 different Ironman triathlon races were analysed. The number of finishers increased in all age groups with exception of women in age group 75-79 years. In pro athletes, performance improved in all disciplines. In age group athletes, performance improved in younger age groups for running (18-24 to 40-44 years) and older age groups for swimming (50-54 to 65-69 years) and cycling (35-39 to 55-59 years), while it impaired in younger age groups for swimming (18-24 to 45-49 years) and cycling (18-24 to 30-34), and older age groups in running (45-49 to 70-74 years). The age-related performance decline started in women in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 30-34 years in cycling, running and overall race time, whereas it started in men in age group 25-29 years in swimming and in age group 35-39 years in cycling, running and overall race time. For athletes and coaches, performance improved in younger age groups for running and older age groups for swimming and cycling and the age-related decline in performance started earlier in swimming than in cycling and running. In summary, women should start competing in Ironman triathlon before the age of 30 years and men before the age of 35 years to achieve their personal best Ironman race time.

  20. Dynamic Functional Reorganizations and Relationship with Working Memory Performance in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M.; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Bargalló, Nuria; Junqué, Carme; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain. PMID:22701409

  1. The relationship of scoring treatment and age in perceptual-integrative performance.

    PubMed

    Klodin, V M

    1976-07-01

    The present study was designed to reexamine the hypothesis that timed perceptual-integrative performance tests are negatively biased measures of the abilities of the elderly. Unlike an earlier study by Doppelt and Wallace (1955) which did not support this hypothesis, the current study consisted of a college-age group in addition to the elderly group, and also included an additional scoring treatment. Each subject was tested with the WAIS Block Design and Object Assembly. Tests were scored in three ways: (1) Standard scoring (WAIS Manual); (2) "regular" scoring (timed, omitting bonus points); (3) "Irregular" scoring (untimed, omitting bonus points). For both tests, Age, Scoring, and the Age by Scoring ineraction were significant. Post hoc analyses for significant effects suggest that the elderly are helped most by additional solution time, whereas younger adults derive greater benefits from the bonus points for quick performance. The results also suggest that subjects must be of sufficiently high ability to effectively use increased or unlimited solution time.

  2. Physical Performance of Brazilian Rugby Players From Different Age Categories and Competitive Levels.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Moraes, José E; Coelho, Maurício; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu

    2016-09-01

    Kobal, R, Nakamura, FY, Moraes, JE, Coelho, M, Kitamura, K, Cal Abad, CC, Pereira, LA, and Loturco, I. Physical performance of Brazilian rugby players from different age categories and competitive levels. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2433-2439, 2016-The aim of this study was to compare the anthropometric characteristics and physical capacities (vertical jumping, speed, agility, and endurance abilities) among different age categories of Brazilian rugby players from the same high-level club and to compare their respective data with those obtained from the national team players. Eighty-eight men Brazilian rugby players from 4 different age categories were divided into 4 different groups (i.e., under-15 [U-15], under-17 [U-17], under-19 [U-19], and professional senior team [PRO]) and a group composed of players from the Brazilian national team (NAT). Anthropometric measures (i.e., height and body mass), squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) tests , 2 agility tests (change of direction [COD] and proagility), 40-m sprinting, and the Yo-Yo endurance test (level 1) were compared among the groups using an analysis of covariance (multivariable multivariate analysis of covariance) with the body mass as a covariate. The NAT group demonstrated significantly greater performances in all variables compared with the U-15, U-17, U-19, and PRO groups (p ≤ 0.05). Moreover, the PRO group demonstrated better performances in vertical jumping assessments (i.e., SJs and CMJs) and agility tests (i.e., COD and proagility) than the younger categories (p ≤ 0.05). Finally, except for the U-15 group, no significant differences were found between the young age-categories in sprint and endurance capacities. These findings show that, throughout the maturation process, rugby players improve their muscle power and agility abilities without presenting significant increases in endurance and sprinting capacities. Importantly, this does not hold true for players from the NAT group, who

  3. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  4. Effectiveness of complementary food supplements and dietary counselling on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6–23 months in poor areas of Qinghai Province, China: a controlled interventional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chang, Suying; Han, Huijun; Xing, Min; Chen, Li; Scherpbier, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of dietary counselling and complementary food supplements on anaemia and stunting prevalence in children aged 6–23 months. Design A controlled intervention study with measurements of height and haemoglobin levels, and cross-sectional surveys in August 2012 (baseline), 2013 (mid-term) and 2014 (end-line). Setting One intervention county and one control county in rural Qinghai Province, China. Intervention Complementary food supplements (containing protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamin A, B1, B2, B12, D3, folic acid, iron, zinc and calcium) and complementary feeding counselling were given in the intervention county. Participants Caregivers and their children aged 6–23 months. Primary and secondary outcome measures Effect of the interventions on the prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin <110 g/L) and stunting (z-score of height-for-age <−2.0) (controlled for differences between the counties), and on infant feeding practices. Results The surveys were conducted on 1804, 2187 and 2186 children aged 6–23 months in the intervention county in August 2012, 2013 and 2014, respectively, and 804, 680 and 790 children in the control county, respectively. Between the baseline and end-line surveys, anaemia prevalence decreased more in the intervention county than in the control county (71.1% to 47.8% vs 86.3% to 75.3%, respectively; p<0.0001). There was no difference in the decrease in stunting prevalence between the counties (9.7% to 7.1% vs 17.0% to 15.0%; p=0.7954). The proportions of children given iron-rich or iron-fortified food, introduced to (semi-) solid food at 6–8 months, and given food with minimum dietary diversity increased from 43.2% to 88.8% (p<0.0001), 81.4% to 96% (p=0.0470) and 53.0% to 59.8% (p<0.0001), respectively in the intervention county. Conclusions We found much higher anaemia prevalence in poor rural areas of Qinghai Province compared with the national data. Community-based complementary food supplements

  5. Location errors in QPFs over the Calabria region: Does a multi-model poor man's ensemble over-perform each member?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, Nazario; Mariani, Stefano; Casaioli, Marco; Accadia, Christophe; Federico, Stefano; Lanciani, Alexandre

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the quality, in terms of location errors, of multi-model poor man's ensemble (PME) forecasts against the single model ones over the Calabria region. Several strategies were adopted to combine precipitation forecasts by three limited area models (LAMs), namely the mean, the median, and a probabilistic matching approach. The Contiguous Rain Area (CRA) analysis was the method selected to detect and quantify the location errors of the forecast precipitation patterns with respect to the corresponding rain gauge-based analyses. Two best-fit criteria, the minimization of mean squared error and the maximization of correlation coefficient, were chosen for matching forecast and observed features. The ability to forecast correctly the precipitation patterns was then quantified by means of a summary measure, the CRA mean shift (CMS). It condenses the outcomes of the twenty-month CRA analyses with a unique value. A bootstrap procedure was applied to test the statistical significance of differences among CMS indices of LAMs and PMEs. Despite the ensemble forecasts display a general improvement, which results in a lower CMS index, with respect to the single LAMs, such improvement was not statistically significant for most ensembles. When the best-fit criterion is the maximization of correlation coefficient, no ensemble was statistically significant better than single models. Instead when the minimization of mean squared error was chosen as best-fit criterion, two out of four PMEs were significantly better than at least a LAM.

  6. Prediction of endurance running performance for middle-aged and older runners.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, N; Tanaka, K

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations that would sufficiently predict the endurance running performance (ERP) of middle-aged and older runners (n = 55, 43-79 years). Among many independent variables which were selected as possible predictors of the ERP, oxygen uptake corresponding to the lactate threshold (VO2@LT), or age was found to be the single best predictor. Some variables representing training habits correlated significantly but only moderately with the ERP. Linear multiple regression equations developed in this study were: V5km = 4.203 + 0.054X1 - 0.028X2 (r = 0.87) V5km = 4.436 + 0.045X1 - 0.033X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.89) V10km = 4.252 + 0.042X1 - 0.026X2 (r = 0.79) V10km = 4.371 + 0.037X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.82) VM = 3.207 + 0.048X1 - 0.022X2 (r = 0.91) VM = 3.707 + 0.038X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.93) where V5km, V10km and VM are the mean running velocity at 5 km, 10 km and marathon races, respectively, and X1 = VO2@LT (ml kg-1 min-1), X2 = age (year), and X3 = average running duration per workout (min). We suggest that the ERP of middle-aged and older runners can be predicted from a linear combination of VO2@LT and age or a combination of these variables plus average running duration per workout.

  7. Chronic nicotine improves working and reference memory performance and reduces hippocampal NGF in aged female rats.

    PubMed

    French, Kristen L; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E; Moore, Alfred B; Nelson, Matthew E; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2006-05-15

    The cholinergic system is involved in cognition and several forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and nicotine administration has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both humans and rodents. While experiments with humans have shown that nicotine improves the ability to handle an increasing working memory load, little work has been done in animal models evaluating nicotine effects on performance as working memory load increases. In this report, we demonstrate that in aged rats nicotine improved the ability to handle an increasing working memory load as well as enhanced performance on the reference memory component of the water radial arm maze task. The dose required to exert these effects (0.3mg/kg/day) was much lower than doses shown to be effective in young rats and appears to be a lower maintenance dose than is seen in light to moderate smokers. In addition, our study reports a nicotine-induced reduction in nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels in the hippocampus of the aged rat. The effects of nicotine on hippocampal NGF levels are discussed as a potential mechanism of nicotine-induced improvements in working and reference memory.

  8. Performance of the CogState computerized battery in the Mayo Clinic Study on Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M.; Machulda, Mary M.; Hagen, Clinton E.; Edwards, Kelly K.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Knopman, David S.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The feasibility and validity of brief computerized cognitive batteries at the population-level are unknown. Methods Non-demented participants (n = 1660, age 50–97) in the Mayo Clinic Study on Aging completed the computerized CogState battery and standard neuropsychological battery. The correlation between tests was examined and comparisons between CogState performance on the personal computer (PC) and iPad (n = 331), and in the Clinic vs. at home (n = 194), were assessed. Results We obtained valid data on >97% of participants on each test. Correlations between the CogState and neuropsychological tests ranged from −0.462 to 0.531. While absolute differences between the PC and iPad were small and participants preferred the iPad, performance on the PC was faster. Participants performed faster on Detection, One Card Learning, and One Back at home compared to the Clinic. Conclusions The computerized CogState battery, especially the iPad, was feasible, acceptable, and valid in the population. PMID:25858683

  9. Micronutrient supplementation improves physical performance measures in Asian Indian school-age children.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Mario; Pauline, Maria; Unni, Uma S; Parikh, Panam; Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, A V; Avadhany, Sandhya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrients are important in physical work capacity and therefore performance. The impact of a multi-micronutrient-fortified nutritional beverage on physical performance measures among clinically healthy school-age children was assessed in a double-blind (for test and placebo groups), placebo-controlled, randomized trial in children aged between 7 and 10.5 y (n = 300). The participants with height- and weight-for-age Z-scores between 0 and ≥ -3 were randomized to 1 of 3 study arms: fortified choco-malt beverage powder (F), matched energy equivalent unfortified placebo (U), and untreated control (C). Participants in the F and C groups were given 40 g fortified (19 key vitamins and minerals) and unfortified choco-malt beverage, respectively, daily for 120 d. Primary efficacy outcomes included endurance and aerobic capacity using a 20-m shuttle test and step test. Other physical performance measures included speed (40-m sprint), visual reaction time, maximal hand grip, and forearm static endurance. Micronutrient status included thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, iron, pyridoxal phosphate, and vitamins B-12 and C. All measurements were made at baseline and the end of the intervention. There was a within-subject increase in aerobic capacity and whole body endurance (P < 0.05) accompanied by a significant improvement in the status of iron thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate, folate, and vitamins C and B-12 in the F group compared to the within-subject changes in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). The study suggests that multiple micronutrient supplementation in similar populations may be beneficial in improving micronutrient status and enhancing aerobic capacity and endurance in children.

