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Sample records for age possibly reflecting

  1. The Malleability of Possible Selves and Expectations regarding Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardach, Shoshana H.; Gayer, Christopher C.; Clinkinbeard, Tiffanie; Zanjani, Faika; Watkins, John F.

    2010-01-01

    Many people are apprehensive about old age and their future years. This pilot study sought to improve participants' sense of possibility in, and expectations for, old age. Students and middle-aged volunteers completed a survey including the Expectations Regarding Aging 38-item questionnaire (ERA-38) and a possible-selves questionnaire before and…

  2. Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition.

    PubMed

    Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna S

    2002-04-20

    Solar-reflective roofs remain cooler than absorptive roofs and thus conserve electricity otherwise needed for air conditioning. A currently controversial aspect of solar-reflective cool roofing is the extent to which an initially high solar reflectance decreases with time. We present experimental data on the spectral absorption of deposits that accumulate on roofs, and we attribute most of the absorption to carbon soot originally produced by combustion. The deposits absorb more at short wavelengths (e.g., in the blue) than in the red and infrared, imparting a slightly yellow tinge to formerly white surfaces. The initial rate of reflectance reduction by soot accumulation is consistent with known emission rates that are due to combustion. The long-term reflectance change appears to be determined by the ability of the soot to adhere to the roof, resisting washout by rain.

  3. Male accessory gland inflammation prevalence in type 2 diabetic patients with symptoms possibly reflecting autonomic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, Rosita A; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E; La Vignera, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Male accessory gland inflammation or infection (MAGI) is a potentially underdiagnosed complication of type 2 diabetes (DM2); specifically, we reported in a recent study that the frequency of MAGI was 43% among DM2 patients. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diabetic autonomic neuropathy (DAN) is associated with a peculiar ultrasound characterization of the seminal vesicles (SVs) in DM2 patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of MAGI in two different categories of DM2 patients (i.e. patients with and without symptoms that possibly reflect DAN) and the respective ultrasound characterizations. Sixty DM2 patients with a mean (± s.e.m.) age of 42.0 ± 6.0 years (range: 34–47 years) were classified according to the presence or the absence of symptoms that could possibly reflect DAN (group A: DM2 with symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 28 patients and group B: DM2 without symptoms possibly reflecting DAN, n = 32 patients). The patients in Group A exhibited a significantly higher frequency of MAGI compared with those in group B patients (P < 0.05); moreover, the Group A patients exhibited a significantly higher frequency of ultrasound signs suggestive of vesiculitis (P < 0.05). Finally, the concentrations of lymphocytes but not the concentrations of the leukocytes in the semen were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group A compared with group B. PMID:24799635

  4. Opening to Possibility: Reflectivity and Reflexivity in Our Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Jeff, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary explores how teachers can create a culture of tolerance by promoting reflectivity and reflexivity, and considers classroom processes and activities for doing so. "Reflectivity" is considered to be the use of personal values, experiences, and habits to make meaning and is a central tenet of inquiry approaches: to build…

  5. Reflecting on self-relevant experiences: adult age differences.

    PubMed

    Rice, Cora; Pasupathi, Monisha

    2010-03-01

    A broad array of research findings suggest that older adults, as compared with younger adults, have a more positive sense of self and possibly a clearer and more consistent sense of self. Further, older adults report lower motivation to construct or maintain a sense of self. In the present study, we examined whether such differences in self-views were reflected in features of older and younger adults' narratives and narrating practices around recent, self-relevant events. Narratives about self-discrepant and self-confirming events were elicited from a sample of younger (18-37 years of age; n = 115) and older (58-90 years of age; n = 62) adults and were compared for indicators of engagement in self-construction, meanings, and emotionality. Older adults' narratives contained significantly fewer self-focused pronouns, less present tense, and less emotional language, and they were significantly less likely to articulate and resolve challenges to their self-concepts. These findings, as well as others, are consistent with the idea that older adults are less engaged in self-construction in narrating everyday events, perhaps especially for self-discrepant events.

  6. Monitoring bruise age using visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurdy, John W.; Duffy, Susan; Crawford, Gregory P.

    2007-02-01

    The ability to determine the age of a bruise of unknown age mechanism is important in matters of domestic and child abuse and forensics. While physicians are asked to make clinical judgment on the age of a bruise using color and tenderness, studies have shown that a physicians estimate is highly inaccurate and in cases no better than chance alone. We present here the temporal progression of reflection spectrum collected from accidentally inflicted contusions in adult and child study participants with a synopsis of the observed phenomena. Reflection spectra collected using a portable fiber optic reflection spectrometer can track the increase in extravasated hemoglobin from trauma caused blood vessel rupture and subsequent removal of this hemoglobin occurring concurrent with an increase in the absorption attributed to the breakdown product bilirubin. We hypothesize that this time dependent pattern can be used to determine the age of an unknown bruise in an individual provided rate constant information for the patient can be determined in a controlled calibration bruise. Using reflection spectra to estimate bruise age can provide a rapid and noninvasive method to improve the ability of physicians in dating the age of a contusion.

  7. The aging middle ear: Wideband energy reflectance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2003-04-01

    Several anatomical studies have documented aging effects in the human middle ear. However, efforts to study the effect of aging using both low-frequency and multifrequency tympanometry to 2000 Hz have been inconclusive. This study examined energy reflectance at ambient pressure from 250 to 10,080 Hz in 40 young (M=22 years) and 34 elderly adults (M=72 years). All subjects had normal 226 Hz tympanometry and audiometric air-bone gaps of 10 dB or less. Reflectance measurements were obtained in a sound-treated booth using a digitally-generated wideband chirp as the probe stimulus delivered by a receiver in an ER-10C microphone. Each reflectance measurement consisted of a time-waveform average of the microphone response to 8 chirps. Three such one-third-octave reflectance responses were averaged to obtain an estimate of middle ear reflectance for one ear of each subject. The average reflectance for the elderly subjects was significantly lower from 794 to 2000 Hz with a maximum difference of 15% at 1260 Hz. A reflectance minimum occurred at 4000 Hz for both groups, but was about 15% lower for the young group. Results will be compared to published adult data using similar systems. [Work supported by the NIDCD Grant No. DC04129.

  8. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  9. Possibilities and Limits of Self-Reflection in the Teaching Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bengtsson, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the possibilities of self-reflection for the teaching profession by relating the problem the philosophy of Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and Edmund Husserl. Explains that in philosophy reflection has always played a major role, while it has not always had a major role in education. Concludes that it is possible to learn from mistakes…

  10. Defining the Flora Family: Reflectance Properties and Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Van Kooten, Samuel J; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g. the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance have historically complicated the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from AstDyS, color information from SDSS, and albedo information from WISE, to obtain the characteristic orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras, by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the characteristic Flora SDSS colors to be a* = 0.127 ± 0.012 and i-z = -0.038 ± 0.008; the characteristic Flora albedo is pV = 0.295 ± 0.006. These properties allow us to select a high-purity sample of Floras with similar orbital and reflectance properties as required for a detailed dynamical study. We then use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 940+160-120 My. We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: 1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and 2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change the age determination.

  11. Aging: It's Interpersonal! Reflections From Two Life Course Migrants.

    PubMed

    Hagestad, Gunhild O; Settersten, Richard A

    2017-02-01

    We start with the observation that aging gerontologists often engage in two distinct discourses on aging-one public and one private. This separation entails "othering," which reproduces agism and stigma. Based on personal experience, insight from colleagues and writers, and concepts from symbolic interaction perspectives, we argue that becoming old to some degree involves becoming a stranger. Before reaching old age, both of us have been in the position of strangers due to social experiences that left us "off the line" or "on the margins." Examples are crossing social borders related to nations, class structures, gender, race, health status, and generations. Our stories illustrate how aging is more than personal. It is interpersonal-shaped by social history, policies, interdependence in relationships, and the precariousness of old age. Such phenomena often show sharp contrasts in the interpersonal worlds and social experiences of women and men. Reflecting on our own journeys as life course migrants leaves us acutely aware of both the social problems and potential promises of aging.

  12. Possible systematic decreases in the age of globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.; Dearborn, D. S.P.; Truran, J. W.

    1994-03-01

    The ages of globular clusters inferred from observations depends sensitively on assumptions like the initial helium abundance and the mass loss rate. A high helium abundance (e.g., Y\\approx0.28) or a mass loss rate of \\sim10^{-11}M_\\odot yr^{-1} near the main sequence turn-off region lowers the current age estimate from 14 Gyr to about 10--12 Gyr, significantly relaxing the constraints on the Hubble constant, allowing values as high as 60km/sec/Mpc for a universe with the critical density and 90km/sec/Mpc for a baryon-only universe. Possible mechanisms for the helium enhancement in globular clusters are discussed, as are arguments for an instability strip induced mass loss near the turn-off. Ages lower than 10 Gyr are not possible even with the operation of both of these mechanisms unless the initial helium abundance in globular clusters is >0.30, which would conflict with indirect measurements of helium abundances in globular clusters.

  13. Rock sparrow song reflects male age and reproductive success.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Erwin; Kempenaers, Bart; Matessi, Giuliano; Brumm, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of mating signals is closely linked to sexual selection. Acoustic ornaments are often used as secondary sexual traits that signal the quality of the signaller. Here we show that song performance reflects age and reproductive success in the rock sparrow (Petronia petronia). In an Alpine population in south-east France, we recorded the songs of males and assessed their genetic breeding success by microsatellite analysis. In addition to temporal and spectral song features, we also analysed for the first time whether the sound pressure level of bird song reflects reproductive success. Males with higher breeding success sang at a lower rate and with a higher maximum frequency. We found also that older males gained more extra-pair young and had a higher overall breeding success, although they also differed almost significantly by having a higher loss of paternity in their own nests. Older males could be distinguished from yearlings by singing at lower rate and higher amplitudes. Our findings suggest that song rate may be used as a signal of age and together with song pitch as a signal of reproductive success in this species. Alternatively, younger and less successful males might try to compensate their inferior status by increased song rates and lower pitch. Independent of age and quality, high-amplitude songs correlated with paternity loss in the own nest, suggesting that in this species song amplitude is not an indicator of male quality but high-intensity songs may be rather a response to unfaithful social mates.

  14. [Authentication of Age of Bloodstains Using UV Visible Reflection Spectrum].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian-yu; Gao, Shi-ming

    2015-08-01

    The age of bloodstains is tightly related to the time elapsed since the crime was committed. The inference of the time that the crime was committed is of great significance to solve the case, and it was also a difficult problem in judicial authentication. Therefore, establishing a method of rapid determination of bleeding time is very necessary. Using a UV-visible spectrometer with a reflection accessory called ISR-240A and whiteboard as a reference standard, the reflection spectra of blood gauze, aluminum, glass and plastic were measured every hour under the condition of 16 °C and 70% humidity within 8 hours. Using SPSS to process the data, R541/R577 was figured out and linear fitting was completed. The same method was carried on on the gauze of blood at 24 °C. The results showed that, within 8 hours, spectral reflectance values of blood at 541 and 577 nm increased gradually with the passage of injury time. In addition to the R2 of the glass with blood is 0.769, the rest of the R2 were greater than 0.900. The values of F were greater than F0.05 (1, 6) = 5.59. Therefore, the linear regression model is significant meaningful. The method of using a UV-Visible spectrometer without doing any operations of the test samples is simple. Moreover, it does no harm to the further inspection in aspects of personal information, which is suitable for the judicial practice.

  15. Defining the Flora Family: Orbital properties, reflectance properties and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence; Van Kooten, Samuel J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g., the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance complicates the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS), color information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and albedo information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to obtain the median orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the median Flora SDSS colors to be a∗ = 0.126 ± 0.007 and i -z =-0.037±0.007 ; the median Flora albedo is pV = 0.291 ± 0.012. These properties allow us to define ranges for the Flora family in orbital and reflectance properties, as required for a detailed dynamical study. We use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 950-170+200 My, with the uncertainty dominated by the uncertainty in the material properties of the family members (e.g., density and surface thermal properties). We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: (1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and (2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change this age

  16. Possible Origin of High-Amplitude Reflection Packages (HARPs) in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Hutchinson, Deborah; Shimeld, John; Chian, Deping; Hart, Patrick; Jackson, Ruth; Saltus, Richard; Mosher, David

    2013-04-01

    The Canada Basin (CB) of the Arctic Ocean is a semi-enclosed ocean basin surrounded by the Alaskan and Canadian margins to the south and east, the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province (AMLIP) to the north and the subsided continental Chukchi Borderland (ChB) to the west. During 2007-2011, US-Canada expeditions collected ~15,000 km multichannel seismic data and sonobuoy reflection and refraction seismic data with average spacing of ~80 km mostly over the CB and AMLIP. High-amplitude reflective packages (HARPs) underlie the mostly flat-lying sediments of CB. Although HARPs are discontinuous in the central CB, they become more continuous toward ChB and AMLIP. HARPs are often the most reflective events in the seismic section, exceeding even the seafloor reflection. Only rarely are reflections seen beneath HARPs. Where best developed, HARPs are ~100-300 ms TWTT, consisting of several high-amplitude wavelets with a pronounced narrow frequency band within the limits of ~10-30 Hz. This character of HARPs is consistent with patterns produced by constructive interference of thin beds (Widess, 1973). Forward modeling of sonobuoy data, synthetic tests, and frequency analysis of the tuning effect suggest that HARPs are composed of a series of alternating high- and low-velocity layers. The high-velocity layers are ~100-200 m thick with P-velocities of ~3.5-4.5 km/s. The low-velocity layers are about half as thick with velocities of ~2-3 km/s. A broad range of possible interpretations of rock composition exists from these velocities, e.g. sandstone and interbedded shale (Prince Patrick Island, Harrison and Brent, 2005); or tholeiitic basalts flows and sediments (Voring volcanic margin, Olanke and Eldholm, 1994); or sills and sediments (Newfoundland margin, Peron-Pinvidic et all, 2010). HARP can be associated with several origins. In the central and southern CB, where oceanic spreading is interpreted, HARPs are discontinuous among high-relief, but otherwise low

  17. The possible role of Brazilian promontory in Little Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Youjia; Xi, Xiangying

    2014-09-01

    The Gulf Stream, one of the strongest currents in the world, transports approximately 31 Sv of water (Kelly and Gille, 1990; Baringer and Larsen, 2001; Leaman et al., 1995) and 1.3 × 1015 W (Larsen, 1992) of heat into the Atlantic Ocean, and warms the vast European continent. Thus any change of the Gulf Stream could lead to the climate change in the European continent, and even worldwide (Bryden et al., 2005). Past studies have revealed a diminished Gulf Stream and oceanic heat transport that was possibly associated with a southward migration of intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and may have contributed to Little Ice Age (AD ∼1200 to 1850) in the North Atlantic (Lund et al., 2006). However, the causations of the Gulf Stream weakening due to the southward migration of the ITCZ remain uncertain. Here we use satellite observation data and employ a model (oceanic general circulation model - OGCM) to demonstrate that the Brazilian promontory in the east coast of South America may have played a crucial role in allocating the equatorial currents, while the mean position of the equatorial currents migrates between northern and southern hemisphere in the Atlantic Ocean. Northward migrations of the equatorial currents in the Atlantic Ocean have little influence on the Gulf Stream. Nevertheless, southward migrations, especially abrupt large southward migrations of the equatorial currents, can lead to the increase of the Brazil Current and the significant decrease of the North Brazil Current, in turn the weakening of the Gulf Stream. The results from the model simulations suggest the mean position of the equatorial currents in the Atlantic Ocean shifted at least 180-260 km southwards of its present-day position during the Little Ice Age based on the calculations of simple linear equations and the OGCM simulations.

  18. Can Massive Communities of Teachers Facilitate Collaborative Reflection? Fractal Design as a Possible Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarà, Marc; Kelly, Nick; Mauri, Teresa; Danaher, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility that virtual communities of teachers with large numbers of members (referred to as "massive communities of teachers") can offer support to novice teachers by means of collaborative reflection. The paper examines and conceptualises some problems found in professional massive communities and proposes…

  19. Reflections on the challenges and possibilities of journal publication in science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Catherine; Siry, Christina; Mueller, Michael

    2015-12-01

    In this editorial we reflect on the intersections between the review and publishing policies of Cultural Studies of Science Education (CSSE) and the challenges and possibilities in global science education publishing. In particular we discuss the tensions associated with open or closed review policies, the hegemony of English as a language of publication, and reflect on some of the common challenges experienced by editors and authors from different contexts. We draw on the paper set in this issue consisting of five papers focused on publishing in various contexts, and elaborate several central questions for the field of science education and the dissemination of knowledges.

  20. Reflective Functioning in Parents of School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Jessica L.; St. John, H. Kate; Cho, Evelyn; Suchman, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Parental reflective functioning (RF) has garnered tremendous support as a predictor of secure attachment in infancy, though little work has examined RF among parents of older children. In this study, we used a high-risk community sample of parent–child dyads (N = 117) to explore whether parental RF comprises self- and child-focused factors, whether parental RF is associated with parent and child attachment security, and whether parental RF mediates the association between parent and child attachment security. Results suggested that parental RF can be characterized as having both self- and child-focused components, and that child-focused parental RF is associated with child but not parent attachment security. Further, child-focused parental RF indirectly mediates the association between parent attachment avoidance and child attachment security. These findings extend previous work on parental RF to parents of school-age children and, in so doing, inform developmental models of attachment relationships in middle childhood. Discussion focuses on the importance of these findings in informing theory, prevention, clinical practice, and policy. PMID:26618938

  1. Possible spinel absorption bands in S-asteroid visible reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiroi, T.; Vilas, F.; Sunshine, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Minor absorption bands in the 0.55 to 0.7 micron wavelength range of reflectance spectra of 10 S asteroids have been found and compared with those of spinel-group minerals using the modified Gaussian model. Most of these S asteroids are consistently shown to have two absorption bands around 0.6 and 0.67 micron. Of the spinel-group minerals examined in this study, the 0.6 and 0.67 micron bands are most consistent with those seen in chromite. Recently, the existence of spinels has also been detected from the absorption-band features around 1 and 2 micron of two S-asteroid reflectance spectra, and chromite has been found in a primitive achondrite as its major phase. These new findings suggest a possible common existence of spinel-group minerals in the solar system.

  2. The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

  3. Spaceflight and ageing: reflecting on Caenorhabditis elegans in space.

    PubMed

    Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Narici, Marco; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of space travel continues to capture the imagination. Several competing companies are now promising flights for the general population. Previously, it was recognized that many of the physiological changes that occur with spaceflight are similar to those seen with normal ageing. This led to the notion that spaceflight can be used as a model of accelerated ageing and raised concerns about the safety of individuals engaging in space travel. Paradoxically, however, space travel has been recently shown to be beneficial to some aspects of muscle health in the tiny worm Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a commonly used laboratory animal for studying ageing. C. elegans displays age-related decline of some biological processes observed in ageing humans, and about 35% of C. elegans' genes have human homologs. Space flown worms were found to have decreased expression of a number of genes that increase lifespan when expressed at lower levels. These changes were accompanied by decreased accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in ageing worms' muscles. Thus, in addition to spaceflight producing physiological changes that are similar to accelerated ageing, it also appears to produce some changes similar to delayed ageing. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that in addition to the previously well-appreciated mechanotransduction changes, neural and endocrine signals are altered in response to spaceflight and that these may have both negative (e.g. less muscle protein) and some positive consequences (e.g. healthier muscles), at least for invertebrates, with respect to health in space. Given that changes in circulating hormones are well documented with age and in astronauts, our view is that further research into the relationship between metabolic control, ageing, and adaptation to the environment should be productive in advancing our understanding of the physiology of both spaceflight and ageing.

  4. [The mirror broke : Oedipe has aged, Beginning of a reflection on aging and otherness.].

    PubMed

    Simard, C

    1987-01-01

    The "mirror phase" is characterized by a child's recognition of his own image in the mirror and simultaneous perception of approval by the adult, whose reflection is equally discovered. In contrast to this phase, we identify an experience that takes place in old age: the experience referred to in this article as the , which occurs when the image reflected by the mirror no longer matches the expectations of the subject. This experience raises doubts concerning non only the relation of the subject with himself, but also with the other, who, ever since the "mirror phase", has supported the subject's identity. Encountering alterity, the process of discovering one's self as different and of confronting an other with whom similarities no longer hold true, is the crux of the "shattered mirror' ' experience and the basis for uprooting narcissist complacency. The dynamics of alterity therefore favour revealment (illustrated by the tragedy of "Oedipe à Colone", while the outcome of the "shattered mirror" experience ranges between distress and reduced alienation.

  5. Movement Planning Reflects Skill Level and Age Changes in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-ping; Keen, Rachel; Rosander, Kerstin; Von Hofsten, Claes

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic measures of children's reaching were found to reflect stable differences in skill level for planning for future actions. Thirty-five toddlers (18-21 months) were engaged in building block towers (precise task) and in placing blocks into an open container (imprecise task). Sixteen children were retested on the same tasks a year later.…

  6. [Is it possible to reduce health inequalities in old age?].

    PubMed

    Michel, Jean-Pierre; Herrmann, François; Zekry, Dina

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of prospective data collected between 1984 and 2008 by the CERN medical team (European Centre of Nuclear Research, Geneva) concerning 2040 former employees who were retired or had died stimulated our interest on the impact of inequalities in socioeconomic conditions, employment, lifestyle and classical risk factors on health and life expectancy. Such inequalities explain differences in life expectancy, potentially reaching several decades, between rich and poor countries (France vs Swaziland), but also within a given country (USA), a given city (Glasgow) or even a given enterprise (CERN) where all employees have the same level of healthcare insurance and access to treatment. Classical cardiovascular and neurovascular risk factors (smoking, arterial hypertension and lipid disorders) interact with socioeconomic status, intelligence, education, emotions and job responsibility/complexity, precipitating or preventing cardiovascular events. The same is true of dementia, for which midlife risk factors (obesity, arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia) should be considered in the psychosocioeconomic context, which influences cognitive reserves and thus affects the risk and severity of dementia in old age. Thus, in addition to lifestyle and classical risk factors, socioeconomic status appears as a major health determinant, by imposing behaviors and habits and by determining access to healthcare.

  7. Investigating possible earthquake-related structure beneath the southern Illinois Basin from seismic reflection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; Sargent, M.L.; Potter, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between seismicity and faults observed on seismic reflection profiles from the New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) in the central Mississippi Valley has been intensively studied for the past 15 years. However, comparable studies relating reflector sequences and earthquakes in the southern Illinois Basin, located northeast of the NMSZ, have not been undertaken. This study investigates the possible relationship between the source parameters of the November 9, 1968, magnitude (mbLg) 5.5 earthquake (a NNE-trending, previously interpreted west-dipping reverse fault at 21.2 ?? 5.4 km depth) in southern Illinois, and a zone of moderately dipping reflectors in crystalline (?) basement observed on a nearby high-quality seismic reflection profile. The 1968 event was the twentieth century's largest magnitude earthquake in the southern Illinois region. The zone of dipping basement reflectors is part of a broad prominent sequence, in which reflectors are subhorizontal or inclined with a strong west-dipping component, that appears beneath the Wabash Valley Fault System and extends to the west beneath the Illinois Basin where it steepens and plunges deeper into the crust over the 1968 hypocenter. More than one interpretation of the dipping reflector zone is admissible, including intrusion of igneous sills or thrust faults or both within a localized shear zone. The dipping reflector zone cannot be traced from the basement into the overlying Phanerozoic sedimentary section or associated directly with any particular previously mapped fault. If a tectonic interpretation is correct, the correlation between the 1968 reverse fault event and the reflector zone may mean that such quakes are nucleating along a blind compressional structure in the crystalline basement of southern Illinois, possibly analogous to the recent destructive southern California earthquakes.

  8. Reflecting on Self-Relevant Experiences: Adult Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Cora; Pasupathi, Monisha

    2010-01-01

    A broad array of research findings suggest that older adults, as compared with younger adults, have a more positive sense of self and possibly a clearer and more consistent sense of self. Further, older adults report lower motivation to construct or maintain a sense of self. In the present study, we examined whether such differences in self-views…

  9. Melodic Contour Identification Reflects the Cognitive Threshold of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eunju; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a natural phenomenon of aging. Although there exists a consensus that sensitivity to acoustic features of music is associated with such decline, no solid evidence has yet shown that structural elements and contexts of music explain this loss of cognitive performance. This study examined the extent and the type of cognitive decline that is related to the contour identification task (CIT) using tones with different pitches (i.e., melodic contours). Both younger and older adult groups participated in the CIT given in three listening conditions (i.e., focused, selective, and alternating). Behavioral data (accuracy and response times) and hemodynamic reactions were measured using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Our findings showed cognitive declines in the older adult group but with a subtle difference from the younger adult group. The accuracy of the melodic CITs given in the target-like distraction task (CIT2) was significantly lower than that in the environmental noise (CIT1) condition in the older adult group, indicating that CIT2 may be a benchmark test for age-specific cognitive decline. The fNIRS findings also agreed with this interpretation, revealing significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentration in the younger (p < 0.05 for Δpre - on task; p < 0.01 for Δon – post task) rather than the older adult group (n.s for Δpre - on task; n.s for Δon – post task). We further concluded that the oxyHb difference was present in the brain regions near the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Taken together, these findings suggest that CIT2 (i.e., the melodic contour task in the target-like distraction) is an optimized task that could indicate the degree and type of age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27378907

  10. The effect of aging on skeletal-muscle recovery from exercise: possible implications for aging athletes.

    PubMed

    Fell, James; Williams, Dafydd

    2008-01-01

    Recovery from exercise is integral to the physical training process. There is a perception among older athletes that aging negatively affects the recovery process. Plausible arguments for an impaired recovery with aging are a greater susceptibility of older muscle to exercise-induced skeletal-muscle damage and a slower repair and adaptation response. Differences in the physical activity level of the research participants are rarely considered, however. This makes it difficult to differentiate the respective roles of declining physical activity and aging on the recovery process. Furthermore, the type of exercise used to induce damage and monitor recovery is often not indicative of a normal training stimulus for athletes. This review discusses the effects of aging on skeletal-muscle damage and recovery processes and highlights the limitations of many of these studies with respect to older athletes. Future research should use an exercise intervention representative of a normal training stimulus and take the physical activity level of the participants into account.

  11. Investigation of multiple Bragg reflections at a constant neutron wavelength and their possible separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikula, P.; Vrána, M.; Šaroun, J.; Em, V.; Seong, B. S.

    2012-02-01

    Multiple Bragg reflections (MBR) realized in one bent-perfect crystal (BPC) slab by sets of different lattice planes behave differently in comparison to the case of perfect nondeformed or mosaic crystal. Individual sets of lattice planes are mutually in dispersive diffraction geometry and the kinematical approach can be applied on this MBR process. It has been found that contrary to the perfect nondeformed or mosaic crystal, individual reflections participating in the MBR process can be spatially separated.

  12. Reflection and transmission of elastic waves at five types of possible interfaces between two dipolar gradient elastic half-spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueqiu; Wei, Peijun

    2017-02-01

    Reflection and transmission of an incident plane wave at five types of possible interfaces between two dipolar gradient elastic solids are studied in this paper. First, the explicit expressions of monopolar tractions and dipolar tractions are derived from the postulated function of strain energy density. Then, the displacements, the normal derivative of displacements, monopolar tractions, and dipolar tractions are used to create the nontraditional interface conditions. There are five types of possible interfaces based on all possible combinations of the displacements and the normal derivative of displacements. These interfacial conditions with consideration of microstructure effects are used to determine the amplitude ratio of the reflection and transmission waves with respect to the incident wave. Further, the energy ratios of the reflection and transmission waves with respect to the incident wave are calculated. Some numerical results of the reflection and transmission coefficients are given in terms of energy flux ratio for five types of possible interfaces. The influences of the five types of possible interfaces on the energy partition between the refection waves and the transmission waves are discussed, and the concept of double channels of energy transfer is first proposed to explain the different influences of five types of interfaces.

  13. Possible changes in reflectivity of the Earth at 360 nm: 1980-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2003-06-01

    The new Version 8 TOMS 360 nm reflectivity time series 1980 to 1992 and 1997 to 2001 have been combined to estimate changes that have occurred over a 21-year period. The observed changes are mostly related to changes in cloud cover and aerosols, since the Earthy appears dark (2 to 6% reflectivity) at 360 nm. The relative radiance calibration of the two TOMS (Nimbus-7, N7 and Earth-Probe, EP) has been adjusted using the measured minimum reflectivity over mid-latitude ocean and land locations (+/-50°). The result is that the previously published N7 minimum reflectivity decreased by 0.02 and now matches the better-calibrated Earth-Probe/TOMS. Most of the local trend features seen in the N7 time series (1980 to 1992) have been continued in the combined time series, but the overall zonal average and global trends have changed. The correlation of cloud cover with solar activity (measured by the 10.7 cm solar radiation) that was present during the Nimbus-7 period (1980 to 1992) is no longer evident for the period 1980 to 2001. The key results include a continuing decrease in cloud cover over Europe and North America and an increase in reflectivity near Antarctica.

  14. Possible modes of coral-reef development at Molokai, Hawaii, inferred from seismic-reflection profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Richmond, B.M.; Grossman, E.E.; Hart, P.

    2005-01-01

    High-resolution, seismic-reflection data elucidate the late Quaternary development of the largest coral-reef complex in the main Hawaiian Islands. Six acoustic facies were identified from reflection characteristics and lithosome geometry. An extensive, buried platform with uniformly low relief was traced beneath fore-reef and marginal shelf environments. This highly reflective surface dips gently seaward to ???130 m depth and locally crops out on the seafloor. It probably represents a wave-cut platform or ancient reef flat. We propose alternative evolutionary models, in which sea-level changes have modulated the development of reef systems, to explain the observed stratigraphic relationships. The primary difference between the models is the origin of the underlying antecedent surface, which arguably could have formed during either regression/lowstand or subsequent transgression. ?? Springer-Verlag 2005.

