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Sample records for age poor performance

  1. The Impact of Perceived Worker Age on Treatment of Experienced and Inexperienced Poor Performers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Farrell, Janet L.; Ross, Cheryl L.

    Although there have been numerous studies of age discrimination in the workplace, little research has addressed the issue of corrective actions taken against poorly performing older workers. This study was conducted to examine the effects of both age and tenure on corrective actions recommended for poor performers. Subjects (N=84) were working age…

  2. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs’ functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers.

  3. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs’ functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers. PMID:27667972

  4. Distinct Aging Effects on Functional Networks in Good and Poor Cognitive Performers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Annie; Tan, Mingzhen; Qiu, Anqi

    2016-01-01

    Brain network hubs are susceptible to normal aging processes and disruptions of their functional connectivity are detrimental to decline in cognitive functions in older adults. However, it remains unclear how the functional connectivity of network hubs cope with cognitive heterogeneity in an aging population. This study utilized cognitive and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, cluster analysis, and graph network analysis to examine age-related alterations in the network hubs' functional connectivity of good and poor cognitive performers. Our results revealed that poor cognitive performers showed age-dependent disruptions in the functional connectivity of the right insula and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), while good cognitive performers showed age-related disruptions in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC. Additionally, the left PCC had age-related declines in the functional connectivity with the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Most interestingly, good cognitive performers showed age-related declines in the functional connectivity of the left insula and PCC with their right homotopic structures. These results may provide insights of neuronal correlates for understanding individual differences in aging. In particular, our study suggests prominent protection roles of the left insula and PCC and bilateral ACC in good performers. PMID:27667972

  5. Poor school performance.

    PubMed

    Karande, Sunil; Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2005-11-01

    Education is one of the most important aspects of human resource development. Poor school performance not only results in the child having a low self-esteem, but also causes significant stress to the parents. There are many reasons for children to under perform at school, such as, medical problems, below average intelligence, specific learning disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, emotional problems, poor socio-cultural home environment, psychiatric disorders and even environmental causes. The information provided by the parents, classroom teacher and school counselor about the child's academic difficulties guides the pediatrician to form an initial diagnosis. However, a multidisciplinary evaluation by an ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, counselor, clinical psychologist, special educator, and child psychiatrist is usually necessary before making the final diagnosis. It is important to find the reason(s) for a child's poor school performance and come up with a treatment plan early so that the child can perform up to full potential. PMID:16391452

  6. The management of poor performance

    PubMed Central

    Mayberry, John F

    2007-01-01

    Identification of poor performance is in an integral part of government policy. The suggested approach for the identification of such problems, advocated by the General Medical Council, is that of appraisal. However, traditionally, there has been a reluctance to deal with poor performers, as all doctors have made mistakes and are usually only too ready to forgive and be non‐critical of colleagues. The problems are widespread, and 6% of the senior hospital workforce in any 5‐year period may have problems. PMID:17308213

  7. [Poor school performance: an updated review].

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Cláudia Machado; Gurgel-Giannetti, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to develop a comprehensive review on the issue of poor school performance for professionals in both health and education areas. It discusses current aspects of education, learning and the main conditions involved in underachievement. It also presents updated data on key aspects of neurobiology, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, comorbidities and diagnosis, early intervention and treatment of the major pathologies comprised. It is a comprehensive, non-systematic literature review on learning, school performance, learning disorders (dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia), attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Poor school performance is a frequent problem faced by our children, causing serious emotional, social and economic issues. An updated view of the subject facilitates clinical reasoning, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:21390464

  8. Age determination of metal-poor halo stars using nucleochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christlieb, N.

    2016-09-01

    I describe the method of nucleochronometry for determining individual ages of stars, and report on results of the application of this method to old, metal-poor stars belonging to the Galactic halo population. I discuss uncertainties and caveats of this age determination method.

  9. Predicting poor physical performance after total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bade, Michael J; Wolfe, Pamela; Zeni, Joseph A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary decision algorithm predicting functional performance outcomes to aid in the decision of when to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred and nineteen patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA were evaluated before and 6 months after TKA. A regression tree analysis using a recursive partitioning function was performed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) time, Six-Minute Walk (6MW) distance, and Stair Climbing Test (SCT) time as measured 6 months after TKA as the primary outcomes. Preoperative measures of functional performance, joint performance, anthropometrics, demographics, and self-reported status were evaluated as predictors of the primary outcomes 6 months after surgery. Individuals taking ≥10.1 s on the TUG and aged 72 years or older before surgery had the poorest performance on the TUG 6 months after surgery. Individuals walking <314 meters on the 6MW before surgery had the poorest performance on the 6MW test 6 months after surgery. Individuals taking ≥17 s to complete the SCT and scoring <40 on the SF-36 mental component score before surgery had the poorest performance on the SCT 6 months after surgery. Poorer performance preoperatively on the 6MW, SCT, and TUG, was related to poorer performance in the same measure after TKA. Age and decreased mental health were secondary predictors of poorer performance at 6 months on the TUG and SCT, respectively. These measures may help further develop models predicting thresholds for poor outcomes after TKA.

  10. Predicting Poor Physical Performance after Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Michael J; Wolfe, Pamela; Zeni, Joseph A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer E.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary decision algorithm predicting functional performance outcomes to aid in the decision of when to undergo total knee arthroplasty (TKA). One hundred nineteen patients undergoing primary unilateral TKA were evaluated before and 6 months after TKA. A regression tree analysis using a recursive partitioning function was performed with the Timed Up and Go (TUG) time, Six-Minute Walk (6MW) distance, and Stair Climbing Test (SCT) time as measured 6 months after TKA as the primary outcomes. Preoperative measures of functional performance, joint performance, anthropometrics, demographics, and self reported status were evaluated as predictors of the primary outcomes 6 months after surgery. Individuals taking ≥ 10.1 seconds on the TUG and aged 72 years or older before surgery had the poorest performance on the TUG 6 months after surgery. Individuals walking < 314 meters on the 6MW before surgery had the poorest performance on the 6MW test 6 months after surgery. Individuals taking ≥ 17 seconds to complete the SCT and scoring < 40 on the SF-36 mental component score before surgery had the poorest performance on the SCT 6 months after surgery. Poorer performance preoperatively on the 6MW, SCT, and TUG, was related to poorer performance in the same measure after TKA. Age and decreased mental health were secondary predictors of poorer performance at 6 months on the TUG and SCT, respectively. These measures may help further develop models predicting thresholds for poor outcomes after TKA. PMID:22539338

  11. Rapamycin Rescues the Poor Developmental Capacity of Aged Porcine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Eun Young; Choi, Hyun Yong; Moon, Jeremiah Jiman; Park, Min Jee; Lee, Jun Beom; Jeong, Chang Jin; Park, Se Pill

    2014-01-01

    Unfertilized oocytes age inevitably after ovulation, which limits their fertilizable life span and embryonic development. Rapamycin affects mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) expression and cytoskeleton reorganization during oocyte meiotic maturation. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of rapamycin treatment on aged porcine oocytes and their in vitro development. Rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes for 24 h (68 h in vitro maturation [IVM]; 44 h+10 μM rapamycin/24 h, 47.52±5.68) or control oocytes (44 h IVM; 42.14±4.40) significantly increased the development rate and total cell number compared with untreated aged oocytes (68 h IVM, 22.04±5.68) (p<0.05). Rapamycin treatment of aged IVM oocytes for 24 h also rescued aberrant spindle organization and chromosomal misalignment, blocked the decrease in the level of phosphorylated-p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and increased the mRNA expression of cytoplasmic maturation factor genes (MOS, BMP15, GDF9, and CCNB1) compared with untreated, 24 h-aged IVM oocytes (p<0.05). Furthermore, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and DNA fragmentation (p<0.05), and downregulated the mRNA expression of mTOR compared with control or untreated aged oocytes. By contrast, rapamycin treatment of aged oocytes increased mitochondrial localization (p<0.05) and upregulated the mRNA expression of autophagy (BECN1, ATG7, MAP1LC3B, ATG12, GABARAP, and GABARAPL1), anti-apoptosis (BCL2L1 and BIRC5; p<0.05), and development (NANOG and SOX2; p<0.05) genes, but it did not affect the mRNA expression of pro-apoptosis genes (FAS and CASP3) compared with the control. This study demonstrates that rapamycin treatment can rescue the poor developmental capacity of aged porcine oocytes. PMID:25049998

  12. Profile of children with poor school performance in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Karande, S; Doshi, B; Thadhani, A; Sholapurwala, R

    2013-04-01

    We report on the etiology of poor school performance (PSP) in children assessed at a learning disability clinic in western India over 12 months. Specific learning disabilities (dyslexia, dysgraphia and dyscalculia) were the commonest cause of PSP (72.76%), followed by borderline intellectual functioning (8.94%), language barrier (8.54%), and mental retardation (4.88%). PMID:23665607

  13. Principals' Informal Methods for Appraising Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yariv, Eliezer

    2009-01-01

    Teacher appraisal is never an easy task, especially of teachers experiencing difficulties and failures. Nevertheless it is a requirement for good management, in our schools no less than our corporations. Forty elementary school principals in Israel described the informal methods they use to appraise teachers who are performing poorly. Most…

  14. Instructor Responses to Poor Student Communication Performance: An Attributional Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiechtner, Susan Brown; Krayer, Karl J.

    A study was conducted (1) to investigate factors that influence an instructor's choice of behavior when confronted with incidents of students' poor communication performance, and (2) to demonstrate how attribution theory can be used as a vehicle for describing and understanding the causes of instructor reactions or behaviors. The study sought to…

  15. Short persistent sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary performance in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Valerie; Touchette, Evelyne; Dionne, Ginette; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R; Montplaisir, Jacques; Vitaro, Frank; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 years. In the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, parents reported their children's nocturnal sleep duration annually from ages 2.5 to 10 years, and children were assessed for receptive vocabulary using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R) at ages 4 and 10 years. Groups with distinct nocturnal sleep duration trajectories were identified and the relationships between sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance were characterized. In all, 1192 children with available sleep duration and PPVT-R data participated in this epidemiological study. We identified four longitudinal nocturnal sleep trajectories: short persistent sleepers (n = 72, 6.0%), short increasing sleepers (n = 47, 3.9%), 10-h sleepers (n = 628, 52.7%) and 11-h sleepers (n = 445, 37.3%). In all, 14.8% of the children showed poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 years. Nocturnal sleep trajectories and poor PPVT-R performance at age 10 were associated significantly (P = 0.003). After adjusting for baseline receptive vocabulary performance at age 4 and other potential confounding variables, logistic regression analyses suggest that, compared to 11-h sleepers, the odds ratio of presenting poor receptive vocabulary at age 10 was 2.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-5.74, P = 0.012] for short persistent sleepers and 1.66 (95% CI: 1.06-2.59, P = 0.026) for 10-h sleepers. These results corroborate previous findings in early childhood, and indicate that short sleep duration is associated with poor receptive vocabulary during middle childhood.

  16. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    PubMed Central

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A. J.; Tayem, Yasin I.; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship. PMID:27226912

  17. Is relatively young age within a school year a risk factor for mental health problems and poor school performance? A population-based cross-sectional study of adolescents in Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Lars; Tambs, Kristian; Oppedal, Brit; Heyerdahl, Sonja; Bjertness, Espen

    2005-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that children who are relatively young within a school year are at greater risk for poorer school performance compared with their older peers. One study also reported that relative age within a school year is an independent risk factor for emotional and behavioral problems. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that relatively younger adolescents in the multiethnic population of Oslo have poorer school performance and more mental health problems than their relatively older classmates within the same school year. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study included all 10th-grade pupils enrolled in 2000 and 2001 in the city of Oslo. The participation rate was 88%. Of the 6,752 pupils in the study sample, 25% had a non-Norwegian background. Mental health problems were quantified using the abbreviated versions of Symptom Check List-25 (SCL-10) and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Information on school performances and mental health problems were self-reported. We controlled for confounding factors including parental educational level, social support, gender, and ethnicity. Results The youngest one-third of pupils had significantly lower average school grades than the middle one-third and oldest one-third of their classmates (p < 0.001). Of the mental health problems identified in the questionnaires, the groups differed only on peer problems; the youngest one-third reported significantly more problems than the middle and oldest groups (p < 0.05). Age within a school year and gender showed significant interactions with total SDQ score, SDQ peer problems score, SDQ pro social score, and SCL-10 score. After stratifying for gender, the peer problem scores differed significantly between age groups only among boys. The SCL-10 score was significant, but only in girls and in the opposite direction to that expected, with the oldest pupils having significantly higher scores than the other two groups

  18. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management §...

  19. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management §...

  20. Diagnosis of a Poorly Performing Liquid Hydrogen Bulk Storage Sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenn, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    There are two 850,000 gallon Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A and the other at Launch Pad B. The LH2 Sphere at Pad B has had a high boiloff rate since being brought into service in the 1960's. The daily commodity loss was estimated to be approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the minimum required by the sphere's specification. Additionally, after being re-painted in the late 1990's a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere which resulted in a poor paint bond, and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of Space Shuttle program service which provided a unique opportunity to diagnose the sphere's poor performance. The sphere was drained and inerted, and then opened from the annular relief device on the top where a series of boroscoping operations were accomplished. Boroscoping revealed a large Perlite insulation void in the region of the sphere where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and off-loaded into the annular void region until the annulus was full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  1. Early Oral Language Markers of Poor Reading Performance in Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Anita M. -Y.; Tardif, Twila; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Fletcher, Paul; Shu, Hua

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which language skills at ages 2 to 4 years could discriminate Hong Kong Chinese poor from adequate readers at age 7. Selected were 41 poor readers (age M = 87.6 months) and 41 adequate readers (age M = 88.3 months). The two groups were matched on age, parents' education levels, and nonverbal intelligence. The…

  2. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant. PMID:21228200

  3. Perineorrhaphy: Commonly performed yet poorly understood; a survey of surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Gregory; Jeppson, Peter C; McGuire, Brenna Lynn; Rogers, Rebecca G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Hypothesis Perineorrhaphy is performed for prevention of recurrent prolapse, improved sexual function, treatment of pain and cosmesis. Its use is based on expert opinion with little objective data. We aimed to describe factors important to surgeons when deciding to perform perineorrhaphy and to describe variations in surgical technique. Methods We administered an anonymous survey to surgeon attendees at the 2014 SGS annual scientific meeting regarding which factors are important when deciding to perform a perineorrhaphy and details of their surgical technique. Surgeons rated the importance of factors; 1-way ANOVA was used to rank the decision factors, post hoc pairwise comparisons with Fisher's least significant difference method were used to evaluate the importance between factors. Results 183/360 surgeon attendees responded. Most were between ages 36-60 (79%), 56% were female, 64% practiced in an academic environment and 64% had undergone subspecialty training. An enlarged genital hiatus (GH) ranked as the most important factor influencing the decision to perform a perineorrhaphy, followed by a concomitant prolapse procedure (p<0.001). Sexual function and cosmesis were rated less important. Decision to perform perineorrhaphy was made with the patient in 65% of cases, and otherwise in the operating room. Significant heterogeneity exists regarding surgeon suture preference and how muscles were re-approximated. Most (81%) reported incorporating structures both proximal and distal to the hymen in their repairs. Conclusion GH size and concomitant prolapse procedures ranked highest in surgeons’ decision to perform a perineorrhaphy. Significant heterogeneity exists in the indications for and technique used to perform perineorrhaphy. PMID:26142348

  4. Diagnosis of a poorly performing liquid hydrogen bulk storage sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Angela Gray

    2012-06-01

    There are two 3,218 cubic meter (850,000 gallon) Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) storage spheres used to support the Space Shuttle Program; one residing at Launch Pad A, the other at Launch Pad B. The Sphere at Pad B had a high boiloff rate when brought into service in the 1960s. In 2001, the daily commodity loss was approximately double that of the Pad A sphere, and well above the maximum allowed by the specification. After being re-painted in the 1990s a "cold spot" appeared on the outer sphere that resulted in poor paint bonding and mold formation. Thermography was used to characterize the area, and the boiloff rate was continually evaluated. All evidence suggested that the high boiloff rate was caused by an excessive heat leak into the inner sphere due to an insulation void in the annulus. Pad B was recently taken out of service, which provided a unique opportunity to perform a series of visual inspections of the insulation. Boroscope examinations revealed a large Perlite void in the region where the cold spot was apparent. Perlite was then trucked in and offloaded into the annular void region until full. The sphere has not yet been brought back into service.

  5. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Developing performance and addressing poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Developing performance and addressing poor performance. 9701.408 Section 9701.408 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  7. Age Differences in Perceptions of Rich and Poor People: Is It Skill or Luck?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2013-01-01

    To gain new perspective on the development of understandings and perceptions of income inequality, this study compared the reactions of six, eight, and 10-year-olds to a rich man and a poor man and the winners and losers of a contest of skill and a game of chance. Age differences in attributions for outcomes reflected a strengthening with age of…

  8. Age Is the Only Predictor of Poor Bowel Preparation in the Hospitalized Patient.

    PubMed

    McNabb-Baltar, Julia; Dorreen, Alastair; Al Dhahab, Hisham; Fein, Michael; Xiong, Xin; O' Byrne, Mike; Ait, Imene; Martel, Myriam; Barkun, Alan N

    2016-01-01

    We examine the impact of key variables on the likelihood of inpatient poor bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Records of inpatients that underwent colonoscopy at our institution between January 2010 and December 2011 were retrospectively extracted. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effect of clinical variables on the odds of poor preparation. Tested predictors included age; gender; use of narcotics; heavy medication burden; comorbidities; history of previous abdominal surgery; neurological disorder; product used for bowel preparation, whether or not the bowel regimen was given as split or standard dose; and time of endoscopy. Overall, 244 patients were assessed including 83 (34.0%, 95% CI: 28.1-39.9%) with poor bowel preparation. Cecal intubation was achieved in 81.1% of patients (95% CI: 76.2-86.0%). When stratified by quality of bowel preparation, cecal intubation was achieved in only 65.9% (95% CI: 60.0-71.9%) of patients with poor bowel preparation and 89.9% (95% CI: 86.1-93.7%) of patient with good bowel preparation. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only advancing age was an independent predictor of poor bowel preparation (OR = 1.026, CI: 1.006 to 1.045, and p = 0.008). Age is the only independent predictor of poor bowel preparation amongst hospitalized patients. PMID:27446828

  9. Poor School Performance: Contributing Factors and Consequences, with Emphasis on the Nonwhite Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwinn, Diane G.

    Research on poor school performance--with emphasis on the nonwhite child--is discussed in terms of differences children bring to school, the school process, and consequences of poor school performance. Individual factors related to poor achievement are noted to include membership in a disadvantaged minority group, broken homes and absent fathers,…

  10. Increased reservoir ages and poorly ventilated deep waters inferred in the glacial Eastern Equatorial Pacific.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Maria; Skinner, Luke; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Cacho, Isabel

    2015-07-03

    Consistent evidence for a poorly ventilated deep Pacific Ocean that could have released its radiocarbon-depleted carbon stock to the atmosphere during the last deglaciation has long been sought. Such evidence remains lacking, in part due to a paucity of surface reservoir age reconstructions required for accurate deep-ocean ventilation age estimates. Here we combine new radiocarbon data from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) with chronostratigraphic calendar age constraints to estimate shallow sub-surface reservoir age variability, and thus provide estimates of deep-ocean ventilation ages. Both shallow- and deep-water ventilation ages drop across the last deglaciation, consistent with similar reconstructions from the South Pacific and Southern Ocean. The observed regional fingerprint linking the Southern Ocean and the EEP is consistent with a dominant southern source for EEP thermocline waters and suggests relatively invariant ocean interior transport pathways but significantly reduced air-sea gas exchange in the glacial southern high latitudes.

  11. Increased reservoir ages and poorly ventilated deep waters inferred in the glacial Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Maria; Skinner, Luke; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Cacho, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Consistent evidence for a poorly ventilated deep Pacific Ocean that could have released its radiocarbon-depleted carbon stock to the atmosphere during the last deglaciation has long been sought. Such evidence remains lacking, in part due to a paucity of surface reservoir age reconstructions required for accurate deep-ocean ventilation age estimates. Here we combine new radiocarbon data from the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) with chronostratigraphic calendar age constraints to estimate shallow sub-surface reservoir age variability, and thus provide estimates of deep-ocean ventilation ages. Both shallow- and deep-water ventilation ages drop across the last deglaciation, consistent with similar reconstructions from the South Pacific and Southern Ocean. The observed regional fingerprint linking the Southern Ocean and the EEP is consistent with a dominant southern source for EEP thermocline waters and suggests relatively invariant ocean interior transport pathways but significantly reduced air–sea gas exchange in the glacial southern high latitudes. PMID:26137976

  12. From approach to inhibition: the influence of power on responses to poor performers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Ormiston, Margaret E; Moon, Henry

    2010-03-01

    This article examines how relative differences in power affect responses to poor performers in organizations. We predicted that higher power individuals would engage in approach-related behaviors, whereas lower power individuals would be inhibited when responding to poor performers. Results from a scenario study and a field study generally supported this prediction, indicating that power was positively related to training or confronting a poor performer and negatively related to compensating for or rejecting a poor performer. A second scenario study investigated the effect of the interaction of power and emotion on individual responses to poor performers. Results showed that the type of emotion expressed moderated the effect of power on inhibition-related responses. We discuss implications for managing poor performers with relative power differences.

  13. From approach to inhibition: the influence of power on responses to poor performers.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amanda J; Ormiston, Margaret E; Moon, Henry

    2010-03-01

    This article examines how relative differences in power affect responses to poor performers in organizations. We predicted that higher power individuals would engage in approach-related behaviors, whereas lower power individuals would be inhibited when responding to poor performers. Results from a scenario study and a field study generally supported this prediction, indicating that power was positively related to training or confronting a poor performer and negatively related to compensating for or rejecting a poor performer. A second scenario study investigated the effect of the interaction of power and emotion on individual responses to poor performers. Results showed that the type of emotion expressed moderated the effect of power on inhibition-related responses. We discuss implications for managing poor performers with relative power differences. PMID:20230071

  14. Halide Perovskites: Poor Man's High-Performance Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-07-01

    Halide perovskites are a rapidly developing class of medium-bandgap semiconductors which, to date, have been popularized on account of their remarkable success in solid-state heterojunction solar cells raising the photovoltaic efficiency to 20% within the last 5 years. As the physical properties of the materials are being explored, it is becoming apparent that the photovoltaic performance of the halide perovskites is just but one aspect of the wealth of opportunities that these compounds offer as high-performance semiconductors. From unique optical and electrical properties stemming from their characteristic electronic structure to highly efficient real-life technological applications, halide perovskites constitute a brand new class of materials with exotic properties awaiting discovery. The nature of halide perovskites from the materials' viewpoint is discussed here, enlisting the most important classes of the compounds and describing their most exciting properties. The topics covered focus on the optical and electrical properties highlighting some of the milestone achievements reported to date but also addressing controversies in the vastly expanding halide perovskite literature. PMID:27174223

  15. Halide Perovskites: Poor Man's High-Performance Semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-07-01

    Halide perovskites are a rapidly developing class of medium-bandgap semiconductors which, to date, have been popularized on account of their remarkable success in solid-state heterojunction solar cells raising the photovoltaic efficiency to 20% within the last 5 years. As the physical properties of the materials are being explored, it is becoming apparent that the photovoltaic performance of the halide perovskites is just but one aspect of the wealth of opportunities that these compounds offer as high-performance semiconductors. From unique optical and electrical properties stemming from their characteristic electronic structure to highly efficient real-life technological applications, halide perovskites constitute a brand new class of materials with exotic properties awaiting discovery. The nature of halide perovskites from the materials' viewpoint is discussed here, enlisting the most important classes of the compounds and describing their most exciting properties. The topics covered focus on the optical and electrical properties highlighting some of the milestone achievements reported to date but also addressing controversies in the vastly expanding halide perovskite literature.

  16. Threshold age and burn size associated with poor outcomes in the elderly after burn injury.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Marc G; Pinto, Ruxandra; Costford, Sheila R; Amini-Nik, Saeid

    2016-03-01

    Elderly burn care represents a vast challenge. The elderly are one of the most susceptible populations to burn injuries, but also one of the fastest growing demographics, indicating a substantial increase in patient numbers in the near future. Despite the need and importance of elderly burn care, survival of elderly burn patients is poor. Additionally, little is known about the responses of elderly patients after burn. One central question that has not been answered is what age defines an elderly patient. The current study was conducted to determine whether there is a cut-off age for elderly burn patients that is correlated with an increased risk for mortality and to determine the burn size in modern burn care that is associated with increased mortality. To answer these questions, we applied appropriate statistical analyses to the Ross Tilley Burn Centre and the Inflammatory and Host Response to Injury databases. We could not find a clear cut-off age that differentiates or predicts between survival and death. Risk of death increased linearly with increasing age. Additionally, we found that the LD50 decreases from 45% total body surface area (TBSA) to 25% TBSA from the age of 55 years to the age of 70 years, indicating that even small burns lead to poor outcome in the elderly. We therefore concluded that age is not an ideal to predictor of burn outcome, but we strongly suggest that burn care providers be aware that if an elderly patient sustains even a 25% TBSA burn, the risk of mortality is 50% despite the implementation of modern protocolized burn care.

  17. Poor Performance in Mathematics: Is There a Basis for a Self-Worth Explanation for Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations in which poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, certain students (known as self-worth protective students) intentionally withdraw effort in order to avoid the negative implications of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. In this study, evidence of…

  18. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p < .05). Gymnasts' performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability.

  19. Poor precompetitive sleep habits, nutrients' deficiencies, inappropriate body composition and athletic performance in elite gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Silva, M-R G; Paiva, T

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate body composition, sleep, precompetitive anxiety and dietary intake on the elite female gymnasts' performance prior to an international competition. Sixty-seven rhythmic gymnasts of high performance level were evaluated in relation to sport and training practice, body composition, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep quality by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), precompetitive anxiety by the Sport Competition Anxiety Test form A (SCAT-A) and detailed dietary intake just before an international competition. Most gymnasts (67.2%) suffered from mild daytime sleepiness, 77.6% presented poor sleep quality and 19.4% presented high levels of precompetitive anxiety. The majority of gymnasts reported low energy availability (EA) and low intakes of important vitamins including folate, vitamins D, E and K; and minerals, including calcium, iron, boron and magnesium (p < .05). Gymnasts' performance was positively correlated with age (p = .001), sport practice (p = .024), number of daily training hours (p = .000), number of hours of training/week (p = .000), waist circumference (WC) (p = .008) and sleep duration (p = .005). However, it was negatively correlated with WC/hip circumference (p = .000), ESS (p = .000), PSQI (p = .042), SCAT-A (p = .002), protein g/kg (p = .028), EA (p = .002) and exercise energy expenditure (p = .000). High performance gymnasts presented poor sleep habits with consequences upon daytime sleepiness, sleep quality and low energy availability. PMID:26505326

  20. Birthdate and Performance: The Relative Age Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, Roger H.

    The purpose of this paper is to consider the concept of "relative age" and to review recent research findings that have demonstrated that relative age is related to a variety of academic and athletic performance measures. The paper is divided into six parts: (1) the relative age concept; (2) relative age and achievement in sports; (3) relative age…

  1. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  2. Reciprocal Teaching Improves Standardized Reading-Comprehension Performance in Poor Comprehenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysynchuk, Linda M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students in fourth and seventh grade who were poor comprehenders were taught prediction, clarification, question generation, and summarization using scaffolding instruction. Performance on a standardized comprehension test improved for the students who received the instruction. (PCB)

  3. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se.

    PubMed

    Tao, M F; Sun, D M; Shao, H F; Li, C B; Teng, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ≥7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems.

  4. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  5. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  6. Confabulation in healthy aging is related to poor encoding and retrieval of over-learned information.

    PubMed

    Attali, Eve; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Normal aging is characterized by deficits that cross multiple cognitive domains including episodic memory and attention. Compared to young adults (YA), older adults (OA) not only show reduction in true memories, but also an increase in false memories. In this study we aim to elucidate how the production of confabulation is influenced by encoding and retrieval processes. We hypothesized that in OA, compared to YA, over-learned information interferes with the recall of specific, unique past episodes and this interference should be more prominent when a concurrent task perturbs the encoding of the episodes to be recalled. We tested this hypothesis using an experimental paradigm in which a group of OA and a group of YA had to recall three different types of story: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy tale (Snow White), and a modified well-known fairy tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf), in three different experimental conditions: (1) free encoding and free retrieval; (2) Divided attention (DA) at encoding and free retrieval; and (3) free encoding and DA at retrieval. Results showed that OA produced significantly more confabulations than YA, particularly, in the recall of the modified fairy tale. Moreover, DA at encoding markedly increased the number of confabulations, whereas DA at retrieval had no effect on confabulation. Our findings reveal the implications of two phenomena in the production of confabulation in normal aging: the effect of poor encoding and the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  7. Perception of Overweight Is Associated with Poor Academic Performance in US Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florin, Todd A.; Shults, Justine; Stettler, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Background: To improve understanding of the mechanisms affecting the relationship between adolescent obesity and poor academic performance, we examined the association of overweight or perceived weight status with academic achievement. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 14-17-year-olds (N = 11,012) from the nationally representative…

  8. CAUSES OF POOR SEALANT PERFORMANCE IN SOIL-GAS- RESISTANT FOUNDATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses causes of poor sealant performance in soil-gas-resistant foundations. ealants for radon-resistant foundation construction must seal the gap between concrete sections. odern sealants have such low permeability that seal performance depends only on the permeabil...

  9. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars: relics from the dark ages

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Madau, Piero

    2014-08-20

    We use detailed nucleosynthesis calculations and a realistic prescription for the environment of the first stars to explore the first episodes of chemical enrichment that occurred during the dark ages. Based on these calculations, we propose a novel explanation for the increased prevalence of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) stars with decreasing Fe abundance: the observed chemistry for the most metal-poor Galactic halo stars is the result of an intimate link between the explosions of the first stars and their host minihalo's ability to retain its gas. Specifically, high-energy supernovae produce a near solar ratio of C/Fe, but are effective in evacuating the gas from their host minihalo, thereby suppressing the formation of a second generation of stars. On the other hand, minihalos that host low-energy supernovae are able to retain their gas and form a second stellar generation, but, as a result, the second stars are born with a supersolar ratio of C/Fe. Our models are able to accurately reproduce the observed distributions of [C/Fe] and [Fe/H], as well as the fraction of CEMP stars relative to non-CEMP stars as a function of [Fe/H] without any free parameters. We propose that the present lack of chemical evidence for very massive stars (≳ 140 M {sub ☉}) that ended their lives as a highly energetic pair-instability supernova does not imply that such stars were rare or did not exist; the chemical products of these very massive first stars may have been evacuated from their host minihalos and were never incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Finally, our models suggest that the most Fe-poor stars currently known may have seen the enrichment from a small multiple of metal-free stars, and need not have been exclusively enriched by a solitary first star. These calculations also add further support to the possibility that some of the surviving dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way are the relics of the first galaxies.

  10. Prediction of Preadolescent Overweight and Poor Cardiometabolic Outcome in Children up to 6 Years of Age: Research Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wijga, Alet; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Heijmans, Martijn W; Jaddoe, Vincent WV; Twisk, Jos WR; Raat, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic risk estimations may enable targeting primary prevention of overweight and overweight-related adverse cardiometabolic outcome in later life, potentially serving as a valuable addition to universal primary prevention. This approach seems particularly promising in young children, as body mass index (BMI) changes at a young age are highly predictive of these outcomes, and parental lifestyle interventions at a young age are associated with improved long-term outcome. Objective This paper describes the design of our study, which aims to develop digitized tools that can be implemented in the Dutch Child Health Care (CHC) system or by pediatricians for children up to 6 years of age. These tools will enable (1) dynamically predicting the development of overweight, hypertension or prehypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values, and high total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio by early adolescence and (2) identifying children who are likely to have poor cardiometabolic outcome by the age of 5-6 years and by the age of 10 years. Methods Data will be obtained from the Generation R (n=7893) and Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA; n=3963) cohorts, two Dutch prenatally recruited cohorts. We will select candidate predictors that can be assessed during the first visit and/or during subsequent visits to the CHC center or pediatrician, including sex; parental age, education level, and BMI; smoking exposure; ethnicity; birth weight; gestational age; breastfeeding versus formula feeding; and growth data through the age of 6 years. We will design dynamic prediction models that can be updated with new information obtained during subsequent CHC visits, allowing each measurement to be added to the model. Performance of the model will be assessed in terms of discrimination and calibration. Finally, the model will be validated both internally and externally using the combined cohort data and then converted into a computer

  11. The Influence of Closing Poor Performing Primary Schools on the Educational Attainment of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Kristof; Van Klaveren, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the closure of poor performing primary schools improved students' educational attainment. It is believed that school closure affects children's educational outcomes positively because children switch to better primary schools. At the same time, school closure creates a social disturbance such that educational…

  12. Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

  13. Reciprocal Instruction Improves Standardized Reading Comprehension Performance in Poor Grade-School Comprehenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysynchuk, Linda; And Others

    A study hypothesized that if prediction, clarification, question-generation, and summarization strategies were taught using scaffolded instruction, then poor comprehenders might be able to learn the strategies so that they could apply them to text on their own and thereby improve their performance on standardized comprehension measures. Subjects…

  14. Poorly Performing Physicians: Does the Script Concordance Test Detect Bad Clinical Reasoning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulet, Francois; Jacques, Andre; Gagnon, Robert; Charlin, Bernard; Shabah, Abdo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluation of poorly performing physicians is a worldwide concern for licensing bodies. The College des Medecins du Quebec currently assesses the clinical competence of physicians previously identified with potential clinical competence difficulties through a day-long procedure called the Structured Oral Interview (SOI). Two peer…

  15. Educational Misfits: A Study of Poor Performers in the English Class 1825-1925.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehm, Stanley James

    The purpose of this study was to provide teachers of English with an historical examination of the attitudes, misconceptions, and assumptions about poorly performing students which were made by the predecessors of present teachers of English and which may still be made by contemporary English teachers. A one hundred year period from 1825 to 1925…

  16. An Evaluation of the Success of Counseled Reentry Students with Prior History of Poor Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Peggy G.; Suddick, David E.

    There are many causes of poor academic performance among college students and many methods of assisting academic underachievers to improve their academic standing. A study was conducted to compare the rates of ongoing academic success of students who had been academically suspended and who reentered the university less than one year following…

  17. Principals' Perceptions of Barriers to Dismissal of Poor-Performing Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dandoy, Jason R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine which factors influence items that school principals consider "barriers" to dismissal of "incompetent" or "poor performing" teachers. This study determines if specific characteristics of schools, principals, or a combination of the two can predict the specific barriers cited…

  18. Age, human performance, and physical employment standards.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Groeller, Herbert; McGinn, Ryan; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-06-01

    The proportion of older workers has increased substantially in recent years, with over 25% of the Canadian labour force aged ≥55 years. Along with chronological age comes age-related declines in functional capacity associated with impairments to the cardiorespiratory and muscular systems. As a result, older workers are reported to exhibit reductions in work output and in the ability to perform and/or sustain the required effort when performing work tasks. However, research has presented some conflicting views on the consequences of aging in the workforce, as physically demanding occupations can be associated with improved or maintained physical function. Furthermore, the current methods for evaluating physical function in older workers often lack specificity and relevance to the actual work tasks, leading to an underestimation of physical capacity in the older worker. Nevertheless, industry often lacks the appropriate information and/or tools to accommodate the aging workforce, particularly in the context of physical employment standards. Ultimately, if appropriate workplace strategies and work performance standards are adopted to optimize the strengths and protect against the vulnerability of the aging workers, they can perform as effectively as their younger counterparts. Our aim in this review is to evaluate the impact of different individual (including physiological decline, chronic disease, lifestyle, and physical activity) and occupational (including shift work, sleep deprivation, and cold/heat exposure) factors on the physical decline of older workers, and therefore the risk of work-related injuries or illness. PMID:27277571

  19. Designing Performance Interventions for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Steven; Schwen, Thomas M.

    2006-01-01

    Dynamic Online Performance Support Systems (DOPSS) are a new class of intervention that can meet the needs of a quickly changing work force in an information age environment. These systems are customized for the target population, with unique meta tags, unique function sets, and dynamic growth for and by users in use. These unique tag sets allow…

  20. 5 CFR 9701.408 - Developing performance and addressing poor performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY-OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT) DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Performance Management § 9701.408... remedial training, an improvement period, a reassignment, an oral warning, a letter of counseling,...

  1. Poor performance on cognitive tasks in depression: Doing too much or not enough?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Neil P.; Siegle, Greg J.; Muelly, Emilie R.; Haggerty, Agnes; Ghinassi, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks – it is unclear whether these deficits are due to decreased devotion of task-related resources or increased attention to non-task-related information. We examined the degree to which depressed and healthy adults displayed pupillary motility which varied at the frequency of presented stimuli on a cognitive task, which we interpreted as task-related processing, and at other frequencies which we interpreted as reflecting intrinsic processing. Depressed participants made more consecutive errors compared to controls. More pupillary motility at other frequencies was associated with poorer performance whereas more pupillary motility at the frequency of presented stimuli was associated with better performance. Depressed participants had more pupillary motility at other frequencies which partially mediated observed deficits in cognitive performance. These findings support the hypothesis that allocating cognitive resources to intrinsic processing, contributes to observed cognitive deficits in depression. PMID:20233961

  2. Oral narrative context effects on poor readers' spoken language performance: story retelling, story generation, and personal narratives.

    PubMed

    Westerveld, Marleen F; Gillon, Gail T

    2010-04-01

    This investigation explored the effects of oral narrative elicitation context on children's spoken language performance. Oral narratives were produced by a group of 11 children with reading disability (aged between 7;11 and 9;3) and an age-matched control group of 11 children with typical reading skills in three different contexts: story retelling, story generation, and personal narratives. In the story retelling condition, the children listened to a story on tape while looking at the pictures in a book, before being asked to retell the story without the pictures. In the story generation context, the children were shown a picture containing a scene and were asked to make up their own story. Personal narratives were elicited with the help of photos and short narrative prompts. The transcripts were analysed at microstructure level on measures of verbal productivity, semantic diversity, and morphosyntax. Consistent with previous research, the results revealed no significant interactions between group and context, indicating that the two groups of children responded to the type of elicitation context in a similar way. There was a significant group effect, however, with the typical readers showing better performance overall on measures of morphosyntax and semantic diversity. There was also a significant effect of elicitation context with both groups of children producing the longest, linguistically most dense language samples in the story retelling context. Finally, the most significant differences in group performance were observed in the story retelling condition, with the typical readers outperforming the poor readers on measures of verbal productivity, number of different words, and percent complex sentences. The results from this study confirm that oral narrative samples can distinguish between good and poor readers and that the story retelling condition may be a particularly useful context for identifying strengths and weaknesses in oral narrative performance

  3. The Stock Performance of C. Everett Koop Award Winners Compared With the Standard & Poor's 500 Index

    PubMed Central

    Goetzel, Ron Z.; Fabius, Raymond; Fabius, Dan; Roemer, Enid C.; Thornton, Nicole; Kelly, Rebecca K.; Pelletier, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the link between companies investing in the health and well-being programs of their employees and stock market performance. Methods: Stock performance of C. Everett Koop National Health Award winners (n = 26) was measured over time and compared with the average performance of companies comprising the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Results: The Koop Award portfolio outperformed the S&P 500 Index. In the 14-year period tracked (2000–2014), Koop Award winners’ stock values appreciated by 325% compared with the market average appreciation of 105%. Conclusions: This study supports prior and ongoing research demonstrating a higher market valuation—an affirmation of business success by Wall Street investors—of socially responsible companies that invest in the health and well-being of their workers when compared with other publicly traded firms. PMID:26716843

  4. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results.

    PubMed

    Besco, Robert O

    2004-11-11

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: a random slip, one inadvertent oversight, a single unintended action, one mis-perceived event, simple mal-performance of a complex action, or a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many generations. The PPAS

  5. Human performance breakdowns are rarely accidents: they are usually very poor choices with disastrous results.

    PubMed

    Besco, Robert O

    2004-11-11

    When human error is involved in the error chain of accidents in complex systems, the causes of the errors are very seldom the result of: a random slip, one inadvertent oversight, a single unintended action, one mis-perceived event, simple mal-performance of a complex action, or a poor training program for the human operators. Invariably, the cause of the break down is in a very poor conscious choice by someone from the operator back through system designer, the supervision, management and leadership through the entire organization. Usually the operator bears the burden of the blame and is either rebuked, retrained or replaced. In systems such as commercial aviation, complex manufacturing systems, power plants, process control systems, information-processing systems and communications networks, the replacement or retraining of individuals or even classes of individuals usually does not result in any long-term improvement of the safety or effectiveness of the system. What is needed is a system that identifies the reasons why the operators made the errors. Further a system is needed that can recommend what can be done to improve the future performance within the system. The professional performance analysis system (PPAS) has been developed and applied to more than 50 major aircraft accidents in the past 30 years. The PPAS is a direct outgrowth of the human performance analysis system developed by Robert Mager over 45 years ago. The PPAS system is applied after a complete and unbiased definition and description of the events of the accident or incident has been developed by the teams of accident investigation and accident reconstruction professionals. The PPAS then uses a systematic protocol and algorithm to determine the reasons as to why the humans committed the errors or why they performed at subnormal performance levels. This process is based on quantitative behavioral science principles and findings that have been demonstrated valid for many generations. The PPAS

  6. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... The Governor's final decision may be appealed by the Local Board to the Secretary under 20 CFR 667.650... applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local area fails to meet...

  7. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The Governor's final decision may be appealed by the Local Board to the Secretary under 20 CFR 667.650... applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND... may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance? (a) If a local area fails to meet...

  8. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  9. Why are residential and school moves associated with poor school performance?

    PubMed

    Pribesh, S; Downey, D B

    1999-11-01

    Most research on residential mobility has documented a clear pattern: Residential and school moves are associated with poor academic performance. Explanations for this relationship, however, remain speculative. Some researchers argue that moving affects social relationships that are important to academic achievement. But the association between moving and school performance may be spurious; the negative correlation may be a function of other characteristics of people who move often. We offer several conceptual and analytical refinements to these ideas, allowing us to produce more precise tests than past researchers. Using longitudinal data, we find that differences in achievement between movers and nonmovers are partially a result of declines in social relationships experienced by students who move. Most of the negative effect of moving, however, is due to preexisting differences between the two groups.

  10. Performance improvement for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning under poor satellite visibility.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wantong

    2016-01-01

    Reliable ambiguity resolution in difficult environments such as during setting/rising events of satellites or during limited satellite visibility is a significant challenge for GPS single frequency kinematic relative positioning. Here, a recursive estimation method combining both code and carrier phase measurements was developed that can tolerate recurrent satellite setting/rising and accelerate initialization in motion. We propose an ambiguity dimension expansion method by utilizing the partial ambiguity relevance of previous and current observations. In essence, this method attempts to integrate all useful information into the recursive estimation equation and performs a better least squares adjustment. Using this method, the success rate of the extended ambiguity estimation is independent of the satellite setting and shows robust performance despite poor satellite visibility. Our model allows integration of other useful information into the recursive process. Actual experiments in urban environments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can improve the reliability and availability of relative positioning. PMID:27247871

  11. Young Age Predicts Poor Antiretroviral Adherence and Viral Load Suppression Among Injection Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Milloy, M.-J.; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Guillemi, Silvia; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV among young injection drug users (IDU) have been limited because financial barriers to care disproportionately affect youth, thus confounding results. This study examines adherence among IDU in a unique setting where all medical care is provided free-of-charge. From May 1996 to April 2008, we followed a prospective cohort of 545 HIV-positive IDU of 18 years of age or older in Vancouver, Canada. Using generalized estimating equations (GEE), we studied the association between age and adherence (obtaining ART≥95% of the prescribed time), controlling for potential confounders. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we also studied the effect of age on time to viral load suppression (<500 copies per milliliter), and examined adherence as a mediating variable. Five hundred forty-five participants were followed for a median of 23.8 months (interquartile range [IQR]=8.5–91.6 months). Odds of adherence were significantly lower among younger IDU (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.76 per 10 years younger; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.89). Younger IDU were also less likely to achieve viral load suppression (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.75 per 10 years younger; 95% CI, 0.64–0.88). Adding adherence to the model eliminated this association with age, supporting the role of adherence as a mediating variable. Despite absence of financial barriers, younger IDU remain less likely to adhere to ART, resulting in inferior viral load suppression. Interventions should carefully address the unique needs of young HIV-positive IDU. PMID:22429003

  12. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397.

  13. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397. PMID:23903747

  14. Clinical Risk Factors for Poor Anatomic Response to Ranibizumab in Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration§

    PubMed Central

    Guber, Josef; Josifova, Tatjana; Henrich, Paul Bernhard; Guber, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To identify OCT-based anatomical features and clinical characteristics for poor central retinal thickness (CRT) response to ranibizumab in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Patients and Methods: Investigating our electronic patient records (Eyeswide), patients with neovascular AMD treated with intravitreal injections of 0.5mg/0.05ml ranibizumab were identified and their notes reviewed. Data collected included gender, age, initial best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), prior photodynamic therapy, lesion type (classic versus occult), type of macular edema (intraretinal fluid, subretinal fluid, pigment epithelium detachment) and the total number of previous ranibizumab injections. Results: A total of 210 eyes of 182 patients with neovascular AMD were identified. Mean follow-up time was 1.34 years (SD ± 0.77). Central retinal thickness reduction in women was significantly inferior to that in men (p=0.05). Patients with cystoid type macular edema had significantly greater reduction in CRT compared to patients with subretinal fluid (p<0.001) or pigment epithelium detachment (p<0.001). The percentage drop of CRT was no longer statistically significant after the sixth injection. Age, initial BCVA, prior photodynamic therapy and lesion type had no statistically effect on CRT response. Conclusion: Risk factors for poor central retinal thickness response to ranibizumab include female gender and patients with predominant subretinal fluid or pigment epithelium detachment. Furthermore, the anatomical response decreased after the sixth injection of ranibizumab. PMID:24949110

  15. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  16. Have the poor always been less likely to migrate? Evidence from inheritance practices during the age of mass migration☆

    PubMed Central

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah Platt; Eriksson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Using novel data on 50,000 Norwegian men, we study the effect of wealth on the probability of internal or international migration during the Age of Mass Migration (1850–1913), a time when the US maintained an open border to European immigrants. We do so by exploiting variation in parental wealth and in expected inheritance by birth order, gender composition of siblings, and region. We find that wealth discouraged migration in this era, suggesting that the poor could be more likely to move if migration restrictions were lifted today. We discuss the implications of these historical findings to developing countries. PMID:26609192

  17. Discussion of Standard & Poor's Presentation Entitled "Comparing State Performance under NCLB: Issues and Opportunities for Using NAEP"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneberg, Bert D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a Standard & Poor's analysis of state performance on the 2005 and 2003 NAEP reading and mathematics tests that took account of the demographic differences among the states. The study was presented at the NAEP State Service Center Winter Workshop in January, 2006. Standard & Poor's is commended for recognizing that NAEP data…

  18. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-aged Husbands and Wives

    PubMed Central

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; Walker, Catie

    2011-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes to subsequent increase in depressive symptoms of husbands and wives after controlling for family economic hardship in late middle years. Consistent with stress-process theory, economic hardship influences depressive symptoms directly and indirectly through its influence on self-esteem. The results also provided evidence for the scar hypothesis which suggests that depression predicts subsequent level of self-esteem and form a reciprocal process between depressive symptoms and self-esteem over time. In sum, for both husbands and wives, our findings showed that depressive symptoms progress over the middle years through a self-perpetuating reciprocal process between self-esteem and depression initiated by early family economic hardship and through cross-spouse influences involving self-esteem and depressive symptoms. PMID:22577243

  19. Tofu intake is associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

    2015-01-01

    Tofu is a soy product which is commonly consumed in Asian countries, such as China and Indonesia. Several studies found negative associations of high tofu consumption with cognitive function in older Asian populations. However, the effect of tofu on cognitive function remains disputed as it was not found in Western populations. In the present study, the effect of weekly tofu intake on cognitive performance was investigated in an observational cross sectional study of 517 Chinese elderly from Shanghai. Similar to earlier studies, results showed that a higher weekly intake of tofu was associated with worse memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (β = -0.10, p = 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, being vegetarian, and weekly intake of fruit/juice, green vegetables, and orange/red vegetables. Furthermore, among older elderly (≥68 years of age), high tofu intake increased the risk of cognitive impairment indicative of dementia (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.99-1.64, p = 0.04), after adjusting for all covariates. Consumption of meat and green vegetables independently also reduced risk of dementia. To conclude, high intake of tofu was negatively related to cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China. Similar findings were reported in Indonesia and in Japanese Americans in the US. These findings suggest that the effect of tofu on cognition in elderly should be further investigated.