  10. Childhood conditions and current physical performance among non-institutionalized individuals aged 50+ in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood have been previously linked with high risk of various health conditions. However, the association with future physical function has been less studied. Hand grip strength and chair-rising time are objective measures of physical capability indicating current and future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that perceived socio-economic status in childhood is related to current measures of physical function, among Israeli participants of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project. The study included 2300 participants aged 50 years or older (mean age 68 ± 10; 56 % women). Generalized linear regression models were used to examine the associations of childhood wealth and number of books in residence with grip strength and time to complete five rises from a chair. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between the early life conditions and the ability to perform the physical tests. Adjustment was made for current income or household wealth, and for demographic, anthropometric, health, and life-style measures. Being wealthy and having a large number of books at home in childhood was associated with a stronger hand grip and a better chair-rise test performance. These associations were more robust in women compared to men, and persisted after adjustment for potential covariates. In addition, childhood wealth and number of books were associated with lower risk of being unable to perform the tests. Thus, early-life programming may contribute to physical function indicators in mid- and late-life. PMID:28190995

  11. Microstructural characterization of the chemomechanical behavior of asphalt in terms of aging and fatigue performance properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Robert Grover

    The study of asphalt chemo-mechanics requires a basic understanding of the physical properties and chemical composition of asphalt and how these properties are linked to changes in performance induced by chemical modifications. This work uniquely implements the framework of chemo-mechanics by investigating two types of chemical modification processes, natural (oxidative aging) and synthetic (chemical doping) as they relate not only to macro-scale properties of asphalt binder but also to the asphalt microstructure and nanorheology. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and the extraction of nano-scale engineering properties, i.e. elastic modulus, relaxation modulus, and surface energy, as a method to predict performance related to the fatigue characteristics of asphalt binders by modeling intrinsic material flaws present amongst phase interfaces. It was revealed that oxidative aging induces substantial microstructural changes in asphalt, including variations in phase structure, phase properties, and phase distribution. It has also been shown that certain asphalt chemical parameters have a consistent and measureable effect on the asphalt microstructure that is observed with AFM. In fact, particular phases that emerged via chemical doping revealed a surprising correlation between oxidative aging and the saturates chemical parameter of asphalt in terms of how they explicitly impact durability and performance of asphalt. By implementing a crack initiation model---which requires measureable microstructural characteristics as an input parameter---it was found that microstructural flaws (depending on the extremity) can have a more profound impact on asphalt performance than the properties of the material located between the flaws. It was also discovered by comparing the findings to performance data in the Strategic Highway Research Program's (SHRP's) Materials Reference Library (MRL), that the crack initiation model

  12. Age differences in cognitive performance: A study of cultural differences in Historical Context.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Natalia; Aretouli, Eleni; Peña, Javier; Schretlen, David J

    2016-03-01

    Ethnicity and cultural experience can affect neuropsychological performance, but they are rarely assessed in historical context. Attention measures are considered strongly biologically determined and therefore potentially culture-fair. In this study, we assessed the cross-cultural equivalence of Spanish and English versions of the Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan, 1958, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 8, 271-276) and the Brief Test of Attention (BTA; Schretlen et al., 1996, The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 10, 80-89) in two large samples of Americans (N = 203) and Spaniards (N = 213), divided into younger and older subgroups. The older Spaniards lived under Franco's political regime (1936-1975), whereas the Americans never experienced such repression. Overall, TMT performance was culture-sensitive, whereas BTA performance was not. However, when both groups were stratified by age, cultural differences in TMT performance were restricted to older participants, suggesting that historical experience across generations might have contributed to the observed differences in cognitive performance. Even such basic cognitive processes as attention, working memory, and resource sharing might be shaped to some degree by historical experiences that contribute to cultural differences.

  13. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  14. Intellectual performance after presymptomatic cranial radiotherapy for leukaemia: effects of age and sex.

    PubMed Central

    Christie, D; Leiper, A D; Chessells, J M; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1995-01-01

    Cognitive outcome, as measured by verbal and performance IQs, was compared in 35 girls and 47 boys who were in first remission for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. All children had received presymptomatic cranial radiotherapy and intrathecal methotrexate. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.2 years and the mean elapsed time from initial diagnosis to intellectual assessment was 7.1 years. Results showed that children irradiated before the age of 4 years were impaired in certain aspects of non-verbal ability, as well as in measures of short term memory and attention, calculated by factor scores derived from selected subtests of the IQ test. Subtests requiring verbal and non-verbal reasoning showed the greatest impairment after early diagnosis and treatment. In addition girls were selectively impaired in verbal IQ and other aspects of verbal ability, with the degree of impairment exacerbated by early treatment. No relationship was found between degree of impairment and either time since treatment or number of methotrexate injections. It is concluded that early age at irradiation increases the risk of impaired intellectual outcome, particularly in girls. PMID:7574857

  15. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  16. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  17. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    PubMed

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  18. Gross and fine motor performance in healthy Swedish children aged fifteen and eighteen months.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, A

    1979-02-01

    Gross and fine motor performance have been assessed in thirtynine 15-month-old and thirtynine 18-month-old children selected through systematic sampling from a population of healthy newborns. The performance was estimated with corresponding subscales of Denver Developmental Screening Test and Motor age test. In addition fine motor performance was assessed by the "Drawing test" for which the expected performance at 15 and 18 months is given. Of the 78 children, 83% had crawled on hand and knees, 9% crept on their tummy and 8% shuffled on their bottom before walking. Median age for walking was 11.8 months, the 97th percentile 16.0 months. Of the 15-month-old children, 90% walked with ability to stop and start, and 90% of the 18-month-old were in addition able to walk backwards, run stiffly, climb up and down a standard staircase and seat themselves in an armchair of suitable size. Of the 15-month-old, 90% were able to build a tower of two cubes or more, and 90% of the 18-month-old were able to build a tower of three cubes or more (size 1 1/2 inch). Almost 90% of the 15-month-old and all of the 18-month-old had the cognitive ability to coordinate a crayon and paper. In drawing attempts of the 15 month-old, the weak unstable combination with a top-tong/tong grasp and 1/2 pronated forearm was the dominating hand-grasp fore-arm position. In the 18 month-old a more mature grasp and forearm combination, mainly palmar grasp with or without stablizing index finger + overpronated forearm, was found.

  19. Trill performance components vary with age, season, and motivation in the banded wren

    PubMed Central

    Vehrencamp, S. L.; Yantachka, J.; Hall, M. L.; de Kort, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic displays with difficult-to-execute sounds are often subject to strong sexual selection, because performance levels are related to the sender’s condition or genetic quality. Performance may also vary with age, breeding stage, and motivation related to social context. We focused on within-male variation in four components of trill performance in banded wren (Thryophilus pleurostictus) songs: note consistency, frequency bandwidth, note rate and vocal deviation. The latter is a composite measure reflecting deviation from the performance limit on simultaneously maximizing both frequency bandwidth and note rate. We compared the changes in these song parameters at three time scales: over the course of years, across the breeding season, and at different times of the day with contrasting agonistic contexts. Vocal deviation decreased and note consistency increased over years, suggesting that experience may improve individual proficiency at singing trills. Consistency also increased across the season, confirming that practice is important for this parameter. Although there was no significant seasonal change in vocal deviation, one of its components, note rate, increased during the season. Neither vocal deviation nor consistency varied with agonistic context. However, note rate increased during playback experiments simulating territorial intrusions compared to dawn chorus singing. The magnitude of a male’s increase in note rate was positively correlated with his aggressive behavior during the playback experiment. Thus consistency, bandwidth, and vocal deviation indicate age, whereas trill rate flexibly indicates the singer’s aggressive motivation. We also found evidence of a within-male trade-off between vocal deviation and consistency. PMID:23543812

  20. Age-related differences in stepping performance during step cycle-related removal of vision.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are age-related changes in the ability of individuals to use vision to plan (feedforward control) and guide (on-line control) foot placement during locomotion. This aim was achieved by constraining the availability of vision and comparing the effects on the stepping performances of older and young adults during a precision stepping task. We experimentally controlled the availability of visual information such that: (1) vision was only available during each stance phase of the targeting limb, (2) vision was only available during each swing phase of the targeting limb or (3) vision was always available. Our visual manipulations had relatively little effect on younger adults' stepping performance as demonstrated by their missing the target on less than 10% of occasions. However, there were clear visual condition-related differences in older adults' stepping performance. When vision was only available during the stance phase of the targeting limb, older adults demonstrated significantly larger foot placement error and associated task failure rate (23%) than trials in which vision was always available (10%). There was an even greater increase in older adults' foot placement error and task failure rate (42%) during trials in which vision was only available in the swing phase than the other visual conditions. These findings suggest that older adults need vision at particular times during the step cycle, to effectively pre-plan future stepping movements. We discuss the evidence that these age-related changes in performance reflect decline in visual and visuomotor CNS pathways.

  1. Performance of repair welds on aged Cr-Mo piping girth welds

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D.W.

    1999-10-01

    This article documents the results of an industry survey of weld repair practices and describes the results of experimental evaluations performed on service-aged 2{1/4}Cr-1 Mo steel piping using SMAW with both conventional postweld heat treatments and temper bead repair techniques. The overall results of this program provide substantial evidence that service-aged piping systems can be successfully weld repaired with and without postweld heat treatments and that life extension by several decades is achievable under the right design and repair conditions. Weld repairs performed on degraded exservice welds resulted in restoration or improvement of tensile and creep properties. Microhardness test results within the heat-affected zone of each weldment indicated that the temper bead weld repairs produced only slightly higher peak hardness values than those measured for the fully postweld heat treated repairs. Finally, in terms of toughness, temper bead weld repairs consistently produced higher impact properties than those measured for the postweld heat treated weldments. Gas tungsten arc weld repairs with postweld heat treatment resulted in the best combination of tensile strength, uniform microhardness distribution across the weld, Charpy toughness, and creep rupture life.

  2. Performance of repair welds on aged Cr-Mo piping girth welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D. W.

    1999-10-01

    This article documents the results of an industry survey of weld repair practices and describes the results of experimental evaluations performed on service-aged 21/4 Cr-1Mo steel piping using SMAW with both conventional postweld heat treatments and temper bead repair techniques. The overall results of this program provide substantial evidence that service-aged piping systems can be successfully weld repaired with and without postweld heat treatments and that life extension by several decades is achievable under the right design and repair conditions. Weld repairs performed on degraded exservice welds resulted in restoration or improvement of tensile and creep properties. Microhardness test results within the heat-affected zone of each weldment indicated that the temper bead weld repairs produced only slightly higher peak hardness values than those measured for the fully postweld heat treated repairs. Finally, in terms of toughness, temper bead weld repairs consistently produced higher impact properties than those measured for the postweld heat treated weldments. Gas tungsten arc weld repairs with postweld heat treatment resulted in the best combination of tensile strength, uniform microhardness distribution across the weld, Charpy toughness, and creep rupture life.

  3. Effects of protein and carbohydrate meals on mood and performance: interactions with sex and age.

    PubMed

    Spring, B; Maller, O; Wurtman, J; Digman, L; Cozolino, L

    Normal adult subjects (n = 184) consumed a high-protein or high-carbohydrate meal. Two hours later their mood and performance were tested. The effects of meal composition on mood were different for men and women, and for older and younger subjects. Females, but not males, reported greater sleepiness after a carbohydrate as opposed to a protein meal. Male subjects, but not females, reported greater calmness after a carbohydrate as opposed to a protein meal. Older subjects responded differently to meals depending upon the time of day when these were consumed. When meals were eaten for breakfast (but not for lunch) individuals 40 yr of age or older felt more tense and less calm after a protein than after a carbohydrate meal. Although older subjects reported subjective discomfort after a morning protein meal, they displayed objective performance impairments after a carbohydrate lunch. Subjects 40 yr of age or older were impaired on a test of sustained selective attention (dichotic shadowing) after consuming a high-carbohydrate lunch. The shadowing impairment after carbohydrate consumption was as pronounced without distraction as with distraction and resulted mostly from increased omission errors. Our findings suggest negative effects on concentration when older subjects consume a high-carbohydrate, low-protein lunch. These negative effects of carbohydrate consumption appear to arise predominantly from lapses of attention rather than from intrusion of distractors.

  4. The assessment of subjective visual vertical: comparison of two psychophysical paradigms and age-related performance.

    PubMed

    Baccini, Marco; Paci, Matteo; Del Colletto, Mattia; Ravenni, Michele; Baldassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Perception of the subjective visual vertical (SVV) is usually assessed by asking to subjects, in complete darkness, to adjust the position of a luminous rod that is variably tilted (i.e., by the method of adjustment [ADJ]). Conversely, the two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) method requires subjects to categorize, as tilted either clockwise (CW) or counterclockwise (CCW), stimuli that are presented on a computer screen and are variably tilted from vertical. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of these two methods and investigate age-related effects on the SVV. SVV was assessed in 102 healthy individuals, 50 women and 52 men, with a mean age of 45.7 (range 20-91), using both ADJ (ten trials, initial 1°, 2°, 4°, 8°, or 12° bar tilts both CW and CCW) and 2AFC (120 stimuli with a 1°-32° variable tilt). Also, 50 of the subjects performed the ADJ test twice, with different bar lengths. We estimated bias and threshold for the two methods, and found that neither measure differed across the methods. Age was a significant predictor of threshold (2AFC, R (2) = .141; ADJ, R (2) = .190; p < .001), implying lower sensitivity with increasing age. Moreover, the ADJ method showed a significant increase of bias when the initial tilt was farthest from vertical, whereas the rod length was irrelevant. SVV measures obtained with the ADJ and 2AFC methods were comparable, but the latter measures were more resistant to artifacts that might affect the measurement. The lower sensitivity found in older persons may have an influence on their ability to interact with the environment and may contribute to impairment of postural control.