  15. The Possibility of Cosmopolitan Learning: Reflecting on Future Directions for Diversity Teacher Education in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Carol; Sriprakash, Arathi

    2012-01-01

    This paper is situated in the re-visioning ethos that has been part of the genealogy of multicultural education. In the context of teacher education, the authors ask: where to now? In this paper, they reflect on their design and delivery of a new undergraduate unit offered by the School of Education, University of Western Sydney. The unit…

  16. What Is Policy? 21 Years Later: Reflections on the Possibilities of Policy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on "What is policy? Texts, Trajectories and Tool Boxes," which was first published in 1993, in "Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education." It looks back to what the 1993 paper was trying to do and at some of the developments of the ideas first sketched there in my later work, in…

  17. Bilateral force reflection for teleoperators with masters and slaves with dissimilar and possibly redundant kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Jansen, J.F.; Babcock, S.M.

    1989-11-01

    Several bilateral control techniques and methods for exploiting redundant slaves are investigated as a part of research to develop and analyze bilateral, force-reflecting control methodologies for teleoperator systems with kinematic dissimilar masters and slaves. The study indicates that, with force/torque sensing at the wrist, and an impedance type of controller with the appropriate joint compensation, a significant improvement in performance and controllability of a teleoperator system can be achieved. 32 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Reflections on cultural influences on aging and old-age suicide in Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmitz-Scherzer, R

    1995-01-01

    The limited attention paid to old-age suicide in Germany is likely related to society's lack of interest in the specific problems of old people. This is despite the fact that over half of all German suicides are committed by persons 65 and older. In reviewing what is known about elderly suicide based on retrospective studies, I submit that suicide in later life is not always based on pathologic mental processes. There may be a number of risk factors unique to elderly suicides, in addition to depressive disorders that involve broader cultural issues among the many motives likely present in any one suicide. Today's emphasis on individualized values may lead to a feeling of meaninglessness in the suicidal elderly. The uncertainty and fear of the inability to influence their own dying a certain weariness of life are also likely unique risk factors for the elderly. Thus the reasons or motives for a suicide may be best considered by understanding the entire life situation and the biographical aspects of the person. Prevention of elderly suicides requires a number of approaches ranging from social assistance and improved training of care providers to more acceptance and valuing of older persons by society.

  19. The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework: Reflections, possible clarifications and how to move forward.

    PubMed

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Hussey, Ian

    2016-02-01

    The functional-cognitive meta-theoretical framework has been offered as a conceptual basis for facilitating greater communication and cooperation between the functional/behavioural and cognitive traditions within psychology, thus leading to benefits for both scientific communities. The current article is written from the perspective of two functional researchers, who are also proponents of the functional-cognitive framework, and attended the "Building Bridges between the Functional and Cognitive Traditions" meeting at Ghent University in the summer of 2014. The article commences with a brief summary of the functional approach to theory, followed by our reflections upon the functional-cognitive framework in light of that meeting. In doing so, we offer three ways in which the framework could be clarified: (a) effective communication between the two traditions is likely to be found at the level of behavioural observations rather than effects or theory, (b) not all behavioural observations will be deemed to be of mutual interest to both traditions, and (c) observations of mutual interest will be those that serve to elaborate and extend existing theorising in the functional and/or cognitive traditions. The article concludes with a summary of what we perceive to be the strengths and weaknesses of the framework, and a suggestion that there is a need to determine if the framework is meta-theoretical or is in fact a third theoretical approach to doing psychological science.

  20. Differential Gene Expression Profiles Reflecting Macrophage Polarization in Aging and Periodontitis Gingival Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, O.A.; Novak, M.J.; Kirakodu, S.; Stromberg, A.; Nagarajan, R.; Huang, C.B.; Chen, K.C.; Orraca, L.; Martinez-Gonzalez, J.; Ebersole, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent evidence has determined a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity for macrophage populations. This plasticity of macrophage function has been related to specific properties of subsets (M1, M2) of these cells in inflammation, adaptive immune responses, and resolution of tissue destructive processes. This investigation hypothesized that targeted alterations in the distribution of macrophage phenotypes in aged individuals, and with periodontitis would be skewed towards M1 inflammatory macrophages in gingival tissues. The study used a nonhuman primate model to evaluate gene expression profiles as footprints of macrophage variation in healthy and periodontitis gingival tissues from animals 3–23 years of age and in periodontitis tissues in adult and aged animals. Significant increases in multiple genes reflecting overall increases in macrophage activities were observed in healthy aged tissues, and were significantly increased in periodontitis tissues from both adults and aged animals. Generally, gene expression patterns for M2 macrophages were similar in healthy young, adolescent, and adult tissues. However, modest increases were noted in healthy aged tissues, similar to those seen in periodontitis tissues from both age groups. M1 macrophage gene transcription patterns increased significantly over the age range in healthy tissues, with multiple genes (e.g. CCL13, CCL19, CCR7, TLR4) significantly increased in aged animals. Additionally, gene expression patterns for M1 macrophages were significantly increased in adult health versus periodontitis and aged healthy versus periodontitis. The findings supported a significant increase in macrophages with aging and in periodontitis. The primary increases in both healthy aged tissues and, particularly periodontitis tissues appeared in the M1 phenotype. PMID:26397131

  1. Differential Gene Expression Profiles Reflecting Macrophage Polarization in Aging and Periodontitis Gingival Tissues.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, O A; Novak, M J; Kirakodu, S; Stromberg, A; Nagarajan, R; Huang, C B; Chen, K C; Orraca, L; Martinez-Gonzalez, J; Ebersole, J L

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has determined a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity for macrophage populations. This plasticity of macrophage function has been related to specific properties of subsets (M1 and M2) of these cells in inflammation, adaptive immune responses and resolution of tissue destructive processes. This investigation hypothesized that targeted alterations in the distribution of macrophage phenotypes in aged individuals, and with periodontitis would be skewed towards M1 inflammatory macrophages in gingival tissues. The study used a non-human primate model to evaluate gene expression profiles as footprints of macrophage variation in healthy and periodontitis gingival tissues from animals 3-23 years of age and in periodontitis tissues in adult and aged animals. Significant increases in multiple genes reflecting overall increases in macrophage activities were observed in healthy aged tissues, and were significantly increased in periodontitis tissues from both adults and aged animals. Generally, gene expression patterns for M2 macrophages were similar in healthy young, adolescent and adult tissues. However, modest increases were noted in healthy aged tissues, similar to those seen in periodontitis tissues from both age groups. M1 macrophage gene transcription patterns increased significantly over the age range in healthy tissues, with multiple genes (e.g. CCL13, CCL19, CCR7 and TLR4) significantly increased in aged animals. Additionally, gene expression patterns for M1 macrophages were significantly increased in adult health versus periodontitis and aged healthy versus periodontitis. The findings supported a significant increase in macrophages with aging and in periodontitis. The primary increases in both healthy aged tissues and, particularly periodontitis tissues appeared in the M1 phenotype.

  2. When is profiling possible? Offense planning and aggression as moderators in predicting offender age from victim age in stranger rape.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Alasdair M; Alison, Laurence J

    2007-01-01

    Debate continues with regard to the possibility of inferring an offender's characteristic features from crime scene details (the process of so-called "offender profiling"). We argue that psychology generally has benefited from appreciating context in predicting behavior. In the same way, profiling would benefit from an appreciation of context in predicting characteristics. This "reverse" process is contingent on various "if...then" relationships. As one example, this paper demonstrates how profiling offender age from victim age is contingent on (i) the level of planning and (ii) the level of aggression displayed during the offense. Eighty-five stranger rape case records formed the data set. Moderated regression analysis revealed that victim age is a significant predictor of offender age only in cases where the offender has (i) shown evidence of planning the attack and/or (ii) acts in a gratuitously aggressive manner. The theoretical bases for these findings may lie in the extent to which offenders disparately plan and target victims and how extreme aggressiveness in stranger rapes may relate to a near-peer proxy for an offender's anger. The implications of the results for the processes and methods involved in offender profiling suggest that certain crime scene factors can have differential moderating effects on predictive outcomes.

  3. Investigation of the possibility of using waste cooking oil as a rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Majid; Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Asli, Hallizza; Karim, Mohamed Rehan

    2012-09-30

    The ageing of the bitumen during storage, mixing, transport and laying on the road, as well as in service life, are the most important problems presented by the use of bitumen in pavements. This paper investigates the possibility of using waste cooking oil (WCO), which is a waste material that pollutes landfills and rivers, as an alternative natural rejuvenating agent for aged bitumen to a condition that resembles the original bitumen. With this target, the physical and chemical properties of the original bitumen, aged bitumen and rejuvenated bitumen were measured and compared by the bitumen binder tests - softening point, penetration, Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In addition, the behaviour of the WCO rejuvenated bitumen is investigated and compared with virgin bitumen after using the rolling thin film oven ageing process. In general, the results showed that using 3-4% of WCO the aged bitumen group 40/50 was rejuvenated to a condition that closely resembled the physical, rheological properties of the original bitumen (80/100), however, there was a difference in the tendency to ageing between the WCO rejuvenated bitumen and the virgin bitumen during mixing, transport and laying on the road.

  4. The San Gabriel mountains bright reflective zone: Possible evidence of young mid-crustal thrust faulting in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryberg, T.; Fuis, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    During the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), a reflection/retraction survey was conducted along a line extending northeastward from Seal Beach, California, to the Mojave Desert, crossing the Los Angeles basin and San Gabriel Mountains. Shots and receivers were spaced most densely through the San Gabriel Mountains for the purpose of obtaining a combined reflection and refraction image of the crust in that area. A stack of common-midpoint (CMP) data reveals a bright reflective zone, 1-s thick, that dominates the stack and extends throughout most of the mid-crust of the San Gabriel Mountains. The top of this zone ranges in depth from 6 s (???18-km depth) in the southern San Gabriel Mountains to 7.5 s (???23-km depth) in the northern San Gabriel Mountains. The zone bends downward beneath the surface traces of the San Gabriel and San Andreas faults. It is brightest between these two faults, where it is given the name San Gabriel Mountains 'bright spot' (SGMBS). and becomes more poorly defined south of the San Gabriel fault and north of the San Andreas fault. The polarity of the seismic signal at the top of this zone is clearly negative, and our analysis suggests it represents a negative velocity step. The magnitude of the velocity step is approximately 1.7 km/s. In at least one location, an event with positive polarity can be observed 0.2 s beneath the top of this zone, indicating a thickness of the order of 500 m for the low-velocity zone at this location. Several factors combine to make the preferred interpretation of this bright reflective zone a young fault zone, possibly a 'master' decollement. (1) It represents a significant velocity reduction. If the rocks in this zone contain fluids, such a reduction could be caused by a differential change in fluid pressure between the caprock and the rocks in the SGMBS; near-lithostatic fluid pressure is required in the SGMBS. Such differential changes are believed to occur in the neighborhood of active fault

  5. Is it possible to reverse aged acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus compounds? Insight from the theoretical study.

    PubMed

    An, Yun; Zhu, Yali; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Junjun

    2016-04-14

    The main treatment for organophosphorus (OP) compound poisoning in clinics is to restore the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) through oxime-induced reactivation of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct. It suffers from a competitive and irreversible aging reaction of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct, resulting in permanent inactivity of AChE. However, it was recently reported that N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium species can act as methylating agents to methylate the methyl methane-phosphonate monoanion, in which the reaction mimics the reverse of the aging reaction of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct. If the aging reaction could be really reversed, the efficiency for the OP detoxification should be significantly improved, bringing up the possibility to develop an agent to reverse the aging process of the phosphorylated OP-AChE adduct. However, such a reaction with the N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium species in the enzyme is still not reported so far. It is of great interest to know whether or not this reaction is observable in the enzyme, and more importantly, if it turns out to be not observable in the enzyme, why such a reaction proceeds quickly in aqueous solution but not in the enzyme. In the present study, we performed DFT calculations and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations to reveal the fundamental mechanism for the methylation of both the methyl methane-phosphonate monoanion and the aged sarin-AChE adduct by N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium species, respectively. The obtained results support the SN2 reaction mechanism, not the stepwise mechanism, for the methylation of the methyl methane-phosphonate monoanion by 9 reported N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium compounds. The calculated free energy barriers are in good agreement with the experimental data. The methylation of the aged sarin-AChE adduct by one N-methyl-2-methoxypyridinium compound (labeled as compound 2) also employs the SN2 reaction mechanism with an extremely high free energy

  6. A possible dependence of tectonic strength on the age of the crust in Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, P.; Tapponnier, P.

    1981-01-01

    In Asia, the intensity and style of active tectonics appears to depend on the age of the last orogenic activity. The shields have remained essentially undeformed during the India-Eurasian collision, but Paleozoic and Mesozoic orogenic belts apparently have been reactivated by this collision, with a suggestion of greater reactivation and more diffuse deformation of the younger belts. If the greater observed heat flow in regions of more recent orogenic activity reflects, at least in part, a greater heat flow from the mantle beneath the younger belts, then the temperatures in the mantle beneath the younger belts should be higher than beneath older belts and shields. Because of the strong dependence on temperature of the creep strength of minerals, particularly of olivine, the crust and mantle beneath the hotter, younger belts should be much weaker than those beneath older belts. This difference in temperature, and consequent difference in strength, may be the cause of the greater reactivation of younger belts.

  7. Sirtuin Functions in Female Fertility: Possible Role in Oxidative Stress and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Carla; Vitti, Maurizio; Santini, Silvano; D'Alessandro, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    In search for strategies aimed at preventing oxidative threat to female fertility, a possible role of sirtuins has emerged. Sirtuins (silent information regulator 2 (Sir2) proteins), NAD+ dependent enzymes with deacetylase and/or mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, are emerging as key antiaging molecules and regulators in many diseases. Recently, a crucial role for SIRT1 and SIRT3, the main components of sirtuin family, as sensors and guardians of the redox state in oocytes, granulosa cells, and early embryos has emerged. In this context, the aim of the present review is to summarize current knowledge from research papers on the role of sirtuins in female fertility with particular emphasis on the impairment of SIRT1 signalling with oocyte aging. On this basis, the authors wish to build up a framework to promote research on the possible role of sirtuins as targets for future strategies for female fertility preservation. PMID:26075037

  8. Observations of Anomalous Subcrustal Reflections Along the East Pacific Rise: Possible Detection of a Melt Permeability Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnoux, G. M.; Toomey, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    isotherm is thought to represent the temperature of the plagioclase multiple saturation point that is associated with permeability barriers. We therefore infer the anomalous subcrustal reflections originate from a melt impermeable boundary at the base of the lithosphere. In addition to subcrustal reflectors, we also observe exceptionally bright PmP arrivals at ranges near 80 km that we interpret to stem from melt-sills within the Moho transition zone (MTZ). For melt-filled sills, the reflection coefficient is ~0.1 between incidence angles of 40° to 80° and approaches unity at greater angles of incidence, consistent with our observations. The anomalous PmP arrivals are characterized by a long coda, possibly indicative of reverberations within the medium. Our seismic results are the first possible detection of a melt permeability barrier beneath a spreading center and also indicate a heterogeneous MTZ underlying the EPR. In concert with previous studies, we suggest permeability barriers facilitate melt focusing toward the ridge axis and that crystallization of magma bodies at the base of the crust contribute to crustal accretion.

  9. 3T hippocampal glutamate-glutamine complex reflects verbal memory decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Simona; Stark, Shauna M; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-03-18

    The hippocampus is a critical site for alterations that are responsible for age-related changes in memory. Here, we present a relatively novel approach of examining the relationship between memory performance and glutamate-glutamine levels using short echo time magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between Glx (a composite of glutamate and glutamine) levels in the hippocampus, performance on a word-recall task, and resting-state functional connectivity. While there was no overall difference in Glx intensity between young and aging adults, we identified a positive correlation between delayed word-list recall and Glx, bilaterally in older adults, but not in young adults. Collapsed across age, we also discovered a negative relationship between Glx intensity and resting-state functional connectivity between the anterior hippocampus and regions in the subcallosal gyrus. These findings demonstrate the possible utility of Glx in identifying age-related changes in the brain and behavior and provide encouragement that magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be useful in predicting age-related decline before any physical abnormalities are present.

  10. [Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy for Degradation Profile of High Density Polyethylene after Weathering Aging].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-jun; Yan, Hua; Bao, He-bin; Wang, Xue-mei; Hu, Zhi-de; Yang, Jian-jian

    2015-06-01

    High density polyethylene (HDPE) was widely used as rotational packaging case in the material reserve field. The chemical changes of HDPE, exposed to particular climatic conditions of tropic marine atmosphere for one year-long in Wanning Hainan, were elucidated by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The structural changes were studied qualitatively, mainly from the polymeric chain breaking, branching and oxidation to distinguish the degradation profile. The variations of crystallinity & carbonyl index were also studied quantitatively according to the characteristic peaks intensity & area ratio. Finally, the relationships between structural changes and mechanical properties were investigated. The results showed that the polymeric chain breaking & branching play a leading role before 3 months in the aging progress. Then oxidation phenomena gradually takes place during 3-6 months. The chain branching & oxidation were predominant factors after 6 months. Nine months later, the oxidation was saturated gradually. Furthermore, the aging process is positively correlated to the temperature and irradiation. After 12 months aging, the carbonyl index increased by 112 times and crystallinity was 10% higher than before. The tensile/bending modulus deceased faster than tensile/bending strength of HDPE. The linear degree of tensile modulus and carbonyl index was 0.97. The degree of linearity of tensile strength and crystallinity calculated by feature bands (720-730 cm(-1)) was 0.96. It showed that the mechanical properties of HDPE can be speculated from the structural changes by ATR-FTIR.

  11. Electron tomographic analysis reveals ultrastructural features of mitochondrial cristae architecture which reflect energetic state and aging

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi-fan; Lin, Shao-syuan; Chen, Jing-min; Tsai, Han-zen; Hsieh, Tao-shih; Fu, Chi-yu

    2017-01-01

    Within mitochondria, the ability to produce energy relies upon the architectural hallmarks of double membranes and cristae invaginations. Herein, we describe novel features of mitochondrial cristae structure, which correspond to the energetic state of the organelle. In concordance with high-energy demand, mitochondria of Drosophila indirect flight muscle exhibited extensive intra-mitochondrial membrane switches between densely packed lamellar cristae that resulted in a spiral-like cristae network and allowed for bidirectional matrix confluency. This highly interconnected architecture is expected to allow rapid equilibration of membrane potential and biomolecules across integrated regions. In addition, mutant flies with mtDNA replication defect and an accelerated aging phenotype accumulated mitochondria that contained subsections of swirling membrane alongside normal cristae. The swirling membrane had impaired energy production capacity as measured by protein composition and function. Furthermore, mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics were affected in the prematurely aged flies. Interestingly, the normal cristae that remained in the mitochondria with swirling membranes maintained acceptable function that camouflaged them from quality control elimination. Overall, structural features of mitochondrial cristae were described in three-dimension from serial section electron tomographic analysis which reflect energetic state and mtDNA-mediated aging. PMID:28358017

  12. Possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance using the noisy reflected THz pulse under real conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    We show possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance (several metres, for example) using the THz pulse reflected from the object under the real conditions: at room temperature and humidity of about 70%. The main feature of this report consists in a demonstration of the detection and identification of substance using the computer processing of the noisy THz pulse. Amplitude of the useful signal is less than the amplitude of a noise. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect "fingerprint" frequencies of substance if these frequencies are known and the SDA method is used together with new assessments for probability estimation for presence of detected frequencies. Essential restrictions of the commonly used THz TDS method for the detection and identification under real conditions (at long distance about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) are demonstrated using the physical experiment with chocolate bar and thick paper bag. We show also that the THz TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even in the THz signals measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); the n-Si and p-Si semiconductors were used as neutral substances. However, the integral correlation and likeness criteria, based on SDA method, allow us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the samples. Current results show feasibility of using the discussed method of the THz pulsed spectroscopy for the counter-terrorism problem.

  13. An Exploration of the Maturation of PGCE Student Teacher's Ability to Reflect, Using a Range of Reflective Strategies to Identify Possible Stages of Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantle, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    This research took place over a one-year PGCE training period. The participants were given the opportunity to reflect on their experience in a verbal (focus groups, action learning sets and interviews) and in written (journal and questionnaires) form. These reflective learning techniques were interpreted using Dewey's five stages of learning. The…

  14. Highlighting the impact of aging on type I collagen: label-free investigation using confocal reflectance microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in 3D matrix model.

    PubMed

    Guilbert, Marie; Roig, Blandine; Terryn, Christine; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Manfait, Michel; Perraut, François; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Koenig, Anne; Piot, Olivier

    2016-02-23

    During aging, alterations of extracellular matrix proteins contribute to various pathological phenotypes. Among these alterations, type I collagen cross-linking and associated glycation products accumulation over time detrimentally affects its physico-chemical properties, leading to alterations of tissue biomechanical stability. Here, different-age collagen 3D matrices using non-destructive and label-free biophotonic techniques were analysed to highlight the impact of collagen I aging on 3D constructs, at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Matrices were prepared with collagens extracted from tail tendons of rats (newborns, young and old adults) to be within the physiological aging process. The data of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that aging leads to an inhibition of fibril assembly and a resulting decrease of gel density. Investigations by confocal reflectance microscopy highlight poor-fibrillar structures in oldest collagen networks most likely related to the glycation products accumulation. Complementarily, an infrared analysis brings out marked spectral variations in the Amide I profile, specific of the peptidic bond conformation and for carbohydrates vibrations as function of collagen-age. Interestingly, we also highlight an unexpected behavior for newborn collagen, exhibiting poorly-organized networks and microscopic features close to the oldest collagen. These results demonstrate that changes in collagen optical properties are relevant for investigating the incidence of aging in 3D matrix models.

  15. Highlighting the impact of aging on type I collagen: label-free investigation using confocal reflectance microscopy and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in 3D matrix model

    PubMed Central

    Terryn, Christine; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Manfait, Michel; Perraut, François; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Koenig, Anne; Piot, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    During aging, alterations of extracellular matrix proteins contribute to various pathological phenotypes. Among these alterations, type I collagen cross-linking and associated glycation products accumulation over time detrimentally affects its physico-chemical properties, leading to alterations of tissue biomechanical stability. Here, different-age collagen 3D matrices using non-destructive and label-free biophotonic techniques were analysed to highlight the impact of collagen I aging on 3D constructs, at macroscopic and microscopic levels. Matrices were prepared with collagens extracted from tail tendons of rats (newborns, young and old adults) to be within the physiological aging process. The data of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy reveal that aging leads to an inhibition of fibril assembly and a resulting decrease of gel density. Investigations by confocal reflectance microscopy highlight poor-fibrillar structures in oldest collagen networks most likely related to the glycation products accumulation. Complementarily, an infrared analysis brings out marked spectral variations in the Amide I profile, specific of the peptidic bond conformation and for carbohydrates vibrations as function of collagen-age. Interestingly, we also highlight an unexpected behavior for newborn collagen, exhibiting poorly-organized networks and microscopic features close to the oldest collagen. These results demonstrate that changes in collagen optical properties are relevant for investigating the incidence of aging in 3D matrix models. PMID:26885896

  16. Possible role of ABO system in age-related diseases and longevity: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Claudia; Caruso, Calogero; Vasto, Sonya

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood group antigens are expressed either on the surface of red blood cells either on a variety of other cells. Based on the available knowledge of the genes involved in their biosynthesis and their tissue distribution, their polymorphism has been suggested to provide intraspecies diversity allowing to cope with diverse and rapidly evolving pathogens. Accordingly, the different prevalence of ABO group genotypes among the populations has been demonstrated to be driven by malaria selection. In the similar manner, a particular ABO blood group may contribute to favour life-extension via biological mechanisms important for surviving or eluding serious disease. In this review, we will suggest the possible association of ABO group with age-related diseases and longevity taking into account the biological role of the ABO glycosyltransferases on some inflammatory mediators as adhesion molecules.

  17. Possible acceleration of aging by adjuvant chemotherapy: a cause of early onset frailty?

    PubMed

    Maccormick, Ronald Eric

    2006-01-01

    years. This possible effect on aging could have implications on the decision to take adjuvant chemo, what agents to use, means to minimize the aging effect and the need to monitor for early onset frailty.

  18. [Present possibilities of early diagnosis of hearing disorders in children belonging to the youngest age groups].

    PubMed

    Cápová, L

    1992-08-01

    In a great proportion of children loss of hearing originates during the neonatal period. It is assumed that of 1000 neonates some 6 to 16 children suffer from impaired hearing. By early detection of hearing loss during neonatal and infant age by appropriate treatment, rehabilitation and training it is possible to achieve optimal speech development as well as development of mental and somatic abilities and to ensure to these children an adequate role in society. Early detection of impaired hearing based on screening of risk children already during the neonatal period is based on the use a risk registry. At the same time it is important to make parents and paediatricians of the first line of contact familiar with developmental stages of hearing and speech during the first year of life. Risk children must be dispensarized and they must be objected to orientative examination of hearing by reflex audiometry and other screening methods incl. the method of assessment of evoked otoacoustic emission. By systematic screening is is possible to detect suspected loss of hearing in as many as 60% of risk children. To verify the suspect impaired hearing it is necessary to make an objective examination of hearing by a child otolaryngologist.

  19. Structural variation of proterozoic dikes in central Superior Province: A possible reflection of post-Archean shield deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary work is reported on the use of two structural parameters, dike dip and thickness, as possible depth-of-exposure indicators in the Central Superior Province. The data demonstrate systematic variations in the dip and thickness of 2.6 and 1.14 Ga. dikes across the Central Superior Province and are tentatively interpreted to result from post intrusion deformation. Combination of these results with additional structural and paleomagnetic data from dikes of all gas may permit detailed mapping both spatially and temporally of crustal deformation in this part of the Canadian Shield. Although dike dip and thickness data apparently reflect crustal exposure level as given by host rock metamorphic grade (ranging from subgreenschist to granulite), these post-orogenic dikes themselves are at most only weakly metamorphosed. This requires that regional isotherms dropped dramatically after the Kenoran orogeny (2.65 Ga.) and prior to emplacement of the earlist post-orogenic swarm (Matachewan-Hearst) at 2.6 Ga.

  20. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    were identified in women. Bone turnover in older Hispanic men with DM2 in our study does not reflect normal pattern of skeletal aging. It is unclear why similar results were not identified in women. We will continue to follow this cohort to investigate longitudinal trend of changes of bone turnover and its relationship with HbA1c in both men and women of this cohort.

  1. [New possibilities in the pharmacologic prevention of age-related macular degeneration].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tamás

    2008-01-20

    The beneficial effect achieved by the treatment of endothelial dysfunction in chronic cardiovascular diseases is already an evidence belonging to the basic treatment of the disease. Given the fact that the vascular system is uniform and consubstantial both physiologically, pathophysiologically and in terms of therapy, and that it plays a key role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD)--a disease leading to tragic loss of vision with its etiology and therapy being unknown--endothelial dysfunction should be treated. The pleiotropic effects of ACE-inhibitors, AR-blockers and statins help to restitute the balance between vasodilators and vasoconstrictors in endothelial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress, the balance of growth factors and their inhibitors, pro- and anti-inflammatory substances and prothrombotic and fibrinolytic factors, inhibit the formation of oxidative stress and its harmful effects; while aspirin with its pleiotropic effects acting as an antiaggregation substance on platelets helps to set the endothelial layer back to its normal balance regarding its vasodilating, antithrombotic, antiadhesive and anti-inflammatory functions; trimetazidine as an adjuvant agent helps to normalize, to restore the disturbed metabolism of the retinal tissue functioning insufficiently, in the end. For the above reasons it is suggested that, as a part of long term primary and/or secondary prevention, the following groups of patients with AMD receive--taking into consideration all possible side effects--ACE-inhibitor and/or AR blocker and statin and aspirin treatment, and trimetazidine as adjuvant medicine 1. those without maculopathy but being above the age of 50 and having risk factors inducing endothelial dysfunction; 2. those, who already developed AMD in one eye as a prevention in the second, unaffected eye; and 3. those patients who developed AMD in both eyes in order to ameliorate or merely slow the progression of the disease. Besides, it is advisory to

  2. Cyclooxygenase inhibition augments central blood pressure and aortic wave reflection in aging humans.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N; Casey, Darren P; Hines, Casey N; Nicholson, Wayne T; Joyner, Michael J

    2012-06-15

    The augmentation index and central blood pressure increase with normal aging. Recently, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors, commonly used for the treatment of pain, have been associated with transient increases in the risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the effects of the COX inhibitor indomethacin (Indo) on central arterial hemodynamics and wave reflection characteristics in young and old healthy adults. High-fidelity radial arterial pressure waveforms were measured noninvasively by applanation tonometry before (control) and after Indo treatment in young (25 ± 5 yr, 7 men and 6 women) and old (64 ± 6 yr, 5 men and 6 women) subjects. Aortic systolic (control: 115 ± 3 mmHg vs. Indo: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.05) and diastolic (control: 74 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 79 ± 3 mmHg, P < 0.05) pressures were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects, whereas only diastolic pressure was elevated in young subjects (control: 71 ± 2 mmHg vs. Indo: 76 ± 1 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure increased in both young and old adults after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). The aortic augmentation index and augmented pressure were elevated after Indo treatment in older subjects (control: 30 ± 5% vs. Indo 36 ± 6% and control 12 ± 1 mmHg vs. Indo: 18 ± 2 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.05), whereas pulse pressure amplification decreased (change: 8 ± 3%, P < 0.05). In addition, older subjects had a 61 ± 11% increase in wasted left ventricular energy after Indo treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, young subjects showed no significant changes in any of the variables of interest. Taken together, these results demonstrate that COX inhibition with Indo unfavorably increases central wave reflection and augments aortic pressure in old but not young subjects. Our results suggest that aging individuals have a limited ability to compensate for the acute hemodynamic changes caused by systemic COX inhibition.

  3. First rib metamorphosis: its possible utility for human age-at-death estimation.

    PubMed

    Kunos, C A; Simpson, S W; Russell, K F; Hershkovitz, I

    1999-11-01

    Human first ribs demonstrate predictable, sequential changes in shape, size, and texture with increasing age, and thus, can be used as an indicator of age at death. Metamorphosis of the first rib's head, tubercle, and costal face was documented in a cross-sectional sample of preadult and adult first ribs of known age at death from the Hamann-Todd skeletal collection (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, Cleveland, Ohio). Blind tests of the usefulness of the first rib as an age indicator were conducted, including tabulation of intraobserver and interobserver inaccuracies and biases. First rib age estimates show inaccuracies and biases by decade comparable to those generated by other aging techniques. Indeed, the first rib method is useful as an isolated age indicator. When used in conjunction with other age indicators, the first rib improves the quality of summary age assessments.