  20. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  1. Uncovering phenotypes of poor-pitch singing: the Sung Performance Battery (SPB).

    PubMed

    Berkowska, Magdalena; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Singing is as natural as speaking for humans. Increasing evidence shows that the layman can carry a tune (e.g., when asked to sing a well-known song or to imitate single pitches, intervals and short melodies). Yet, important individual differences exist in the general population with regard to singing proficiency. Some individuals are particularly inaccurate or imprecise in producing or imitating pitch information (poor-pitch singers), thus showing a variety of singing phenotypes. Unfortunately, so far there is not a standard set of tasks for assessing singing proficiency in the general population, allowing to uncover and characterize individual profiles of poor-pitch singing. Different tasks and analysis methods are typically used in various experiments, making the comparison of the results across studies arduous. To fill this gap we propose here a new tool for assessing singing proficiency (the Sung Performance Battery, SPB). The SPB starts from the assessment of participants' vocal range followed by five tasks: (1) single-pitch matching, (2) pitch-interval matching, (3) novel-melody matching, (4) singing from memory of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable), and (5) singing of familiar melodies (with lyrics and on a syllable) at a slow tempo indicated by a metronome. Data analysis via acoustical methods provides objective measures of pitch accuracy and precision in terms of absolute and relative pitch. The SPB has been tested in a group of 50 occasional singers. The results indicate that the battery is useful for characterizing proficient singing and for detecting cases of inaccurate and/or imprecise singing. PMID:24151475

  2. Reddening and age of six poorly studied star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, J. H.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Benítez-Llambay, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: To increase the number of studied star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (λ = 3700-6800 Å) for six poorly studied LMC SCs of IVA type. This type corresponds to the age range between 200 and 400 Myr. We also aim at creating a new template spectrum representative of this age range at the metallicity level of the LMC. Methods: Foreground reddening E(B - V) values and ages are derived by applying the template matching method that consists of comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties. The equivalent width (EW) of the Balmer lines and the diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines were also employed as age indicators. Results: For the first time, we provide estimates of the clusters' reddenings and ages. As expected, all the clusters appear to be of nearly the same age, their mean value being (400 ± 100) Myr, while the resulting mean E(B - V) values range between 0.00 and 0.10 mag. Conclusions: The present cluster sample complements previous ones in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. By averaging the reddening-corrected integrated spectra, weighted by their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), a new high S/N template spectrum of 400 Myr has been created. Integrated spectra for each star cluster are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A49

  3. Optimized finite-difference (DRP) schemes perform poorly for decaying or growing oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambley, E. J.

    2016-11-01

    Computational aeroacoustics often use finite difference schemes optimized to require relatively few points per wavelength; such optimized schemes are often called Dispersion Relation Preserving (DRP). Similar techniques are also used outside aeroacoustics. Here the question is posed: what is the equivalent of points per wavelength for growing or decaying waves, and how well are such waves resolved numerically? Such non-constant-amplitude waves are common in aeroacoustics, such as the exponential decay caused by acoustic linings, the O (1 / r) decay of an expanding spherical wave, and the decay of high-azimuthal-order modes in the radial direction towards the centre of a cylindrical duct. It is shown that optimized spatial derivatives perform poorly for waves that are not of constant amplitude, under performing maximal-order schemes. An equivalent criterion to points per wavelength is proposed for non-constant-amplitude oscillations, reducing to the standard definition for constant-amplitude oscillations and valid even for pure growth or decay with no oscillation. Using this definition, coherent statements about points per wavelength necessary for a given accuracy can be made for maximal-order schemes applied to non-constant-amplitude oscillations. These features are illustrated through a numerical example of a one-dimensional wave propagating through a damping region.

  4. Poor organ quality and donor-recipient age mismatch rather than poor donation rates account for the decrease in deceased kidney transplantation rates in a Germany Transplant Center.

    PubMed

    Tittelbach-Helmrich, Dietlind; Thurow, Christian; Arwinski, Stephan; Schleicher, Christina; Hopt, Ulrich T; Bausch, Dirk; Drognitz, Oliver; Pisarski, Przemyslaw

    2015-02-01

    Kidney transplantation is limited not by technical or immunological challenges but by lack of donor organs. Whereas the number of patients on waiting list increased, the transplantation rate decreased. We analyzed the development of decline rates and reasons as well as the fate of declined organs. In total, 1403 organs offered to 1950 patients between 2001 and 2010 were included. Of 440 organs offered between 2009 and 2011 that were declined, we investigated whether these organs were transplanted elsewhere and requested delayed graft function, creatinine, graft and patient survival. Data were compared to results of transplantations at the same time at our center. Decline rate increased from 47% to 87%. Main reasons were poor organ quality and donor-recipient age or size mismatch. Of the rejected organs, 55% were transplanted at other centers with function, graft and patient survival equivalent to patients transplanted at our center during that period. The number of decline has increased over time mainly due to a growing number of marginal donors accounting for poor organ quality or a mismatch of donor and recipient. If proper donor-recipient selection is performed, many organs that would otherwise be discarded can be transplanted successfully.

  5. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applied to local areas for poor performance? 666.420 Section 666.420 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PERFORMANCE ACCOUNTABILITY UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Incentives and Sanctions for Local Performance § 666.420 Under what circumstances may...

  6. Treatment approaches in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer and poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Ramaswamy; Garfield, David H

    2004-12-01

    It is estimated that 30% to 40% of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have a poor performance status (PS)-defined as a score of 2 or higher on the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scale-because of their disease burden, comorbidities, or both. Survival is shorter in these patients than in those with a better PS, and they do not tolerate chemotherapy as well. There is now evidence that PS2 patients with advanced NSCLC can benefit from single-agent chemotherapy with drugs such as vinorelbine, gemcitabine, paclitaxel, pemetrexed, and docetaxel and that combination chemotherapy may have additional advantages. The optimal treatment for PS2 patients with NSCLC, however, has yet to be determined. The case histories in this article demonstrate that PS2 patients are a heterogeneous group and that selecting the chemotherapy for each patient must take into consideration comorbidities and disease-related symptoms, as well as the potential toxicity of treatment. Large prospective clinical trials are needed to determine whether, and in which patients, combination chemotherapy or novel agents, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors or paclitaxel poliglumex, have advantages. Three large phase III trials-Selective Targeting for Efficacy in Lung Cancer, Lower Adverse Reactions trials (STELLAR)-are now being conducted in PS2 patients with NSCLC. It is hoped that their findings will aid in determining the best treatment options for these patients.

  7. Performance improvement of GPS single frequency, single epoch attitude determination with poor satellite visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wantong; Sun, Xingli

    2016-07-01

    Similar to global positioning system (GPS) positioning in urban canyons, a fast and successful attitude determination with limited satellite visibility is very significant. For land vehicles, the possible attitude candidates can be treated as a spherical zone with the center at the reference antenna and the baseline as the radius. This provides an important constraint, which can be exploited to improve the reliability of GPS single frequency and single epoch attitude determination in the case of poor satellite reception. First, we fully integrate the spherical zone constraint into the estimation procedure of ambiguity resolution, but not in the validation procedure. Combining both the coordinate domain search and the ambiguity domain search, allows development of a global minimizer of the fixed ambiguity objective function. This scheme also improves the precision of the float ambiguity solution, thus avoiding the problem of search halting. The performance of the new ambiguity resolution method was analyzed by means of several experimental tests, using simulated as well as actual GPS data in urban environments. The experimental results showed that this new, proposed method can utilize a priori spherical zone knowledge to improve the reliability of ambiguity resolution in difficult environments.

  8. Is Weak Oral Language Associated with Poor Spelling in School-Age Children with Specific Language Impairment, Dyslexia or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Jillian H.; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that word reading accuracy, not oral language, is associated with spelling performance in school-age children. We compared fourth grade spelling accuracy in children with specific language impairment (SLI), dyslexia or both (SLI/dyslexia) to their typically developing grade-matched peers.…

  9. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  10. Performance of Children with Good and Poor Articulation on Tasks of Tongue Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Linda Smith; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study determined whether first grade children (nine with good and nine with poor articulation skills) could learn to replicate four positions of lingual-palatal contact with and without topical anesthesia that eliminated touch-pressure sensations. (Author)

  11. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters.

  12. Performance comparison of sand and fine sawdust vermifilters in treating concentrated grey water for urban poor.

    PubMed

    Adugna, Amare T; Andrianisa, Harinaivo A; Konate, Yacouba; Ndiaye, Awa; Maiga, Amadou H

    2015-01-01

    A comparative investigation was conducted for 10 months with sand and fine sawdust vermifilters and a control unit to treat concentrated grey water generated from a poor urban household in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Each of the filters was made up of cylindrical DN200-PVC pipes and filled with 10 cm of gravel at the bottom. On top of the gravel layer, filter 1 (fully sand, F1) was completed with 40 cm of sand and 10 cm of fine sawdust, filter 2 (partially sand, F2) with 20 cm of sand and 30 cm of fine sawdust, respectively, and filter 3 (fully sawdust, F3) and 4 (control, F4) with 50 cm of fine sawdust only. Two hundred Eudrilus eugeniae earthworms were inoculated in each of the vermifilters. The vermifiltration system was supplied with grey water four times per day at a hydraulic loading rate of 64 L/m(2)/day on a batch basis. The removal efficiencies of biological oxygen demand, total chemical oxygen demand, and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (dCOD) by the vermifilters were 25-30% higher than the control, but little differences were observed in terms of total suspended solids and coliform removal efficiencies. Though there was no significant difference in the performance of the three vermifilters (p > 0.05), except for dCOD removal efficiency, the lifespan of F2 and F3 was longer than that of F1. Therefore, fine sawdust can substitute sand as a filter medium in vermifilters. PMID:25926275

  13. A Western dietary pattern is associated with poor academic performance in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-04-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a 'Healthy' and a 'Western' dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the 'Western' dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = -13.14; 95% CI: -24.57; -1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = -19.16; 95% CI: -29.85; -8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = -17.28; 95% CI: -35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the 'Western' dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence.

  14. A Western dietary pattern is associated with poor academic performance in Australian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nyaradi, Anett; Li, Jianghong; Hickling, Siobhan; Foster, Jonathan K; Jacques, Angela; Ambrosini, Gina L; Oddy, Wendy H

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cross-sectional associations between dietary patterns and academic performance among 14-year-old adolescents. Study participants were from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. A food frequency questionnaire was administered when the adolescents were 14 years old, and from the dietary data, a 'Healthy' and a 'Western' dietary pattern were identified by factor analysis. The Western Australian Literacy and Numeracy Assessment (WALNA) results from grade nine (age 14) were linked to the Raine Study data by The Western Australian Data Linkage Branch. Associations between the dietary patterns and the WALNA (mathematics, reading and writing scores) were assessed using multivariate linear regression models adjusting for family and socioeconomic characteristics. Complete data on dietary patterns, academic performance and covariates were available for individuals across the different analyses as follows: n = 779 for mathematics, n = 741 for reading and n = 470 for writing. Following adjustment, significant negative associations between the 'Western' dietary pattern and test scores for mathematics (β = -13.14; 95% CI: -24.57; -1.76); p = 0.024) and reading (β = -19.16; 95% CI: -29.85; -8.47; p ≤ 0.001) were observed. A similar trend was found with respect to writing (β = -17.28; 95% CI: -35.74; 1.18; p = 0.066). ANOVA showed significant trends in estimated means of academic scores across quartiles for both the Western and Healthy patterns. Higher scores for the 'Western' dietary pattern are associated with poorer academic performance in adolescence. PMID:25898417

  15. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children with Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of Fast ForWord Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method: A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills…

  16. Getting off on the Wrong Foot: Longitudinal Effects of Hispanic Students' Stability Attributions Following Poor Initial Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Cody B.; Yang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Though studies have established that following poor performance, attributions to stable causes affect the performance of minority students, few studies have explored the impact of stability attributions over time. This study explored attributions following initial failure among a predominantly Hispanic student population. We measured students'…

  17. Performing Literature in an Age of Textuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Michael S.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses issues of interpretation versus reading in oral interpretation, or the performance of literature. Offers an extended classroom example to make the case for alternative kinds of performance and their ability to keep practices of performing literature valuable in the current academic scene. (SR)

  18. Europe’s Tired, Poor, Huddled Masses: Self-Selection and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration†

    PubMed Central

    Abramitzky, Ran; Boustan, Leah Platt; Eriksson, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    During the age of mass migration (1850–1913), one of the largest migration episodes in history, the United States maintained a nearly open border, allowing the study of migrant decisions unhindered by entry restrictions. We estimate the return to migration while accounting for migrant selection by comparing Norway-to-US migrants with their brothers who stayed in Norway in the late nineteenth century. We also compare fathers of migrants and nonmigrants by wealth and occupation. We find that the return to migration was relatively low (70 percent) and that migrants from urban areas were negatively selected from the sending population. “Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!” cries she With silent lips. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free, The wretched refuse of your teeming shore. Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me, I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”——Emma Lazarus (1883)1 PMID:26594052

  19. Does poor school performance cause later psychosocial problems among children in foster care? Evidence from national longitudinal registry data.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Hilma; Brännström, Lars; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders

    2016-07-01

    Research has shown that children in foster care are a high-risk group for adverse economic, social and health related outcomes in young adulthood. Children's poor school performance has been identified as a major risk factor for these poor later life outcomes. Aiming to support the design of effective intervention strategies, this study examines the hypothesized causal effect of foster children's poor school performance on subsequent psychosocial problems, here conceptualized as economic hardship, illicit drug use, and mental health problems, in young adulthood. Using the potential outcomes approach, longitudinal register data on more than 7500 Swedish foster children born 1973-1978 were analyzed by means of doubly robust treatment-effect estimators. The results show that poor school performance has a negative impact on later psychosocial problems net of observed background attributes and potential selection on unobservables, suggesting that the estimated effects allow for causal interpretations. Promotion of school performance may thus be a viable intervention path for policymakers and practitioners interested in improving foster children's overall life chances. PMID:27318971

  20. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men.

  1. A rise in peak performance age in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Elmenshawy, Ahmed R; Machin, Daniel R; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2015-06-01

    It was reported in 1980s that ages at which peak performance was observed had remained remarkably stable in the past century, although absolute levels of athletic performance increased dramatically for the same time span. The emergence of older (masters) athletes in the past few decades has changed the demographics and age-spectrum of Olympic athletes. The primary aim of the present study was to determine whether the ages at which peak performance was observed had increased in the recent decades. The data spanning 114 years from the first Olympics (1898) to the most recent Olympics (2014) were collected using the publically available data. In the present study, ages at which Olympic medals (gold, silver, and bronze) were won were used as the indicators of peak performance age. Track and field, swimming, rowing, and ice skating events were analyzed. In men, peak performance age did not change significantly in most of the sporting events (except in 100 m sprint running). In contrast, peak performance ages in women have increased significantly since 1980s and consistently in all the athletic events examined. Interestingly, as women's peak performance age increased, they became similar to men's peak ages in many events. In the last 20-30 years, ages at which peak athletic performance is observed have increased in women but not in men. PMID:26022534

  2. Biological markers of neonatal calf performance: the relationship of insulin-like growth factor-I, zinc, and copper to poor neonatal growth.

    PubMed

    Graham, T W; Breher, J E; Farver, T B; Cullor, J S; Kehrli, M E; Oberbauer, A M

    2010-08-01

    Raising a heifer calf to reproductive age represents an enormous cost to the producer. Poor neonatal growth exacerbates the costs incurred for rearing, and use of blood variables that may be associated with poorly growing calves may offer predictive value for growth and performance. Thus, the principal objective of the present study was to describe changes in serum IGF-I, zinc, and copper from birth to 90 d in Holstein calves, while accounting for sex and twin status, in poorly growing calves and calves growing well. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that an association exists between these serum variables and morphometric indicators of growth. Measurements of BW, length, and height were recorded at birth and at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Jugular blood (12 mL) was collected from each calf on d 1 to determine serum total protein, serum IgG, packed cell volume, serum zinc, serum copper, serum IGF-I, and CD18 genotype for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency; serum zinc, serum copper, and serum IGF-I (predictor variables) were also determined for each calf on d 2 through 10 and on d 30, 60, and 90. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the predictor variables and the dependent variables (BW, height, and length at d 30, 60, and 90 of life). Birth weight, sex, serum IGF-I (at all ages), serum copper, and the serum copper-to-zinc ratio were associated, to varying degrees, with the dependent growth variables. Birth weight was consistently the dominant predictor. In conclusion, these results suggest that lighter birth weight, reduced serum IGF-I, and inflammation may be important causes of poor growth in neonatal Holstein dairy calves. PMID:20382870

  3. Violence Exposure, Sleep Disturbance, and Poor Academic Performance in Middle School

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth. PMID:23315234

  4. Computers and the Academic Performance of Elementary School-Aged Girls in China's Poor Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yihua; Zhang, Linxiu; Zeng, Junxia; Pang, Xiaopeng; Lai, Fang; Rozelle, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Experts agree that computers and computing play an important role in education. Since the 1980s there has been a debate about gender as it relates to computers and education. However, results regarding gender differences concerning computer use in education are not consistent. In particular there is little work done in China on this issue.…

  5. Poor social performance of lonely people: lacking a skill or adopting a role?

    PubMed

    Vitkus, J; Horowitz, L M

    1987-06-01

    A substantial literature has shown that lonely people differ from nonlonely people on a variety of measures of social performance. These differences have usually been conceptualized as a social skills deficit, which implies that lonely people lack the ability to perform appropriate and effective social behavior. Rather than a lack of this ability, the authors hypothesize that the adoption of passive interpersonal roles predisposes lonely people to exhibit inadequate performance. In order to test this hypothesis, lonely and nonlonely subjects were assigned to one of two roles: They either listened (Condition Li) to an interaction partner describe a personal problem or they themselves described a personal problem (Condition Pr) to their partner. The subjects' interpersonal role produced a substantial effect on their social behavior. Subjects who listened to their partner describe a problem generated more solutions to a set of hypothetical situations, attended to their partners more adequately, and conversed longer than did subjects who described a personal problem. In contrast, lonely subjects did not differ from nonlonely subjects in their social performance within each particular role. Lonely and nonlonely subjects did differ, however, in their subjective evaluations of themselves and of their performance. These results illustrate the need for research to address both the interpersonal and the intrapersonal bases of social performance.

  6. Performance Development in Adolescent Track and Field Athletes According to Age, Sex and Sport Discipline

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Svendsen, Ida Siobhan; Olsen, Inge Christoffer; Guttormsen, Atle; Haugen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sex-specific differences that arise during puberty have a pronounced effect on the training process. However, the consequences this should have for goal-setting, planning and implementation of training for boys and girls of different ages remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to quantify performance developments in athletic running and jumping disciplines in the age range 11-18 and identify progression differences as a function of age, discipline and sex. Methods The 100 all-time best Norwegian male and female 60-m, 800-m, long jump and high jump athletes in each age category from 11 to 18 years were analysed using mixed models with random intercept according to athlete. Results Male and female athletes perform almost equally in running and jumping events up to the age of 12. Beyond this age, males outperform females. Relative annual performance development in females gradually decreases throughout the analyzed age period. In males, annual relative performance development accelerates up to the age of 13 (for running events) or 14 (for jumping events) and then gradually declines when approaching 18 years of age. The relative improvement from age 11 to 18 was twice as high in jumping events compared to running events. For all of the analyzed disciplines, overall improvement rates were >50% higher for males than for females. The performance sex difference evolves from < 5% to 10-18% in all the analyzed disciplines from age 11 to 18 yr. Conclusion To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to present absolute and relative annual performance developments in running and jumping events for competitive athletes from early to late adolescence. These results allow coaches and athletes to set realistic goals and prescribe conditioning programs that take into account sex-specific differences in the rate of performance development at different stages of maturation. PMID:26043192

  7. Trends in Triathlon Performance: Effects of Sex and Age.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Knechtle, Beat; Stapley, Paul J

    2013-09-01

    The influences of sex and age upon endurance performance have previously been documented for both running and swimming. A number of recent studies have investigated how sex and age influence triathlon performance, a sport that combines three disciplines (swimming, cycling and running), with competitions commonly lasting between 2 (short distance: 1.5-km swim, 40-km cycle and 10-km run) and 8 h (Ironman distance: 3.8-km swim,180-km cycle and 42-km run) for elite triathletes. Age and sex influences upon performance have also been investigated for ultra-triathlons, with distances corresponding to several Ironman distances and lasting several days, and for off-road triathlons combining swimming, mountain biking and trail running. Triathlon represents an intriguing alternative model for analysing the effects of age and sex upon endurance and ultra-endurance ([6 h) performance because sex differences and age-related declines in performance can be analysed in the same individuals across the three separate disciplines. The relative participation of both females and masters athletes (age[40 years) in triathlon has increased consistently over the past 25 years. Sex differences in triathlon performance are also known to differ between the modes of locomotion adopted (swimming, cycling or running) for both elite and non-elite triathletes. Generally, time differences between sexes in swimming have been shown to be smaller on average than during cycling and running. Both physiological and morphological factors contribute to explaining these findings. Performance density (i.e. the time difference between the winner and tenth-placed competitor) has progressively improved (time differences have decreased) for international races over the past two decades for both males and females, with performance density now very similar for both sexes. For age-group triathletes, sex differences in total triathlon performance time increases with age. However,the possible difference in age

  8. The relationship between poor performance on attention tasks and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seog Ju; Kang, Seung-Gul; Cho, In Hee; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Hong, Jin Pyo; Park, Juhyun; Lee, Yu Jin

    2015-11-01

    Our goal was to examine the relationship between attention and suicidal ideation in a school-based adolescent population. This cross-sectional study involved 2,462 students from eight high schools in South Korea (1,021 males and 1,441 females, mean age 17.3 ± 0.6 years). The participants completed the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and took part in computerized attention tasks. Participants with high SSI scores (16 or higher) exhibited a higher mean number of omission errors (OEs) and commission errors (CEs) on the visual sustained attention tasks than did participants with low SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). On the divided attention tasks, the high SSI group exhibited a higher mean number of CEs than the low SSI group did (p < 0.001). In a general linear model adjusting for age, gender, and high BDI (10 or higher), membership in the high OE group in the visual sustained attention tasks was associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.015). Belonging to the high OE or CE group in the divided attention tasks were associated with high SSI scores (p = 0.024 and p = 0.035, respectively). For both the visual sustained and divided attention tasks, interactions between gender and high OE rates were significant (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.013, respectively). In the post hoc analysis, membership in the high OE group was associated with high SSI scores for girls. In a multiple linear regression analysis including all participants and controlling for age, gender, and BDI scores, higher numbers of OEs and CEs on the visual sustained attention tasks predicted higher SSI scores (p < 0.001 and p = 0.019, respectively). On the divided attention task, the number of CEs was positively correlated with the SSI score (p = 0.031). The findings of this study indicate an association between attention deficits and increased suicidal ideation in adolescents after controlling for depressed mood. The current results suggest a direct

  9. Poor Performance on Serial Visual Tasks in Persons with Reading Disabilities: Impaired Working Memory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ram-Tsur, Ronit; Faust, Miriam; Zivotofsky, Ari Z.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates the performance of persons with reading disabilities (PRD) on a variety of sequential visual-comparison tasks that have different working-memory requirements. In addition, mediating relationships between the sequential comparison process and attention and memory skills were looked for. Our findings suggest that PRD…

  10. Matching Faces to Photographs: Poor Performance in Eyewitness Memory (without the Memory)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Megreya, Ahmed M.; Burton, A. Mike

    2008-01-01

    Eyewitness memory is known to be fallible. We describe 3 experiments that aim to establish baseline performance for recognition of unfamiliar faces. In Experiment 1, viewers were shown live actors or photos (targets), and then immediately presented with arrays of 10 faces (test items). Asked whether the target was present among the test items, and…

  11. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  12. Cold homes are associated with poor biomarkers and less blood pressure check-up: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-04-01

    It has been known that outdoor temperature influences seasonal fluctuation of blood pressure and cholesterol levels, but the role of indoor temperature has been less studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the associations between indoor temperature and biomarkers in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, room temperature and a series of biomarkers measured in the blood and lung was obtained at household interviews. t test, chi-square test and a generalized linear model were performed cross-sectionally. Of 7997 older adults with the valid indoor temperature measurements, there were 1301 (16.3%) people who resided in cold homes (<18 °C). Age was inversely associated with people who resided in cold homes or who tended not to have blood pressure check-up. Those who resided in cold homes had higher blood pressure readings, worse handgrip, lower vitamin D levels, higher cholesterol levels, higher insulin-like growth factor levels, higher haemoglobin levels, lower level of white blood cell count and worse lung conditions. One in six older adults aged 50 and above in England resided in cold homes and had poor biomarker values. For the future research direction, studies with a longitudinal approach to systematically monitor indoor temperature, biomarkers and health and wellbeing would be suggested. From the practice and policy perspectives, increasing health knowledge on the adverse effect of low indoor temperature on risks of cardiac and respiratory conditions, affording to the heating and re-designing of residential buildings to keep warm by using efficient energy, should be kept as priority. PMID:26873825

  13. Cold homes are associated with poor biomarkers and less blood pressure check-up: English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Shiue, Ivy

    2016-04-01

    It has been known that outdoor temperature influences seasonal fluctuation of blood pressure and cholesterol levels, but the role of indoor temperature has been less studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the associations between indoor temperature and biomarkers in a countrywide and population-based setting. Data was retrieved from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, 2012-2013. Information on demographics, room temperature and a series of biomarkers measured in the blood and lung was obtained at household interviews. t test, chi-square test and a generalized linear model were performed cross-sectionally. Of 7997 older adults with the valid indoor temperature measurements, there were 1301 (16.3%) people who resided in cold homes (<18 °C). Age was inversely associated with people who resided in cold homes or who tended not to have blood pressure check-up. Those who resided in cold homes had higher blood pressure readings, worse handgrip, lower vitamin D levels, higher cholesterol levels, higher insulin-like growth factor levels, higher haemoglobin levels, lower level of white blood cell count and worse lung conditions. One in six older adults aged 50 and above in England resided in cold homes and had poor biomarker values. For the future research direction, studies with a longitudinal approach to systematically monitor indoor temperature, biomarkers and health and wellbeing would be suggested. From the practice and policy perspectives, increasing health knowledge on the adverse effect of low indoor temperature on risks of cardiac and respiratory conditions, affording to the heating and re-designing of residential buildings to keep warm by using efficient energy, should be kept as priority.

  14. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks. PMID:19308873

  15. Peak athletic performance and ageing: evidence from baseball.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, John Charles

    2009-04-01

    Baseball players exhibit a pattern of improvement and decline in performance; however, differing lengths of careers and changes in rules and characteristics of the game complicate assessments of age-related effects on performance. This study attempts to isolate the impact of age on several player skills while controlling for relevant outside factors using longitudinal data from 86 seasons of Major League Baseball. The results indicate that players age in different skills in accord with studies of ageing in other athletic contests. For overall performance, multiple-regression estimates indicate that hitters and pitchers peak around the age of 29 - later than previous estimates. Athletic skills such as hitting and running peak earlier than skills that rely heavily on experience and knowledge, such as issuing and drawing walks.

  16. Performance Lapses in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Contribute to Poor Reading Fluency

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Denckla, Martha B.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate increased response variability compared with controls, which is thought to be associated with deficits in attention regulation and response control that subsequently affect performance of more cognitively demanding tasks, such as reading. The present study examined response variability during a computerized simple reaction time (RT) task in 67 children. Ex-Gaussian analyses separated the response time distribution into normal (mu and sigma) and exponential (tau) components; the association of each with reading fluency was examined. Children with ADHD had significantly slower, more variable, and more skewed RTs compared with controls. After controlling for ADHD symptom severity, tau (but not mu or mean RT) was significantly associated with reduced reading fluency, but not with single word reading accuracy. These data support the growing evidence that RT variability, but not simply slower mean response speed, is the characteristic of youth with ADHD and that longer response time latencies (tau) may be implicated in the poorer academic performance associated with ADHD. PMID:23838684

  17. Changes in Track and Field Performance with Chronological Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Lena; Ha, Amy

    1994-01-01

    Examined official records of VIII World Veterans Championships to identify running, jumping, and throwing events whose performance was most affected by age. Found that 400-meter run and long jump were most affected by advancing age among both male and female master athletes whereas, in areas of throws, event most affected was javelin for men and…

  18. Pushover, Response Spectrum and Time History Analyses of Safe Rooms in a Poor Performance Masonry Building

    SciTech Connect

    Mazloom, M.

    2008-07-08

    The idea of safe room has been developed for decreasing the earthquake casualties in masonry buildings. The information obtained from the previous ground motions occurring in seismic zones expresses the lack of enough safety of these buildings against earthquakes. For this reason, an attempt has been made to create some safe areas inside the existing masonry buildings, which are called safe rooms. The practical method for making these safe areas is to install some prefabricated steel frames in some parts of the existing structure. These frames do not carry any service loads before an earthquake. However, if a devastating earthquake happens and the load bearing walls of the building are destroyed, some parts of the floors, which are in the safe areas, will fall on the roof of the installed frames and the occupants who have sheltered there will survive. This paper presents the performance of these frames located in a destroying three storey masonry building with favorable conclusions. In fact, the experimental pushover diagram of the safe room located at the ground-floor level of this building is compared with the analytical results and it is concluded that pushover analysis is a good method for seismic performance evaluation of safe rooms. For time history analysis the 1940 El Centro, the 2003 Bam, and the 1990 Manjil earthquake records with the maximum peak accelerations of 0.35g were utilized. Also the design spectrum of Iranian Standard No. 2800-05 for the ground kind 2 is used for response spectrum analysis. The results of time history, response spectrum and pushover analyses show that the strength and displacement capacity of the steel frames are adequate to accommodate the distortions generated by seismic loads and aftershocks properly.

  19. Sleep disordered breathing symptoms and daytime sleepiness are associated with emotional problems and poor school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianghong; Liu, Xianchen; Ji, Xiaopeng; Wang, Yingjie; Zhou, Guoping; Chen, Xinyin

    2016-08-30

    This study examined the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) symptoms and their associations with daytime sleepiness, emotional problems, and school performance in Chinese children. Participants included 3979 children (10.99±0.99 years old) from four elementary schools in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province, China. Children completed a self-administered questionnaire on sleep behavior and emotional problems, while parents completed the Child Sleep Habit Questionnaire (CSHQ). SDB symptoms included 3 items: loud snoring, stopped breathing, and snorting/gasping during sleep. Teachers rated the children's school performance. The prevalence rates of parent- and self-reported SDB symptoms were 17.2% and 10.1% for "sometimes" and 8.9% and 5.6% for "usually". SDB symptoms, more prevalent in boys than in girls, increased the risks for depression, loneliness, and poor school performance. Daytime sleepiness mediated the relationship between SDB symptoms and depression, loneliness, and poor school performance. This study suggests the importance of early screening and intervention of SDB and daytime sleepiness in child behavioral and cognitive development. PMID:27289327

  20. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  1. Age-related changes in ultra-triathlon performances

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The age-related decline in performance has been investigated in swimmers, runners and triathletes. No study has investigated the age-related performance decline in ultra-triathletes. The purpose of this study was to analyse the age-related declines in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time for both Triple Iron ultra-triathlon (11.4-km swimming, 540-km cycling and 126.6-km running) and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon (38-km swimming, 1,800-km cycling and 420-km running). Methods The age and performances of 423 male Triple Iron ultra-triathletes and 119 male Deca Iron ultra-triathletes were analysed from 1992 to 2010 using regression analyses and ANOVA. Results The mean age of the finishers was significantly higher for Deca Iron ultra-triathletes (41.3 ± 3.1 years) compared to a Triple Iron ultra-triathletes (38.5 ± 3.3 years) (P < 0.05). For both ultra-distances, the fastest overall race times were achieved between the ages of 25 and 44 years. Deca Iron ultra-triathletes achieved the same level of performance in swimming and cycling between 25 and 54 years of age. Conclusions The magnitudes of age-related declines in performance in the three disciplines of ultra-triathlon differ slightly between Triple and Deca Iron ultra-triathlon. Although the ages of Triple Iron ultra-triathletes were on average younger compared to Deca Iron ultra-triathletes, the fastest race times were achieved between 25 and 44 years for both distances. Further studies should investigate the motivation and training of ultra-triathletes to gain better insights in ultra-triathlon performance. PMID:23849327

  2. Influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms and neurocognitive test performance following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lange, Rael T; Iverson, Grant L; Brooks, Brian L; Rennison, V Lynn Ashton

    2010-11-01

    When considering a diagnosis of postconcussion syndrome, clinicians must systematically evaluate and eliminate the possible contribution of many differential diagnoses, comorbidities, and factors that may cause or maintain self-reported symptoms long after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). One potentially significant contributing factor is symptom exaggeration. The purpose of the study is to examine the influence of poor effort on self-reported symptoms (postconcussion symptoms and cognitive complaints) and neurocognitive test performance following MTBI. The MTBI sample consisted of 63 referrals to a concussion clinic, evaluated within 5 months post injury (M = 2.0, SD = 1.0, range = 0.6-4.6), who were receiving financial compensation from the Workers' Compensation Board. Participants completed the Post-Concussion Scale (PCS), British Columbia Cognitive Complaints Inventory (BC-CCI), selected tests from the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery Screening Module (S-NAB), and the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Participants were divided into two groups based on TOMM performance (15 fail, 48 pass). There were significant main effects and large effect sizes for the PCS (p = .002, d = 0.79) and BC-CCI (p = .011, d = 0.98) total scores. Patients in the TOMM fail group scored higher than those in the TOMM pass group on both measures. Similarly, there were significant main effects and/or large effect sizes on the S-NAB. Patients in the TOMM fail group performed more poorly on the Attention (p = .004, d = 1.26), Memory (p = .006, d = 1.16), and Executive Functioning (p > .05, d = 0.70) indexes. These results highlight the importance of considering the influence of poor effort, in conjunction with a growing list of factors that can influence, maintain, and/or mimic the persistent postconcussion syndrome. PMID:20437284

  3. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  4. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  5. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E.; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  6. Enacting Dialogue: The Impact of Promoting Philosophy for Children on the Literate Thinking of Identified Poor Readers, Aged 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Philip; Lyle, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Philosophy for Children in Schools Project (P4CISP) is a research project to monitor and evaluate the impact of Philosophy for Children (P4C) on classroom practices. In this paper the impact of P4C on the thinking skills of four children aged 10 is examined. Standardised tests indicated the children had below-average reading ages. The pupils…

  7. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Quail, Stephanie L.; Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5–6, 8–9 and 27–28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2–3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27–28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27–28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27–28 months. Conclusion: this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed. PMID:26869921

  8. Aging Behavior and Performance Projections for a Polysulfide Elastomer

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Quintana, Adam

    2015-05-01

    The accelerated aging behavior and aging state of a 30 year old field retrieved polysulfide elastomer was examined. The material is used as an environmental thread sealant for a stainless steel bolt in a steel threaded insert in an aluminum assembly. It is a two component curable polysulfide elastomer that is commercially available in a similar formulation as was applied 30 years ago. The primary goal of this study was to establish if aging over 30 years under moderate aging conditions (mostly ambient temperature and humidity) resulted in significant property changes, or if accelerated aging could identify developing aging pathways which would prevent the extended use of this material. The aging behavior of this material was examined in three ways: A traditional accelerated thermo-oxidative aging study between 95 to 140°C which focused on physical and chemical properties changes, an evaluation of the underlying oxidation rates between RT and 125°C, and an assessment of the aging state of a small 30 year old sample. All three data sets were used to establish aging characteristics, their time evolution, and to extrapolate the observed behavior to predict performance limits at RT. The accelerated aging study revealed a relatively high average activation energy of ~130 kJ/mol which gives overconfident performance predictions. Oxidation rates showed a decreasing behavior with aging time and a lower E a of ~84 kJ/mol from time - temperature superposition , but also predicted sufficient additional performance at RT. Consistent with these projections for extended RT performance, only small changes were observed for the 30 year old material. Extrapolations using this partially aged material also predict ongoing use as a viable option. Unexpected RT degradation could only develop into a concern should the oxidation rate not trend lower over time as was observed at elevated temperature. Considering all data acquired in this limited aging study , there are no immediately

  9. Demand Creation for Polio Vaccine in Persistently Poor-Performing Communities of Northern Nigeria: 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Warigon, Charity; Mkanda, Pascal; Muhammed, Ado; Etsano, Andrew; Korir, Charles; Bawa, Samuel; Gali, Emmanuel; Nsubuga, Peter; Erbeto, Tesfaya B.; Gerlong, George; Banda, Richard; Yehualashet, Yared G.; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Poliomyelitis remains a global threat despite availability of oral polio vaccine (OPV), proven to reduce the burden of the paralyzing disease. In Nigeria, children continue to miss the opportunity to be fully vaccinated, owing to factors such as unmet health needs and low uptake in security-compromised and underserved communities. We describe the implementation and evaluation of several activities to create demand for polio vaccination in persistently poor-performing local government areas (LGAs). Methods. We assessed the impact of various polio-related interventions, to measure the contribution of demand creation activities in 77 LGAs at very high risk for polio, located across 10 states in northern Nigeria. Interventions included provision of commodities along with the polio vaccine. Results. There was an increasing trend in the number of children reached by different demand creation interventions. A total of 4 819 847 children were vaccinated at health camps alone. There was a reduction in the number of wards in which >10% of children were missed by supplementary immunization activities due to noncompliance with vaccination recommendations, a rise in the proportion of children who received ≥4 OPV doses, and a decrease in the proportion of children who were underimmunized or unimmunized. Conclusions. Demand creation interventions increased the uptake of polio vaccines in persistently poor-performing high-risk communities in northern Nigeria during September 2013–November 2014. PMID:26908717

  10. Cognitive Profiles of Korean Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Ji, Yu-Kyong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the performance of 30 poor readers in the third grade with those of 30 average readers of the same age and 30 younger readers matched with the same reading level on phonological, visuo-perceptual, orthographic, and naming speed tasks. Individual data revealed heterogeneous profiles for the poor readers: six (20%) exhibited…

  11. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile.

  12. Methylphenidate enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Agay, Nirit; Yechiam, Eldad; Carmel, Ziv; Levkovitz, Yechiel

    2014-04-01

    We compare the view that the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) is selective to individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent for individuals with weak baseline capacities in relevant cognitive tasks. To evaluate theses 2 approaches, we administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision-making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 control subjects, using a within-subject placebo-controlled design. The results demonstrated no main effects of MPH in the decision-making tasks. In the sustained attention and working-memory tasks, MPH enhanced performance of both ADHD and non-ADHD adults to a similar extent compared with placebo. Hence, the effect of MPH was not selective to ADHD adults. In addition, those benefitting most from MPH in all 3 task domains tended to be individuals with poor task performance. However, in most tasks, individuals whose performance was impaired by MPH were not necessarily better (or worse) performers. The findings suggest that the administration of MPH to adults with ADHD should consider not only clinical diagnosis but also their functional (performance-based) profile. PMID:24525641

  13. Running on age in a 15-km road run: minor influence of age on performance.

    PubMed

    Celie, Floortje; Faes, Miriam; Hopman, Maria; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde

    2010-04-01

    The importance of exercise in the elderly is widely recognized, but data on performances and drop-out in short running contests are lacking. This hinders stimulation and coaching of elderly persons in active aging. The aim of the study was to determine age-related changes in running performance in the most popular Dutch road run, and how this is influenced by gender, training, and increased participation rate over the last decade. This is a retrospective analysis of 194,560 participants of a 15-km run from 1995 to 2007. Multiple regression analysis of running time by age, gender, and training was performed. Trends in participation were examined by chi-square tests and ANOVA. Trends in running time and speed were examined by t tests. With aging, running time increased with 0.20% per year (P < 0.001). Running time was on average 13% (P < 0.001) shorter in men than in women and was 15.7% (P < 0.001) shorter in participants who trained on a regular basis. Decline in performance with age was 5.9% larger for men than women (P < 0.01) and 4.5% larger for trained than untrained participants (P < 0.01). Over the last decade, participation numbers increased most for elderly (≥60 years) and female participants, mean running performance declined with 9.9% (P < 0.001). Drop-out number was low at all ages (0.13-0.29%). It appears that aging has only minor negative influences on running performance, which can even be attenuated by training. Our data suggest that exercise by means of running is a safe and rewarding option for improvement of healthy and active aging. PMID:21124752

  14. Performance of cell-penetrating peptide-linked polymers physically mixed with poorly membrane-permeable molecules on cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Shinji; Suita, Masaya; Yamamoto, Takafumi; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Nakajima, Noriko; Shinkai, Norihiro; Yamauchi, Hitoshi; Hiwatari, Ken-Ichiro; Hashizume, Akio; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Ryoji; Ishimaru, Yuki; Kasai, Atsushi; Maeda, Sadaaki

    2012-05-01

    We are investigating a new class of penetration enhancers that enable poorly membrane-permeable molecules physically mixed with them to effectively penetrate cell membranes without their concomitant cellular uptake. Since we previously revealed that poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) modified with d-octaarginine, which is a typical cell-penetrating peptide, significantly enhanced the nasal absorption of insulin, we examined the performance of the polymers on cell membranes. When Caco-2 cells were incubated with 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) for 30 min, approximately 0.1% of applied CF was internalized into the cells. This poor membrane permeability was dramatically enhanced by d-octaarginine-linked polymers; a 25-fold increase in the cellular uptake of CF was observed when the polymer concentration was adjusted to 0.2mg/mL. None of the individual components, for example, d-octaarginine, had any influence on CF uptake, demonstrating that only d-octaarginine anchored chemically to the polymeric platform enhanced the membrane permeation of CF. The polymer-induced CF uptake was consistently high even when the incubation time was extended to 120 min. Confocal laser scanning microphotographs of cells incubated with d-octaarginine-linked polymers bearing rhodamine red demonstrated that the cell outline was stained with red fluorescence. The polymer-induced CF uptake was significantly suppressed by 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride, which is an inhibitor of macropinocytosis. Results indicated that d-octaarginine-linked polymers remained on the cell membrane and poorly membrane-permeable CF was continuously internalized into cells mainly via macropinocytosis repeated for the individual peptidyl branches in the polymer backbone.

  15. Performance efficiency and its changes among aging municipal employees.

    PubMed

    Suvanto, S; Huuhtanen, P; Nygård, C H; Ilmarinen, J

    1991-01-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the performance efficiency of aging municipal workers in different work categories and to determine the changes that occurred in visual search, short-term memory, and fine motor performance over a four-year follow-up period beginning at about 51 years of age. The mental capacity of the workers in mental work was better than that of the workers in physical and mixed physical and mental work, and the results between the physical and mixed work groups did not differ significantly. In four years, the workers' complex short-term memory weakened 6-7% in all three work content groups. Fine motor speed decreased 2-7% in the physical and mental work groups. It was concluded that the mental capacity of older workers depends on the mental demands of their work tasks. The weakening of performance is 2-7% between the ages of 51 to 55 years.

  16. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    PubMed

    Svensson, Anna C; Abel, Kathryn; Dalman, Christina; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875). Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4) points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  17. Processing Words Varying in Personal Familiarity (Based on Reading and Spelling) by Poor Readers and Age-Matched and Reading-Matched Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Evelyne; Willows, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate whether performance differences between good and poor readers relate to reading-specific cognitive factors that result from engaging in reading activities and other experiential factors, the authors gave students in Grades 4 and 6 a perceptual identification test of words not only drawn from their personal lexicon but also varying in…

  18. Effects of fiber inclusion on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets reared under optimal or poor hygienic conditions.

    PubMed

    Berrocoso, J D; Menoyo, D; Guzmán, P; Saldaña, B; Cámara, L; Mateos, G G

    2015-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of inclusion of additional fiber in the Phase I diet on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in piglets reared under "optimal" or "poor" hygienic conditions. In both experiments, the design was completely randomized with a control diet that contained 2.2% crude fiber and 8 additional isonutritive diets that included 2.5 or 5.0% of sugar beet pulp (SBP), straw, oat hulls (OH), or wheat middlings (WHM). Preplanned polynomial contrasts were used to study the effects of 1) fiber inclusion (control diet vs. average of the 8 fiber-containing diets), 2) source of fiber, 3) level of fiber, and 4) interaction between source and level of fiber. In Exp. 1 (clean barn), fiber inclusion increased ( < 0.01) the incidence of postweaning diarrhea (PWD) and reduced ( < 0.05) feed efficiency and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of all nutrients except that of CP, which was not affected. Piglet performance was not affected by source or level of dietary fiber. The ATTD of all nutrients decreased ( < 0.05) as the level of fiber increased and was lower in pigs fed straw or OH than in pigs fed SBP or WHM. The apparent ileal digestibility of GE and DM decreased ( < 0.05) with fiber inclusion, a reduction that was more pronounced ( < 0.05) with straw or SBP than with OH inclusion, with WHM inclusion being intermediate. Fiber inclusion did not affect villous height to crypt depth ratio of the ileum mucosa. The inclusion of 5% of a fiber source increased and counts in the cecum ( < 0.001) but the to ratio was not affected. In Exp. 2 (dirty barn), fiber inclusion did not affect piglet performance but tended to increase PWD ( = 0.07). Also, fiber inclusion reduced ( < 0.05) the ATTD of all dietary components except that of CP, which was not affected. Source and level of fiber did not affect ATTD of nutrients except for DM, which was greater for pigs fed SBP than for pigs fed straw ( < 0.05). In conclusion, in the current

  19. Age effects on attentional blink performance in meditation.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, Sara; Müller, Notger G; Melloni, Lucia

    2009-09-01

    Here we explore whether mental training in the form of meditation can help to overcome age-related attentional decline. We compared performance on the attentional blink task between three populations: A group of long-term meditation practitioners within an older population, a control group of age-matched participants and a control group of young participants. Members of both control groups had never practiced meditation. Our results show that long-term meditation practice leads to a reduction of the attentional blink. Meditation practitioners taken from an older population showed a reduction in blink as compared to a control group taken from a younger population, whereas, the control group age-matched to the meditators' group revealed a blink that was comparatively larger and broader. Our results support the hypothesis that meditation practice can: (i) alter the efficiency with which attentional resources are distributed and (ii) help to overcome age-related attentional deficits in the temporal domain.

  20. Fetal Habituation Performance: Gestational Age and Sex Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCorry, Noleen K.; Hepper, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    Habituation is the decrement in response to repeated stimulation. Fetal habituation performance may reflect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS) prenatally. However, basic characteristics of the prenatal habituation phenomena remain unclear, such as the relationship with gestational age (GA) and fetal sex. The current study…

  1. Factors relating to poor survival rates of aged cervical cancer patients: a population-based study with the relative survival model in Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    Poor survival of older cervical cancer patients has been reported; however, related factors, such as the extent of disease and the competitive risk by aging have not been well evaluated. We applied the relative survival model developed by Dickman et al to resolve this issue. Study subjects were cervical cancer patients retrieved from the Osaka Cancer Registry. They were limited to the 10,048 reported cases diagnosed from 1975 to 1999, based on the quality of data collection on vital status. Age at diagnosis was categorized into <30, 30-54, 55-64, and > or = 65 years. The impact of prognostic factors on 5-year survival was evaluated with the relative survival model, incorporating patients' expected survival in multivariate analysis. The age-specific relative excess risk (RER) of death was significantly higher for older groups as compared with women aged 30-54 years (RER, 1.58 at 55-64 and 2.51 at > or = 65 years). The RER was decreased by 64.8% among the 55-64 year olds as an effect of cancer stage at diagnosis, and by 43.4% among those 65 years old and over. After adding adjustment for treatment modalities, the RER was no longer significantly higher among 55-64 year olds; however, it was still higher among 65 year olds and over. Advanced stage at diagnosis was the main determinant of poor survival among the aged cervical cancer patients, although other factors such as limitations on the combination of treatment were also suggested to have an influence in those aged 65 years and over.