  5. Voluntary Exercise Impairs Initial Delayed Spatial Alternation Performance in Estradiol Treated Ovariectomized Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neese, Steven L.; Korol, Donna L.; Schantz, Susan L.

    2013-01-01

    Estrogens differentially modulate behavior in the adult female rodent. Voluntary exercise can also impact behavior, often reversing age associated decrements in memory processes. Our research group has published a series of papers reporting a deficit in the acquisition of an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA), following 17β-estradiol treatment to middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The current study examined if voluntary exercise could attenuate the 17β-estradiol induced deficits on DSA performance. OVX 12-month old Long- Evans rats were implanted with a Silastic capsule containing 17β-estradiol (10% in cholesterol: low physiological range) or with a blank capsule. A subset of the 17β-estradiol and OVX untreated rats were given free access to a running wheel in their home cage. All rats were tested for 40 sessions on the DSA task. Surprisingly, we found running wheel access to impair initial acquisition of the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated rats, an effect not seen in OVX untreated rats given running wheel access. This deficit was driven by an increase in perseverative responding on a lever no longer associated with reinforcement. We also report for the first time a 17β-estradiol induced impairment on the DSA task following a long intertrial delay (18-sec), an effect revealed following more extended testing than in our previous studies (15 additional sessions). Overall, running wheel access increased initial error rate on the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated middle-aged OVX rats, and failed to prevent the 17β-estradiol induced deficits in performance of the operant DSA task in later testing sessions. PMID:24013039

  6. Sex-specific age associations of ankle proprioception test performance in older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor; Deshpande, Nandini; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: this study was aimed to test the hypothesis that ankle proprioception assessed by custom-designed proprioception testing equipment changes with ageing in men and women. Methods: ankle proprioception was assessed in 289 participants (131 women) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA); the participants aged 51–95 years and were blinded during testing. Results: the average minimum perceived ankle rotation was 1.11° (SE = 0.07) in women and 1.00° (SE = 0.06) in men, and it increased with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001, for both). Ankle tracking performance, which is the ability to closely follow with the left ankle, a rotational movement induced on the right ankle by a torque motor, declines with ageing in both men and women (P = 0.018 and P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: a simple, standardised method for assessing ankle proprioception was introduced in this study using a customized test instrument, software and test protocol. Age-associated reduction in ankle proprioception was confirmed from two subtests of threshold and tracking separately for women and men. Findings in this study prompt future studies to determine whether these age-associated differences in the threshold for passive motion detection and movement tracking are evident in longitudinal study and how these specific deficits in ankle proprioception are related to age-associated chronic conditions such as knee or hip osteoarthritis and type II diabetes and affect daily activities such as gait. PMID:25637144

  7. Does lifelong training temper age-related decline in sport performance? Interpreting differences between cross-sectional and longitudinal data.

    PubMed

    Young, Bradley W; Weir, Patricia L; Starkes, Janet L; Medic, Nikola

    2008-01-01

    In the face of remarkable aging trends in North American society, organized sport/physical activity is an important vehicle for promoting physical health, and a domain in which long-term participation might mitigate pessimistic trends for age decline. This investigation examined patterns of age-related decline in performance for 45 Masters runners who rigorously trained continuously for at least a decade. Longitudinal data for age and performance were collected for 200 m, 1500 m, and 10 km events retrospectively across participants' careers. Cross-sectional (CS) data representing normal patterns of aging were derived from online archives. Longitudinal data reflected within-participant training effects whereas CS data did not. Second-order regression analyses were performed separately for each data type and quadratic beta coefficients, indicative of accelerated age decline, were compared for CS and longitudinal samples on a within-event basis. Results showed evidence of accelerated decline with advancing age for both samples, although rates for longitudinal samples were moderated for the 200 m and 1500 m events. Findings for the long-distance event were anomalous. Results provide evidence for moderated age-decline in physical performance measures for individuals who sustain engagement in organized sport for lengthy periods. Discussion focuses on methodological considerations for advancing future research that contrasts CS and longitudinal samples, and the importance of encouraging sport involvement opportunities to aging individuals.

  8. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function.

  9. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  10. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  11. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging.

  12. An experimental test for age-related improvements in reproductive performance in a frog that cares for its young

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Matthew B.; Moore, Michael P.; Wamelink, Caitlin N.; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.; Martin, Ryan A.

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive performance often increases with age in long-lived iteroparous organisms, a pattern that can result from within-individual increases in effort and/or competence. In free-living populations, it is typically difficult to distinguish these mechanisms or to isolate particular features of reproduction-influencing outcomes. In captive Oophaga pumilio, a frog in which mothers provide extended offspring provisioning via trophic eggs, we experimentally manipulated the age at which females started breeding and then monitored them across repeated reproductive events. This experiment allowed us to decouple age and experience and isolate maternal care as the proximate source of any differences in performance. Younger first-time mothers produced larger broods than older first-time mothers, but did not rear more offspring to independence. Across repeated reproductive events, maternal age was unassociated with any metric of performance. At later reproductive events, however, mothers produced fewer metamorphs, and a lower proportion of individuals in their broods reached independence. These patterns suggest that performance does not improve with age or breeding experience in this frog, and that eventual declines in performance are driven by reproductive activity, not age per se. Broadly, age-specific patterns of reproductive performance may depend on the proximate mechanism by which parents influence offspring fitness and how sensitive these are to effort and competence.

  13. Association of Physical Performance and Pain With Fear of Falling Among Community-Dwelling Japanese Women Aged 65 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Okabe, Takuhiro; Mizukami, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Abe, Yasuyo; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to explore the association of physical performance and pain with fear of falling among community-dwelling Japanese women.The subjects were 278 women aged 65 years and over. We collected information on fear of falling, painful joints, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Walking time (distance of 6 m), chair stand time (5 times), grip strength, the timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reach were measured.The prevalence of fear of falling was 36.3%, and it increased with age, but it was not significant (P = 0.081). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poor physical performance (longer walking time, longer chair stand time, weaker grip strength, and longer TUG) and pain (low back, and upper and lower extremity pain) were significantly associated with fear of falling after adjusting for age, body mass index, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts.Maintaining physical functioning and managing pain may be important for elderly women with fear of falling.

  14. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  15. Naturalistic Action Performance Distinguishes Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment from Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, David A; Park, Norman W; Murphy, Kelly J; Troyer, Angela K

    2015-07-01

    Individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) show minor decrements in their instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Sensitive measures of IADL performance are needed to capture the mild difficulties observed in aMCI groups. Routine naturalistic actions (NAs) are familiar IADL-type activities that require individuals to enact everyday tasks such as preparing coffee. In the current study we examined the extent to which NAs could be used to help facilitate differential diagnosis of aMCI relative to composite measures of episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and executive function. Healthy older adults (n=24) and individuals with aMCI (n=24) enacted two highly familiar NAs and completed tests of episodic memory, semantic knowledge, and executive function. Binary logistic regression was used to predict group membership (aMCI vs. control participants). The regression analyses indicated that NA performance could reliably predict group membership, over and above measures of cognitive functioning. These findings indicated that NA performance can be used to help facilitate differential diagnosis of healthy aging and aMCI and used as an outcome measure in intervention studies.

  16. The Poor Pay More.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folse, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a sociology experiential learning assignment where students learned why people living in poverty can sometimes pay more for products than people with better incomes. Focuses specifically on the rent to own concept. States students achieved the goal of learning how life constraints of poverty can hinder the poor from overcoming their…

  17. A unique combination of micronutrients rejuvenates cognitive performance in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sam D; Du, Kristy; Rendeiro, Catarina; Wang, Lin; Wu, Qian; Rubakhin, Stanislav S; Vazhappilly, Rema; Baxter, Jeffrey H; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Rhodes, Justin S

    2017-03-01

    It is widely believed that diet can influence the onset and severity of cognitive aging, but the optimal combination of micronutrients and molecular and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of eight distinct diets, consisting of various concentrations of selected micronutrients, on learning and memory as well as markers of neuronal plasticity, and metabolic and neuro-immune status of the aged hippocampus. Eighteen-month-old male and female C57BL/6J mice were fed the diets for 16 weeks, followed by learning and memory trials on the active avoidance task. Number of immature neurons were measured by immunohistochemical detection of doublecortin (DCX(+)) in the granule layer of the dentate gyrus. Amount of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and gene expression of molecular markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (Ppargc1α, Sirt1, Tfam), and neuroinflammation (IL-10, Alox15, Ptgs2, IL-1β, IL-6 and Tnf) were assessed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) of hippocampal samples. Tissue levels of selected micronutrients and a number of metabolites were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The diet supplemented with RRR d-alpha tocopheryl acetate, citicholine, 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, quercetin and the n-3 fatty acid phosphatidylserine-docosahexaenoic acid, improved performance on the active avoidance learning and memory task compared to all the other less-complex diets. This diet also increased IL-10 expression and attenuated the age-related change in mtDNA content in the hippocampus without affecting metabolite levels. Results suggest cognitive benefits of wholesome diets are partially mediated through combined antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of optimized mixtures of micronutrients.

  18. Somatic, Endurance Performance and Heart Rate Variability Profiles of Professional Soccer Players Grouped According to Age

    PubMed Central

    Botek, Michal; McKune, Andrew J.; Klimešová, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study compared somatic, endurance performance determinants and heart rate variability (HRV) profiles of professional soccer players divided into different age groups: GI (17–19.9 years; n = 23), GII (20–24.9 years; n = 45), GIII (25–29.9 years; n = 30), and GIV (30–39 years; n = 26). Players underwent somatic and HRV assessment and maximal exercise testing. HRV was analyzed by spectral analysis of HRV, and high (HF) and low (LF) frequency power was transformed by a natural logarithm (Ln). Players in GIV (83 ± 7 kg) were heavier (p < 0.05) compared to both GI (73 ± 6 kg), and GII (78 ± 6 kg). Significantly lower maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, ml•kg-1•min-1) was observed for GIV (56.6 ± 3.8) compared to GI (59.6 ± 3.9), GII (59.4 ± 4.2) and GIV (59.7 ± 4.1). All agegroups, except for GII, demonstrated comparable relative maximal power output (Pmax). For supine HRV, significantly lower Ln HF (ms2) was identified in both GIII (7.1 ± 0.8) and GIV (6.9 ± 1.0) compared to GI (7.9 ± 0.6) and GII (7.7 ± 0.9). In conclusion, soccer players aged >25 years showed negligible differences in Pmax unlike the age group differences demonstrated in VO2max. A shift towards relative sympathetic dominance, particularly due to reduced vagal activity, was apparent after approximately 8 years of competing at the professional level. PMID:28031758

  19. Age-related changes in cardiovascular performance in mitral regurgitation: analysis of 61 patients.

    PubMed

    Clancy, K F; Iskandrian, A S; Hakki, A H; Nestico, P; DePace, N L

    1985-03-01

    This study examines the cardiovascular performance in relation to age in 61 patients with moderate or severe chronic mitral regurgitation (MR). Coronary artery disease (CAD) (50% or more diameter narrowing of one or more major coronary arteries) was present in 20 patients (33%). Patients less than 60 years (n = 33) had lower pulmonary artery pressure, systolic arterial pressure, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure, and pulmonary artery wedge pressure than the patients greater than or equal to 60 years (n = 28) (p less than 0.05). In the 41 patients without associated CAD, the LV end-diastolic pressure and systemic arterial pressure were higher in patients greater than or equal to 60 years (n = 14) than patients less than 60 years (n = 27) (p less than 0.05). The LV end-diastolic pressure showed an age-related increase in the presence or absence of CAD. Thus, older patients with MR have higher LV end-diastolic pressure, probably because of an increase in myocardial stiffness.

  20. Influence of sludge age on the performance of MFC treating winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eduardo D; Fernandez-Marchante, Carmen Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Cañizares, Pablo; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael; Rodrigo, Manuel Andrés

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of sludge age on microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance for generating electricity and removing organic matter from winery wastewater. Six Solid Retention Times (SRT) were used: 1.2, 1.4, 1.8, 2.3, 3.5 and 7.0 d. Results demonstrate that the electricity generation increases by decreasing the SRT, selecting electrogenic microorganisms, once the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) increased and the competition for substrate was reduced. Decreasing the SRT, coulombic efficiency can be increased from 3.4% to almost 42.2% and maximum power density from 58 to 890 mW m(-2). However the SRT did not influence on organic matter removal in biological treatment, because only a small part of COD was removed oscillating around 600 mg L(-1) d(-1)and it was very similar at all SRT studied.