  4. Lead-uranium ratio of siliceous pitchblende from Great Bear Lake, N. W. T., Canada, and its possible age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marble, J.P.

    1936-01-01

    1. A sample of pitchblende from LaBine Point, Echo Bay, Great Bear Lake, N. W. T., Canada, yields a "corrected" lead-ratio of 0.193, corresponding to an age of 1323 million years. 2. As the atomic weight and isotopic composition of the lead, and the Pa/UI ratio of this same sample have been determined, ages, etc., calculated by different methods should agree. This agreement has not been obtained in all instances, and possible reasons have been outlined. 3. The age found indicates that a possible Keewatin granite may be the source of the pitch-blende.

  5. Age-related differences in experimental stroke: possible involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanlin; Kong, Xiangwei; Ye, Ruidong; Yang, Qianzi; Han, Junliang; Xiong, Lize

    2011-06-01

    Age is the single most important risk factor for cerebral stroke. Unfortunately, the effect of age on ischemic brain damage is less clear. In this study, we sought to examine the potential influence of aging on the histologic and functional outcomes after ischemia. Juvenile (4 weeks of age), young adult (4 months of age), mid-aged (11-12 months of age), and aged (18-19 months of age) mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. There was no remarkable difference of infarct volume on postoperative days 1 and 3. However, on postoperative day 7, aged mice exhibited significantly worsened infarct volume compared with juvenile and young mice. Intriguingly, the increase of infarct volume was most prominent in the striatal area rather than in cortex. Accordingly, aged mice displayed a slower and incomplete functional recovery after stroke. We further evaluated the effects of aging on the oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction following ischemia. Brain tissues were assayed for lipid, DNA, and protein peroxidation products, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial membrane potential, production of reactive oxygen species, and antioxidant activities. Aging was associated with declined mitochondrial function and antioxidant detoxification following ischemia, thereby inducing a deteriorated oxidative damage. Regional subanalyses demonstrated that, in accordance with infarct area, the pro-oxidant/antioxidant imbalance occurred more prominently in subcortical areas. Collectively, these findings suggest mitochondria-mediated oxidative damage may be involved in the age-related aggravated injury in subcortical areas. Mitochondrial protection could be a promising target for neuroprotective therapy, especially in the aged population.

  6. The Possible Mechanism of Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) for Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Shun-Yao; Ko, Hshin-An; Chu, Kuo-Hsiung; Shieh, Tzong-Ming; Chi, Tzong-Cherng; Chen, Hong-I; Chang, Weng-Cheng; Chang, Shu-Shing

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been modified by β and γ-secretase that cause amyloid deposits (plaques) in neuronal cells. Glyceraldhyde-derived AGEs has been identified as a major source of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In a previous study, we demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs increase APP and Aβ via ROS. Furthermore, the combination of AGEs and Aβ has been shown to enhance neurotoxicity. In mice, APP expression is increased by tail vein injection of AGEs. This evidence suggests a correlation between AGEs and the development of AD. However, the role played by AGEs in the pathogenesis of AD remains unclear. In this report, we demonstrate that AGEs up-regulate APP processing protein (BACE and PS1) and Sirt1 expression via ROS, but do not affect the expression of downstream antioxidant genes HO-1 and NQO-1. Moreover, we found that AGEs increase GRP78 expression and enhance the cell death-related pathway p53, bcl-2/bax ratio, caspase 3. These results indicate that AGEs impair the neuroprotective effects of Sirt1 and lead to neuronal cell death via ER stress. Our findings suggest that AGEs increase ROS production, which stimulates downstream pathways related to APP processing, Aβ production, Sirt1, and GRP78, resulting in the up-regulation of cell death related pathway. This in-turn enhances neuronal cell death, which leads to the development of AD. PMID:26587989

  7. Loss, Survival, and Redemption: African American Male Youths' Reflections on Life without Fathers, Manhood, and Coming of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Andrea G.; Friend, Christian A.; Murphy, S. Yvette; Rollins, Alethea; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Laughinghouse, Janzelean

    2006-01-01

    Using an interpretivist approach, this article explores young African American men's (n = 20) reflections on coming of age and the meanings of father loss. Based on focus groups, the authors found that it was through autobiographical narratives of loss, survival, and redemption that young men positioned themselves ideologically and constructed the…

  8. Exploring Career Options and Possibilities Later in Life: Adult (Age 50-75) Career Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Angela Carmella

    2009-01-01

    A survey instrument was developed entitled the "Adult (age 50-75) Career Development Survey" (ACDS) to provide an empirical foundation for understanding the current needs of individuals age 50-75 and learning about their attitudes toward, willingness to, and experience in using career counseling and technology in making decisions on…

  9. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age.

  10. Dark nests and egg colour in birds: a possible functional role of ultraviolet reflectance in egg detectability

    PubMed Central

    Avilés, Jesús M; Soler, Juan J; Pérez-Contreras, Tomás

    2006-01-01

    Owing to the conspicuousness of ultraviolet (UV) colour in dark environments, natural selection might have selected UV egg coloration because it would enhance egg detectability by parents in murky nests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by using comparative and experimental approaches. First, we studied variation in egg coloration of 98 species of European passerines measured using UV–visible reflectance spectrometry (300–700 nm) in relation to nesting habits. Analyses based on raw data and controlling for phylogenetic distances both at the species and the family levels revealed that hole-nester species produced eggs with higher UV reflectance than those nesting in open habitats. The experimental approach consisted of the manipulation of UV reflectance of the experimental eggs introduced outside the nest-cup of the hole-nester spotless starling Sturnus unicolor and the study of the retrieval of these eggs. Ultraviolet-reflecting eggs (controls) were more frequently retrieved to the nest-cup than non-reflecting (–UV) eggs. These results were not due to ‘–UV’ eggs being recognized by starlings as parasitic because when a parasitic egg is detected, starlings removed it from the nest-box. Therefore, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that UV egg colours are designed to provide highly detectable targets for parent birds in dark nest environments. PMID:17015364

  11. Effect of sol aging time on the anti-reflective properties of silica coatings templated with phosphoric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wen; Li, Haibin; Chen, Xiaojing; Chang, Chengkang

    Silica anti-reflective coatings have been prepared by a sol-gel dip-coating process using the sol containing phosphoric acid as a pore-forming template. The effect of the aging time of the sol on the anti-reflective properties has been investigated. The surface topography of the silica AR coatings has been characterized. With increasing sol aging time, more over-sized pores larger than 100 nm are formed in the silica coatings. These could act as scattering centers, scattering visible light and thereby lowering transmittance. The optimal aging time was identified as 1 day, and the corresponding silica coatings showed a maximum transmittance of 99.2%, representing an 8% increase compared to the bare glass substrate.

  12. Dwell in Possibility: PLAR and e-Portfolios in the Age of Information and Communication Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith O.

    2011-01-01

    Emily Dickinson wrote, "I dwell in Possibility--A fairer House than Prose--More Numerous of Windows--Superior--for Doors" (p. 657). Dickinson's simple yet profound reference to the expansive nature of poetry over prose may be taken as a metaphor for the possibilities of information and communication technologies (ICTs) over written modes…

  13. Use of reflectance spectrophotometry and colorimetry in a general linear model for the determination of the age of bruises.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Vanessa K; Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-12-01

    Bruises can have medicolegal significance such that the age of a bruise may be an important issue. This study sought to determine if colorimetry or reflectance spectrophotometry could be employed to objectively estimate the age of bruises. Based on a previously described method, reflectance spectrophotometric scans were obtained from bruises using a Cary 100 Bio spectrophotometer fitted with a fibre-optic reflectance probe. Measurements were taken from the bruise and a control area. Software was used to calculate the first derivative at 490 and 480 nm; the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin was calculated using an isobestic point method and a software application converted the scan data into colorimetry data. In addition, data on factors that might be associated with the determination of the age of a bruise: subject age, subject sex, degree of trauma, bruise size, skin color, body build, and depth of bruise were recorded. From 147 subjects, 233 reflectance spectrophotometry scans were obtained for analysis. The age of the bruises ranged from 0.5 to 231.5 h. A General Linear Model analysis method was used. This revealed that colorimetric measurement of the yellowness of a bruise accounted for 13% of the bruise age. By incorporation of the other recorded data (as above), yellowness could predict up to 32% of the age of a bruise-implying that 68% of the variation was dependent on other factors. However, critical appraisal of the model revealed that the colorimetry method of determining the age of a bruise was affected by skin tone and required a measure of the proportion of oxygenated hemoglobin, which is obtained by spectrophotometric methods. Using spectrophotometry, the first derivative at 490 nm alone accounted for 18% of the bruise age estimate. When additional factors (subject sex, bruise depth and oxygenation of hemoglobin) were included in the General Linear Model this increased to 31%-implying that 69% of the variation was dependent on other factors. This

  14. Subretinal Hyper-Reflective Material in the Comparison of Age-related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Alex S.; Ying, Gui-shuang; Toth, Cynthia A.; Maguire, Maureen G.; Burns, Russell E.; Grunwald, Juan E.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Jaffe, Glenn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of subretinal hyper-reflective material (SHRM) with visual acuity (VA), geographic atrophy (GA) and scar in the Comparison of Age related Macular Degeneration Treatments Trials (CATT) Design Prospective cohort study within a randomized clinical trial. Participants The 1185 participants in CATT. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to ranibizumab or bevacizumab treatment monthly or as-needed. Masked readers graded scar and GA on fundus photography and fluorescein angiography images, SHRM on time domain (TD) and spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) throughout 104 weeks. Measurements of SHRM height and width in the fovea, within the center 1mm2, or outside the center 1mm2 were obtained on SD-OCT images at 56 (n=76) and 104 (n=66) weeks. VA was measured by certified examiners. Main Outcome Measures SHRM presence, location and size, and associations with VA, scar, and GA. Results Among all CATT participants, the percentage with SHRM at enrollment was 77%, decreasing to 68% at 4 weeks after treatment and 54% at 104 weeks. At 104 weeks, scar was present more often in eyes with persistent SHRM than eyes with SHRM that resolved (64% vs. 31%; p<0.0001). Among eyes with detailed evaluation of SHRM at weeks 56 (n=76) and 104 (n=66), mean [SE] VA letter score was 73.5 [2.8], 73.1 [3.4], 65.3 [3.5], and 63.9 [3.7] when SHRM was absent, present outside the central 1mm2, present within the central 1mm2 but not the foveal center, or present at the foveal center (p=0.02). SHRM was present at the foveal center in 43 (30%), within the central 1mm2 in 21 (15%) and outside the central 1mm2 in 19 (13%). When SHRM was present, the median maximum height in microns under the fovea, within the central 1 mm2 including the fovea and anywhere within the scan was 86; 120; and 122, respectively. VA was decreased with greater SHRM height and width (p<0.05). Conclusions SHRM is common in eyes with NVAMD and often persists after anti

  15. Associations of parental age with health and social factors in adult offspring. Methodological pitfalls and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Tynelius, Per; van den Berg, Gerard; Davey Smith, George; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-03-27

    Parental age is increasing rapidly in many countries. Analysis of this potentially important influence on offspring well-being is hampered by strong secular trends and socioeconomic patterning and by a shortage of follow-up data for adult offspring. We used Swedish national data on up to 3,653,938 offspring to consider the associations of parental age with a suite of outcomes in adult offspring, comparing the results from an array of statistical methods for optimal causal inference. The offspring of older mothers had higher BMI, blood pressure, height, intelligence, non-cognitive ability and socioeconomic position. They were less likely to smoke or to be left-handed. Associations with paternal age were strongly, but not completely, attenuated by adjustment for maternal age. Estimates from the commonly-used sibling comparison method were driven primarily by a pathway mediated by offspring date of birth when outcomes showed strong secular trends. These results suggest that the intra-uterine and early life environments provided by older mothers may be detrimental to offspring cardiovascular health, but that their greater life experience and social position may bring intellectual and social advantages to their offspring. The analysis of parental age presents particular challenges, and further methodological developments are needed.

  16. Associations of parental age with health and social factors in adult offspring. Methodological pitfalls and possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Tynelius, Per; van den Berg, Gerard; Davey Smith, George; Rasmussen, Finn

    2017-01-01

    Parental age is increasing rapidly in many countries. Analysis of this potentially important influence on offspring well-being is hampered by strong secular trends and socioeconomic patterning and by a shortage of follow-up data for adult offspring. We used Swedish national data on up to 3,653,938 offspring to consider the associations of parental age with a suite of outcomes in adult offspring, comparing the results from an array of statistical methods for optimal causal inference. The offspring of older mothers had higher BMI, blood pressure, height, intelligence, non-cognitive ability and socioeconomic position. They were less likely to smoke or to be left-handed. Associations with paternal age were strongly, but not completely, attenuated by adjustment for maternal age. Estimates from the commonly-used sibling comparison method were driven primarily by a pathway mediated by offspring date of birth when outcomes showed strong secular trends. These results suggest that the intra-uterine and early life environments provided by older mothers may be detrimental to offspring cardiovascular health, but that their greater life experience and social position may bring intellectual and social advantages to their offspring. The analysis of parental age presents particular challenges, and further methodological developments are needed. PMID:28345590

  17. Possible Mesozoic age of Ellenville Zn-Pb-Cu(Ag) deposit, Shawangunk Mountains, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, J.D.; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Mutschler, F.E.; Zartman, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Ore textures, epithermal open-space filling of Permian structures of the Alleghanian orogeny, and largely postorogenic mineralization of the Ellenville, New York, composite Zn-Pb-Cu(Ag) vein system, provide permissive evidence for post-Permian mineralization. Isochron ages determined by 40Ar/39Ar laser-fusion techniques for K-bearing liquid inclusions in main-stage quartz from the Ellenville deposit additionally suggest a Mesozoic time of mineralization, associated with extensional formation of the Newark basin. The best 40Ar/39Ar total-fusion age range is 165 ?? 30 to 193 ?? 35 Ma. The Mesozoic 40Ar/39Ar age agrees with that of many other dated northern Appalachian Zn-Pb-Cu(Ag) deposits with near-matching lead isotope ratios, and adds new evidence of Jurassic tectonism and mineralization as an overprint to Late Paleozoic tectonism at least as far north as Ellenville (lat. 41??43???N). ?? 1994 Springer-Verlag.

  18. [Differentiation of radial glia cells into astrocytes is a possible ageing mechanism in mammals].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, A G

    2007-01-01

    Several obscure facts of gerontology are briefly reviewed. A attempt is made to shape new notions of the phenomenon based on the astrocyte hypothesis of ageing in mammals. This hypothesis interprets mammal ageing as a genetic disease with fatal outcome. The disease is caused by single character acquired by the theromorph lineage of the vertebrates in the course of evolution: the transformation of radial glia cells (RGC) into star-shaped astrocytes during the postnatal development, i.e. the disappearance of the fetal radial ways of nerve cell migration from proliferative zones to the sites of their ultimate localization in the brain of adult individuals. This process is the cause for the mammal brain being postmitotic. The disappearance of RGC induces a cascade of system processes termed age-dependent mechanism of self-destruction of mammals (AMSM). The disappearance of RGC inhibits the replacement of the nerve cells that have exhausted their living resources. Nerve cells are rigidly specialized and have restricted lifetime and ability of reparation. After some period, the level of homeostasis in nerve cells starts changing steadily for the worse due to irreversible pathological changes in the cells (especially in the neurosecretory cells). This brings damage to life-sypport systems of the mammal organism thus causing its death. The species-specific maximum life span is thus determined by the rate of metabolism in the organism. AMSM probably displays a general evolutionary principle: outer factors causing death (in non-ageing organisms) are replaced by inner factors.

  19. Donor/Recipient Delta Age: A Possible Risk for Arterial Stenosis in Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pallotti, Giovanni; Donati, Gabriele; Capelli, Irene; Baraldi, Olga; Comai, Giorgia; Agati, Patrizia; Nichelatti, Michele; Cianciolo, Giuseppe; La Manna, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Different arterial wall properties can significantly increase the risk of blood turbulent fluxes leading to complications such as atherosclerosis. Since the mechanical properties of arterial vessels are influenced by age, we investigated, in a retrospective study, the effects on renal artery stenosis of an age difference >15 years between donor and recipient in a cohort of 164 patients undergoing renal transplantation between 1981 and 1991. The age difference between donor and recipient was ≤15 years in 87 patients (53.0%) (Group A) and >15 years in 77 patients (47.0%) (Group B, p = ns). None of the Group A patients developed an anastomotic arterial stenosis, whereas 8/77 Group B patients (10.4%) had an anastomotic arterial stenosis (p < 0.001). This study shows that an age difference >15 years is significantly linked to the risk of developing arterial stenosis after renal transplantation. Indeed, different wall properties can significantly increase the risk of generation of blood turbulent fluxes and involve, in the arterial vessels, the development of complications such as atherosclerosis. PMID:26933444

  20. The interplay between mitochondrial protein and iron homeostasis and its possible role in ageing.

    PubMed

    Mallikarjun, Venkatesh; Sriram, Ashwin; Scialo, Filippo; Sanz, Alberto

    2014-08-01

    Free (labile or chelatable) iron is extremely redox-active and only represents a small fraction of the total mitochondrial iron population. Several studies have shown that the proportion of free iron increases with age, leading to increased Fenton chemistry in later life. It is not clear why free iron accumulates in mitochondria, but it does so in parallel with an inability to degrade and recycle damaged proteins that causes loss of mitochondrial protein homeostasis (proteostasis). The increase in oxidative damage that has been shown to occur with age might be explained by these two processes. While this accumulation of oxidative damage has often been cited as causative to ageing there are examples of model organisms that possess high levels of oxidative damage throughout their lives with no effect on lifespan. Interestingly, these same animals are characterised by an outstanding ability to maintain correct proteostasis during their entire life. ROS can damage critical components of the iron homeostasis machinery, while the efficacy of mitochondrial quality control mechanisms will determine how detrimental that damage is. Here we review the interplay between iron and organellar quality control in mitochondrial dysfunction and we suggest that a decline in mitochondrial proteostasis with age leaves iron homeostasis (where several key stages are thought to be dependent on proteostasis machinery) vulnerable to oxidative damage and other age-related stress factors. This will have severe consequences for the electron transport chain and TCA cycle (among other processes) where several components are acutely dependent on correct assembly, insertion and maintenance of iron-sulphur clusters, leading to energetic crisis and death.

  1. Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases: Possible Strategies to Prevent Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Vivar, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The adult brain of humans and other mammals continuously generates new neurons throughout life. However, this neurogenic capacity is limited to two brain areas, the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ of the lateral ventricle. Although the DG generates new neurons, its neurogenic capacity declines with age and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD and Huntington's disease (HD. This review focuses on the role of newly-born neurons in cognitive processes, and discusses some of the strategies proposed in humans and animals to enhance neurogenesis and counteract age-related cognitive deficits, such as physical exercise and intake of natural products like omega-3 fatty acids, curcumin and flavanols.

  2. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed.

  3. Age-associated chromosome 21 loss in Down syndrome: possible relevance to mosaicism and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Percy, M E; Markovic, V D; Dalton, A J; McLachlan, D R; Berg, J M; Rusk, A C; Somerville, M J; Chodakowski, B; Andrews, D F

    1993-03-01

    We previously observed low level mosaicism (2-4% normal cells) in phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in 29% of a small group of elderly persons with Down syndrome (DS). An analysis of cytogenetic data on 154 trisomy 21 cases (age 1 day to 68 years) showed that the proportion of diploid cells in such cultures significantly increased (P < 0.005) with advancing age. Thus, the "occult" mosaicism in PBL of the elderly persons with DS is likely due to the accumulation of cells that have lost a chromosome 21. A consequence of chromosome 21 loss could be uniparental disomy of the 2n cells, a factor that might have significant biological consequences if some chromosome 21 genes are imprinted. Loss of a chromosome 21 from trisomic cells might result in tissue-specific mosaicism and "classical" mosaicism in different age groups. Chromosome 21 loss might also be relevant to the development of Alzheimer-type dementia in DS and in the general population.

  4. Magnetic and seismic reflection study of Lake Cheko, a possible impact crater for the 1908 Tunguska Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, L.; Cocchi, L.; Stanghellini, C.; Stanghellini, G.; Del Bianco, F.; Serrazanetti, M.; Carmisciano, C.

    2012-05-01

    A major explosion occurred on 30 June 1908 in the Tunguska region of Siberia, causing the destruction of over 2,000 km2 of taiga; pressure and seismic waves detected as far as 1,000 km away; bright luminescence in the night skies of Northern Europe and Central Asia; and other unusual phenomena. This "Tunguska Event" is probably related to the impact with the Earth of a cosmic body that exploded about 5-10 km above ground, releasing in the atmosphere 10-15 Mton of energy. Fragments of the impacting body have never been found, and its nature (comet or asteroid) is still a matter of debate. We report here results from a magnetic and seismic reflection study of a small (˜500 m diameter) lake, Lake Cheko, located about 8 km NW of the inferred explosion epicenter, that was proposed to be an impact crater left by a fragment of the Tunguska Cosmic Body. Seismic reflection and magnetic data revealed a P wave velocity/magnetic anomaly close to the lake center, about 10 m below the lake floor; this anomaly is compatible with the presence of a buried stony object and supports the impact crater origin for Lake Cheko.

  5. The impact of sleep on age-related sarcopenia: Possible connections and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Piovezan, Ronaldo D; Abucham, Julio; Dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Mello, Marco Tulio; Tufik, Sergio; Poyares, Dalva

    2015-09-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric condition that comprises declined skeletal muscle mass, strength and function, leading to the risk of multiple adverse outcomes, including death. Its pathophysiology involves neuroendocrine and inflammatory factors, unfavorable nutritional habits and low physical activity. Sleep may play a role in muscle protein metabolism, although this hypothesis has not been studied extensively. Reductions in duration and quality of sleep and increases in prevalence of circadian rhythm and sleep disorders with age favor proteolysis, modify body composition and increase the risk of insulin resistance, all of which have been associated with sarcopenia. Data on the effects of age-related slow-wave sleep decline, circadian rhythm disruptions and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG), somatotropic axes, and glucose metabolism indicate that sleep disorder interventions may affect muscle loss. Recent research associating OSA with the risk of conditions closely related to the sarcopenia process, such as frailty and sleep quality impairment, indirectly suggest that sleep can influence skeletal muscle decline in the elderly. Several protein synthesis and degradation pathways are mediated by growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), testosterone, cortisol and insulin, which act on the cellular and molecular levels to increase or reestablish muscle fiber, strength and function. Age-related sleep problems potentially interfere intracellularly by inhibiting anabolic hormone cascades and enhancing catabolic pathways in the skeletal muscle. Specific physical exercises combined or not with nutritional recommendations are the current treatment options for sarcopenia. Clinical studies testing exogenous administration of anabolic hormones have not yielded adequate safety profiles. Therapeutic approaches targeting sleep disturbances to normalize circadian rhythms and sleep homeostasis may

  6. The process of ageing reflected by histological changes in the skin.

    PubMed

    Bonta, Marinela; Daina, Lucia; Muţiu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Structural and functional alterations, as well as changes occurring in the aspect of the skin during the ageing process, are due to some complex mechanisms, determined by intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which act synergistically. This study aims to analyze the histological changes of collagen and elastic fibers and of skin vasculature that occur in time, during the process of ageing. Fragments of skin have been collected from subjects of both sexes and of different ages, totaling 121 samples from different body regions. The following stains were used: Modified Goldner's Masson trichrome, Ferric Orcein-Hematoxylin and the combined stains Orcein-Goldner's trichrome. As the process of ageing advances, collagen fibers become thinner and change their aspect; at advanced age, the lysis of collagen fibers and their thickening in the deep dermis is present, as they become more fibrous. Elastic fibers show the tendency of fragmentation at more advanced age, gradually change their tinctorial affinity and reduce in amount; in the deep dermis, they tend to thicken progressively, in the presence of discrete elastolysis processes that evolve steadily and irreversibly. Thus, processes of elastic fibers degeneration and lysis run faster by comparison with those of collagen fibers degeneration. With ageing, a progressive reduction of dermis vasculature is present, due to a reduction in the number and size of vascular vessels, which is in its turn associated with the progressive alterations of vascular walls components, changes that advance until the function of the vessel ceases.

  7. Researching to make a difference: possibilities for social science research in the age of AIDS.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Naydene

    2012-12-01

    HIV and AIDS is recognized as one of the most devastating pandemics of sub-Saharan Africa, and South Africa in particular, with adverse effect on individuals, families, schools, communities and society at large. Research is therefore required to provide a deeper understanding of the complexities of HIV and AIDS in order to mitigate the effect of the pandemic. Much of the excellent research that has been done has been undertaken within a positivist paradigm and has focused on the biomedical aspects of HIV and AIDS, as well as the social aspects of the pandemic. This theoretical position paper draws on various projects in the field of HIV and AIDS education in rural KwaZulu-Natal to argue that more social science research should be framed within a participatory research paradigm, foregrounding participant engagement and process, and which simultaneously has a "research-as-intervention" focus.Such research adheres to the requirement of knowledge production, but also engages the participants as knowledge producers who, through the research process, are enabled to shift towards taking up their own agency. Reflecting on the findings from the various projects suggests that visual participatory methodologies are particularly useful when working with marginalized persons whose voices are seldom heard especially when exploring topics which are difficult to discuss. Furthermore, it brings issues to the fore and opens up debate, while at the same time democratizing research and allowing universities to take up their social responsibility and to contribute towards making a difference in the communities they serve.

  8. Is It Possible to Delay or Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Already in the 90s, Khachaturian stated that postponing dementia onset by five years would decrease the prevalence of the late onset dementia by 50%. After two decades of lack of success in dementia drug discovery and development, and knowing that worldwide, currently 36 million patients have been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, a number that will double by 2030 and triple by 2050, the World Health Organization and the Alzheimer's Disease International declared that prevention of cognitive decline was a 'public health priority.' Numerous longitudinal studies and meta-analyses were conducted to analyze the risk and protective factors for dementia. Among the 93 identified risk factors, seven major modifiable ones should be considered: low education, sedentary lifestyle, midlife obesity, midlife smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and midlife depression. Three other important modifiable risk factors should also be added to this list: midlife hypercholesterolemia, late life atrial fibrillation, and chronic kidney disease. After their identification, numerous authors attempted to establish dementia risk scores; however, the proposed values were not convincing. Identifying the possible interventions, able to either postpone or delay dementia has been an important challenge. Observational studies focused on a single life-style intervention increased the global optimism concerning these possibilities. However, a recent extensive literature review of the randomized control trials (RCTs) conducted before 2014 yielded negative results. The first results of RCTs of multimodal interventions (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability, Multidomain Alzheimer Prevention Study, and Prediva) brought more optimism. Lastly, interventions targeting compounds of beta amyloid started in 2012 and no results have yet been published. PMID:27688858

  9. A greater decline in female facial attractiveness during middle age reflects women's loss of reproductive value.

    PubMed

    Maestripieri, Dario; Klimczuk, Amanda C E; Traficonte, Daniel M; Wilson, M Claire

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness represents an important component of an individual's overall attractiveness as a potential mating partner. Perceptions of facial attractiveness are expected to vary with age-related changes in health, reproductive value, and power. In this study, we investigated perceptions of facial attractiveness, power, and personality in two groups of women of pre- and post-menopausal ages (35-50 years and 51-65 years, respectively) and two corresponding groups of men. We tested three hypotheses: (1) that perceived facial attractiveness would be lower for older than for younger men and women; (2) that the age-related reduction in facial attractiveness would be greater for women than for men; and (3) that for men, there would be a larger increase in perceived power at older ages. Eighty facial stimuli were rated by 60 (30 male, 30 female) middle-aged women and men using online surveys. Our three main hypotheses were supported by the data. Consistent with sex differences in mating strategies, the greater age-related decline in female facial attractiveness was driven by male respondents, while the greater age-related increase in male perceived power was driven by female respondents. In addition, we found evidence that some personality ratings were correlated with perceived attractiveness and power ratings. The results of this study are consistent with evolutionary theory and with previous research showing that faces can provide important information about characteristics that men and women value in a potential mating partner such as their health, reproductive value, and power or possession of resources.

  10. [The needed Brazilian Health System and the possible Brazilian Health System: management strategies. An experience-based reflection].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Luis Eugenio Portela Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The present text presents a reflection about the author's experience as head of a Health Department of a big city during two and a half years. It presents a systematization of the strategic projects, the political and technical activities and the managerial routine, in which he was involved. It identifies three levels (macro, meso and micro) and four dimensions of management (social-political, institutional, technical-sanitary and administrative in the strict sense). In each dimension, on the three levels, it discusses management strategies designed to contribute to the construction of a universal and equitable Brazilian Health System (SUS). Although it may be premature to evaluate the degree of implantation and the effects of the proposed strategies, their analysis and discussion can be useful for being strongly based on empirical elements. The paper concludes that, even though the consolidation of the SUS is a political struggle that surpasses the management arena, managers are important agents who need to know how to develop strategies able to foster the principles of universality and equity.

  11. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life.

  12. Arsenic Exposure and Immunotoxicity: a Review Including the Possible Influence of Age and Sex.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Daniele; Gribaldo, Laura; Hartung, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that inorganic arsenic, a major environmental pollutant, exerts immunosuppressive effects in epidemiological, in vitro, and animal models. The mechanisms, however, remain unclear, and little is known about variation in susceptibilities due to age and sex. We performed a review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence on the association of arsenic exposure and immune diseases. The majority of the studies described arsenic as a potent immunosuppressive compound, though others have reported an increase in allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting that arsenic may also act as an immune system stimulator, depending on the dose or timing of exposure. Limited information, due to either the high concentrations of arsenic used in in vitro studies or the use of non-human data for predicting human risks, is available from experimental studies. Moreover, although there is emerging evidence that health effects of arsenic manifest differently between men and women, we found limited information on sex differences on the immunotoxic effects of arsenic. In conclusion, preliminary data show that chronic early-life exposure to arsenic might impair immune responses, potentially leading to increased risk of infections and inflammatory-like diseases during childhood and in adulthood. Further investigation to evaluate effects of arsenic exposure on the developing immune system of both sexes, particularly in human cells and using concentrations relevant to human exposure, should be a research priority.