  2. Models of Metal-poor Stars with Gravitational Settling and Radiative Accelerations. II. The Age of the Oldest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Richard, O.; Michaud, G.; Richer, J.

    2002-05-01

    Isochrones for ages between 12 and 18 Gyr have been derived from the evolutionary tracks presented in Paper I (Richard et al.) for masses from 0.5 to 1.0 Msolar and initial chemical abundances corresponding to (1) Y=0.2352, Z=1.69×10-4 ([Fe/H]=-2.31,[α/Fe]=0.3) and (2) Y=0.2370, Z=1.69×10-3 ([Fe/H=-1.31,[α/Fe]=0.3). These are the first models for Population II stars in which both gravitational settling and radiative accelerations have been taken into account. Allowance for these diffusive processes leads to a 10%-12% reduction in age at a given turnoff luminosity. However, in order for the diffusive models to satisfy the constraints from Li and Fe abundance data (see Paper I) and to reproduce the observed morphologies of globular cluster (GC) color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) in a straightforward way, extra mixing just below the boundary of the convective envelope seems to be necessary. Indeed, when additional turbulent mixing is invoked, the resultant models are able to satisfy all of these constraints, as well as those provided by the CMDs of local subdwarfs, rather well. Moreover, they imply an age near 13.5 Gyr for M92, which is one of the most metal-deficient (and presumably one of the oldest) of the Galaxy's GCs, if the field subgiant HD 140283 is used to derive the cluster distance. Comparisons of field subdwarfs and subgiants with a recently published fiducial for M5 suggests that the cluster has [Fe/H]<~-1.4, in conflict with some estimates based on high-resolution spectroscopy, if the metallicities of the field stars are to be trusted. In addition, an age of ~11.5 Gyr is found for M5, irrespective of whether diffusive or nondiffusive isochrones are employed in the analysis. The implications of our results for the extragalactic distance scale and for the Hubble constant are briefly discussed in the context of the presently favored ΩM~0.35, ΩΛ~0.65 cosmological model.

  3. Academic performance and intelligence scores of primary school-aged children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ezenwosu, Osita; Emodi, Ifeoma; Ikefuna, Anthony; Chukwu, Barth

    2013-11-01

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are faced with complications which may interfere with their educational activities including academic performance. Reports on their academic performance are mainly from developed countries and the results have been inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the academic performance of primary school-aged children with SCA in Nigeria and compare findings with a group of controls. Ninety children with SCA aged 5-11 years were consecutively recruited at the SCA clinic of UNTH Enugu and their age- and sex-matched normal classmates were enrolled as controls. Academic performance of the children with SCA was studied using the overall scores achieved in the three term examinations in the preceding academic year (2009/2010), while their intelligence quotient (IQ) was determined using the Draw-A-Person Test. The findings were compared with that of 90 controls. The mean overall academic score of the children with SCA of 62.71 ± 19.43% was similar to 67.47 ± 16.42% in the controls (P = .077). However, a significantly higher number of children with SCA (32.2% vs. 16.7% of the controls; P = .015) scored below 50%, thus, had poor performance. The mean IQ of the subjects (91.41 ±16.61%) was similar to that of the controls (95.56 ±17.31%, P = .103). However, more SCA patients had lower IQ scores than controls though not statistically significant (P = 0.083). The overall academic performance of children with SCA, therefore, compares favorably with that of controls although there is a higher prevalence of poor performance among them.

  4. Age-aware solder performance models : level 2 milestone completion.

    SciTech Connect

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Vianco, Paul Thomas; Neidigk, Matthew Aaron; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-09-01

    Legislated requirements and industry standards are replacing eutectic lead-tin (Pb-Sn) solders with lead-free (Pb-free) solders in future component designs and in replacements and retrofits. Since Pb-free solders have not yet seen service for long periods, their long-term behavior is poorly characterized. Because understanding the reliability of Pb-free solders is critical to supporting the next generation of circuit board designs, it is imperative that we develop, validate and exercise a solder lifetime model that can capture the thermomechanical response of Pb-free solder joints in stockpile components. To this end, an ASC Level 2 milestone was identified for fiscal year 2010: Milestone 3605: Utilize experimentally validated constitutive model for lead-free solder to simulate aging and reliability of solder joints in stockpile components. This report documents the completion of this milestone, including evidence that the milestone completion criteria were met and a summary of the milestone Program Review.

  5. Positive parenting mitigates the effects of poor self-regulation on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Lauren E.; Francis, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether parenting style moderated the effects of delay of gratification on BMI trajectories from age 4 to 15 years. Methods Longitudinal data were analyzed on 778 children drawn from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) was created from measures of mothers’ sensitivity and expectations for self-control when children were age 4 years. Self-regulation was also measured at 4 years using a well-known delay of gratification protocol. BMI was calculated from measured height and weight at each time point. Mixed modeling was used to test the interaction of parenting styles and ability to delay gratification on BMI trajectories from 4 to 15 years. Results There was a significant interaction effect of parenting and ability to delay on BMI growth from 4 to 15 years for boys. Boys who had authoritarian mothers and failed to delay gratification had a significantly steeper rate of growth in BMI from childhood through adolescence than children in any other parenting x delay group. Conclusions Authoritative and permissive parenting styles were protective against more rapid BMI gains for boys who could not delay gratification. Ability to delay gratification was protective against BMI gains for boys who had parents with authoritarian or neglectful parenting styles. PMID:23977874

  6. Efficiency indices and indicators of poor performance among emerging small-scale pig farmers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mokoele, Japhta M; Spencer, B Tom; van Leengoed, Leo A M G; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2014-11-12

    Limpopo is a very important area for pig production in terms of animal populations and contributions to transboundary animal disease spread. Emerging small-scale pig farmers (ESSPF) are being encouraged to establish operations and spread in South Africa; however, for these farmers to perform optimally, they need to understand the basics of animal agriculture and contribute to enhancing biosecurity and efficient production systems. In the present study, the limitations to efficient production amongst ESSPF were evaluated and some improvements were suggested. It was found that the ESSPF are dominated by males and include a large percentage of older persons. A total of 26.54% of these farmers have post-matriculation qualifications. Undefined and indigenous breeds still dominate their animal genetics. The animal health technicians are the preferred channels by which farmers report diseases to the authorities (52.47%) and only one out of five (20.37%) will preferably report a disease situation direct to a veterinarian. These farmers do not vaccinate their stock, and knowledge of biosecurity is poor. Antimicrobials, especially tetracyclines, are abused. Animals that are slaughtered within the community or sold at local sale points, pension pay stations and auction markets are likely candidates for disease spread. It is recommended that the younger generations are retained and incentivised in animal agriculture. Improved training on management, health, biosecurity and better market access must be provided for the ESSPF, whilst efforts should made to consolidate these farmers into small cooperatives. The current government agricultural support system will need to be reworked to benefit the resource-poor farmers. Collaborative efforts in disease reporting and management among veterinarians, animal health technicians and extension officers will become necessary. Finally, the creation of a progressive quality grading system for ESSPF should be planned by the industry and this

  7. Impaired performance on advanced Theory of Mind tasks in children with epilepsy is related to poor communication and increased attention problems.

    PubMed

    Lunn, Judith; Lewis, Charlie; Sherlock, Christopher

    2015-02-01

    Children with epilepsy (CWE) have social difficulties that can persist into adulthood, and this could be related to problems with understanding others' thoughts, feelings, and intentions. This study assessed children's ability to interpret and reason on mental and emotional states (Theory of Mind) and examined the relationships between task scores and reports of communication and behavior. Performance of 56 CWE (8-16years of age) with below average IQ (n=17) or an average IQ (n=39) was compared with that of 62 healthy controls with an average IQ (6-16years of age) on cognition, language, and two advanced Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks that required children to attribute mental or emotional states to eye regions and to reason on internal mental states in order to explain behavior. The CWE-below average group were significantly poorer in both ToM tasks compared with controls. The CWE - average group showed a significantly poorer ability to reason on mental states in order to explain behavior, a difference that remained after accounting for lower IQ and language deficits. Poor ToM skills were related to increased communication and attention problems in both CWE groups. There is a risk for atypical social understanding in CWE, even for children with average cognitive function.

  8. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) are at increased risk for developing later psychopathology, the mechanisms contributing to this association are largely unknown. In the present study, we examined a putative cognitive link to psychopathology in a cohort of ELBW survivors. These individuals were followed up prospectively at age 8 and again at ages 22-26. At 8 years, participants completed measures of fluid and general intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight < 10th percentile for gestational age) showed the highest level of externalizing behaviors. These findings provide support for a cumulative risk model and suggest that fluid intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  9. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN AGE AND MODERATE ALCOHOL EFFECTS ON SIMULATED DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Boissoneault, Jeff; Fillmore, Mark T.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-01-01

    Rationale There is a substantial body of literature documenting the deleterious effects of both alcohol consumption and age on driving performance. There is, however, limited work examining the interaction of age and acute alcohol consumption. Objectives The current study was conducted to determine if moderate alcohol doses differentially affect the driving performance of older and younger adults. Methods Healthy older (55 – 70) and younger (25 – 35) adults were tested during a baseline session and again following consumption of one of three beverages (0.0% (placebo), 0.04% or 0.065% target breath alcohol concentration). Measures of driving precision and average speed were recorded. Results Older adults performed more poorly on precision driving measures and drove more slowly than younger adults at baseline. After controlling for baseline performance, interactions between alcohol and age were observed following beverage consumption on two measures of driving precision with older adults exhibiting greater impairment as a result of alcohol consumption. Conclusions These data provide evidence that older adults may be more susceptible to the effects of alcohol on certain measures of driving performance. An investigation of mechanisms accounting for alcohol’s effects on driving in older and younger adults is required. Further evaluation using more complex driving environments is needed to assess the real-world implication of this interaction. PMID:24030469

  10. Performance of growing cattle on poor-quality rangelands supplemented with farm-formulated protein supplements in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Gusha, J; Katsande, S; Zvinorova, P I; Halimani, T E; Chiuta, T

    2015-10-01

    Farmers use different non-conventional protein supplements and different feeding strategies to aid their animals survive the dry season in Zimbabwe. The strategies can be giving supplements once a week or once every other day up to very little supplement daily. Supplements are either legume crop residues or forage legumes. However, the efficacy of the use of non-conventional protein supplements in promoting growth and at the same time lowering the age at first calving is little understood. The study tested whether supplementing with farm-formulated non-conventional feeds could reduce live weight loss during the dry season and promote live weight gain as well as early development of sexual maturity in beef cattle. In a completely randomized design, thirty dams with calves on hooves were allocated to five different treatments which were repeated during the dry season for 3 years. The 3-year study results show that weight loss can be controlled, resulting in positive growth in both the pre-weaning and post-weaning phases of growing cattle. Yearlings fed solely on natural pasture lost significant weight during the dry season as compared to supplemented groups. The period to puberty and first calving was achieved at 18 and 27 months, respectively. Using non-conventional protein supplements could thus improve livestock productivity in resource-poor farming communities. It was concluded that smallholder farmers can supplement cattle with a kilogram per day of low-cost farm-based non-conventional legume meal to improve livestock productivity in semi-arid regions of Zimbabwe.

  11. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought.

  12. The Relative Age Effect and Its Influence on Academic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Juan-José; García-Rubio, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Purpose The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE). This effect is more important the younger the student is. The goal of this study is to identify the connections of influence that RAE, socioeconomic status (SES), and type of institution have on academic performance in a school population of eighth graders. Methods The study is based on a population-based, representative sample of 15,234 8th graders (50.4% female; average age = 13.61 years) in the 2011 National System of Quality Assessment in Education Survey (SIMCE) from Chile. The SIMCE for global academic performance consists of 4 tests: reading, mathematics, social studies, and science. All tests consist of multiple-choice and closed questions. In addition, in order to have the information of general academic performance, an extra variable expressing the average score of each student was created. Also, the SIMCE includes additional variables for the evaluation process such as SES or type of school. Students were assigned to one of five age groups in terms of date of birth (G1, G2, G3, G4, and G5), in which students belonging to G1 are the oldest and students belonging to G5 are the youngest. Results The results achieved in the structural equation modelling indicate a good global fit. Individual relationships show significant effects of the three variables observed on academic performance, although SES received the highest values. The influence of RAE took place both in the full sample and sub-samples composed according to the SES and academic performance, showing higher values for students with lower scores. Although the influence of RAE decreases when SES is controlled, its effect is still significant and contributes to additionally explain the

  13. Funnel plot control limits to identify poorly performing healthcare providers when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark.

    PubMed

    Manktelow, Bradley N; Seaton, Sarah E; Evans, T Alun

    2014-04-17

    There is an increasing use of statistical methods, such as funnel plots, to identify poorly performing healthcare providers. Funnel plots comprise the construction of control limits around a benchmark and providers with outcomes falling outside the limits are investigated as potential outliers. The benchmark is usually estimated from observed data but uncertainty in this estimate is usually ignored when constructing control limits. In this paper, the use of funnel plots in the presence of uncertainty in the value of the benchmark is reviewed for outcomes from a Binomial distribution. Two methods to derive the control limits are shown: (i) prediction intervals; (ii) tolerance intervals. Tolerance intervals formally include the uncertainty in the value of the benchmark while prediction intervals do not. The probability properties of 95% control limits derived using each method were investigated through hypothesised scenarios. Neither prediction intervals nor tolerance intervals produce funnel plot control limits that satisfy the nominal probability characteristics when there is uncertainty in the value of the benchmark. This is not necessarily to say that funnel plots have no role to play in healthcare, but that without the development of intervals satisfying the nominal probability characteristics they must be interpreted with care.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA integrity changes with age but does not correlate with learning performance in honey bees.

    PubMed

    Hystad, E M; Amdam, G V; Eide, L

    2014-01-01

    The honey bee is a well-established model organism to study aging, learning and memory. Here, we used young and old forager honey bees to investigate whether age-related learning capacity correlates with mitochondrial function. The bees were selected for age and learning performance and mitochondrial function was evaluated by measuring mtDNA integrity, mtDNA copy number and mitochondrial gene expression. Quite unexpectedly, mtDNA from young bees showed more damage than mtDNA from older bees, but neither mtDNA integrity, nor mtDNA copy number nor mitochondrial gene expression correlated with learning performance. Although not statistically significant (p=0.07) the level of L-rRNA increased with age in good learners whereas it decreased in poor learners. Our results show that learning performance in honey bee does not correlate with absolute mitochondrial parameters like mtDNA damage, copy number or expression of mitochondrial genes, but may be associated with the ability to regulate mitochondrial activity.

  15. Mobility in Old Age: Capacity Is Not Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mellone, Sabato; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2016-01-01

    Background. Outcomes of laboratory-based tests for mobility are often used to infer about older adults' performance in real life; however, it is unclear whether such association exists. We hypothesized that mobility capacity, as measured in the laboratory, and mobility performance, as measured in real life, would be poorly linked. Methods. The sample consisted of 84 older adults (72.5 ± 5.9 years). Capacity was assessed via the iTUG and standard gait parameters (stride length, stride velocity, and cadence). Performance was assessed in real life over a period of 6.95 ± 1.99 days using smartphone technology to calculate following parameters: active and gait time, number of steps, life-space, mean action-range, and maximum action-range. Correlation analyses and stepwise multiple regression analyses were applied. Results. All laboratory measures demonstrated significant associations with the real-life measures (between r = .229 and r = .461). The multiple regression analyses indicated that the laboratory measures accounted for a significant but very low proportion of variance (between 5% and 21%) in real-life measures. Conclusion. In older adults without mobility impairments, capacity-related measures of mobility bear little significance for predicting real-life performance. Hence, other factors play a role in how older people manage their daily-life mobility. This should be considered for diagnosis and treatment of mobility deficits in older people. PMID:27034932

  16. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  17. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  18. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance.

  19. Hunting behaviour and breeding performance of northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis, in relation to resource availability, sex, age and morphology.

    PubMed

    Penteriani, Vincenzo; Rutz, Christian; Kenward, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Animal territories that differ in the availability of food resources will require (all other things being equal) different levels of effort for successful reproduction. As a consequence, breeding performance may become most strongly dependent on factors that affect individual foraging where resources are poor. We investigated potential links between foraging behaviour, reproductive performance and morphology in a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population, which experienced markedly different resource levels in two different parts of the study area (rabbit-rich vs. rabbit-poor areas). Our analyses revealed (1) that rabbit abundance positively affected male reproductive output; (2) that age, size and rabbit abundance (during winter) positively affected different components of female reproductive output; (3) that foraging movements were inversely affected by rabbit abundance for both sexes (for females, this may mainly have reflected poor provisioning by males in the rabbit-poor area); (4) that younger breeders (both in males and females) tended to move over larger distances than older individuals (which may have reflected both a lack of hunting experience and mate searching); and (5) that male body size (wing length) showed some covariation with resource conditions (suggesting possible adaptations to hunting agile avian prey in the rabbit-poor area). Although we are unable to establish firm causal relationships with our observational data set, our results provide an example of how territory quality (here, food abundance) and individual features (here, age and morphology) may combine to shape a predator's foraging behaviour and, ultimately, its breeding performance. PMID:23995242

  20. Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) Mission Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Lee, David E.

    2016-01-01

    The moon’s surface last saw a controlled landing from a U.S. spacecraft on December 11, 1972 with Apollo 17. Since that time, there has been an absence of methodical in-situ investigation of the lunar surface. In addition to the scientific value of measuring the age and composition of a relatively young portion of the lunar surface near Aristarchus Plateau, the Moon Age and Regolith Explorer (MARE) proposal provides the first U.S. soft lunar landing since the Apollo Program and the first ever robotic soft lunar landing employing an autonomous hazard detection and avoidance system, a system that promises to enhance crew safety and survivability during a manned lunar (or other) landing. This report focuses on the mission design and performance associated with the MARE robotic lunar landing subject to mission and trajectory constraints.

  1. Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in working age adults.

    PubMed

    McLennan, Skye N; Ihle, Andreas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that prolonged exposure to high cortisol levels results in cognitive impairment. However, previous research into the relationship between cortisol and cognition has produced mixed results, most likely due to difficulties achieving valid estimates of long-term cortisol exposure based on salivary or plasma cortisol assessments at a single time point. Furthermore, there has been little research on the cognitive effects of long-term cortisol exposure in working-age adults. In the present study, hair samples were collected from 246 nurses (89.8% female) aged from 21 to 62 (M=42.0, SD=11.2). Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) in the proximal 3-cm hair segment were analyzed providing an estimate of integrated cortisol secretion over the 3 month-period prior to hair sampling. Cognition was measured using a battery of 15 neuropsychological tests, measuring core dimensions of memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, crystalized intelligence and major aspects of executive functioning. HCC was not significantly related to any of the cognitive abilities measured, either before or after controlling for potential moderators such as age, sex, education, health, well-being, work ability and burnout. Tests for nonlinear relationships also yielded non-significant results. Thus, despite the study being well powered, long term cortisol exposure did not appear to be related to cognitive performance in this sample of working-age adults, suggesting that long term cortisol exposure may be less relevant to cognition in younger and middle-aged adults than was previously thought. PMID:26881835

  2. An evaluation of sex-age-kill (SAK) model performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Skalski, John R.; Townsend, Richard L.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Boyce, Mark S.; Hansen, Lonnie P.; Kammermeyer, Kent

    2009-01-01

    The sex-age-kill (SAK) model is widely used to estimate abundance of harvested large mammals, including white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Despite a long history of use, few formal evaluations of SAK performance exist. We investigated how violations of the stable age distribution and stationary population assumption, changes to male or female harvest, stochastic effects (i.e., random fluctuations in recruitment and survival), and sampling efforts influenced SAK estimation. When the simulated population had a stable age distribution and λ > 1, the SAK model underestimated abundance. Conversely, when λ < 1, the SAK overestimated abundance. When changes to male harvest were introduced, SAK estimates were opposite the true population trend. In contrast, SAK estimates were robust to changes in female harvest rates. Stochastic effects caused SAK estimates to fluctuate about their equilibrium abundance, but the effect dampened as the size of the surveyed population increased. When we considered both stochastic effects and sampling error at a deer management unit scale the resultant abundance estimates were within ±121.9% of the true population level 95% of the time. These combined results demonstrate extreme sensitivity to model violations and scale of analysis. Without changes to model formulation, the SAK model will be biased when λ ≠ 1. Furthermore, any factor that alters the male harvest rate, such as changes to regulations or changes in hunter attitudes, will bias population estimates. Sex-age-kill estimates may be precise at large spatial scales, such as the state level, but less so at the individual management unit level. Alternative models, such as statistical age-at-harvest models, which require similar data types, might allow for more robust, broad-scale demographic assessments.

  3. AGING PERFORMANCE OF MODEL 9975 PACKAGE FLUOROELASTOMER O-RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.; Fisher, D.

    2011-05-31

    The influence of temperature and radiation on Viton{reg_sign} GLT and GLT-S fluoroelastomer O-rings is an ongoing research focus at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The O-rings are credited for leaktight containment in the Model 9975 shipping package used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials. At the Savannah River Site, the Model 9975 packages are being used for interim storage. Primary research efforts have focused on surveillance of O-rings from actual packages, leak testing of seals at bounding aging conditions and the effect of aging temperature on compression stress relaxation behavior, with the goal of service life prediction for long-term storage conditions. Recently, an additional effort to evaluate the effect of aging temperature on the oxidation of the materials has begun. Degradation in the mechanical properties of elastomers is directly related to the oxidation of the polymer. Sensitive measurements of the oxidation rate can be performed in a more timely manner than waiting for a measurable change in mechanical properties, especially at service temperatures. Measuring the oxidation rate therefore provides a means to validate the assumption that the degradation mechanisms(s) do not change from the elevated temperatures used for accelerated aging and the lower service temperatures. Monitoring the amount of oxygen uptake by the material over time at various temperatures can provide increased confidence in lifetime predictions. Preliminary oxygen consumption analysis of a Viton GLT-based fluoroelastomer compound (Parker V0835-75) using an Oxzilla II differential oxygen analyzer in the temperature range of 40-120 C was performed. Early data suggests oxygen consumption rates may level off within the first 100,000 hours (10-12 years) at 40 C and that sharp changes in the degradation mechanism (stress-relaxation) are not expected over the temperature range examined. This is consistent with the known long-term heat aging resistance of

  4. Precision Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy in Poor Performing Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Phase 1 Dose Escalation Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Westover, Kenneth D.; Loo, Billy W.; Gerber, David E.; Iyengar, Puneeth; Choy, Hak; Diehn, Maximilian; Hughes, Randy; Schiller, Joan; Dowell, Jonathan; Wardak, Zabi; Sher, David; Christie, Alana; Xie, Xian-Jin; Corona, Irma; Sharma, Akanksha; Wadsworth, Margaret E.; Timmerman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Purpose: Treatment regimens for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) give suboptimal clinical outcomes. Technological advancements such as radiation therapy, the backbone of most treatment regimens, may enable more potent and effective therapies. The objective of this study was to escalate radiation therapy to a tumoricidal hypofractionated dose without exceeding the maximally tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Methods and Materials: Patients with stage II to IV or recurrent NSCLC and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 or greater and not candidates for surgical resection, stereotactic radiation, or concurrent chemoradiation were eligible. Highly conformal radiation therapy was given to treat intrathoracic disease in 15 fractions to a total of 50, 55, or 60 Gy. Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled: 15 at the 50-Gy, 21 at the 55-Gy, and 19 at the 60-Gy dose levels. A 90-day follow-up was completed in each group without exceeding the MTD. With a median follow-up of 12.5 months, there were 93 grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs), including 39 deaths, although most AEs were considered related to factors other than radiation therapy. One patient from the 55- and 60-Gy dose groups developed grade ≥3 esophagitis, and 5, 4, and 4 patients in the respective dose groups experienced grade ≥3 dyspnea, but only 2 of these AEs were considered likely related to therapy. There was no association between fraction size and toxicity (P=.24). The median overall survival was 6 months with no significant differences between dose levels (P=.59). Conclusions: Precision hypofractionated radiation therapy consisting of 60 Gy in 15 fractions for locally advanced NSCLC is generally well tolerated. This treatment regimen could provide patients with poor performance status a potent alternative to chemoradiation. This study has implications for the cost effectiveness of lung cancer therapy. Additional studies of long

  5. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from…

  6. Performance of bolted closure joint elastomers under cask aging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Verst, C.; Sindelar, R.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2015-07-23

    The bolted closure joint of a bare spent fuel cask is susceptible to age-related degradation and potential loss of confinement function under long-term storage conditions. Elastomeric seals, a component of the joint typically used to facilitate leak testing of the primary seal that includes the metallic seal and bolting, is susceptible to degradation over time by several mechanisms, principally via thermo-oxidation, stress-relaxation, and radiolytic degradation under time and temperature condition. Irradiation and thermal exposure testing and evaluation of an ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomeric seal material similar to that used in the CASTOR® V/21 cask for a matrix of temperature and radiation exposure conditions relevant to the cask extended storage conditions, and development of semiempirical predictive models for loss of sealing force is in progress. A special insert was developed to allow Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) measurements before and after the irradiation and/or thermal exposure without unloading the elastomer. A condition of the loss of sealing force for the onset of leakage was suggested. The experimentation and modeling being performed could enable acquisition of extensive coupled aging data as well as an estimation of the timeframe when loss of sealing function under aging (temperature/radiation) conditions may occur.

  7. Preliminary Transportation, Aging and Disposal Canister System Performance Specification

    SciTech Connect

    C.A Kouts

    2006-11-22

    This document provides specifications for selected system components of the Transportation, Aging and Disposal (TAD) canister-based system. A list of system specified components and ancillary components are included in Section 1.2. The TAD canister, in conjunction with specialized overpacks will accomplish a number of functions in the management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Some of these functions will be accomplished at purchaser sites where commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) is stored, and some will be performed within the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) transportation and disposal system. This document contains only those requirements unique to applications within Department of Energy's (DOE's) system. DOE recognizes that TAD canisters may have to perform similar functions at purchaser sites. Requirements to meet reactor functions, such as on-site dry storage, handling, and loading for transportation, are expected to be similar to commercially available canister-based systems. This document is intended to be referenced in the license application for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). As such, the requirements cited herein are needed for TAD system use in OCRWM's disposal system. This document contains specifications for the TAD canister, transportation overpack and aging overpack. The remaining components and equipment that are unique to the OCRWM system or for similar purchaser applications will be supplied by others.

  8. Age-related changes in the performance of forward reach.

    PubMed

    Lin, S I; Liao, C F

    2011-01-01

    Aging is widely considered to be associated with limited balance capacity. It is not clear if forward reach ability is also affected by aging. The purpose of this study was to determine if aging was associated with reduced ability of forward reach or changes in movement patterns. Thirty-three young and 31 older adults were instructed to reach forward as far as possible without losing balance. A motion analysis system was used to record the body kinematics to calculate the joint angle and estimate the motion of center of mass (COM) using a five-segment model. Reach distance (measured from the finger marker), COM displacement, and the distance that the COM exceeded the 2nd toe marker (COM-toe) were used to represent reach performance. The movement patterns were classified as hip, ankle or mixed strategies based upon joint kinematics. It was found that the initial location of the COM was significantly more anterior in the older adults. Older adults were found to have significantly smaller COM displacement and greater hip flexion, but did not differ from young adults in reach distance or COM-toe. Older adults overwhelmingly adopted a hip strategy, but none adopted an ankle strategy. The distribution of the different strategies also differed significantly between groups. These findings suggest that aging appears to be associated with modifications in movement patterns, but not necessarily with a reduction in the ability to approach the boundary of stability. Clinically, balance training for older adults may include the exploration and instruction of atypical movement patterns. PMID:20951591

  9. Influence of age and selected environmental factors on reproductive performance of canvasbacks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serie, Jerome R.; Trauger, David L.; Austin, Jane E.

    1992-01-01

    Age, productivity, and other factors affecting breeding performance of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) are poorly understood. Consequently, we tested whether reproductive performance of female canvasbacks varied with age and selected environmental factors in southwestern Manitoba from 1974 to 1980. Neither clutch size, nest parasitism, nest success, nor the number of ducklings/brood varied with age. Return rates, nest initiation dates, renesting, and hen success were age-related. Return rates averaged 21% for second-year (SY) and 69% for after-second-year (ASY) females (58% for third-year and 79% for after-third-year females). Additionally, water conditions and spring temperatures influenced chronology of arrival, timing of nesting, and reproductive success. Nest initiation by birds of all ages was affected by minimum April temperatures. Clutch size was higher in nests initiated earlier. Interspecific nest parasitism did not affect clutch size, nest success, hen success, or hatching success. Nest success was lower in dry years (17%) than in moderately wet (54%) or wet (60%) years. Nests per female were highest during wet years. No nests of SY females were found in dry years. In years of moderate to good wetland conditions, females of all ages nested. Predation was the primary factor influencing nest success. Hen success averaged 58% over all years. The number of ducklings surviving 20 days averaged 4.7/brood. Because SY females have lower return rates and hen success than ASY females, especially during drier years, management to increase canvasback populations might best be directed to increasing first year recruitment (no. of females returning to breed) and to increasing overall breeding success by reducing predation and enhancing local habitat conditions during nesting.

  10. Poor physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care is related to muscle strength rather than to measures of sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Julie L; Iuliano-Burns, Sandra; King, Susannah J; Strauss, Boyd J; Walker, Karen Z

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate relationships among body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in elderly women in low-level aged care. Subjects and methods: Sixty-three ambulatory women (mean age 86 years) participated in this cross-sectional study where body composition was determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); ankle, knee, and hip strength by the Nicholas Manual Muscle Tester; and physical function by ‘timed up and go’ (TUG) and walking speed (WS) over 6 meters. Body composition data from a female reference group (n = 62, mean age 29 years) provided cut-off values for defining sarcopenia. Results: Elderly women had higher body mass index (P < 0.001), lower lean mass (P < 0.001), and higher fat mass (P < 0.01) than the young reference group. Only a small proportion (3.2%) had absolute sarcopenia (defined by appendicular skeletal muscle mass/height squared) whereas 37% had relative sarcopenia class II (defined by percentage skeletal muscle mass). Scores for TUG and WS indicated relatively poor physical function, yet these measures were not associated with muscle mass or indices of sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, only hip abductor strength predicted both TUG and WS (both P = 0.01). Conclusion: Hip strength is a more important indicator of physical functioning than lean mass. Measurement of hip strength may therefore be a useful screening tool to detect those at risk of functional decline and requirement for additional care. Further longitudinal studies with a range of other strength measures are warranted. PMID:21472094

  11. Poor maternal nutrition and accelerated postnatal growth induces an accelerated aging phenotype and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S.; Chen, Jian Hua; Hargreaves, Iain P.; Neergheen, Viruna; Aiken, Catherine E.; Ozanne, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT ‘Developmental programming’, which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed ‘recuperated’) in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle. We demonstrated accelerated telomere shortening (a robust marker of cellular aging) as evidenced by a reduced frequency of long telomeres (48.5-8.6 kb) and an increased frequency of short telomeres (4.2-1.3 kb) in vastus lateralis muscle from aged recuperated offspring compared to controls. This was associated with increased protein expression of the DNA-damage-repair marker 8-oxoguanine-glycosylase (OGG1) in recuperated offspring. Recuperated animals also demonstrated an oxidative stress phenotype, with decreased citrate synthase activity, increased electron-transport-complex activities of complex I, complex II-III and complex IV (all markers of functional mitochondria), and increased xanthine oxidase (XO), p67phox and nuclear-factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB). Recuperated offspring also demonstrated increased antioxidant defense capacity, with increased protein expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), catalase and heme oxygenase-1 (HO1), all of which are known targets of NF-κB and can be upregulated as a consequence of oxidative stress. Recuperated offspring also had a pro-inflammatory phenotype, as evidenced by

  12. Group housing of Holstein calves in a poor indoor environment increases respiratory disease but does not influence performance or leukocyte responses.

    PubMed

    Cobb, C J; Obeidat, B S; Sellers, M D; Pepper-Yowell, A R; Ballou, M A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine if group-housing Holstein heifer calves in indoor pens with poor ventilation and drainage influences performance, health, leukocytes, and behavioral responses compared with individually housed calves. Ninety colostrum-fed calves (2 ± 1 d of age) were randomly assigned to 3 treatments: individually housed (G1; n=30 calves), 2 calves per pen (G2; n=30 calves), or 3 calves per pen (G3; n=30 calves). The space allowance per calf was 2.5m(2) for all treatment groups. All calves were fed 747 and 1,010 g/d of dry matter of a 28% CP and 20% fat milk replacer during the first 2 wk and wk 3 to 6, respectively. Weaning was initiated on d 46 by removing the evening feeding, and calves were completely weaned when they consumed 800 g/d of dry matter calf starter for 2 consecutive days after d 54. Calves were randomly commingled at d 90 in groups of 5 calves per pen in outdoors pens with an attached hutch. Peripheral blood was collected during the neonatal (3, 10, 21 d), weaning (46, 48, 54 d), and commingling periods (90, 93, 98 d) and was analyzed for neutrophil oxidative burst capacity when cocultured with an Escherichia coli, neutrophil surface L-selectin protein concentration, and whole blood secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α when cocultured with lipopolysaccharide. Behavior of each calf was assessed using 2 independent tests: an approach response to a human subject and the response of the calf when placed in an isolated cage. Calf starter intake was greater for G2 and G3 during wk 8 and 9, and also at wk 11 for G3 compared with G1. No treatment × time interaction or treatment effect for average daily gain was observed. Additionally, no treatment × time or treatment effect was noted for any leukocyte or biochemical variable of biological significance throughout the entire study. Individually housed calves tended to have a reduced incidence of respiratory disease during the first 90 d of life. No other treatment

  13. Effect of Home-Based Complementary Food Fortification on Prevalence of Anemia Among Infants and Young Children Aged 6 to 23 Months in Poor Rural Regions of China.

    PubMed

    Huo, Junsheng; Sun, Jing; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Begin, France; Hipgrave, David B; Ma, Guansheng

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, the Chinese government instituted an infant and young and child nutrition program that included promotion of in-home fortification of complementary food with ying yang bao (YYB), a soy-based powder containing iron, 2.5 mg as iron-EDTA and 5 mg as ferrous fumarate, and other micronutrients. Ying yang bao was provided to participating families in 8 poor rural counties in Sichuan, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces by the Ministry of Health. We assessed hemoglobin levels among infants and young children (IYC) aged 6 to 23 months at baseline in May 2010 (n = 1290) and during follow-up in November 2010 (n = 1142), May 2011 (n = 1118), and November 2011 (n = 1040), using the Hemocue method. Interviewers collected basic demographic information and child feeding practices from the children's caretakers. Altitude-adjusted hemoglobin level averaged 10.8 g/dL, and total anemia prevalence was 49.5% at baseline. Average hemoglobin was 11.3 g/dL at 6 months, 11.6 g/dL at 12 months, and 11.7 g/dL at 18 months after introduction of YYB. Moderate anemia (hemoglobin: 70-99 g/dL) decreased from 20.3% at baseline to 7.5%, 5.8%, and 7.3% after 6, 12, and 18 months of home fortification, respectively (P < .001), whereas mild anemia (hemoglobin: 100-110 g/dL) decreased from 29.0% to 16.7%, 18.1%, and 15.4%, respectively (P < .001). Among infants aged 6 to 23 months, 95% had regularly been fed YYB during the observation period. Regression analysis showed that the duration of YYB consumption and number of sachets consumed per week correlated positively with hemoglobin levels and negatively with anemia rates. Home food fortification with YYB is feasible and effective for nutrition promotion among IYC in high-risk regions of China.

  14. Relationships between Personnel Tests, Age, and Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Winfred, Jr.; Fuentes, Rick

    The age decrement model has traditionally been a fairly popular model of the human life span. This model has the basic premise that with increasing age there is a corresponding decrease in a wide range of abilities. Not all research has agreed with the unqualified age decrement model. This study examined the relationship between an…

  15. Cognitive Performance in Women Aged 50 Years and Older With and Without Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Persons with fibromyalgia (FM) report having cognitive dysfunction. Neuropsychological performance was compared across a variety of domains in 43 women with FM (M age = 63 years) and in 44 women without FM (M age = 65 years). Method. Measures included explicit memory (Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease [CERAD] immediate/delayed recall, delayed recognition), aspects of executive function including interference/inhibition (Stroop Color/Word test), working memory (Digit Span Forward/Backward), set-shifting/complex sequencing (Trails B), monitoring (verbal fluency: naming animals), processing speed (Trails A, Digit Symbol Substitution Coding), and problem solving (Everyday Problems Test). Results. Women with FM performed more poorly than controls on executive function (Stroop Color/Word) and one processing speed measure (Digit Symbol Substitution Coding). Discussion. Results partly support altered cognitive function in FM. Mixed findings across cognitive domains among individuals with or without FM is consistent with the literature and suggest that factors beyond those typically controlled for (e.g., heterogeneity in FM) may be influencing findings. Future research is warranted. PMID:23275498

  16. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear. PMID:26629120

  17. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiu-Min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear.

  18. Atomic diffusion in metal poor stars. The influence on the Main Sequence fitting distance scale, subdwarfs ages and the value of Delta Y/ Delta Z

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaris, M.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Weiss, A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of atomic diffusion on the Main Sequence (MS) of metal-poor low mass stars is investigated. Since diffusion alters the stellar surface chemical abundances with respect to their initial values, one must ensure - by calibrating the initial chemical composition of the theoretical models - that the surface abundances of the models match the observed ones of the stellar population under scrutiny. When properly calibrated, our models with diffusion reproduce well within the errors the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of Hipparcos subdwarfs with empirically determined T_eff values and high resolution spectroscopical [Fe/H] determinations. Since the observed surface abundances of subdwarfs are different from the initial ones due to the effect of diffusion, while the globular clusters stellar abundances are measured in Red Giants, which have practically recovered their initial abundances after the dredge-up, the isochrones to be employed for studying globular clusters and Halo subdwarfs with the same observational value of [Fe/H] are different and do not coincide. This is at odds with the basic assumption of the MS-fitting technique for distance determinations. However, the use of the rather large sample of Hipparcos lower MS subdwarfs with accurate parallaxes keeps at minimum the effect of these differences, for two reasons. First, it is possible to use subdwarfs with observed [Fe/H] values close to the cluster one; this minimizes the colour corrections (which are derived from the isochrones) needed to reduce all the subdwarfs to a mono-metallicity sequence having the same [Fe/H] than the cluster. Second, one can employ objects sufficiently faint so that the differences between the subdwarfs and cluster MS with the same observed value of [Fe/H] are small (they increase for increasing luminosity). We find therefore that the distances based on standard isochrones are basically unaltered when diffusion is taken properly into account. On the other hand, the absolute ages

  19. 20 CFR 666.420 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to local areas for poor performance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... performance agreed to under § 666.310 for the core indicators of performance or customer satisfaction... or customer satisfaction indicators for a program for two consecutive program years, the Governor.... The Governor's final decision may be appealed by the Local Board to the Secretary under 20 CFR...

  20. Atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with poor performance in verbal fluency in elderly poststroke women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Kun; Xiao, Wei-Min; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Chu, Winnie Cw; Mok, Vincent Ct; Wong, Ka Sing; Ungvari, Gabor S; Tang, Wai Kwong

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between atrophy in the prefrontal cortex with executive function and verbal fluency in elderly male and female patients poststroke. Thirty elderly female patients with non-aphasic ischemic stroke aged ≥ 60 years and 30 age-matched non-aphasic male patients with ischemic stroke were recruited. Automatic magnetic resonance imaging segmentation was used to assess the volume of the whole prefrontal cortex, along with its subdivisions: anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The Semantic Verbal Fluency Test was administered at 3 and 15 months poststroke. At 3 months poststroke, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume was significantly correlated with Verbal Fluency Test score in female patients only (partial coefficient = 0.453, P = 0.045), after controlling for age, education, diabetes, neurological deficit, white matter lesions volume, as well as the location and volume of infarcts. At 15 months poststroke, there remained a significant association between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.661, P = 0.001) and between the left prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.573, P = 0.004) in female patients after the same adjustments. These findings indicate that atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributes to the impairment of verbal fluency in elderly female patients with stroke. Sex differences may be present in the neuropsychological mechanisms of verbal fluency impairment in patients with stroke.

  1. The Influence of Subordinate Age on Performance Ratings and Causal Attributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Gerald R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined the role of subordinate age in performance evaluations. Results found that supervisors rated older subordinates lower than younger subordinates doing the same job; differences between self-ratings of performance and supervisory ratings seemed to be a function of the subordinate's age; and a significant age by performance interaction was…

  2. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    PubMed

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was < 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted (OR 2.04; 95% CI 1.46-2.81); lastly, children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.02). Attained linear growth (height-for-age z-score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was < 145 cm, children born with a low birthweight and children 6-23 months old who were not fed dairy products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2

  3. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  4. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  5. White Matter Integrity Supports BOLD Signal Variability and Cognitive Performance in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing–moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)—to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network “hubs” that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity. PMID:25853882

  6. Peak performance and age among superathletes: track and field, swimming, baseball, tennis, and golf.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Curnow, C

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the age of peak performance in a broad range of athletic events incorporating multiple, diverse biological systems, learned skills, and motivation. Although many researchers have noted that the absolute levels of peak performance among superathletes have improved dramatically in the last 100 years, to date no one has answered the question of stability of peak performance age over this time period. Analyses of Olympic track and field and swimming data show that the age at which peak performance is achieved has remained remarkably consistent. For both men and women, the age of peak performance increases with the length of the foot race, and women generally achieve peak performance at younger ages. The pattern of increased age with increasing distance is reversed for female swimmers, where younger ages are associated with increasing distance. For most categories of performance in baseball, the peak age of performance is equivalent to that of a long distance runner, about 28 years of age, while top tennis players reach their highest levels of performance at age 24. Golfers, in comparison, peak at about 31 years of age, although recent data suggest movement toward younger ages. A task analysis of each event is carried out, and the relative roles of biology and learning are discussed as determinants of peak performance.

  7. Floating lipid beads for the improvement of bioavailability of poorly soluble basic drugs: in-vitro optimization and in-vivo performance in humans.

    PubMed

    Abouelatta, Samar M; Aboelwafa, Ahmed A; Khalil, Rawia M; ElGazayerly, Omaima N

    2015-01-01

    The challenge in developing oral drug delivery systems of poorly soluble basic drugs is primarily due to their pH dependent solubility. Cinnarizine (CNZ), a model for a poorly soluble basic drug, has pH dependent solubility; where it dissolves readily at low pH in the stomach and exhibits a very low solubility at pH values greater than 4. It is also characterized by a short half life of 3-6h, which requires frequent daily administration resulting in poor patient compliance. In an attempt to solve these problems, extended release floating lipid beads were formulated. A 2(4) full factorial design was utilized for optimization of the effects of various independent variables; lipid:drug ratio, % Pluronic F-127, % Sterotex, and Gelucire 43/01:Gelucire 50/13 ratio, on the loading efficiency and release of CNZ from the lipid beads. In-vivo pharmacokinetic study of the optimized CNZ-lipid beads compared to Stugeron® (reference standard) was performed in healthy human volunteers. A promising approach for enhancing the bioavailability of the poorly soluble basic drug, CNZ, utilizing novel and simple floating lipid beads was successfully developed. Zero order release profile of CNZ was achieved for 12h. Mean AUC0-24 and AUC0-∞ of the optimized CNZ-loaded lipid beads were 4.23 and 6.04 times that of Stugeron® tablets respectively.

  8. Can a Novel Web-Based Computer Test Predict Poor Simulated Driving Performance? A Pilot Study With Healthy and Cognitive-Impaired Participants

    PubMed Central

    Nef, Tobias; Bieri, Rahel; Jäger, Michael; Bethencourt, Nora; Tarnanas, Ioannis; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-01-01

    Background Driving a car is a complex instrumental activity of daily living and driving performance is very sensitive to cognitive impairment. The assessment of driving-relevant cognition in older drivers is challenging and requires reliable and valid tests with good sensitivity and specificity to predict safe driving. Driving simulators can be used to test fitness to drive. Several studies have found strong correlation between driving simulator performance and on-the-road driving. However, access to driving simulators is restricted to specialists and simulators are too expensive, large, and complex to allow easy access to older drivers or physicians advising them. An easily accessible, Web-based, cognitive screening test could offer a solution to this problem. The World Wide Web allows easy dissemination of the test software and implementation of the scoring algorithm on a central server, allowing generation of a dynamically growing database with normative values and ensures that all users have access to the same up-to-date normative values. Objective In this pilot study, we present the novel Web-based Bern Cognitive Screening Test (wBCST) and investigate whether it can predict poor simulated driving performance in healthy and cognitive-impaired participants. Methods The wBCST performance and simulated driving performance have been analyzed in 26 healthy younger and 44 healthy older participants as well as in 10 older participants with cognitive impairment. Correlations between the two tests were calculated. Also, simulated driving performance was used to group the participants into good performers (n=70) and poor performers (n=10). A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity of the wBCST in predicting simulated driving performance. Results The mean wBCST score of the participants with poor simulated driving performance was reduced by 52%, compared to participants with good simulated driving performance (P

  9. Association between Urine Phthalate Levels and Poor Attentional Performance in Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Evidence of Dopamine Gene-Phthalate Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Subin; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Cho, Soo-Churl; Kim, Yeni; Kim, Jae-Won; Lee, Ju-Young; Hong, Soon-Beom; Shin, Min-Sup; Yoo, Hee Jeong; Im, Hosub; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Han, Doug Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Although there is some evidence supporting the existence of an association between prenatal maternal or postnatal child’s urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances, the interaction between urine phthalate metabolite levels and genetic variation for neuropsychological deficit of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has not been examined. The aim of this study was to determine whether phthalate metabolites in urine are associated with poor neuropsychological performance in children with ADHD, and whether such association is affected by genotype-phthalate interaction. A cross-sectional examination of urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the continuous performance test (CPT) were performed in 179 Korean children with ADHD recruited from department of psychiatry of university hospital. Correlations between urine phthalate metabolite concentrations and the CPT scores were investigated, and the interaction of phthalate metabolite levels with the selected polymorphisms at major candidate genes for ADHD, namely dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), dopamine transporter, α-2A-adrenergic receptor, and norepinephrine transporter genes. For the subjects with the DRD4 4/4 genotype, there were significant associations of the urine phthalate metabolite concentrations with the number of omission errors, the number of commission errors, and the response time variability scores on the CPT. However, for the subjects without the DRD4 4/4 genotype, no significant associations were found. The results of this study suggest a possible association between phthalate metabolite concentrations and poor attentional performances of ADHD as well as a genetic influence on this association. Further prospective and epigenetic studies are needed to investigate causality and pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:24978879

  10. Excessive Video Game Use, Sleep Deprivation, and Poor Work Performance Among U.S. Marines Treated in a Military Mental Health Clinic: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Erin; Yung, Kathryn; Davis, Diane L; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Excessive use of video games may be associated with sleep deprivation, resulting in poor job performance and atypical mood disorders. Three active duty service members in the U.S. Marine Corps were offered mental health evaluation for sleep disturbance and symptoms of blunted affect, low mood, poor concentration, inability to focus, irritability, and drowsiness. All three patients reported insomnia as their primary complaint. When asked about online video games and sleep hygiene practices, all three patients reported playing video games from 30 hours to more than 60 hours per week in addition to maintaining a 40-hour or more workweek. Our patients endorsed sacrificing sleep to maintain their video gaming schedules without insight into the subsequent sleep deprivation. During the initial interviews, they exhibited blunted affects and depressed moods, but appeared to be activated with enthusiasm and joy when discussing their video gaming with the clinical provider. Our article illustrates the importance of asking about online video gaming in patients presenting with sleep disturbances, poor work performance, and depressive symptoms. Because excessive video gaming is becoming more prevalent worldwide, military mental health providers should ask about video gaming when patients report problems with sleep. PMID:26126258

  11. Excessive Video Game Use, Sleep Deprivation, and Poor Work Performance Among U.S. Marines Treated in a Military Mental Health Clinic: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Eickhoff, Erin; Yung, Kathryn; Davis, Diane L; Bishop, Frank; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Excessive use of video games may be associated with sleep deprivation, resulting in poor job performance and atypical mood disorders. Three active duty service members in the U.S. Marine Corps were offered mental health evaluation for sleep disturbance and symptoms of blunted affect, low mood, poor concentration, inability to focus, irritability, and drowsiness. All three patients reported insomnia as their primary complaint. When asked about online video games and sleep hygiene practices, all three patients reported playing video games from 30 hours to more than 60 hours per week in addition to maintaining a 40-hour or more workweek. Our patients endorsed sacrificing sleep to maintain their video gaming schedules without insight into the subsequent sleep deprivation. During the initial interviews, they exhibited blunted affects and depressed moods, but appeared to be activated with enthusiasm and joy when discussing their video gaming with the clinical provider. Our article illustrates the importance of asking about online video gaming in patients presenting with sleep disturbances, poor work performance, and depressive symptoms. Because excessive video gaming is becoming more prevalent worldwide, military mental health providers should ask about video gaming when patients report problems with sleep.