  1. Spatial learning and psychomotor performance of C57BL/6 mice: age sensitivity and reliability of individual differences.

    PubMed

    de Fiebre, Nancyellen C; Sumien, Nathalie; Forster, Michael J; de Fiebre, Christopher M

    2006-09-01

    Two tests often used in aging research, the elevated path test and the Morris water maze test, were examined for their application to the study of brain aging in a large sample of C57BL/6JNia mice. Specifically, these studies assessed: (1) sensitivity to age and the degree of interrelatedness among different behavioral measures derived from these tests, (2) the effect of age on variation in the measurements, and (3) the reliability of individual differences in performance on the tests. Both tests detected age-related deficits in group performance that occurred independently of each other. However, analysis of data obtained on the Morris water maze test revealed three relatively independent components of cognitive performance. Performance in initial acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris maze was not highly correlated with performance during reversal learning (when mice were required to learn a new spatial location), whereas performance in both of those phases was independent of spatial performance assessed during a single probe trial administered at the end of acquisition training. Moreover, impaired performance during initial acquisition could be detected at an earlier age than impairments in reversal learning. There were modest but significant age-related increases in the variance of both elevated path test scores and in several measures of learning in the Morris maze test. Analysis of test scores of mice across repeated testing sessions confirmed reliability of the measurements obtained for cognitive and psychomotor function. Power calculations confirmed that there are sufficiently large age-related differences in elevated path test performance, relative to within age variability, to render this test useful for studies into the ability of an intervention to prevent or reverse age-related deficits in psychomotor performance. Power calculations indicated a need for larger sample sizes for detection of intervention effects on cognitive components of the

  2. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes-Filho, Jose A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-15

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 {mu}g/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 {mu}g/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 {mu}g/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; {beta} coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's ({beta}=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  3. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  4. Storage and Aging Effects on Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Ion Exchange Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Arm, Stuart T.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Steele, Marilyn J.; Thomas, Kathie K.

    2007-09-10

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the alternate Cs ion exchanger, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), for use in the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP).( ) Previous test activities with spherical RF indicate that it has adequate capacity, selectivity, and kinetics to perform in the plant according to the flowsheet needs. It appears to have better elution and hydraulic properties than the existing alternatives: ground-gel RF and SuperLig® 644 (SL 644).( ) To date, the spherical RF performance testing has been conducted on freshly manufactured resin (within ~2 months of manufacture). The ion exchange resins will be manufactured and shipped to the WTP up to 1 year before being used in the plant. Changes in the resin properties during storage could reduce the capacity of the resin to remove Cs from low-activity waste solutions. Active sites on organic SL-644 resin have been shown to degrade during storage (Arm et al. 2004). Additional testing was needed to study the effects of storage conditions and aging on spherical RF ion exchange performance. Variables that could have a significant impact on ion exchange resins during storage include storage temperature, medium, and time. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to test the effects of various storage conditions on spherical RF resin. Data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to provide direction for suitable storage conditions and manage the spherical RF resin stock. Storage test conditions included wet and dry resin configurations under nitrogen at three temperatures. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan( ) TSS A-219 to evaluate the impact of storage conditions on RF resin performance. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL

  5. College Students' Perceptions of Job Demands, Recommended Retirement Ages, and Age of Optimal Performance in Selected Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panek, Paul E.; Staats, Sara; Hiles, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    Two studies were conducted. In study one 100 participants rated 60 occupations on the amount of cognitive/intellectual, physical, sensory-perceptual, and perceptual-motor demands they perceived as required for successful performance in that particular occupation. Results of a cluster analysis determined four clusters of occupations on the basis of…

  6. Letting the poor speak.

    PubMed

    2000-09-29

    This paper comments on two documents prepared by the Washington-based World Bank: the "World Development Report" and the three-volume study "Voices of the Poor." The author provides a brief overview of these documents then examines their potential impact on the delegates to the annual meetings of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund in Prague on September 19-28, 2000. The author further examines the implication of the new strategies embraced by the global lenders--"opportunity, empowerment, security." Apart from these strategies, the World Bank sets out other strategies like spreading the benefits of technology, as it calls for the elimination of absolute poverty by 2015. However, the most crucial tack is the one illustrated by the way the reports were made: letting the poor speak and responding to their cries.

  7. Neuropsychological Performance in Polyconsumer Men Under Treatment. Influence of Age of Onset of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Benaiges, Irina; Adan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognition is a key factor in the development and maintenance of Substance Use Disorders (SUD). However, there are still several aspects that need to be studied in this area. In this study, we elucidate the influence of age of onset of substance use (OSU) on the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as to explore the influence of years of education, duration of drug use and premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) on the cognitive results obtained. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was used to assess different cognitive domains in 80 male polyconsumers, 41 with earlier OSU (16 years or before: OSU ≤ 16) and 39 with later OSU (17 years or later: OSU ≥ 17). The patients were under treatment with at least 4 months of abstinence confirmed by urinalysis. The OSU ≤ 16 group presented a worse clinical state, as well as a lower premorbid IQ and worse performance in processing speed, visual perception and planning skills. The duration of drug use may account for the differences in planning and processing speed. In this work we discuss the premorbid or acquired nature of the cognitive deficits found. PMID:26155725

  8. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population.

  9. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables.

  10. Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko; Häkkinen, Arja; Karavirta, Laura; Nyman, Kai; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Avela, Janne; Korhonen, Janne; Knuutila, Veli-Pekka; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of twice weekly total body strength training (ST), endurance cycling (ET), and combined ST and ET (2+2 times a week) (SET) training on the load carrying walking test performance on the treadmill (TM) and changes in neuromuscular and endurance performance during a 21-week training period in aging men. Forty healthy men (54.8+/-8.0 years) were divided into 3 training groups (ET n=9, ST n=11, SET n=11) and a control group (C, n=9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured before and after a 21-week training program using a graded TM and maximal incremental bicycle ergometer (BE) tests. Isometric forces, vertical jump, and electromyographic activity of leg extensor and/or forearm flexor (F) muscles were measured before and after training and the TM tests. Increases of 20-21% in strength and of 7-12% in cycling BE VO2peak occurred in the training groups, whereas the changes of C remained minor. VO2peak was associated, both before and after training, with TM exercise time in all groups (from r=0.65, p=0.030 to r=0.93, p<0.001). Only SET showed a significant training-induced increase (p=0.011) in exercise time of the TM walking with no significant increase in TM VO2peak. The present data suggest that in older men ET and SET induced specific increases in BE VO2peak and ST and SET in strength. However, only SET increased walking exercise time indicating improved load carrying walking performance because of large individual differences in the magnitude of the development of either strength or endurance capacities.

  11. Influence of age and sex on line bisection: a study of normal performance with implications for visuospatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Varnava, Alice; Halligan, Peter W

    2007-11-01

    Line bisection is an established clinical task used to diagnose visuospatial neglect. To date, few studies have considered the extent to which age and sex as background variables contribute to bisection performance. Both variables affect the neural substrates underlying cognitive processes and hence the behavioural performance of bisection. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age and sex on normal bisection performance, using three different line lengths to elucidate the influence of these potential contributing factors. Seventy men and 70 women, divided equally into seven age-cohorts between 14 and 80 years, bisected lines. Results indicated clear age- and sex-related differences both in the magnitude and direction of bisection deviations across the three line lengths. Differences are discussed in terms of neural changes across the adult lifespan including hemispheric differences and hormonally mediated changes.

  12. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  13. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  14. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Filho, José A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives We investigated these children’s and caregivers’ cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results Children’s mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 µg/L (2.7 – 23.4) and 5.83 µg/g (0.1 −86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 µg/g (0.10 – 77.45) and correlated to children’s MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children’s MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; β coefficients for MnH were −5.78 (95% CI −10.71 to −0.21) and −6.72 (−11.81 to −0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven’s (β = −2.69, 95% CI −5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver’s IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children’s cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure. PMID:20943219

  15. How Strong and Weak Readers Perform on the Developmental Eye Movement Test (DEM): Norms for Latvian School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serdjukova, Jelena; Ekimane, Lasma; Valeinis, Janis; Skilters, Jurgis; Krumina, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to determine DEM test performance norms for school-aged children in Latvia, assess how DEM test results correlate with children's reading rates, compare test performance between strong and weak readers. A modified DEM test and a newly developed reading test were administered to 1487 children during a screening survey. Our…

  16. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders.

  17. The Use of Bayesian Latent Class Cluster Models to Classify Patterns of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Pedro; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study is to illustrate the applicability of latent class analysis in the assessment of cognitive performance profiles during ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect main cognitive dimensions (based on the neurocognitive test variables) and Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) models (without constraints) were used to explore patterns of cognitive performance among community-dwelling older individuals. Gender, age and number of school years were explored as variables. Three cognitive dimensions were identified: general cognition (MMSE), memory (MEM) and executive (EXEC) function. Based on these, three latent classes of cognitive performance profiles (LC1 to LC3) were identified among the older adults. These classes corresponded to stronger to weaker performance patterns (LC1>LC2>LC3) across all dimensions; each latent class denoted the same hierarchy in the proportion of males, age and number of school years. Bayesian LCA provided a powerful tool to explore cognitive typologies among healthy cognitive agers. PMID:23977183

  18. Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) ameliorates age-related deficits in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kougias, Daniel G; Hankosky, Emily R; Gulley, Joshua M; Juraska, Janice M

    2017-03-01

    Beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) is commonly supplemented to maintain muscle in elderly and clinical populations and has potential as a nootropic. Previously, we have shown that in both male and female rats, long-term HMB supplementation prevents age-related dendritic shrinkage within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and improves cognitive flexibility and working memory performance that are both age- and sex-specific. In this study, we further explore the cognitive effects by assessing visuospatial learning and memory with the Morris water maze. Female rats were ovariectomized at 11months of age to model human menopause. At 12months of age, male and female rats received relatively short- or long-term (1- or 7-month) dietary HMB (450mg/kg/dose) supplementation twice a day prior to testing. Spatial reference learning and memory was assessed across four days in the water maze with four trials daily and a probe trial on the last day. Consistent with previous work, there were age-related deficits in water maze performance in both sexes. However, these deficits were ameliorated in HMB-treated males during training and in both sexes during probe trial performance. Thus, HMB supplementation prevented the age-related decrement in water maze performance, especially in male rats.

  19. Aging model for solid lubricants used in weapon stronglinks: tribological performance and hardware review

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Peebles, D.E.; Sorroche, E.H.; Varga, K.S.; Bryan, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    The solid lubricant used most extensively in strong links throughout the enduring stockpile contains MoS{sub 2}, which is known to react with oxygen and water vapor resulting in a change in the material`s friction and wear behavior. The authors have examined the frictional behavior of this lubricant as a function of oxidation, in support of efforts to quantify the impact of changes in the material on the dynamic behavior of the MC2969 strong link. Their results show that the friction response of oxidized lubricant is strongly influenced by the amount of burnishing performed on the lubricant after deposition. Low levels of burnish leave a thick film, of which only the near surface degrades during oxidation. Rapid wear of the oxidized material leaves a surface whose properties are the same as non-oxidized material. Higher levels of burnish leave a thinner film of lubricant such that the entire film may be oxidized. The friction coefficient on this surface reaches a steady state value greater than that of non oxidized material. In addition to these fundamental differences in steady state behavior, they have shown that the initial friction coefficient on oxidized surfaces is related to the amount of sulfide converted to sulfate, regardless of the oxidation conditions used. Measurements on parts returned from the stockpile show that the friction behavior of aged hardware is consistent with the behavior observed on controlled substrates containing thin lubricant films.

  20. Effect of aging on EPR cable electrical performance during LOCA simulations. [Ethylene propylene rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    When exposed to a LOCA environment, some ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials experience substantial moisture absorption and dimensional changes. These phenomena may contribute to mechanical damage of the cable insulation resulting in electrical degradation. Recent experiments illustrate that the extent of moisture absorption and dimensional changes during an accident simulation are dependent on the EPR product, the accelerated age, and the aging technique employed to achieve that age. Results for several commercial EPR materials are summarized.