  13. Age diagnosis based on incremental lines in dental cementum: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Grosskopf, Birgit; McGlynn, George

    2011-01-01

    Age estimation based on the counting of incremental lines in dental cementum is a method frequently used for the estimation of the age at death for humans in bioarchaeology, and increasingly, forensic anthropology. Assessment of applicability, precision, and method reproducibility continue to be the focus of research in this area, and are occasionally accompanied by significant controversy. Differences in methodological techniques for data collection (e.g. number of sections, factor of magnification for counting or interpreting "outliers") are presented. Potential influences on method reliability are discussed, especially for their applicability in forensic contexts.

  14. Awareness of the earth and possibilities for new science education in the Internet age.

    PubMed

    Takemura, S

    1999-01-01

    The internet as "the nervous system of global size" and multimedia technology have changed our global experience radically and suggests possibilities of entirely new approaches to the conventional education of sciences and the environment. They are not merely the changes where printed text books are converted into dynamic things with vivid appeal to our senses and information about the world's museums and art galleries, digitalized and shared by all. If the seismic activities occurring every day in various parts of the world can be seen in real form directly through the internet by all the people of the world, how will children's views of the earth change and how will their scientific understanding improved? If there was a system whereby one could monitor, in real time, how one member or others of the world net surf the global home pages, and if one could follow the "moving" process on the internet, children would certainly appreciate the presence of the internet as a global network of information. The web site "Sensorium" (http://www.sensorium.org) was created by us in an effort to put these live experiences of the internet into design. Sensorium is not a site merely to digitalize and list the existing knowledge and data. It is an experiment for the Digital Museum as a new "forum" where we may experience and share a moment. It is also an attempt to create tools for science and environment education which are only available on the network.

  15. Transformations and Self-Discovery: Mature-Age Women's Reflections on Returning to University Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, S.; Stone, C.

    2011-01-01

    Research has highlighted the challenges that women face as mature-age students in higher education. The challenges are particularly acute when a woman is the first in her family to go to university. Many women begin their journey as students with considerable self-doubt and lack of confidence. They may also face an ongoing struggle to find a way…

  16. Assessing Changes in Attitudes about Aging: Personal Reflections and a Standardized Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Ann M.; Brookover, B. Cecile

    2002-01-01

    Sophomore (n=31) and senior (n=24) gerontology students completed the Aging Semantic Differential at the beginning of the semester and after conducting life-history interviews with older adults. Significant positive attitude changes resulted; the interviews were specifically cited as influencing changes. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  17. Beta oscillations reflect changes in motor cortex inhibition in healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Holly E; Davis, Emma M; Clark, Ella V; Boudrias, Marie-Hélène; Ward, Nick S

    2014-05-01

    Beta oscillations are involved in movement and have previously been linked to levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. We examined changes in beta oscillations during rest and movement in primary motor cortex (M1). Amplitude and frequency of beta power at rest and movement-related beta desynchronization (MRBD) were measured during a simple unimanual grip task and their relationship with age was explored in a group of healthy participants. We were able to show that at rest, increasing age was associated with greater baseline beta power in M1 contralateral to the active hand, with a similar (non-significant) trend in ipsilateral M1. During movement, increasing age was associated with increased MRBD amplitude in ipsilateral M1 and reduced frequency (in contralateral and ipsilateral M1). These findings would be consistent with greater GABAergic inhibitory activity within motor cortices of older subjects. These oscillatory parameters have the potential to reveal changes in the excitatory-inhibitory balance in M1 which in turn may be a useful marker of plasticity in the brain, both in healthy ageing and disease.

  18. Dichotic Listening in Children: The Reflection of Verbal and Attentional Changes with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, O.; Epstein, R.

    1997-01-01

    Examined digit and word dichotic listening in children in kindergarten and again one year later. Found that in the second digit test, between-ears performance difference decreased; overall performance increased. Between-ear differences across the two word tests were not significant, but overall performance improved over time. Age changes in the…

  19. Transfer of Nature of Science Understandings into Similar Contexts: Promises and Possibilities of an Explicit Reflective Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khishfe, Rola

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) investigate the effectiveness of explicit nature of science (NOS) instruction in the context of controversial socioscientific issues and (b) explore whether the transfer of acquired NOS understandings, which were explicitly taught in the context of one socioscientific context, into other similar contexts (familiar and unfamiliar) was possible. Participants were 10th grade students in two intact sections at one high school. The treatment involved teaching a six-week unit about genetic engineering. For one group (non-NOS group), there was no explicit instruction about NOS. For the other group (NOS group), explicit instruction about three NOS aspects (subjective, empirical, and tentative) was dispersed across the genetic engineering unit. A questionnaire including two open-ended scenarios, in conjunction with semi-structured interviews, was used to assess the change in participants' understandings of NOS and their ability to transfer their acquired understandings into similar contexts. The first scenario involved a familiar context about genetically modified food and the second one focused on an unfamiliar context about water fluoridation. Results showed no improvement in NOS understandings of participants in the non-NOS group in relation to the familiar and unfamiliar contexts. On the other hand, there was a general improvement in the NOS understandings of participants in the NOS group in relation to both the familiar and unfamiliar contexts. Implications about the transfer of participants' acquired NOS understandings on the basis of the distance between the context of learning and that of application are highlighted and discussed in link with the classroom learning environment.

  20. Microtubule turnover in ooplasm biopsy reflects ageing phenomena in the parent oocyte.

    PubMed

    Goud, A P; Goud, P T; Diamond, M P; Van Oostveldt, P; Hughes, M R

    2005-07-01

    Oviductal oocytes retrieved from superovulated B6D2F1 mice at 13.5, 16 and 19 h after human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) (groups A, B and C respectively, n = 382) were micromanipulated to obtain 12-20 mum sized ooplasm biopsy fragments. Experiments were divided into three sets. Ooplasmic microtubule dynamics were studied in ooplasm biopsy specimens and parent oocytes (set 1) and ooplasm biopsy specimens (set 2), whilst zona pellucida dissolution time, cortical granule loss and spindle/chromatin morphology using confocal microscopy were also studied in parent oocytes (set 2). Oocytes withstood oocyte biopsy with a high survival rate (98.2%) and the biopsied oocytes underwent successful fertilization and development (set 3). An absolute one-to-one correlation was seen between the oocyte biopsy specimens and the parent oocytes in terms of ooplasmic microtubule dynamics (set 1), and increased ooplasmic microtubule dynamics in oocyte biopsy specimens paralleled ageing phenomena in the parent oocytes (set 2). Zona pellucida dissolution time was significantly lower in parent oocytes from group A versus groups B (P = 0.032), and C (P < 0.001). (Groups A, B, C include minimal, moderate, increased ooplasmic microtubule dynamics in oocyte biopsy specimens respectively.) Oocyte cortical granule loss and spindle/chromatin abnormalities were mainly seen in group C (P < 0.001). Oocyte biopsy can thus be applied to judge age-related changes in the parent oocytes.

  1. Possible effects of anthropogenically-increased CO2 on the dynamics of climate - Implications for ice age cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Barry; Maasch, Kirk A.; Verbitsky, Mikhail YA.

    1993-01-01

    A dynamical model, developed to account for the observed major variations of global ice mass and atmospheric CO2 during the late Cenozoic, is used to provide a quantitative demonstration of the possibility that the anthropogenically-forced increase of atmospheric CO2, if maintained over a long period of time (perhaps by tectonic forcing), could displace the climatic system from an unstable regime of oscillating ice ages into a more stable regime representative of the pre-Pleistocene. This stable regime is characterized by orbitally-forced oscillations that are of much weaker amplitude than prevailed during the Pleistocene.

  2. Attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared analysis of fly ash geopolymer gel aging.

    PubMed

    Rees, Catherine A; Provis, John L; Lukey, Grant C; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2007-07-17

    Structural changes in fly ash geopolymers activated with different sodium hydroxide and silicate concentrations are investigated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy over a period of 200 days. A strong correlation is found between the concentration of silicate monomer in the activating solution and the position of the main Si-O-T stretching band in the FTIR spectrum, which gives an indication of the relative changes in the gel Si/Al ratio. The FTIR spectra of geopolymer samples with activating solution concentrations of up to 1.2 M SiO2 indicate that an Al-rich gel forms before the final gel composition is reached. The time required for the system to reach a steady gel composition depends on the silicate activating solution concentration and speciation. Geopolymers activated with solutions containing predominantly high-order silicate species rapidly reach a steady gel composition without first forming an Al-rich gel. A minimum silicate monomer concentration of approximately 0.6 M is required to shift the geopolymer synthesis mechanism from hydroxide activation to silicate activation. Silicate speciation in the activating solutions also affects zeolite formation and geopolymer microstructures, with a more homogeneous microstructure and less zeolite formation observed at a higher SiO2 content.

  3. Non-linear patterns in age-related DNA methylation may reflect CD4(+) T cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas D; Wiener, Howard W; Smith, Alicia K; Nishitani, Shota; Absher, Devin M; Arnett, Donna K; Aslibekyan, Stella; Conneely, Karen N

    2017-04-07

    DNA methylation (DNAm) is an important epigenetic process involved in the regulation of gene expression. While many studies have identified thousands of loci associated with age, few have differentiated between linear and non-linear DNAm trends with age. Non-linear trends could indicate early- or late-life gene regulatory processes. Using data from the Illumina 450K array on 336 human peripheral blood samples, we identified 21 CpG sites that associated with age (P<1.03E-7) and exhibited changing rates of DNAm change with age (P<1.94E-6). For two of these CpG sites (cg07955995 and cg22285878), DNAm increased with age at an increasing rate, indicating that differential DNAm was greatest among elderly individuals. We observed significant replication for both CpG sites (P<5.0E-8) in a second set of peripheral blood samples. In 8 of 9 additional datasets comprising samples of monocytes, T cell subtypes, and brain tissue, we observed a pattern directionally consistent with DNAm increasing with age at an increasing rate, which was nominally significant in the three largest datasets (4.3E-15possible role for cg07955995 and cg22285878 in immunosenescence.

  4. Note: Light ageing with simultaneous colorimetry via fibre optics reflection spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Łojewski, Tomasz; Thomas, Jacob; Gołąb, Roman; Kawałko, Jakub; Łojewska, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the design and characteristics of a micro-fadeometer is presented. The technique allows for a non-(micro-) destructive evaluation of the light fastness of colorants on various materials and can be used to directly assess valuable materials, such as heritage objects, and develop safer display strategies to promote their preservation. The presented instrument has several benefits over standard light ageing methods--low operating cost, non-damaging, real time measurement of induced changes for kinetics studies, and automated high throughput screening of materials. A selection of data is presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the presented instrument and illustrate how it can be used to evaluate museum lighting and oxygen-free display of heritage objects.

  5. Note: Light ageing with simultaneous colorimetry via fibre optics reflection spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łojewski, Tomasz; Thomas, Jacob; Gołab, Roman; Kawałko, Jakub; Łojewska, Joanna

    2011-07-01

    In this article, the design and characteristics of a micro-fadeometer is presented. The technique allows for a non-(micro-) destructive evaluation of the light fastness of colorants on various materials and can be used to directly assess valuable materials, such as heritage objects, and develop safer display strategies to promote their preservation. The presented instrument has several benefits over standard light ageing methods - low operating cost, non-damaging, real time measurement of induced changes for kinetics studies, and automated high throughput screening of materials. A selection of data is presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the presented instrument and illustrate how it can be used to evaluate museum lighting and oxygen-free display of heritage objects.

  6. Three-dimensional structure of axonal mitochondria reflects the age of drosophila☆

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Honglian; Sun, Xiaojiang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to reconstruct a three-dimensional map of axonal mitochondria using Fiji and Neurolucida software, and to observe directly the morphology and distribution of mitochondria in axons of motor neurons in dorsal longitudinal flight muscles of drosophila aged 5 days and 20 days, using electron microscopy. Results indicated that there was no difference in the total area and volume of mitochondria between 5-day-old drosophila and 20-day-old drosophila in all sections, but the ratio of mitochondrial total areas to axon total areas, as well as mitochondrial density of 20-day-old drosophila, was lower than that of 5-day-old drosophila. The number of mitochondria, whose volume was less than 1 000 000 μm3, and between 1 000 000 μm3 and 10 000 000 μm3, was higher in 20-day-old drosophila than that in 5-day-old drosophila. The number of mitochondria with a volume between 1 000 000 μm3 and 100 000 000 μm3 was apparently higher than those with a volume less than 1 000 000 μm3 or larger than 100 000 000 μm3. In addition, the number of mitochondria with a volume more than 100 000 000 μm3 was small; however, the volume was nearly 70% of the total volume in both 5-day-old and 20-day-old drosophila. In contrast, the number of mitochondria with a volume between 1 000 000 μm3 and 10 000 000 μm3 was large, but the volume was less than 30% of the total volume. These experimental findings suggest that changes in mitochondrial morphology and number in motor neurons from the dorsal longitudinal muscle of drosophila are present during different ages. PMID:25206706

  7. Craniofacial morphology in Austrian Early Bronze Age populations reflects sex-specific migration patterns.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Alessandro; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Bookstein, Fred; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    The Early Bronze Age (2.300-1.500 BC) in lower Austria consists of three synchronous regional manifestations (Únetice, Unterwölbling, and Wieselburg cultures). The bearers of these cultures inhabited a relatively small geographic area and shared similar ecological conditions, but previous studies revealed population differences in skeletal morphology. We analyzed the cranial morphology of 171 individuals of these populations with a geometric morphometric approach in order to compare different migration scenarios. We find significant mean form differences between populations and between sexes. In a principal component analysis, the Wieselburg population, located southwest of the Danube, largely separates from the Únetice population north of the Danube, whereas the southwestern Unterwölbling group, which played a central role in trading bronze objects, overlaps with both. The Böheimkirchen group, inhabiting the southwestern Danubian area in the later phase of the Early Bronze Age, differs from the chronologically older Unterwölbling group. Geographic distance between six sites and position relative to the river Danube accounted for 64% of form distance variation; the effect of the river Danube was considerably larger than hat of geographic distance per se. As predicted for a patrilocal system in which females have a larger marriage domain than males, we found that female mean forms are more similar to each other than male mean forms. Geographic conditions explained more than twice as much variation in females as in males, suggesting that female migration was more affected by geographical constraints than male migration was.

  8. Is It Possible to Prove the Existence of an Aging Program by Quantitative Analysis of Mortality Dynamics?

    PubMed

    Shilovsky, G A; Putyatina, T S; Lysenkov, S N; Ashapkin, V V; Luchkina, O S; Markov, A V; Skulachev, V P

    2016-12-01

    Accumulation of various types of lesions in the course of aging increases an organism's vulnerability and results in a monotonous elevation of mortality rate, irrespective of the position of a species on the evolutionary tree. Stroustrup et al. (Nature, 530, 103-107) [1] showed in 2016 that in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, longevity-altering factors (e.g. oxidative stress, temperature, or diet) do not change the shape of the survival curve, but either stretch or shrink it along the time axis, which the authors attributed to the existence of an "aging program". Modification of the accelerated failure time model by Stroustrup et al. uses temporal scaling as a basic approach for distinguishing between quantitative and qualitative changes in aging dynamics. Thus we analyzed data on the effects of various longevity-increasing genetic manipulations in flies, worms, and mice and used several models to choose a theory that would best fit the experimental results. The possibility to identify the moment of switch from a mortality-governing pathway to some other pathways might be useful for testing geroprotective drugs. In this work, we discuss this and other aspects of temporal scaling.

  9. Dichotic listening in children: the reflection of verbal and attentional changes with age.

    PubMed

    Lamm, O; Epstein, R

    1997-04-01

    A sample of 290 kindergarten children (147 girls), all native Hebrew speakers, were tested by two dichotic listening tests: (a) a digits test (low verbal workload) and (b) a words test (high verbal workload). The same subjects were tested one year later (at the end of their first year at school) by the same tests. In both tests and both testing sessions the free recall procedure was used. It was found that the performance difference between ears significantly decreased and overall performance significantly increased in the digits test in the second testing session. Differences between sessions in ear difference in the words test were not significant, although overall performance in the second session increased. These data lend support to the hypothesis that the change with age in the between-ears difference is mainly related to an improvement in verbal processing efficiency, which in turn allows the allocation of more verbal resources to the inferior input channel, without a decrease in resources allocated to the preferred one. As expected, increase in available verbal resources was clearly manifested under low verbal workload conditions but not under high workload conditions, where task demands did not allow significant increase in verbal resources to be allocated to the inferior channel. This hypothesis also predicted highly consistent ear preference owing to its being solely determined by the verbal processors of the dominant-to-speech hemisphere. The inconsistent ear preference between tests found in more than a third of the subjects of this sample could not therefore be accounted for by the stated hypothesis. The analysis of performance in subjects who showed left-ear preference in only one test and right-ear advantage on the other occasions indicated that whenever the left ear was preferred it was accompanied by significantly smaller ear difference and lower overall performance compared with those manifested by the same subjects in the same test in the other

  10. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  11. Red tide detection by means of peak shift of remote sensing reflectance and possibility of red tide detection with polarized radiance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei; Terayama, Yasunori

    2010-11-01

    A method for detection of red tide by means of remote sensing reflectance peak shift is proposed together with suspended solid influence eliminations. Although remote sensing reflectance peak is situated at around 550nm for sea water without suffered from red tide, the peak is shifted to the longer wavelength when sea water is suffered from red tide. Based on this fact, it is capable to detect red tide using high wavelength resolution of spectral-radiometers. The proposed system uses web camera with band-pass filter on the optics surface. Acquired imagery data can be transmitted through wireless LAN to Internet terminal and can be archived in server through Internet. Validity of the proposed method is confirmed with the system deployed in Ariake Sea which is situated in northern Kyushu, Japan. Also a method for red tide detection with satellite imagery data is attempted with suspended solid influence eliminations. Furthermore, a possibility of red tide detection with polarized radiance measurements is discussed through polarization camera derived sue surface imagery data, in particular, for non-spherical shape of red tide.

  12. Tackling the aging process with bio-molecules: a possible role for caloric restriction, food-derived nutrients, vitamins, amino acids, peptides, and minerals.

    PubMed

    Dabhade, Prachi; Kotwal, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process leading to general deterioration in many tissues and organs, accompanied by an increased incidence and severity of a wide variety of chronic, incurable, and often fatal diseases. A possibility of slowing down the aging process and improving the quality of life in old age by nutritional intervention has renewed the interest of the scientific world in anti-aging therapies. These include potential dietary interventions, adherence to nutrition, hormonal and cell-based therapies, genetic manipulations, and anti-aging supplements or nutrients. This review addresses strategies to slow the aging process by caloric restriction and the use of nutritional supplements.

  13. Intense Inflammation and Nerve Damage in Early Multiple Sclerosis Subsides at Older Age: A Reflection by Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Mohsen; Dring, Ann M.; Gilthorpe, Jonathan D.; Wuolikainen, Anna; Al Nimer, Faiez; Harris, Robert A.; Andersson, Magnus; Brundin, Lou; Piehl, Fredrik; Olsson, Tomas; Svenningsson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory mediators have crucial roles in leukocyte recruitment and subsequent central nervous system (CNS) neuroinflammation. The extent of neuronal injury and axonal loss are associated with the degree of CNS inflammation and determine physical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between a panel of selected cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers and robust clinical and demographic parameters in a large cohort of patients with MS and controls (n = 1066) using data-driven multivariate analysis. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 13 (CXCL13), osteopontin (OPN) and neurofilament-light chain (NFL) were measured by ELISA in 548 subjects comprising different MS subtypes (relapsing-remitting, secondary progressive and primary progressive), clinically isolated syndrome and persons with other neurological diseases with or without signs of inflammation/infection. Principal component analyses and orthogonal partial least squares methods were used for unsupervised and supervised interrogation of the data. Models were validated using data from a further 518 subjects in which one or more of the four selected markers were measured. There was a significant association between increased patient age and lower levels of CXCL13, MMP9 and NFL. CXCL13 levels correlated well with MMP9 in the younger age groups, but less so in older patients, and after approximately 54 years of age the levels of CXCL13 and MMP9 were consistently low. CXCL13 and MMP9 levels also correlated well with both NFL and OPN in younger patients. We demonstrate a strong effect of age on both inflammatory and neurodegenerative biomarkers in a large cohort of MS patients. The findings support an early use of adequate immunomodulatory disease modifying drugs, especially in younger patients, and may provide a biological explanation for the relative inefficacy of such treatments in older patients at later disease

  14. Age determination and provenance of sandy sediments possibly hosting gas hydrate in the eastern margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Takashima, I.; Sasaki, S.; Matsumoto, R.

    2012-12-01

    In 2010 the MD179 project was undertaken by the Marion Dufresne aiming at recovery of deep seated gas and gas hydrate, methane induced carbonate, and deep sediments in order to develop the geologic model of gas hydrate accumulation and evaluate the possible environmental impact of gas hydrate for the last glacial-interglacial cycles. Sediment samples below the seafloor were obtained in the Umitaka Spur, Joetsu Channel, Toyama Trough, Japan Basin, Nishi Tsugaru and Okushiri Ridge areas by the cruise. Small amounts of sandy sediment have been retrieved as thin intercalations in Pleistocene and Holocene silty layers, where trace fossils and strong bioturbations are commonly observed. Those sandy sediments consist of very fine- to fine-grained sand grains, and are sometimes tuffaceous. Pore-size distribution measurements and thin-section observations of these arenite sands were carried out, which indicates that porosities of silty sediments are around 50 % but those of arenites range from 42 to 52 %, of which mean pore sizes and permeabilities are larger than those of silty sediments. These coarser sediments might have been transported approximately around 3 to 30 ka according to the tephra ages, where supplying sediments might have not been abundant due to sea level fluctuation during the Pleistocene ice age. While the presence of gas hydrate in intergranular pores of arenite sands has not been confirmed, the soupy occurrence in recovered sediments may strongly indicate the presence of gas hydrate filling the intergranular pore system of arenite sands that is called pore-space hydrates. They have been recognized till now in the Mallik as well as in the Nankai Trough areas, which are considered to be common even in the subsurface sandy sediments at the eastern margin of Japan Sea. Time of deposition of coarse-grained sediments can be recognized by the thermoluminescence (TL) dating method. The TL dating works on the principle that materials containing naturally

  15. U-Pb monazite ages in amphibolite- to granulite-facies orthogneiss reflect hydrous mineral breakdown reactions: Sveconorwegian Province of SW Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingen, Bernard; van Breemen, Otto

    In the Rogaland-Vest Agder terrain of the Sveconorwegian Province of SW Norway, two main Sveconorwegian metamorphic phases are reported: a phase of regional metamorphism linked to orogenic thickening (M1) and a phase of low-pressure thermal metamorphism associated with the intrusion of the 931 +/- 2 Ma anorthosite-charnockite Rogaland igneous complex (M2). Phase M1 reached granulite facies to the west of the terrane and M2 culminated locally at 800-850 °C with the formation of dry osumilite-bearing mineral associations. Monazite and titanite U-Pb geochronology was conducted on 17 amphibolite- to granulite-facies orthogneiss samples, mainly from a suite of 1050 +2/-8 Ma calc-alkaline augen gneisses, the Feda suite. In these rocks, prograde negatively discordant monazite crystallized during breakdown of allanite and titanite in upper amphibolite facies at 1012-1006 Ma. In the Feda suite and other charnockitic gneisses, concordant to slightly discordant monazite at 1024-997 Ma probably reflects breakdown of biotite during granulite-facies M1 metamorphism. A spread of monazite ages down to 970 Ma in biotite +/- hornblende samples possibly corresponds to the waning stage of this first event. In the Feda suite, a well defined monazite growth episode at 930-925 Ma in the amphibolite-facies domain corresponds to major clinopyroxene formation at the expense of hornblende during M2. Growth or resetting of monazite was extremely limited during this phase in the granulite-facies domain, up to the direct vicinity of the anorthosite complex. The M2 event was shortly followed by cooling through ca. 610 °C as indicated by tightly grouped U-Pb ages of accessory titanite and titanite relict inclusions at 918 +/- 2 Ma over the entire region. A last generation of U-poor monazite formed during regional cooling below 610 °C, in hornblende-rich samples at 912-904 Ma. This study suggests: (1) that monazite formed during the prograde path of high-grade metamorphism may be preserved; (2

  16. Does the age-related "anterior shift" of the P3 reflect an inability to habituate the novelty response?

    PubMed

    Alperin, Brittany R; Mott, Katherine K; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2014-08-08

    Old adults often generate larger anterior neural responses than young adults when carrying out task requirements. A common finding in the ERP literature is an "anterior shift" of the P3b to targets. Utilizing principal component analysis (PCA), we recently demonstrated that rather than the P3b moving anteriorly, old adults generate a large P3a that temporally overlaps with their P3b. A dominant hypothesis for the age-related increase in anterior P3 is the failure to habituate the brain's novelty response to rare targets. We tested this hypothesis in young and old adults by comparing the amplitude of the PCA factor representing P3a to targets presented in the first versus last of eight blocks of a visual oddball task. If, unlike young adults, old adults are unable to habituate a novelty response, one would expect (1) the P3a amplitude to decrease between the first and last blocks for young, but not old subjects and (2) the difference in P3a amplitude between young and old subjects to be greater in the last than the first block. Our results indicate the amplitude of the P3a was larger in old adults than young adults. However, this effect was not modulated by block. These findings argue against the hypothesis that an age-related increase in the P3a to targets reflects an inability of old subjects to habituate a novelty response. An alternative hypothesis is that the augmented P3a indexes the increased utilization of frontal executive functions to provide compensatory scaffolding to carry out a task.

  17. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments.

  18. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001-2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, C. S.; Krolewski, A. G.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-11-01

    Land clearing for crops and plantations and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (mean ± std. error) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to more persistent fires and greater fuel loads in peatlands than in other tropical forests. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help

  19. Tropical biomass burning smoke plume size, shape, reflectance, and age based on 2001--2009 MISR imagery of Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krolewski, A. G.; Zender, C. S.; Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Land use for agriculture and grazing results in anthropogenic burning of tropical forests and peatlands, including in Indonesia, where images of fire-generated aerosol plumes have been captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) since 2001. Our modeling studies show this smoke increases atmospheric heating, and reduces regional SST and dry-season precipitation, causing a potential feedback that increases drought-stress and air quality problems during El Niño years. Here we analyze the size, shape, optical properties, and age of fire-generated plumes in Borneo from 2001-2009. Most smoke flows with the prevailing southeasterly surface winds at 3-4 m s-1, and forms ovoid plumes whose mean length, height, and cross-plume width are 41 ± 1.4 (σ /√ {N}) km, 708 ± 13 m, and 27 ± 0.75% of the plume length, respectively. Borneo smoke plume heights are similar to previously reported plume heights, yet Borneo plumes are nearly three times longer than previously studied plumes, possibly due to greater fuel loads and fire emissions in Indonesia. Plume area (median 169 ± 15 km2) varies exponentially with length, though for most plumes a linear relation provides a good approximation. The MISR-estimated plume optical properties involve greater uncertainties than the geometric properties, and show patterns consistent with smoke aging. Optical depth increases by 15-25% in the down-plume direction, consistent with hygroscopic growth and nucleation overwhelming the effects of particle dispersion. Both particle single-scattering albedo and top-of-atmosphere albedo peak about halfway down-plume, at values about 3% and 10% greater than at the origin, respectively. The initially oblong plumes become brighter and more circular with time, increasingly resembling smoke clouds. Wind speed does not explain a significant fraction of the variation in plume geometry. We provide a parameterization of plume shape that can help atmospheric models estimate the effects of

  20. rs5888 variant of SCARB1 gene is a possible susceptibility factor for age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zerbib, Jennyfer; Seddon, Johanna M; Richard, Florence; Reynolds, Robyn; Leveziel, Nicolas; Benlian, Pascale; Borel, Patrick; Feingold, Josué; Munnich, Arnold; Soubrane, Gisèle; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Souied, Eric H

    2009-10-05

    Major genetic factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have recently been identified as susceptibility risk factors, including variants in the CFH gene and the ARMS2 LOC387715/HTRA1locus. Our purpose was to perform a case-control study in two populations among individuals who did not carry risk variants for CFHY402H and LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2), called "study" individuals, in order to identify new genetic risk factors. Based on a candidate gene approach, we analyzed SNP rs5888 of the SCARB1 gene, coding for SRBI, which is involved in the lipid and lutein pathways. This study was conducted in a French series of 1241 AMD patients and 297 controls, and in a North American series of 1257 patients with advanced AMD and 1732 controls. Among these individuals, we identified 61 French patients, 77 French controls, 85 North American patients and 338 North American controls who did not carry the CFH nor ARMS2 polymorphisms. An association between AMD and the SCARB1 gene was seen among the study subjects. The genotypic distribution of the rs5888 polymorphism was significantly different between cases and controls in the French population (p<0.006). Heterozygosity at the rs5888 SNP increased risk of AMD compared to the CC genotypes in the French study population (odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, CI95%: 1.4-8.9, p<0.01) and after pooling the 2 populations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6-5.3, p<0.002). Subgroup analysis in exudative forms of AMD revealed a pooled OR of 3.6 for individuals heterozygous for rs5888 (95% CI: 1.7-7.6, p<0.0015). These results suggest the possible contribution of SCARB1, a new genetic factor in AMD, and implicate a role for cholesterol and antioxidant micronutrient (lutein and vitamin E) metabolism in AMD.

  1. Capacity for sliding between tendon fascicles decreases with ageing in injury prone equine tendons: a possible mechanism for age-related tendinopathy?