  12. Current morphologic criteria perform poorly in identifying hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated uterine leiomyomas.

    PubMed

    Alsolami, Sana; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Kalloger, Steve E; AlDaoud, Nagla; Pathak, Tilak B; Chung, Catherine T; Cheung, Catherine T; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Tomlinson, Ian P; Pollard, Patrick J; Gilks, C Blake; McCluggage, W Glenn; Clarke, Blaise A

    2014-11-01

    The contemporary oncologic pathology report conveys diagnostic, prognostic, predictive, and hereditary predisposition information. Each component may be premised on a morphologic feature or a biomarker. Clinical validity and reproducibility are paramount as is standardization of reporting and clinical response to ensure individualization of patient care. Regarding hereditary predisposition, morphology-based genetic referral systems in some instances have eclipsed genealogy-based systems, for example, cell type in ovarian cancer and BRCA screening. In other instances such as Lynch syndrome, morphology-based schemas supplement clinical schemas and there is an emerging standard of care for reflex biomarker testing. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC) syndrome predisposes patients to uterine and cutaneous leiomyomas (LMs) and renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). Several authors have emphasized the role pathologists may play in identifying this syndrome by recognizing the morphologic characteristics of syndromic uterine LMs and RCCs. Recently immunohistochemical overexpression of S-(2-succinyl) cysteine (2SC) has been demonstrated as a robust biomarker of mutation status in tumors from HLRCC patients. In this blinded control-cohort study we demonstrate that the proposed morphologic criteria used to identify uterine LMs in HLRCC syndrome are largely irreproducible among pathologists and lack sufficient robustness to serve as a trigger to triage cases for 2SC immunohistochemistry or patients for further family/personal history inquiry. Although refinement of morphologic criteria can be considered, in view of the availability of a clinically robust biomarker, consideration should be given to reflex testing of uterine LMs with an appropriate age cut off or in the setting of a suspicious family history. PMID:25272294

  13. Age and distraction are determinants of performance on a novel visual search task in aged Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; Christie, Lori-Ann; De Rivera, Christina; Araujo, Joseph A; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2012-02-01

    Aging has been shown to disrupt performance on tasks that require intact visual search and discrimination abilities in human studies. The goal of the present study was to determine if canines show age-related decline in their ability to perform a novel simultaneous visual search task. Three groups of canines were included: a young group (N = 10; 3 to 4.5 years), an old group (N = 10; 8 to 9.5 years), and a senior group (N = 8; 11 to 15.3 years). Subjects were first tested for their ability to learn a simple two-choice discrimination task, followed by the visual search task. Attentional demands in the task were manipulated by varying the number of distracter items; dogs received an equal number of trials with either zero, one, two, or three distracters. Performance on the two-choice discrimination task varied with age, with senior canines making significantly more errors than the young. Performance accuracy on the visual search task also varied with age; senior animals were significantly impaired compared to both the young and old, and old canines were intermediate in performance between young and senior. Accuracy decreased significantly with added distracters in all age groups. These results suggest that aging impairs the ability of canines to discriminate between task-relevant and -irrelevant stimuli. This is likely to be derived from impairments in cognitive domains such as visual memory and learning and selective attention.

  14. Improving Age Appropriate Social Skills To Enhance Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Lisa; Logan, Karen; Sprecher, Sharon; Streitmatter, Barbara

    This action research project examined the impact of a program for improving age-inappropriate behaviors that interfere with personal and academic progress. A total of 69 students from 3 elementary classrooms and 2 speech therapy groups were involved in the research. The targeted population consisted of fourth and sixth graders; students with…

  15. Academic Performance Difficulties: Age and Grade at First Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Archival records of 43 children referred for diagnosis and treatment for academic difficulties were examined. Results revealed a significant difference for age at first referral and diagnoses. Those with disorders such as learning disability and severe emotional disturbance tended to be older, while the ADHD and dysthymic disorders tended to be…

  16. Checking dwelling performance for Aging-in-Place.

    PubMed

    van der Vlies, Remy D; Nauta, Joram; Smit-Rietveld, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    About 90% of persons aged 55 and older would prefer to stay in their current residences as long as possible because older adults value their independence. However, aging-in-place is not always a choice. Recently, the Dutch government tightened the criteria for older adults to be admitted in a nursing home. Throughout the past 5 years TNO was requested by the trade association for building service contractors in the Netherlands to develop a number of tools for building service professionals. The 'dwelling check' was developed as a 'basic' check on the possibility for aging-in-place. A pilot study was conducted to assess the added value of the dwelling check for older adults. During this pilot study the occupants of over 200 dwellings were interviewed by 11 building services contractors using the dwelling check. Based on these interviews a personal advice was written. After which the interviewees were asked to evaluate this service, comprising the interview and written advice. The dwelling check contributed most to the awareness of and interest in possible alterations for aging-in-place. In a few cases the decision (17%) or even action (5%) was taken to make alterations. Overall the dwelling check was rated 8 out of 10 by the interviewees and may therefore be considered of added value. PMID:26294608

  17. Poor symptom and performance validity in regularly referred Hospital outpatients: Link with standard clinical measures, and role of incentives.

    PubMed

    Dandachi-FitzGerald, Brechje; van Twillert, Björn; van de Sande, Peter; van Os, Yindee; Ponds, Rudolf W H M

    2016-05-30

    We investigated the frequency of symptom validity test (SVT) failure and its clinical correlates in a large, heterogeneous sample of hospital outpatients referred for psychological assessment for clinical purposes. We studied patients (N=469), who were regularly referred for assessment to the psychology departments of five hospitals. Background characteristics, including information about incentives, were obtained with a checklist completed by the clinician. As a measure of over-reporting, the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) was administered to all patients. The Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test (ASTM), a cognitive underperformance measure, was only administered to patients who were referred for a neuropsychological assessment. Symptom over-reporting occurred in a minority of patients, ranging from 12% to 19% in the main diagnostic patient groups. Patients with morbid obesity had a low rate of over-reporting (1%). The SIMS was positively associated with levels of self-reported psychological symptoms. Cognitive underperformance occurred in 29.3% of the neuropsychological assessments. The ASTM was negatively associated with memory test performance. We found no association between SVT failure and financial incentives. Our results support the recommendation to routinely evaluate symptom validity in clinical assessments of hospital patients. The dynamics behind invalid symptom reporting need to be further elucidated. PMID:27137961

  18. THE IMMIGRANT POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEGALMAN, RALPH

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE LIVES OF THE POOR IN AMERICA WILL SHOW DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE IMMIGRANT (AND REFUGEE) POOR AND THE RESIDUAL POOR (NEGROES, PUERTO RICANS, LATIN AMERICANS, INDIANS, AND OTHERS). THE IMMIGRANT POOR WERE ACCULTURATED AND ABSORBED INTO THE MAINSTREAM OF AMERICAN LIFE WITHIN THREE GENERATIONS, WHEREAS THE RESIDUAL POOR HAVE BEEN…

  19. A Near-Complete Response to Treatment with Gemcitabine plus nab®-Paclitaxel in a Patient with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer and Poor Performance Status: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Shakir, Abdur R.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and poor performance status (PS) are typically excluded from clinical trials of new systemic treatments. Due to concerns that such patients cannot tolerate the greater toxicity sometimes associated with combination chemotherapy regimens, the recommended treatment for pancreatic cancer patients with poor PS is gemcitabine monotherapy. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the lungs, with multiple comorbidities and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 3, who achieved a rapid and prolonged objective response to gemcitabine plus nab®-paclitaxel. The patient received a total of 11 cycles of treatment. Although her disease was well controlled with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, she died just over 11 months after diagnosis as a result of her comorbid conditions compounded by treatment-related hematologic toxicity. This case suggests that patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and poor PS may benefit from first-line combination therapy with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. Further study of this regimen in such patients is warranted. PMID:25493084

  20. A Near-Complete Response to Treatment with Gemcitabine plus nab (®)-Paclitaxel in a Patient with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer and Poor Performance Status: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shakir, Abdur R

    2014-09-01

    Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and poor performance status (PS) are typically excluded from clinical trials of new systemic treatments. Due to concerns that such patients cannot tolerate the greater toxicity sometimes associated with combination chemotherapy regimens, the recommended treatment for pancreatic cancer patients with poor PS is gemcitabine monotherapy. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with pancreatic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the lungs, with multiple comorbidities and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 3, who achieved a rapid and prolonged objective response to gemcitabine plus nab (®)-paclitaxel. The patient received a total of 11 cycles of treatment. Although her disease was well controlled with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel, she died just over 11 months after diagnosis as a result of her comorbid conditions compounded by treatment-related hematologic toxicity. This case suggests that patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and poor PS may benefit from first-line combination therapy with gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel. Further study of this regimen in such patients is warranted.

  1. Viral load of equine herpesviruses 2 and 5 in nasal swabs of actively racing Standardbred trotters: Temporal relationship of shedding to clinical findings and poor performance.

    PubMed

    Back, Helena; Ullman, Karin; Treiberg Berndtsson, Louise; Riihimäki, Miia; Penell, Johanna; Ståhl, Karl; Valarcher, Jean-François; Pringle, John

    2015-09-30

    The equine gamma herpesviruses 2 and 5 (EHV-2 and -5) have frequently been observed in the equine population and until recently presumed low to nonpathogenic. However, recent reports linking presence of equine gamma herpesviruses with clinical signs of mild to severe lung disease, suggest that the role of these viruses in respiratory disease and poor performance syndrome is still unclear. Moreover, baseline data regarding the temporal pattern of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within stables and within individual actively racing horses have been lacking. In a prospective longitudinal study, we followed elite racing Standardbred trotters at monthly intervals for 13 months, to investigate whether the amount of EHV-2 and EHV-5 shedded in nasal secretions varied over time within and between individual horses. Sixty-six elite horses were investigated by analyzing nasal swabs and serum samples, a health check and evaluation of athletic performance monthly during the study period. Nasal swabs were analyzed with two newly developed qPCR assays for EHV-2 and EHV-5, respectively. Of 663 samples, 197 (30%) were positive for EHV-2 and 492 (74%) positive for EHV-5. Furthermore, 176 (27%) of the samples were positive for both EHV-2 and EHV-5 simultaneously. There was considerable variation in the amount and frequency of shedding of EHV-2 and EHV-5 within and between individual horses. Viral load varied seasonally, but neither EHV-2 nor EHV-5 viral peaks were associated with clinical respiratory disease and/or poor performance in racing Standardbred trotters.

  2. Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

  3. Age-Related Changes in Performance and Recovery Kinetics in Masters Athletes: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nattai; Reaburn, Peter; Driller, Matthew; Argus, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Despite increasing participation rates in masters sport and extensive research examining age-related changes in performance, little is known about the effect of age on recovery kinetics in masters athletes. This narrative review focuses on the relationship between aging and sport participation, and the effect on both performance and recovery following an exercise bout. Current research suggests the effect of age on performance and recovery may be smaller than originally suggested and that increasing sedentary lifestyles appear to play a larger role in any observed decrements in performance and recovery in masters athletes. Currently, it appears that performance decrements are inevitable with age. However, performance capacities can be maintained through systematic physical training. Moreover, the limited current research suggests there may be an age effect on recovery kinetics following an exercise bout, although further research is required to understand the acute and chronic recovery processes in the masters athlete.

  4. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  5. The number of functional olfactory receptor genes and the relative size of olfactory brain structures are poor predictors of olfactory discrimination performance with enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Laska, Matthias; Genzel, Daria; Wieser, Alexandra

    2005-02-01

    The ability of four squirrel monkeys and three pigtail macaques to distinguish between nine enantiomeric odor pairs sharing an isopropenyl group at the chiral center was investigated in terms of a conditioning paradigm. All animals from both species were able to discriminate between the optical isomers of limonene, carvone, dihydrocarvone, dihydrocarveole and dihydrocarvyl acetate, whereas they failed to distinguish between the (+)- and (-)-forms of perillaaldehyde and limonene oxide. The pigtail macaques, but not the squirrel monkeys, also discriminated between the antipodes of perillaalcohol and isopulegol. A comparison of the across-task patterns of discrimination performance shows a high degree of similarity among the two primate species and also between these nonhuman primates and human subjects tested in an earlier study on the same tasks. These findings suggest that between-species comparisons of the relative size of olfactory brain structures or of the number of functional olfactory receptor genes are poor predictors of olfactory discrimination performance with enantiomers. PMID:15703336

  6. The relationship between age and major league baseball performance: implications for development.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Musa, D; Staszewski, J; Siegler, R S

    1994-06-01

    Lifetime performance data of 388 baseball players active in 1965 were analyzed to determine the age of peak performance for skills required to play baseball, to derive age-performance curves for athletic productivity, and to assess the magnitude of individual differences among elite and less able players. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses show that athletic performance on key indicators rises relatively quickly from age 19 to a peak age of 27 and then declines. The primary difference between elite and less able players is that performance of the elite players remains high for a longer period of time and decays more gradually. The performance of the most elite players is superior to that of less able players even at very early ages. These results parallel findings reported for other achievement domains and can be explained in terms of basic developmental processes involving the interaction of experience, physiological capacity, and motivation.

  7. It Is Not Just the Poor Kids: The Use of AAE Forms by African-American School-Aged Children from Middle SES Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Miller, Jon F.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the production of African-American English (AAE) forms produced by 69 school-aged African-American children from middle socio-economic status (SES) communities to determine if age would influence: (a) the number of different types of AAE tokens and (b) the rate of dialect. Descriptive data revealed that there were more than 20…

  8. Anticoccidial drugs and duckling performance to four weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Holderread, D; Nakaue, H S; Arscott, G H

    1983-06-01

    Frequently, publications pertaining to waterfowl state that medicated feeds should not be fed to ducklings and goslings. In some localities, producers and hobbyists who raise a small number of ducklings and goslings can purchase only medicated chick, turkey, or gamebird starter and grower feeds. Because of the lack of documented information on this subject and the numerous requests for advice on this matter, anticoccidial drugs, zoalene, sulfaquinoxaline, and amprolium, were mixed in mash feed and fed to Khaki Campbell male ducklings to 4 weeks of age. No significant differences in mean body weight, mortality, and anatomical development were observed among the treatments. Medicated commercial crumble turkey and chick starter feeds produced significantly better feed conversion than the mash medicated or nonmedicated feeds. These differences can be attributed to greater feed spillage with the mash feed. Some ducklings in all treatments showed unsteadiness of gait and shaky legs. These conditions disappeared when the ducklings were moved from the battery brooder to an outside pen. Zoalene, sulfaquinoxaline, and amprolium used at the recommended levels for chickens and turkeys did not cause any leg or anatomical problems in ducklings.

  9. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  10. Trait compensation and sex-specific aging of performance in male and female professional basketball players.

    PubMed

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M

    2014-05-01

    Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.

  11. The influence of age on reproductive performance of the predatory ladybird beetle, Propylea dissecta.

    PubMed

    Pervez, Ahmad; Omkar; Richmond, Aaron S

    2004-01-01

    The influence of age on reproductive performance of an aphidophagous ladybird beetle, Propylea dissecta was examined using male and female beetles of varying ages (1-30 days) after a single mating stimulus. All the intermediate (10 to 20 days old) and old (30 days old) age females mated with all intermediate and old age males, while only a fraction (0.29%) of younger females, 1 to 5 days old, mated with males of similar or older age. The willingness to mate was male age dependent. It increased sigmoidally with increase in adult age. Adult males were more willing to mate with females irrespective of age. Mating duration was longest amongst older adults (30 day-old males and 20 day-old females). Male age did not contribute to shaping the fecundity of the female ladybird. Fecundity was female age dependent and it increased with age up to 20 days and thereafter decreased. 20 day-old females were most fecund producing 867 eggs after a single mating. Progeny production was male age dependent and eggs sired by 20-30 day-old males had significantly higher viability than those sired by younger males. Prolonged mating increased fecundity and egg viability. The results reveal that males of intermediate age were better mates. This information may improve our understanding of the effect of aging on reproduction in ladybirds and may help mass-multiplication of the ladybird beetles using adults of optimal age.

  12. Effects of age, tenure, training, and job complexity on technical performance.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, P R; Davies, D R

    1988-09-01

    Effects on performance of age, tenure, training level, and job complexity were investigated in a cross-sectional study using a sample of 1,308 service engineers employed by a multinational office equipment company. Two measures of job performance were derived from production record data, one relating to the quality of servicing and the other to the speed with which services were completed. Scores for each performance measure were analyzed by analysis of variance. For the quality of servicing measure, a significant main effect of age and a significant Age X Training interaction were obtained, and the relation between age and job performance took the form of an inverted U. For the speed of servicing measure, the main effects of age, tenure, training level, and job complexity were significant and there were no significant interactions. However, for both performance measures, age accounted for only a very small proportion of the variance. We discuss these results with reference to the existing literature on age and technical job performance, and conclude that training, especially if it is recent, may moderate adverse effects of age on job performance. PMID:3268273

  13. Performance trends in age group breaststroke swimmers in the FINA World Championships 1986-2014.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    Performance trends in breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level in pool competitions are well investigated for elite swimmers, but not for age group swimmers. This study investigated trends in participation, performance and sex difference in performance in a total of 35,143 (16,160 women and 18,983 men) age group breaststroke swimmers aged 25-29 to 95-99 years competing in the FINA World Masters Championships between 1986 and 2014. Trends in participation were analysed using linear regression analyses and trends in performance were investigated using mixed-effects regression analyses with sex, distance and calendar year as fixed variables. Women and men improved performance in all age groups. For age groups 25-29 to 85-89 years, men were faster than women. For age groups 90-94 to 95-99 years, men were not faster than women. Sex and distance showed a significant interaction for all distances in age groups 25-29 to 80-84 years. In 50 m, women reduced the gap to men in age groups 40-44 to 70-74 years and in 100 m and 200 m, women reduced the gap in age groups 50-54 to 60-64 years. In summary, (i) women and men improved performance in all race distances and in all age groups, (ii) men were faster than women from 25 to 89 years, but not from 90 to 99 years, and (iii), women reduced the gap to men between ~40 and ~75 years, but not in younger (<40 years) or older (>75 years) age groups. Based on these findings for a time period of nearly 30 years, we may assume a further increase in participation and a further improvement in performance in the near future in age group breaststroke swimmers competing at world class level.

  14. Variability and reduced performance of preschool- and early school-aged children on psychoacoustic tasks: What are the relevant factors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Prudence

    2003-04-01

    Young children typically perform more poorly on psychoacoustic tasks than do adults, with large individual differences. When performance is averaged across children within age groups, the data suggest a gradual change in performance with increasing age. However, an examination of individual data suggests that the performance matures more rapidly, although at different times for different children. The mechanisms of development responsible for these changes are likely very complex, involving both sensory and cognitive processes. This paper will discuss some previously suggested mechanisms including attention and cue weighting, as well as possibilities suggested from more recent studies in which learning effects were examined. In one task, a simple frequency discrimination was required, while in another the listener was required to extract regularities in complex sequences of sounds that varied from trial to trial. Results suggested that the ability to select and consistently employ an effective listening strategy was especially important in the performance of the more complex task, while simple stimulus exposure and motivation contributed to the simpler task. These factors are important for understanding the perceptual development and for the subsequent application of psychoacoustic findings to clinical populations. [Work supported by the NSERC and the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network.

  15. WWER Steam Generators Tubing Performance and Aging Management

    SciTech Connect

    Trunov, Nikolay B.; Davidenko, Stanislav E.; Grigoriev, Vladimir A.; Popadchuk, Valery S.; Brykov, Sergery I.; Karzov, Georgy P.

    2006-07-01

    At WWER NPPs the horizontal steam generators (SGs), are used that differ in design concept from vertical SGs mostly used at western NPPs. Reliable operation of SG heat-exchanging tubes is the crucial worldwide problem for NPP of various types. According to the operation feedback the water chemistry is the governing factor affecting operability of SG tubing. The secondary side corrosion is considered to be the main mechanism of SG heat-exchanging tubes damage at WWER plants. To make the assessment of the tubing integrity the combination of pressure tests and eddy-current tests is used. Assessment of the tubing performance is an important part of SG life extension practice. The given paper deals with the description of the tube testing strategy and the approach to tube integrity assessment based on deterministic and probabilistic methods of fracture mechanics. Requirements for eddy-current test are given as well. Practice of condition monitoring and implementing the database on steam generators operation are presented. The approach to tubes plugging criteria is described. The research activities on corrosion mechanism studies and residual lifetime evaluation are mentioned. (authors)

  16. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance.

  17. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance. PMID:11766912

  18. Sex-related differences and age of peak performance in breaststroke versus freestyle swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex-related differences in performance and in age of peak performance have been reported for freestyle swimming. However, little is known about the sex-related differences in other swimming styles. The aim of the present study was to compare performance and age of peak performance for elite men and women swimmers in breaststroke versus freestyle. Methods Race results were analyzed for swimmers at national ranked in the Swiss high score list (during 2006 through 2010) and for international swimmers who qualified for the finals of the FINA World Swimming Championships (during 2003 through 2011). Results The sex-related difference in swimming speed was significantly greater for freestyle than for breaststroke over 50 m, 100 m, and 200 m race distances for Swiss swimmers, but not for FINA finalists. The sex-related difference for both freestyle and breaststroke swimming speeds decreased significantly with increasing swimming distance for both groups. Race distance did not affect the age of peak performance by women in breaststroke, but age of peak performance was four years older for FINA women than for Swiss women. Men achieved peak swimming performance in breaststroke at younger ages for longer race distances, and the age of peak swimming performance was six years older for FINA men than for Swiss men. In freestyle swimming, race distance did not affect the age of peak swimming performance for Swiss women, but the age of peak swimming performance decreased with increasing race distance for Swiss men and for both sexes at the FINA World Championships. Conclusions Results of the present study indicate that (i) sex-related differences in swimming speed were greater for freestyle than for breaststroke for swimmers at national level, but not for swimmers at international level, and (ii) both female and male swimmers achieved peak swimming speeds at younger ages in breaststroke than in freestyle. Further studies are required to better understand differences

  19. Poor Performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for the Detection of Asymptomatic Infections in South African Men: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abbai-Shaik, N S; Reddy, T; Govender, S; Ramjee, G

    2016-01-01

    Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 20-30 mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR (20%) (95% CI 3.7-6.2%); however, an excellent specificity was observed (100%) (one sided 97.5% CI: 96.0-100). Conclusions. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated. PMID:27195171

  20. Poor ovarian reserve.

    PubMed

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  1. Poor ovarian reserve

    PubMed Central

    Jirge, Padma Rekha

    2016-01-01

    Poor ovarian reserve (POR) is an important limiting factor for the success of any treatment modality for infertility. It indicates a reduction in quantity and quality of oocytes in women of reproductive age group. It may be age related as seen in advanced years of reproductive life or may occur in young women due to diverse etiological factors. Evaluating ovarian reserve and individualizing the therapeutic strategies are very important for optimizing the success rate. Majority or women with POR need to undergo in vitro fertilization to achieve pregnancy. However, pregnancy rate remains low despite a plethora of interventions and is associated with high pregnancy loss. Early detection and active management are essential to minimize the need for egg donation in these women. PMID:27382229

  2. Poor Utility of the Age of Onset Criterion for DSM-IV Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Recommendations for DSM-V and ICD-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Richard D.; Huang, Hongyan; Henderson, Cynthia A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To test whether the retrospective reporting of the age of onset impairment criterion for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) required in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV" (DSM-IV) complicates identification of new and known child and adolescent cases later in life. Methods: A birth-records-based…

  3. Declines in physiological functional capacity with age: a longitudinal study in peak swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    DONATO, ANTHONY J.; TENCH, KATHLEEN; GLUECK, DEBORAH H.; SEALS, DOUGLAS R.; ESKURZA, IRATXE; TANAKA, HIROFUMI

    2016-01-01

    We followed up swimming performance times of 321 women and 319 men who participated in the US Masters Swimming Championships over a 12-yr period. All swimmers placed in the top 10 in their age group over 3 yr (mean = 5 yr). A random coefficients model for repeated measures was used to derive a line of best fit from a group of regression lines for each subject. Both 50- and 1,500-m swimming performance declined modestly until ~70 yr of age, where a more rapid decline was observed in both men and women. Compared with 1,500-m swimming, the 50-m freestyle declined more modestly and slowly with age. The rate and magnitude of declines in swimming performance with age were greater in women than in men in 50-m freestyle; such sex-related differences were not observed in 1,500-m freestyle. Overall, the variability along a population regression line increased markedly with advancing age. The present longitudinal findings indicate that 1) swimming performance declines progressively until age 70, where the decrease becomes quadratic; 2) the rates of the decline in swimming performance with age are greater in a long-duration than in a short-duration event, suggesting a relatively smaller loss of anaerobic muscular power with age compared with cardiovascular endurance; 3) the age-related rates of decline are greater in women than in men only in a short-duration event; and 4) the variability of the age-related decline in performance increases markedly with advancing age. PMID:12391125

  4. The age of peak performance in Ironman triathlon: a cross-sectional and longitudinal data analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were, firstly, to investigate in a cross-sectional analysis the age of peak Ironman performance within one calendar year in all qualifiers for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii; secondly, to determine in a longitudinal analysis on a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii whether the age of peak Ironman performance and Ironman performance itself change across years; and thirdly, to determine the gender difference in performance. Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, the age of the top ten finishers for all qualifier races for Ironman Hawaii and Ironman Hawaii was determined in 2010. For a longitudinal analysis, the age and the performance of the annual top ten female and male finishers in a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii was determined in Ironman Switzerland between 1995 and 2010. Results In 19 of the 20 analyzed triathlons held in 2010, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between women and men (p > 0.05). The only difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders was in ‘Ironman Canada’ where men were older than women (p = 0.023). For all 20 races, the age of peak Ironman performance was 32.2 ± 1.5 years for men and 33.0 ± 1.6 years for women (p > 0.05). In Ironman Switzerland, there was no difference in the age of peak Ironman performance between genders for top ten women and men from 1995 to 2010 (F = 0.06, p = 0.8). The mean age of top ten women and men was 31.4 ± 1.7 and 31.5 ± 1.7 years (Cohen's d = 0.06), respectively. The gender difference in performance in the three disciplines and for overall race time decreased significantly across years. Men and women improved overall race times by approximately 1.2 and 4.2 min/year, respectively. Conclusions Women and men peak at a similar age of 32–33 years in an Ironman triathlon with no gender difference. In a qualifier for Ironman Hawaii, the age of peak Ironman performance remained unchanged across years. In contrast, gender

  5. The Effect of Age, Sex, Speed and Practice on C/A Performance of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    This study investigated whether age, sex, speed, and practice affects the acquisition of coincidence-anticipation (C/A) performance accuracy of children ages seven to twelve. (C/A refers to the ability to make a motor response coincident with the arrival of an object at a designated point.) The subjects used in this study were 84 elementary…

  6. Age-Related Decline and Diagnostic Performance of More and Less Prevalent Clinical Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Onge, Christina; Landry, Marjolaine; Xhignesse, Marianne; Voyer, Gilles; Tremblay-Lavoie, Stéphanie; Mamede, Sílvia; Schmidt, Henk; Rikers, Remy

    2016-01-01

    Since cognitive abilities have been shown to decrease with age, it is expected that older physicians would not perform as well as their younger counterparts on clinical cases unless their expertise can counteract the cognitive effects of aging. However, studies on the topic have shown contradictory results. This study aimed to further investigate…

  7. Writing and Drawing Performance of School Age Children: Is There Any Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonoti, Fotini; Vlachos, Filippos; Metallidou, Panagiota

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate possible relationships between writing and drawing performance of school-aged children, in order to compare the two skills at the within-individual level. The sample consisted of 182 right- and left-handed children, aged 8 to 12 years. Children were examined by the Greek adaptation of the Luria-Nebraska…

  8. How Do Groups Work? Age Differences in Performance and the Social Outcomes of Peer Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were…

  9. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  10. Effective groundwater modeling of the data-poor Nubian Aquifer System (Chad, Egypt, Libya, Sudan) - use of parsimony and 81Kr-based groundwater ages (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, C. I.; Soliman, S. M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

    2013-12-01

    Important information for management of large aquifer systems can be obtained via a parsimonious approach to groundwater modeling, in part, employing isotope-interpreted groundwater ages. ';Parsimonious' modeling implies active avoidance of overly-complex representations when constructing models. This approach is essential for evaluation of aquifer systems that lack informative hydrogeologic databases. Even in the most remote aquifers, despite lack of typical data, groundwater ages can be interpreted from isotope samples at only a few downstream locations. These samples incorporate hydrogeologic information from the entire upstream groundwater flowpath; thus, interpreted ages are among the most-effective information sources for groundwater model development. This approach is applied to the world's largest non-renewable aquifer, the transboundary Nubian Aquifer System (NAS) of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan. In the NAS countries, water availability is a critical problem and NAS can reliably serve as a water supply for an extended future period. However, there are national concerns about transboundary impacts of water use by neighbors. These concerns include excessive depletion of shared groundwater by individual countries and the spread of water-table drawdown across borders, where neighboring country near-border shallow wells and oases may dry. Development of a parsimonious groundwater flow model, based on limited available NAS hydrogeologic data and on 81Kr groundwater ages below oases in Egypt, is a key step in providing a technical basis for international discussion concerning management of this non-renewable water resource. Simply-structured model analyses, undertaken as part of an IAEA/UNDP/GEF project, show that although the main transboundary issue is indeed drawdown crossing national boundaries, given the large scale of NAS and its plausible ranges of aquifer parameter values, the magnitude of transboundary drawdown will likely be small and may not be a

  11. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  12. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. ); Aggarwal, S.K. )

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  13. Do negative views of aging influence memory and auditory performance through self-perceived abilities?

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit

    2015-12-01

    Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.

  14. Age-related changes in executive control and their relationships with activity performance in handwriting.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Sara; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Fogel, Yael

    2013-04-01

    Deterioration in the frontal and prefrontal cortex associated with executive functions (EF) occurs with age and may be associated with changes in daily performance. The aim of the present study was to describe changes occurring with age in Executive Functions (EF) and handwriting activity, as well as to analyze relationships between age, EF and handwriting performance. The study population included 80 healthy participants (aged 31 to 76+) living in the community. After answering five questions about their writing habits, the participants completed the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). In addition, they performed a handwriting task on a digitizer included in the Computerized Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET), which provides kinematic measures of the handwriting process. Significant differences were found between the four age groups for both EF and temporal and spatial handwriting measures. A series of regressions indicated that age predicted 35% of the variance of the BADS profile score (EF control) and 32% of the variance of in-air time while writing. The results of this study indicated age effect on both EF control and handwriting performance. Possible implications for further research and clinical evaluation and intervention are discussed. PMID:23558056

  15. Interlaboratory Performance of a Microarray-Based Gene Expression Test to Determine Tissue of Origin in Poorly Differentiated and Undifferentiated Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dumur, Catherine I.; Lyons-Weiler, Maureen; Sciulli, Christin; Garrett, Carleton T.; Schrijver, Iris; Holley, Tara K.; Rodriguez-Paris, Juan; Pollack, Jonathan R.; Zehnder, James L.; Price, Melissa; Hagenkord, Jill M.; Rigl, C. Ted; Buturovic, Ljubomir J.; Anderson, Glenda G.; Monzon, Federico A.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical workup of metastatic malignancies of unknown origin is often arduous and expensive and is reported to be unsuccessful in 30 to 60% of cases. Accurate classification of uncertain primary cancers may improve with microarray-based gene expression testing. We evaluated the analytical performance characteristics of the Pathwork tissue of origin test, which uses expression signals from 1668 probe sets in a gene expression microarray, to quantify the similarity of tumor specimens to 15 known tissues of origin. Sixty archived tissue specimens from poorly and undifferentiated tumors (metastatic and primary) were analyzed at four laboratories representing a wide range of preanalytical conditions (eg, personnel, reagents, instrumentation, and protocols). Cross-laboratory comparisons showed highly reproducible results between laboratories, with correlation coefficients between 0.95 to 0.97 for measurements of similarity scores, and an average 93.8% overall concordance between laboratories in terms of final tissue calls. Bland-Altman plots (mean coefficients of reproducibility of 32.48 ± 3.97) and κ statistics (κ > 0.86) also indicated a high level of agreement between laboratories. We conclude that the Pathwork tissue of origin test is a robust assay that produces consistent results in diverse laboratory conditions reflecting the preanalytical variations found in the everyday clinical practice of molecular diagnostics laboratories. PMID:18083688

  16. Age and organ damage correlate with poor survival in myeloma patients: meta-analysis of 1435 individual patient data from 4 randomized trials

    PubMed Central

    Bringhen, Sara; Mateos, Maria Victoria; Zweegman, Sonja; Larocca, Alessandra; Falcone, Antonietta Pia; Oriol, Albert; Rossi, Davide; Cavalli, Maide; Wijermans, Pierre; Ria, Roberto; Offidani, Massimo; Lahuerta, Juan Jose; Liberati, Anna Marina; Mina, Roberto; Callea, Vincenzo; Schaafsma, Martijn; Cerrato, Chiara; Marasca, Roberto; Franceschini, Luca; Evangelista, Andrea; Teruel, Ana-Isabel; van der Holt, Bronno; Montefusco, Vittorio; Ciccone, Giovannino; Boccadoro, Mario; Miguel, Jesus San; Sonneveld, Pieter; Palumbo, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Thalidomide and bortezomib are extensively used to treat elderly myeloma patients. In these patients, treatment-related side effects are frequent and full drug doses difficult to tolerate. We retrospectively analyzed data from 1435 elderly patients enrolled in 4 European phase III trials including thalidomide and/or bortezomib. After a median follow up of 33 months (95%CI: 10–56 months), 513 of 1435 patients (36%) died; median overall survival was 50 months (95%CI: 46–60 months). The risk of death was increased in patients aged 75 years or over (HR 1.44, 95%CI: 1.20–1.72; P<0.001), in patients with renal failure (HR 2.02, 95%CI: 1.51–2.70; P<0.001), in those who experienced grade 3–4 infections, cardiac or gastrointestinal adverse events during treatment (HR 2.53, 95%CI: 1.75–3.64; P<0.001) and in those who required drug discontinuation due to adverse events (HR 1.67, 95%CI; 1.12–2.51; P=0.01). This increased risk was restricted to the first six months after occurrence of adverse events or drug discontinuation and declined over time. More intensive approaches, such as the combination of bortezomib-thalidomide, negatively affected outcome. Bortezomib-based combinations may overcome the negative impact of renal failure. Age 75 years or over or renal failure at presentation, occurrence of infections, cardiac or gastrointestinal adverse events negatively affected survival. A detailed geriatric assessment, organ evaluation and less intense individualized approaches are suggested in elderly unfit subjects. PMID:23445873

  17. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  18. Discrimination performance in aging is vulnerable to interference and dissociable from spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Sacks, Patricia K; Turner, Sean M; Gaynor, Leslie S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Maurer, Andrew P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Burke, Sara N

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal model. In the present study, young and aged F344×BN F1 hybrid rats were cross-characterized on the Morris water maze test of spatial memory and a dentate gyrus-dependent match-to-position test of spatial discrimination ability. Aged rats showed overall impairments relative to young in spatial learning and memory on the water maze task. Although young and aged learned to apply a match-to-position response strategy in performing easy spatial discriminations within a similar number of trials, a majority of aged rats were impaired relative to young in performing difficult spatial discriminations on subsequent tests. Moreover, all aged rats were susceptible to cumulative interference during spatial discrimination tests, such that error rate increased on later trials of test sessions. These data suggest that when faced with difficult discriminations, the aged rats were less able to distinguish current goal locations from those of previous trials. Increasing acetylcholine levels with donepezil did not improve aged rats' abilities to accurately perform difficult spatial discriminations or reduce their susceptibility to interference. Interestingly, better spatial memory abilities were not significantly associated with higher performance on difficult spatial discriminations. This observation, along with the finding that aged rats made more errors under conditions in which interference was high, suggests that match-to-position spatial discrimination performance may rely on extra-hippocampal structures such as the prefrontal cortex, in addition to the dentate gyrus.

  19. Aging and cognitive performance: challenges and implications for physicians practicing in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance and potential implications associated with aging. We discuss important findings from other fields and draw parallels to the practice of medicine. In particular, we discuss the possible effects of aging through the lens of situated cognition theory, and we outline the potential impact of aging on expertise, information processing, neurobiology, intelligence, and self-regulated learning. We believe that work done in related fields can provide a better understanding of physician aging and cognition, and thus can inform more effective approaches to continuous professional development and lifelong learning in medicine. We conclude with implications for the health care system and areas of future research.

  20. Age-related changes in conventional road versus off-road triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J

    2011-08-01

    The aims of this study were: (i) to analyze age-related declines in swimming, cycling, and running performances for road-based and off-road triathlons, and (ii) to compare age-related changes in these three disciplines between road-based and off-road triathlons. Swimming, cycling, running and total time performances of the top five males between 20 and 70 years of age (in 5-year intervals) were analyzed for short distance road-based (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle, and 10 km run) and off-road (1.5 km swim, 30 km mountain bike, and 11 km trail run) triathlons at the 2009 World Championships. Independently of age, there was a lesser age-related decline in cycling performance (P < 0.01) compared to running and swimming for road-based triathlon. In contrast, age-related decline did not differ between the three locomotion modes for off-road triathlon. With advancing age, the performance decline was less pronounced (P < 0.01) for road-based than for off-road triathlon in swimming (≥65 years), cycling (≥50 years), running (≥60 years), and total event (≥55 years) times, respectively. These results suggest that the rate of the decline in performance for off-road triathlon is greater than for road-based triathlon, indicating that the type of discipline (road vs. mountain bike cycling and road vs. trail running) exerts an important influence on the magnitude of the age-associated changes in triathlon performance.

  1. Poor Americans: How the Poor White Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilisuk, Marc; Pilisuk, Phyllis

    Contents of this book include the following essays which originally appeared in "Transaction" magazine: (1) "Poor Americans: an introduction," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (2) "How the white poor live," Marc Pilisuk and Phyllis Pilisuk; (3) "The culture of poverty," Oscar Lewis; (4) "Life in Appalachia--the case of Hugh McCaslin," Robert…

  2. Effects of Attentional Focus and Age on Suprapostural Task Performance and Postural Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNevin, Nancy; Weir, Patricia; Quinn, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Suprapostural task performance (manual tracking) and postural control (sway and frequency) were examined as a function of attentional focus, age, and tracking difficulty. Given the performance benefits often found under external focus conditions, it was hypothesized that external focus instructions would promote superior tracking and…

  3. Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Memory Performance, and Depressive Affect in Old Age: A Change-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimprich, Daniel; Martin, Mike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether and how subjective cognitive complaints are related to actual cognitive performance represents a central issue in applied cognitive aging research. Until recently, however, many studies have failed to find a strong association between subjective cognitive complaints and actual cognitive performance. In our study, we examine…

  4. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  5. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  6. Time reproduction performance is associated with age and working memory in high-functioning youth with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Laurie A; Shih, Vivian H; Colich, Natalie L; Sugar, Catherine A; Bearden, Carrie E; Dapretto, Mirella

    2015-02-01

    Impaired temporal processing has historically been viewed as a hallmark feature of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Recent evidence suggests temporal processing deficits may also be characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about the factors that impact temporal processing in children with ASD. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of co-morbid attention problems, working memory (WM), age, and their interactions, on time reproduction in youth with and without ASD. Twenty-seven high-functioning individuals with ASD and 25 demographically comparable typically developing individuals (ages 9-17; 85% male) were assessed on measures of time reproduction, auditory WM, and inattention/hyperactivity. The time reproduction task required depression of a computer key to mimic interval durations of 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20 sec. Mixed effects regression analyses were used to model accuracy and variability of time reproduction as functions of diagnostic group, interval duration, age, WM, and inattention/hyperactivity. A significant group by age interaction was detected for accuracy, with the deficit in the ASD group being greater in younger children. There was a significant group by WM interaction for consistency, with the effects of poor WM on performance consistency being more pronounced in youth with ASD. All participants tended to underestimate longer interval durations and to be less consistent for shorter interval durations; these effects appeared more pronounced in those who were younger or who had poorer WM performance. Inattention/hyperactivity symptoms in the ASD group were not related to either accuracy or consistency. This study highlights the potential value of temporal processing as an intermediate trait of relevance to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25078724

  7. Cognitive performance and age-related changes in the hippocampal proteome

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Bennett, Colleen; Sonntag, William E.

    2008-01-01

    Declining cognitive performance is associated with increasing age, even in the absence of overt pathological processes. We and others have reported that declining cognitive performance is associated with age-related changes in brain glucose utilization, long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation, protein expression, neurotransmitter levels, and trophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these changes are causes or symptoms of the underlying alterations in dendritic and synaptic morphology that occur with age. In this study, we examined the hippocampal proteome for age- and cognition-associated changes in behaviorally stratified young and old rats, using 2-DIGE and MS/MS-MS. Comparison of old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired animals revealed additional changes that would not have been detected otherwise. Interestingly, not all age-related changes in protein expression were associated with cognitive decline, and distinct differences in protein expression were found when comparing old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired rats. A large number of protein changes with age were related to the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway. In total, the proteomic changes suggest that age-related alterations act synergistically with other perturbations to result in cognitive decline. This study also demonstrates the importance of examining behaviorally-defined animals in proteomic studies, as comparison of young to old animals regardless of behavioral performance would have failed to detect many cognitive impairment-specific protein expression changes evident when behavioral stratification data was used. PMID:19135133

  8. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. PMID:25264353

  9. Thyroid function, depressed mood, and cognitive performance in older individuals: the Maastricht Aging Study.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, M P J; Menheere, P P C A; Bekers, O; Hogervorst, E; Jolles, J

    2004-08-01

    The hypothesis was tested that thyroid function, as indicated by serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level, is associated with cognitive performance in a healthy aging population. In a random sample of 120 participants recruited from the Maastricht Aging Study (MAAS), aged between 49 and 71 years, we assessed TSH level, mood state (Symptom Check List, subscale depression), and three domains of cognitive function: verbal memory, general sensorimotor speed, and complex flexibility. After correction for age, sex, and educational level, a negative association between TSH and memory function was apparent: higher levels of TSH predicted lower levels of memory performance. Exclusion of individuals with TSH levels suspect for thyroid disorder (n=2) or who were on thyroid replacement (n=3) attenuated this association. Furthermore, additional control for mood status reduced the association below the significance level. No interaction between age and TSH on cognition was found, which indicated that the TSH-memory association was independent of age group level. We conclude that the association between TSH level and memory performance was small and dependent on mood status and the presence of (possible) thyroid disease in this relatively healthy population based sample. Prospective studies are needed to address the role of thyroid function in age-related cognitive decline.

  10. Supervisor-subordinate age dissimilarity and performance ratings: the buffering effects of supervisory relationship and practice.

    PubMed

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Scholarios, Dora; Van der Schoot, Esther; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Bozionelos, Nikos; Epitropaki, Olga; Knauth, Peter; Marzec, Izabela; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Van der Heijde, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Using 394 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors working in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in three northern European countries, this study examined the effect of workplace moderators on the link between relational demography and supervisor ratings of performance. Directional age differences between superior and subordinate (i.e., status incongruence caused when the supervisor is older or younger than his/her subordinate) and non-directional age differences were used as predictors of supervisor ratings of occupational expertise. The quality of the supervisor-subordinate relationship and the existence of positive age-related supervisory practices were examined as moderators of this relationship. The results provide no support for a relationship between directional age differences and age-related stereotyping by supervisors in ratings of performance, neither for the effects of age-related supervisory practices. However, high quality supervisor-subordinate relationships did moderate the effects of age dissimilarity on supervisory ratings. The implications of these findings for performance appraisal methodologies and recommendations for further research are discussed. PMID:21174640

  11. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  12. A RASSF1A polymorphism restricts p53/p73 activation and associates with poor survival and accelerated age of onset of soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Karen S.; Grochola, Lukasz; Hamilton, Garth; Grawenda, Anna; Bond, Elisabeth E.; Taubert, Helge; Wurl, Peter; Bond, Gareth L.; O’Neill, Eric

    2016-01-01

    RASSF1A (Ras association domain containing family 1A), a tumor suppressor gene that is frequently inactivated in human cancers, is phosphorylated by Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) on Ser131 upon DNA damage, leading to activation of a p73-dependent apoptotic response. A single nucleotide polymorphism located in the region of the key ATM activation site of RASSF1A predicts the conversion of alanine (encoded by the major G-allele) to serine (encoded by the minor T-allele) at residue 133 of RASSF1A (p.Ala133Ser). Secondary protein structure prediction studies suggest that an alpha helix containing the ATM recognition site is disrupted in the serine isoform of RASSF1A (RASSF1A-p.133Ser). In this study, we observed a reduced ability of ATM to recruit and phosphorylate RASSF1A-p.133Ser upon DNA damage. RASSF1A-p.133Ser failed to activate the MST2/LATS pathway, which is required for YAP/p73 mediated apoptosis, and negatively affected the activation of p53, culminating in a defective cellular response to DNA damage. Consistent with a defective p53 response, we found that male soft tissue sarcoma patients carrying the minor T-allele encoding RASSF1A-p.133Ser exhibited poorer tumor-specific survival and earlier age of onset compared with patients homozygous for the major G-allele. Our findings propose a model that suggests a certain subset of the population have inherently weaker p73/p53 activation due to inefficient signaling through RASSF1A, which affects both cancer incidence and survival. PMID:22389451

  13. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J.; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  14. Lifespan Changes in the Countermanding Performance of Young and Middle Aged Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Beuk, Jonathan; Beninger, Richard J; Paré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory control can be investigated with the countermanding task, which requires subjects to make a response to a go signal and cancel that response when a stop signal is presented occasionally. Adult humans performing the countermanding task typically exhibit impaired response time (RT), stop signal response time (SSRT) and response accuracy as they get older, but little change in post-error slowing. Rodent models of the countermanding paradigm have been developed recently, yet none have directly examined age-related changes in performance throughout the lifespan. Male Wistar rats (N = 16) were trained to respond to a visual stimulus (go signal) by pressing a lever directly below an illuminated light for food reward, but to countermand the lever press subsequent to a tone (stop signal) that was presented occasionally (25% of trials) at a variable delay. Subjects were tested in 1 h sessions at approximately 7 and 12 months of age with intermittent training in between. Rats demonstrated longer go trial RT, a higher proportion of go trial errors and performed less total trials at 12, compared to 7 months of age. Consistent SSRT and post-error slowing were observed for rats at both ages. These results suggest that the countermanding performance of rats does vary throughout the lifespan, in a manner similar to humans, suggesting that rodents may provide a suitable model for behavioral impairment related to normal aging. These findings also highlight the importance of indicating the age at which rodents are tested in countermanding investigations. PMID:27555818

  15. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age. PMID:25929653

  16. Infant motor development and cognitive performance in early old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Poranen-Clark, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Lahti, Jari; Räikkönen, Katri; Osmond, Clive; Rantanen, Taina; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-06-01

    Motor development and cognitive development in childhood have been found to be fundamentally interrelated, but less is known about the association extending over the life course. The aim of this study was to examine the association between early motor development and cognitive performance in early old age. From men and women belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, who were born between 1934 and 1944 and resided in Finland in 1971, 1279 participated in cognitive performance tests (CogState®, version 3.0.5) between 2001 and 2006 at an average age of 64.2 years (SD 3.0). Of these, age at first walking extracted from child welfare clinic records was available for 398 participants. Longer reaction times in cognitive tasks measuring simple reaction time (SRT), choice reaction time (CRT), working memory (WM), divided attention (DA), and associated learning (AL) indicated poorer cognitive performance. Adjustment was made for sex, age at testing, father's occupational status and own highest attained education, and occupation in adulthood. Average age of learning to walk was 12.2 months (SD 2.1). After adjusting for covariates, earlier attainment of learning to walk was associated with shorter reaction times in cognitive performance tasks (SRT 10.32 % per month, 95 % CI 0.48-21.12, p = 0.039; CRT 14.17 % per month, 95 % CI 3.75-25.63, p = 0.007; WM 15.14 % per month, 95 % CI 4.95-26.32, p = 0.003). People who learned to walk earlier had better cognitive performance in early old age. The earlier attainment of motor skills may track over to early old age and possibly reflect greater cognitive reserve in older age.