  1. Outside of the laboratory: Associations of working-memory performance with psychological and physiological arousal vary with age.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Klipker, Kathrin; Müller, Viktor; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G

    2014-03-01

    We investigated age differences in associations among self-reported experiences of tense and energetic arousal, physiological activation indicated by heart rate, and working-memory performance in everyday life. The sample comprised 92 participants aged 14-83 years. Data were collected for 24 hr while participants pursued their normal daily routines. Participants wore an ambulatory biomonitoring system that recorded their cardiac and physical activity. Using mobile phones as assessment devices, they also provided an average of 7 assessments of their momentary experiences of tense arousal (feeling nervous) and energetic arousal (feeling wide-awake) and completed 2 trials of a well-practiced working-memory task. Experiences of higher energetic arousal were associated with higher heart rate in participants younger than 50 years of age but not in participants older than that, and energetic arousal was unrelated to within-person fluctuations in working-memory performance. Experiences of tense arousal were associated with higher heart rate independent of participants' age. Tense arousal and physiological activation were accompanied by momentary impairments in working-memory performance in middle-aged and older adults but not in younger individuals. Results suggest that psychological arousal experiences are associated with lower working-memory performance in middle-aged and older adults when they are accompanied by increased physiological activation and that the same is true for physiological activation deriving from other influences. Hence, age differences in cognitive performance may be exaggerated when the assessment situation itself elicits tense arousal or occurs in situations with higher physiological arousal arising from affective experiences, physical activity, or circadian rhythms.

  2. Age differences in short-term memory binding are related to working memory performance across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fandakova, Yana; Sander, Myriam C; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2014-03-01

    Memory performance increases during childhood and adolescence, and decreases in old age. Among younger adults, better ability to bind items to the context in which they were experienced is associated with higher working memory performance (Oberauer, 2005). Here, we examined the extent to which age differences in binding contribute to life span age differences in short-term memory (STM). Younger children (N = 85; 10 to 12 years), teenagers (N = 41; 13 to 15 years), younger adults (N = 84; 20 to 25 years), and older adults (N = 86; 70 to 75 years) worked on global and local short-term recognition tasks that are assumed to measure item and item-context memory, respectively. Structural equation models showed that item-context bindings are functioning less well in children and older adults compared with younger adults and teenagers. This result suggests protracted development of the ability to form and recollect detailed short-term memories, and decline of this ability in aging. Across all age groups, better item-context binding was associated with higher working memory performance, indicating that developmental differences in binding mechanisms are closely related to working memory development in childhood and old age.

  3. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  4. Age differences in behavioral and neural correlates of proactive interference: Disentangling the role of overall working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Sandra V; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2016-02-15

    Reliable performance in working memory (WM) critically depends on the ability to resist proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant WM contents. Both WM performance and PI susceptibility are subject to cognitive decline at older adult age. However, the behavioral and neural processes underlying these co-evolving developmental changes and their potential interdependencies are not yet understood. Here, we investigated PI using a recent-probes WM paradigm and functional MRI in a cross-sectional sample of younger (n=18, 10 female, 23.4 ± 2.7 years) and older adults (n=18, 10 female, 70.2 ± 2.7 years). As expected, older adults showed lower WM performance and higher PI susceptibility than younger adults. Resolution of PI activated a mainly bilateral frontal network across all participants. Significant interactions with age indicated reduced neural activation in older adults for PI resolution. A second analysis in a selection of younger and older adults (n=12 each) with matched WM performance also revealed significant differences in PI between both age groups and - on a descriptive level - again a hypo-activation of the older adults' PI network. But the differential effect of age on the neural PI effects did not reach significance in this smaller sample most likely to the reduced statistical power. However, given the highly similar patterns in both the overall and the WM-matched samples, we propose that the hypo-activation of the PI network in the older adults may not be attributable to age-related differences in overall WM performance, hence suggesting that higher PI susceptibility in older adult age does not directly depend on their lower WM performance.

  5. Improving tribological performance of gray cast iron by laser peening in dynamic strain aging temperature regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xu; Zhou, Jianzhong; Mei, Yufen; Huang, Shu; Sheng, Jie; Zhu, Weili

    2015-09-01

    A high and stable brake disc friction coefficient is needed for automobile safety, while the coefficient degrades due to elevated temperature during the braking process. There is no better solution except changes in material composition and shape design optimization. In the dynamic strain aging(DSA) temperature regime of gray cast iron, micro-dimples with different dimple depth over diameter and surface area density are fabricated on the material surface by laser peening(LP) which is an LST method. Friction behavior and wear mechanism are investigated to evaluate the effects of surface texturing on the tribological performance of specimens under dry conditions. Through LP impacts assisted by DSA, the friction coefficients of the LPed specimens increase noticeably both at room temperature and elevated temperature in comparison to untreated specimens. Moreover, the coefficient of specimen with dimple depth over diameter of 0.03 and surface area density of 30% is up to 0.351 at room temperature, which dramatically rises up to 1.33 times that of untextured specimen and the value is still up to 0.3305 at 400°C with an increasing ratio of 35% compared to that of untreated specimen. The surface of textured specimen shows better wear resistance compared to untreated specimen. Wear mechanism includes adhesive wear, abrasive wear and oxidation wear. It is demonstrated that LP assisted by DSA can substantially improve wear resistance, raise the friction coefficient as well as its stability of gray cast iron under elevated temperatures. Heat fade and premature wear can be effectively relieved by this surface modification method.

  6. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  7. Contrasting Effects of Starting Age and Input on the Oral Performance of Foreign Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of starting age and input on foreign language learning. In relation to starting age, the study investigates whether early starters in instructional settings achieve the same kind of long-term advantage as learners in naturalistic settings and it complements previous research by using data from oral…

  8. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  9. Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance…

  10. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  11. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  12. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  13. Katharine Drexel: Learning to Love the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Although born into privilege, Katharine Drexel was blessed with parents, siblings, friends, and spiritual guides who kept her rooted in a deep, Eucharistic faith. Responding to the needs of the poor was a responsibility of the rich, and Katharine learned this value at the hands of her parents at an early age. With the good counsel of popes and…

  14. The influence of maternal age and mating frequency on egg size and offspring performance in Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fox, Charles W

    1993-10-01

    Maternal age influences offspring quality of many species of insects. This observed maternal age influence on offspring performance may be mediated through maternal age effects on egg size, which in turn may be directly influenced by the female's nutritional state. Thus, behaviors that influence a female's nutritional status will indirectly influence egg size, and possibly offspring life histories. Because males provide nutrients to females in their ejaculate, female mating frequency is one behavior which may influence her nutritional status, and thus the size of her eggs and the performance of her offspring. In this paper, I first quantify the influences of maternal age on egg size and offspring performance of the bruchid beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. I then examine whether nutrients transferred during copulation reduce the magnitude of maternal age effects on egg size and larval performance when mothers are nutrient-stressed. Egg size and egg hatchability decreased, and development time increased, with increasing maternal age. Multiple mating and adult feeding by females both resulted in increased egg size. This increase in egg size of females mated multiply did not translate into reduced development time or increased body size and egg hatchability, but did correlate with improved survivorship of offspring produced by old mothers. Thus, it appears that because the influence of mating frequency on egg size is small relative to the influence of maternal age, the influence of nutrients derived from multiple mating on offspring life history is almost undetectable (detected only as a small influence on survivorship). For C. maculatus, female multiple mating has been demonstrated to increase adult female survivorship (Fox 1993a), egg production (Credland and Wright 1989; Fox 1993a), egg size, and larval survivorship, but, contrary to the suggestion of Wasserman and Asami (1985), multiple mating had no detectable influence on offspring development time or body size.

  15. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader language skills. PCs displayed weakness relative to TDs on all three morphosyntax tasks and on every other assessment of oral language except phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition. These findings help to clarify the linguistic profile of PCs, suggesting that their language weaknesses include grammatical weaknesses that cannot be fully explained by semantic factors. Because finiteness markers are usually mastered prior to formal schooling in typical development, we call for future studies to examine whether assessments of morphosyntax could be used for the early identification of children at risk for future reading comprehension difficulty. PMID:27397969

  16. Longitudinal study of performance on the Ruff Figural Fluency Test in persons aged 35 years or older.

    PubMed

    van Eersel, Marlise E A; Joosten, Hanneke; Koerts, Janneke; Gansevoort, Ron T; Slaets, Joris P J; Izaks, Gerbrand J

    2015-01-01

    The Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT) is a cognitive test to measure executive function. Longitudinal studies have shown that repeated testing improves performance on the RFFT. Such a practice effect may hinder the interpretation of test results in a clinical setting. Therefore, we investigated the longitudinal performance on the RFFT in persons aged 35-82 years. Performance on the RFFT was measured three times over an average follow-up period of six years in 2,515 participants of the Prevention of REnal and Vascular ENd-stage Disease (PREVEND) study in Groningen, the Netherlands: 53% men; mean age (SD), 53 (10) years. The effect of consecutive measurements on performance on the RFFT was investigated with linear multilevel regression models that also included age, gender, educational level and the interaction term consecutive measurement number x age as independent variables. It was found that the mean (SD) number of unique designs on the RFFT increased from 73 (26) at the first measurement to 79 (27) at the second measurement and to 83 (26) at the third measurement (p<0.001). However, the increase per consecutive measurement number was negatively associated with age and decreased with 0.23 per one-year increment of age (p<0.001). The increase per consecutive measurement number was not dependent on educational level. Similar results were found for the median (IQR) number of perseverative errors which showed a small but statistically significant increase with repeating testing: 7 (3-13) at the first measurement, 7 (4-14) at the second measurement and 8 (4-15) at the third measurement (p trend = 0.002). In conclusion, the performance on the RFFT improved by repeating the test over an average follow-up period of three to six years. This practice effect was the largest in young adults and not dependent on educational level.

  17. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants’ cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants’ cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation. PMID:27649296

  18. Influence of Age on Alertness and Performance During 3-Day Cross North-Atlantic Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    Morrow DG , Yesavage JA , Leirer VO , Tinklenberg J. (1993) The influence of aging and practice on piloting tasks. Exp Aging Res, 19:53-70. 10...Taylor JL, Yesavage JA , Morrow DG , Dolhert N, Brooks, JO, Poon LW. (1994) The effects of information load and speech rate on younger and older...aircraft pilots’ ability to execute simulated air-traffic controller instructions. J Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 49:191-200. 11. Yesavage JA

  19. Severity of spatial learning impairment in aging: Development of a learning index for performance in the Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Michela; Burwell, Rebecca; Burchinal, Margaret

    2015-08-01

    The Morris water maze task was originally designed to assess the rat's ability to learn to navigate to a specific location in a relatively large spatial environment. This article describes new measures that provide information about the spatial distribution of the rat's search during both training and probe trial performance. The basic new measure optimizes the use of computer tracking to identify the rat's position with respect to the target location. This proximity measure was found to be highly sensitive to age-related impairment in an assessment of young and aged male Long-Evans rats. Also described is the development of a learning index that provides a continuous, graded measure of the severity of age-related impairment in the task. An index of this type should be useful in correlational analyses with other neurobiological or behavioral measures for the study of individual differences in functional/biological decline in aging.

  20. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment.

  1. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  2. Comparison of Physical Fitness Performance between Elementary-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the possible differences of the physical fitness performance of elementary-aged students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little research has been produced in the area of youth with ADHD and motor development; this research paper further investigates the effects of…

  3. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  4. Evaluating Elementary-Aged Students' Abilities to Generalize and Maintain Fluency Gains of a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hier, Bridget O.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined…

  5. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  6. Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance - the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, and ultra-swimming, but not in ultra-cycling. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra-cycling performance in the 720-km ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, the largest European qualifier for the ‘Race Across America’. Methods Changes in the cycling speed and age of 985 finishers including 38 women and 947 men competing in the Swiss Cycling Marathon from 2001 to 2012 covering a distance of 720 km with a change of altitude of 4,993 m were analyzed using linear regression. Results The gender difference in performance was 13.6% for the fastest cyclists ever, 13.9% ± 0.5% for the three fastest cyclists ever and 19.1% ± 3.7% for the ten fastest cyclists ever. The gender difference in performance for the annual top three women and men decreased from 35.0% ± 9.5% in 2001 to 20.4% ± 7.7% in 2012 (r2 = 0.72, p = 0.01). The annual top three women improved cycling speed from 20.3 ± 3.1 km h−1 in 2003 to 24.8 ± 2.4 km h−1 in 2012 (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.01). The cycling speed of the annual top three men remained unchanged at 30.2 ± 0.6 km h−1 (p > 0.05). The age of peak performance for the ten fastest finishers ever was 35.9 ± 9.6 years for men and 38.7 ± 7.8 years for women, respectively (p = 0.47). Conclusions The gender difference in ultra-cycling performance decreased over the 2001 to 2012 period in the 720-km Swiss Cycling Marathon for the annual top three cyclists and reached approximately 14%. Both women and men achieved peak performance at the age of approximately 36 to 39 years. Women might close the gender gap in ultra-endurance cycling in longer cycling distances. Future studies need to investigate the gender difference in performance in the Race Across America, the

  7. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age.