    PubMed

    Thorpe, C T; Udeze, C P; Birch, H L; Clegg, P D; Screen, H Rc

    2013-01-08

    Age-related tendinopathy is common in both humans and horses; the initiation and progression of which is similar between species. The majority of tendon injuries occur to high-strain energy storing tendons, such as the human Achilles tendon and equine superficial digital flexor (SDFT). By contrast, the low-strain positional human anterior tibialis tendon and equine common digital extensor (CDET) are rarely injured. It has previously been established that greater extension occurs at the fascicular interface in the SDFT than in the CDET; this may facilitate the large strains experienced during locomotion in the SDFT without damage occurring to the fascicles. This study investigated the alterations in whole tendon, fascicle and interfascicular mechanical properties in the SDFT and CDET with increasing age. It was hypothesised that the amount of sliding at the fascicular interface in the SDFT would decrease with increasing horse age, whereas the properties of the interface in the CDET would remain unchanged with ageing. Data support the hypothesis; there were no alterations in the mechanical properties of the whole SDFT or its constituent fascicles with increasing age. However, there was significantly less sliding at the fascicular interface at physiological loads in samples from aged tendons. There was no relationship between fascicle sliding and age in the CDET. The increase in stiffness of the interfascicular matrix in aged SDFT may result in the fascicles being loaded at an earlier point in the stress strain curve, increasing the risk of damage. This may predispose aged tendons to tendinopathy.

  2. Microglial AGE-albumin is critical for neuronal death in Parkinson’s disease: a possible implication for theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Bayarsaikhan, Enkhjargal; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Lee, Jaesuk; Son, Myeongjoo; Oh, Seyeon; Moon, Jeongsik; Park, Hye-Jeong; Roshini, Arivazhagan; Kim, Seung U; Song, Byoung-Joon; Jo, Seung-Mook; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), by inducing protein aggregation and cross-link, formation of Lewy body, and neuronal death. In this study, we observed that AGE-albumin, the most abundant AGE product in the human PD brain, is synthesized in activated microglial cells and accumulates in the extracellular space. AGE-albumin synthesis in human-activated microglial cells is distinctly inhibited by ascorbic acid and cytochalasin treatment. Accumulated AGE-albumin upregulates the receptor to AGE, leading to apoptosis of human primary dopamine (DA) neurons. In animal experiments, we observed reduced DA neuronal cell death by treatment with soluble receptor to AGE. Our study provides evidence that activated microglial cells are one of the main contributors in AGE-albumin accumulation, deleterious to DA neurons in human and animal PD brains. Finally, activated microglial AGE-albumin could be used as a diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker with high sensitivity for neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. PMID:27601894

  3. Identification of possible recent water/lava source fissures in the Cerberus Plains: stratigraphic and crater count age constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rebecca J.

    2013-04-01

    The Cerberus plains are one of the youngest surfaces on Mars. They are thought to have been formed by lava and/or water flows, but there is considerable debate regarding the source of this material. Much of the material forming the western plains, including the Athabasca Valles outflow channels, appears to have flowed from the region of the Cerberus Fossae graben system [1,2,3] and limited areas forming the eastern plains may have been erupted by low shield volcanoes [4,5]. However, flow of material from west to east is obstructed by a ridge centred on 157°E, 7°N and, prior to this study, vents which might be the source of fluid of a low enough viscosity to form the majority of the flat eastern plains had not been identified. We studied new HiRISE (25cm/px, High Resolution Science Imaging Experiment) images of the ridge between the east and west plains and observed possible source vents for this material: the ridge is cut by a series of pits and fissures which lie at the heads of flows and channels extending towards the surrounding plains. In order to establish the stratigraphic relationships between the vents and plains, this study produced large scale geomorphological maps based on the HiRISE images. The mapping showed that both incised channels and leveed flows extend onto the plain to the south of the ridge and that these were the final phase of plains-forming activity in that region. Conversely, to the north, ridge-sourced deposits only form the plains surface close to the ridge - beyond that, they are overlain by large-scale regional flows that appear to have originated from the direction of Athabasca Valles. In the southeast, a large-scale flow which does not emanate from this ridge forms the plains surface, but there is evidence that the youngest outflow activity from the ridge was contemporaneous with emplacement of this unit. We also performed crater counts to age-date the surfaces and these indicate that plains-forming and ridge-sourced units are of a

  4. rs5888 Variant of SCARB1 Gene Is a Possible Susceptibility Factor for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zerbib, Jennyfer; Seddon, Johanna M.; Richard, Florence; Reynolds, Robyn; Leveziel, Nicolas; Benlian, Pascale; Borel, Patrick; Feingold, Josué; Munnich, Arnold; Soubrane, Gisèle; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Souied, Eric H.

    2009-01-01

    Major genetic factors for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have recently been identified as susceptibility risk factors, including variants in the CFH gene and the ARMS2 LOC387715/HTRA1locus. Our purpose was to perform a case-control study in two populations among individuals who did not carry risk variants for CFHY402H and LOC387715 A69S (ARMS2), called “study” individuals, in order to identify new genetic risk factors. Based on a candidate gene approach, we analyzed SNP rs5888 of the SCARB1 gene, coding for SRBI, which is involved in the lipid and lutein pathways. This study was conducted in a French series of 1241 AMD patients and 297 controls, and in a North American series of 1257 patients with advanced AMD and 1732 controls. Among these individuals, we identified 61 French patients, 77 French controls, 85 North American patients and 338 North American controls who did not carry the CFH nor ARMS2 polymorphisms. An association between AMD and the SCARB1 gene was seen among the study subjects. The genotypic distribution of the rs5888 polymorphism was significantly different between cases and controls in the French population (p<0.006). Heterozygosity at the rs5888 SNP increased risk of AMD compared to the CC genotypes in the French study population (odds ratio (OR) = 3.5, CI95%: 1.4–8.9, p<0.01) and after pooling the 2 populations (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6–5.3, p<0.002). Subgroup analysis in exudative forms of AMD revealed a pooled OR of 3.6 for individuals heterozygous for rs5888 (95% CI: 1.7–7.6, p<0.0015). These results suggest the possible contribution of SCARB1, a new genetic factor in AMD, and implicate a role for cholesterol and antioxidant micronutrient (lutein and vitamin E) metabolism in AMD. PMID:19806217

  5. Windows on Martian dynamo history: electron reflection (ER) magnetic signatures and crater retention ages of basins and volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, R. J.; Frey, H. V.; Manga, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.

    2006-12-01

    A picture continues to emerge of a Martian dynamo that began extremely early in the planet's history. After reversing polarity at least once and possibly varying significantly in strength, it permanently ceased operating prior to 4 billion years ago (using the Hartmann-Neukum chronology), when the core could no longer sustain the required convective motion. By combining ER magnetometry and MOLA topography, we use the derived magnetic signatures and crater retention ages (CRAs) of large basins and volcanoes to constrain the ambient magnetic conditions present during their formation. Here we present results that support the above picture; in particular case studies involving several large visible and buried basins and highland volcanoes, implying that Mars' last dynamo activity likely ceased prior to 4.07 ± 0.04 Gyr ago and later than 4.15 ± 0.05 Gyr ago and that this cessation was, within uncertainties, coincident with the formation of the 3 giant northern lowland basins Acidalia, Chryse and Utopia. We also present a statistical study of the magnetic signatures and CRAs of the ~500 largest basins on Mars which tentatively suggests that the dynamo may have weakened considerably for a period during its active lifetime.

  6. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sleiman, Mohamad; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Berdahl, Paul; Gilbert, Haley E.; Quelen, Sarah; Marlot, Lea; Preble, Chelsea V.; Chen, Sharon; Montalbano, Amandine; Rosseler, Olivier; Akbari, Hashem; Levinson, Ronnen; Destaillats, Hugo

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  7. Palaeoproterozoic U Pb SHRIMP zircon age from basement rocks in Bangladesh: A possible remnant of the Columbia supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Ismail; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Rajesh, Hariharan M.; Chen, Bin; Arakawa, Yoji

    2007-12-01

    We present new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronological data for basement rocks in Bangladesh, and discuss the relationship with the formation of the Columbia supercontinent. Euhedral zircons from a diorite sample yield a concordia age of 1730 ± 11 Ma, which is interpreted as the crystallization age. The Palaeoproterozoic age of the examined basement rock and the common occurrences of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Central Indian Tectonic Zone and Meghalaya-Shillong Plateau in Indian Shield suggest their apparent continuation. This, together with the occurrence of similar ˜1.7-Ga geologic units in the Albany-Fraser belt in Australia and East Antarctica, are used to suggest that the basement rocks in Bangladesh formed towards the final stages of the assembly of the Columbia supercontinent.

  8. Omega-3 fatty acids and brain resistance to ageing and stress: body of evidence and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Denis, I; Potier, B; Vancassel, S; Heberden, C; Lavialle, M

    2013-03-01

    The increasing life expectancy in the populations of rich countries raises the pressing question of how the elderly can maintain their cognitive function. Cognitive decline is characterised by the loss of short-term memory due to a progressive impairment of the underlying brain cell processes. Age-related brain damage has many causes, some of which may be influenced by diet. An optimal diet may therefore be a practical way of delaying the onset of age-related cognitive decline. Nutritional investigations indicate that the ω-3 poyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of western diets is too low to provide the brain with an optimal supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the main ω-3 PUFA in cell membranes. Insufficient brain DHA has been associated with memory impairment, emotional disturbances and altered brain processes in rodents. Human studies suggest that an adequate dietary intake of ω-3 PUFA can slow the age-related cognitive decline and may also protect against the risk of senile dementia. However, despite the many studies in this domain, the beneficial impact of ω-3 PUFA on brain function has only recently been linked to specific mechanisms. This review examines the hypothesis that an optimal brain DHA status, conferred by an adequate ω-3 PUFA intake, limits age-related brain damage by optimizing endogenous brain repair mechanisms. Our analysis of the abundant literature indicates that an adequate amount of DHA in the brain may limit the impact of stress, an important age-aggravating factor, and influences the neuronal and astroglial functions that govern and protect synaptic transmission. This transmission, particularly glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus, underlies memory formation. The brain DHA status also influences neurogenesis, nested in the hippocampus, which helps maintain cognitive function throughout life. Although there are still gaps in our knowledge of the way ω-3 PUFA act, the mechanistic studies reviewed here indicate that

  9. New compounds able to control hepatic cholesterol metabolism: Is it possible to avoid statin treatment in aged people?

    PubMed

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-12-27

    Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis that leads to changes in the biochemical composition of tissues, reduced ability to respond adaptively to environmental stimuli, and increased susceptibility and vulnerability to diseases including coronary artery diseases, carotid artery disease and brain vessel disease. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the primary risk factors for these pathologies, whose incidence is highly related to aging. Almost 25% of men and 42% of women older than 65 years have a serum total cholesterol level greater than 240 mg/dL. The mechanisms behind this age-related increase in plasma cholesterol are still incompletely understood, thus, the control of plasma cholesterol content in aged people is more challenging than in adults. In this review the different pharmacological approaches to reduce plasma cholesterol levels, particularly in aged people, will be discussed. In brief, current therapies are mostly based on the prescription of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) that are pretty effective but that exert several side effects. More attention should be given to potential drug interactions, potential age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics, adverse effects such as myopathy and competing risks when statins are prescribed to old patients. In combination or in alternative to statin therapy, other agents might be required to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Among the available drugs, the most commonly prescribed are those addressed to reduce cholesterol absorption, to modulate lipoprotein lipase activity and bile acid sequestrants: even these pharmacological interventions are not exempt from side effects. The use of antioxidants or organoselenium compounds and the discovery of new proteins able to modulate exclusively LDL receptor recycling such as Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 and SEC24 offer new pharmacological approaches to selectively reduce the main causes of

  10. New compounds able to control hepatic cholesterol metabolism: Is it possible to avoid statin treatment in aged people?

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis that leads to changes in the biochemical composition of tissues, reduced ability to respond adaptively to environmental stimuli, and increased susceptibility and vulnerability to diseases including coronary artery diseases, carotid artery disease and brain vessel disease. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the primary risk factors for these pathologies, whose incidence is highly related to aging. Almost 25% of men and 42% of women older than 65 years have a serum total cholesterol level greater than 240 mg/dL. The mechanisms behind this age-related increase in plasma cholesterol are still incompletely understood, thus, the control of plasma cholesterol content in aged people is more challenging than in adults. In this review the different pharmacological approaches to reduce plasma cholesterol levels, particularly in aged people, will be discussed. In brief, current therapies are mostly based on the prescription of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) that are pretty effective but that exert several side effects. More attention should be given to potential drug interactions, potential age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics, adverse effects such as myopathy and competing risks when statins are prescribed to old patients. In combination or in alternative to statin therapy, other agents might be required to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Among the available drugs, the most commonly prescribed are those addressed to reduce cholesterol absorption, to modulate lipoprotein lipase activity and bile acid sequestrants: even these pharmacological interventions are not exempt from side effects. The use of antioxidants or organoselenium compounds and the discovery of new proteins able to modulate exclusively LDL receptor recycling such as Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 and SEC24 offer new pharmacological approaches to selectively reduce the main causes of

  11. Critical Pedagogy in the New Dark Ages: Challenges and Possibilities. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 422

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolakaki, Maria, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book unmasks the neoliberal ideology that led modern civilization to withdraw from its previous accomplishments into what may be called the new Dark Ages. The international group of contributors to this volume aggressively rejects the siege of society by capitalism and the resulting deterioration. These authors engage a critical pedagogy that…

  12. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a possible tool to complement liver biopsy for grading hepatic fibrosis in paraffin-preserved human liver specimens.

    PubMed

    Fabila-Bustos, Diego A; Arroyo-Camarena, Ursula D; López-Vancell, María D; Durán-Padilla, Marco A; Azuceno-García, Itzel; Stolik-Isakina, Suren; Ibarra-Coronado, Elizabeth; Brown, Blair; Escobedo, Galileo; de la Rosa-Vázquez, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    A diffuse reflectance spectroscopy-based method to score fibrosis in paraffin-preserved human liver specimens has been developed and is reported here. Paraffin blocks containing human liver tissue were collected from the General Hospital of Mexico and included in the study with the patients' written consent. The score of liver fibrosis was determined in each sample by two experienced pathologists in a single-blind fashion. Spectral measurements were acquired at 450-750 nm by establishing surface contact between the optical probe and the preserved tissue. According to the histological evaluation, four liver samples showed no evidence of fibrosis and were categorized as F0, four hepatic specimens exhibited an initial degree of fibrosis (F1-F2), five liver specimens showed a severe degree of fibrosis (F3), and six samples exhibited cirrhosis (F4). The human liver tissue showed a characteristic diffuse reflectance spectrum associated with the progressive stages of fibrosis. In the F0 liver samples, the diffuse reflection intensity gradually increased in the wavelength range of 450-750 nm. In contrast, the F1-F2, F3, and F4 specimens showed corresponding 1.5-, 2-, and 5.5-fold decreases in the intensity of diffuse reflectance compared to the F0 liver specimens. At 650 nm, all the stages of liver fibrosis were clearly distinguished from each other with high sensitivity and specificity (92-100%). To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting a distinctive diffuse reflectance spectrum for each stage of fibrosis in paraffin-preserved human liver specimens. These results suggest that diffuse reflectance spectroscopy may represent a complementary tool to liver biopsy for grading fibrosis.

  13. Integrating Curriculum and Practice with Students and Their Field Supervisors: Reflections on Spirituality and The Aging (Rosa) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Behrman, Gary; Berg-Weger, Marla

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge and sensitivity about diverse aging populations is a rapidly emerging area of interest in higher education. The next decades will see dramatic increases in the number of older adults in the United States (Administration on Aging (AOA), 2000). Recognizing and utilizing spiritual and religious traditions holds special significance when…

  14. Systemic Inflammation Impairs Attention and Cognitive Flexibility but Not Associative Learning in Aged Rats: Possible Implications for Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Deborah J.; Snayd, Mary; Baxter, Mark G.; Xie, Zhongcong; Lee, In Ho; Rudolph, James; Inouye, Sharon K.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Delirium is a common and morbid condition in elderly hospitalized patients. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood but inflammation has been implicated based on a clinical association with systemic infection and surgery and preclinical data showing that systemic inflammation adversely affects hippocampus-dependent memory. However, clinical manifestations and imaging studies point to abnormalities not in the hippocampus but in cortical circuits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation impairs prefrontal cortex function by assessing attention and executive function in aged animals. Aged (24-month-old) Fischer-344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg/kg) or saline and were tested on the attentional set-shifting task (AST), an index of integrity of the prefrontal cortex, on days 1–3 post-injection. Plasma and frontal cortex concentrations of the cytokine TNFα and the chemokine CCL2 were measured by ELISA in separate groups of identically treated, age-matched rats. LPS selectively impaired reversal learning and attentional shifts without affecting discrimination learning in the AST, indicating a deficit in attention and cognitive flexibility but not learning globally. LPS increased plasma TNFα and CCL2 acutely but this resolved within 24–48 h. TNFα in the frontal cortex did not change whereas CCL2 increased nearly threefold 2 h after LPS but normalized by the time behavioral testing started 24 h later. Together, our data indicate that systemic inflammation selectively impairs attention and executive function in aged rodents and that the cognitive deficit is independent of concurrent changes in frontal cortical TNFα and CCL2. Because inattention is a prominent feature of clinical delirium, our data support a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of this clinical syndrome and suggest this animal model could be useful for studying that relationship further. PMID:24959140

  15. Frailty's Place in Ethics and Law: Some Thoughts on Equality and Autonomy and on Limits and Possibilities for Aging Citizens.

    PubMed

    McNally, Mary; Lahey, William

    2015-01-01

    Consideration of ethical and legal themes relating to frailty must engage with the concern that frailty is a pejorative concept that validates and reinforces the disadvantage and vulnerability of aging adults. In this chapter, we consider whether a greater focus on frailty may indeed be part of the solution to the disadvantages that aging adults face in achieving equality and maintaining their autonomy within systems that have used their frailty to deny them equality and autonomy. First, by examining equality both as an ethical norm and as a requirement for protections against discrimination, we raise questions about the grounds on which health providers and health systems can be required to give equal concern and respect to the needs of frail older persons. Second, we explore autonomy and identify the tension between meaningful self-determination and prevailing ethical and legal norms associated with informed choice. Third, we argue that a proper understanding of frailty is essential within both of these themes; it respects equality by enabling health providers and systems to identify and address the distinct care needs of aging adults and helps to align informed choice theory with appropriate processes for decision-making about those needs.

  16. Possible mechanism underlying the effect of Heshouwuyin, a tonifying kidney herb, on sperm quality in aging rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herb mixtures are used as alternatives to hormone therapy in China for the treatment of partial androgen deficiency in aging men. However, the compositions of these herb mixtures are complex and their mechanisms are often unknown. This study investigates the effect of Heshouwuyin, a Chinese herbal compound for invigorating the kidney, on the control of testosterone secretion and sperm function. Methods Aged Wistar rats were administered with Heshouwuyin. A Shouwu pill group and young group were used as controls. Results Morphology, chemiluminescence, fluorescence immunohistochemistry, and western blot showed that the epididymal sperm of naturally aged rats had intact plasma membranes. They also had abnormal mitochondrial function and DNA integrity, a significant decline in serum testosterone levels, and significant pathological changes in the structure of testicular tissues. Heshouwuyin significantly improved sperm function and serum testosterone levels, and improved testicular morphology. Moreover, the curative efficacy of Heshouwuyin after 60 days was better than that of Heshouwuyin after 30 days and the Shouwu pill group. Conclusion Heshouwuyin exerts an important role in controlling testosterone secretion and sperm function. PMID:25034094

  17. Possible Mechanisms Underlying Aging-Related Changes in Early Diastolic Filling and Long Axis Motion—Left Ventricular Length and Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Peverill, Roger E.; Chou, Bon; Donelan, Lesley; Mottram, Philip M.; Gelman, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The transmitral E wave and the peak velocity of early diastolic mitral annular motion (e`) both decrease with age, but the mechanisms underlying these age-related changes are incompletely understood. This study investigated the possible contributions of blood pressure (BP) and left ventricular end-diastolic length (LVEDL) to age-related reductions in E and e`. Methods The study group were 82 healthy adult subjects <55 years of age who were not obese or hypertensive. Transmitral flow and mitral annular motion were recorded using pulsed-wave Doppler. LVEDL was measured from the mitral annular plane to the apical endocardium. Results Age was positively correlated with diastolic BP and septal wall thickness (SWT), inversely correlated with LVEDL (β = -0.25) after adjustment for sex and body surface area, but was not related to left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD). Age was also inversely correlated with E (r = -0.36), septal e`(r = -0.53) and lateral e`(r = -0.53). On multivariable analysis, E was inversely correlated with diastolic BP and LVEDD, septal e`was inversely correlated with diastolic BP and positively correlated with SWT and LVEDL, after adjusting for body mass index, whilst lateral e`was inversely correlated with diastolic BP and positively correlated with LVEDL. Conclusion The above findings are consistent with higher BP being a contributor to age-related reductions in both E and e`and shortening of LVEDL with age being a contributor to the age-related reduction in e`. An implication of these findings is that slowing of myocyte relaxation is unlikely to be the sole, and may not be the main, mechanism underlying age-related decreases in E and e`. PMID:27351745

  18. Possible secondary apatite fission track age standard from altered volcanic ash beds in the middle Jurassic Carmel Formation, Southwestern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowallis, B.J.; Christiansen, E.H.; Everett, B.H.; Crowley, K.D.; Naeser, C.W.; Miller, D.S.; Deino, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Secondary age standards are valuable in intra- and interlaboratory calibration. At present very few such standards are available for fission track dating that is older than Tertiary. Several altered volcanic ash beds occur in the Middle Jurassic Carmel Formation in southwestern Utah. The formation was deposited in a shallow marine/sabhka environment. Near Gunlock, Utah, eight ash beds have been identified. Sanidines from one of the ash beds (GUN-F) give a single-crystal laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar age of 166.3??0.8 Ma (2??). Apatite and zircon fission track ages range from 152-185 Ma with typically 15-20 Ma errors (2??). Track densities in zircons are high and most grains are not countable. Apatites are fairly common in most of the ash beds and have reasonable track densities ranging between 1.2-1.5 ?? 106 tracks/cm2. Track length distributions in apatites are unimodal, have standard deviations <1??m, and mean track lengths of about 14-14.5 ??m. High Cl apatites (F:Cl:OH ratio of 39:33:28) are particularly abundant and large in ash GUN-F, and are fairly easy to concentrate, but the concentrates contain some siderite, most of which can be removed by sieving. GUN-F shows evidence of some reworking and detriaal contamination based on older single grain 40Ar/39Ar analyses and some rounding of grains, but the apatite population appears to be largely uncontaminated. At present BJK has approximately 12 of apatite separate from GUN-F. ?? 1993.

  19. Estimating the Prevalence of Ovarian Cancer Symptoms in Women Aged 50 Years or Older: Problems and Possibilities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhuoyu; Gilbert, Lucy; Ciampi, Antonio; Kaufman, Jay S; Basso, Olga

    2016-11-01

    Diagnostic testing is recommended in women with "ovarian cancer symptoms." However, these symptoms are nonspecific. The ongoing Diagnosing Ovarian Cancer Early (DOVE) Study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, provides diagnostic testing to women aged 50 years or older with symptoms lasting for more than 2 weeks and less than 1 year. The prevalence of ovarian cancer in DOVE is 10 times that of large screening trials, prompting us to estimate the prevalence of these symptoms in this population. We sent a questionnaire to 3,000 randomly sampled women in 2014-2015. Overall, 833 women responded; 81.5% reported at least 1 symptom, and 59.7% reported at least 1 symptom within the duration window specified in DOVE. We explored whether such high prevalence resulted from low survey response by applying inverse probability weighting to correct the estimates. Older women and those from deprived areas were less likely to respond, but only age was associated with symptom reporting. Prevalence was similar in early and late responders. Inverse probability weighting had a minimal impact on estimates, suggesting little evidence of nonresponse bias. This is the first study investigating symptoms that have proven to identify a subset of women with a high prevalence of ovarian cancer. However, the high frequency of symptoms warrants further refinements before symptom-triggered diagnostic testing can be implemented.

  20. Eye Diseases and Impaired Vision as Possible Risk Factors for Recurrent Falls in the Aged: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Liisa; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recurrent falls are common among the aged. Vision is needed in maintaining balance, and impaired vision may be an intrinsic risk factor of recurrent falls. The aim was to perform a systematic review about the relationships between eye diseases or impaired vision and the risk of recurrent falls in the aged. Material and Methods. MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched in order to find longitudinal epidemiological studies about the associations between eye diseases or impaired vision and the risk of recurrent falls. Altogether 19 studies were found. A qualitative systematic analysis of these studies was performed. Results and Conclusions. The evidence about poor depth perception/stereoacuity and poor low-contrast visual acuity as risk factors of recurrent falls is quite convincing. Discrepant vision, a decrease in visual acuity, and loss of visual field may be risk factors, but more studies are needed. The results concerning the relationships between poor visual acuity and poor contrast sensitivity and the risk of recurrent falls are controversial. More studies about the relationships between different measures of vision and the risk of recurrent falls are needed before final conclusions about poor vision as a risk factor for recurrent falling can be done. PMID:22927843

  1. Retinal pigment epithelium cell-derived exosomes: Possible relevance to CNV in wet-age related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-Li; Wang, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2016-12-01

    Exosomes are small vesicles that are released by almost every cell type and play a crucial role in many physiological and pathological processes associated with different diseases. Specifically, they promote angiogenesis in the pathogenesis of some diseases. According to previous research, the proteins of exosomes taken from the aqueous humor (AH) of patients with wet-age related macular degeneration (AMD) may function as a new diagnostic biomarker of AMD, suggesting that exosomes may play an important role in the occurrence and development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Moreover, additional research has revealed that the levels of some protein makers of exosomes are up-regulated in aged retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and that drusen and oxidative stress may promote the secretion of exosomes derived from RPE cells. Consequently, we hypothesize that RPE cell-derived exosomes may be relevant to CNV in wet AMD. If this hypothesis is proven correct, future studies based on this link may also help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of wet AMD and to find new therapeutic targets for the treatment of AMD.

  2. Influence of age and foaling on plasma protein electrophoresis and serum amyloid A and their possible role as markers of equine neonatal septicaemia.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Giordano, Alessia; Villani, Marta; Manfrin, Margherita; Panzani, Sara; Veronesi, Maria Cristina

    2008-06-01

    A field study was undertaken to investigate plasma protein electrophoresis (PPE) and serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations at 1, 3 and 7 days of age in foals born by oxytocin-induced (group A, n =17) or spontaneous (group B, n =12) parturition. The putative diagnostic role of PPE and SAA in four septicaemic foals was also examined. At birth, beta-gamma-globulins were higher in group B, and then increased in both groups, probably due to colostrum intake. At day 3, no significant differences between the groups were detectable. In both groups, SAA values increased from day 0 to day 3, then decreased at day 7. Septicaemic foals had decreased concentrations of many electrophoretic fractions (probably reflecting decreased colostrum intake and circulating bacterial proteases) and an increased SAA concentration. It was concluded that both PPE and SAA concentrations vary with age and type of foaling and may be useful in the early diagnosis of neonatal septicaemia.

  3. Age and dynamics of the Namib Sand Sea: A review of chronological evidence and possible landscape development models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, A. E. C.

    2013-06-01

    The Namib Sand Sea constitutes a major physiographic feature of the Namib Desert on the west of Namibia, covering a 50-160 km wide region of the coast between Lüderitz and Walvis Bay. It is widely considered to be one of the oldest desert regions, with a Tertiary-aged fossil desert underlying the modern sand sea. The sand sea has been well studied, benefiting from the presence of the Gobabeb Training and Research Centre during the past 50 years. Whilst much is understood about its sediments and geomorphology, it is only recently that new chronological information, using cosmogenic-nuclide burial dating and optically stimulated luminescence dating have offered new insights, and this calls for an updated review of the age and landscape development of the sand sea. This assessment of the geomorphological and Quaternary dynamics of the region is complemented by developments in the description and analysis of sediment composition. New age control from cosmogenic dating indicates that the sand sea is in excess of a million years old. Initial data from luminescence dating yields depositional ages for dune sediments from three broad areas of the sand sea that include MIS 5, later in the Pleistocene around the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene, although it is not expected that these will be the only, or discrete age groupings. Detailed dating and application of ground penetrating radar in the far northern reaches reveals extensive dune migration and deposition during the Holocene. It is important to stress that the upper limit of luminescence dating here is about ˜200 ka (depending on the environmental dose rate of the site) and that migration and reworking of dunes resets the luminescence signal (so what is recorded is(are) the last phase(s) of preserved sediment accumulation). Whilst there are three potential sources of material for the Namib Sand Sea (reworked Tsondab Sandstone (TSS), material from the Great Escarpment derived by rivers and water and wind

  4. Signaling pathways in aged T cells – a reflection of T cell differentiation, cell senescence and host environment

    PubMed Central

    Goronzy, Jörg J.; Li, Guangjin; Yu, Mingcan; Weyand, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    With increasing age, the ability of the immune system to protect against new antigenic challenges or to control chronic infections erodes. Decline in thymic function and cumulating antigenic experiences of acute and chronic infections threaten T cell homeostasis, but insufficiently explain the failing immune competence and the increased susceptibility for autoimmunity. Alterations in signaling pathways in the aging T cells account for many of the age-related defects. Signaling threshold calibrations seen with aging frequently built on mechanisms that are operational in T cell development and T cell differentiation or are adaptations to the changing environment in the aging host. Age-related changes in transcription of receptors and signaling molecules shift the balance towards inhibitory pathways, most dominantly seen in CD8 T cells and to a lesser degree in CD4 T cells. Prominent examples are the expression of negative regulatory receptors of the CD28 and the TNF receptor superfamilies as well the expression of various cytoplasmic and nuclear dual-specific phosphatases. PMID:22560928

  5. Preparing to care for an aging population: medical student reflections on their clinical mentors within a new geriatrics curriculum.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Timothy W; Shield, Renée R; Wetle, Terrie; Nanda, Aman; Campbell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Reflective writing techniques such as journaling help provide insights into the process by which medical students are mentored and develop into practicing physicians. The authors sought to analyze medical students' journals regarding their mentored experiences within a new geriatrics curriculum at a U.S. medical school. Thirty preclinical and clinical medical student journalers participated in this project. The authors employed qualitative analytic techniques using an interdisciplinary team process. Three major themes emerged: (a) exposure to clinical mentors challenged medical students' preconceptions regarding older adults and geriatric medicine; (b) students learned new medical knowledge and techniques from observing their mentors; and (c) students provided positive and negative assessments of their mentors. Reflective journaling provides important insights into the process by which medical students draw upon mentored clinical experiences during their training. Such mentorship may be particularly relevant to promoting their interest in geriatrics.