  17. Review of performance, medical, and operational data on pilot aging issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoklosa, J. H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature and studies relating to performance, medical, operational, and legal data regarding pilot aging issues was performed in order to determine what evidence there is, if any, to support mandatory pilot retirement. Popular misconceptions about aging, including the failure to distinguish between the normal aging process and disease processes that occur more frequently in older individuals, continue to contribute to much of the misunderstanding and controversy that surround this issue. Results: Review of medical data related to the pilot aging issue indicate that recent improvement in medical diagnostics and treatment technology have made it possible to identify to a high degree individuals who are at risk for developing sudden incapacitating illness and for treating those with disqualifying medical conditions. Performance studies revealed that after controlling for the presence of disease states, older pilots are able to perform as well as younger pilots on many performance tasks. Review of accident data showed that older, healthy pilots do not have higher accident rates than younger pilots, and indeeed, evidence suggests that older pilots have an advantage in the cockpit due to higher experience levels. The Man-Machine-Mission-Environment interface of factors can be managed through structured, supervised, and enhanced operations, maintenance, flight reviews, and safety procedures in order to ensure safe and productive operations by reducing the margin of error and by increasing the margin of safety. Conclusions: There is no evidence indicating any specific age as an arbitrary cut-off point for pilots to perform their fight duties. A combination of regular medical screening, performance evaluation, enhanced operational maintenance, and safety procedures can most effectively ensure a safe pilot population than can a mandatory retirement policy based on arbitrary age restrictions.

  18. Interaction between age of irradiation and age of testing in the disruption of operant performance using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Bernard M; Joseph, James A; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty L

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has shown a progressive deterioration in cognitive performance in rats exposed to (56)Fe particles as a function of age. The present experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of age of irradiation independently of the age of testing. Male Fischer-344 rats, 2, 7, 12, and 16 months of age, were exposed to 25-200 cGy of (56)Fe particles (1,000 MeV/n). Following irradiation, the rats were trained to make an operant response on an ascending fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule. When performance was evaluated as a function of both age of irradiation and testing, the results showed a significant effect of age on the dose needed to produce a performance decrement, such that older rats exposed to lower doses of (56)Fe particles showed a performance decrement compared to younger rats. When performance was evaluated as a function of age of irradiation with the age of testing held constant, the results indicated that age of irradiation was a significant factor influencing operant responding, such that older rats tested at similar ages and exposed to similar doses of (56)Fe particles showed similar performance decrements. The results are interpreted as indicating that the performance decrement is not a function of age per se, but instead is dependent upon an interaction between the age of irradiation, the age of testing, and exposure to HZE particles. The nature of these effects and how age of irradiation affects cognitive performance after an interval of 15 to 16 months remains to be established.

  19. Performance of four age groups of normal elderly on the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, M; Satz, P; Chervinsky, A; D'Elia, L

    1991-05-01

    This study explored effect of age on encoding, retention, and retrieval components of memory functioning in a sample of 156 healthy, elderly subjects between the ages of 57 and 85, partitioned into four age groups. Memory assessment was based on subjects' performance on the RAVLT, which consisted of five free-recall trials, recall after interference, and recognition trial. Significant group differences in recall were found on all five learning trials, whereas rates of learning, forgetting, and recognition did not differ for four age groups. In addition, primacy/recency effect was equally strong for all groups. Results suggest faulty retrieval mechanisms, whereas encoding and retention processes did not prove to be affected by aging.

  20. Use of a Tracing Task to Assess Visuomotor Performance: Effects of Age, Sex, and Handedness

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visuomotor abnormalities are common in aging and age-related disease, yet difficult to quantify. This study investigated the effects of healthy aging, sex, and handedness on the performance of a tracing task. Participants (n = 150, aged 21–95 years, 75 females) used a stylus to follow a moving target around a circle on a tablet computer with their dominant and nondominant hands. Participants also performed the Trail Making Test (a measure of executive function). Methods. Deviations from the circular path were computed to derive an “error” time series. For each time series, absolute mean, variance, and complexity index (a proposed measure of system functionality and adaptability) were calculated. Using the moving target and stylus coordinates, the percentage of task time within the target region and the cumulative micropause duration (a measure of motion continuity) were computed. Results. All measures showed significant effects of aging (p < .0005). Post hoc age group comparisons showed that with increasing age, the absolute mean and variance of the error increased, complexity index decreased, percentage of time within the target region decreased, and cumulative micropause duration increased. Only complexity index showed a significant difference between dominant versus nondominant hands within each age group (p < .0005). All measures showed relationships to the Trail Making Test (p < .05). Conclusions. Measures derived from a tracing task identified performance differences in healthy individuals as a function of age, sex, and handedness. Studies in populations with specific neuromotor syndromes are warranted to test the utility of measures based on the dynamics of tracking a target as a clinical assessment tool. PMID:23388876

  1. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    PubMed

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth.

  2. Motor structures in female volleyball players aged 14-17 according to technique quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Katić, Ratko; Grgantov, Zoran; Jurko, Damir

    2006-03-01

    The aim of the study was to identify motor structures in elite female volleyball players aged 14-17, and to assess the effect of these motor structures on their technical and situation efficiency. For this purpose, a battery of 12 motor tests as predictor variables, and a set of six technical elements and evaluation of performance quality as criterion variables were applied in a sample of 147 female volleyballers aged 14-15 and a sample of 50 female volleyballers aged 16-17. Analysis of variance between subgroups within the groups of volleyballers aged 14-15 and those aged 16-17 showed the results on all motor tests to improve with the increase in situation performance, which was especially pronounced in the tests assessing explosive strength and agility. The same held true for the results on all tests assessing volleyball techniques, spike and block in particular. In both samples, factor analysis of motor tests isolated two factors underlain by the generation and regulation of strength, and the mechanism of speed regulation. Canonical correlation analysis between the motor regulatory mechanisms and technical elements revealed determination of the mechanisms of strength and technical efficiency in both samples. Regression correlation analysis showed the mechanisms of strength regulation and speed to be good predictors of game performance in female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17, whereby the mechanism of strength regulation had greater effect on the game performance than the mechanism of speed regulation. Regression correlation analysis also revealed the set of 6 techniques evaluated to be a good predictor of situation efficiency in both groups of female volleyballers aged 14-15 and 16-17. The block and spike techniques were found to be the best predictors of game performance quality in the former, and the techniques of spike and block in the latter. Based on the results obtained, a possible model of selection for supreme score achievement in female volleyball

  3. Changes in Brain Network Efficiency and Working Memory Performance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Simpson, Sean L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory. PMID:25875001

  4. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  5. Aging's effects on marathon performance insights from the New York City race.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Angulo, Ana M; Collado, Pilar S; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Lucia, Alejandro; Garatachea, Nuria

    2015-10-01

    Most studies on aging and marathon have analyzed elite marathoners, yet the latter only represent a very small fraction of all marathon participants. In addition, analysis of variance or unpaired Student t tests are frequently used to compare mean performance times across age groups. In this report the authors propose an alternative methodology to determine the impact of aging on marathon performance in both nonelite and elite marathoners participating in the New York City Marathon. In all, 471,453 data points corresponding to 370,741 different runners over 13 race editions (1999-2011) were retrieved. Results showed that the effect of aging on marathon performance was overall comparable in both sexes, the effect of aging differed between the fastest and slowest runners in both sexes, and the magnitude of the sex differences was higher in the slowest runners than in the fastest ones. Current data suggest that the biological differences between sexes allow men to have better marathon performance across most of the human life span.

  6. The Disconnect of Poor-Urban Education: Equal Access and a Pedagogy of Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfiore, Phillip J.; Auld, Ruth; Lee, David L.

    2005-01-01

    In an age of educational accountability and school competition, the gap between current poor-urban school performance and standards of excellence remains glaringly obvious. As poor-urban schools scramble to "close the gap," many abandon sound pedagogy, becoming entrenched in a curriculum where basic-skills worksheets are the primary method of…

  7. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies found that the athlete’s age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete’s age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. Methods We investigated the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete’s age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. Results The athlete’s ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete’s ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. Conclusion The athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete’s age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete’s age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete’s age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further

  8. Age differences in the performance of basketball dribbling by elementary school boys.

    PubMed

    Caterino, M C

    1991-08-01

    Age differences in hand contact time and ball-to-floor distance during the performance of a basketball dribbling task by 30 5- to 6-, 7- to 8-, and 9- to 10-yr.-old boys were studied. Each age group included 10 boys, five with high rhythm audiation skill and five with low rhythm audiation skill, as measured on Gordon's Primary or Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation. Performance during eight bounces was filmed with a 16-mm camera and analyzed with a stop-action projector. Analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant differences. Observed dribbling behaviors are discussed.

  9. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development.

  10. Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

    2013-09-01

    Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

  11. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  12. School-age adopted Chinese girls' behavioral adjustment, academic performance, and social skills: longitudinal results.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tony Xing

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal data on 177 school-age adopted Chinese girls (Time 1: mean age = 8.92 years, SD = 1.76; Time 2: mean age = 11.18 years, SD = 1.79) were analyzed to determine their long-term outcomes in behavioral adjustment, academic performance (measured with the Child Behavior Checklist/6-18), and social skills (measured with the Social Skills Rating System) and how these outcomes were related to preadoption adversity. More than 90% of the girls were adopted at 24 months or younger (M = 19.25, SD = 21.67). Results revealed that over a 2-year period, there was a moderate to strong stability in the children's behavioral adjustment and academic performance. However, there was a significant increase in the number of children with deviant internalizing problems. At both times, higher degrees of preadoption adversity were related to more internalizing problems and poorer academic performance. Children who were adopted at older ages had poorer academic performance. Children who were older had a lower level of assertion and a higher level of responsibility. Children's attention problems at Time 1 mediated the effect of preadoption adversity on academic performance at Time 2.

  13. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking.

  14. Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Vlahou, Eleni L; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

    2014-05-29

    Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18-89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5-6.5 Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

  15. Comparison of three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Myers, S E; Faulkner, D B; Ireland, F A; Parrett, D F

    1999-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare three weaning ages on cow-calf performance and steer carcass traits. Crossbred steers (n = 168; 1/2 Simmental x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Hereford) were randomly assigned to three treatments with eight pens per treatment: groups were 1) weaned at an average of 90 d of age (90 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, 2) weaned at an average of 152 d of age (152 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot, and 3) weaned at an average of 215 d of age (215 +/- 13 d) and placed in the feedlot. The number of days steers were finished decreased by 55 and 38 d (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age increased when slaughtered at a constant fat end point (.81 cm). Weaning at an average of 90 and 152 d of age improved overall ADG by .15 and .07 kg/d, respectively, over weaning at an average of 215 d of age (linear, P = .005). Over the entire finishing period, intake increased (linear, P = .0006) and efficiency was poorer (linear, P = .004) as weaning age increased. Owing to differences in finishing days and intake, total concentrate consumed increased (linear, P = .03) as weaning age decreased. No differences (P > .21) were observed for carcass weight, longissimus muscle area, or yield grade. No differences (P > .19) were observed in marbling score or percentage of steers grading greater than or equal to Choice or Average Choice. Cow body condition score improved (linear, P = .0001) as weaning age decreased. Pregnancy rate improved 12 percentage units (linear, P = .15) for cows on the 90-d weaning treatment. In this study, early weaning improved gain and feed efficiency, but it increased total concentrate consumed. PMID:10100659

  16. Sterilizing the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Sheila M.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that freedom for the middle classes may mean vulnerability for the poor. The enthusiasm for sterilization may be so intense as to deprive the poor of their right not to be sterilized. (Author/AM)

  17. The Relative Age Effect and the Influence on Performance in Youth Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key points The relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  18. The relative age effect and the influence on performance in youth alpine ski racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over representation of athletes born early in a selection year, recently was proven to be present in alpine skiing. However, it was not made apparent whether the RAE exists as early as at the youngest level of youth ski racing at national level, nor whether the relative age influences racing performance. As a consequence, the purpose of the present study was twofold: first, to examine the extent of the RAE and second, to assess the influence the relative age has on the overall performance at the youngest levels of youth ski racing. The study included the investigation of 1,438 participants of the Austrian Kids Cup and 1,004 participants of the Teenager Cup at the provincial level, as well as 250 finalists of the Kids Cup and 150 finalists of the Teenager Cup at the national level. Chi²-tests revealed a highly significant RAE already at the youngest level of youth ski racing (Kids Cup) at both the provincial and national levels. There are not again favorably selected the relatively older athletes from the first into the second level of youth ski racing (Teenager Cup). Among the athletes of the Kids Cup, the relative age quarter distribution differed highly significantly from the distribution of the total sample with an over representation of relatively older athletes by comparison taking the top three positions. The data revealed that relative age had a highly significant influence on performance. This study demonstrated that the RAE poses a problem as early as the youngest level of youth ski racing, thereby indicating that many young talented kids are discriminated against, diminishing any chance they might have of becoming elite athletes despite their talents and efforts. The RAE influences not only the participation rate in alpine skiing, but also the performances. As a result, changes in the talent development system are imperative. Key pointsThe relative age influences not only the participation in youth ski

  19. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215

  20. Effects of age and sex on the water maze performance and hippocampal cholinergic fibers in rats.

    PubMed

    Lukoyanov, N V; Andrade, J P; Dulce Madeira, M; Paula-Barbosa, M M

    1999-07-16

    We have examined if age-related deterioration of spatial memory and cholinergic innervation of the dentate gyrus is gender-specific. Aging progressively affected the performance of male and female rats in place discrimination version of the water maze task. On repeated acquisition task, only old males, but not old females, were significantly impaired relative to young and adult animals of both sexes. In parallel, we found that the age-associated reduction of the density of cholinergic fibers in the dentate gyrus was significantly more profound in old males than in age-matched females. These results suggest that, although male and female rats have an identical pattern of reference memory decline, impairment of the working memory and deterioration of the hippocampal cholinergic system are slower to develop in females than in males.

  1. Effects of Vitamin E on Cognitive Performance during Ageing and in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M. Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that primarily protects cells from damage associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which increases during ageing and is considered a major contributor to neurodegeneration. High plasma vitamin E levels were repeatedly associated with better cognitive performance. Due to its antioxidant properties, the ability of vitamin E to prevent or delay cognitive decline has been tested in clinical trials in both ageing population and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. The difficulty in performing precise and uniform human studies is mostly responsible for the inconsistent outcomes reported in the literature. Therefore, the benefit of vitamin E as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders is still under debate. In this review, we focus on those studies that mostly have contributed to clarifying the exclusive function of vitamin E in relation to brain ageing and AD. PMID:25460513

  2. Effects of reaction time variability and age on brain activity during Stroop task performance.

    PubMed

    Tam, Angela; Luedke, Angela C; Walsh, Jeremy J; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Garcia, Angeles

    2015-09-01

    Variability in reaction time during task performance may reflect fluctuations in attention and cause reduced performance in goal-directed tasks, yet it is unclear whether the mechanisms behind this phenomenon change with age. Using fMRI, we tested young and cognitively healthy older adults with the Stroop task to determine whether aging affects the neural mechanisms underlying intra-individual reaction time variability. We found significant between-group differences in BOLD activity modulated by reaction time. In older adults, longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in frontoparietal attentional areas, while in younger adults longer reaction times were associated with greater activity in default mode network areas. Our results suggest that the neural correlates of reaction time variability change with healthy aging, reinforcing the concept of functional plasticity to maintain high cognitive function throughout the lifespan.

  3. Prodynorphin knockout mice demonstrate diminished age-associated impairment in spatial water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan V; Masse, James; Kumar, Ashok; Vijitruth, Rattanavijit; Kulik, Cynthia; Liu, Mei; Choi, Dong-Young; Foster, Thomas C; Usynin, Ivan; Bakalkin, Georgy; Bing, Guoying

    2005-06-20

    Dynorphins, endogenous kappa-opioid agonists widely expressed in the central nervous system, have been reported to increase following diverse pathophysiological processes, including excitotoxicity, chronic inflammation, and traumatic injury. These peptides have been implicated in cognitive impairment, especially that associated with aging. To determine whether absence of dynorphin confers any beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory, knockout mice lacking the coding exons of the gene encoding its precursor prodynorphin (Pdyn) were tested in a water maze task. Learning and memory assessment using a 3-day water maze protocol demonstrated that aged Pdyn knockout mice (13-17 months) perform comparatively better than similarly aged wild-type (WT) mice, based on acquisition and retention probe trial indices. There was no genotype effect on performance in the cued version of the swim task nor on average swim speed, suggesting the observed genotype effects are likely attributable to differences in cognitive rather than motor function. Young (3-6 months) mice performed significantly better than aged mice, but in young mice, no genotype difference was observed. To investigate the relationship between aging and brain dynorphin expression in mice, we examined dynorphin peptide levels at varying ages in hippocampus and frontal cortex of WT 129SvEv mice. Quantitative radioimmunoassay demonstrated that dynorphin A levels in frontal cortex, but not hippocampus, of 12- and 24-month mice were significantly elevated compared to 3-month mice. Although the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated, the results suggest that chronic increases in endogenous dynorphin expression with age, especially in frontal cortex, may adversely affect learning and memory.

  4. Age and individual sleep characteristics affect cognitive performance in anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift.

    PubMed

    Tadinac, Meri; Sekulić, Ante; Hromatko, Ivana; Mazul-Sunko, Branka; Ivancić, Romina

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has shown that both shift work and sleep deprivation have an adverse influence on various aspects of human cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to explore changes in cognitive functioning and subjective sleepiness of anesthesiology residents after a 24-hour shift. Twenty-six anesthesiology residents completed a set of psychological instruments at the beginning and at the end of the shift, as well as a questionnaire regarding information about the shift, Stanford Sleepiness Scale, and Circadian Type Questionnaire. There was a significant decline in cognitive performance measured by the Auditory Verbal Learning Test after the shift. The effect was stronger in older participants and in those with high scores on rigidity of sleep scale and low scores on the ability to overcome sleepiness scale. There were no differences in the digits forward test (a measure of concentration), while digits backward test (a measure of working memory) even showed an improved performance after the shift. Although participants reported being significantly sleepier after the shift, the subjective sleepiness did not correlate with any of the objective measures of cognitive performance. In conclusion, the performance in short tasks involving concentration and working memory was not impaired, while performance in long-term and monotone tasks declined after sleep deprivation, and the magnitude of this decline depended on the specific individual characteristics of sleep and on age Surprisingly, age seemed to have an important impact on cognitive functions after shift work even in the relatively age-homogeneous population of young anesthesiology residents.

  5. Age-Related Visual Changes and Their Impications for the Motor Skill Performance of Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haywood, Kathleen M.; Trick, Linda R.

    Physical changes in and conditions of the eye associated with the normal aging process are discussed with reference to their impact on performance in physical and recreational activities. Descriptions are given of characteristic changes in visual acuity in the areas of: (1) presbyopia (inability to clearly focus near images); (2) sensitivity to…

  6. Relationship between the relative age effect and anthropometry, maturity and performance in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Gil, Susana Maria; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Zabala-Lili, Jon; Gravina, Leyre; Santos-Concejero, Jordan; Lekue, Jose Antonio; Granados, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The presence of the relative age effect (RAE) has been widely reported; however, its underlying causes have not yet been determined. With this in mind, the present study examined if anthropometry and performance were different amongst older and younger soccer players born in the same year. Eighty-eight young soccer players participated in the study (age 9.75 ± 0.30). Anthropometric measurements, physical tests (sprint, agility, endurance test, jump and hand dynamometry) and the estimation of the maturity status were carried out. Most players (65.9%) were born in the first half of the year. Older players were taller (P < 0.05), had longer legs (P < 0.01) and a larger fat-free mass (P < 0.05). Maturity offset was smaller in the older boys (P < 0.05); however, age at peak height velocity was similar. Older boys performed better in velocity and agility (P < 0.05) and particularly in the overall score of performance (P < 0.01). Stepwise regression analysis revealed that chronological age was the most important variable in the agility test and the overall score, after the skinfolds (negative effect). We report differences in anthropometry and physical performance amongst older and younger pre-pubertal soccer players. These differences may underlie the RAE.

  7. The Effects of Person versus Performance Praise on Children's Motivation: Gender and Age as Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…

  8. Supervisor-Subordinate Age Dissimilarity and Performance Ratings: The Buffering Effects of Supervisory Relationship and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.; Scholarios, Dora; Van der Schoot, Esther; Jedrzejowicz, Piotr; Bozionelos, Nikos; Epitropaki, Olga; Knauth, Peter; Marzec, Izabela; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Van der Heijde, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Using 394 pairs of employees and their immediate supervisors working in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector in three northern European countries, this study examined the effect of workplace moderators on the link between relational demography and supervisor ratings of performance. Directional age differences between superior…

  9. Age-Related Differences in Reaction Time Task Performance in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiselev, Sergey; Espy, Kimberlay Andrews; Sheffield, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Performance of reaction time (RT) tasks was investigated in young children and adults to test the hypothesis that age-related differences in processing speed supersede a "global" mechanism and are a function of specific differences in task demands and processing requirements. The sample consisted of 54 4-year-olds, 53 5-year-olds, 59 6-year-olds,…

  10. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and Grade on Bilingual Language Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.; Griffin, Zenzi M.; Hixon, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information…

  11. Age, Gender, and Training in Children's Performance of Piaget's Horizontality Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parameswaran, Gowri

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which children (n=600), ages five to nine, completed Jean Piaget's horizontality task using a square water bottle. Finds a significant sex difference in the pretest performance of the horizontality task beginning with eight year olds. Includes references. (CMK)

  12. Focus on Opportunities as a Mediator of the Relationships between Age, Job Complexity, and Work Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacher, Hannes; Heusner, Sandra; Schmitz, Michael; Zwierzanska, Monika M.; Frese, Michael

    2010-01-01

    "Focus on opportunities" is a cognitive-motivational facet of occupational future time perspective that describes how many new goals, options, and possibilities individuals expect to have in their personal work-related futures. This study examined focus on opportunities as a mediator of the relationships between age and work performance and…

  13. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  14. The neural correlates of recollection and retrieval monitoring: Relationships with age and recollection performance.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    The relationships between age, retrieval-related neural activity, and episodic memory performance were investigated in samples of young (18-29yrs), middle-aged (43-55yrs) and older (63-76yrs) healthy adults. Participants underwent fMRI scanning during an associative recognition test that followed a study task performed on visually presented word pairs. Test items comprised pairs of intact (studied pairs), rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new words. fMRI recollection effects were operationalized as greater activity for studied pairs correctly endorsed as intact than for pairs incorrectly endorsed as rearranged. The reverse contrast was employed to identify retrieval monitoring effects. Robust recollection effects were identified in the core recollection network, comprising the hippocampus, along with parahippocampal and posterior cingulate cortex, left angular gyrus and medial prefrontal cortex. Retrieval monitoring effects were identified in the anterior cingulate and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Neither recollection effects within the core network, nor the monitoring effects differed significantly across the age groups after controlling for individual differences in associative recognition performance. Whole brain analyses did however identify three clusters outside of these regions where recollection effects were greater in the young than in the other age groups. Across-participant regression analyses indicated that the magnitude of hippocampal and medial prefrontal cortex recollection effects, and both of the prefrontal monitoring effects, correlated significantly with memory performance. None of these correlations were moderated by age. The findings suggest that the relationships between memory performance and functional activity in regions consistently implicated in successful recollection and retrieval monitoring are stable across much of the healthy adult lifespan. PMID:27155127

  15. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  16. Urban poor program launched.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  17. Characterization and restoration of performance of {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} radioiodine removing activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.P.

    1997-08-01

    The degradation of radioiodine removal performance for impregnated activated carbons because of ageing is well established. However, the causes for this degradation remain unclear. One theory is that this reduction in performance from the ageing process results from an oxidation of the surface of the carbon. Radioiodine removing activated carbons that failed radioiodine removal tests showed an oxidized surface that had become hydrophilic compared with new carbons. We attempted to restore the performance of these {open_quotes}failed{close_quotes} carbons with a combination of thermal and chemical treatment. The results of these investigations are presented and discussed with the view of extending the life of radioiodine removing activated carbons. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. How do groups work? Age differences in performance and the social outcomes of peer collaboration.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J

    2015-05-01

    Do children derive different benefits from group collaboration at different ages? In the present study, 183 children from two age groups (8.8 and 13.4 years) took part in a class quiz as members of a group, or individually. In some groups, cohesiveness was made salient by awarding prizes to the top performing groups. In other groups, prizes were awarded to the best performing individuals. Findings, both in terms of social outcomes and performance in the quiz, indicated that the 8-year olds viewed the benefits of group membership in terms of the opportunities to receive information from other members. The 13-year olds, in contrast, viewed group collaboration as a constructive process where success was connected with group cohesiveness.

  19. Age-dependent and coordinated shift in performance between implicit and explicit skill learning

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Dezso; Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported recently that while general sequence learning across ages conforms to the typical inverted-U shape pattern, with best performance in early adulthood, surprisingly, the basic ability of picking up in an implicit manner triplets that occur with high vs. low probability in the sequence is best before 12 years of age and it significantly weakens afterwards. Based on these findings, it has been hypothesized that the cognitively controlled processes coming online at around 12 are useful for more targeted explicit learning at the cost of becoming relatively less sensitive to raw probabilities of events. To test this hypothesis, we collected data in a sequence learning task using probabilistic sequences in five age groups from 11 to 39 years of age (N = 288), replicating the original implicit learning paradigm in an explicit task setting where subjects were guided to find repeating sequences. We found that in contrast to the implicit results, performance with the high- vs. low-probability triplets was at the same level in all age groups when subjects sought patterns in the sequence explicitly. Importantly, measurements of explicit knowledge about the identity of the sequences revealed a significant increase in ability to explicitly access the true sequences exactly around the age where the earlier study found the significant drop in ability to learn implicitly raw probabilities. These findings support the conjecture that the gradually increasing involvement of more complex internal models optimizes our skill learning abilities by compensating for the performance loss due to down-weighting the raw probabilities of the sensory input, while expanding our ability to acquire more sophisticated skills. PMID:24155717

  20. Effects of age and experience on reproductive performance of wood ducks

    SciTech Connect

    Hepp, G.R. ); Kennamer, R.A. )

    1993-10-01

    Data from a long-term study of Wood Ducks breeding in South Carolina were used to test whether reproductive performance was age specific and to evaluate several hypotheses proposed for age-specific variation. We used known-aged females from 1 through 5 yr of age. Yearling females initiated nests 11-19 d later than older females; heavier females, independent of age, nested earlier than lighter females. One-way analyses of covariance using female body mass and nesting date as covariates indicated that clutch size, mean egg mass, number of ducklings per nest, and the percentage of eggs hatching (hatching success) were independent of female age. Probability of nests producing at least one duckling (nest success) also was not related to female egg. We separately tested effects of breeding experience and female age class (yearling vs. adult) on reproductive performance. In the context of this study, females were considered as experienced if they previously were captured using nest boxes and inexperienced if there was no record of nest box use. Adult females with previous breeding experience initiated nests an average of 26 d earlier than adults without previous experience; body mass of experienced adults was greater than that of inexperienced adults. Adult females designated as [open quotes]inexperienced[close quotes] may have nested previously in natural cavities and were simply changing to nest boxes. Nest-site fidelity is known to affect nesting date, so we also compared nesting dates of inexperienced adults with a subset of of experienced females that changed nest sites.

  1. Changes in whole-brain functional networks and memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Palacios, Eva M; Domènech, Sara; Salvà, Antoni; Bargalló, Nuria; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2014-10-01

    We used resting-functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 98 healthy older adults to analyze how local and global measures of functional brain connectivity are affected by age, and whether they are related to differences in memory performance. Whole-brain networks were created individually by parcellating the brain into 90 cerebral regions and obtaining pairwise connectivity. First, we studied age-associations in interregional connectivity and their relationship with the length of the connections. Aging was associated with less connectivity in the long-range connections of fronto-parietal and fronto-occipital systems and with higher connectivity of the short-range connections within frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. We also used the graph theory to measure functional integration and segregation. The pattern of the overall age-related correlations presented positive correlations of average minimum path length (r = 0.380, p = 0.008) and of global clustering coefficients (r = 0.454, p < 0.001), leading to less integrated and more segregated global networks. Main correlations in clustering coefficients were located in the frontal and parietal lobes. Higher clustering coefficients of some areas were related to lower performance in verbal and visual memory functions. In conclusion, we found that older participants showed lower connectivity of long-range connections together with higher functional segregation of these same connections, which appeared to indicate a more local clustering of information processing. Higher local clustering in older participants was negatively related to memory performance.

  2. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio)

    PubMed Central

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species. PMID:24624114

  3. Age effects on transfer index performance and executive control in baboons (Papio papio).

    PubMed

    Bonté, Elodie; Kemp, Caralyn; Fagot, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Reversal performance in the transfer index (TI) task is known to improve from prosimians to apes, suggesting that this task is a marker of cognitive evolution within the primate taxa (Rumbaugh, 1970). However, the cognitive processes recruited by this task remain unclear. In the present study, 19 socially-housed baboons (Papio papio) from 1.6 to 14.3 years of age were tested on a computerized version of the TI task, using an automated self-testing procedure. Age was a significant factor in the level of success, with the younger baboons outperforming the adults. The younger baboons learned the pre-reversal discrimination faster and improved their post-reversal performance more rapidly than adult baboons. As 17 of these baboons had already been tested in previous studies on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility tasks, comparison across tasks provide indicators of the underlying cognitive processes. Age variations in performance were similar between the TI task and in an adaptation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) measuring cognitive flexibility (Bonté et al., 2011). This contrasts previous results from a task requiring motor inhibitory control (Fagot et al., 2011). Therefore, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility was a central component of the cognitive system that evolved within non-human primates. They also implicate a decline in executive control with age that begins during early adulthood in this baboon species.

  4. The interaction of age, performance and hypnotics in the sleep of insomniacs.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, M H; Kramer, M

    1981-11-01

    Scant attention has been paid to the objective evaluation of insomnia as a function of age, particularly with reference to increased drug sensitivity and resulting loss in balance performance. Therefore, the electroencephalographic sleep and the balance-board performance of 10 young and 12 geriatric insomniacs were studied under baseline and hypnotic drug (ketazolam) conditions. In terms of objectively measured sleep, the geriatric insomniacs had worse sleep on every dimension except sleep latency and percentage of stage-2 sleep. These differences between aged and young insomniacs, however, were no greater than might be expected as a function of normal aging. Drug-age interactions indicated that ketazolam differentially increased sleep efficiency, decreased the percentage of REM sleep, and eliminated any learning improvement on the balance board in geriatric versus young insomniacs. The findings indicate that the geriatric subjects were more sensitive to the hypnotic drug, in that their sleep improved to a greater extent. However, an important loss in balance performance was also observed.

  5. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O.

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  6. Spider silk aging: initial improvement in a high performance material followed by slow degradation.

    PubMed

    Agnarsson, Ingi; Boutry, Cecilia; Blackledge, Todd A

    2008-10-01

    Spider silk possesses a unique combination of high tensile strength and elasticity resulting in extraordinarily tough fibers, compared with the best synthetic materials. However, the potential application of spider silk and biomimetic fibers depends upon retention of their high performance under a variety of conditions. Here, we report on changes in the mechanical properties of dragline and capture silk fibers from several spider species over periods up to 4 years of benign aging. We find an improvement in mechanical performance of silk fibers during the first year of aging. Fibers rapidly decrease in diameter, suggesting an increase in structural alignment and organization of molecules. One-year old silk also is stiffer and has higher stress at yield than fresh silk, whereas breaking force, elasticity, and toughness either improve or are unaffected by early aging. However, 4-year old silk shows signs of degradation as the breaking load, elasticity, and toughness are all lower than in fresh silk. Aging, however, does not reduce the tensile strength of silk. These data suggest initially rapid reorganization and tighter packaging of molecules within the fiber, followed by longer-term decomposition. We hypothesize that possibly the breakdown of amino acids via emission of ammonia gas, as is seen in long-term aging of museum silkworm fabrics, may contribute. Degradation of spider silk under benign conditions may be a concern for efforts to construct and utilize biomimetic silk analogs. However, our findings suggest an initial improvement in mechanical performance and that even old spider silk still retains impressive mechanical performance. PMID:18626974

  7. Performance of an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: nutrient dynamics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, R; Sharma, E; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Nutrient cycling, nutrient use efficiency and nitrogen fixation in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations were studied in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the nutrient dynamics of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was assessed. Foliar nutrient concentrations of Alnus decreased with advancing age groups of plantations and showed an inverse relationship with stand age. Annual N fixation increased from the 5-year-old stand (52 kg ha(-1)), peaking in the 15-year-old stand (155 kg ha(-1)) and then decreased with increasing plantation age. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake was lowest in the 40-year-old stand, and highest in the 15- and 5-year-old stand, respectively. Nutrient storage in understorey cardamom was very high: up to 31 % N and 59 % P of the stand total in the 15-year-old stand. Nutrient use efficiency was higher (with faster turnover times) in younger stands and decreased (with slower turnover times) in older plantations. Nitrogen retranslocation showed a strong positive relationship with stand age, while that of P was inversely related to stand age. Nutrient standing stock, uptake and return were also highest in the 15-year-old stand. Nitrogen and P cycling in Alnus-cardamom plantations was functionally balanced. Nutrient cycling and dynamics indicated that Alnus-cardamom plantations performed sustainably up to 15-20 years. The management practice should be altered to incorporate replantation after this age.

  8. Ruprecht 106 - A young metal-poor Galactic globular cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Buonanno, R.; Buscema, G.; Fusi Pecci, F.; Richer, H.B.; Fahlman, G.G. Bologna Universita British Columbia Univ., Vancouver )

    1990-12-01

    The first CCD photometric survey in the Galactic globular cluster Ruprecht 106 has been performed. The results show that Ruprecht 106 is a metal-poor cluster with (Fe/H) about -2 located at about 25 kpc from the Galactic center. A sizable, high centrally concentrated population of blue stragglers was detected. Significant differences in the positions of the turnoffs in the color-magnitude diagram are found compared to those in metal-poor clusters. The cluster appears younger than other typical metal-poor Galactic globulars by about 4-5 Gyr; if true, this object would represent the first direct proof of the existence of a significant age spread among old, very metal-poor clusters. 51 refs.

  9. The effect of age on postural and cognitive task performance while using vibrotactile feedback

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, Susan L.; Loughlin, Patrick J.; Furman, Joseph M.; Redfern, Mark S.; Sienko, Kathleen H.; Sparto, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrotactile feedback (VTF) has been shown to improve balance performance in healthy people and people with vestibular disorders in a single-task experimental condition. It is unclear how age-related changes in balance affect the ability to use VTF and if there are different attentional requirements for old and young adults when using VTF. Twenty younger and 20 older subjects participated in this two-visit study to examine the effect of age, VTF, sensory condition, cognitive task, duration of time, and visit on postural and cognitive performance. Postural performance outcome measures included root mean square of center of pressure (COP) and trunk tilt, and cognitive performance was assessed using the reaction time (RT) from an auditory choice RT task. The results showed that compared with younger adults, older adults had an increase in COP in fixed platform conditions when using VTF, although they were able to reduce COP during sway-referenced platform conditions. Older adults also did not benefit fully from using VTF in their first session. The RTs for the secondary cognitive tasks increased significantly while using the VTF in both younger and older adults. Older adults had a larger increase compared with younger adults, suggesting that greater attentional demands were required in older adults when using VTF information. Future training protocols for VTF should take into consideration the effect of aging. PMID:25589585

  10. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  11. Mechanisms Underlying Age- and Performance-related Differences in Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daffner, Kirk R.; Chong, Hyemi; Sun, Xue; Tarbi, Elise C.; Riis, Jenna L.; McGinnis, Scott M.; Holcomb, Phillip J.

    2011-01-01

    This study took advantage of the subsecond temporal resolution of ERPs to investigate mechanisms underlying age- and performance-related differences in working memory. Young and old subjects participated in a verbal n-back task with three levels of difficulty. Each group was divided into high and low performers based on accuracy under the 2-back condition. Both old subjects and low-performing young subjects exhibited impairments in preliminary mismatch/match detection operations (indexed by the anterior N2 component). This may have undermined the quality of information available for the subsequent decision-making process (indexed by the P3 component), necessitating the appropriation of more resources. Additional anterior and right hemisphere activity was recruited by old subjects. Neural efficiency and the capacity to allocate more resources to decision-making differed between high and low performers in both age groups. Under low demand conditions, high performers executed the task utilizing fewer resources than low performers (indexed by the P3 amplitude). As task requirements increased, high-performing young and old subjects were able to appropriate additional resources to decision-making, whereas their low-performing counterparts allocated fewer resources. Higher task demands increased utilization of processing capacity for operations other than decision-making (e.g., sustained attention) that depend upon a shared pool of limited resources. As demands increased, all groups allocated additional resources to the process of sustaining attention (indexed by the posterior slow wave). Demands appeared to have exceeded capacity in low performers, leading to a reduction of resources available to the decision-making process, which likely contributed to a decline in performance. PMID:20617886

  12. Evaluation of Thermal Oxidative Aging Effect on the Rheological Performance of Modified Asphalt Binders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Cheng

    Modified asphalt binder, which is combined by base binder and additive modifier, has been implemented in pavement industry for more than 30 years. Recently, the oxidative aging mechanism of asphalt binder has been studied for several decades, and appreciable finding results of asphalt binder aging mechanism were achieved from the chemistry and rheological performance aspects. However, most of these studies were conducted with neat binders, the research of aging mechanism of modified asphalt binder was limited. Nowadays, it is still highly necessary to clarify how the asphalt binder aging happens with the modified asphalt binder, what is the effect of the different modifiers (additives) on the binder aging process, how the rheological performance changes under the thermal oxidative aging conditions and so on. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of isothermal oxidative aging conditions on the rheological performance change of the modified and controlled asphalt binders. There were totally 14 different sorts of asphalt binders had been aged in the PAV pans in the air-force drafted ovens at 50°C, 60°C and 85°C for 0.5 day to 240 days. The Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) were used to perform the experiments. The analysis of rheological indices (Low shear viscosity-LSV, Crossover modulus-G*c, Glover-Rowe Parameter-G-R, DSR function-DSR Fn) as a function of carbonyl area (CA) was conducted. With the SBS modification, both of the hardening susceptibility of the rheological index-LSV and G-R decreases compared with the corresponding base binder. The TR increased the hardening susceptibility of all the rheological indexes. While for the G*c, SBS increases the slope of the most modified asphalt binders except A and B_TR_X series binders. The multiple linear regression statistical analysis results indicate that the oxidative aging conditions play an important role on the CA, and rheological performance

  13. 29 CFR 570.34 - Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Occupations that may be performed by minors 14 and 15 years... performed by minors 14 and 15 years of age. This subpart authorizes only the following occupations in which the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age is permitted when performed for periods and...

  14. Are Poor Chinese Text Comprehenders Also Poor in Written Composition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and…

  15. Effect of age on anthropometric and physical performance measures in professional baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Fragala, Maren S; Vazquez, Jose; Krause, Matthew C; Gillett, Javair; Pichardo, Napoleon

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related changes in anthropometric and performance variables in professional baseball players. Baseball players (n = 1,157) from several professional baseball organizations were categorized into 7 cohorts based upon age. All adolescent athletes were categorized as age group 1 (AG1), whereas the next 5 groups (AG2-AG6) consisted of players 20-22, 23-25, 26-28, 29-31, and 31-34 years, respectively. The final group (AG7) comprised athletes ≥35 years. All performance assessments were part of the athlete's normal preseason training camp testing routine. Field assessments were used to analyze lower-body power, speed, agility, grip strength, and body composition. The players were heaviest between the ages of 29 and 31 (AG5), and their body mass in that age group was 10.1% (p = 0.004) greater than that of AG1. A 7.0% increase (p = 0.000) in lean body mass occurred between AG1 and AG5. No differences in 10-yd sprint times or agility were seen across any age group or position. A 2.0 seconds (p = 0.001) slower run time for the 300-yd shuttle was seen between AG4 and AG5 for all positions combined. Elevations in grip strength were seen at AG4 compared with AG1 (p = 0.001) and AG2 (p = 0.007) for all positions combined. No other differences were noted. Lower-body power was increased for all positions combined from AG1 to AG3 (p = 0.007). This pattern was similar to that observed in position players, but a 12.4% decrease (p = 0.024) in VJMP was seen between AG7 and AG5 in pitchers. Results of this study indicate that lower-body power is maintained in baseball players until the age of 29-31, whereas speed, agility, and grip strength are maintained in players able to play past the age of 35 years. Age-related differences observed in this study suggest that athletes focus on their strength and conditioning programs to extend the length of their professional careers.

  16. Age-related alterations in default mode network: impact on working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Sambataro, Fabio; Murty, Vishnu P; Callicott, Joseph H; Tan, Hao-Yang; Das, Saumitra; Weinberger, Daniel R; Mattay, Venkata S

    2010-05-01

    The default mode network (DMN) is a set of functionally connected brain regions which shows deactivation (task-induced deactivation, TID) during a cognitive task. Evidence shows an age-related decline in task-load-related modulation of the activity within the DMN during cognitive tasks. However, the effect of age on the functional coupling within the DMN and their relation to cognitive performance has hitherto been unexplored. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated functional connectivity within the DMN in older and younger subjects during a working memory task with increasing task load. Older adults showed decreased connectivity and ability to suppress low frequency oscillations of the DMN. Additionally, the strength of the functional coupling of posterior cingulate (pCC) with medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) correlated positively with performance and was lower in older adults. pCC was also negatively coupled with task-related regions, namely the dorsolateral PFC and cingulate regions. Our results show that in addition to changes in canonical task-related brain regions, normal aging is also associated with alterations in the activity and connectivity of brain regions within the DMN. These changes may be a reflection of a deficit in cognitive control associated with advancing age that results in deficient resource allocation to the task at hand.

  17. Age effects on gray matter volume and attentional performance in Zen meditation.

    PubMed

    Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Cekic, Milos

    2007-10-01

    Zen meditation, a Buddhist practice centered on attentional and postural self-regulation, has been speculated to bring about beneficial long-term effects for the individual, ranging from stress reduction to improvement of cognitive function. In this study, we examined how the regular practice of meditation may affect the normal age-related decline of cerebral gray matter volume and attentional performance observed in healthy individuals. Voxel-based morphometry for MRI anatomical brain images and a computerized sustained attention task were employed in 13 regular practitioners of Zen meditation and 13 matched controls. While control subjects displayed the expected negative correlation of both gray matter volume and attentional performance with age, meditators did not show a significant correlation of either measure with age. The effect of meditation on gray matter volume was most prominent in the putamen, a structure strongly implicated in attentional processing. These findings suggest that the regular practice of meditation may have neuroprotective effects and reduce the cognitive decline associated with normal aging.

  18. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    PubMed Central

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  19. Age-related declines in car following performance under simulated fog conditions.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Kang, Julie J; Andersen, George J

    2010-05-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in car following performance when contrast of the driving scene was reduced by simulated fog. Older (mean age of 72.6) and younger (mean age of 21.1) drivers were presented with a car following scenario in a simulator in which a lead vehicle (LV) varied speed according to a sum of three sine wave functions. Drivers were shown an initial following distance of 18 m and were asked to maintain headway distance by controlling speed to match changes in LV speed. Five simulated fog conditions were examined ranging from a no fog condition (contrast of 0.55) to a high fog condition (contrast of 0.03). Average LV speed varied across trials (40, 60, or 80 km/h). The results indicated age-related declines in car following performance for both headway distance and RMS (root mean square) error in matching speed. The greatest decline occurred at moderate speeds under the highest fog density condition, with older drivers maintaining a headway distance that was 21% closer than younger drivers. At higher speeds older drivers maintained a greater headway distance than younger drivers. These results suggest that older drivers may be at greater risk for a collision under high fog density and moderate speeds.

  20. The electrical performance of polymeric insulating materials under accelerated aging in a fog chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gorur, R.S.; Cherney, E.A.; Hackam, R. ); Orbeck, T. )

    1988-07-01

    A comparative study of the ac (60 Hz) surface aging in a fog chamber is reported on cylindrical rod samples of high temperature vulcanized (HTV) silicone rubber and ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber containing various amounts of alumina trihydrate (ATH) and/or silica fillers. In low conductivity (250 ..mu..S/cm) fog, silicone rubber performed better than EPDM samples whereas in high conductivity (1000 ..mu..S/cm) fog, the order of performance was reversed. The mechanisms by which fillers impart tracking and erosion resistance to materials is discussed as influenced by the experimental conditions of the accelerated aging tests. Surface studies by ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis) demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of silicone rubber, despite the accumulation of surface contamination, can be attributed to migration of low molecular weight polymer chains and/or mobile fluids, such as silicone oil.