  8. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Performance in Subelite Gaelic Football Players From Under Thirteen to Senior Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane

    2016-11-01

    Roe, M and Malone, S. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance in subelite Gaelic football players from under thirteen to senior age groups. J Strength Cond Res 30 (11): 3187-3193, 2016-Gaelic football is indigenous to Ireland and has similar locomotion profiles to soccer and Australian Football. Given the increasing attention on long-term player development, investigations on age-related variation in Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) performance may provide useful information in talent identification, program design, and player monitoring. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate Yo-YoIR1 performance across Gaelic football age groups. Male participants (n = 355) were recruited from division one, Gaelic football teams. Participants were allocated to one of the 7 groups according to respective age groups from under 13 (U13), under 14, under 15 (U15), under 16 (U16), minor, under 21 (U21), to senior age groups. Total Yo-YoIR1 distance (m) increased progressively from U13 (885 ± 347 m) to U16 (1,595 ± 380 m) equating to a rate of change of 180.2%. In comparison to U13, total distance at minor (1,206 ± 327 m) increased by 136.4%. Subsequent increases were observed in U21 (1,585 ± 445 m) and senior players (2,365 ± 489). Minimum (800-880 m) and maximum (2,240-2,280 m) total distances were comparable for U15, U16, and U21 players. Differences in total distance (m) for all age groups were statistically significant when compared to U13 players (p < 0.002). In comparison to U13 players, the magnitude of differences between age groups for total distance was deemed to be large (effect size > 0.8). Similar trends were observed for maximum velocity and estimated V[Combining Dot Above]O2max. The evolution of Yo-YoIR1 performance in Gaelic football players from adolescents to adulthood highlights how maturation may influence sport-related running ability. Changes in Yo-YoIR1 performance should be closely monitored to optimize interventions for

  9. Self-reported chronic pain is associated with physical performance in older people leaving aged care rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Sherrington, Catherine; Ferreira, Manuela L; Tiedemann, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo H; Blyth, Fiona M; Close, Jacqueline CT; Taylor, Morag; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives The impact of pain on the physical performance of patients in aged care rehabilitation is not known. The study sought to assess 1) the prevalence of pain in older people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; 2) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; and 3) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in this population, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study of 420 older people at two inpatient aged care rehabilitation units. Physical performance was assessed using the Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. Pain was assessed with questions about the extent to which participants were troubled by pain, the duration of symptoms, and the impact of chronic pain on everyday activity. Depression and the number of comorbidities were assessed by questionnaire and medical file audit. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results Thirty percent of participants reported chronic pain (pain lasting more than 3 months), and 17% reported that this pain interfered with daily activities to a moderate or greater extent. Chronic pain (P=0.013) and chronic pain affecting daily activities (P<0.001) were associated with a poorer Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. The relationship between chronic pain affecting daily activities and Lower Limb Summary Performance Score remained significant (P=0.001) after adjusting for depression, age, comorbidities, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. This model explained 10% of the variability in physical performance. Conclusion One-third of participants reported chronic pain, and close to one-fifth reported that this pain interfered with daily activities. Chronic pain was associated with impaired physical performance, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for likely confounding factors. PMID:24523583

  10. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  11. Age differences in cognitive performance in later life: relationships to self-reported health and activity life style.

    PubMed

    Hultsch, D F; Hammer, M; Small, B J

    1993-01-01

    The predictive relationships among individual differences in self-reported physical health and activity life style and performance on an array of information processing and intellectual ability measures were examined. A sample of 484 men and women aged 55 to 86 years completed a battery of cognitive tasks measuring verbal processing time, working memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, world knowledge, word recall, and text recall. Hierarchical regression was used to predict performance on these tasks from measures of self-reported physical health, alcohol and tobacco use, and level of participation in everyday activities. The results indicated: (a) individual differences in self-reported health and activity predicted performance on multiple cognitive measures; (b) self-reported health was more predictive of processing resource variables than knowledge-based abilities; (c) interaction effects indicated that participation in cognitively demanding activities was more highly related to performance on some measures for older adults than for middle-aged adults; and (d) age-related differences in performance on multiple measures were attenuated by partialing individual differences in self-reported health and activity.

  12. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  13. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks.

  14. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from five simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by FAA proficiency ratings). We developed a new STEP (Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice) model to: (1) model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the five flights, and (2) examine the effects of selected covariates (age, flight expertise, and three composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intra-individual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with either practice or interval. Results indicate that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real world tasks. PMID:26280383

  15. Effects of the nicotinic agonist varenicline on the performance of tasks of cognition in aged and middle-aged rhesus and pigtail monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Alvin V.; Plagenhoef, Marc; Callahan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Due to the rising costs of drug development especially in the field of neuropsychiatry there is increasing interest in efforts to identify new clinical uses for existing approved drugs (i.e., drug repurposing). Objectives The purpose of this work was to evaluate in animals the smoking cessation agent, varenicline, a partial agonist at α4β2 and full agonist at α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, for its potential as a repurposed drug for disorders of cognition. Methods Oral doses of varenicline ranging from 0.01 to 0.3 mg/kg were evaluated in aged and middle aged monkeys for effects on: working/short term memory in a delayed match to sample (DMTS) task, distractibility in a distractor version of the DMTS (DMTS-D), and cognitive flexibility in a ketamine-impaired reversal learning task. Results In dose-effect studies in the DMTS and DMTS-D tasks, varenicline was not associated with statistically significant effects on performance. However, individualized “optimal doses” were effective when repeated on a separate occasion (i.e., improving DMTS accuracy at long delays and DMTS-D accuracy at short delays by approximately 13.6 and 19.6 percentage points above baseline, respectively). In reversal learning studies, ketamine impaired accuracy and increased perseverative responding, effects that were attenuated by all three doses of varenicline that were evaluated. Conclusions While the effects of varenicline across the different behavioral tasks were modest, these data suggest that varenicline may have potential as a repurposed drug for disorders of cognition associated with aging (e.g., Alzheimer’s disease), as well as those not necessarily associated with advanced age (e.g., schizophrenia). PMID:26612616

  16. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala-lateral entorhinal cortex-DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging.

  17. Performance of repair welds on service-aged 2-1/4Cr-1Mo girth weldments

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Gandy, D.; Findlan, S.

    1997-11-01

    This paper discusses the results of evaluations performed on service-aged piping using both conventional postweld heat treatments and temperbead repair techniques. The two repair weldments were accomplished on two 2-1/4Cr-1Mo pipe girth weldments which were removed from a utility hot reheat piping system in the fall of 1992 after 161,000 h of operation at 1,000 F (538 C). Each repair was performed around one-half of the diameter of a pipe girth weldment, while the remaining half of the girth weldment was left in the service-aged condition. Post-repair metallurgical and mechanical test results indicated that both weld repairs produced improved remaining lives when compared to the service-aged girth weldments. Since the two ex-service weldments that were utilized in weld repairs exhibited different stress rupture strengths to start with, the performance of temper bead and postweld heat-treated (PWHT) repair could not be compared directly. It was clear, however, that life extension periods exceeding 30 yr could be achieved by temperbead repairs, with improved toughness and with no loss of stress rupture ductility, tensile strength, or yield strength. The temperbead repair improved the toughness of the service-aged weldment, while the postweld heat-treated repair lowered the HAZ toughness.

  18. Differences in age of peak marathon performance between mountain and city marathon running - The ‘Jungfrau Marathon’ in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Zingg, Matthias Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2017-02-28

    The age of the best marathon performance has been well investigated for flat city marathon running, but not for mountain marathon running. The aim of this study was to determine the age of the best mountain marathon performance and to compare to results of a flat city marathon. Race times and ages of finishers of a mountain marathon with 1,830 m of altitude change (Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland) and two flat city marathons (Lausanne Marathon and Zurich Marathon, Switzerland) were analysed using linear, non-linear and mixed-effects regression analyses. Race times were slower in the mountain compared to the city marathon. In both the mountain marathon and the city marathons, women and men improved performance and men were faster than women when the fastest per year and all per year were considered. When the fastest runners in 1-year age intervals were considered in the mountain marathon, the fastest man (3:01 h:min) was ~35.6 years and the fastest women (3:28 h:min) ~34.5 years old. When all finishers were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest men (4:59 h:min) were ~29.1 years old and the fastest women (5:16 h:min) were ~25.6 years old. In the city marathons in 1-year age intervals, the fastest man (2:10 h:min) was ~23.7 years old and the fastest woman (2:36 h:min) ~32.2 years old. When all finishers were considered in 1-year age intervals, the fastest men (3:41 h:min) were ~35.0 years old and the fastest women (4:00 h:min) ~33.8 years old. In summary, the age of the fastest women and men was higher in the mountain marathon compared to the city marathons when the fastest runners were considered. However, when all finishers were considered the age of the fastest women and men was lower in the mountain marathon compared to the city marathons.

  19. Effect of postmortem aging on marination performance of broiler breast pectoralis major categorized by color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of postmortem aging on marinade uptake and retention by early-deboned chicken breast fillets with different color lightness. Effects of marination on product yield and muscle shear force were also determined. Early deboned (2 h postmortem) broiler butterflies...

  20. Discrimination Performance in Aging Is Vulnerable to Interference and Dissociable from Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Sacks, Patricia K.; Turner, Sean M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal…

  1. Individual Differences in Spatial Pattern Separation Performance Associated with Healthy Aging in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Shauna M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies have suggested that "pattern separation," the ability to distinguish among similar experiences, is diminished in a subset of aged rats. We extended these findings to the human using a task designed to assess spatial pattern separation behavior (determining at time of test whether pairs of pictures shown during the study were in the…

  2. Influence of amyloid and APOE on cognitive performance in a late middle-aged cohort

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M.; Machulda, Mary M.; Hagen, Clinton E.; Christianson, Teresa J.; Roberts, Rosebud O.; Knopman, David S.; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Lowe, Val J.; Kremers, Walter K.; Jack, Clifford R.; Petersen, Ronald C.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Few studies have examined the effects of amyloid and APOE genotype on cognition among middle-aged individuals. METHODS We included 464 cognitively normal, test-naïve, participants with PiB-PET amyloid imaging, mean age of 62.7 (range 51–71 years), enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging. Participants completed multiple cognitive assessments, including a standard neuropsychological battery and the CogState computerized battery, over 30 months of follow-up. Linear mixed models were used to examine the effects of amyloid and APOE genotype on baseline cognition and cognitive decline. RESULTS Elevated amyloid was not associated with tests of episodic memory, but did predict declines on tests of executive function. APOE genotype was not associated with cognition. Among APOE ε4 non-carriers, higher amyloid was predictive of decline on tests of executive function and on one episodic memory test. DISCUSSION Elevated amyloidosis and APOE genotype does not appear to exert a dramatic influence on cognition in middle-age. PMID:26602629

  3. A Twin Study of Spatial and Non-Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremen, William S.; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Blankfeld, Howard M.; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic…

  4. Age and Function Differences in Shared Task Performance: Walking and Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathleen; Hinton, Virginia A.; Bories, Tamara; Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    Less is known about the effects of normal aging on speech output than other motor actions, because studies of communication integrity have focused on voice production and linguistic parameters rather than speech production characteristics. Studies investigating speech production in older adults have reported increased syllable duration (Slawinski,…

  5. Effects of aging on cerebral oxygenation during working-memory performance: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Anouk; van Beek, Arenda H E A; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kessels, Roy P C

    2012-01-01

    Working memory is sensitive to aging-related decline. Evidence exists that aging is accompanied by a reorganization of the working-memory circuitry, but the underlying neurocognitive mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we examined aging-related changes in prefrontal activation during working-memory performance using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a noninvasive neuroimaging technique. Seventeen healthy young (21-32 years) and 17 healthy older adults (64-81 years) performed a verbal working-memory task (n-back). Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes were registered by two fNIRS channels located over the left and right prefrontal cortex. Increased working-memory load resulted in worse performance compared to the control condition in older adults, but not in young participants. In both young and older adults, prefrontal activation increased with rising working-memory load. Young adults showed slight right-hemispheric dominance at low levels of working-memory load, while no hemispheric differences were apparent in older adults. Analysis of the time-activation curve during the high working-memory load condition revealed a continuous increase of the hemodynamic response in the young. In contrast to that, a quadratic pattern of activation was found in the older participants. Based on these results it could be hypothesized that young adults were better able to keep the prefrontal cortex recruited over a prolonged period of time. To conclude, already at low levels of working-memory load do older adults recruit both hemispheres, possibly in an attempt to compensate for the observed aging-related decline in performance. Also, our study shows that aging effects on the time course of the hemodynamic response must be taken into account in the interpretation of the results of neuroimaging studies that rely on blood oxygen levels, such as fMRI.