  6. Aging and magnetism: Presenting a possible new holistic paradigm for ameliorating the aging process and the effects thereof, through externally applied physiologic PicoTesla magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jerry; Sherlag, Benjamin

    2015-09-01

    A new holistic paradigm is proposed for slowing our genomic-based biological clocks (e.g. regulation of telomere length), and decreasing heat energy exigencies for maintenance of physiologic homeostasis. Aging is considered the result of a progressive slow burn in small volumes of tissues with increase in the quantum entropic states; producing desiccation, microscopic scarring, and disruption of cooperative coherent states. Based upon piezoelectricity, i.e. photon-phonon transductions, physiologic PicoTesla range magnetic fields may decrease the production of excessive heat energy through target specific, bio molecular resonant interactions, renormalization of intrinsic electromagnetic tissue profiles, and autonomic modulation. Prospectively, we hypothesize that deleterious effects of physical trauma, immunogenic microbiological agents, stress, and anxiety may be ameliorated. A particle-wave equation is cited to ascertain magnetic field parameters for application to the whole organism thereby achieving desired homeostasis; secondary to restoration of structure and function on quantum levels. We hypothesize that it is at the atomic level that physical events shape the flow of signals and the transmission of energy in bio molecular systems. References are made to experimental data indicating the aspecific efficacy of non-ionizing physiologic magnetic field profiles for treatment of various pathologic states.

  7. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  8. Germ cell-specific sustained activation of Wnt signalling perturbs spermatogenesis in aged mice, possibly through non-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manish; Atkins, Joshua; Cairns, Murray; Ali, Ayesha; Tanwar, Pradeep S.

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulated Wnt signalling is associated with human infertility and testicular cancer. However, the role of Wnt signalling in male germ cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we first confirmed the activity of Wnt signalling in mouse, dog and human testes. To determine the physiological importance of the Wnt pathway, we developed a mouse model with germ cell-specific constitutive activation of βcatenin. In young mutants, similar to controls, germ cell development was normal. However, with age, mutant testes showed defective spermatogenesis, progressive germ cell loss, and flawed meiotic entry of spermatogonial cells. Flow sorting confirmed reduced germ cell populations at the leptotene/zygotene stages of meiosis in mutant group. Using thymidine analogues-based DNA double labelling technique, we further established decline in germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Overactivation of Wnt/βcatenin signalling in a spermatogonial cell line resulted in reduced cell proliferation, viability and colony formation. RNA sequencing analysis of testes revealed significant alterations in the non-coding regions of mutant mouse genome. One of the novel non-coding RNAs was switched on in mutant testes compared to controls. QPCR analysis confirmed upregulation of this unique non-coding RNA in mutant testis. In summary, our results highlight the significance of Wnt signalling in male germ cells. PMID:27992363

  9. Do Individual Differences and Aging Effects in the Estimation of Geographical Slant Reflect Cognitive or Perceptual Effects?

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Abigail M.; Oh, Jaehyun; Thomson, Christopher J.; Norris, Catherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Several individual differences including age have been suggested to affect the perception of slant. A cross-sectional study of outdoor hill estimation (N = 106) was analyzed using individual difference measures of age, experiential knowledge, fitness, personality traits, and sex. Of particular note, it was found that for participants who reported any experiential knowledge about slant, estimates decreased (i.e., became more accurate) as conscientiousness increased, suggesting that more conscientious individuals were more deliberate about taking their experiential knowledge (rather than perception) into account. Effects of fitness were limited to those without experiential knowledge, suggesting that they, too, may be cognitive rather than perceptual. The observed effects of age, which tended to produce lower, more accurate estimates of hill slant, provide more evidence that older adults do not see hills as steeper. The main effect of age was to lower slant estimates; such effects may be due to implicit experiential knowledge acquired over a lifetime. The results indicate the impact of cognitive, rather than perceptual factors on individual differences in slant estimation. PMID:27698978

  10. Fluoxetine Enhances Neurogenesis in Aged Rats with Cortical Infarcts, but This is not Reflected in a Behavioral Recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Zhike; Liu, Tingting; Zhao, Mei; Zhao, Shanshan; Xiao, Ting; Jolkkonen, Jukka; Zhao, Chuansheng

    2016-02-01

    Age is associated with poor outcome and impaired functional recovery after stroke. Fluoxetine, which is widely used in clinical practice, can regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in young rodents. As the rate of neurogenesis is dramatically reduced during aging, we studied the effect of post-stroke fluoxetine treatment on neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) of dentate gyrus (DG) and whether this would be associated with any behavioral recovery after the cortical infarct in aged rats. Aged rats were randomly assigned to four groups: sham-operated rats, sham-operated rats treated with fluoxetine, rats subjected to cerebral ischemia, and rats with ischemia treated with fluoxetine. Focal cortical ischemia was induced by intracranial injection of vasoconstrictive peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1). Fluoxetine was administered in the drinking water for 3 weeks starting 1 week after ischemia at a dose of 18 mg/kg/day. Behavioral recovery was evaluated on post-stroke days 29 to 31 after which the survival rate and fate of proliferating cells in the SVZ and DG were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was measured with the TUNEL assay. The results indicated that chronic fluoxetine treatment after stroke enhanced the proliferation of newborn neurons in the SVZ, but not in SGZ, and it suppressed perilesional apoptosis. Fluoxetine treatment did not affect the survival or differentiation of newly generated cells in the SVZ i.e., the enhanced neurogenesis was not translated into a behavioral outcome.

  11. Early sponges and toxic protists: possible sources of cryostane, an age diagnostic biomarker antedating Sturtian Snowball Earth.

    PubMed

    Brocks, J J; Jarrett, A J M; Sirantoine, E; Kenig, F; Moczydłowska, M; Porter, S; Hope, J

    2016-03-01

    The period 800-717 million years (Ma) ago, in the lead-up to the Sturtian Snowball glaciation, saw an increase in the diversity of eukaryotic microfossils. To afford an independent and complementary view of this evolutionary period, this study presents the distribution of eukaryotic biomarkers from three pre-Sturtian successions across the supercontinent Rodinia: the ca. 780 Ma Kanpa Formation of the Western Australian Officer Basin, the ca. 800-740 Ma Visingsö Group of Sweden, and the 740 Ma Chuar Group in Arizona, USA. The distribution of eukaryotic steranes is remarkably similar in the three successions but distinct from all other known younger and older sterane assemblages. Cholestane was the only conventional structure, while indigenous steranes alkylated in position C-24, such as ergostane, stigmastane, dinosterane and isopropylcholestane, and n-propylcholestane, were not observed. This sterane distribution appears to be age diagnostic for the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. It attests to the distinct evolutionary state of pre-Snowball eukaryotes, pointing to a taxonomic disparity that was still lower than in the Ediacaran (635-541 Ma). All three basins also show the presence of a new C28 sterane that was tentatively identified as 26-methylcholestane, here named cryostane. The only known extant organisms that can methylate sterols in the 26-position are demosponges. This assignment is plausible as molecular clocks place the appearance of the earliest animals into the pre-Sturtian Neoproterozoic. The unusual 26-methylsterol may have protected sponges, but also other eukaryotes, against their own membranolytic toxins. Some protists release lytic toxins to deter predators and kill eukaryotic prey. As conventional membrane sterols can be the site of attack for these toxins, sterols with unusual side-chain modification protect the cell. This interpretation of cryostane supports fossil evidence of predation in the Chuar Group and promotes hypotheses about the

  12. Possible Tsunami Deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Western Straits of Florida: High Resolution Seismic Reflection Profile Evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman-Lynde, R. P.

    2002-05-01

    High resolution single channel seismic reflection profiles obtained in the western Straits of Florida near the Florida Escarpment show a sedimentary unit overlying the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary that likely formed as a result of the tsunami generated by the bolide impact in the Yucatan Peninsula, located 600-700 km away. The deposit extends as much as 35 km back from the Florida Escarpment and is about 25 km wide. Maximum sediment thickness is approximately 150 m. Average thickness is about 100 m in the portion of the unit extending 15 km back from the escarpment, although thickness varies significantly. The top of the deposit is undulatory and reflects the varying thickness of the unit, because the underlying Cretaceous sedimentary unit is relatively flat. The deposit pinches out at its updip edge. Little internal stratification is evident. The distribution of the deposit appears to be controlled by the presence of a reef that extends above the prominent Mid-Cretaceous Unconformity (MCU) reflector. Elsewhere along the Florida Escarpment, reef growth terminated at the MCU. This reef presented a barrier to movement of the tsunami radiating out from the impact site. The tsunami broke across the reef and formed a deposit in the lee of the reef. Sediment may have been stripped from the top and back of the reef.

  13. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  14. Modeling the relative roles of the foehn wind and urban expansion in the 2002 Beijing heat wave and possible mitigation by high reflective roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hongyun; Shao, Haiyan; Song, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Rapid urbanization has intensified summer heat waves in recent decades in Beijing, China. In this study, effectiveness of applying high-reflectance roofs on mitigating the warming effects caused by urban expansion and foehn wind was simulated for a record-breaking heat wave occurred in Beijing during July 13-15, 2002. Simulation experiments were performed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF version 3.0) model coupled with an urban canopy model. The modeled diurnal air temperatures were compared well with station observations in the city and the wind convergence caused by urban heat island (UHI) effect could be simulated clearly. By increasing urban roof albedo, the simulated UHI effect was reduced due to decreased net radiation, and the simulated wind convergence in the urban area was weakened. Using WRF3.0 model, the warming effects caused by urban expansion and foehn wind were quantified separately, and were compared with the cooling effect due to the increased roof albedo. Results illustrated that the foehn warming effect under the northwesterly wind contributed greatly to this heat wave event in Beijing, while contribution from urban expansion accompanied by anthropogenic heating was secondary, and was mostly evident at night. Increasing roof albedo could reduce air temperature both in the day and at night, and could more than offset the urban expansion effect. The combined warming caused by the urban expansion and the foehn wind could be potentially offset with high-reflectance roofs by 58.8 % or cooled by 1.4 °C in the early afternoon on July 14, 2002, the hottest day during the heat wave.

  15. Late quaternary distribution of the Cycladophora davisiana radiolarian species: Reflection of possible ventilation of the North Pacific intermediate water during the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matul, A. G.; Abelmann, A.; Gersonde, R.; Nürnberg, D.; Tiedemann, R.; Kruglikova, S. B.

    2015-02-01

    A comparison of micropaleontological data on the distribution of the Cycladophora davisiana radiolarian species in the surface sediment layer and the Late Quaternary sediments from the Subarctic Pacific and Far East marginal seas allowed conclusions concerning the possible conditions and occurrence of intermediate waters during the last glacial maximum. We used the modern data on the C. davisiana species, which is a micro-paleontological indicator of the cold oxygen-rich upper intermediate water mass, which is now forming only in the Sea of Okhotsk. The high amount of C. davisiana in sediments of the last glacial maximum may point to the possible formation and expansion of the ventilated intermediate water in the most part of the Subarctic paleo-Pacific: the Bering Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk, within the NW Gyre, and in the Gulf of Alaska.

  16. Update: Interim Guidance for Health Care Providers Caring for Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Polen, Kara N D; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Ellington, Sascha R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Cohn, Amanda; Oster, Alexandra M; Russell, Kate; Kawwass, Jennifer F; Karwowski, Mateusz P; Powers, Ann M; Bertolli, Jeanne; Brooks, John T; Kissin, Dmitry; Villanueva, Julie; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Kuehnert, Matthew; Olson, Christine K; Honein, Margaret A; Rivera, Maria; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A

    2016-04-01

    CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure to include recommendations on counseling women and men with possible Zika virus exposure who are interested in conceiving. This guidance is based on limited available data on persistence of Zika virus RNA in blood and semen. Women who have Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after symptom onset to attempt conception, and men with Zika virus disease should wait at least 6 months after symptom onset to attempt conception. Women and men with possible exposure to Zika virus but without clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease should wait at least 8 weeks after exposure to attempt conception. Possible exposure to Zika virus is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/active-countries.html), or sex (vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or fellatio) without a condom with a man who traveled to or resided in an area of active transmission. Women and men who reside in areas of active Zika virus transmission should talk with their health care provider about attempting conception. This guidance also provides updated recommendations on testing of pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure. These recommendations will be updated when additional data become available.

  17. Higher body mass, older age and higher monounsaturated fatty acids intake reflect better quantitative ultrasound parameters in Inuit preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Hayek, Jessy El; Egeland, Grace; Weiler, Hope

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the effects of selected factors associated with quantitative ultrasound parameters among Inuit preschoolers living in Arctic communities (56° 32′–72° 40′N). Materials and methods Children were selected randomly in summer and early fall (n=296). Dietary intake was assessed through the administration of a 24-h dietary recall (24-h recall) and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Anthropometry was measured using standardized procedures. Plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured using a chemiluminescent assay (Liaison, Diasorin). Quantitative ultrasound parameters were measured using Sahara Sonometer, (Hologic Inc.). Results Children divided by speed of sound (SoS) and broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) quartiles were not different for age (years), sex (M/F), calcium (mg/d) and vitamin D intake (µg/d) and plasma 25(OH)D concentration (nmol/L). However, children in the highest BUA and SoS quartile had higher body mass index (BMI) compared to those in quartile 1. Using multivariate linear regression, higher BMI, older age and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) intake were predictors of BUA while only BMI was a predictor of SoS. Conclusions Further investigation assessing intakes of traditional foods (TF) and nutrients affecting bone parameters along with assessment of vitamin D status of Inuit children across seasons is required. PMID:22789515

  18. Quantitative pteridine fluorescence analysis: A possible age-grading technique for the adult stages of the blow fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Victoria; Hannig, Laura; Kinast, Ronja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Rothweiler, Florian; Zehner, Richard; Amendt, Jens

    2017-03-04

    Age estimation of adult flies could extend the possible window of time for calculating the minimal postmortem interval (PMImin) by means of entomological methods. Currently, this is done by estimating the time required by necrophagous Diptera to reach certain juvenile developmental landmarks, and the method only works until the end of metamorphosis and emergence of the adult fly. Particularly at indoor crime scenes, being able to estimate the age of trapped adult flies would be an important tool with which to extend the calculable PMI beyond the developmental period. Recently, several promising age-dependent morphological and physiological characteristics of adult insects have been investigated in medical and forensic entomology, but the results are still preliminary and restricted to a few species. We examined adults of the forensically relevant blow fly species Calliphora vicina and investigated the fluorescence levels of pteridine, a group of metabolites that accumulates in the eyes during aging. From Day 1 to Day 25 post-emergence, flies were kept at three different temperature regimes (20°C, 25°C, and fluctuating temperatures in the context of a field study) and 12:12 L:D. From Day 1 until Day 7, the fluorescence of pteridine was determined on a daily basis, and thereafter, every three days. The achieved fly age was multiplied with the relevant temperature and converted into accumulated degree-days (ADD). The fluorescence level of pteridine increased linear with increasing ADD (females: R(2)=0.777; males: R(2)=0.802). The difference between sexes was significant (p<0.001). Neither head weight nor temperature had an effect on pteridine fluorescence. Because the variation in pteridine fluorescence increased with increasing ADD, it seems favorable to combine several aging methods for more precise results. In context, we emphasize that different body parts of the same specimen can be used to analyze cuticular hydrocarbons (legs), pteridine fluorescence (head

  19. Evaluating Computer Screen Time and Its Possible Link to Psychopathology in the Context of Age: A Cross-Sectional Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Sharon; Silman, Zmira; Maoz, Hagai; Bloch, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested that high levels of computer use are linked to psychopathology. However, there is ambiguity about what should be considered normal or over-use of computers. Furthermore, the nature of the link between computer usage and psychopathology is controversial. The current study utilized the context of age to address these questions. Our hypothesis was that the context of age will be paramount for differentiating normal from excessive use, and that this context will allow a better understanding of the link to psychopathology. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 185 parents and children aged 3–18 years were recruited in clinical and community settings. They were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding demographics, functional and academic variables, computer use as well as psychiatric screening questionnaires. Using a regression model, we identified 3 groups of normal-use, over-use and under-use and examined known factors as putative differentiators between the over-users and the other groups. Results After modeling computer screen time according to age, factors linked to over-use were: decreased socialization (OR 3.24, Confidence interval [CI] 1.23–8.55, p = 0.018), difficulty to disengage from the computer (OR 1.56, CI 1.07–2.28, p = 0.022) and age, though borderline-significant (OR 1.1 each year, CI 0.99–1.22, p = 0.058). While psychopathology was not linked to over-use, post-hoc analysis revealed that the link between increased computer screen time and psychopathology was age-dependent and solidified as age progressed (p = 0.007). Unlike computer usage, the use of small-screens and smartphones was not associated with psychopathology. Conclusions The results suggest that computer screen time follows an age-based course. We conclude that differentiating normal from over-use as well as defining over-use as a possible marker for psychiatric difficulties must be performed within the context of age. If verified by

  20. Does the myth of Phaethon reflect an impact? Revising the fall of Phaethon and considering a possible relation to the Chiemgau Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglock, B.; Rappenglock, M.

    In Greek Mythology there exists one story that has repeatedly been interpreted to describe the fall of a celestial body: the story of Phaethon, who undertakes a disastrous drive with the sun-chariot of his father Helios. First, the article presents the arguments given by ancient authors for interpreting this story as the reflection of a natural phenomenon. Then details given in the old descriptions of Phaethon's fall are compared with nowadays knowledge of impact phenomena. Furthermore the texts are examined for clues to the time and the location of the hypothesized impact. These considerations called Chiemgau Impact. The impact struck the south-east of Bavaria Germany at some time during the Celtic period and left an extended crater-strewnfield of about 100 craters. A conspicuous intersection between the tradition of the Phaethon story and the up to now known time-frame for the Chiemgau Impact gives new clues for dating the Chiemgau Impact to the time between 600 and 428 B.C.

  1. Neutron reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice; Menelle, Alain

    2015-10-01

    The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples) and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  2. The expression of NLRX1 in C57BL/6 mice cochlear hair cells: Possible relation to aging- and neomycin-induced deafness.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qianqian; Sun, Gaoying; Cao, Zhixin; Yin, Haiyan; Qi, Qi; Wang, Jinghan; Liu, Wenwen; Bai, Xiaohui; Wang, Haibo; Li, Jianfeng

    2016-03-11

    Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing family member X1 (NLRX1) is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor that is predominantly located in mitochondria, which is tightly related to mitochondrial damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, inflammation and apoptosis. The present study was designed to explore whether NLRX1 expresses in C57BL/6 mice cochlear hair cells and, if so, to investigate the possible correlations between NLRX1 and hearing. The location and dynamic expression of NLRX1 were investigated by immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blotting. Hearing thresholds of C57BL/6 mice were measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR). Moreover, the downstream inflammatory and apoptotic pathways regulated by NLRX1 were examined in age-related and neomycin-induced hair cell damage. Data showed that NLRX1 expressed in cytoplasm of C57BL/6 cochlear hair cells, especially in the cilia, which were essential for sound sensation. The expression of NLRX1 in hair cells increased as the mice grew up, and, decreased as they aged. Additionally, the activated apoptotic JNK pathway was detected in 9-month old mice with worse-hearing and 3-month old mice treated with neomycin. Overall, results indicate that NLRX1 may relate to hair cell maturity, hearing formation and maintenance, and promote hair cell apoptosis through JNK pathway induced by aging and neomycin.

  3. Lake dwellers occupation gap in Lake Geneva (France-Switzerland) possibly explained by an earthquake-mass movement-tsunami event during Early Bronze Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Katrina; Marillier, François; Hilbe, Michael; Simpson, Guy; Dupuy, David; Yrro, Ble J. F.; Rachoud-Schneider, Anne-Marie; Corboud, Pierre; Bellwald, Benjamin; Wildi, Walter; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution seismic and sediment core data from the ‘Grand Lac’ basin of Lake Geneva reveal traces of repeated slope instabilities with one main slide-evolved mass-flow (minimum volume 0.13 km3) that originated from the northern lateral slope of the lake near the city of Lausanne. Radiocarbon dating of organic remains sampled from the top of the main deposit gives an age interval of 1865-1608 BC. This date coincides with the age interval for a mass movement event described in the ‘Petit Lac’ basin of Lake Geneva (1872-1622 BC). Because multiple mass movements took place at the same time in different parts of the lake, we consider the most likely trigger mechanism to be a strong earthquake (Mw 6) that occurred in the period between 1872 and 1608 BC. Based on numerical simulations, we show the major deposit near Lausanne would have generated a tsunami with local wave heights of up to 6 m. The combined effects of the earthquake and the following tsunami provide a possible explanation for a gap in lake dwellers occupation along the shores of Lake Geneva revealed by dendrochronological dating of two palafitte archaeological sites.

  4. Late Pleistocene sediments and fossils near the mouth of Mad River, Humboldt County, California: Facies analysis, sequence development, and possible age correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, E.W. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    Study of late Pleistocene-age sediments near the mouth of the Mad River revealed a sequence of nearshore marine and shallow bay deposits. This sequence, bounded by unconformities, is informally named the Mouth of Mad unit. The Mouth of mad unit can be divided into four distinct depositional facies at the study site. The lowest facies are the Nearshore Sand and Estuarine Mud, which lie unconformably on a paleosol. The sand facies grades upward into a high-energy, interbedded Nearshore Sand and Gravel facies containing storm and rip-channel deposits. Above the sand and gravel is a Strand-Plain Sand facies. This sand is overlain by a laterally variable sequence of shell-rich Bay facies. The bay deposits can be further divided into five subfacies: (1) a Bioturbated Sand; (2) a Lower Tidal Flat Mud; (3) a Mixed Sand and Mud; (4) an oyster-rich Bay Mud; and (5) an Upper Tidal Flat Mud. The bay sequence is overlain unconformably by younger late Pleistocene-age marine terrace deposits. The depositional environments represented by these facies progress from a shoreline estuary to nearshore deposits, above storm wave base, and slowly back to shoreline and finally shallow bay conditions. The Mouth of Mad unit represents a transgressive-regressive sequence, involving the development of a protective spit. The uppermost mud within the Mouth of Mad unit has been dated, using thermoluminescence age estimation, at 176 [+-] 33 ka, placing it in the late Pleistocene. The Mouth of Mad unit appears to be younger than the fossiliferous deposits at Elk Head, Crannell Junction, Trinidad Head, Moonstone Beach, and the Falor Formation near Maple Creek, and possibly time equivalent with gravel deposits exposed at the western end of School Road in McKinleyville.

  5. The relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years, and possible mediating effects of availability and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Totland, Torunn H; Lien, Nanna; Bergh, Ingunn H; Bjelland, Mona; Gebremariam, Mekdes K; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Andersen, Lene F

    2013-09-14

    The present study examined the prospective relationship between parental education and adolescents' soft drink intake over 20 months, and possible mediating effects of adolescents' availability and accessibility of soft drinks at home. A total of 866 adolescents, with data on two time points in the Norwegian HEalth In Adolescents (HEIA) cohort study (2007-9), were included in the analyses. Data on intake and determinants of soft drinks were collected from adolescents and both parents by questionnaires. Mediation analyses using linear regression investigated the total and direct effects of parental education on adolescents' soft drink intake from the age of 11-13 years. In order to investigate prospective relationships, two models were set up to measure the (1) prediction and (2) change in consumption over 20 months. Possible mediation effects of availability and perceived accessibility at home were further examined in both models. The results showed that a lower level of parental education predicted a higher intake of soft drinks among adolescents after 20 months, and that higher perceived accessibility of soft drinks reported by adolescents and mothers explained 39 % of the total effect. No relationship was observed between parental education and the change in adolescents' intake of soft drinks over 20 months. Interventions aimed at families with low parental education should target the perceived accessibility of soft drinks at home in order to diminish social differences in adolescents' soft drink consumption.

  6. Elemental analysis of human amniotic fluid and placenta by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence: child weight and maternal age dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, M. L.; Custódio, P. J.; Reus, U.; Prange, A.

    2001-11-01

    This work is an attempt to evaluate the possible influence of the mother's age in trace element concentrations in human amniotic fluid and placenta and whether these concentrations are correlated to the weight of the newborn infants. Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was used to analyze 16 amniotic fluid samples, and the placenta samples were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The whole samples were collected during delivery from healthy mothers and healthy infants and full-term pregnancies. According to the age of the mother, three different groups were considered: 20-25, 25-30 and 30-40 years old. Only two mothers were aged more than 35 years. The weight of the infants ranged from 2.56 to 4.05 kg and three groups were also considered: 2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 kg. The organic matrix of the amniotic fluid samples was removed by treatment with HNO 3 followed by oxygen plasma ashing. Yttrium was used as the internal standard for TXRF analysis. Placenta samples were lyophilized and analyzed by EDXRF without any chemical treatment. Very low levels of Ni and Sr were found in the amniotic fluid samples, and were independent of the age of the mother and weight of the child. Cr, Mn, Se and Pb were at the level of the detection limit. Zn, considered one of the key elements in neonatal health, was not significantly different in the samples analyzed; however, it was weakly related to birth weigh. The concentrations obtained ranged from 0.11 to 0.92 mg/l and 30 to 65 μg/g in amniotic fluid and placenta, respectively. The only two elements which seemed to be significantly correlated with mother's age and newborn weight were Ca and Fe for both types of sample: Ca levels were increased in heavier children and older mothers; however, Fe increased with increasing maternal age, but decreased for heavier babies. The same conclusions were obtained for placenta and amniotic fluid samples. Cu is closely associated with Fe in its function in the organism

  7. [A new possible strategy for prevention and preventive treatment of age-related macular degeneration resting on recent clinical and pathophysiological observations].

    PubMed

    Fischer, Tamás

    2009-03-15

    consideration all possible side effects--ACE-inhibitor and/or AR blocker and statin and aspirin treatment, and trimetazidine as adjuvant medicine, and third generation beta adrenergic receptor blockers: 1. those without macular degeneration but being above the age of 50 and having risk factors inducing endothelial dysfunction; 2. those, who already developed AMD in one eye as a prevention in the second, unaffected eye; and 3. those patients who developed AMD in both eyes in order to ameliorate or merely slow the progression of the disease. Besides, it is advisory and important to eliminate AMD risk factors (cardiovascular risk factors also) inducing oxidative stress with consecutive endothelial dysfunction.

  8. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  9. [Present possibilities of age determination in forensic medicine with emphasis on the importance of measurement of D- and L- forms of aspartic acid. I. An overview].

    PubMed

    Pilin, A; Pudil, F; Gross, R; Herrmannová, M

    1997-02-01

    Evaluation of age of unknown deceased persons belongs to the most important ways to identification. For the time being, morphological methods are used, namely evaluation of age according to Gustafson's method from tooth grindings or by macroscopical estimation of abrasion, transparency of root dentine, alveolar atrophy and number of missing teeth. Evaluation of the data can be influenced by an individual failure and experience showed an age related decrease of precision. Recently, some papers occurred estimating a relation of D, L-forms of aspartic acid which depends on the age with a significant precision.

  10. The Paleozoic tectonothermal evolution of the Bachu Uplift of the Tarim Basin, NW China: Constraints from (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track and vitrinite reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Nansheng; Jiang, Guang; Mei, Qinghua; Chang, Jian; Wang, Shengjun; Wang, Jiyang

    2011-06-01

    This study uses a new application of the apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry technique to investigate the thermal history and tectonic uplift of sedimentary basins. Based on measured apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages, apatite fission track data and equivalent vitrinite reflectance measurements of borehole core samples, the thermal history of the Bachu Uplift of the Tarim Basin was modeled. Our analysis indicates a complicated thermal history in the Bachu Uplift region during the Paleozoic. The thermal gradient initially increased from 28-30 °C/km in the Cambrian period to 30-33 °C/km in the Ordovician period and increased up to 33-34 °C/km in the Silurian period. The thermal gradient began to decrease during the Devonian period and was estimated to be approximately 30 °C/km during the Late Devonian and the Early Carboniferous periods. The low thermal gradient phase was followed by an additional high gradient phase from the Late Carboniferous to the Early Permian when the gradient was approximately 32 °C/km. Thermal gradients in the Paleozoic were substantially different than the present-day gradient (21 °C/km). Tectonothermal modeling results also revealed uplift events in the Bachu Uplift region that shifted from south to north (e.g., ˜150 Ma to ˜100 Ma) and from west to east (e.g., ˜250 Ma to ˜150 Ma). This thermal evolution of the Bachu Uplift is consistent with its tectonic progression. The thermal spike in the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian periods could be related to magmatic activities in the Early Permian period. The Paleozoic thermal history of the Bachu Uplift region of the Tarim Basin could not be reconstructed properly due to a lack of reliable thermal indicators in the Lower Paleozoic successions, and a poor understanding of the thermal evolution of Lower Paleozoic source rocks during the Paleozoic has hindered petroleum exploration in this area. This study provides a new Paleozoic thermal history and shows that the Paleozoic

  11. [Substrates and possible mechanisms of pineal gland moon-sensory function in context of redusome hypothesis of aging and control of biological time in ontogenesis].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2008-01-01

    As a result of comparison of the normative factors on human pineal gland volume (8 age groups, n=411) with similar factors obtained in the days of the moon phase extremes (n=49) the following phenomena have been determined. As a rule all the moon phase extremes, in particular the new moon, are accompanied by an appreciable reduce of pineal gland volume, a sort of systole. These changes depend on the age factor. The results of the research advance indirect arguments for the redusome hypothesis of aging.