  1. Measuring the performance of electronic health records: a case study in residential aged care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu; Yu, Hui; Lei, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the performance of electronic health records (EHR) is an important, yet un-resolved challenge. Various measurements have addressed different aspects of EHR success, yet a holistic, comprehensive measurement tool needs to be developed to capture the potential EHR success variables completely. A self-administered questionnaire survey instrument was developed based on the theoretical framework of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model. It measures nigh variables of EHR success: system quality, information quality, service quality, training, self efficacy, intention to use, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. The instrument was used to measure the performance of aged care EHR systems in three aged care organizations. The results suggest that the instrument was reliable. PMID:23920809

  2. Neural changes associated with semantic processing in healthy aging despite intact behavioral performance.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, Jacinthe; Jolicoeur, Pierre; Grimault, Stephan; Pineault, Jessica; Joubert, Sven

    2015-10-01

    Semantic memory recruits an extensive neural network including the left inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC) and the left temporoparietal region, which are involved in semantic control processes, as well as the anterior temporal lobe region (ATL) which is considered to be involved in processing semantic information at a central level. However, little is known about the underlying neuronal integrity of the semantic network in normal aging. Young and older healthy adults carried out a semantic judgment task while their cortical activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Despite equivalent behavioral performance, young adults activated the left IPC to a greater extent than older adults, while the latter group recruited the temporoparietal region bilaterally and the left ATL to a greater extent than younger adults. Results indicate that significant neuronal changes occur in normal aging, mainly in regions underlying semantic control processes, despite an apparent stability in performance at the behavioral level. PMID:26282079

  3. Impact of sex and age on the performance of FINDRISC: the HUNT Study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Carlsen, Sven M; Shaw, Jonathan; Åsvold, Bjørn O

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) is recommended as a screening tool for diabetes risk. However, there is a lack of well-powered studies examining the performance of FINDRISC by sex and age. We aim to estimate, by sex and age, the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC and positive predictive value (PPV) of FINDRISC for identifying impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in a general Norwegian population. Research design and methods We estimated the prevalence of elevated FINDRISC (≥15) among 47 694 adults in the third survey of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3, 2006–08). Among 2559 participants who participated in oral glucose tolerance testing, we estimated the PPV of elevated FINDRISC for identifying unknown prevalent diabetes and other forms of IGM. Results The prevalence of elevated FINDRISC was 12.1% in women, 9.6% in men, and increased from 1.5% at age 20–39 to 25.1% at age 70–79 years. The PPVs of elevated FINDRISC were 9.8% for diabetes, 16.9% for impaired glucose tolerance, 8.2% for impaired fasting glucose, and 34.9% for any form of IGM. The PPV for IGM was lower in women (31.2%) than in men (40.4%), and increased from 19.1% at age 20–39 to 55.5% at age ≥80 years. Conclusions FINDRISC identified more women than men as high-risk individuals for diabetes. FINDRISC had a high PPV for detecting prevalent IGM, and the PPV was higher in men than in women and in the older individuals. Our data indicate that the impact of sex and age on diabetes risk is not fully captured by FINDRISC, and that refinements to it might improve diabetes prediction. PMID:27403326

  4. Performance testing of aged hydrogen getters against criteria for interim safe storage of plutonium bearing materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepodd, Timothy J.; Nissen, April; Buffleben, George M.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen getters were tested for use in storage of plutonium-bearing materials in accordance with DOE's Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium Bearing Materials. The hydrogen getter HITOP was aged for 3 months at 70 C and tested under both recombination and hydrogenation conditions at 20 and 70 C; partially saturated and irradiated aged getter samples were also tested. The recombination reaction was found to be very fast and well above the required rate of 45 std. cc H2h. The gettering reaction, which is planned as the backup reaction in this deployment, is slower and may not meet the requirements alone. Pressure drop measurements and {sup 1}H NMR analyses support these conclusions. Although the experimental conditions do not exactly replicate the deployment conditions, the results of our conservative experiments are clear: the aged getter shows sufficient reactivity to maintain hydrogen concentrations below the flammability limit, between the minimum and maximum deployment temperatures, for three months. The flammability risk is further reduced by the removal of oxygen through the recombination reaction. Neither radiation exposure nor thermal aging sufficiently degrades the getter to be a concern. Future testing to evaluate performance for longer aging periods is in progress.

  5. Age differences in three facets of empathy: performance-based evidence.

    PubMed

    Richter, David; Kunzmann, Ute

    2011-03-01

    This study investigated age differences in cognitive and affective facets of empathy: the ability to perceive another's emotions accurately, the capacity to share another's emotions, and the ability to behaviorally express sympathy in an empathic episode. Participants, 80 younger (M(age) = 32 years) and 73 older (M(age) = 59 years) adults, viewed eight film clips, each portraying a younger or an older adult thinking-aloud about an emotionally engaging topic that was relevant to either younger adults or older adults. In comparison to their younger counterparts, older adults generally reported and expressed greater sympathy while observing the target persons; and they were better able to share the emotions of the target persons who talked about a topic that was relevant to older adults. Age-related deficits in the cognitive ability to accurately perceive another's emotions were only evident when the target person talked about a topic of little relevance to older adults. In sum, the present performance-based evidence speaks for multidirectional age differences in empathy.

  6. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience. PMID:26439783

  7. Basketball Performance Is Related to Maturity and Relative Age in Elite Adolescent Players.

    PubMed

    Torres-Unda, Jon; Zarrazquin, Idoia; Gravina, Leyre; Zubero, Jaime; Seco, Jesús; Gil, Susana M; Gil, Javier; Irazusta, Jon

    2016-05-01

    During a national championship, the anthropometric, physiological, and maturation characteristics of 13- to 14-year-old players of elite basketball teams and their association with sport performance were analyzed. Body parameters (weight, height, skinfold thicknesses, and lengths) were measured and physiological capacities assessed by sprint (20 m) and jump tests (i.e., countermovement jump with arm swing). Chronological age (CA) and maturity offset (years from age at peak height velocity; YAPHV) were calculated, and then predicted age at peak height velocity, as the difference between CA and YAPHV. Game performance was assessed with point averages and the performance index rating (PIR). The birth-date distribution of players was biased, those born early in the selection year outnumbering those born later. Anthropometric analysis indicated that players who performed better had longer body lengths. Physiological testing showed that semi-finalists had better sprint performance than quarter-finalists and those players with greater jump capacity scored more points. Early maturation and advanced maturity status were also associated with better PIR and scored points per game. Multiple blockwise regression analysis showed that, among the factors analyzed, YAPHV was the best predictor of basketball performance. In conclusion, around puberty, physical and physiological parameters associated with maturity and CA are important in determining the success of elite basketball players. Consequently, boys who are born in the second half of the year and/or late maturing tend to be marginalized or totally excluded, and not given the chance to play under equal conditions; their careers may then be held back by the relative disadvantage associated with inexperience.

  8. Does Relative Age Influence Motor Test Performance of Fourth Grade Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattie, Nick; Tietjens, Maike; Schorer, Jörg; Ghanbari, Marie-Christine; Strauss, Bernd; Seidel, Ilka; Baker, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore relative age's influence on physical and motor tests among fourth grade children (9 to 10 years) from Germany. Data from 1218 children (49% female) who had performed the German Motor Ability Test (Bös et al., 2009) were analysed. The test battery, which was comprised of physical and motor tests,…

  9. The effect of administered dose of lipid-based formulations on the in vitro and in vivo performance of cinnarizine as a model poorly water-soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathy Wai Yu; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J

    2013-02-01

    The influence of varying the amount of lipid co-administered with the drug on drug solubilisation and absorption is poorly understood. In the current study, the effect of lipid dose on the in vitro drug distribution is compared with the in vivo absorption of cinnarizine (CZ) when formulated using long-chain triacylglyceride (LCT) and medium-chain triacylglycerides (MCT). At a fixed drug-lipid ratio, in the closed in vitro model, the drug concentrations in the aqueous phase increased and decreased for MCT and LCT, respectively, with increasing lipid dose. However, in vivo, the oral bioavailability (F%) of CZ was independent of the quantity of lipid administered for both MCT and LCT, but was higher for LCT (32.1 ± 2.3%) than for MCT (16.6 ± 2.3%). Increasing the quantity of lipid relative to the dose of CZ resulted in an increase in the oral F% when the lipid mass was increased from 125 to 250 mg, but was no greater at 500 mg lipid dose. The results confirm the limitations of the in vitro model but positively indicate that the use of the rat as a pre-clinical model for studying the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs is not compromised by the mass of formulation administered. PMID:23242691

  10. The relationships between age, associative memory performance, and the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, subsequent memory effects (greater activity for later remembered than later forgotten study items) predictive of associative encoding were compared across samples of young, middle-aged, and older adults (total N = 136). During scanning, participants studied visually presented word pairs. In a later test phase, they discriminated between studied pairs, "rearranged" pairs (items studied on different trials), and new pairs. Subsequent memory effects were identified by contrasting activity elicited by study pairs that went on to be correctly judged intact or incorrectly judged rearranged. Effects in the hippocampus were age-invariant and positively correlated across participants with associative memory performance. Subsequent memory effects in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were greater in the older than the young group. In older participants only, both left and, in contrast to prior reports, right IFG subsequent memory effects correlated positively with memory performance. We suggest that the IFG is especially vulnerable to age-related decline in functional integrity and that the relationship between encoding-related activity in right IFG and memory performance depends on the experimental context. PMID:27143433

  11. Harmonizing Measures of Cognitive Performance Across International Surveys of Aging Using Item Response Theory

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kitty S.; Gross, Alden L.; Pezzin, Liliana E.; Brandt, Jason; Kasper, Judith D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To harmonize measures of cognitive performance using item response theory (IRT) across two international aging studies. Methods Data for persons ≥65 from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N=9,471) and the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA, N=5,444). Cognitive performance measures varied (HRS fielded 25, ELSA 13); 9 were in common. Measurement precision was examined for IRT scores based on: 1) common items; 2) common items adjusted for differential item functioning (DIF); 3) DIF-adjusted all items. Results Three common items (day of date, immediate word recall, and delayed word recall) demonstrated DIF by survey. Adding survey-specific items improved precision, but mainly for HRS respondents at lower cognitive levels. Discussion IRT offers a feasible strategy for harmonizing cognitive performance measures across other surveys and for other multi-item constructs of interest in studies of aging. Practical implications depend on sample distribution and the difficulty mix of in-common and survey-specific items. PMID:26526748

  12. Little evidence for links between memory complaints and memory performance in very old age: longitudinal analyses from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Ann; Hertzog, Christopher; Gerstorf, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between memory complaint and memory performance were examined in a sample of old-old participants from the Berlin Aging Study (BASE; N = 504, ages 70 to 100, age M = 84.7 at study onset). Participants were measured 4 times over the course of 6 years. Similar to many previous studies, initial cross-sectional memory complaints were predicted by depression and neuroticism, but not memory performance. Subjective age also predicted memory complaint independent of other variables. Latent growth curve models based on age and time in the study revealed that memory complaints did not change in level with age or time, and manifested no reliable random effects (individual differences in change). These models also detected no significant relationship between changes in memory and either initial memory complaint or changes in memory complaint over age or over time. None of the covariates that predicted initial memory complaints were related to changes in memory complaints over time. An autoregressive latent variable model for memory complaints, consistent with a conceptualization of complaints as judgments constructed from beliefs and other influences in the moment, did detect a concurrent effect of memory on memory complaints at the third occasion, controlling on initial complaints. These results suggest that for the oldest-old, changes in memory complaints may not primarily reflect monitoring of actual age-related memory changes, but rather are affected by other variables, including age-based memory stereotypes, neuroticism, depression, and concerns about aging.

  13. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  14. Inference in `poor` languages

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    1996-10-01

    Languages with a solvable implication problem but without complete and consistent systems of inference rules (`poor` languages) are considered. The problem of existence of finite complete and consistent inference rule system for a ``poor`` language is stated independently of the language or rules syntax. Several properties of the problem arc proved. An application of results to the language of join dependencies is given.

  15. Influence of memory strategies on memory test performance: a study in healthy and pathological aging.

    PubMed

    Yubero, R; Gil, P; Paul, N; Maestú, F

    2011-09-01

    The ability to generate memory strategies is a key factor in the performance of episodic memory tasks. Whether the ability to generate memory strategies exerts an influence in the performance of memory tests in the elderly population is still a matter of debate. Here we present results from an experimental memory task (Test of Memory Strategies, TMS), comprised of five lists of words starting from an incidental learning task, and four more lists which progressively gain in their external organization of the material, reducing the necessity of mobilizing complex memory strategies. TMS has been applied to four groups of elderly patients (amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment - aMCI, multidomain (mMCI), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment - VCI and Depression) and a healthy aging group. In conditions with low organization of the material, the mMCI and VCI groups (both showing a greater executive function impairment) have shown lower performance. However, as the material was progressively organized, they improved their performance. The aMCI group showed similar performance to the control group at the lower level of external organization but did not improve performance in conditions with a high level of external organization. The mMCI and VCI groups showed lower performance on all TMS conditions compared with controls. Discriminant analysis revealed 90% sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between groups based on TMS conditions. These results indicate how executive functions influence performance on memory tasks in elderly subjects with different neuropsychological profiles.

  16. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Exercise Performance in Middle-Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Kan, Nai-Wen; Ho, Chin-Shan; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Pei-Yu; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (RES) has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET) improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16 months old) were randomly divided into four groups: an older control group (OC group), supplementation with RES group (RES group), ET group (ET group), and a combination of ET and RES supplementation group (ET+RES group). Other 10-week-old mice were used as a young control group (Y-Ctrl group). In this study, exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. Our results showed that the forelimb grip strength of mice in the ET+RES group was significantly higher than those in the OC, RES, and ET groups (by 1.3-, 1.2-, and 1.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.05), and exhibited no difference with the Y-Ctrl group. The endurance swimming test showed that swimming times of the ET and ET+RES groups were significantly longer than those of the OC and RES groups. Moreover, plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the ET + RES group after acute swimming exercise were significantly lower compared to the OC group (p < 0.05). Thus, it was suggested that by combining RES supplementation with ET for 4 weeks, the muscle strength and endurance performance of aged mice were significantly improved compared to the single intervention with either RES or ET alone. This combination might help shorten the extent of deterioration accompanying the aging process. PMID:27213310

  17. Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Kai, O; Sakemi, K; Suzuki, Y; Sonoda, Y; Imai, K

    1995-10-01

    Effects of age at first-pairing on the reproductive performance of the gerbil were studied throughout the reproductive life. Six groups of 7-30 female gerbils were paired monogamously with males at different ages. Out of 101 pairs in 6 groups, 79 (78.2%) produced 1 or more litters. The mean litter size at birth and mean weaning rate of 846 litters were 4.4 (totally 3,733 pups) and 67.4% (2,517 pups), respectively. Reproduction was compared in the 6 age groups. The littering rate (No. of females with litters/No. of female paired) was significantly lower in two groups in which mature females were paired with age-matched males (Group 4) or the oldest females with younger, sexually mature males (Group 6). The interval from pairing to the first litter was shortest in two groups in which mature females were paired with one month older, sexually mature males (Groups 3 and 5). Although the oldest pairs (Group 6) produced about 7 litters, the pairs from the other 5 groups produced about 10 or more litters throughout their reproductive life. The weaning rate was significantly higher in Group 6 (the oldest pairs) than in the younger groups. The effects of parity on reproduction were estimated from the data for the 61 pairs which produced more than 8 litters in the 6 groups. The number of pups at birth and the weaning rate were decreased in last 20-30% of the total parity in all 6 groups, although the age at the last litter in all groups was significantly different. The data suggest that any decline in reproduction may be due to not age but parity in the Mongolian gerbil.

  18. Variation in Football Players’ Sprint Test Performance Across Different Ages and Levels of Competition

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Catarina; Maçãs, Vitor; Sampaio, Jaime

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sprint test performance performed by football players of different ages and levels of competition. One hundred and forty six Portuguese players from different teams completed the test (seven maximal sprints interspersed with 25 s active recovery). A 6 (level of competition: 1st national division, 2nd national division, 1st regional division, sub 16, sub 14, sub 12) 7 (sprint trial: sprint 1, sprint 2, sprint 3, sprint 4, sprint 5, sprint 6, sprint 7) repeated measures ANOVA was carried out on subjects sprint times. The main effect of level of competition was statistically significant, F(5, 140) = 106.28, p < 0.001. Subjects from 1st national division were significantly faster than subjects from 2nd national division; subjects from 1st regional division obtained similar performances when compared to sub 16 and sub 14 level; subjects from sub 12 level were the slowest. The main effect of sprint trial was also statistically significant, F (6, 840) = 7.37, p < 0.001. Mean sprint times from the first trial were significantly slower than mean sprint times from the second, third and fourth trial. Results from the fifth, sixth and seventh trials were slower, denoting a decrement in performance. The two main effects were qualified by a significant level of competition x sprint trial interaction, F (30, 840) = 9.47 p < 0.001, identifying markedly different performance profiles. Coaches should be aware that normative data regarding this test can play a very important role if used frequently and consistently during the whole season. Key Points Groups of different ages (Sub 16, Sub 14 and Sub 12) and groups of different training quality (1st and 2nd national divisions and 1st regional division) were clearly discriminated by sprint test performances. Professional players exhibited higher performances in sprint test. Fatigue effects were the strongest between 5th to the 7th sprint. PMID:24778553

  19. Extent of Malnourishment among the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, Jeffrey

    1989-01-01

    Uses national survey data to demonstrate that, compared to the rural or U.S. non-poor, the rural poor consumed less of eight of nine key nutrients; and disparities were greatest for vitamins A and C, iron, and calcium, and for the youngest (two-five years) age group studied. (SV)

  20. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  1. Characteristics influencing changes in aerobic performance of children aged 7-9.

    PubMed

    Faludi, J; Farkas, A; Zsidegh, M; Petrekanits, M; Pavlik, G

    1999-01-01

    Interpretation of the actual level of aerobic endurance in a growing child is difficult. Endurance capacity per se is influenced by a number of factors, e.g. by genetic endowment, developmental rate, body composition and habitual physical activity. The respective effects of these factors cannot be distinctly separated from one another, so their particular role is not clearly definable in the various age periods. The aim of our investigation was to define the actual level of aerobic endurance performance in children aged 7-9, and to analyse the relevant factors that may affect this kind of performance according to the different level of sport activities. Two primary school classes (N=42) were selected for the experiment. Both groups had physical education classes every day (five times a week). One group (AG, N=31) consisted of children taking part in regular sport courses at least twice a week (e.g. basket ball, karate, triathlon swimming and gymnastics), as well, the other group (NAG, N=11) served as comparison group. Aerobic performance was estimated by measuring cardiorespiratory response during a Jaeger treadmill run using a "vita maxima" (all-out) testing protocol. The subjects were measured in the Laboratory for Spiroergometry of the Hungarian University of Physical Education twice, in 1997 and 1998. Body composition was assessed by the Drinkwater-Ross [4] body mass fractionation technique. Robustness of the body was described by using the plastic index (PLX) of Conrad's growth type [2], morphological age (MORF AGE) was estimated by using the method of Mészáros and Mohácsi [5]. Exercise performance was studied in the laboratory by using a Jaeger 6000 LE model treadmill and a Jaeger mu-DATASPIR model gas analyser. The functional status of the subjects' cardiopulmonary system was estimated by spiroergometric parameters and total mechanical work (WORK). The AG group had a better endurance performance in 1998 than that of non-athletic group. A factor analytic

  2. Effect of age at feedlot entry on performance and carcass characteristics of bulls and steers.

    PubMed

    Schoonmaker, J P; Loerch, S C; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N; Turner, T B

    2002-09-01

    Seventy Angus x Simmental calves (BW = 166.3 +/- 4.2 kg) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement to determine the effect of age at feedlot entry and castration on growth, performance, and carcass characteristics. At 82 d of age, steers were castrated. Calves were placed in the feedlot at 111 (early-weaned), 202, or 371 (yearling) d of age. Steers were implanted with Synovex-S followed 93 d later with Revalor-S. Calves were harvested on an individual basis when fat thickness was estimated to be 1.27 cm. During the feedlot phase, yearlings gained faster (P < 0.01) than calves placed in the feedlot at 202 or 111 d of age (1.88, 1.68, and 1.62 kg/d, respectively); however, from 111 d of age until harvest, ADG was greatest for early-weaned calves, intermediate for cattle placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age, and lowest for yearlings (1.62, 1.47, and 1.21 kg/d, respectively; P < 0.01). Early-weaned calves spent the most days in the feedlot, followed by calves placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age; yearlings spent the fewest days in the feedlot (221, 190, and 163 d, respectively; P < 0.01). Total DMI when in the feedlot was similar (P = 0.22) among age groups; however, daily DMI was lowest for early-weaned calves, intermediate for calves placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age, and the highest for yearlings (7.1, 8.1, 10.5 kg/ d, respectively; P < 0.01). Early-weaned calves were the most efficient, followed by calves placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age; yearlings were the least efficient (227, 207, 180 g gain/kg feed, respectively; P < 0.01). Weight at harvest (682, 582, 517 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) and hot carcass weight (413, 358, 314 kg, respectively; P < 0.01) were greatest for yearlings, intermediate for cattle placed in the feedlot at 202 d of age, and lowest for early-weaned calves. Early-weaned calves had the smallest longissimus area, followed by calves placed in the feed-lot at 202 d of age; yearlings had the largest longissimus area (77, 86, 88 cm2

  3. Whole-Body Vibration Training and Its Application to Age-Related Performance Decrements: An Exploratory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hawkey, Adam; Griffiths, Katie; Babraj, John; Cobley, James N

    2016-02-01

    Middle age is associated with a pronounced decline in power and flexibility. Whilst whole-body vibration training (WBVT) improves performance in a range of populations, whether WBVT can improve muscle power and flexibility in a middle-aged population is not known. The present study aimed to determine the influence of 5 weeks progressive WBVT in middle-aged (45-55 years) and younger (20-30 years) recreationally active females. Participants in each age group were randomly allocated to an intervention (WBVT) or control group. The WBVT groups trained for 5 weeks on a vibration platform, while the control groups performed identical exercises, with no vibration. Prior to, and after, the 5-week study vertical countermovement jump (VCMJ) and range of motion (ROM) performance were measured. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved VCMJ performance when compared to the control groups. This improvement was significantly (p = 0.001) greater in the middle-aged compared with the younger WBVT group. WBVT significantly (p = 0.001) improved ROM irrespective of age. Taken together, these results suggest that WBVT can off-set age related performance decrements, which has therapeutic implications for musculoskeletal aging. Therefore, WBVT could be undertaken to minimise age-related performance deterioration in middle-aged female populations.

  4. Poult performance as influenced by age of dam, genetic line, and dietary vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Siegel, P B; Blair, M; Gross, W B; Meldrum, B; Larsen, C; Boa-Amponsem, K; Emmerson, D A

    2006-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the effects of age of dam, genetic line, and dietary levels of vitamin E on growth and immunocompetence of poults. Age of dam was defined as younger (in early egg production) and older (past peak production); line consisted of a commercial sire and dam line; and dietary vitamin E was supplemented into the diet at 10 and 300 IU/kg of feed. Traits measured included body, liver, gizzard, and yolk sac weights at hatch; BW and feed conversion to 9, 28, and 42 d; response to SRBC, Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin-P, and Escherichia coli administered at 28 d of age; and response to a cold stress on d 5 posthatch. Differences among genetic lines were evident with growth greater for poults from the sire than from the dam line. Performance of poults from older dams was generally superior to that of poults from younger dams. The higher level of vitamin E resulted in a greater than 7-fold increase in blood plasma vitamin E and reduced mortality. There were interactions among the main effects in which the fitness of poults from younger dams was enhanced by the higher level of vitamin E and the effect of breeder age differed among genetic lines.

  5. Preservation of Cognitive Performance with Age during Exertional Heat Stress under Low and High Air Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn M.; Hardcastle, Stephen G.; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be at greater risk for occupational injuries given their reduced capacity to dissipate heat, leading to greater thermal strain and potentially cognitive decrements. Purpose. To examine the effects of age and increased air velocity, during exercise in humid heat, on information processing and attention. Methods. Nine young (24 ± 1 years) and 9 older (59 ± 1 years) males cycled 4 × 15 min (separated by 15 min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (low) and 3.0 (high) m·s−1 air velocity wearing coveralls. At rest, immediately following exercise (end exercise), and after the final recovery, participants performed an abbreviated paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT, 2 sec pace). Results. PASAT numbers of correct responses at end exercise were similar for young (low = 49 ± 3; high = 51 ± 3) and older (low = 46 ± 5; high = 47 ± 4) males and across air velocity conditions, and when scored relative to age norms. Psychological sweating, or an increased sweat rate with the administration of the PASAT, was observed in both age groups in the high condition. Conclusion. No significant decrements in attention and speeded information processing were observed, with age or altered air velocity, following intermittent exercise in humid heat. PMID:25874223

  6. Summary Report of Cable Aging and Performance Data for Fiscal Year 2014.

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Redline, Erica Marie; Redline, Erica Marie; Bernstein, Robert; Bernstein, Robert; Quintana, Adam; Quintana, Adam; Giron, Nicholas Henry; Giron, Nicholas Henry; White II, Gregory Von; White II, Gregory Von

    2014-09-01

    As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, science - based engineering approaches were employed to address cable degradation behavior under a range of exposure environments. Experiments were conducted with the goal to provide best guidance for aged material states, remaining life and expected performance under specific conditions for a range of cable materials. Generic engineering tests , which focus on rapid accelerated aging and tensile elongation , were combined with complementar y methods from polymer degradation science. Sandia's approach, building on previous years' efforts, enabled the generation of some of the necessary data supporting the development of improved lifetime predictions models, which incorporate known material b ehaviors and feedback from field - returned 'aged' cable materials. Oxidation rate measurements have provided access to material behavior under low dose rate thermal conditions, where slow degradation is not apparent in mechanical property changes. Such da ta have shown aging kinetics consistent with established radiati on - thermal degradation models. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We gratefully acknowledge ongoing technical support at the LICA facility and extensive sample handling provided by Maryla Wasiolek and Don Hans on. Sam Durbin and Patrick Mattie are recognized for valuable guidance throughout the year and assistance in the preparation of the final report. Doug Brunson is appreciated for sample analysis, compilation and plotting of experimental data.

  7. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms.

  8. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model.

    PubMed

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P

    2014-10-01

    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms. PMID:25084160

  9. Impact of Pretreatment and Aging on the Iodine Capture Performance of Silver-Exchanged Mordenite - 12314

    SciTech Connect

    Jubin, R.T.; Ramey, D.W.; Spencer, B.B.; Anderson, K.K.; Robinson, S.M.

    2012-07-01

    Volatile gas emissions from a nuclear fuel recycle facility in the United States are governed by several key regulations, including 10 CFR 20, 40 CFR 61, and 40 CFR 190. Under 40 CFR 190, the total quantity of iodine that may be released to the environment from the entire fuel cycle is limited to 5 millicuries of I-129 per gigawatt-year of electrical energy produced by the fuel cycle. With a reasonable engineering margin, an iodine decontamination factor (DF) of approximately 1000 will be required for the complete fuel cycle. Off-gas treatment in a fuel reprocessing plant must address several gas streams containing iodine, among a number of volatile radionuclides. Past research and developmental activities identified silver-exchanged mordenite (AgZ) as a very promising sorbent based on its acid resistance, relatively high iodine and methyl iodide capacity, and high achievable DF. Recent studies at ORNL have focused on the impacts of long-term exposure to simulated off-gas streams (aging) and pretreatment on the iodine adsorption performance of hydrogen-reduced silver-exchanged mordenite (Ag{sup 0}Z). Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of long-term exposure to both dry and moist air on the iodine sorption capacity of Ag{sup 0}Z. The data indicates that aging reduces the capacity of Ag{sup 0}Z, which must be accounted for to prevent degradation of DF. Because of its high acid resistance, a AgZ sorbent has been selected specifically for application in treating off-gas streams containing iodine. While extensive tests have been conducted in the United States on a form of this sorbent, the specific material previously tested is no longer commercially available and similar materials are currently being evaluated. As part of this evaluation, tests were conducted to determine the iodine sorption properties of this replacement media and the effects of long-term (up to 6 months) exposure to simulated off-gas streams. The ultimate goal is to develop an

  10. Athletic performance and birth month: is the relative age effect more than just selection bias?

    PubMed

    Sandercock, G R H; Ogunleye, A A; Parry, D A; Cohen, D D; Taylor, M J D; Voss, C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if month of birth affects performance in 3 tests of physical function in children and adolescents. We measured cardiorespiratory fitness, handgrip strength and lower-body power expressed them relative to (whole year) age then compared scores between calendar year birth-months. We also expressed test performance as the likelihood of achieving criterion-referenced fitness standards. There were significant main effects of birth-month for cardiorespiratory fitness (F=4.54, p<0.001), strength (F=6.81, p<0.001) and power (F=3.67, p<0.001). Children born in November were fitter and more powerful than those born at other times, particularly the summer months (April, May and June). October-born children were stronger than those born in all months except September and November. This relationship was evident despite controlling for decimal age and despite no significant inter-month differences in anthropometric characteristics.There is a clear physical advantage for those born in the autumn and this may explain some of the bias in sports selection attributed to the relative age effect, particularly when the British school-year (September) cut-off is used.

  11. Quantification of the relative age effect in three indices of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Taylor, Matthew J; Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cohen, Daniel D; Parry, David A

    2013-12-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) describes the relationship between an individual's birth month and their level of attainment in sports. There is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for selection in age-grouped sports, and it is hypothesized that such relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. There is, however, little empirical evidence of any such advantage. This study investigated whether schoolchildren's physical performance differed according to which quarter of the school year they were born in. Mass, stature, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and power were measured in 10 to 16 year olds (n = 8,550, 53% male). We expressed test performance as age- and sex-specific z-scores based on reference data with age rounded down to the nearest whole year and also as units normalized for body mass. We then compared these values between yearly birth quarters. There were no significant main effects for differences in anthropometric measures in either sex. Girls born in the first quarter of the school year were significantly stronger than those born at other times when handgrip was expressed as a z-score. As z-scores, all measures were significantly higher in boys born in either the first or second yearly quarters. Relative to body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys born in the first quarter and power was higher in those born in the second quarter. The RAE does not appear to significantly affect girls' performance test scores when they are expressed as z-score or relative to body mass. Boys born in the first and second quarters of the year had a significant physical advantage over their relatively younger peers. These findings have practical bearing if coaches use fitness tests for talent identification and team selection. Categorizing test performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born later in the selection year. These

  12. Quantification of the relative age effect in three indices of physical performance.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Taylor, Matthew J; Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Cohen, Daniel D; Parry, David A

    2013-12-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) describes the relationship between an individual's birth month and their level of attainment in sports. There is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for selection in age-grouped sports, and it is hypothesized that such relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. There is, however, little empirical evidence of any such advantage. This study investigated whether schoolchildren's physical performance differed according to which quarter of the school year they were born in. Mass, stature, body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and power were measured in 10 to 16 year olds (n = 8,550, 53% male). We expressed test performance as age- and sex-specific z-scores based on reference data with age rounded down to the nearest whole year and also as units normalized for body mass. We then compared these values between yearly birth quarters. There were no significant main effects for differences in anthropometric measures in either sex. Girls born in the first quarter of the school year were significantly stronger than those born at other times when handgrip was expressed as a z-score. As z-scores, all measures were significantly higher in boys born in either the first or second yearly quarters. Relative to body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in boys born in the first quarter and power was higher in those born in the second quarter. The RAE does not appear to significantly affect girls' performance test scores when they are expressed as z-score or relative to body mass. Boys born in the first and second quarters of the year had a significant physical advantage over their relatively younger peers. These findings have practical bearing if coaches use fitness tests for talent identification and team selection. Categorizing test performance based on rounded down values of whole-year age may disadvantage children born later in the selection year. These

  13. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  14. Poorly controlled gout: who is doing poorly?

    PubMed

    Chia, Faith Li-Ann

    2016-08-01

    Gout, an inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals, is commonly seen in primary care and specialist clinics. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in gout due to advances in therapies and the understanding of pathophysiology, with new guidelines being published by international bodies. However, there is still a gap between the goals of treatment and actual day-to-day practice. Barriers that result in poorly controlled gout include patient factors such as lack of understanding of the disease, stigma and nonadherence to treatment, as well as physician factors such as knowledge gaps, inadequate use of allopurinol and lack of ownership of the disease. The medical profession needs to do more to bridge the gap through physician and patient education, identification of treatment targets with appropriate use of drugs, and dissemination of guidelines. PMID:27549096

  15. Erectile Dysfunction, Vascular Risk, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Caitlin S.; Grant, Michael D.; Zink, Tyler A.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Logue, Mark W.; Hauger, Richard L.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Vascular disease is the most common etiology of erectile dysfunction (ED). Men with ED are at a 65% increased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and a 43% increased risk of stroke within 10 years. Vascular disease is associated with cognitive impairment; ED—an overt manifestation of vascular dysfunction—could also signal early compromised cognition. We sought to determine whether cognitive differences existed between men with ED and healthy peers. Our sample consisted of 651 men (ages 51–60 years) from the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging. ED was associated with poorer cognitive performance, particularly on attention–executive–psychomotor speed tasks. ED remained significantly associated with cognition after inclusion of other cardiovascular risk factors (including hypertension, high cholesterol, body mass index, and smoking). These findings underscore the importance of further study of ED as a predictor of cognitive and cardiovascular health. PMID:24660805

  16. Run performance of middle-aged and young adult runners in the heat.

    PubMed

    de Paula Viveiros, J; Amorim, F T; Alves, M N M; Passos, R L F; Meyer, F

    2012-03-01

    The aging process may impair exercise tolerance in the heat. It is not clear whether this impairment is partly due to a reduction in aerobic capacity. To compare the exercise performance and thermoregulatory responses of middle-aged and young adults with similar aerobic capacities and training statuses, 7 middle-aged (54±2 years; 58±4 ml·kg - 1·min - 1) and 7 young (28±1 years; 61±5 ml·kg - 1·min - 1) male competitive endurance runners underwent 2 10-km self-paced and 2 fixed-workload (90% of race speed) runs until fatigue on a treadmill in hot (40°C) and moderate (20°C) environments on separate days. The runners' total time, average speed, rectal temperature, heat storage rate, physiological strain index, sweat rate, sweat sensitivity, number of heat-activated sweat glands and sweat rate per sweat gland were measured or calculated. Body fat, body surface area, body surface area per body mass, training volume and VO2max were similar between the 2 groups. No differences were observed in total time (59±3; 49±3; 27±2; 54±5 min in the middle-aged and 60±2; 49±3; 27±2; 51±4 min in the young group), average speed, rectal temperature, heat storage rate, physiological strain index, sweat rate (17±7; 15±3; 23±7; 13±2 g.m - 2.min - 1 in the middle-aged and 20±5; 14±4; 22±5; 15±4 g.m - 2.min - 1 in the young group) or sweat sensitivity between age groups (p>0.05) in any trial. The number of heat-activated sweat glands (88±14; 80±18; 90±16; 66±14 cm - 2 in the middle-aged and 43±10; 32±10; 37±11; 31±11 cm - 2 in the young group) was higher, and the sweat rate per sweat gland was smaller, in the middle-aged than the young group (p<0.05) in all of the trials. We conclude that running performance and body thermoregulation are similar between young and middle-aged runners with similar aerobic capacities and training statuses under hot and moderate conditions in self-paced and fixed-intensity runs. The

  17. Prediction of endurance running performance for middle-aged and older runners.

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, N; Tanaka, K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop regression equations that would sufficiently predict the endurance running performance (ERP) of middle-aged and older runners (n = 55, 43-79 years). Among many independent variables which were selected as possible predictors of the ERP, oxygen uptake corresponding to the lactate threshold (VO2@LT), or age was found to be the single best predictor. Some variables representing training habits correlated significantly but only moderately with the ERP. Linear multiple regression equations developed in this study were: V5km = 4.203 + 0.054X1 - 0.028X2 (r = 0.87) V5km = 4.436 + 0.045X1 - 0.033X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.89) V10km = 4.252 + 0.042X1 - 0.026X2 (r = 0.79) V10km = 4.371 + 0.037X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.82) VM = 3.207 + 0.048X1 - 0.022X2 (r = 0.91) VM = 3.707 + 0.038X1 - 0.031X2 + 0.005X3 (r = 0.93) where V5km, V10km and VM are the mean running velocity at 5 km, 10 km and marathon races, respectively, and X1 = VO2@LT (ml kg-1 min-1), X2 = age (year), and X3 = average running duration per workout (min). We suggest that the ERP of middle-aged and older runners can be predicted from a linear combination of VO2@LT and age or a combination of these variables plus average running duration per workout. PMID:7788211

  18. AGING PERFORMANCE OF VITON GLT O-RINGS IN RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Skidmore, E; Kerry Dunn, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Elise Fox, E; Kathryn Counts, K

    2007-05-07

    Radioactive material packages used for transportation of plutonium-bearing materials often contain multiple O-ring seals for containment. Packages such as the Model 9975 are also being used for interim storage of Pu-bearing materials at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One of the seal materials used in such packages is Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. The aging behavior of containment vessel O-rings based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT at long-term containment term storage conditions is being characterized to assess its performance in such applications. This paper summarizes the program and test results to date.

  19. The Effect of Performing Preoperative Preparation Program on School Age Children's Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Vaezzadeh, Nazanin; Douki, Zahra Esmaeeli; Hadipour, Abbas; Osia, Soheil; Shahmohammadi, Soheila; Sadeghi, Roghieh

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine effects of performing preoperative preparation program on children's anxiety. Methods This study was performed in Amirkola Pediatrics Hospital, Mazandaran. A randomized controlled trail was performed on 122 children (7–12 years of age) admitted for elective surgery during 15 months. The researcher randomly assigned eligible participants in to the experimental and control groups, after pre-test baseline measurement had been taken. Analyzing was performed through independent t-test and χ2 test. P<0.005 was considered statistically significant. The experimental group received therapeutic play and the control group received routine preoperative information preparation. Findings The mean and standard deviation of the state anxiety scores of children in experimental and control groups before intervention were 35.52±6.99 and 34.98±6.78, after intervention 31.44±5.87 and 38.31±7.44 respectively. The state anxiety score was lower significantly in the experimental group prior to preoperative surgery than in the control group (P=0.000). Conclusion Performing preoperative program with using therapeutic play intervention is effective for preparing children before surgery and decreases their anxiety. PMID:23056832

  20. Paternal but not maternal age influences early-life performance of offspring in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Rémi; Barbraud, Christophe; Delord, Karine; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Variability in demographic traits between individuals within populations has profound implications for both evolutionary processes and population dynamics. Parental effects as a source of non-genetic inheritance are important processes to consider to understand the causes of individual variation. In iteroparous species, parental age is known to influence strongly reproductive success and offspring quality, but consequences on an offspring fitness component after independence are much less studied. Based on 37 years longitudinal monitoring of a long-lived seabird, the wandering albatross, we investigate delayed effects of parental age on offspring fitness components. We provide evidence that parental age influences offspring performance beyond the age of independence. By distinguishing maternal and paternal age effects, we demonstrate that paternal age, but not maternal age, impacts negatively post-fledging offspring performance. PMID:27053738

  1. The influence of age and mild cognitive impairment on associative memory performance and underlying brain networks.

    PubMed

    Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.

  2. Thermal manipulations during broiler incubation alter performance of broilers to 70 days of age.

    PubMed

    Piestun, Y; Druyan, S; Brake, J; Yahav, S

    2013-05-01

    Recent decades have seen significant progress in the genetic selection of fast-growing broiler chickens. Whereas in many countries the average marketing age is 5 to 6 wk, the US, French, and other markets demand heavier broilers (~4 kg) that require a longer posthatching growing period. With greater age and greater BW, the ability to cope with hot weather conditions deteriorates, which can result in increased economic losses during periods of hot weather. Recent studies have demonstrated a long-lasting effect of intermittent thermal manipulation (TM) during embryogenesis, when it was applied for 12 h/d between embryonic (E) days E7 and E16, which was shown by improved thermotolerance during acute posthatching heat stress as well as improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) and breast muscle yield. The present study was designed to elucidate the effect of TM during embryogenesis on Cobb 500 broiler performance up to 70 d of age. Hatchability and male BW were not affected by TM, but TM females demonstrated a lower (P = 0.024) BW during the entire 70-d posthatching study. However, following embryonic TM, both sexes exhibited lower (P = 0.028 and P = 0.018 for males and females, respectively) feed intake and body temperature accompanied by improved FCR and greater breast muscle weight. In light of the present and previous studies, it was concluded that intermittent TM during broiler embryonic development had a long-lasting effect on energy balance that led to improved FCR and breast muscle yield. PMID:23571323

  3. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood. PMID:21987915

  4. Tracking 10-year competitive winning performance of judo athletes across age groups.

    PubMed

    Julio, Ursula F; Takito, Monica Y; Mazzei, Leandro; Miarka, Bianca; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Franchini, Emerson

    2011-08-01

    Little information is available concerning early specialization and competitive success in judo across the early training years. Thus, the present objective was to verify the stability of individual competitive performance of a state-level championship for judo athletes who had been previously successful. For this, 406 athletes from six age groups (9 to 20+ years old) of each sex were followed for 10 years. Using recorded data from the São Paulo State Judo Federation beginning in 1999, the scores and standings for these judo players were analyzed. The proportion of medal winners during this period was not constant, differing from the grand mean in all groups of both 204 males and 202 females. At the end of this period, only 7% of the male and 5% of the female athletes had maintained their competitive levels. Successful competitive performance in early judo competition was not associated with success later in adulthood.

  5. The effects of texting on driving performance in a driving simulator: the influence of driver age.

    PubMed

    Rumschlag, Gordon; Palumbo, Theresa; Martin, Amber; Head, Doreen; George, Rajiv; Commissaris, Randall L

    2015-01-01

    Distracted driving is a significant contributor to motor vehicle accidents and fatalities, and texting is a particularly significant form of driver distraction that continues to be on the rise. The present study examined the influence of driver age (18-59 years old) and other factors on the disruptive effects of texting on simulated driving behavior. While 'driving' the simulator, subjects were engaged in a series of brief text conversations with a member of the research team. The primary dependent variable was the occurrence of Lane Excursions (defined as any time the center of the vehicle moved outside the directed driving lane, e.g., into the lane for oncoming traffic or onto the shoulder of the road), measured as (1) the percent of subjects that exhibited Lane Excursions, (2) the number of Lane Excursions occurring and (3) the percent of the texting time in Lane Excursions. Multiple Regression analyses were used to assess the influence of several factors on driving performance while texting, including text task duration, texting skill level (subject-reported), texting history (#texts/week), driver gender and driver age. Lane Excursions were not observed in the absence of texting, but 66% of subjects overall exhibited Lane Excursions while texting. Multiple Regression analysis for all subjects (N=50) revealed that text task duration was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, and texting skill level and driver age were significantly correlated with the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions. Driver gender was not significantly correlated with Lane Excursions during texting. Multiple Regression analysis of only highly skilled texters (N=27) revealed that driver age was significantly correlated with the number of Lane Excursions, the percent of subjects exhibiting Lane Excursions and the percent of texting time in Lane Excursions. In contrast, Multiple Regression analysis of those drivers who self-identified as not highly skilled

  6. Effect of cattle age, forage level, and corn processing on diet digestibility and feedlot performance.

    PubMed

    Gorocica-Buenfil, M A; Loerch, S C

    2005-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of cattle age and dietary forage level on the utilization of corn fed whole or ground to feedlot cattle. In Exp. 1, 16 steers were used to investigate the effects of cattle age and corn processing on diet digestibility. Two cattle age categories were evaluated (weanling [254 +/- 20 kg BW] and yearling [477 +/- 29 kg BW]; eight steers per group), and corn was fed either ground or whole to each cattle age category. Cattle age and corn processing did not affect (P > 0.10) diet digestibility of DM, OM, starch, CP, NDF or ADF, and no interactions (P > 0.10) between these two factors were detected. In Exp. 2, the effects of forage level and corn processing on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics were evaluated. One hundred eighty steers (310 +/- 40 kg BW) were allotted to 24 pens, and were fed one of the following diets: high-forage (18.2% corn silage) cracked corn (HFCC); high-forage shifting corn (whole corn for the first half of the trial, then cracked corn until harvest; HFSC); high-forage whole corn (HFWC); low-forage (5.2% corn silage) cracked corn (LFCC); low-forage shifting corn (LFSC); and low-forage whole corn (LFWC). For the high-forage diets, steers fed cracked corn had 7% greater DMI than those fed whole corn, whereas for the low-forage diets, grain processing did not affect DMI (interaction; P = 0.02). No interactions (P > 0.10) between forage level and corn processing were found for ADG and G:F. Total trial ADG and G:F, and percentage of carcasses grading USDA Choice, and carcass yield grade were not affected (P > 0.10) by corn processing. Cattle with fewer days on feed grew faster and more efficiently when cracked corn was fed, whereas cattle with longer days on feed had greater ADG and G:F when corn was fed whole (interaction; P < 0.10). In Exp. 3, the effects of forage level and corn processing on diet digestibility were evaluated. The high-forage cracked corn, high-forage whole corn

  7. Training to improve manual control in 7-8 and 10-12 year old children: Training eliminates performance differences between ages.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2015-10-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7-8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7-8 and 10-12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7-8 year olds was worse than that of the 10-12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7-8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10-12 year olds.

  8. Training To Improve Manual Control In 7–8 And 10–12 Year Old Children: Training Eliminates Performance Differences Between Ages

    PubMed Central

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Fath, Aaron J.; Watson, Carol A; Flatters, Ian; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Many children have difficulty producing movements well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. We previously tested 7–8 year old children who exhibited poor performance and performance differences before training. After training, performance was significantly improved and performance differences were eliminated. According to the Dynamic Systems Theory of development, appropriate support can enable younger children to acquire the ability to perform like older children. In the present study, we compared 7–8 and 10–12 year old school children and predicted that younger children would show reduced performance that was nonetheless amenable to training. Indeed, the pre-training performance of the 7–8 year olds was worse than that of the 10–12 year olds, but post-training performance was equally good for both groups. This was similar to previous results found using this training method for children with DCD and age-matched typically developing children. We also found in a previous study of 7–8 year old school children that training in the 3D tracing task transferred to a 2D drawing task. We now found similar transfer for the 10–12 year olds. PMID:26241334

  9. Age-related differences in stepping performance during step cycle-related removal of vision.

    PubMed

    Chapman, G J; Hollands, M A

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there are age-related changes in the ability of individuals to use vision to plan (feedforward control) and guide (on-line control) foot placement during locomotion. This aim was achieved by constraining the availability of vision and comparing the effects on the stepping performances of older and young adults during a precision stepping task. We experimentally controlled the availability of visual information such that: (1) vision was only available during each stance phase of the targeting limb, (2) vision was only available during each swing phase of the targeting limb or (3) vision was always available. Our visual manipulations had relatively little effect on younger adults' stepping performance as demonstrated by their missing the target on less than 10% of occasions. However, there were clear visual condition-related differences in older adults' stepping performance. When vision was only available during the stance phase of the targeting limb, older adults demonstrated significantly larger foot placement error and associated task failure rate (23%) than trials in which vision was always available (10%). There was an even greater increase in older adults' foot placement error and task failure rate (42%) during trials in which vision was only available in the swing phase than the other visual conditions. These findings suggest that older adults need vision at particular times during the step cycle, to effectively pre-plan future stepping movements. We discuss the evidence that these age-related changes in performance reflect decline in visual and visuomotor CNS pathways.

  10. Insulin Resistance, Brain Atrophy, and Cognitive Performance in Late Middle–Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Sager, Mark A.; Hermann, Bruce P.; La Rue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance dysregulates glucose uptake and other functions in brain areas affected by Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle–aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1) less gray matter in Alzheimer disease–sensitive brain regions and 2) worse cognitive performance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, gray matter volume, and the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were acquired in 372 participants at baseline and a consecutive subset of 121 individuals ~4 years later. Voxel-based morphometry and tensor-based morphometry were used, respectively, to test the association of insulin resistance with baseline brain volume and progressive gray matter atrophy. RESULTS Higher insulin resistance predicted less gray matter at baseline and 4 years later in medial temporal lobe, prefrontal cortices, precuneus, and other parietal gyri. A region-of-interest analysis, independent of the voxel-wise analyses, confirmed that higher insulin resistance was related to medial temporal lobe atrophy. Atrophy itself corresponded to cognitive deficits in the RAVLT. Temporal lobe atrophy that was predicted by higher insulin resistance significantly mediated worse RAVLT encoding performance. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that insulin resistance in an asymptomatic, late middle–aged cohort is associated with progressive atrophy in regions affected by early Alzheimer disease. Insulin resistance may also affect the ability to encode episodic information by negatively influencing gray matter volume in medial temporal lobe. PMID:23069842

  11. Effect of postural angle on back muscle activities in aging female workers performing computer tasks.

    PubMed

    Kamil, Nabilla Sofia Mohd; Dawal, Siti Zawiah Md

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of postural angle on back muscle activity during a computer task in aging women. [Subjects] Seventeen women ≥50 years old participated. [Methods] The participants were instructed to perform computer-related tasks for 20 minutes on a workstation that simulated typical office working conditions. Back posture was measured from the measured trunk and pelvic angles. Electromyography activities were recorded simultaneously from the cervical erector spinae, longissimus, and multifidus muscles. [Results] The lowest mean percentages of maximum voluntary contraction for the cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscles were obtained when the upper trunk and pelvic angles were between 0° to -5° from the sagittal plane. The back muscle activities increased as the upper trunk and pelvic angles exceeded 0°. Statistical analysis showed significant correlations between upper trunk angle and cervical erector spinae and longissimus muscle activities. Similarly, pelvic angle was significantly correlated with cervical erector spinae and multifidus muscle activities. [Conclusion] A neutral back posture minimizes muscle activities in aging women performing computer tasks.