  6. Effect of feeding program during rearing and age at first insemination on performances during subsequent reproduction in young rabbit does.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Jorine M; Meijerhof, Ron; Noordhuizen, Jos P T M; Kemp, Bas

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was performed to study the effect of the feeding program and age at first mating on body growth, feed intake, reproductive performance, and culling of rabbit does over three parities, using 155 does of a strain of New Zealand white rabbits. Three treatments were applied. Ad libitum feeding until first insemination at 14.5 wk (AL-14.5) or 17.5 wk of age (AL-17.5), and restrictive feeding from five wk of age until first insemination at 17.5 wk of age (R-17.5). At first insemination, the BW of AL-14.5 and R-17.5 was similar (3 907 vs. 3 791 +/- 46 g, respectively), whereas AL-17.5 does were heavier (4 390 +/- 46 g, P < 0.001). During reproduction, performance of AL-17.5 was not improved compared to AL-14.5 and R-17.5 does. Al-17.5 does showed a lower feed intake during the first gestation (-25%) and first parity (-10%) than R- 17.5, resulting in weight loss (-6%) during the first gestation and decreased litter weights (-19%) and litter growth (-14%) in the first parity. Extended first mating by three wk (17.5 vs. 14.5 wk) but similar BW at first mating did not affect feed intake and BW development during the first three parities. However, the number of live born kits and weight at first kindling, and litter growth in the first parity were improved in R-17.5 (+23%, +18%, and +14%, respectively). Reproductive performance can be improved by restricted feeding during rearing and extended first insemination to 17.5 wk of age. However, the culling rate was not affected by the rearing strategy.

  7. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Poor Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqi; McCauley, Stephen R.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Barnes, Amanda; Hanten, Gerri; Mendez, Donna; McCarthy, James J.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although most patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover within 3 months, a subgroup of patients experience persistent symptoms. Yet, the prevalence and predictors of persistent dysfunction in patients with mTBI remain poorly understood. In a longitudinal study, we evaluated predictors of symptomatic and cognitive dysfunction in adolescents and young adults with mTBI, compared with two control groups—patients with orthopedic injuries and healthy uninjured individuals. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months post-injury. Poor symptomatic outcome was defined as exhibiting a symptom score higher than 90% of the orthopedic control (OC) group, and poor cognitive outcome was defined as exhibiting cognitive performance poorer than 90% of the OC group. At 3 months post-injury, more than half of the patients with mTBI (52%) exhibited persistently elevated symptoms, and more than a third (36.4%) exhibited poor cognitive outcome. The rate of high symptom report in mTBI was markedly greater than that of typically developing (13%) and OC (17%) groups; the proportion of those with poor cognitive performance in the mTBI group exceeded that of typically developing controls (15.8%), but was similar to that of the OC group (34.9%). Older age at injury, female sex, and acute symptom report were predictors of poor symptomatic outcome at 3 months. Socioeconomic status was the only significant predictor of poor cognitive outcome at 3 months. PMID:25970233

  9. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  10. Poor performance of the determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab combo fourth-generation rapid test for detection of acute infections in a National Household Survey in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Duong, Yen T; Mavengere, Yvonne; Patel, Hetal; Moore, Carole; Manjengwa, Julius; Sibandze, Dumile; Rasberry, Christopher; Mlambo, Charmaine; Li, Zhi; Emel, Lynda; Bock, Naomi; Moore, Jan; Nkambule, Rejoice; Justman, Jessica; Reed, Jason; Bicego, George; Ellenberger, Dennis L; Nkengasong, John N; Parekh, Bharat S

    2014-10-01

    Fourth-generation HIV rapid tests (RTs) claim to detect both p24 antigen (Ag) and HIV antibodies (Ab) for early identification of acute infections, important for targeting prevention and reducing HIV transmission. In a nationally representative household survey in Swaziland, 18,172 adults, age 18 to 49 years, received home-based HIV rapid testing in 2010 and 2011. Of the 18,172 individuals, 5,822 (32.0%) were Ab positive (Ab(+)) by the Determine HIV-1/2 Ab/Ab combo test, and 5,789 (99.4%) of those were confirmed to be reactive in the Uni-Gold test. Determine combo identified 12 individuals as having acute infections (Ag(+)/Ab negative [Ab(-)]); however, none had detectable HIV-1 RNA and 8 of 12 remained HIV negative at their 6-week follow-up visit (4 were lost to follow-up). All RT-nonreactive samples were pooled and tested by nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) to identify acute infections. NAAT identified 13 (0.1%) of the 12,338 HIV antibody-negative specimens as HIV RNA positive, with RNA levels ranging from 300 to >10,000,000 copies/ml. However, none of them were Ag(+) by Determine combo. Follow-up testing of 12 of the 13 NAAT-positive individuals at 6 months demonstrated 12 seroconversions (1 individual was lost to follow-up). Therefore, the Determine combo test had a sensitivity of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0 to 28) and positive predictive value of 0% for the detection of acute infections. The ability of the 4th-generation Determine combo to detect antigen was very poor in Swaziland. Thus, the Determine combo test does not add any value to the current testing algorithm; rather, it adds additional costs and complexity to HIV diagnosis. The detection of acute HIV infections may need to rely on other testing strategies.

  11. Job Performance of Transition-Age Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Wehby, Joseph H.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the job performance of 47 adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders. Significant discrepancies were found between supervisors' ratings of the importance of work behaviors and their ratings of adolescents' performance of the same behaviors. Adolescents' self-evaluations were significantly more favorable than the ratings…

  12. Changes in Motor Strategies across Age Performing a Longswing on the High Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in motor performance and coordination may be impacted by the interaction of practice and organismic constraints. It has been proposed that these aspects of motor learning are achieved at a different time rate: first, during placement of the events (performance), and second, segmental spatiotemporal relationships…

  13. Aging and Intraindividual Variability in Performance: Analyses of Response Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Robertson, Shannon; Hale, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    It has been suggested that older adults are more variable in their performance because they are more prone to lapses of either attention or intention. In the present experiment, 9 young and 9 older adults each performed nearly 2,000 trials of a same-different judgment task. As expected, older adults were slower and more variable than young adults.…

  14. Effects of Music Loudness on Task Performance and Self-Report of College-Aged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the loudness of background music on task performance of college students was studied. Results indicated that the experimental conditions had no significant effect on task performance; the majority of students did recognize the music; and students in the 80-90 B group perceived the music as most distracting. (Author/IS)

  15. Performance and Age of the Fastest Female and Male 100-KM Ultramarathoners Worldwide From 1960 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Nadine; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the change in 100-km running performance and in the age of peak performance for 100-km ultramarathoners. Age and running speed of the annual fastest women and men in all 100-km ultramarathons held worldwide between 1960 and 2012 were analyzed in 148,017 finishes with 18,998 women and 129,019 men using single, multivariate, and nonlinear regressions. Running speed of the annual fastest men increased from 8.67 to 15.65 km.h(-1) and from 8.06 to 13.22 km.h(-1) for the annual fastest women. For the annual 10 fastest men, running speed increased from 10.23 ± 1.22 to 15.05 ± 0.29 km.h(-1) (p < 0.0001) and for the annual 10 fastest women from 7.18 ± 1.54 to 13.03 ± 0.18 km.h(-1) (p < 0.0001). The sex difference decreased from 56.1 to 16.3% for the annual fastest finishers (p < 0.0001) and from 46.7 ± 8.7% to 14.0 ± 1.2% for the annual 10 fastest finishers (p < 0.0001). The age of the annual fastest men increased from 29 to 40 years (p = 0.025). For the annual fastest women, the age remained unchanged at 35.0 ± 9.7 years (p = 0.469). For the annual 10 fastest women and men, the age remained unchanged at 34.9 ± 3.2 (p = 0.902) and 34.5 ± 2.5 years (p = 0.064), respectively. To summarize, 100-km ultramarathoners became faster, the sex difference in performance decreased but the age of the fastest finishers remained unchanged at ∼ 35 years. For athletes and coaches to plan a career as 100-km ultramarathoner, the age of the fastest female and male 100-km ultramarathoners remained unchanged at ∼ 35 years between 1960 and 2012 although the runners improved their performance over time.

  16. Pretreatment Lymphopenia, Poor Performance Status, and Early Courses of Therapy Are Risk Factors for Severe Bacterial Infection in Patients with Multiple Myeloma during Treatment with Bortezomib-based Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, Yundeok

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with severe bacterial infection (SBI) in multiple myeloma (MM) patients during treatment with bortezomib-based regimens. A total of 98 patients with MM were evaluated during 427 treatment courses. SBI occurred in 57.1% (56/98) of the patients and during 19.0% (81/427) of the treatment courses. In the multivariate analysis for the factors associated with the development of SBI in each treatment course, poor performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 2, P < 0.001), early course of therapy (≤ 2 courses, P < 0.001), and pretreatment lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte count < 1.0 × 109/L, P = 0.043) were confirmed as independent risk factors. The probability of developing SBI were 5.1%, 14.9%, 23.9% and 59.5% in courses with 0, 1, 2, and 3 risk factors, respectively (P < 0.001). In conclusion, we identified three pretreatment risk factors associated with SBI in each course of bortezomib treatment. Therefore, MM patients with these risk factors should be more closely monitored for the development of SBI during bortezomib-based treatment. PMID:27051233

  17. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years.

  18. Performance and age of African and non-African runners in World Marathon Majors races 2000-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Aschmann, André; Onywera, Vincent; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2017-05-01

    The age for the fastest marathoners is well investigated, but not the age and nationality of the fastest. We investigated the age of peak marathon performance for the annual top 100 women and men competing in four races of the "World Marathon Majors" (Boston, Berlin, Chicago and New York) and the "Stockholm Marathon" between 2000 and 2014 using mixed-effects regression analyses and one-way ANOVA. Race times of Ethiopian men decreased to 2:14 h:min, but remained unchanged for Kenyan (2:14 h:min), Moroccan (2:15 h:min) and South African (2:18 h:min) men. Race times in Ethiopian (2:34 h:min), Kenyan (2:29 h:min) and South African (2:49 h:min) women showed no changes. Age increased in Ethiopian and South African men to 29.0 ± 5.0 and 32.0 ± 1.0 years, respectively. Age for Kenyan (29.9 ± 2.0 years) and Moroccan (34.9 ± 3.9 years) men remained unchanged. Age remained unchanged for Ethiopian (26.5 ± 2.0 years), Kenyan (30.0 ± 0.8 years) and South African (36.3 ± 7.0 years) women. In summary, Ethiopian men improved marathon race times, but not Ethiopian women. Age increased in Ethiopian men, but not in Ethiopian women. For practical applications, female and male marathoners from Ethiopia were the youngest and the fastest.

  19. Zircon U-Pb Age Distributions in Cogenetic Crystal-Rich Dacitic and Crystal-Poor Rhyolitic Members of Zoned Ignimbrites in the Southern Rocky Mountains by Chemical Abrasion Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (CA-LA-ICP-MS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinski, J.; Zimmerer, M. J.; Guillong, M.; Bachmann, O.; Lipman, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    The San Juan locus of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) in SW Colorado represents an erosional remnant of a mid-Tertiary (~37-23 Ma) ignimbrite flare up that produced some of the most voluminous ignimbrites on Earth. A key feature of many SRMVF ignimbrites is compositional zonation, with many volcanic units comprising both dacitic and rhyolitic horizons. Geochemical, field and petrographic evidence suggests that dacites and rhyolites are cogenetic. Here, we report U-Pb zircon ages by chemical abrasion inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (CA-LA-ICPMS) for rhyolitic and dacitic components in four units: the Bonanza, Rat Creek, Carpenter Ridge and Nelson Mountain Tuffs. All units show zircon age spectra that are either within analytical uncertainty of Ar/Ar ages or are appreciably older, indicating prolonged magma residence times (~500 ka) prior to eruption. Anomalously young Pb-loss zones in zircon have been largely removed by chemical abrasion. Older, inherited zircons and zircon cores (60-2000 Ma) are rare in all samples, suggesting limited assimilation of upper crustal Precambrian country rock or complete resorption during recharge events and magma chamber growth.

  20. Aging and analytical performances evolution of a gas chromatographic system at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, J.-Y.; Szopa, C.; Millan, M.; Coscia, D.; Cabane, M.; Belmahdi, I.; Buch, A.; Dequaire, T.; Coll, P.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

    2015-10-01

    Health data from the gas chromatography (GC) module onboard the SAM instrument [1] will be presented to assess the analytical performances evolution of a GC device in Martian environment through 3 years.

  1. Performance studies under high irradiation and ageing properties of resistive bulk Micromegas chambers at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidiropoulou, O.; Gonzalez, B. Alvarez; Bianco, M.; Farina, E. M.; Iengo, P.; Longo, L.; Pfeiffer, D.; Wotschack, J.