  12. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  13. Submerged Reflectance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    at 450 and viewed at 0* (i.e., viewed nor1al to the surface). Instruments for performing this particular bi-directional reflectance measurement are...are described below. 3.1 THEORY OF ABSOLUTE SUBMERGED REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENT An absolute measurement of the reflectance of a surface can be obtained by...relative reflectance measurement is shown in Figure 2. The irradiance across the target will vary within the field of view of the photometer because

  14. Reflecting on reflection: a personal encounter.

    PubMed

    Glen, S; Clark, A; Nicol, M

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports a retrospective study of a Senior Lecturer in Nursing Studies experience of supervising a student teacher who, as part of her teaching placement experience, utilised 'Critically Reflective Analysis of an Educational Event' as a means to assess her teaching in the practice setting. The Senior Lecturer and student nurse teacher used an external 'advisor' to facilitate their meta-reflection on the theoretical perspectives that informed the process in which they were engaged. The paper raises the following questions for consideration--What is the link between ability to reflect and quality of practice? Is it possible to utilise reflective tutorials as a means of assessing professional competence whilst at the same time encouraging personal and professional development? Is the ability to reflect on practice dependent on the context? Should we assume that all practitioners have the necessary skills to supervise students in practice and what preparation and support is needed? The paper demonstrates that by introducing 'Critically Reflective Analysis of an Education Event' into the student teachers' curriculum the role of both supervisor and student teacher was challenged and changed. The paper also demonstrates that reflective tutorials are not wholly a retrospective business. They are creative, or recreative of a teaching experience, as well as to some extent representing it. Finally, even if one cannot speak in Kuhnian parlance, of a conceptual revolution, it would seem legitimate to say, in Schon's terms, that the contextual frame in which professional problems are addressed has undergone significant change.

  15. Presence of dopa and amino acid hydroperoxides in proteins modified with advanced glycation end products (AGEs): amino acid oxidation products as a possible source of oxidative stress induced by AGE proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, S; Fu, M X; Baynes, J W; Thorpe, S R; Dean, R T

    1998-01-01

    Glycation and subsequent Maillard or browning reactions of glycated proteins, leading to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), are involved in the chemical modification of proteins during normal aging and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Oxidative conditions accelerate the browning of proteins by glucose, and AGE proteins also induce oxidative stress responses in cells bearing AGE receptors. These observations have led to the hypothesis that glycation-induced pathology results from a cycle of oxidative stress, increased chemical modification of proteins via the Maillard reaction, and further AGE-dependent oxidative stress. Here we show that the preparation of AGE-collagen by incubation with glucose under oxidative conditions in vitro leads not only to glycation and formation of the glycoxidation product Nepsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), but also to the formation of amino acid oxidation products on protein, including m-tyrosine, dityrosine, dopa, and valine and leucine hydroperoxides. The formation of both CML and amino acid oxidation products was prevented by anaerobic, anti-oxidative conditions. Amino acid oxidation products were also formed when glycated collagen, prepared under anti-oxidative conditions, was allowed to incubate under aerobic conditions that led to the formation of CML. These experiments demonstrate that amino acid oxidation products are formed in proteins during glycoxidation reactions and suggest that reactive oxygen species formed by redox cycling of dopa or by the metal-catalysed decomposition of amino acid hydroperoxides, rather than by redox activity or reactive oxygen production by AGEs on protein, might contribute to the induction of oxidative stress by AGE proteins. PMID:9461515

  16. Aging decreases collagen IV expression in vivo in the dermo-epidermal junction and in vitro in dermal fibroblasts: possible involvement of TGF-β1.

    PubMed

    Feru, Jezabel; Delobbe, Etienne; Ramont, Laurent; Brassart, Bertrand; Terryn, Christine; Dupont-Deshorgue, Aurelie; Garbar, Christian; Monboisse, Jean-Claude; Maquart, Francois-Xavier; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    Collagen IV is a major component of the dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ). To study expression of collagen IV upon aging in the DEJ and dermal fibroblasts isolated from the same patients. A model of senescent fibroblasts was developed in order to identify biological compounds that might restore the level of collagen IV. Skin fragments of women (30 to 70 years old) were collected. Localisation of collagen IV expression in the DEJ was studied by immunofluorescence. Fibroblast collagen IV expression was studied by real-time PCR, ELISA, and western blotting. Premature senescence was simulated by exposing fibroblasts to subcytotoxic H2O2 concentrations. Collagen IV decreased in the DEJ and fibroblasts relative to age. TGF-β1 treatment significantly increased collagen IV gene and protein expression in fibroblasts and restored expression in the model of senescence. Addition of TGF-β1-neutralizing antibody to fibroblast cultures decreased collagen IV expression. Taken together, the results suggest that the decrease in collagen IV in the DEJ, relative to age, could be due to a decrease in collagen IV expression by senescent dermal fibroblasts and may involve TGF-β1 signalling.

  17. Possible age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) and corresponding change in echolocation parameters in a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin.

    PubMed

    Li, Songhai; Wang, Ding; Wang, Kexiong; Hoffmann-Kuhnt, Matthias; Fernando, Nimal; Taylor, Elizabeth A; Lin, Wenzhi; Chen, Jialin; Ng, Timothy

    2013-11-15

    The hearing and echolocation clicks of a stranded Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in Zhuhai, China, were studied. This animal had been repeatedly observed in the wild before it was stranded and its age was estimated to be ~40 years. The animal's hearing was measured using a non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) method. Echolocation clicks produced by the dolphin were recorded when the animal was freely swimming in a 7.5 m (width)×22 m (length)×4.8 m (structural depth) pool with a water depth of ~2.5 m. The hearing and echolocation clicks of the studied dolphin were compared with those of a conspecific younger individual, ~13 years of age. The results suggested that the cut-off frequency of the high-frequency hearing of the studied dolphin was ~30-40 kHz lower than that of the younger individual. The peak and centre frequencies of the clicks produced by the older dolphin were ~16 kHz lower than those of the clicks produced by the younger animal. Considering that the older dolphin was ~40 years old, its lower high-frequency hearing range with lower click peak and centre frequencies could probably be explained by age-related hearing loss (presbycusis).

  18. Elevated amyloid β production in senescent retinal pigment epithelium, a possible mechanism of subretinal deposition of amyloid β in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiying; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Morita, Ikuo

    2012-06-22

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of legal blindness in the elderly individuals in developed countries. Subretinally-deposited amyloid β (Aβ) is a main contributor of developing AMD. However, the mechanism causing Aβ deposition in AMD eyes is unknown. Aging is the most significant risk of AMD, thus, we examined the effect of aging on subretinal Aβ deposition. mRNAs and cell lysates were isolated from retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells derived from 24-month-old (24M RPE) and 2-month-old (2M RPE) C57BL/6 mice. Aβ concentration in culture supernatants was measured by ELISA. Activity and expression of proteins that regulate Aβ level were examined by activity assay and real time PCR. Effect of β-secretase (BACE) on Aβ production was examined by siRNA silencing. Aβ amounts in supernatants of 24M RPE were significantly higher than 2M RPE. Activity and mRNA levels of neprilysin, an Aβ degrading enzyme, were significantly decreased in 24M RPE compared to 2M RPE. PCR analysis found that BACE2 was significantly more abundantly expressed than BACE1 in RPE cells, however, inactivation of BACE2 gene did not affect Aβ production. BACE1 protein amounts did not differ between 24M and 2M RPE, however, BACE1 activity was significantly higher in 24M RPE compared to 2M RPE. There were no significant changes in the activities of α- or γ-secretase between 2M and 24M RPE. In conclusion, RPE cells produce more amounts of Aβ when they are senescent, and this is probably caused by a decrease in Aβ degradation due to a reduction in the expression and activity of neprilysin and an increase in Aβ synthesis due to increased activity of BACE1.

  19. Prevention of age-related endothelial dysfunction by habitual aerobic exercise in healthy humans: possible role of nuclear factor κB.

    PubMed

    Walker, Ashley E; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Pierce, Gary L; Nowlan, Molly J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Habitual aerobic exercise prevents age-related impairments in endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). We have hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) impairs EDD with sedentary aging, and habitual aerobic exercise prevents this age-related suppression of EDD by NF-κB. To test this hypothesis, we have inhibited NF-κB signalling via oral salsalate administration in healthy older aerobic exercise-trained adults (OT, n=14, 58 ± 2 years), older non-exercising adults (ON, n=16, 61 ± 1 years) and young non-exercising controls (YN, n=8, 23 ± 1 years). Salsalate reduced endothelial cell expression of NF-κB p65 by ~25% in ON (P<0.05) but did not significantly change expression in OT or YN (P>0.05). EDD, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was improved by salsalate in ON (4.0 ± 0.7% compared with 6.8 ± 0.7%, placebo compared with salsalate, P<0.001) but did not change with salsalate in OT or YN (OT: 7.2 ± 0.7% compared with 7.7 ± 0.6%; YN: 7.6 ± 0.9% compared with 8.1 ± 0.8%; placebo compared with salsalate, P>0.05). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by salsalate in any group (P>0.05). In ON, vitamin C infusion improved FMD by ~30% during placebo (P<0.001) but had no affect during salsalate (P>0.05). In OT and YN, vitamin C infusion did not affect FMD during either placebo or salsalate (P>0.05). Salsalate reduced endothelial cell nitrotyrosine content by ~25% and NADPH oxidase p47phox expression by ~30% in ON (P<0.05) but had no effect in OT or YN (P>0.05). Our results suggest that endothelial NF-κB signalling is associated with oxidative stress-related impairment of EDD in healthy non-exercising but not aerobically exercising older adults. This may be a key mechanism by which regular aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function and reduces cardiovascular risk with aging.

  20. Reduction of cytochrome P4501A with age in Atlantic tomcod from the St. Lawrence Estuary, Canada: relationship with emaciation and possible effect of contamination.

    PubMed

    Couillard, C M; Wirgin, I I; Lebeuf, M; Légaré, B

    2004-06-24

    This study reports a reduction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in large-sized, older Atlantic tomcod (Microgadus tomcod) collected in the St. Lawrence Estuary (Quebec, Canada) and investigates its relationship over a 4-year period to sex, gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF) and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) mRNA levels. In addition, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a subsample of fish. The reduction of EROD activity with age was observed each year in both sexes and was not related to the GSI. A high proportion of large-sized fish, with a body length greater or equal to 225 mm, were emaciated (CF < or = 0.55). A 6-16-fold reduction of EROD activity and a 2-4-fold reduction of CYP1A mRNA levels were observed in large-sized emaciated females compared to small-sized non-emaciated females. Concentrations of PCBs in liver increased from 1000 to 4000 ng/g lipid weight as the hepatic lipid content and the CF decreased. The inter-annual variation of EROD activity was associated with the variation in CF with lowest EROD activity and CF in 1999. When emaciated fish were excluded from the analyses, EROD activity was still lower (2-5-fold) in large compared to small fish and was no longer related to CF. For similar levels of CYP1A mRNA, EROD activity was lower in large compared to small fish. Thus, there was post-transcriptional inhibition of CYP1A activity in large-sized tomcod, indicative of cellular dysfunction. This response may be related to aging, chronic exposure to toxic contaminants or to selective pressures favoring less responsive individuals. This study demonstrates that fish age, size, and CF are important variables to consider in studies using EROD activity as an indicator of environmental contamination. The main finding was that a large part of the reduction of CYP1A with age in St. Lawrence Estuary tomcod was associated with severe emaciation of a large proportion of large-sized fish. Hepatic

  1. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  2. Accretionary Complexes: Recorders of Plate Tectonism and Environmental Conditions Through Time on Earth and Possibly Those Early Noachian (Hadean-equivalent) in Age on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Miyamoto, H.; Viviano-Beck, C. E.; Anderson, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    On Earth, highlighted in Japan, North America, Europe, and Greenland, accretionary complexes comprehensively record information compiled while the oceanic crust is en route from the mid-oceanic ridge to the subduction zone, spanning hundreds of millions of years. At the zone, oceanic crustal materials are stacked along thrust faults and/or subducted to be eventually recycled into the mantle. The surviving accretionary-complex materials include Ocean Plate Stratigraphy (OPS). The ideal succession of the OPS (from oldest to youngest) is mid-ocean ridge basalt, pelagic sediment including radiolarian chert, hemipelagic sediment including siliceous shale, and trench turbidite deposits. Therefore, accretionary complexes often record diverse environmental conditions from deep- to shallow-marine environments, including those perturbed by magmatic, impact, and possibly extrasolar events. Stratigraphic, impact-crater, paleotectonic, and magnetic-anomaly information point to Early Noachian (Hadean-equivalent) Martian geologic terrains; they are extremely ancient environmental records compared to those destroyed on Earth due to differences in planetary mass and evolutional states. Such record a dynamic phase of the evolution of Mars, including interacting ocean, landmass, and atmosphere, as well as possible plate tectonism during an operating dynamo. A candidate accretionary complex and nearby outcrops of steeply dipping beds comprising olistostrome-like blocks, nearby and in the Claritas rise, respectively, may be key evidence of major crustal shortening related to plate tectonism, in addition to being extremely ancient environmental records. Claritas rise is a rugged promontory about 250 km across, which forms the northwest part of an extremely ancient and large mountain range, Thaumasia highlands, with a length nearing 2,400 km, or approximating that of the Himalayas. Future investigation of the ancient Martian basement, which includes geochemical analyses for possible OPS

  3. Does the School Performance Variable Used in the International Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study Reflect Students' School Grades?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder-Puig, Rosemarie; Griebler, Robert; Samdal, Oddrun; King, Matthew A.; Freeman, John; Duer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the pressure that educators and policy makers are under to achieve academic standards for students, understanding the relationship of academic success to various aspects of health is important. The international Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) questionnaire, being used in 41 countries with different school and…

  4. Possible involvement of NO/NOS signaling in hippocampal amyloid-beta production induced by transient focal cerebral ischemia in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Wang, Wei; Wang, Che; Tang, Yi-Yuan

    2010-02-12

    In the present study, to define the roles of nitric oxide (NO) signaling in amyloid-beta (A beta) production after transient cerebral ischemia, extracellular levels of NO and A beta were monitored by intracerebral microdialysis in the hippocampus of aged rats exposed to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R). The results indicated that 1-h MCAO significantly upregulated hippocampal NO and A beta levels. In addition, the NO elevation preceded the A beta changes. The Western blotting suggested that acute hypoperfusion could increase the expression of beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) but not BACE2. The enhanced NO concentration in acute stage of MCAO/R was coincident with increased eNOS expression, while in subacute stage was coincident with increased iNOS and nNOS. Our results also indicated that pretreatment of L-NAME, one non-selective NOS inhibitor could decrease the BACE1 expression, reverse both NO and A beta changes and rescue the delayed neuronal death. These preliminary findings indicated that activation of NOS/NO signaling system could trigger A beta production through BACE1 pathway during acute ischemic episode. The present data may be important in understanding, at least in part, the pathological role of NO/NOS system involved in hippocampal A beta production and neuronal damage induced by transient cerebral ischemia.

  5. Subjective Sleep Quality as a Possible Mediator in the Relationship between Personality Traits and Depressive Symptoms in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Peck, Katlyn; Mallya, Sasha; Lupien, Sonia J.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the mediating role of sleep in the relationship between personality traits and depressive symptoms in a group of community-dwelling men and women (Mage = 57.92, SD = 4.00). Participants completed the short form NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). High neuroticism and low conscientiousness was associated with poor sleep, as well as greater depressive symptom severity. Partial indirect mediation effects were found between personality traits (i.e., neuroticism and conscientiousness) and depressive symptoms through self-report sleep measures. An alternative model was also explored, entering depression as the mediator; however a smaller portion of the variance was explained by this model, compared with the hypothesized model. The current study provides preliminary information regarding the mechanisms that influence the relationship between personality traits, sleep, and depression among a group of community-dwelling middle-aged adults. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:27285159

  6. Clearance of autophagy-associated dying retinal pigment epithelial cells – a possible source for inflammation in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Szatmári-Tóth, M; Kristóf, E; Veréb, Z; Akhtar, S; Facskó, A; Fésüs, L; Kauppinen, A; Kaarniranta, K; Petrovski, G

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo different forms of cell death, including autophagy-associated cell death during age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Failure of macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs) to engulf the different dying cells in the retina may result in the accumulation of debris and progression of AMD. ARPE-19 and primary human RPE cells undergo autophagy-associated cell death upon serum depletion and oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Autophagy was revealed by elevated light-chain-3 II (LC3-II) expression and electron microscopy, while autophagic flux was confirmed by blocking the autophago-lysosomal fusion using chloroquine (CQ) in these cells. The autophagy-associated dying RPE cells were engulfed by human macrophages, DCs and living RPE cells in an increasing and time-dependent manner. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) decreased the engulfment of the autophagy-associated dying cells by macrophages, whereas sorting out the GFP-LC3-positive/autophagic cell population or treatment by the glucocorticoid triamcinolone (TC) enhanced it. Increased amounts of IL-6 and IL-8 were released when autophagy-associated dying RPEs were engulfed by macrophages. Our data suggest that cells undergoing autophagy-associated cell death engage in clearance mechanisms guided by professional and non-professional phagocytes, which is accompanied by inflammation as part of an in vitro modeling of AMD pathogenesis. PMID:27607582

  7. Reflecting on Reflecting on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses three broad themes--reflection, power, and negotiation--that are evidenced in all of the articles in this issue. In this article, the author tries to transgress the articles at some middling altitude to seek some broader thematics. His observations about reflection, power, and negotiation do transcend individual efforts,…

  8. Being as Normal as Possible: How Young People Ages 16–25 Years Evaluate the Risks and Benefits of Treatment for Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    McDonagh, Janet E.; Thompson, Ben; Foster, Helen E.; Kay, Lesley; Myers, Andrea; Rapley, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore how young people (ages 16–25 years) with inflammatory arthritis evaluate the risks and benefits of treatment, particularly treatment with biologic therapies. Methods This qualitative study involved in‐depth interviews (n = 44) with young people, trusted others (e.g., parents), and health professionals; audio‐recordings (n = 4) of biologic therapy–related consultations; and focus groups (n = 4). Analysis used techniques from grounded theory (open and focused coding, constant comparison, memoing, and mapping). Results Young people aspired to live what they perceived as a “normal” life. They saw treatment as presenting both an opportunity for and a threat to achieving this. Treatment changes were therefore subject to complex and ongoing evaluation, covering administration, associated restrictions, anticipated effects, and side effects. Information sources included expert opinion (of professionals and other patients) and personal experience. Previous treatments provided important reference points. Faced with uncertain outcomes, young people made provisional decisions. Both trusted others and health professionals expressed concern that young people were too focused on short‐term outcomes. Conclusion Young people value treatment that helps them to live a “normal” life. There is more to this than controlling disease. The emotional, social, and vocational consequences of treatment can be profound and lasting: opportunities to discuss the effects of treatment should be provided early and regularly. While making every effort to ensure understanding of the long‐term clinical consequences of taking or not taking medication, the wider impact of treatment should not be dismissed. Only through understanding young people's values, preferences, and concerns can a sustainable balance between disease control and treatment burden be achieved. PMID:27040737

  9. Zinc Binding to the Tyr402 and His402 Allotypes of Complement Factor H: Possible Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Ruodan; Farabella, Irene; Schumacher, Felix F.; Miller, Ami; Gor, Jayesh; Martin, Andrew C.R.; Jones, David T.; Lengyel, Imre; Perkins, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The Tyr402His polymorphism of complement factor H (FH) with 20 short complement regulator (SCR) domains is associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). How FH contributes to disease pathology is not clear. Both FH and high concentrations of zinc are found in drusen deposits, the key feature of AMD. Heterozygous FH is inhibited by zinc, which causes FH to aggregate. Here, zinc binding to homozygous FH was studied. By analytical ultracentrifugation, large amounts of oligomers were observed with both the native Tyr402 and the AMD-risk His402 homozygous allotypes of FH and both the recombinant SCR-6/8 allotypes with Tyr/His402. X-ray scattering also showed that both FH and SCR-6/8 allotypes strongly aggregated at > 10 μM zinc. The SCR-1/5 and SCR-16/20 fragments were less likely to bind zinc. These observations were supported by bioinformatics predictions. Starting from known zinc binding sites in crystal structures, we predicted 202 putative partial surface zinc binding sites in FH, most of which were in SCR-6. Metal site prediction web servers also suggested that SCR-6 and other domains bind zinc. Predicted SCR-6/8 dimer structures showed that zinc binding sites could be formed at the protein–protein interface that would lead to daisy-chained oligomers. It was concluded that zinc binds weakly to FH at multiple surface locations, most probably within the functionally important SCR-6/8 domains, and this explains why zinc inhibits FH activity. Given the high pathophysiological levels of bioavailable zinc present in subretinal deposits, we discuss how zinc binding to FH may contribute to deposit formation and inflammation associated with AMD. PMID:21396937

  10. Three-micron extinction of the Titan haze in the 250-700 km altitude range: Possible evidence of a particle-aging process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, Régis; Kim, Sang Joon; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    2015-01-01

    Context. The chemical nature of the Titan haze is poorly understood. The investigation carried out by the Cassini-Huygens suite of instruments is bringing new insights into this question. Aims: This work aims at deriving the vertical variation of the spectral structure of the 3.3-3.4 μm absorption feature of the Titan haze from Cassini VIMS solar occultation data recorded between 250 and 700 km altitude. Methods: We computed the transmittance of Titan's atmosphere using a spherical shell model and a radiative transfer code including the influence of CH4, CH3D, and C2H6, as well as the effects of absorption and scattering by the haze particles. We derived the haze extinction from a comparison of the synthetic spectra with the VIMS solar occultation spectra. Results: We find a marked change in the relative amplitudes of the 3.33 and 3.38 μm features, which are characteristic of aromatic (double C=C chains or rings) or aliphatic (single C-C chains) structural groups, respectively. The pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics (uncorrected for the absolute band strengths) varies from 3.3 ± 1.9 at 580-700 km to 0.9 ± 0.1 at 350-450 km, and is 0.5 ± 0.1 around 250 km. The structural change from the aromatic to the aliphatic type between 580 and 480 km appears to correspond to a spontaneous aging of the particles - a transition between unannealed and hardened particles - while the further decrease of the pseudo-ratio of aromatics to aliphatics below 480 km may be related to the coating of the core particles by condensates such as heavy alkanes. VIMS transmission spectra data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/573/A21

  11. Reflectance Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to develop a set of computational tools and media abstractions for the terrain bidirectional reflectance problem. The modeling of soil and vegetation surfaces has been emphasized with a gradual increase in the complexity of the media geometries treated. Pragmatic problems involved in the combined modeling of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric effects have been of interest and one of the objectives has been to describe the canopy reflectance problem in a classical radiative transfer sense permitting easier inclusion of our work by other workers in the radiative transfer field.

  12. [Nutrition, aging, old age].

    PubMed

    Iván, L

    1998-12-06

    In humans there is evidence that the restriction of total caloric intake appears to be more important than the restriction of any particular macronutrient. Today the mechanism of the effect of caloric restriction is unknown. With advancing age and the occurrence of concomitant illness there is an increased risk of developing nutritional deficiencies. Altered nutritional status is associated with the pathogenesis of a number of common diseases of the elderly, thus it would appear that nutritional modulation and manipulation represents one possible approach to successful aging and a healthy longevity. The conceptual framework of the paper suggests the need of a newer light of the aging processes namely by a holistic human-gero-ecological model and a personality oriented geriatry. There are accentuated the role of the nutrients and vitamins, the food intake and drug-nutrients interactions and the meanings of the differences between the normal and pathological aging.

  13. Cervical vertebral bone age in girls.

    PubMed

    Mito, Toshinori; Sato, Koshi; Mitani, Hideo

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish cervical vertebral bone age as a new index for objectively evaluating skeletal maturation on cephalometric radiographs. Using cephalometric radiographs of 176 girls (ages 7.0-14.9 years), we measured cervical vertebral bodies and determined a regression formula to obtain cervical vertebral bone age. Next, using cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of another 66 girls (ages 8.0-13.9 years), we determined the correlation between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age using the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 method. The following results were obtained: (1) a regression formula was determined to obtain cervical vertebral bone age based on ratios of measurements in the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies; (2) the correlation coefficient for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.869) was significantly (P <.05) higher than that for the relationship between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (0.705); and (3) the difference (absolute value) between the cervical vertebral bone age and bone age (0.75 years) was significantly (P <.001) smaller than that between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (1.17 years). These results suggest that cervical vertebral bone age reflects skeletal maturity because it approximates bone age, which is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating skeletal maturation. Using cervical vertebral bone age, it might be possible to evaluate maturity in a detailed and objective manner on cephalometric radiographs.

  14. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  15. Reflections on the theory of "silver bullet" octreotide tracers: implications for ligand-receptor interactions in the age of peptides, heterodimers, receptor mosaics, truncated receptors, and multifractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The classical attitude of Nuclear Medicine practitioners on matters of peptide-receptor interactions has maintained an intrinsic monogamic character since many years. New advances in the field of biochemistry and even in clinical Nuclear Medicine have challenged this type of thinking, which prompted me to work on this review. The central issue of this paper will be the use of somatostatin analogs, i.e., octreotide, in clinical imaging procedures as well as in relation to neuroendocirne tumors. Newly described characteristics of G-protein coupled receptors such as the formation of receptor mosaics will be discussed. A small section will enumerate the regulatory processes found in the cell membrane. Possible new interpretations, other than tumor detection, based on imaging procedures with somatostatin analogs will be presented. The readers will be taken to situations such as inflammation, nociception, mechanosensing, chemosensing, fibrosis, taste, and vascularity where somatostatin is involved. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy will be used as a model for the development of multi-agent therapeutics. The final graphical summary depicts the multifactorial properties of ligand binding. PMID:22214590

  16. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  17. A bump on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Boso Peninsula, Japan inferred from seismic reflection surveys: A possible asperity of the 1703 Genroku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumura, Noriko; Komada, Nozomi; Sano, Junpei; Kikuchi, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Ito, Tanio; Sato, Toshinori; Miyauchi, Takahiro; Kawamura, Tomonori; Shishikura, Masanobu; Abe, Shintaro; Sato, Hiroshi; Kawanaka, Taku; Suda, Shigeyuki; Higashinaka, Motonori; Ikawa, Takeshi

    2009-07-01

    To reveal a subsurface structure beneath the southern part of the Boso Peninsula, Japan, where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting and great interplate earthquakes associated with the subduction occur repeatedly, we conducted a new seismic reflection survey from March to April 2005 (Boso05). We also reanalyzed old multi-channel seismic (MCS) survey data that had been collected off the Boso Peninsula in 1978 (SK78). We found clear strong reflectors beneath the southern coast of the Boso Peninsula. Since common mid points (CMPs) were distributed widely beneath the study area owing to the design of the receiver and shot lines of Boso05, we selected appropriate directions of stacking lines to get the best image of the dipping reflectors by optimum azimuth search (OAS) processing. We carefully checked the seismic profiles at the intersections of the survey lines to confirm the NNE-dipping configuration of the strong reflectors. These strong reflectors were interpreted as the upper surface of the subducting PHS plate from their locations and the estimated velocities beneath the reflectors. Furthermore, these reflectors revealed a topographic high (bump) beneath the southern coast of the Boso Peninsula where the source fault of the Genroku earthquake of 1703 is thought to be located.

  18. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  19. Age Limits.

    PubMed

    Antfolk, Jan

    2017-03-01

    Whereas women of all ages prefer slightly older sexual partners, men-regardless of their age-have a preference for women in their 20s. Earlier research has suggested that this difference between the sexes' age preferences is resolved according to women's preferences. This research has not, however, sufficiently considered that the age range of considered partners might change over the life span. Here we investigated the age limits (youngest and oldest) of considered and actual sex partners in a population-based sample of 2,655 adults (aged 18-50 years). Over the investigated age span, women reported a narrower age range than men and women tended to prefer slightly older men. We also show that men's age range widens as they get older: While they continue to consider sex with young women, men also consider sex with women their own age or older. Contrary to earlier suggestions, men's sexual activity thus reflects also their own age range, although their potential interest in younger women is not likely converted into sexual activity. Compared to homosexual men, bisexual and heterosexual men were more unlikely to convert young preferences into actual behavior, supporting female-choice theory.

  20. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  1. Novel Techniques for Enhanced Reflectivity Infrared Mirrors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    photodissociation display good reflectivity. Chemical vapor deposition of ZnSe layers has been used to explore the crystalline structures possible with different substrates and growth parameters. (Author)

  2. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  3. Reflections on Therapeutic Recreation and Youth: Possibilities for Broadening Horizons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Linda L.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on youth, discussing current youth-focused therapeutic recreation research and practice, comparing this issue with another theme journal on youth (emphasizing the roles of professional preparation and professional organizations), examining the role of therapeutic recreation and adventure therapy, and noting theoretical…

  4. Some scientific reflections on possible mechanisms of general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Carmody, J J

    2009-03-01

    The challenge to achieve a gestalt understanding of general anaesthesia is really dependent upon an understanding of the elusive concept of consciousness. Until very recently, anaesthesia has been understood to depend fundamentally on the lipid solubility of anaesthetic agents, unsurprisingly a misleading view which has followed from the greater simplicity of lipid chemistry compared with protein chemistry and, it is contended here, from a serious misunderstanding of the older experimental data. Nonetheless, because an over-simplistic view of lipids pertains in much pharmacological thinking about anaesthesia, this paper devotes some attention to potentially relevant aspects of lipid function and also to concepts of anaesthesia which are based on the properties of intracellular and extracellular water. It is argued that the more correct pharmacological explanation is likely to be action at hydrophobic sites of crucial functional molecules, most plausibly protein molecules: empirical data which support such actions are presented and considered. Anaesthetic actions on a range of such proteins are discussed, with the emphasis on general neurophysiological principles, with the intent of avoiding the mire into which detailed consideration of actions at specific sites of putative function in the central nervous system can lead. Those experimentally-documented actions include influences on the proteins which constitute the Na(+)-ion conductance channels in axonal membranes (which are the basis for action potentials); on the Ca(2+)-ion channels which are crucial for neurotransmitter secretion from nerve terminals; on the properties of the ion channels in the post-synaptic membranes of the neurons which are the targets for transmitter action; on components of the "second messenger" systems of target neurons; as well as actions on metabolically significant enzymes (notably cytochrome P450). The overall argument is that the concept of anaesthetic actions on lipids should be abandoned in favour of one which is consistent with the general pharmacological principle of drug action at specific receptor sites, i.e. a targeted action at unique loci on relevant proteins.