  12. Voluntary exercise impairs initial delayed spatial alternation performance in estradiol treated ovariectomized middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Neese, Steven L; Korol, Donna L; Schantz, Susan L

    2013-09-01

    Estrogens differentially modulate behavior in the adult female rodent. Voluntary exercise can also impact behavior, often reversing age associated decrements in memory processes. Our research group has published a series of papers reporting a deficit in the acquisition of an operant working memory task, delayed spatial alternation (DSA), following 17β-estradiol treatment to middle-aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The current study examined if voluntary exercise could attenuate the 17β-estradiol induced deficits on DSA performance. OVX 12-month old Long-Evans rats were implanted with a Silastic capsule containing 17β-estradiol (10% in cholesterol: low physiological range) or with a blank capsule. A subset of the 17β-estradiol and OVX untreated rats were given free access to a running wheel in their home cage. All rats were tested for 40 sessions on the DSA task. Surprisingly, we found running wheel access to impair initial acquisition of the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated rats, an effect not seen in OVX untreated rats given running wheel access. This deficit was driven by an increase in perseverative responding on a lever no longer associated with reinforcement. We also report for the first time a 17β-estradiol induced impairment on the DSA task following a long intertrial delay (18-sec), an effect revealed following more extended testing than in our previous studies (15 additional sessions). Overall, running wheel access increased initial error rate on the DSA task in 17β-estradiol treated middle-aged OVX rats, and failed to prevent the 17β-estradiol induced deficits in performance of the operant DSA task in later testing sessions.

  13. Sex-specific age associations of ankle proprioception test performance in older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor; Deshpande, Nandini; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: this study was aimed to test the hypothesis that ankle proprioception assessed by custom-designed proprioception testing equipment changes with ageing in men and women. Methods: ankle proprioception was assessed in 289 participants (131 women) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA); the participants aged 51–95 years and were blinded during testing. Results: the average minimum perceived ankle rotation was 1.11° (SE = 0.07) in women and 1.00° (SE = 0.06) in men, and it increased with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001, for both). Ankle tracking performance, which is the ability to closely follow with the left ankle, a rotational movement induced on the right ankle by a torque motor, declines with ageing in both men and women (P = 0.018 and P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: a simple, standardised method for assessing ankle proprioception was introduced in this study using a customized test instrument, software and test protocol. Age-associated reduction in ankle proprioception was confirmed from two subtests of threshold and tracking separately for women and men. Findings in this study prompt future studies to determine whether these age-associated differences in the threshold for passive motion detection and movement tracking are evident in longitudinal study and how these specific deficits in ankle proprioception are related to age-associated chronic conditions such as knee or hip osteoarthritis and type II diabetes and affect daily activities such as gait. PMID:25637144

  14. HbA1c Alone Is a Poor Indicator of Cardiometabolic Risk in Middle-Aged Subjects with Pre-Diabetes but Is Suitable for Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Seán R.; Perry, Ivan J.; Phillips, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) measurement is recommended as an alternative to fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes. However, evidence suggests discordance between HbA1c and FPG. In this study we examine a range of metabolic risk features, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute-phase response proteins, coagulation factors and white blood cell counts to determine which assay more accurately identifies individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 2,047 men and women aged 46-73 years. Binary and multinomial logistic regression were employed to examine risk feature associations with pre-diabetes [either HbA1c levels 5.7-6.4% (39-46 mmol/mol) or impaired FPG levels 5.6-6.9 mmol/l] and type 2 diabetes [either HbA1c levels >6.5% (>48 mmol/mol) or FPG levels >7.0 mmol/l]. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the ability of HbA1c to discriminate pre-diabetes and diabetes defined by FPG. Results Stronger associations with diabetes-related phenotypes were observed in pre-diabetic subjects diagnosed by FPG compared to those detected by HbA1c. Individuals with type 2 diabetes exhibited cardiometabolic profiles that were broadly similar according to diagnosis by either assay. Pre-diabetic participants classified by both assays displayed a more pro-inflammatory, pro-atherogenic, hypertensive and insulin resistant profile. Odds ratios of having three or more metabolic syndrome features were also noticeably increased (OR: 4.0, 95% CI: 2.8-5.8) when compared to subjects diagnosed by either HbA1c (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.2-1.8) or FPG (OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.7-5.1) separately. Conclusions In middle-aged Caucasian-Europeans, HbA1c alone is a poor indicator of cardiometabolic risk but is suitable for diagnosing diabetes. Combined use of HbA1c and FPG may be of additional benefit for detecting individuals at highest odds of

  15. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Wyma, John M; Herron, Timothy J; Yund, E William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  16. The Effects of Aging, Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Computerized Trail-Making Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Wyma, John M.; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The trail making test (TMT) is widely used to assess speed of processing and executive function. However, normative data sets gathered at different sites show significant inconsistencies. Here, we describe a computerized version of the TMT (C-TMT) that increases the precision and replicability of the TMT by permitting a segment-by-segment analysis of performance and separate analyses of dwell-time, move-time, and error time. Experiment 1 examined 165 subjects of various ages and found that completion times on both the C-TMT-A (where subjects connect successively numbered circles) and the C-TMT-B (where subjects connect circles containing alternating letters and numbers) were strongly influenced by age. Experiment 2 examined 50 subjects who underwent three test sessions. The results of the first test session were well fit by the normative data gathered in Experiment 1. Sessions 2 and 3 demonstrated significant learning effects, particularly on the C-TMT-B, and showed good test-retest reliability. Experiment 3 examined performance in subjects instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury: 44% of subjects produced abnormal completion times on the C-TMT-A, and 18% on the C-TMT-B. Malingering subjects could be distinguished from abnormally slow controls based on (1) disproportionate increases in dwell-time on the C-TMT-A, and (2) greater deficits on the C-TMT-A than on the C-TMT-B. Experiment 4 examined the performance of 28 patients with traumatic brain injury: C-TMT-B completion times were slowed, and TBI patients showed reduced movement velocities on both tests. The C-TMT improves the reliability and sensitivity of the trail making test of processing speed and executive function. PMID:26060999

  17. Dual reproductive cost of aging in male medflies: dramatic decrease in mating competitiveness and gradual reduction in mating performance

    PubMed Central

    Papanastasiou, Stella A.; Diamantidis, Alexandros D.; Nakas, Christos T.; Carey, James R.; Papadopoulos, Nikos T.

    2011-01-01

    Although age-based effects on the reproductive success of males have been reported in several animal taxa the cost of aging on male mating success in lekking species has not been fully explored. We used the Mediterranean fruit fly, a lekking species, to investigate possible cost of aging on male reproductive success. We performed no choice and choice mating tests to test the hypothesis that aging does not affect the mating performance (mating success in conditions lacking competition) or the mating competitiveness (mating success against younger rivals) of males. The mating probability of older males decreased significantly when competing with younger males. Aging gradually reduced the mating performance of males but older males were still accepted as mating partners in conditions lacking competition. Therefore, older males are capable of performing the complete repertoire of sexual performance but fail to be chosen by females in the presence of young rivals. Older males achieved shorter copulations than younger ones, and female readiness to mate was negatively affected by male age. Older and younger males transferred similar amount of spermatozoids to female spermathecae. Females stored spermatozoids asymmetrically in the two spermathecae regardless the age of their mating partner. Aging positively affected the amount of spermatozoids in testes of both mated and non mated males. No significant differences were observed on the amount of spermatozoids between mated and non mated males. PMID:21801728

  18. Identifying the limitations for growth in low performing piglets from birth until 10 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S P; Jansman, A J M; Verstegen, M W A; den Hartog, L A; van Hees, H M J; Bolhuis, J E; van Kempen, T A T G; Gerrits, W J J

    2014-06-01

    The evolution of hyper-prolific pig breeds has led to a higher within-litter variation in birth weight and in BW gain during the nursery phase. Based on an algorithm developed in previous research, two populations from a pool of 368 clinically healthy piglets at 6 weeks of age were selected: a low (LP) and a high (HP) performing population and their development was monitored until the end of the nursery phase (10 weeks of age). To understand the cause of the variation in growth between these populations we characterized the LP and HP piglets in terms of body morphology, behaviour, voluntary feed intake, BW gain, and apparent total tract and ileal nutrient digestibility. Piglets were housed individually and were fed a highly digestible diet. At selection, 6 weeks of age, the BW of LP and HP piglets were 6.8±0.1 and 12.2±0.1 kg, respectively. Compared with the LP piglets the HP piglets grew faster (203 g/day), ate more (275 g/day) from 6 to 10 weeks of age and were heavier at 10 weeks (30.0 v. 18.8 kg, all P<0.01). Yet, the differences in average daily gain and average daily feed intake disappeared when compared per kg BW0.75. Assuming similar maintenance requirements per kg BW0.75 the efficiency of feed utilization above maintenance was 0.1 g/g lower for the LP piglets (P=0.09).The gain : feed ratio was similar for both groups. LP piglets tended to take more time to touch a novel object (P=0.10), and spent more time eating (P<0.05). At 10 weeks, LP piglets had a higher body length and head circumference relative to BW (P<0.01). Relative to BW, LP had a 21% higher small intestine weight; 36% longer length, and relative to average FI, the small intestinal weight was 4 g/kg higher (both P=<0.01). Apparent total tract and ileal dry matter, N and gross energy digestibility were similar between groups (P>0.10). We concluded that the low performance of the LP piglets was due to their inability to engage compensatory gain or compensatory feed intake as efficiency of

  19. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging.

  20. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances

    PubMed Central

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  1. Cognitive Decline and Reorganization of Functional Connectivity in Healthy Aging: The Pivotal Role of the Salience Network in the Prediction of Age and Cognitive Performances.

    PubMed

    La Corte, Valentina; Sperduti, Marco; Malherbe, Caroline; Vialatte, François; Lion, Stéphanie; Gallarda, Thierry; Oppenheim, Catherine; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is related to a decline in specific cognitive processes, in particular in executive functions and memory. In recent years a growing number of studies have focused on changes in brain functional connectivity related to cognitive aging. A common finding is the decreased connectivity within multiple resting state networks, including the default mode network (DMN) and the salience network. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline is related to altered functional connectivity. To this end we used a machine learning approach to classify young and old participants from functional connectivity data. The originality of the approach consists in the prediction of the performance and age of the subjects based on functional connectivity by using a machine learning approach. Our findings showed that the connectivity profile between specific networks predicts both the age of the subjects and their cognitive abilities. In particular, we report that the connectivity profiles between the salience and visual networks, and the salience and the anterior part of the DMN, were the features that best predicted the age. Moreover, independently of the age of the subject, connectivity between the salience network and various specific networks (i.e., visual, frontal) predicted episodic memory skills either based on a standard assessment or on an autobiographical memory task, and short-term memory binding. Finally, the connectivity between the salience and the frontal networks predicted inhibition and updating performance, but this link was no longer significant after removing the effect of age. Our findings confirm the crucial role of episodic memory and executive functions in cognitive aging and suggest a pivotal role of the salience network in neural reorganization in aging. PMID:27616991

  2. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2015-01-01

    Children described as "poor comprehenders" (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this…

  3. An experimental test for age-related improvements in reproductive performance in a frog that cares for its young

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugas, Matthew B.; Moore, Michael P.; Wamelink, Caitlin N.; Richards-Zawacki, Corinne L.; Martin, Ryan A.

    2015-10-01

    Reproductive performance often increases with age in long-lived iteroparous organisms, a pattern that can result from within-individual increases in effort and/or competence. In free-living populations, it is typically difficult to distinguish these mechanisms or to isolate particular features of reproduction-influencing outcomes. In captive Oophaga pumilio, a frog in which mothers provide extended offspring provisioning via trophic eggs, we experimentally manipulated the age at which females started breeding and then monitored them across repeated reproductive events. This experiment allowed us to decouple age and experience and isolate maternal care as the proximate source of any differences in performance. Younger first-time mothers produced larger broods than older first-time mothers, but did not rear more offspring to independence. Across repeated reproductive events, maternal age was unassociated with any metric of performance. At later reproductive events, however, mothers produced fewer metamorphs, and a lower proportion of individuals in their broods reached independence. These patterns suggest that performance does not improve with age or breeding experience in this frog, and that eventual declines in performance are driven by reproductive activity, not age per se. Broadly, age-specific patterns of reproductive performance may depend on the proximate mechanism by which parents influence offspring fitness and how sensitive these are to effort and competence.

  4. Association of Physical Performance and Pain With Fear of Falling Among Community-Dwelling Japanese Women Aged 65 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Okabe, Takuhiro; Mizukami, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Abe, Yasuyo; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to explore the association of physical performance and pain with fear of falling among community-dwelling Japanese women.The subjects were 278 women aged 65 years and over. We collected information on fear of falling, painful joints, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Walking time (distance of 6 m), chair stand time (5 times), grip strength, the timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reach were measured.The prevalence of fear of falling was 36.3%, and it increased with age, but it was not significant (P = 0.081). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poor physical performance (longer walking time, longer chair stand time, weaker grip strength, and longer TUG) and pain (low back, and upper and lower extremity pain) were significantly associated with fear of falling after adjusting for age, body mass index, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts.Maintaining physical functioning and managing pain may be important for elderly women with fear of falling.

  5. Association of Physical Performance and Pain With Fear of Falling Among Community-Dwelling Japanese Women Aged 65 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Okabe, Takuhiro; Mizukami, Satoshi; Nishimura, Takayuki; Abe, Yasuyo; Goto, Hisashi; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to explore the association of physical performance and pain with fear of falling among community-dwelling Japanese women.The subjects were 278 women aged 65 years and over. We collected information on fear of falling, painful joints, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts. Walking time (distance of 6 m), chair stand time (5 times), grip strength, the timed up and go test (TUG), and functional reach were measured.The prevalence of fear of falling was 36.3%, and it increased with age, but it was not significant (P = 0.081). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that poor physical performance (longer walking time, longer chair stand time, weaker grip strength, and longer TUG) and pain (low back, and upper and lower extremity pain) were significantly associated with fear of falling after adjusting for age, body mass index, comorbidities, falls in the previous year, and cataracts.Maintaining physical functioning and managing pain may be important for elderly women with fear of falling. PMID:26334906

  6. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  7. Age and temperature related changes in behavioral and physiological performance in the Peromyscus leucopus mouse.

    PubMed

    Duffy, P H; Feuers, R J; Pipkin, J L; Turturro, A; Hart, R W

    1997-04-01

    Age-related and ambient temperature-related changes in motor activity, body temperature, body weight (b.w.), and food consumption were studied in the long-lived Peromyscus leucopus mouse at environmental temperatures of 29 and 21 degrees C. Major changes in physiological performance were observed between the young (6 months) and old (60-72 month) age groups. The number of daily activity episodes, and total activity output was significantly lower in old mice. Maximum, average and minimum daily body temperature was lower in the old mice and a significant ambient temperature-by-age interaction was found. Maximum, minimum, and average daily b.w. was higher in old mice. Motor activity was evenly distributed over the active (night) phase in young mice but in old mice activity was significantly greater in the late night partition of the active cycle than in the early night partition. Both groups were significantly more active at night than during the day. Most of the food consumption in both groups occurred at night, but young mice consumed significantly more during the late night partition than the early night partition, and the consumption rates for old mice were not significantly different between early and late night partitions. The percentage of activity episodes involved with food consumption in both groups was significantly higher during the night partition, but the percentage during the early night partition was significantly higher in old mice than in young mice. Significant episodes of circadian torpor occurred in a high percentage of old mice at 06:00, on consecutive days, at both environmental temperatures, but young mice expressed no evidence of torpor.

  8. Effects of Age, Sex, and Neuropsychological Performance on Financial Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Shivapour, Sara K.; Nguyen, Christopher M.; Cole, Catherine A.; Denburg, Natalie L.

    2012-01-01

    The capacity to make sound financial decisions across the lifespan is critical for interpersonal, occupational, and psychological health and success. In the present study, we explored how healthy younger and older adults make a series of increasingly complex financial decisions. One-hundred sixteen healthy older adults, aged 56–90 years, and 102 college undergraduates, completed the Financial Decision-Making Questionnaire, which requires selecting and justifying financial choices across four hypothetical scenarios and answering questions pertaining to financial knowledge. Results indicated that Older participants significantly outperformed Younger participants on a multiple-choice test of acquired financial knowledge. However, after controlling for such pre-existing knowledge, several age effects were observed. For example, Older participants were more likely to make immediate investment decisions, whereas Younger participants exhibited a preference for delaying decision-making pending additional information. Older participants also rated themselves as more concerned with avoiding monetary loss (i.e., a prevention orientation), whereas Younger participants reported greater interest in financial gain (i.e., a promotion orientation). In terms of sex differences, Older Males were more likely to pay credit card bills and utilize savings accounts than were Older Females. Multiple positive correlations were observed between Older participants’ financial decision-making ability and performance on neuropsychological measures of non-verbal intellect and executive functioning. Lastly, the ability to justify one’s financial decisions declined with age, among the Older participants. Several of the aforementioned results parallel findings from the medical decision-making literature, suggesting that older adults make decisions in a manner that conserves diminishing cognitive resources. PMID:22715322

  9. Effects of Age of English Exposure, Current Input/Output, and grade on bilingual language performance.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D; Griffin, Zenzi M; Hixon, J Gregory

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluates the effects of Age of Exposure to English (AoEE) and Current Input/Output on language performance in a cross-sectional sample of Spanish-English bilingual children. First- (N = 586) and third-graders (N = 298) who spanned a wide range of bilingual language experience participated. Parents and teachers provided information about English and Spanish language use. Short tests of semantic and morphosyntactic development in Spanish and English were used to quantify children's knowledge of each language. There were significant interactions between AoEE and Current Input/Output for children at third grade in English and in both grades for Spanish. In English, the relationship between AoEE and language scores were linear for first- and third-graders. In Spanish a nonlinear relationship was observed. We discuss how much of the variance was accounted for by AoEE and Current Input/Output.

  10. Influence of sludge age on the performance of MFC treating winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eduardo D; Fernandez-Marchante, Carmen Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Cañizares, Pablo; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael; Rodrigo, Manuel Andrés

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of sludge age on microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance for generating electricity and removing organic matter from winery wastewater. Six Solid Retention Times (SRT) were used: 1.2, 1.4, 1.8, 2.3, 3.5 and 7.0 d. Results demonstrate that the electricity generation increases by decreasing the SRT, selecting electrogenic microorganisms, once the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) increased and the competition for substrate was reduced. Decreasing the SRT, coulombic efficiency can be increased from 3.4% to almost 42.2% and maximum power density from 58 to 890 mW m(-2). However the SRT did not influence on organic matter removal in biological treatment, because only a small part of COD was removed oscillating around 600 mg L(-1) d(-1)and it was very similar at all SRT studied.

  11. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  12. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes-Filho, Jose A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2011-01-15

    Background: Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives: We investigated these children's and caregivers' cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results: Children's mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 {mu}g/L (2.7-23.4) and 5.83 {mu}g/g (0.1-86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 {mu}g/g (0.10-77.45) and correlated to children's MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children's MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; {beta} coefficients for MnH were -5.78 (95% CI -10.71 to -0.21) and -6.72 (-11.81 to -0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven's ({beta}=-2.69, 95% CI -5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions: These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver's IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children's cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure.

  13. Associations of Insulin and Insulin-Like Growth Factors with Physical Performance in Old Age in the Boyd Orr and Caerphilly Studies

    PubMed Central

    Birnie, Kate; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Holly, Jeff M. P.; Gunnell, David; Ebrahim, Shah; Bayer, Antony; Gallacher, John; Martin, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system regulate growth and are involved in determining muscle mass, strength and body composition. We hypothesised that IGF-I and IGF-II are associated with improved, and insulin with worse, physical performance in old age. Methods Physical performance was measured using the get-up and go timed walk and flamingo balance test at 63–86 years. We examined prospective associations of insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 with physical performance in the UK-based Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS; n = 739 men); and cross-sectional insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 in the Boyd Orr cohort (n = 182 men, 223 women). Results In confounder-adjusted models, there was some evidence in CaPS that a standard deviation (SD) increase in IGF-I was associated with 1.5% faster get-up and go test times (95% CI: −0.2%, 3.2%; p = 0.08), but little association with poor balance, 19 years later. Coefficients in Boyd Orr were in the same direction as CaPS, but consistent with chance. Higher levels of insulin were weakly associated with worse physical performance (CaPS and Boyd Orr combined: get-up and go time = 1.3% slower per SD log-transformed insulin; 95% CI: 0.0%, 2.7%; p = 0.07; OR poor balance 1.13; 95% CI; 0.98, 1.29; p = 0.08), although associations were attenuated after controlling for body mass index (BMI) and co-morbidities. In Boyd Orr, a one SD increase in IGFBP-2 was associated with 2.6% slower get-up and go times (95% CI: 0.4%, 4.8% slower; p = 0.02), but this was only seen when controlling for BMI and co-morbidities. There was no consistent evidence of associations of IGF-II, or IGFBP-3 with physical performance. Conclusions There was some evidence that high IGF-I and low insulin levels in middle-age were associated with improved physical performance in old age, but estimates were imprecise. Larger cohorts are required to confirm or refute the findings. PMID:22253890

  14. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  15. Storage and Aging Effects on Spherical Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Ion Exchange Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Arm, Stuart T.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Steele, Marilyn J.; Thomas, Kathie K.

    2007-09-10

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the alternate Cs ion exchanger, spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF), for use in the River Protection Project-Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP).( ) Previous test activities with spherical RF indicate that it has adequate capacity, selectivity, and kinetics to perform in the plant according to the flowsheet needs. It appears to have better elution and hydraulic properties than the existing alternatives: ground-gel RF and SuperLig® 644 (SL 644).( ) To date, the spherical RF performance testing has been conducted on freshly manufactured resin (within ~2 months of manufacture). The ion exchange resins will be manufactured and shipped to the WTP up to 1 year before being used in the plant. Changes in the resin properties during storage could reduce the capacity of the resin to remove Cs from low-activity waste solutions. Active sites on organic SL-644 resin have been shown to degrade during storage (Arm et al. 2004). Additional testing was needed to study the effects of storage conditions and aging on spherical RF ion exchange performance. Variables that could have a significant impact on ion exchange resins during storage include storage temperature, medium, and time. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to test the effects of various storage conditions on spherical RF resin. Data obtained from the testing will be used by the WTP operations to provide direction for suitable storage conditions and manage the spherical RF resin stock. Storage test conditions included wet and dry resin configurations under nitrogen at three temperatures. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan( ) TSS A-219 to evaluate the impact of storage conditions on RF resin performance. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract DE-AC05-76RL

  16. [Poor prognosis childhood cancers].

    PubMed

    Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Minard, Véronique

    2007-05-31

    Poor prognosis childhood cancers are mainly metastatic diseases represented by stage IV neuroblastomas developed in children more than one year and metastatic Ewing tumours. These both diseases are chemosensitive but not curable with conventional chemotherapy. In these indications, high-dose chemotherapy with autologous peripheral blood stem cells transplantation is delivered in patients achieving a good partial remission with conventional treatment. The toxicity of these procedures is high but manageable; these approaches have improved the prognosis of these patients.

  17. Impact of patient's age and disease duration on cardiac performance in acromegaly: a radionuclide angiography study.

    PubMed

    Colao, A; Cuocolo, A; Marzullo, P; Nicolai, E; Ferone, D; Della Morte, A M; Petretta, M; Salvatore, M; Lombardi, G

    1999-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of age and disease duration on cardiac performance in acromegaly. To address these issues, the left ventricular function at rest and during physical exercise was assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography in 40 rigorously selected patients with active acromegaly but without evidence of other complications able to affect heart function and in 32 healthy controls. Patients and controls were divided in two groups, on the basis of age below and above 40 yr. Circulating GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were significantly increased in patients, compared with controls, but were similar in the two groups of patients. At peak exercise, the systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in elderly patients (P < 0.001), whereas diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in young patients than in age-matched controls (P < 0.01). Heart rate at peak exercise was significantly higher in young than in elderly patients and controls (P < 0.01), without any evidence of arrhythmia in both groups. The left ventricular ejection fraction at rest was normal (>50%) in all but 2 patients and in all controls. The left ventricular ejection fraction at peak exercise was significantly decreased in elderly, compared with young, patients (P < 0.01) and in age-matched controls (P < 0.001). A normal response of the left ventricular ejection fraction to exercise was found in 12 of 40 patients (30%) and in 28 of 32 controls (87.5%) (chi2, 5.764; P < 0.01). Exercise-induced changes in left ventricular ejection fraction were significantly decreased in young (+5.2 +/- 4.4% vs. +21.3 +/- 3.4%, P < 0.005) and elderly patients (-10.2 +/- 2.8% vs. +13.7 +/- 2.7%, P < 0.0001), as compared with age-matched controls. The peak rate of left ventricular filling was significantly higher in young, than in elderly, patients whether peak filling rate was normalized to end-diastolic volume (P < 0.001), or stroke volume (P < 0.0001), or expressed

  18. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  19. Age-related differences in acceleration, maximum running speed, and repeated-sprint performance in young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Buchheit, Martin; Kuitunen, Sami; Douglas, Andrew; Peltola, Esa; Bourdon, Pitre

    2011-03-01

    We investigated age-related differences in the relationships among acceleration, maximum running speed, and repeated-sprint performance in 61 highly trained young male soccer players (Under 14, n = 14; Under 16, n = 22; Under 18, n = 25). We also examined the possible influence of anthropometry (stature, body mass, fat-free mass) and biological maturation (age at peak height velocity) on performance in those three sprint-running qualities. Players were tested for 10-m sprint (acceleration), flying 20-m sprint (maximum running speed), and 10 × 30-m sprint (repeated-sprint performance) times. Correlations between acceleration, maximum running speed, and repeated-sprint performance were positive and large to almost perfect (r = 0.55-0.96), irrespective of age group. There were age-based differences both in absolute performance in the three sprint-running qualities (Under 18 > Under 16 > Under 14; P < 0.001) and when body mass and fat-free mass were statistically controlled (P < 0.05). In contrast, all between-group differences disappeared after adjustment for age at peak height velocity (P > 0.05). The large correlations among acceleration, maximum running speed, and repeated-sprint performance in all age groups, as well as the disappearance of between-group differences when adjusted for estimated biological maturity, suggest that these physical qualities in young highly trained soccer players might be considered as a general quality, which is likely to be related to qualitative adaptations that accompany maturation.

  20. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables. PMID:23666849

  1. Are poor Chinese text comprehenders also poor in written composition?

    PubMed

    Guan, Connie Qun; Ye, Feifei; Meng, Wanjin; Leong, Che Kan

    2013-10-01

    We studied the performance in three genres of Chinese written composition (narration, exposition, and argumentation) of 158 grade 4, 5, and 6 poor Chinese text comprehenders compared with 156 good Chinese text comprehenders. We examined text comprehension and written composition relationship. Verbal working memory (verbal span working memory and operation span working memory) and different levels of linguistic tasks-morphological sensitivity (morphological compounding and morphological chain), sentence processing (syntax construction and syntax integrity), and text comprehension (narrative and expository texts)-were used to predict separately narrative, expository, and argumentation written compositions in these students. Grade for grade, the good text comprehenders outperformed the poor text comprehenders in all tasks, except for morphological chain. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed differential contribution of the tasks to different genres of writing. In particular, text comprehension made unique contribution to argumentation writing in the poor text comprehenders. Future studies should ask students to read and write parallel passages in the same genre for better comparison and incorporate both instructional and motivational variables.

  2. Neuropsychological Performance in Polyconsumer Men Under Treatment. Influence of Age of Onset of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Benaiges, Irina; Adan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognition is a key factor in the development and maintenance of Substance Use Disorders (SUD). However, there are still several aspects that need to be studied in this area. In this study, we elucidate the influence of age of onset of substance use (OSU) on the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as to explore the influence of years of education, duration of drug use and premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) on the cognitive results obtained. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was used to assess different cognitive domains in 80 male polyconsumers, 41 with earlier OSU (16 years or before: OSU ≤ 16) and 39 with later OSU (17 years or later: OSU ≥ 17). The patients were under treatment with at least 4 months of abstinence confirmed by urinalysis. The OSU ≤ 16 group presented a worse clinical state, as well as a lower premorbid IQ and worse performance in processing speed, visual perception and planning skills. The duration of drug use may account for the differences in planning and processing speed. In this work we discuss the premorbid or acquired nature of the cognitive deficits found. PMID:26155725

  3. Age, training, and previous experience predict race performance in long-distance inline skaters, not anthropometry.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-02-01

    The association of characteristics of anthropometry, training, and previous experience with race time in 84 recreational, long-distance, inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe (111 km), the Inline One-eleven in Switzerland, was investigated to identify predictor variables for performance. Age, duration per training unit, and personal best time were the only three variables related to race time in a multiple regression, while none of the 16 anthropometric variables were related. Anthropometric characteristics seem to be of no importance for a fast race time in a long-distance inline skating race in contrast to training volume and previous experience, when controlled with covariates. Improving performance in a long-distance inline skating race might be related to a high training volume and previous race experience. Also, doing such a race requires a parallel psychological effort, mental stamina, focus, and persistence. This may be reflected in the preparation and training for the event. Future studies should investigate what motivates these athletes to train and compete.

  4. Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

    2013-10-01

    The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83 years to 6.17 years (M=5.42 years, SD=3.58 months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6 months later following the intervention, and then again at 18 months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. PMID:23186610

  5. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  6. Neuropsychological Performance in Polyconsumer Men Under Treatment. Influence of Age of Onset of Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Benaiges, Irina; Adan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognition is a key factor in the development and maintenance of Substance Use Disorders (SUD). However, there are still several aspects that need to be studied in this area. In this study, we elucidate the influence of age of onset of substance use (OSU) on the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as to explore the influence of years of education, duration of drug use and premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) on the cognitive results obtained. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was used to assess different cognitive domains in 80 male polyconsumers, 41 with earlier OSU (16 years or before: OSU ≤ 16) and 39 with later OSU (17 years or later: OSU ≥ 17). The patients were under treatment with at least 4 months of abstinence confirmed by urinalysis. The OSU ≤ 16 group presented a worse clinical state, as well as a lower premorbid IQ and worse performance in processing speed, visual perception and planning skills. The duration of drug use may account for the differences in planning and processing speed. In this work we discuss the premorbid or acquired nature of the cognitive deficits found. PMID:26155725

  7. Effect of age on 16.1-km time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    Balmer, James; Bird, Steve; Davison, Richard; Lucia, Alejandro

    2008-01-15

    In this study, we assessed the performance of trained senior (n = 6) and veteran (n = 6) cyclists (mean age 28 years, s = 3 and 57 years, s = 4 respectively). Each competitor completed two cycling tests, a ramped peak aerobic test and an indoor 16.1-km time-trial. The tests were performed using a Kingcycle ergometer with the cyclists riding their own bicycle fitted with an SRM powermeter. Power output, heart rate, and gas exchange variables were recorded continuously and blood lactate concentration [HLa] was assessed 3 min after the peak ramped test and at 2.5-min intervals during the time-trial. Peak values for power output (RMP(max)), heart rate (HR(peak)), oxygen uptake (VO2(peak)), and ventilation (V(Epeak)) attained during the ramped test were higher in the senior group (P < 0.05), whereas [HLa](peak), RER(peak), V(E): VO2(peak), and economy(peak) were similar between groups (P > 0.05). Time-trial values (mean for duration of race) for power output (W(TT)), heart rate (HR(TT)), VO2 (VO(2TT)), and V(E) (V(ETT)) were higher in the seniors (P < 0.05), but [HLa](TT), RER(TT), V(ETT): VO2(TT), and economy(TT) were similar between the groups (P > 0.05). Time-trial exercise intensity, expressed as %RMP(max), %HR(peak), % VO2(peak), and % V(Epeak), was similar (P > 0.05) for seniors and veterans (W(TT): 81%, s = 2 vs. 78%, s = 8; HR(TT): 96%, s = 4 vs. 94%, s = 4; VO2(TT): 92%, s = 4 vs. 95%, s = 10; V(ETT): 89%, s = 8 vs. 85%, s = 8, respectively). Overall, seniors attained higher absolute values for power output, heart rate, VO2, and V(E) but not blood lactate concentration, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), V(E): VO2, and economy. Veterans did not accommodate age-related declines in time trial performance by maintaining higher relative exercise intensity.

  8. Effects of age and recovery duration on performance during multiple treadmill sprints.

    PubMed

    Ratel, S; Williams, C A; Oliver, J; Armstrong, N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of age and recovery duration on performance during multiple treadmill sprints. Twelve boys (11.7 +/- 0.5 y) and thirteen men (22.1 +/- 2.9 y) performed ten consecutive 10-s sprints on a non-motorised treadmill separated by 15-s (R15) and 180-s (R180) passive recovery intervals. Mean power output (MPO), mean force output (MFO), running velocity, step length, and step rate were calculated for each sprint. Capillary blood samples were drawn from the fingertip at rest and 3 min after the tenth sprint to measure the lactate accumulation (Delta [La]). With R15, all mechanical parameters decreased significantly less in the boys than in the men over the ten sprints (MPO: - 28.9 vs. - 47.0 %, MFO: - 13.1 vs. - 25.6 %, running velocity: - 18.8 vs. - 29.4 %, p < 0.001, respectively). With R180, all mechanical values remained unchanged in the boys. In the men, MPO and MFO significantly decreased over the ten sprints (- 7.8 % and - 4.6 %, p < 0.05, respectively). The running velocity, however, did not decrease because the decrease in step rate (p < 0.001) was compensated by an increase in step length. For either recovery interval, Delta [La] values were higher in the men compared to the boys (R15: 12.7 vs. 7.7 mmol . L (-1), p < 0.001, R180: 10.7 vs. 7.7 mmol . L (-1), p < 0.05). To conclude, the boys maintained more easily their running performance than the men during repeated treadmill sprints with R15. Three-minute recovery periods were sufficient in the boys to repeat short running sprints without substantial fatigue. Despite the decrease in power and force outputs with R180, the young men were able to maintain their running velocity during the test. PMID:16388435

  9. Assessing the Validity of Self-Rated Health with the Short Physical Performance Battery: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Emmanuelle; Zunzunegui, Maria–Victoria; Phillips, Susan; Ylli, Alban; Guralnik, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the validity of self-rated health across different populations of older adults, when compared to the Short Physical Performance Battery. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study. Setting Five locations: Saint-Hyacinthe and Kingston (Canada), Tirana (Albania), Manizales (Colombia), and Natal (Brazil). Participants Older adults between 65 and 74 years old (n = 1,995). Methods The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) was used to measure physical performance. Self-rated health was assessed with one single five-point question. Linear trends between SPPB scores and self-rated health were tested separately for men and women at each of the five international study sites. Poor physical performance (independent variable) (SPPB less than 8) was used in logistic regression models of self-rated health (dependent variable), adjusting for potential covariates. All analyses were stratified by gender and site of origin. Results A significant linear association was found between the mean scores of the Short Physical Performance Battery and ordinal categories of self-rated health across research sites and gender groups. After extensive control for objective physical and mental health indicators and socio-demographic variables, these graded associations became non-significant in some research sites. Conclusion These findings further confirm the validity of SRH as a measure of overall health status in older adults. PMID:27089219

  10. A comparison of participation and performance in age-group finishers competing in and qualifying for Ironman Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Stiefel, Michael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Background Athletes intending to compete in Ironman Hawaii need to qualify in an age-group based qualification system. We compared participation and top ten performances of athletes in various age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Methods Finishes in Ironman Hawaii and in its qualifier races in 2010 were analyzed in terms of performance, age, and sex. Athletes were categorized into age groups from 18–24 to 75–79 years and split and race times were determined for the top ten athletes in each age group. Results A higher proportion of athletes aged 25–49 years finished in the qualifier races than in Ironman Hawaii. In athletes aged 18–24 and 50–79 years, the percentage of finishes was higher in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. For women, the fastest race times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for those aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 25–29 (P<0.05), and 60–64 (P<0.05) years. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for 18–24, 25–29, 40–44, 50–54, and 60–64 years (P<0.05) in age groups. For men, finishers aged 18–24 (P<0.001), 40–44 (P<0.001), 50–54 (P<0.01), 55–59 (P<0.001), 60–64 (P<0.01), and 65–69 (P<0.001) years were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races. Swim split times were slower in Ironman Hawaii than in the qualifier races for all age groups (P<0.05). Cycling times were slower in Ironman Hawaii for those aged 18–24 and those aged 40 years and older (P<0.05). Conclusion There are differences in terms of participation and performance for athletes in different age groups between Ironman Hawaii and its qualifier races. Triathletes aged 25–49 years and men generally were underrepresented in Ironman Hawaii compared with in its Ironman qualifier races. These athletes may have had less chance to qualify for Ironman Hawaii than female athletes or younger (<25

  11. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  12. Elevated manganese and cognitive performance in school-aged children and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Menezes-Filho, José A.; Novaes, Cristiane de O.; Moreira, Josino C.; Sarcinelli, Paula N.; Mergler, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Background Growing evidence suggests that excess manganese (Mn) in children is associated with neurobehavioral impairments. In Brazil, elevated hair Mn concentrations were reported in children living near a ferro-manganese alloy plant. Objectives We investigated these children’s and caregivers’ cognitive function in relation to bioindicators of Mn exposure. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the WISC-III was administered to 83 children aged between 6 and 12 years; the Raven Progressive Matrix was administered to the primary caregivers (94% mothers), who likewise responded to a questionnaire on socio demographics and birth history. Mn in hair (MnH) and blood (MnB) and blood lead (PbB) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Results Children’s mean MnB and MnH were 8.2 µg/L (2.7 – 23.4) and 5.83 µg/g (0.1 −86.68), respectively. Mean maternal MnH was 3.50 µg/g (0.10 – 77.45) and correlated to children’s MnH (rho=0.294, p=0.010). Children’s MnH was negatively related to Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Verbal IQ; β coefficients for MnH were −5.78 (95% CI −10.71 to −0.21) and −6.72 (−11.81 to −0.63), adjusted for maternal education and nutritional status. Maternal MnH was negatively associated with performance on the Raven’s (β = −2.69, 95% CI −5.43 to 0.05), adjusted for education years, family income and age. Conclusions These findings confirm that high MnH in children is associated with poorer cognitive performance, especially in the verbal domain. Primary caregiver’s IQ is likewise associated to Mn exposure, suggesting that, in this situation, children’s cognition may be affected directly and indirectly by Mn exposure. PMID:20943219

  13. Load-related brain activation predicts spatial working memory performance in youth aged 9-12 and is associated with executive function at earlier ages.

    PubMed

    Huang, Anna S; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-02-01

    Spatial working memory is a central cognitive process that matures through adolescence in conjunction with major changes in brain function and anatomy. Here we focused on late childhood and early adolescence to more closely examine the neural correlates of performance variability during this important transition period. Using a modified spatial 1-back task with two memory load conditions in an fMRI study, we examined the relationship between load-dependent neural responses and task performance in a sample of 39 youth aged 9-12 years. Our data revealed that between-subject differences in task performance was predicted by load-dependent deactivation in default network regions, including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Although load-dependent increases in activation in prefrontal and posterior parietal regions were only weakly correlated with performance, increased prefrontal-parietal coupling was associated with better performance. Furthermore, behavioral measures of executive function from as early as age 3 predicted current load-dependent deactivation in vACC and PCC. These findings suggest that both task positive and task negative brain activation during spatial working memory contributed to successful task performance in late childhood/early adolescence. This may serve as a good model for studying executive control deficits in developmental disorders.

  14. Extended Aging of Ag/W Circuit Breaker Contacts: Influence on Surface Structure, Electrical Properties, and UL Testing Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haibo; Kesim, M. Tumerkan; Sun, Yu; Harmon, Jason; Potter, Jonathan; Alpay, S. Pamir; Aindow, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Samples of 120 V, 30 A commercial circuit breakers were subjected to various aging treatments and the resulting microstructures at the surfaces of the Ag/W contacts were studied using a combination of x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy techniques. Breakers aged naturally in a hot, humid climate were compared to those subjected to accelerated aging in dry and humid environments. The most extensive oxidation was observed for contacts from breakers subjected to accelerated humid aging; these contacts exhibited thick surface layers consisting of Ag2O, Ag2WO4, Cu(OH)2•H2O, and WO3 phases. Far less surface degradation was observed for dry-aged contacts. Naturally aged contacts showed variations in degradation with more oxidation at the surface regions outside the physical contact area on the contact face. A correlation was found between the contact resistances measured from these samples following ASTM standard B 667-97 and the observed surface microstructures. To evaluate the effects of the surface oxides on breaker performance, humid-aged breakers were subjected to standardized UL overload/temperature-rise, endurance, and short-circuit testing following UL489. The contacts in these breakers exhibit similar microstructural and property changes to those observed previously for as-manufactured contacts after UL testing. These data illustrate the robust performance of this contact technology even after being subjected to aggressive artificial aging.

  15. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes.

  16. It matters how old you feel: Antecedents and performance consequences of average relative subjective age in organizations.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Florian; Raes, Anneloes M L; Bruch, Heike

    2015-09-01

    This article extends the conceptual knowledge of average relative subjective age in organizations by exploring organizational-level antecedents and consequences of employees, on average, feeling younger than their chronological age. We draw from the theories of selection-optimization-compensation and socioemotional selectivity to build a theoretical framework for relative subjective age in organizations. We hypothesize that companies in which employees, on average, perceive themselves to be younger than they actually are have a higher average individual goal accomplishment and, in turn, experience higher company performance. We further hypothesize that employees' average experience of high work-related meaning relates to a lower subjective age in organizations. In addition, we assess the role of environmental dynamism and age-inclusive human resource management as moderators in this theoretical model. Through empirically testing this model in a multisource dataset, including 107 companies with 15,164 participating employees, we received support for the hypothesized relationships. Our results contribute to current debates in the scientific literature on age and have important practical implications in light of the demographic changes faced by many companies. This research indicates to both researchers and practitioners that it is not employees' chronological age but their subjective age, a factor that can be influenced, which drives organizational performance outcomes. PMID:25798554

  17. A twin study of spatial and non-spatial delayed response performance in middle age.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S; Franz, Carol E; Blankfeld, Howard M; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Tsuang, Ming T; Lyons, Michael J

    2011-06-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic influences). Non-spatial alternation (NSA), which may involve greater reliance on processing of subgoals, was significantly more difficult than spatial alternation (SA). Despite their similarities, NSA and SA scores were uncorrelated. NSA performance was worse when administered second; there was no SA order effect. NSA scores were modestly heritable (h(2)=.25; 26); SA was not. There was shared genetic variance between NSA scores and general intellectual ability (r(g)=.55; .67), but this also suggests genetic influences specific to NSA. Compared with findings from small, selected control samples, high "failure" rates in this community-based sample raise concerns about interpretation of brain dysfunction in elderly or patient samples.

  18. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior. PMID:24264938

  19. Aging model for solid lubricants used in weapon stronglinks: tribological performance and hardware review

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, M.T.; Peebles, D.E.; Sorroche, E.H.; Varga, K.S.; Bryan, R.M.

    1997-09-01

    The solid lubricant used most extensively in strong links throughout the enduring stockpile contains MoS{sub 2}, which is known to react with oxygen and water vapor resulting in a change in the material`s friction and wear behavior. The authors have examined the frictional behavior of this lubricant as a function of oxidation, in support of efforts to quantify the impact of changes in the material on the dynamic behavior of the MC2969 strong link. Their results show that the friction response of oxidized lubricant is strongly influenced by the amount of burnishing performed on the lubricant after deposition. Low levels of burnish leave a thick film, of which only the near surface degrades during oxidation. Rapid wear of the oxidized material leaves a surface whose properties are the same as non-oxidized material. Higher levels of burnish leave a thinner film of lubricant such that the entire film may be oxidized. The friction coefficient on this surface reaches a steady state value greater than that of non oxidized material. In addition to these fundamental differences in steady state behavior, they have shown that the initial friction coefficient on oxidized surfaces is related to the amount of sulfide converted to sulfate, regardless of the oxidation conditions used. Measurements on parts returned from the stockpile show that the friction behavior of aged hardware is consistent with the behavior observed on controlled substrates containing thin lubricant films.

  20. Influence of sludge age on the performance of MFC treating winery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Penteado, Eduardo D; Fernandez-Marchante, Carmen Maria; Zaiat, Marcelo; Cañizares, Pablo; Gonzalez, Ernesto Rafael; Rodrigo, Manuel Andrés

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the influence of sludge age on microbial fuel cell (MFC) performance for generating electricity and removing organic matter from winery wastewater. Six Solid Retention Times (SRT) were used: 1.2, 1.4, 1.8, 2.3, 3.5 and 7.0 d. Results demonstrate that the electricity generation increases by decreasing the SRT, selecting electrogenic microorganisms, once the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) increased and the competition for substrate was reduced. Decreasing the SRT, coulombic efficiency can be increased from 3.4% to almost 42.2% and maximum power density from 58 to 890 mW m(-2). However the SRT did not influence on organic matter removal in biological treatment, because only a small part of COD was removed oscillating around 600 mg L(-1) d(-1)and it was very similar at all SRT studied. PMID:26943739

  1. National differences in environmental concern and performance are predicted by country age.

    PubMed

    Hershfield, Hal E; Bang, H Min; Weber, Elke U

    2014-01-01

    There are obvious economic predictors of ability and willingness to invest in environmental sustainability. Yet, given that environmental decisions represent trade-offs between present sacrifices and uncertain future benefits, psychological factors may also play a role in country-level environmental behavior. Gott's principle suggests that citizens may use perceptions of their country's age to predict its future continuation, with longer pasts predicting longer futures. Using country- and individual-level analyses, we examined whether longer perceived pasts result in longer perceived futures, which in turn motivate concern for continued environmental quality. Study 1 found that older countries scored higher on an environmental performance index, even when the analysis controlled for country-level differences in gross domestic product and governance. Study 2 showed that when the United States was framed as an old country (vs. a young one), participants were willing to donate more money to an environmental organization. The findings suggest that framing a country as a long-standing entity may effectively prompt proenvironmental behavior.

  2. Protective effect of practice on cognition during aging: implications for predictive characteristics of performance and efficacy of practice.

    PubMed

    Markowska, Alicja L; Savonenko, Alena V

    2002-09-01

    In the present study, the effect of previous experience on spatial memory, which required the retention of information either over long intervals or within a single session, was longitudinally tested in the water maze in male F-344 rats that were from 6 to 24 months of age. Performance in these tasks was found to be age-dependent (Markowska, 1999). Other behavioral tasks in the straight alley and with a visible platform in the water maze controlled the noncognitive components of performance. For all tasks, performance was significantly correlated between 12-month-old and 18-month-old rats, indicating that cognitive performance at the early, but not advanced, stage of aging could be predicted from performance at a younger age if the novelty of the first exposure to the task was eliminated. The protective effect of experience was more robust in the reference memory task as compared to the working memory task and was modified by age when training was initiated. Behavior during the probe trials was more sensitive to the effect of aging and more resistant to the beneficial effect of practice as compared to the performance in the platform trials. The speed of swimming of experienced rats progressively decreased with age only when tested in the cognitive tasks but not in the straight alley. This indicates that speed of swimming during cognitive tasks does not exclusively reflect the ability to swim, but might be also affected by the cognitive demands of the task. Protective effect of experience on cognition was not modified by restriction in diet.

  3. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    PubMed

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed. PMID:27277154

  4. Performances on a cognitive theory of mind task: specific decline or general cognitive deficits? Evidence from normal aging.