    2017-02-01

    Resistive bulk Micromegas chambers, produced at CERN, have been installed at the new CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF++) in order to study the effects of ageing and to evaluate the detector behaviour under high irradiation. The chambers have an active area of 10×10 cm2, strip pitch of 400 μm and an amplification gap of 128 μm. We present the detector performance as a function of the background rate of up to 20 MHz/cm2.

  2. Who Are the Low-Performing Students? PISA in Focus. No. 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Far too many students around the world are trapped in a vicious cycle of poor performance and demotivation that leads only to more bad marks and further disengagement from school. Students who perform poorly at age 15 face a high risk of dropping out of school altogether. By the time they become young adults, poor proficiency in numeracy and…

  3. Physical Activity, Sleep, and Nutrition Do Not Predict Cognitive Performance in Young and Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gijselaers, Hieronymus J. M.; Elena, Barberà; Kirschner, Paul A.; de Groot, Renate H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Biological lifestyle factors (BLFs) such as physical activity, sleep, and nutrition play a role in cognitive functioning. Research concerning the relation between BLFs and cognitive performance is scarce however, especially in young and middle-aged adults. Research has not yet focused on a multidisciplinary approach with respect to this relation in the abovementioned population, where lifestyle habits are more stable. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of these BLFs to cognitive performance. Path analysis was conducted in an observational study in which 1131 adults were analyzed using a cross-validation approach. Participants provided information on physical activity, sedentary behavior, chronotype, sleep duration, sleep quality, and the consumption of breakfast, fish, and caffeine via a survey. Their cognitive performance was measured using objective digital cognitive tests. Exploration yielded a predictive cohesive model that fitted the data properly, χ2/df = 0.8, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA < 0.001, SRMR = 0.016. Validation of the developed model indicated that the model fitted the data satisfactorily, χ2/df = 2.75, CFI = 0.95, RMSEA < 0.056, SRMR = 0.035. None of the variables within the BLFs were predictive for any of the cognitive performance measures, except for sedentary behavior. Although sedentary behavior was positively predictive for processing speed its contribution was small and unclear. The results indicate that the variables within the BLFs do not predict cognitive performance in young and middle-aged adults. PMID:27199867

  4. Orthographic Processing and Visual Sequential Memory in Unexpectedly Poor Spellers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Virginia M.; Malone, Aisling M.; Redenbach, Holly

    2008-01-01

    Does unexpectedly poor spelling in adults result from inferior visual sequential memory? In one experiment, unexpectedly poor spellers performed significantly worse than better spellers in the immediate reproduction of sequences of visual symbols, but in a second experiment, the effect was not replicated. Poor spellers were also no worse at the…

  5. Color temperature’s impact on task performance and brainwaves of school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Park, YunHee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated color temperature’s impact on task performance. It presents a scientific analysis of brainwave and task performance time changes, and the results of a self-report type survey. [Subjects] Twenty-four elementary school fifth-grade boys and girls with no visual problems participated in the experiment. [Methods] Physiological reaction times of task performance were measured in a laboratory that could fix and maintain color temperature. Brainwave changes and the task performance times were measured, and a self-report questionnaire was conducted in order to measure of emotional reactions. [Results] Regarding the brainwave changes associated with color temperature, alpha waves were emitted in the O2 area when puzzle tasks were illuminated by orange light and low and high beta waves were emitted in the F3 area under white light. Five items (Brilliant, Soft, Lively, Relaxed, Open) were reported predominantly in responses to orange light in the self-report questionnaire. [Conclusion] The results of this study show that relaxation and stability are not assured when the color temperature is low, and that concentration and cognitive activity are not necessarily easier when the color temperature is high. The color temperature change when performing tasks promoted emotional factors more than brainwave, a biological change. PMID:26644662

  6. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  7. AC and lightning performance of fiberglass crossarms aged in 115 kV transmission line

    SciTech Connect

    Grzybowski, S. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Jenkins, E.B. . Generation and Transmission Group)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the electrical performance of 115 kV transmission line fiberglass cross-arm used by Mississippi Power and Light Company. A transmission line fiberglass crossarm removed from service and companion cross-arms outdoors but not in service were examined. The evaluation of electrical performance was based on flashover voltage value at AC voltage and standard lightning impulses as well as under dry and wet conditions. The tests were performed in the Mississippi State University High Voltage Laboratory. The obtained flashover voltages show no large differences in electrical strength of fiberglass crossarms removed from service and those stored outdoors. The Added CFO voltage by fiberglass crossarm to the porcelain suspension insulators is presented versus the length of the fiberglass crossarm for dry and wet conditions.

  8. Different age-dependent performance in Drosophila wild-type Canton-S and the white mutant w1118 flies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Xiao, Chengfeng; Meldrum Robertson, R

    2017-04-01

    Aging has significant effects on the locomotor performance of insects including Drosophila. Using a protocol for the high-throughput analysis of fly locomotion in a circular arena, we examined age-dependent behavioral characteristics in adult flies. There are widely used wild-type and genetically engineered background lines including the Canton-S strain and the w1118 strain, which has a null mutation of the white gene. Under standard rearing conditions, we found similar survival and median lifespans in Canton-S (50days) and w1118 (54days) strains, however, w1118 flies maintained stable body mass for up to 43days, whereas Canton-S flies gained body mass at young age, followed by a gradual decline. We also tested the behavioral performance of young and old flies. Compared with young w1118 flies (5-10days), old w1118 flies (40-45days) had an increased boundary preference during locomotion in small circular arenas, and increased speed of locomotor recovery from anoxia. Old Canton-S files, however, exhibited unchanged boundary preference and reduced recovery speed from anoxia relative to young flies. In addition, old w1118 flies showed decreased path length per minute and reduced 0.2s path increment compared with young flies, whereas old Canton-S flies displayed the same path length per minute and the same 0.2s path increment compared with young flies. We conclude that age-dependent behavioral and physiological changes differ between Canton-S and w1118 flies. These results illustrate that phenotypic differences between strains can change qualitatively, as well as quantitatively, as the animals age.

  9. Predicting plasticity: acute context-dependent changes to vocal performance predict long-term age-dependent changes

    PubMed Central

    James, Logan S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that predict and guide variation in behavioral change can lend insight into mechanisms of motor plasticity and individual differences in behavior. The performance of adult birdsong changes with age in a manner that is similar to rapid context-dependent changes to song. To reveal mechanisms of vocal plasticity, we analyzed the degree to which variation in the direction and magnitude of age-dependent changes to Bengalese finch song could be predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. Using a repeated-measures design, we found that variation in age-dependent changes to the timing, sequencing, and structure of vocal elements (“syllables”) was significantly predicted by variation in context-dependent changes. In particular, the degree to which the duration of intersyllable gaps, syllable sequencing at branch points, and fundamental frequency of syllables within spontaneous [undirected (UD)] songs changed over time was correlated with the degree to which these features changed from UD song to female-directed (FD) song in young-adult finches (FDyoung). As such, the structure of some temporal features of UD songs converged over time onto the structure of FDyoung songs. This convergence suggested that the FDyoung song could serve as a stable target for vocal motor plasticity. Consequently, we analyzed the stability of FD song and found that the temporal structure of FD song changed significantly over time in a manner similar to UD song. Because FD song is considered a state of heightened performance, these data suggest that age-dependent changes could reflect practice-related improvements in vocal motor performance. PMID:26311186

  10. Ewe lambs with higher breeding values for growth achieve higher reproductive performance when mated at age 8 months.

    PubMed

    Nieto, C A Rosales; Ferguson, M B; Macleay, C A; Briegel, J R; Wood, D A; Martin, G B; Thompson, A N

    2013-09-15

    We studied the relationships among growth, body composition and reproductive performance in ewe lambs with known phenotypic values for depth of eye muscle (EMD) and fat (FAT) and Australian Sheep Breeding Values for post-weaning live weight (PWT) and depth of eye muscle (PEMD) and fat (PFAT). To detect estrus, vasectomized rams were placed with 190 Merino ewe lambs when on average they were 157 days old. The vasectomized rams were replaced with entire rams when the ewe lambs were, on average, 226 days old. Lambs were weighed every week and blood was sampled on four occasions for assay of ghrelin, leptin and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Almost 90% of the lambs attained puberty during the experiment, at an average live weight of 41.4 kg and average age of 197 days. Ewe lambs with higher values for EMD (P < 0.001), FAT (P < 0.01), PWT (P < 0.001), PEMD (P < 0.05) and PFAT (P < 0.05) were more likely to achieve puberty by 251 days of age. Thirty-six percent of the lambs conceived and, at the estimated date of conception, the average live weight was 46.9 ± 0.6 kg and average age was 273 days. Fertility, fecundity and reproductive rate were positively related to PWT (P < 0.05) and thus live weight at the start of mating (P < 0.001). Reproductive performance was not correlated with blood concentrations of ghrelin, leptin or ß-hydroxybutyrate. Many ewe lambs attained puberty, as detected by vasectomized rams, but then failed to become pregnant after mating with entire rams. Nevertheless, we can conclude that in ewe lambs mated at 8 months of age, higher breeding values for growth, muscle and fat are positively correlated with reproductive performance, although the effects of breeding values and responses to live weight are highly variable.

  11. [The Influence of the Functioning of Brain Regulatory Systems onto the Voluntary Regulation of Cognitive Performance in Children. Report 2. Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Assessment of Brain Regulatory Functions in Children Aged 10-12 with Learning Difficulties].

    PubMed

    Semenova, O A; Machinskaya, R I

    2015-01-01

    A total number of 172 children aged 10-12 were electrophysiologically and neuropsychologically assessed in order to analyze the influence of the functioning of brain regulatory systems onto the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance during the preteen years. EEG patterns associated with the nonoptimal functioning of brain regulatory systems, particularly fronto-thalamic, limbic and fronto-striatal structures were significantly more often observed in children with learning and behavioral difficulties, as compared to the control group. Neuropsychological assessment showed that the nonoptimal functioning of different brain regulatory systems specifically affect the voluntary regulation of cognitive performance. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-thalamic nonoptimal functioning demonstrated poor voluntary regulation such as impulsiveness and difficulties in continuing the same algorithms. Children with EEG patterns of limbic nonoptimal functioning showed a less pronounced executive dysfunction manifested only in poor switching between program units within a task. Children with EEG patterns of fronto-striatal nonoptimal functioning struggled with such executive dysfunctions as motor and tactile perseverations and emotional-motivational deviations such as poor motivation and communicative skills.

  12. Effects of age on the disruption of cognitive performance by exposure to space radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to low doses of heavy particles and protons can cause deficits in cognitive performance when measured within a short time (1-4 months) following irradiation. The long-term effects of such exposures and their relationship to the short-term effects remain to be established. The present exp...

  13. A Psychobiological Perspective on Working Memory Performance at 8 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Fifty 8-month-old infants participated in a study of the interrelations among cognition, temperament, and electrophysiology. Better performance on a working memory task (assessed using a looking version of the A-not-B task) was associated with increases in frontal-parietal EEG coherence from baseline to task, as well as elevated levels of…

  14. The ac and dc performance of polymeric insulating materials under accelerated aging in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S. ); Cherney, E.A. ); Hackam, R. )

    1988-10-01

    The paper presents the results of the dc performance of polymeric insulating materials in a fog chamber. The materials evaluated in fog produced from low (250 ..mu..S/cm) and high (1000 ..mu..S/cm) conductivity water include cylindrical rod samples of high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber containing various amounts of either alumina trihydrate (ATH) or silica fillers, or both. Comparison is made of material performance obtained with ac which was reported in an earlier study. In both low and high conductivity fog, the time to failure with ac and +dc was very similar, but a reduction by a factor of about four was observed in the time to failure with -dc. For both ac and dc, silicone rubber performed better than EPDM samples in low conductivity fog, while the order of performance was reversed in high conductivity fog. A theoretical model to determine the effect of dry band discharges on material is presented. Good agreement of the predicted behavior of materials with the experimental findings is shown.

  15. Motor Performance of Primary Age Handicapped and Nonhandicapped Children in the Mainstream: A Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherrill, Claudine; Kelly, Luke

    A comparative study was made of mentally retarded and nonhandicapped children in the first through third grades on motor performance as measured by running (50-yard dash), jumping (standing broad jump), and throwing (softball throw for distance). The subjects had received all of their physical education instruction in a mainstream setting since…

  16. Age Differences in the Relationship between Visual Movement Imagery and Performance on Kinesthetic Acuity Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire scores and kinesthetic acuity--the sense of body position and movement--among 10- and 14-year-olds. Found that in the older group, those with high levels of visual movement imagery performed better on measures of kinesthetic acuity; no such effect was found for…

  17. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  18. The Presentation of Self in the Age of Social Media: Distinguishing Performances and Exhibitions Online