    PubMed

    Fliss, Rafika; Lemerre, Marion; Mollard, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Compromised theory of mind (ToM) can be explained either by a failure to implement specific representational capacities (mental state representations) or by more general executive selection demands. In older adult populations, evidence supporting affected executive functioning and cognitive ToM in normal aging are reported. However, links between these two functions remain unclear. In the present paper, we address these shortcomings by using a specific task of ToM and classical executive tasks. We studied, using an original cognitive ToM task, the effect of age on ToM performances, in link with the progressive executive decline. 96 elderly participants were recruited. They were asked to perform a cognitive ToM task, and 5 executive tests (Stroop test and Hayling Sentence Completion Test to appreciate inhibitory process, Trail Making Test and Verbal Fluency for shifting assessment and backward span dedicated to estimate working memory capacity). The results show changes in cognitive ToM performance according to executive demands. Correlational studies indicate a significant relationship between ToM performance and the selected executive measures. Regression analyzes demonstrates that level of vocabulary and age as the best predictors of ToM performance. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ToM deficits are related to age-related domain-general decline rather than as to a breakdown in specialized representational system. The implications of these findings for the nature of social cognition tests in normal aging are also discussed.

  5. Within-Individual Variability in Neurocognitive Performance: Age and Sex-Related Differences in Children and Youths From Ages 8 to 21

    PubMed Central

    Roalf, David R.; Gur, Raquel E.; Ruparel, Kosha; Calkins, Monica E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Bilker, Warren B.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Harris, Lauren Julius; Gur, Ruben C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to adulthood is characterized by improved motor and cognitive performance in many domains. Developmental studies focus on average performance in single domains but ignore consistency of performance across domains. Within-individual variability (WIV) provides an index of that evenness and is a potential marker of development. Method We gave a computerized battery of 14 neurocognitive tests to 9138 youths ages 8-21 from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort. Results As expected, performance improved with age, both accuracy and speed peaking in adulthood. WIV, however, showed a U-shaped course: highest in childhood, declining yearly into mid-adolescence, and increasing again into adulthood. Young females outperformed and were less variable than males, but by early adulthood male performance matched that of females despite being more variable. Conclusion We conclude that WIV declines from childhood to adolescence as developmental lags are overcome, and then increases into adulthood reflecting the emergence of cognitive specializations related to skill-honing and brain maturation. PMID:24773417

  6. Further evidence of poor comprehenders' difficulty with expressive writing: Exploring the role of inferences.

    PubMed

    Re, Anna Maria; Carretti, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that children with poor reading comprehension abilities have weak expressive writing skills too. The aim of the present research was to establish whether poor comprehenders' low performance in expressive writing is mediated by the need to produce relevant inferences to construct the narrative. To do so, we compared two conditions: in one, the children's comprehension of the story relied partly on their ability to draw crucial causal inferences; in the other, all the information needed to follow the sequence of events was provided in pictures. Irrespective of the condition, poor comprehenders (aged 8-10 years) produced less effective written texts. Analyzing the use of connectives shed some light on the characteristics of the poor comprehenders' written narratives, which seemed to be less cohesive. The poor comprehenders tended to use more additive connectives than causal connectives, which is why their texts resembled a list of events with a description of each picture.

  7. The three-panel runway maze adapted to Microcebus murinus reveals age-related differences in memory and perseverance performances.

    PubMed

    Trouche, Stéphanie G; Maurice, Tangui; Rouland, Sylvie; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Mestre-Francés, Nadine

    2010-07-01

    Microcebus murinus, a mouse lemur primate appears to be a valuable model for cerebral aging study and for Alzheimer's disease model since they can develop beta-amyloid plaques with age. Although the biological and biochemical analyses of cerebral aging are well documented, the cognitive abilities of this primate have not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, we adapted a spatial working memory procedure described in rodents, the sequential choice task in the three-panel runway, to mouse lemurs. We analyzed the age-related differences in a procedural memory task in the absence or presence of visual cues. Sixty percent of young adult and 48% of aged lemurs completed the exploratory, choice habituation and testing phases at the beginning of the procedure. Young adult lemurs showed a higher level of perseverative errors compared with aged animals, particularly in the presence of visual stimuli. Over trials, old animals made more reference errors compared to young ones that improved quickly their performances under random level. No significant improvement was observed in young adults and old ones over sessions. This study showed that behavioural performances of M. murinus assessed on the sequential choice task in the three-panel runway markedly differ from the previously reported abilities of rodents. The behavioural response of young adult lemurs was influenced by novelty-related anxiety that contributed to their performance in terms of perseverative errors. Conversely, aged lemurs showed less perseverative errors, a rapid habituation to the three-panel runway maze, but made more memory errors. Overall, these findings demonstrate the feasibility to use the three-panel runway task in assessing memory performance, particularly in aged mouse lemurs.

  8. Effect of aging on EPR cable electrical performance during LOCA simulations. [Ethylene propylene rubber

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D.

    1984-01-01

    When exposed to a LOCA environment, some ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cable materials experience substantial moisture absorption and dimensional changes. These phenomena may contribute to mechanical damage of the cable insulation resulting in electrical degradation. Recent experiments illustrate that the extent of moisture absorption and dimensional changes during an accident simulation are dependent on the EPR product, the accelerated age, and the aging technique employed to achieve that age. Results for several commercial EPR materials are summarized.

  9. [Development of a method for estimation of physical fitness age for the evaluation of physical performance levels].

    PubMed

    Oda, S

    1992-10-01

    The aims of this study are to develop a method for estimation of physical fitness age for the evaluation of physical performance levels and to examine the efficacy and adaptability of the method. Physical fitness data collected on 15,845 subjects from 23 health promotion centers in Japan, during a 2-year period, 1985-1986, were analysed by correlation analysis to find factors which affect physical performance. From this analysis, stature and exercise habit were selected as factors to be considered in the computation of physical fitness age. For determination of physical fitness and its relation to chronological age, four tests, side step, sit-ups, vertical jump and wing lift were selected from results of correlation and multiple regression analysis and an estimation equation for physical fitness age was developed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, in which the subjective variable is physical fitness data and objective variables are chronological age and height, on 9,528 people without habitual physical activities. Physical fitness age for each fitness test was calculated from the equation and mean individual physical fitness age computed. The suitability of the developed method was tested on other groups with results showing that the developed method was generally applicable to the other group and was exact enough to evaluate the characteristics of the physical level of the group. Analysis of the relation between health indices and physical fitness age obtained by this new method, revealed that the group in which physical fitness age is inferior to chronological age contained relatively more hypertensive patients and obese people.

  10. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  11. Age differences in behavioral and neural correlates of proactive interference: Disentangling the role of overall working memory performance.

    PubMed

    Loosli, Sandra V; Rahm, Benjamin; Unterrainer, Josef M; Mader, Irina; Weiller, Cornelius; Kaller, Christoph P

    2016-02-15

    Reliable performance in working memory (WM) critically depends on the ability to resist proactive interference (PI) from previously relevant WM contents. Both WM performance and PI susceptibility are subject to cognitive decline at older adult age. However, the behavioral and neural processes underlying these co-evolving developmental changes and their potential interdependencies are not yet understood. Here, we investigated PI using a recent-probes WM paradigm and functional MRI in a cross-sectional sample of younger (n=18, 10 female, 23.4 ± 2.7 years) and older adults (n=18, 10 female, 70.2 ± 2.7 years). As expected, older adults showed lower WM performance and higher PI susceptibility than younger adults. Resolution of PI activated a mainly bilateral frontal network across all participants. Significant interactions with age indicated reduced neural activation in older adults for PI resolution. A second analysis in a selection of younger and older adults (n=12 each) with matched WM performance also revealed significant differences in PI between both age groups and - on a descriptive level - again a hypo-activation of the older adults' PI network. But the differential effect of age on the neural PI effects did not reach significance in this smaller sample most likely to the reduced statistical power. However, given the highly similar patterns in both the overall and the WM-matched samples, we propose that the hypo-activation of the PI network in the older adults may not be attributable to age-related differences in overall WM performance, hence suggesting that higher PI susceptibility in older adult age does not directly depend on their lower WM performance.

  12. Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance…

  13. Experience-Based Mitigation of Age-Related Performance Declines: Evidence from Air Traffic Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunes, Ashley; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has found age-related deficits in a variety of cognitive processes. However, some studies have demonstrated age-related sparing on tasks where individuals have substantial experience, often attained over many decades. Here, the authors examined whether decades of experience in a fast-paced demanding profession, air traffic…

  14. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  15. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  16. Determination of Age-Dependent Reference Ranges for Coagulation Tests Performed Using Destiny Plus

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Fatma Demet; Serdar, Muhittin; Merve Ari, Elif; Onur Oztan, Mustafa; Hikmet Kozcu, Sureyya; Tarhan, Huseyin; Cakmak, Ozgur; Zeytinli, Merve; Yasar Ellidag, Hamit

    2016-01-01

    Background In order to apply the right treatment for hemostatic disorders in pediatric patients, laboratory data should be interpreted with age-appropriate reference ranges. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determining age-dependent reference range values for prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen tests, and D-dimer tests. Materials and Methods A total of 320 volunteers were included in the study with the following ages: 1 month - 1 year (n = 52), 2 - 5 years (n = 50), 6 - 10 years (n = 48), 11 - 17 years (n = 38), and 18 - 65 years (n = 132). Each volunteer completed a survey to exclude hemostatic system disorder. Using a nonparametric method, the lower and upper limits, including 95% distribution and 90% confidence intervals, were calculated. Results No statistically significant differences were found between PT and aPTT values in the groups consisting of children. Thus, the reference ranges were separated into child and adult age groups. PT and aPTT values were significantly higher in the children than in the adults. Fibrinogen values in the 6 - 10 age group and the adult age group were significantly higher than in the other groups. D-dimer levels were significantly lower in those aged 2 - 17; thus, a separate reference range was established. Conclusions These results support other findings related to developmental hemostasis, confirming that adult and pediatric age groups should be evaluated using different reference ranges. PMID:27617078

  17. Age Differences in Affective Decision Making as Indexed by Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Claus, Eric; Banich, Marie T.; Graham, Sandra; Woolard, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives on age differences in risk taking, informed by advances in developmental neuroscience, have emphasized the need to examine the ways in which emotional and cognitive factors interact to influence decision making. In the present study, a diverse sample of 901 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30 were administered a…

  18. Age Differences in Perseveration: Cognitive and Neuroanatomical Mediators of Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Denise; Kennedy, Kristen M.; Rodrigue, Karen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Aging effects on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) are fairly well established but the mechanisms of the decline are not clearly understood. In this study, we examined the cognitive and neural mechanisms mediating age-related increases in perseveration on the WCST. MRI-based volumetry and measures of selected executive functions in…

  19. Residential Mobility among the Rural Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of short-distance residential moves in poor rural New York counties was much greater than nationally, driven by scarce affordable housing and changes in personal and household situations. Higher frequency movement was associated with younger age, fewer children, and weaker social support networks. Discusses impacts of high mobility…

  20. University Students with Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgiou, George K.; Das, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the nature of the working memory and general cognitive ability deficits experienced by university students with a specific reading comprehension deficit. A total of 32 university students with poor reading comprehension but average word-reading skills and 60 age-word-matched controls with no comprehension…

  1. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  2. Katharine Drexel: Learning to Love the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Cecilia

    2006-01-01

    Although born into privilege, Katharine Drexel was blessed with parents, siblings, friends, and spiritual guides who kept her rooted in a deep, Eucharistic faith. Responding to the needs of the poor was a responsibility of the rich, and Katharine learned this value at the hands of her parents at an early age. With the good counsel of popes and…

  3. Morphosyntax in Poor Comprehenders

    PubMed Central

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Catts, Hugh W.

    2016-01-01

    Children described as poor comprehenders (PCs) have reading comprehension difficulties in spite of adequate word reading abilities. PCs are known to display weakness with semantics and higher-level aspects of oral language, but less is known about their grammatical skills, especially with regard to morphosyntax. The purpose of this study was to examine morphosyntax in fourth grade PCs and typically developing readers (TDs), using three experimental tasks involving finiteness marking. Participants also completed standardized, norm-referenced assessments of phonological memory, vocabulary, and broader language skills. PCs displayed weakness relative to TDs on all three morphosyntax tasks and on every other assessment of oral language except phonological memory, as indexed by nonword repetition. These findings help to clarify the linguistic profile of PCs, suggesting that their language weaknesses include grammatical weaknesses that cannot be fully explained by semantic factors. Because finiteness markers are usually mastered prior to formal schooling in typical development, we call for future studies to examine whether assessments of morphosyntax could be used for the early identification of children at risk for future reading comprehension difficulty. PMID:27397969

  4. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention to cognitive impairment. In order to bridge this gap, we investigated age-dependent changes in learning and memory performance, anxiety-like behavior, and locomotor activity of WAG/Rij rats (a valid model of generalized absence epilepsy) using passive avoidance, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, and locomotor activity cage. We tested 5 month-old and 13 month-old WAG/Rij rats and compared their performance to age-matched Wistar rats. Results revealed a decline in emotional and spatial memory of WAG/Rij rats compared to age-matched Wistar rats only at 13 months of age. Importantly, there were no significant differences between WAG/Rij and Wistar rats in terms of anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at either age. Results pointed at age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. PMID:22998946

  5. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes

    PubMed Central

    Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants’ cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants’ cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation. PMID:27649296

  6. Performance of Older Persons in a Simulated Shopping Task Is Influenced by Priming with Age Stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Bock, Otmar; Akpinar, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that older persons show cognitive deficits in standardized laboratory tests, but not in more natural tests such as the Multiple Errands Task (MET). The absence of deficits in the latter tests has been attributed to the compensation of deficits by strategies based on life-long experience. To scrutinize this view, we primed older participants with positive or negative stereotypes about old age before administering MET. We found that compared to unprimed controls, priming with positive age stereotypes reduced the number of errors without changing response times, while priming with negative stereotypes changed neither errors not response times. We interpret our findings as evidence that positive age priming improved participants' cognitive functions while leaving intact their experience-based compensation, and that negative age priming degraded participants' cognitive functions which, however, was balanced by an even stronger experience-based compensation. PMID:27649296

  7. [A comparative study of the perceptual and motor performance at school age of preterm and full term children].

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Lívia de Castro; Catarina, Patrícia Wendling; Barbosa, Vanêssa Maziero; Mancini, Marisa Cota; Paixão, Maria Lúcia

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the perceptualmotor performance in school age children who were born preterm and full term. Two groups of children, ages 5 to 7, participated in this study. Group I had 35 children, from low-income families, born up to the 34 week of gestation and/or weight bellow 1500 g. Group II had 35 full-term children, matched by age, gender and socioeconomic status to the children in Group I. Children were tested on the Bender gestalt, the motor accuracy test and on balance and postural responses measures. The preterm group obtained significantly lower scores in the majority of the tests. These besides reinforcing the importance of the follow-up of preterm children up to school age, also indicate the need to stimulate the fine motor and postural control Devment, even among preterm children who do not show evidence of neurological impairment. PMID:12806505

  8. Pre-training blocks the improving effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine and D-cycloserine on spatial navigation performance in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Aura, J; Riekkinen, P

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the effect of pre-training on the improvement of spatial navigation performance provided by a cholinesterase inhibitor, tetrahydroaminoacridine (3 mg/kg, i.p.), and a positive modulator of NMDA receptor, D-cycloserine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), or their combination in aged rats. Pre-training consisted of spatial or non-spatial conditions and took place in either the same or a separate room. We found that any kind of pre-training was able to eliminate the enhancing effect of tetrahydroaminoacridine and D-cycloserine on spatial navigation. However, none of these pre-training conditions was able to block the age-related deficit in spatial navigation. These results indicate that tetrahydroaminoacridine and D-cycloserine, separately or in combination, do not themselves alleviate the age-related spatial memory deficit, but may enhance procedural aspects of water maze learning in aged rats.

  9. Driver distraction: the effects of concurrent in-vehicle tasks, road environment complexity and age on driving performance.

    PubMed

    Horberry, Tim; Anderson, Janet; Regan, Michael A; Triggs, Thomas J; Brown, John

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a simulator study that examined the effects of distraction upon driving performance for drivers in three age groups. There were two in-vehicle distracter tasks: operating the vehicle entertainment system and conducting a simulated hands-free mobile phone conversation. The effect of visual clutter was examined by requiring participants to drive in simple and complex road environments. Overall measures of driving performance were collected, together with responses to roadway hazards and subjective measures of driver perceived workload. The two in-vehicle distraction tasks degraded overall driving performance, degraded responses to hazards and increased subjective workload. The performance decrements that occurred as a result of in-vehicle distraction were observed in both the simple and complex highway environments and for drivers in different age groups. One key difference was that older drivers traveled at lower mean speeds in the complex highway environment compared with younger drivers. The conclusions of the research are that both in-vehicle tasks impaired several aspects of driving performance, with the entertainment system distracter having the greatest negative impact on performance, and that these findings were relatively stable across different driver age groups and different environmental complexities. PMID:16226211

  10. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  11. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-12-22

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  12. Age, Sex, and Body Composition as Predictors of Children's Performance on Basic Motor Abilities and Health-Related Fitness Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pissanos, Becky W.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Step-wise linear regressions were used to relate children's age, sex, and body composition to performance on basic motor abilities including balance, speed, agility, power, coordination, and reaction time, and to health-related fitness items including flexibility, muscle strength and endurance and cardiovascular functions. Eighty subjects were in…

  13. Evaluating Elementary-Aged Students' Abilities to Generalize and Maintain Fluency Gains of a Performance Feedback Writing Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hier, Bridget O.; Eckert, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    National estimates of students' writing abilities in the United States indicate that in 2002, 72% of elementary-aged students were unable to write with grade-level proficiency (Persky, Daane, & Jin, 2003). Although performance feedback is one type of intervention that improves students' writing skills, no study to date has examined…

  14. Comparison of Physical Fitness Performance between Elementary-Aged Students with and without Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombo-Dougovito, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the possible differences of the physical fitness performance of elementary-aged students with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Little research has been produced in the area of youth with ADHD and motor development; this research paper further investigates the effects of…

  15. The Effects of Visual Stimuli on the Spoken Narrative Performance of School-Age African American Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the fictional narrative performance of school-age African American children across 3 elicitation contexts that differed in the type of visual stimulus presented. Method: A total of 54 children in Grades 2 through 5 produced narratives across 3 different visual conditions: no visual, picture sequence, and single…

  16. Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance - the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, and ultra-swimming, but not in ultra-cycling. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra-cycling performance in the 720-km ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, the largest European qualifier for the ‘Race Across America’. Methods Changes in the cycling speed and age of 985 finishers including 38 women and 947 men competing in the Swiss Cycling Marathon from 2001 to 2012 covering a distance of 720 km with a change of altitude of 4,993 m were analyzed using linear regression. Results The gender difference in performance was 13.6% for the fastest cyclists ever, 13.9% ± 0.5% for the three fastest cyclists ever and 19.1% ± 3.7% for the ten fastest cyclists ever. The gender difference in performance for the annual top three women and men decreased from 35.0% ± 9.5% in 2001 to 20.4% ± 7.7% in 2012 (r2 = 0.72, p = 0.01). The annual top three women improved cycling speed from 20.3 ± 3.1 km h−1 in 2003 to 24.8 ± 2.4 km h−1 in 2012 (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.01). The cycling speed of the annual top three men remained unchanged at 30.2 ± 0.6 km h−1 (p > 0.05). The age of peak performance for the ten fastest finishers ever was 35.9 ± 9.6 years for men and 38.7 ± 7.8 years for women, respectively (p = 0.47). Conclusions The gender difference in ultra-cycling performance decreased over the 2001 to 2012 period in the 720-km Swiss Cycling Marathon for the annual top three cyclists and reached approximately 14%. Both women and men achieved peak performance at the age of approximately 36 to 39 years. Women might close the gender gap in ultra-endurance cycling in longer cycling distances. Future studies need to investigate the gender difference in performance in the Race Across America, the

  17. Why so many children are poor.

    PubMed

    Betson, D M; Michael, R T

    1997-01-01

    According to the official U.S. measure of poverty, in 1995 the child poverty rate in this country was nearly 21%, compared with an adult poverty rate of 11%. This article explores why, according to the official measure, there are so many poor children. Working from the premise that children are poor because they live with poor adults, the reasons for adult poverty are reviewed. Both economic forces and demographic trends have contributed to growing inequality of earnings among workers. That inequality coupled with stagnating real earnings has increased poverty. In addition, education, age, and race affect an individual's earning capacity; the article examines the likelihood that an individual will earn enough to keep his or her family out of poverty, given the individual's educational attainment, age, and race. The reasons for the large difference between the child and adult poverty rates are explored, using a decomposition of the poverty population to show how demographic characteristics such as higher fertility rates among poor families and the higher prevalence of single-parent families among the poor lead to substantially higher poverty rates for children than for adults. Finally, the article examines the validity of the official poverty measure and reviews how an alternative measure proposed by a National Research Council panel would address the official measure's shortcomings. If the panel's proposed measure were adopted, it would change the statistical face of poor children. It would, for example, show an increase in the proportion of poor children who live in families with two parents and a corresponding decrease in the proportion in families with only one parent, and it would show an increase in the proportion of children who live in families with at least one full-time employed adult and a corresponding decrease in the proportion in families with no adult employed full time. PMID:9299835

  18. Consequences of Growing Up Poor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.

    The consequences and correlates of growing up poor as well as the mechanisms through which poverty influences children are explored. This book is organized with a primary focus on research findings and a secondary concern with policy implications. The chapters are: (1) "Poor Families, Poor Outcomes: The Well-Being of Children and Youth" (Jeanne…

  19. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age.

  20. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test in junior basketball players according to performance level and age group.

    PubMed

    Vernillo, Gianluca; Silvestri, Adriano; La Torre, Antonio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1) ability to discriminate between elite, subelite junior basketball players, and a group of nonathletic healthy male athletes at 3 different age groups (U-14 to U-17). In a cross-sectional design, 119 age-matched participants spread over 3 groups, elite (n = 46), subelite (n = 42) junior basketball players, and nonathletic healthy male athletes (n = 31), were evaluated over a 5-week period. The participants undertook 2 familiarization trials of the Yo-Yo test performance and 3 test sessions on an indoor basketball court. When controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, the results showed that elite athletes had a significantly higher Yo-Yo performance compared with the subelite athletes (1,271 ± 385 vs. 861 ± 428 m; p < 0.0017; effect size [ES] 1.0 ± 0.35) and the nonathletic group (1,271 ± 385 vs. 738 ± 345 m; p < 0.0017; ES 1.45 ± 0.38). No statistical differences (p > 0.0017; ES from 0.02 to 0.39) were noted between participants' performance levels across age groups. Typical between-performance levels and -age groups differences in the Yo-Yo IR1 were observed. However, when controlling for the effect of the participants' body mass, this study demonstrates that the Yo-Yo test is accurate only to discriminate elite junior basketball players but cannot be used to differentiate the basketball-specific aerobic performance for age. PMID:22076093

  1. The cutoffs and performance of glycated hemoglobin for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes in a young and middle-aged population and in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuang-Tong; Xiao, Hai-Ying; Tian, Hui; Li, Chun-Lin; Fang, Fu-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Xiao-Ling; Li, Nan; Miao, Xin-Yu; Yang, Yan; Wang, Liang-Chen; Zou, Xiao-Man; Ma, Fang-Ling; He, Yao; Sai, Xiao-Yong

    2015-08-01

    The aims were to compare the appropriate cutoffs of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in a population of varying ages and to evaluate the performance of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes. A total of 1064 participants in the young and middle-aged group and 1671 in the elderly group were included and underwent HbA1c testing and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated to evaluate the optimal HbA1c cutoffs. Kappa coefficients were used to test for agreement between HbA1c categorization and OGTT-based diagnoses. The optimal HbA1c cutoffs for diagnosing diabetes were 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) in the young and middle-aged group with a sensitivity of 66.7%, specificity of 86.7%, and AUC of 0.821 (95% CI: 0.686, 0.955) and 5.9% (41 mmol/mol) in the elderly group with a sensitivity of 80.4%, specificity of 73.3%, and AUC of 0.831 (0.801, 0.861). The optimal cutoffs for diagnosing prediabetes were 5.6% (38 mmol/mol) and 5.7% (39 mmol/mol) in the young and middle-aged group and in the elderly group, respectively. Agreement between the OGTT-based diagnosis of diabetes or prediabetes and the optimal HbA1c cutoff was low (all kappa coefficients <0.4). The combination of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose increased diagnostic sensitivities or specificities. In conclusion, age-specific HbA1c cutoffs for diagnosing diabetes or prediabetes were appropriate. Furthermore, the performance of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes and prediabetes was poor. HbA1c should be used in combination with traditional glucose criteria when detecting and diagnosing diabetes or prediabetes.

  2. Self-reported chronic pain is associated with physical performance in older people leaving aged care rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo; Sherrington, Catherine; Ferreira, Manuela L; Tiedemann, Anne; Ferreira, Paulo H; Blyth, Fiona M; Close, Jacqueline CT; Taylor, Morag; Lord, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives The impact of pain on the physical performance of patients in aged care rehabilitation is not known. The study sought to assess 1) the prevalence of pain in older people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; 2) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in people being discharged from inpatient rehabilitation; and 3) the association between self-reported pain and physical performance in this population, after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Methods This was an observational cross-sectional study of 420 older people at two inpatient aged care rehabilitation units. Physical performance was assessed using the Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. Pain was assessed with questions about the extent to which participants were troubled by pain, the duration of symptoms, and the impact of chronic pain on everyday activity. Depression and the number of comorbidities were assessed by questionnaire and medical file audit. Cognition was assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results Thirty percent of participants reported chronic pain (pain lasting more than 3 months), and 17% reported that this pain interfered with daily activities to a moderate or greater extent. Chronic pain (P=0.013) and chronic pain affecting daily activities (P<0.001) were associated with a poorer Lower Limb Summary Performance Score. The relationship between chronic pain affecting daily activities and Lower Limb Summary Performance Score remained significant (P=0.001) after adjusting for depression, age, comorbidities, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. This model explained 10% of the variability in physical performance. Conclusion One-third of participants reported chronic pain, and close to one-fifth reported that this pain interfered with daily activities. Chronic pain was associated with impaired physical performance, and this relationship persisted after adjusting for likely confounding factors. PMID:24523583

  3. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age.

  4. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  5. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks. PMID:26280383

  6. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real-world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real-world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from 5 simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by U.S. Federal Aviation Administration proficiency ratings). We developed a new Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice (STEP) model: (a) to model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the 5 flights, and (b) to examine the effects of selected covariates (i.e., age, flight expertise, and 3 composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intraindividual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with practice or interval. Results indicated that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high-functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real-world tasks.

  7. The STEP model: Characterizing simultaneous time effects on practice for flight simulator performance among middle-aged and older pilots

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Noda, Art; Yesavage, Jerome; Lazzeroni, Laura C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the possible effects of the number of practice sessions (practice) and time between practice sessions (interval) among middle-aged and older adults in real world tasks has important implications for skill maintenance. Prior training and cognitive ability may impact practice and interval effects on real world tasks. In this study, we took advantage of existing practice data from five simulated flights among 263 middle-aged and older pilots with varying levels of flight expertise (defined by FAA proficiency ratings). We developed a new STEP (Simultaneous Time Effects on Practice) model to: (1) model the simultaneous effects of practice and interval on performance of the five flights, and (2) examine the effects of selected covariates (age, flight expertise, and three composite measures of cognitive ability). The STEP model demonstrated consistent positive practice effects, negative interval effects, and predicted covariate effects. Age negatively moderated the beneficial effects of practice. Additionally, cognitive processing speed and intra-individual variability (IIV) in processing speed moderated the benefits of practice and/or the negative influence of interval for particular flight performance measures. Expertise did not interact with either practice or interval. Results indicate that practice and interval effects occur in simulated flight tasks. However, processing speed and IIV may influence these effects, even among high functioning adults. Results have implications for the design and assessment of training interventions targeted at middle-aged and older adults for complex real world tasks. PMID:26280383

  8. A Twin Study of Spatial and Non-Spatial Delayed Response Performance in Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kremen, William S.; Mai, Tuan; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Blankfeld, Howard M.; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Lyons, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Delayed alternation and object alternation are classic spatial and non-spatial delayed response tasks. We tested 632 middle-aged male veteran twins on variants of these tasks in order to compare test difficulty, measure their inter-correlation, test order effects, and estimate heritabilities (proportion of observed variance due to genetic…

  9. Individual Differences in Spatial Pattern Separation Performance Associated with Healthy Aging in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Shauna M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies have suggested that "pattern separation," the ability to distinguish among similar experiences, is diminished in a subset of aged rats. We extended these findings to the human using a task designed to assess spatial pattern separation behavior (determining at time of test whether pairs of pictures shown during the study were in the…

  10. The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DenBesten, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

  11. Discrimination Performance in Aging Is Vulnerable to Interference and Dissociable from Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Sacks, Patricia K.; Turner, Sean M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal…

  12. Age and Function Differences in Shared Task Performance: Walking and Talking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kathleen; Hinton, Virginia A.; Bories, Tamara; Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    Less is known about the effects of normal aging on speech output than other motor actions, because studies of communication integrity have focused on voice production and linguistic parameters rather than speech production characteristics. Studies investigating speech production in older adults have reported increased syllable duration (Slawinski,…

  13. Effect of postmortem aging on marination performance of broiler breast pectoralis major categorized by color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of postmortem aging on marinade uptake and retention by early-deboned chicken breast fillets with different color lightness. Effects of marination on product yield and muscle shear force were also determined. Early deboned (2 h postmortem) broiler butterflies...

  14. Reduced specificity of functional connectivity in the aging brain during task performance.

    PubMed

    Geerligs, Linda; Maurits, Natasha M; Renken, Remco J; Lorist, Monicque M

    2014-01-01

    The importance of studying connectivity in the aging brain is increasingly recognized. Recent studies have shown that connectivity within the default mode network is reduced with age and have demonstrated a clear relation of these changes with cognitive functioning. However, research on age-related changes in other functional networks is sparse and mainly focused on prespecified functional networks. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated age-related changes in functional connectivity during a visual oddball task in a range of functional networks. It was found that compared with young participants, elderly showed a decrease in connectivity between areas belonging to the same functional network. This was found in the default mode network and the somatomotor network. Moreover, in all identified networks, elderly showed increased connectivity between areas within these networks and areas belonging to different functional networks. Decreased connectivity within functional networks was related to poorer cognitive functioning in elderly. The results were interpreted as a decrease in the specificity of functional networks in older participants.

  15. Effects of aging and tactile stochastic resonance on postural performance and postural control in a sensory conflict task.

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Marius; Pourmoghaddam, Amir; Lee, Beom-Chan; Layne, Charles S

    2015-01-01

    Postural control in certain situations depends on functioning of tactile or proprioceptive receptors and their respective dynamic integration. Loss of sensory functioning can lead to increased risk of falls in challenging postural tasks, especially in older adults. Stochastic resonance, a concept describing better function of systems with addition of optimal levels of noise, has shown to be beneficial for balance performance in certain populations and simple postural tasks. In this study, we tested the effects of aging and a tactile stochastic resonance stimulus (TSRS) on balance of adults in a sensory conflict task. Nineteen older (71-84 years of age) and younger participants (22-29 years of age) stood on a force plate for repeated trials of 20 s duration, while foot sole stimulation was either turned on or off, and the visual surrounding was sway-referenced. Balance performance was evaluated by computing an Equilibrium Score (ES) and anterior-posterior sway path length (APPlength). For postural control evaluation, strategy scores and approximate entropy (ApEn) were computed. Repeated-measures ANOVA, Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were conducted for statistical analysis. Our results showed that balance performance differed between older and younger adults as indicated by ES (p = 0.01) and APPlength (0.01), and addition of vibration only improved performance in the older group significantly (p = 0.012). Strategy scores differed between both age groups, whereas vibration only affected the older group (p = 0.025). Our results indicate that aging affects specific postural outcomes and that TSRS is beneficial for older adults in a visual sensory conflict task, but more research is needed to investigate the effectiveness in individuals with more severe balance problems, for example, due to neuropathy. PMID:25884289

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Poor Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoqi; McCauley, Stephen R.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Barnes, Amanda; Hanten, Gerri; Mendez, Donna; McCarthy, James J.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although most patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover within 3 months, a subgroup of patients experience persistent symptoms. Yet, the prevalence and predictors of persistent dysfunction in patients with mTBI remain poorly understood. In a longitudinal study, we evaluated predictors of symptomatic and cognitive dysfunction in adolescents and young adults with mTBI, compared with two control groups—patients with orthopedic injuries and healthy uninjured individuals. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months post-injury. Poor symptomatic outcome was defined as exhibiting a symptom score higher than 90% of the orthopedic control (OC) group, and poor cognitive outcome was defined as exhibiting cognitive performance poorer than 90% of the OC group. At 3 months post-injury, more than half of the patients with mTBI (52%) exhibited persistently elevated symptoms, and more than a third (36.4%) exhibited poor cognitive outcome. The rate of high symptom report in mTBI was markedly greater than that of typically developing (13%) and OC (17%) groups; the proportion of those with poor cognitive performance in the mTBI group exceeded that of typically developing controls (15.8%), but was similar to that of the OC group (34.9%). Older age at injury, female sex, and acute symptom report were predictors of poor symptomatic outcome at 3 months. Socioeconomic status was the only significant predictor of poor cognitive outcome at 3 months. PMID:25970233

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Poor Recovery from Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Amanda R; Li, Xiaoqi; McCauley, Stephen R; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Barnes, Amanda; Hanten, Gerri; Mendez, Donna; McCarthy, James J; Levin, Harvey S

    2015-10-01

    Although most patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) recover within 3 months, a subgroup of patients experience persistent symptoms. Yet, the prevalence and predictors of persistent dysfunction in patients with mTBI remain poorly understood. In a longitudinal study, we evaluated predictors of symptomatic and cognitive dysfunction in adolescents and young adults with mTBI, compared with two control groups-patients with orthopedic injuries and healthy uninjured individuals. Outcomes were assessed at 3 months post-injury. Poor symptomatic outcome was defined as exhibiting a symptom score higher than 90% of the orthopedic control (OC) group, and poor cognitive outcome was defined as exhibiting cognitive performance poorer than 90% of the OC group. At 3 months post-injury, more than half of the patients with mTBI (52%) exhibited persistently elevated symptoms, and more than a third (36.4%) exhibited poor cognitive outcome. The rate of high symptom report in mTBI was markedly greater than that of typically developing (13%) and OC (17%) groups; the proportion of those with poor cognitive performance in the mTBI group exceeded that of typically developing controls (15.8%), but was similar to that of the OC group (34.9%). Older age at injury, female sex, and acute symptom report were predictors of poor symptomatic outcome at 3 months. Socioeconomic status was the only significant predictor of poor cognitive outcome at 3 months.

  18. The Math Gap: a description of the mathematics performance of preschool-aged deaf/hard-of-hearing children.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Claudia M; Kritzer, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Over decades and across grade levels, deaf/hard-of-hearing (d/hh) student performance in mathematics has shown a gap in achievement. It is unclear, however, exactly when this gap begins to emerge and in what areas. This study describes preschool d/hh children's knowledge of early mathematics concepts. Both standardized and nonstandardized measures were used to assess understanding in number, geometry, measurement, problem solving, and patterns, reasoning and algebra. Results present strong evidence that d/hh students' difficulty in mathematics may begin prior to the start of formal schooling. Findings also show areas of strength (geometry) and weakness (problem solving and measurement) for these children. Evidence of poor foundational performance may relate to later academic achievement.

  19. Interactions between cold ambient temperature and older age on haptic acuity and manual performance.

    PubMed

    Tajmir, Panteha; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Carnahan, Heather

    2013-06-01

    The impact of exposure to cold on individuals' motor skills demands a deeper understanding of the ways in which cold weather influences psychomotor and haptic performance. In this study, various facets of psychomotor performance were evaluated in order to determine the impacts of ambient cold exposure on older persons. Healthy younger and older persons performed a battery of haptic psychomotor tests at room (23° C) and cold (1° C) ambient temperatures. The results indicate that older individuals do not perform as well as younger persons across the battery of tests, with cold temperature further degrading their performance in dexterity tasks (in, for example, Minnesota Manual Dexterity test placing: F [1, 16] = 10.23, p < .01) and peak precision grip force generation (F [1, 16] = 18.97, p < .01). The results suggest that cold weather may have an impact on the occupations older persons are able to perform during the winter months.

  20. Influence of physical fitness, age, experience, and weekly training load on match performance in elite Australian football.

    PubMed

    Gastin, Paul B; Fahrner, Brendan; Meyer, Denny; Robinson, Dean; Cook, Jill L

    2013-05-01

    Season long competition schedules in football create unique challenges for coaches in balancing the requirements of recovery, developing and maintaining physical fitness, and adjusting the training load before each match. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of player characteristics (physical fitness, age, and playing experience) and weekly in-season training load on elite match performance across an Australian football season. Twenty-five players (age: 24.1 ± 3.0 years; height: 188.3 ± 7.3 cm; weight: 90.4 ± 8.3 kg) from one elite team participated in this study. Before the season, player's age, experience, height, and weight along with measures of aerobic (6-minute run) and anaerobic (6 × 40 m repeated sprints) physical fitness were recorded. Individual player training load during the season was measured using global positioning system technology for the main training session of the week. Player match performance was calculated weekly from 33 individual playing statistics. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate the relationship between weekly training load and match performance and to explore the influence of player characteristics on this relationship. Playing experience (p < 0.01) and aerobic fitness (p < 0.05) displayed positive relationships with performance, whereas player age (p < 0.01) showed a negative relationship. Most players coped well with weekly variations in training load; however, the relationship was moderated by the results of the preseason repeated sprint test (p < 0.05). The adverse effect on playing performance in selected players after a more intense training session suggests that recovery from the session may be delayed in players who exhibit a better anaerobic fitness profile.

  1. Does the conservation of resources motivate middle-aged women to perform physical activity?

    PubMed

    Rotem, Mina; Epstein, Leon; Ehrenfeld, Mally

    2009-12-01

    This article aims to examine the factors that motivate middle-aged women to engage in leisure physical activity (LPA) and to explore the relationship between resources loss and gains and engaging in LPA. It is a cross-sectional study based on a self-reported questionnaire (n = 949), using variables of the conservation of resources theory and the theory of planned behavior. Results show that women who engage in physical activity experience lower resources loss than inactive women. The longer they engage in physical activity, the less they experience losses such as youth, attractiveness, optimism, health, and beauty. Conservation of resources, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and normative beliefs predict 41% (p < .0001) of the variance in the engagement in leisure physical activity. Findings suggest that constructing effective strategies to promote LPA requires also addressing these factors, which are valued by middle-aged women.

  2. Reading performance with various lamps in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Eperjesi, F; Maiz-Fernandez, C; Bartlett, H E

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was an objective difference in reading between four commonly available lamps, of varying spectral radiance, for 13 subjects with age-related maculopathy (ARM) or non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--logMAR visual acuity between 0.04 and 0.68. At a constant illuminance of 2000 lux, there was no interaction between ARM and AMD subgroups and no statistically significant difference between the lamps: standard (clear envelope) incandescent, daylight simulation (blue tint envelope) incandescent, compact fluorescent and halogen incandescent, for any reading outcome measure (threshold print size p = 0.67, critical print size p = 0.74, acuity reserve p = 0.84 and mean reading rate p = 0.78). For lamps typically used in low-vision rehabilitation, a clinically significant effect of spectral radiance on reading for people with ARM or non-exudative AMD is unlikely.

  3. Depth-Charge in the Archive: The Documentation of Performance Revisited in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jess

    2010-01-01

    The debate surrounding the documentation of performance is principally concerned with the ephemerality of the live event, set against the stasis and "death" that the archive is conventionally believed to represent. The advent of digital technology in live performance has complexified this still further, by altering the architecture, space and…

  4. Changes in Motor Strategies across Age Performing a Longswing on the High Bar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busquets, Albert; Marina, Michel; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Improvements in motor performance and coordination may be impacted by the interaction of practice and organismic constraints. It has been proposed that these aspects of motor learning are achieved at a different time rate: first, during placement of the events (performance), and second, segmental spatiotemporal relationships…

  5. The Effects of Age and Number of Demonstrations on Modeling of Form and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feltz, Deborah L.

    1982-01-01

    In a research study, fourth-grade, fifth-grade, and college females performed the Bachman Free-Standing Ladder-Balance task after watching four, eight, and twelve, or no videotaped demonstrations of the task. The videotape modeling seemed to affect form (or strategy) of their performances more than their final scores. (PP)

  6. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  7. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years.

  8. Performance of an age series of alnus-cardamom plantations in the Sikkim Himalaya: productivity, energetics and efficiencies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, G; Sharma, E; Sharma, R; Singh, K K

    2002-03-01

    Biomass, net primary productivity, energetics and energy efficiencies were estimated in an age series of Alnus-cardamom plantations in the eastern Himalaya. The impact of stand age (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 years) on the performance of mixtures of N2-fixing (Alnus nepalensis) and non-N2-fixing (large cardamom) plants was studied. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) is the most important perennial cash crop in the region and is cultivated predominantly under Alnus trees. Net primary productivity was lowest (7 t ha(-1) per year) in the 40-year-old stand and was more than three times higher (22 t ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand. Agronomic yield of large cardamom peaked between 15 and 20 years of age. Cardamom productivity doubled from the 5- to the 15-year-old stand, and then decreased with plantation age to reach a minimum in the 40-year-old stand. Performance of cardamom in association of N2-fixing Alnus remained beneficial until 20 years of age. Annual net energy fixation was highest (444 x 10(6) kJ ha(-1) per year) in the 15-year-old stand, being 1.4 times that of the 5-year-old stand and 2.9-times that of the 40-year-old stand. Inverse relationships of production efficiency, energy conversion efficiency and energy utilized in N2-fixation against stand age, and a positive relationship between production efficiency and energy conversion efficiency suggest that the younger plantations are more productive. The Alnus-cardamom plantation system will be sustainable by adopting a rotational cycle of 15 to 20 years. PMID:12096738

  9. Effects of Emotion and Age on Performance During a Think/No-Think Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brendan D.; Muscatell, Keely A.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that young adults can voluntarily suppress information from memory when directed to. After learning novel word pairings to criterion, participants are shown individual words and instructed either to “think” about the associated word, or to put it out of mind entirely (“no-think”). When given a surprise cued recall test, participants typically show impaired recall for “no-think” words relative to “think” or “control” (un-manipulated) words. The present study investigated whether this controlled suppression effect persists in an aged population, and examined how the emotionality of the to-be-suppressed word affects suppression ability. Data from four experiments using the think/no-think task demonstrate that older and younger adults can suppress information when directed to (Experiment 1), and the age groups do not differ significantly in this ability. Experiments 2 through 4 demonstrate that both age groups can suppress words that are emotional (positive or negative valence) or neutral. The suppression effect also persists even if participants are tested using independent probe words that are semantically related to the target words but were not the studied cue words (Experiments 3 and 4). These data suggest that the cognitive functioning necessary to suppress information from memory is present in older adulthood, and that both emotional and neutral information can be successfully suppressed from memory. PMID:21517183

  10. Zircon U-Pb Age Distributions in Cogenetic Crystal-Rich Dacitic and Crystal-Poor Rhyolitic Members of Zoned Ignimbrites in the Southern Rocky Mountains by Chemical Abrasion Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrometry (CA-LA-ICP-MS).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinski, J.; Zimmerer, M. J.; Guillong, M.; Bachmann, O.; Lipman, P. W.

    2015-12-01

    The San Juan locus of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) in SW Colorado represents an erosional remnant of a mid-Tertiary (~37-23 Ma) ignimbrite flare up that produced some of the most voluminous ignimbrites on Earth. A key feature of many SRMVF ignimbrites is compositional zonation, with many volcanic units comprising both dacitic and rhyolitic horizons. Geochemical, field and petrographic evidence suggests that dacites and rhyolites are cogenetic. Here, we report U-Pb zircon ages by chemical abrasion inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (CA-LA-ICPMS) for rhyolitic and dacitic components in four units: the Bonanza, Rat Creek, Carpenter Ridge and Nelson Mountain Tuffs. All units show zircon age spectra that are either within analytical uncertainty of Ar/Ar ages or are appreciably older, indicating prolonged magma residence times (~500 ka) prior to eruption. Anomalously young Pb-loss zones in zircon have been largely removed by chemical abrasion. Older, inherited zircons and zircon cores (60-2000 Ma) are rare in all samples, suggesting limited assimilation of upper crustal Precambrian country rock or complete resorption during recharge events and magma chamber growth.

  11. Dimensional change card sort performance associated with age-related differences in functional connectivity of lateral prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ezekiel, Fredrick; Bosma, Rachael; Morton, J Bruce

    2013-07-01

    The Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) is a standard procedure for assessing executive functioning early in development. In the task, participants switch from sorting cards one way (e.g., by color) to sorting them a different way (e.g., by shape). Traditional accounts associate age-related changes in DCCS performance with circumscribed changes in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) functioning, but evidence of age-related differences in the modulation of lPFC activity by switching is mixed. The current study therefore tested for possible age-related differences in functional connectivity of lPFC with regions that comprise a larger cognitive control network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from children and adults performing the DCCS were analyzed by means of independent components analysis (ICA). The analysis revealed several important age-related differences in functional connectivity of lPFC. In particular, lPFC was more strongly connected with the anterior cingulate, inferior parietal cortex, and the ventral tegmental area in adults than in children. Theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:23328350

  12. The alpha-2A noradrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine improves visual object discrimination reversal performance in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Steere, J C; Arnsten, A F

    1997-10-01

    Administration of either low or high doses of the alpha-2A adrenergic agonist guanfacine (GFC) to aged monkeys has been shown to improve performance of the delayed-response task, a task linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Monkeys treated with higher guanfacine doses also appeared less disinhibited, suggesting enhanced ventromedial-orbital PFC (vmPFC) function. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the effects of low versus high doses of GFC on reversal of a visual object discrimination task, a task particularly sensitive to vmPFC lesions. The results of this study showed that high (0.1 mg/kg) but not low (0.00001-0.001 mg/kg) doses of GFC significantly improved reversal performance in aged monkeys. These results may be relevant to GFC's calming effects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:9383511

  13. 'The engine just started coughing!' - Limits of physical performance, aging and career continuity in elite endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Ronkainen, Noora J; Ryba, Tatiana V; Nesti, Mark S

    2013-12-01

    This research examines male endurance athletes' experience of aging and/or reaching the perceived limits of physical performance. More specifically, the current study aimed to explore how existential meanings attached to these experiences are connected with athletes' decision-making concerning career continuity and retirement. Life story interviews were conducted with 10 Finnish runners and/or orienteers aged between 25 and 62 and the data was analyzed with an existential-narrative framework. Four major storylines related to aging were identified: The end of an era, putting things in perspective, the attitude has to change and winning was never the only motive. Our results suggest that endurance athletes possess diverse ways of bringing meaning to the experience of aging, both confirming and resisting the dominant cultural narrative of decline. While three athletes' stories confirmed the normativity of retirement when unable to improve their results anymore, other athletes demonstrated career continuity and positive aspects in the late career years, such as lack of competitive anxiety, finding perspective and increased enjoyment in running. We suggest that through awareness of alternative narratives, sport psychology consultants may be able to help their clients to explore new meanings in the potentially challenging and beneficial experiences of aging and athletic retirement.

  14. Who Are the Low-Performing Students? PISA in Focus. No. 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Far too many students around the world are trapped in a vicious cycle of poor performance and demotivation that leads only to more bad marks and further disengagement from school. Students who perform poorly at age 15 face a high risk of dropping out of school altogether. By the time they become young adults, poor proficiency in numeracy and…

  15. Teaching styles of mothers and the match-to-sample performance of their retarded preschool-age- children.

    PubMed

    Filler, J W; Bricker, W A

    1976-03-01

    Twenty-one mothers and their preschool-age retarded children were observed during three structured teaching sessions. Each session was rated for various forms of maternal preresponse and postresponse activity as well as performance of the children. The results indicated that the mos