  5. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  6. Nondestructive Determination of the Age of 20th-Century Oil-Binder Ink Prints Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR): A Case Study with Postage Stamps from the Łódź Ghetto.

    PubMed

    Bower, Nathan W; Blanchet, Conor J K; Epstein, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    The ability to determine the production date for a painting or print would be of great benefit in the forensic detection of fakes and forgeries as well as in art history and conservation. Changes in the pigments used at different times have been invaluable in detecting incongruities that suggest fraud, but relatively little work has been published that uses the chemical changes in oil binders as they dry to determine when an ink print or an oil painting was made. Using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and samples with known dates, we calibrate the drying of oil binders in inks and paints and cross-validate the paints with pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We apply the ink calibration to a case study involving the age determination of possible philatelic counterfeits from a World War II Jewish Ghetto in Occupied Poland, obtaining a date of 1946 ± 6 (1 s, n = 9) for the genuine stamps, and 1963 ± 16 (1 s, n = 19) for the various reproductions.

  7. Age effects in the human middle ear: Wideband acoustical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, M. Patrick; Sanford, Chris A.

    2004-12-01

    Studies that have examined age effects in the human middle ear using either admittance measures at 220 or 660 Hz or multifrequency tympanometry from 200 to 2000 Hz have had conflicting results. Several studies have suggested an increase in admittance with age, while several others have suggested a decrease in admittance with age. A third group of studies found no significant age effect. This study examined 226 Hz tympanometry and wideband energy reflectance and impedance at ambient pressure in a group of 40 young adults and a group of 30 adults with age >=60 years. The groups did not differ in admittance measures of the middle ear at 226 Hz. However, significant age effects were found in wideband energy reflectance and impedance. In particular, in older adults there was a comparative decrease in reflectance from 800 to 2000 Hz but an increase near 4000 Hz. The results suggest a decrease in middle-ear stiffness with age. The findings of this study hold relevance for understanding the aging process in the auditory system, for the establishment of normative data for wideband energy reflectance, for the possibility of a conductive component to presbycusis, and for the interpretation of otoacoustic emission measurements. .

  8. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  9. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  10. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    PubMed

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  11. Exploring the Possibilities of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanton, Jonathan F.

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, the Board and staff of the MacArthur Foundation have been exploring the implications of the digital age. They are engaged in a continuous and purposeful meditation on technological innovations and their possibilities for all the work they do. Their working hypothesis is that the digital revolution will rank with the…

  12. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  13. Age matters.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James Edgar; Marinelli, Michela

    2009-03-01

    The age of an experimental animal can be a critical variable, yet age matters are often overlooked within neuroscience. Many studies make use of young animals, without considering possible differences between immature and mature subjects. This is especially problematic when attempting to model traits or diseases that do not emerge until adulthood. In this commentary we discuss the reasons for this apparent bias in age of experimental animals, and illustrate the problem with a systematic review of published articles on long-term potentiation. Additionally, we review the developmental stages of a rat and discuss the difficulty of using the weight of an animal as a predictor of its age. Finally, we provide original data from our laboratory and review published data to emphasize that development is an ongoing process that does not end with puberty. Developmental changes can be quantitative in nature, involving gradual changes, rapid switches, or inverted U-shaped curves. Changes can also be qualitative. Thus, phenomena that appear to be unitary may be governed by different mechanisms at different ages. We conclude that selection of the age of the animals may be critically important in the design and interpretation of neurobiological studies.

  14. Digital Storytelling: Expanding Media Possibilities for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLellan, Hilary, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stories offer a powerful framework for engagement, reflection, and other important skills that young people need to learn. As digital media have expanded, so have the possibilities for creating stories. Here, several examples of those new possibilities are examined, examples that highlight student-produced online broadcasting initiatives,…

  15. Planar Reflection of Gaseous Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damazo, Jason Scott

    Pipes containing flammable gaseous mixtures may be subjected to internal detonation. When the detonation normally impinges on a closed end, a reflected shock wave is created to bring the flow back to rest. This study built on the work of Karnesky (2010) and examined deformation of thin-walled stainless steel tubes subjected to internal reflected gaseous detonations. A ripple pattern was observed in the tube wall for certain fill pressures, and a criterion was developed that predicted when the ripple pattern would form. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was performed using Johnson-Cook material properties; the pressure loading created by reflected gaseous detonations was accounted for with a previously developed pressure model. The residual plastic strain between experiments and computations was in good agreement. During the examination of detonation-driven deformation, discrepancies were discovered in our understanding of reflected gaseous detonation behavior. Previous models did not accurately describe the nature of the reflected shock wave, which motivated further experiments in a detonation tube with optical access. Pressure sensors and schlieren images were used to examine reflected shock behavior, and it was determined that the discrepancies were related to the reaction zone thickness extant behind the detonation front. During these experiments reflected shock bifurcation did not appear to occur, but the unfocused visualization system made certainty impossible. This prompted construction of a focused schlieren system that investigated possible shock wave-boundary layer interaction, and heat-flux gauges analyzed the boundary layer behind the detonation front. Using these data with an analytical boundary layer solution, it was determined that the strong thermal boundary layer present behind the detonation front inhibits the development of reflected shock wave bifurcation.

  16. Paths for Future Population Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigsby, Jill S.

    Population aging refers to an entire age structure becoming older. The age structure of a population is the result of three basic processes: fertility, mortality, and migration. Age structures reflect both past effects and current patterns of these processes. At the town, city, or regional level, migration becomes an important factor in raising…

  17. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Q-Han

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies.

  18. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Q-Han Park

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies. PMID:23320143

  19. Understanding reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Jacqueline Sian; Dosser, Isabel

    2016-05-04

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) requires that nurses and midwives use feedback as an opportunity for reflection and learning, to improve practice. The NMC revalidation process stipulates that practitioners provide examples of how they have achieved this. To reflect in a meaningful way, it is important to understand what is meant by reflection, the skills required, and how reflection can be undertaken successfully. Traditionally, reflection occurs after an event encountered in practice. The authors challenge this perception, suggesting that reflection should be undertaken before, during and after an event. This article provides practical guidance to help practitioners use reflective models to write reflective accounts. It also outlines how the reflective process can be used as a valuable learning tool in preparation for revalidation.

  20. Snow reflectance from thematic mapper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dozier, J.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of snow reflectance in all 6 TM reflective bands (i.e., 1,2,3,4,5, and 7) using a delta Eddington model show that snow reflectance in bands 4,5, and 7 is sensitive to grain size. Efforts to interpret the surface optical grain size for the spectral extension of albedo are described. Results show the TM data include spectral channels suitable for snow/cloud discrimination and for snow albedo measurements that can be extended throughout the solar spectrum. Except for band 1, the dynamic range is large enough that saturation occurs only occasionally. The finer resolution gives much better detail on the snowcovered area and might make it possible to use textural information instead of the snowline as an index to the amount of snow melt runoff.

  1. Epigenetic Control of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Sedivy, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Organismal aging and longevity are influenced by many complex interacting factors. Epigenetics has recently emerged as another possible determinant of aging. Here, we review some of the epigenetic pathways that contribute to cellular senescence and age-associated phenotypes. Strategies aimed to reverse age-linked epigenetic alterations may lead to the development of new therapeutic interventions to delay or alleviate some of the most debilitating age-associated diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 14, 241–259. PMID:20518699

  2. Reflections in art

    PubMed Central

    CAVANAGH, PATRICK; CHAO, JESSICA; WANG, DINA

    2009-01-01

    When artists depict a mirror in a painting, it necessarily lacks the most obvious property of a mirror: as we move around the painting of the mirror, the reflections we see in it do not change. And yet representations of mirrors and other reflecting surfaces can be quite convincing in paintings. Here, we will examine the rules of reflection, the many ways that painters can break those rules without losing the impression of reflection and the rules that cannot be broken. The rules that govern the perception of reflection are a small subset of the physical rules of reflection. PMID:18534102

  3. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and NMDA-potentiating effects are blunted in the striatum of aged rats: a possible additional mechanism in striatal senescence.

    PubMed

    Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Pintor, Annita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Gaudi, Simona; Grò, Maria Cristina; Passarelli, Francesca; Reggio, Rosaria; Galluzzo, Mariangela; Massotti, Marino; Popoli, Patrizia

    2003-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to verify whether an impairment of subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated neurotransmission did occur in the aged striatum. To this end, the ability of the subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist, RS-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine, to stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis and to potentiate N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced effects in striatal slices from young (3 months) and aged (24 months) rats was compared. The ability of RS-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine to induce maximal phosphoinositide turnover and to potentiate N-methyl-d-aspartate effects was significantly reduced in slices from old vs. young rats. These changes were associated with a significant reduction in the expression of subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor protein (-28.8%) and phospholipase C-beta1 (-55.8%) in old striata, while receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression was unchanged. These results show that the signalling associated with subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors undergoes significant age-related changes and that a reduced expression of subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors and, more importantly, phospholipase C-beta1 may account for the functional decline of subtype 5 metabotropic glutamate receptors.

  4. UV, stress and aging.

    PubMed

    Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Leduc, Cedric; Verbeke, Alix; Toussaint, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    Skin is a model of choice in studies on aging. Indeed, skin aging can be modulated by internal and external factors, reflecting its complexity. Two types of skin aging have been identified: intrinsic, mainly genetically determined and extrinsic-also called "photo-aging"-resulting on the impact of environmental stress and more precisely of UV rays. Simplified in vitro models, based on cellular senescence, have been developed to study the relationship between UV and aging. These models vary on the cell type (fibroblasts or keratinocytes, normal or immortalized) and the type of UV used (UVA or UVB).

  5. Cognitive Impairment and Age-Related Vision Disorders: Their Possible Relationship and the Evaluation of the Use of Aspirin and Statins in a 65 Years-and-Over Sardinian Population

    PubMed Central

    Mandas, Antonella; Mereu, Rosa Maria; Catte, Olga; Saba, Antonio; Serchisu, Luca; Costaggiu, Diego; Peiretti, Enrico; Caminiti, Giulia; Vinci, Michela; Casu, Maura; Piludu, Stefania; Fossarello, Maurizio; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Dessí, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Neurological disorders (Alzheimer’s disease, vascular and mixed dementia) and visual loss (cataract, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy) are among the most common conditions that afflict people of at least 65 years of age. An increasing body of evidence is emerging, which demonstrates that memory and vision impairment are closely, significantly, and positively linked and that statins and aspirin may lessen the risk of developing age-related visual and neurological problems. However, clinical studies have produced contradictory results. Thus, the intent of the present study was to reliably establish whether a relationship exist between various types of dementia and age-related vision disorders, and to establish whether statins and aspirin may or may not have beneficial effects on these two types of disorders. We found that participants with dementia and/or vision problems were more likely to be depressed and displayed worse functional ability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living than controls. Mini mental state examination scores were significantly lower in patients with vision disorders compared to subjects without vision disorders. A closer association with macular degeneration was found in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease than in subjects without dementia or with vascular dementia, mixed dementia, or other types of age-related vision disorders. When we considered the associations between different types of dementia and vision disorders and the use of statins and aspirin, we found a significant positive association between Alzheimer’s disease and statins on their own or in combination with aspirin, indicating that these two drugs do not appear to reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease or improve its clinical evolution and may, on the contrary, favor its development. No significant association in statin use alone, aspirin use alone, or the combination of these was found in subjects without vision

  6. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  7. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  8. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  9. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  10. Active Ageing: Intergenerational Relationships and Social Generativity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).

  11. Anatomy of ageing face.

    PubMed

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon.

  12. Mapping sea ice using reflected GNSS signals in a bistatic radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara; Zuffada, Cinzia; Shah, Rashmi; Mannucci, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be used as a kind of bistatic radar, with receivers opportunistically recording ground-reflected signals transmitted by the GNSS satellites themselves. This technique, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), has primarily been explored using receivers flown on aircraft or balloons, or in modeling studies. Last year's launch of the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) satellite represents an enormous opportunity to investigate the potential of using spaceborne GNSS receivers to sense changes in the land and ocean surface. Here, we examine the ability of reflected GNSS signals to estimate sea ice extent and sea ice age, as well as comment on the possibility of using GNSS-R to detect leads and polynyas within the ice. In particular, we quantify how the peak power of Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs) generated within the GNSS receiver responds as the satellite flies over the Polar Regions. To compute the effective peak power of each DDM, we first normalize the peak power of the DDM by the noise floor. We also correct for antenna gain, range, and incidence angle. Once these corrections are made, the effective peak power across DDMs may be used as a proxy for changes in surface permittivity and surface roughness. We compare our calculations of reflected power to existing sea ice remote sensing products such as data from the SSMI/S as well as Landsat imagery. Our analysis shows that GNSS reflections are extremely sensitive to the sea ice edge, with increases in reflected power of more than 10 dB relative to reflected power over the open ocean. As the sea ice ages, it thickens and roughens, and reflected power decreases, though it does not decrease below the power over the open ocean. Given the observed sensitivity of GNSS reflections to small features over land and the sensitivity to the sea ice edge, we hypothesize that reflection data could help map the temporal evolution of leads and polynyas.

  13. Development of a modified prognostic index of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma aged 70 years or younger: a possible risk-adapted management strategies including allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Inoue, Yoshitaka; Utsunomiya, Atae; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Owatari, Satsuki; Miyagi, Takashi; Taguchi, Jun; Choi, Ilseung; Otsuka, Eiichi; Nakachi, Sawako; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurosawa, Saiko; Tobinai, Kensei; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2017-03-24

    Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma is a distinct type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I. Although allogeneic stem cell transplantation after chemotherapy is a recommended treatment option for patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, there is no consensus about indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation because there is no established risk stratification system for transplant eligible patients. We conducted a nationwide survey of patients with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma to construct a new large database that includes 1,792 patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who were diagnosed between 2000 and 2013 and received intensive first-line chemotherapy. We randomly divided patients into two groups (training and validation sets). Acute type, poor performance status, high soluble interleukin-2 receptor level (> 5,000 U/mL), high adjusted calcium level (≥ 12 mg/dL), and high C-reactive protein level (≥ 2.5 mg/dL) were independent adverse prognostic factors using the training set. We used these five variables to divide patients into three risk groups. In the validation set, medial overall survival was 626 days, 322 days, and 197 days for the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively. In the intermediate- and high-risk groups, transplanted recipients had significantly better overall survival than non-transplanted patients. We developed a new promising risk stratification system to identify patients aged 70 years or younger with aggressive adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma who may benefit from upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Prospective studies are warranted to confirm the benefit of this treatment strategy.

  14. Persistent Possible Science Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Leila A.; Lin, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines literature on the development of self-knowledge for possible selves--how an individual thinks about oneself and one's potential future selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986). Future science selves research, a recent offshoot of possible selves theories, centers on the development and loss of future possible scientific selves and…

  15. Distinguishing major lithologic types in rocks of precambrian age in central Wyoming using multilevel sensing, with a chapter on possible economic significance of iron formation discovered by use of aircraft images in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Information obtained by remote sensing from three altitude levels: ERTS-1 (565 miles), U-2 (60,000 feet), and C-130 aircraft (15,000 feet) illustrates the possible application of multilevel sensing in mineral exploration. Distinction can be made between rocks of greenstone belts and rocks of granite-granite gneiss areas by using ERTS-1 imagery in portions of the Precambrian of central Wyoming. Study of low altitude color and color infrared photographs of the mafic terrain revealed the presence of metasedimentary rocks with distinct layers that were interpreted as amphibolite by photogeologic techniques. Some of the amphibolite layers were found to be iron formation when examined in the field. To our knowledge this occurrence of iron formation has not been previously reported in the literature.

  16. Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced Nipples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Breastfeeding > Possible Problems: Inverted, Flat, or Pierced ...

  17. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  18. Aging Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... email address Submit Home > Healthy Aging > Wellness Healthy Aging Aging skin More information on aging skin When it ... treated early. Return to top More information on Aging skin Read more from womenshealth.gov Varicose Veins ...

  19. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  20. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  1. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  2. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  3. Dwelling in Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmundson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Following an encounter with a student at the beginning of fall term, the writer reflects that today's student generation is a singular one: its members want to study, travel, make friends, make more friends, read everything (superfast), take in all the movies, listen to every hot band, keep up with everyone they've ever known. They live to…

  4. Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENT Doctor Near You Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Sinusitis: Special Considerations for Aging Patients Patient ... for evaluation and possible surgical management. Sources For Aging Patients: Administration on Aging (AoA), U.S. Department of ...

  5. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  6. Ultraviolet reflective coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutt, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    Composition consists of dispersion of barium sulphate in aqueous solution of water-soluble inorganic binder. Binder is selected from group consisting of alkali metal sulphates. Coating exhibits high reflectance of ultraviolet light to wavelengths of approximately 200.0 nm, which compares favorably with high reflectance of virgin barium sulphate power.

  7. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  8. Reflection in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Ken

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a medical-education perspective that I will hope complement other disciplinary perspectives in examining the value of reflection for learning in tertiary education. The paper outlines some of the theoretical strands of reflective practice facilitated in a unique course subject for professionalism and patient safety, within the…

  9. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  10. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  11. Rethinking Reflection: Teachers' Critiques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents findings from a study conducted with a teacher focus group asked to read and discuss their responses to selected published teacher narratives of reflective practice. The teachers challenged features of practitioner reflection presented in several of the reading selections as not representative of how they experienced…

  12. Reflective Writing through the Use of Guiding Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moussa-Inaty, Jase

    2015-01-01

    Reflections can be seen as powerful tools for growth and intellectual development. It is no surprise that the writing of reflections is common practice at a Federal Institute in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The research presented sought to explore possible differences in reflective writing once guidelines were presented to a group of interns in…

  13. Promoting Teacher Reflection: What Is Said to Be Done

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Juanjo Mena; Sanchez, Emilio; Tillema, Harm H.

    2011-01-01

    The present article's aim is to evaluate studies that promote teacher reflection. Through programmes of professional development, teachers are being encouraged to improve their reflective practice. This paper explores the grounding of what is advocated as reflective teaching and looks at possible differences between what is evidenced in research…

  14. Our Visions of Possibility for Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, Tim; Reinier, Rise; Gallagher, Kevin; Morgan, Bruce; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Santman, Donna; Wong-Kam, JoAnn; Hill, Sharon; Christensen, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Tim O'Keefe, Rise Reinier and Kevin Gallagher, Bruce Morgan, Julia Lopez-Robertson, Donna Santman, JoAnn Wong-Kam, Sharon Hill, and Linda Christensen provide short essays describing their personal visions of possibility about literacy and how they maintain that passion and vision. Across a range of contexts, they reflect on the ways in which their…

  15. Positronium reflection and positronium beams

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Tang, S.; Khatri, R.; Roellig, L.O.; Viescas, A.J. ); Berko, S.; Canter, K.F. ); Lynn, K.G. ); Mills, A.P. Jr. )

    1989-01-01

    We have observed specular reflection of positronium, Ps, and established that there is adequate intensity at higher energies to make further study worthwhile. The scattering appears to be restricted to the outermost surface with a mean free path of (0.75 {plus minus} 0.15){Angstrom} for Ps in LiF(100). With a greater intensity Ps beam one should see higher order diffraction beams as the result of the periodicity of the surface. Ps diffraction thus offers the possibility of being a novel and valuable probe to study the outermost surface and to study adsorbents on it. Two methods for producing Ps beams are described. 29 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Verification of reflectance models in turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Inherent optical parameters of very turbid waters were used to evaluate existing water reflectance models. Measured upwelling radiance spectra and Monte Carlo simulations of the radiative transfer equations were compared with results from models based upon two flow, quasi-single scattering, augmented isotropic scattering, and power series approximation. Each model was evaluated for three separate components of upwelling radiance: (1) direct sunlight; (2) diffuse skylight; and (3) internally reflected light. Limitations of existing water reflectance models as applied to turbid waters and possible applications to the extraction of water constituent information are discussed.

  17. Amplified total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dogariu, A; Wang, L J

    2003-02-24

    Totally internal reflected beams can be amplified if the lowerindex medium has gain. We analyze the reflection and refraction of light, and analytically derive the expression for the Goos-Hänchen shifts of a Gaussian beam incident on a lower-index medium, both active and absorptive. We examine the energy flow and the Goos-Hänchen shifts for various cases. The analytical results are consistent with the numerical results. For the TE mode, the Goos-Hänchen shift for the transmitted beam is exactly half of that of the reflected beam, resulting in a "1/2" rule.

  18. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging.

    PubMed

    Sas, Arthur A; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-05-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototypical subject, provided minimal (or no) external causes of death (i.e. fatal infections, starvation, accidents). Our approach deviates from the traditional (exponential) Gompertz' hazard function. For instance, the here formulated Gompertz' law accurately describes old-age deceleration of both all-cause mortality and the incidence of some ageing-associated cancers, as illustrated for the Dutch population. We consider the possibility that the old-age expression and progression of cancer and other pathologies becomes suppressed, because of random (and exponential) accumulation of damage during life. Gompertz' law may trigger new concepts and models describing life-spanning physiological and pathological processes of aging. We discuss (and reject) various aging models (e.g. a predominant role of individual variations at birth; reliability theory) and point to the explanatory potential of network models and systemic regulatory models.

  19. Structure and age of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin basement, northern Colombia: New reflection-seismic and U-Pb-Hf insights into the termination of the central andes against the Caribbean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Bohórquez, J. Alejandro; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Oncken, Onno; de Freitas, Mario; Vélez, Vickye; Mesa, Andrés; Serna, Lina

    2017-03-01

    Detailed interpretations of reflection seismic data and new U-Pb and Hf isotope geochemistry in zircon, reveal that the basement of the Lower Magdalena Valley basin is the northward continuation of the basement terranes of the northern Central Cordillera, and thus that the Lower Magdalena experienced a similar pre-Cenozoic tectonic history as the latter. New U-Pb and Hf analyses of zircon from borehole basement samples retrieved in the basin show that the southeastern region consists of Permo-Triassic (232-300Ma) metasediments, which were intruded by Late Cretaceous (75-89 Ma) granitoids. In the northern Central Cordillera, west of the Palestina Fault System, similar Permo-Triassic terranes are also intruded by Late Cretaceous felsic plutons and display ESE-WNW-trending structures. Therefore, our new data and analyses prove not only the extension of the Permo-Triassic Tahamí-Panzenú terrane into the western Lower Magdalena, but also the along-strike continuity of the Upper Cretaceous magmatic arc of the northern Central Cordillera, which includes the Antioquia Batholith and related plutons. Hf isotopic analyses from the Upper Cretaceous Bonga pluton suggest that it intruded new crust with oceanic affinity, which we interpret as the northern continuation of a Lower Cretaceous oceanic terrane (Quebradagrande?) into the westernmost Lower Magdalena. Volcanic andesitic basement predominates in the northwestern Lower Magdalena while Cretaceous low-grade metamorphic rocks that correlate with similar terranes in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Guajira are dominant in the northeast, suggesting that the Tahamí-Panzenú terrane does not extend into the northern Lower Magdalena. Although the northeastern region of the Lower Magdalena has a similar NE-SW fabric as the San Lucas Ridge of the northeastern Central Cordillera and the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, lithologic and geochronologic data suggest that the San Lucas terrane terminates to the north against the

  20. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  1. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  2. Redefining meaningful age groups in the context of disease.

    PubMed

    Geifman, Nophar; Cohen, Raphael; Rubin, Eitan

    2013-12-01

    Age is an important factor when considering phenotypic changes in health and disease. Currently, the use of age information in medicine is somewhat simplistic, with ages commonly being grouped into a small number of crude ranges reflecting the major stages of development and aging, such as childhood or adolescence. Here, we investigate the possibility of redefining age groups using the recently developed Age-Phenome Knowledge-base (APK) that holds over 35,000 literature-derived entries describing relationships between age and phenotype. Clustering of APK data suggests 13 new, partially overlapping, age groups. The diseases that define these groups suggest that the proposed divisions are biologically meaningful. We further show that the number of different age ranges that should be considered depends on the type of disease being evaluated. This finding was further strengthened by similar results obtained from clinical blood measurement data. The grouping of diseases that share a similar pattern of disease-related reports directly mirrors, in some cases, medical knowledge of disease-age relationships. In other cases, our results may be used to generate new and reasonable hypotheses regarding links between diseases.

  3. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age.

  4. Managing Diversity: Reflections of Tourette Syndrome Sufferers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jeni; Shrimpton, Bradley

    This paper discusses a study that investigated the management of Tourette Syndrome (TS), particularly how self-reflection and instruction affects the frequency of TS behaviors. The study included 3 girls and 24 boys (ages 7-17) with TS from Victoria and New South Wales, Australia. When students were asked to indicate their general self-image and…

  5. The essence of aging

    PubMed Central

    Vijg, Jan; Kennedy, Brian K.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that aging is a purposeful, programmed series of events is intuitively appealing based on its many conserved aspects and the demonstrated feasibility of modifying life span by manipulating single genes or pathways. Yet, the case for a non-adaptive basis of aging is strong and now all but generally accepted in the field. Here, we briefly review why the case for programmed aging is weak, with a focus on the lack of possible evolutionary beneficial effects. PMID:26389968

  6. The solar reflectance of a snow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation was solved using a modified Schuster-Schwartzschild approximation to obtain an expression for the solar reflectance of a snow field. The parameters in the reflectance formula are the single scattering albedo and the fraction of energy scattered in the backward direction. The single scattering albedo is calculated from the crystal size using a geometrical optics formula and the fraction of energy scattered in the backward direction is calculated from the Mie scattering theory. Numerical results for reflectance are obtained for visible and near infrared radiation for different snow conditions. Good agreement was found with the whole spectral range. The calculation also shows the observed effect of aging on the snow reflectance.

  7. Essential oil yield and composition reflect browsing damage of junipers.

    PubMed

    Markó, Gábor; Gyuricza, Veronika; Bernáth, Jeno; Altbacker, Vilmos

    2008-12-01

    The impact of browsing on vegetation depends on the relative density and species composition of browsers. Herbivore density and plant damage can be either site-specific or change seasonally and spatially. For juniper (Juniperus communis) forests of a sand dune region in Hungary, it has been assumed that plant damage investigated at different temporal and spatial scales would reflect selective herbivory. The level of juniper damage was tested for a possible correlation with the concentration of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in plants and seasonal changes in browsing pressure. Heavily browsed and nonbrowsed junipers were also assumed to differ in their chemical composition, and the spatial distribution of browsing damage within each forest was analyzed to reveal the main browser. Long-term differences in local browsing pressure were also expected and would be reflected in site-specific age distributions of distant juniper populations. The concentrations of PSMs (essential oils) varied significantly among junipers and seasons. Heavily browsed shrubs contained the lowest oil yield; essential oils were highest in shrubs bearing no damage, indicating that PSMs might contribute to reduce browsing in undamaged shrubs. There was a seasonal fluctuation in the yield of essential oil that was lower in the summer period than in other seasons. Gas chromatography (GC) revealed differences in some essential oil components, suggesting that certain chemicals could have contributed to reduced consumption. The consequential long-term changes were reflected in differences in age distribution between distant juniper forests. These results confirm that both the concentration of PSMs and specific compounds of the essential oil may play a role in selective browsing damage by local herbivores.

  8. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  9. Possible markets for dirigibles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The use of mini, small, medium, and heavy dirigibles for the transportation of passengers and cargo, for aerial handling of materials, for the support of scientific platforms, and for use in agriculture and forest management is evaluated. The operational efficiency of one or more dirigibles in view of possible integration into the general transport system is described.

  10. Ethical reflections of gender equality and equity in adolescence medicine.

    PubMed

    Tozzo, P; Caenazzo, L

    2015-01-01

    Gender differences, in both clinical and research environment, exist also in a particular category of patients, adolescents, who constitute a vulnerable group with respect to healthcare decisions. In clinical context, the main ethical issues that may be identified within gender medicine for adolescent patients are related to the information given to the patient and its parents, the adolescent's capacity of understanding considering his/her maturity, vulnerability and autonomy, the consent to medical treatment in relation to the different possible approaches to their different efficacy and possible side effects. Also, with regard to the research context, ethical issues may arise from the participation of female minors in clinical trials. Ethical concerns may also arise in the field of resource allocation in health policies, such as the equitable distribution and access to resources, considering the young age of the subjects involved. A bioethical reflection, which takes into account not only the differences biologically and epidemiologically relevant, but also the main determinants of health in adolescence, might find a role in structured education for diversity and gender equity. Given the magnitude of the problem, to encourage the pursuit of gender equity in health and, in some situations, also to promote the full recognition of the right to health of women are some of the most effective and direct ways to reduce inequalities and to ensure a rational and efficient use of available resources, including through a bioethical reflection on the topic. The Authors show the necessity to differentiate the various aspects of gender differences in adolescence medicine, providing arguments in support of the fact that interventions for health prevention and promotion should be modulated in relation to the gender of the recipients, emphasizing the most important aspects for each group of individuals. This approach could implement personalized medicine, even and especially

  11. Using GPS Reflections for Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickler, David

    2000-01-01

    GPS signals that have reflected off of the ocean's surface have shown potential for use in oceanographic and atmospheric studies. The research described here investigates the possible deployment of a GPS reflection receiver onboard a remote sensing satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO). The coverage and resolution characteristics of this receiver are calculated and estimated. This mission analysis examines using reflected GPS signals for several remote sensing missions. These include measurement of the total electron content in the ionosphere, sea surface height, and ocean wind speed and direction. Also discussed is the potential test deployment of such a GPS receiver on the space shuttle. Constellations of satellites are proposed to provide adequate spatial and temporal resolution for the aforementioned remote sensing missions. These results provide a starting point for research into the feasibility of augmenting or replacing existing remote sensing satellites with spaceborne GPS reflection-detecting receivers.

  12. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  13. Reflections on Learning in Interdisciplinary Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Asa; Kalman, Hildur

    2010-01-01

    In the present article, we will reflect on some didactic challenges and possibilities that emerge when teaching in interdisciplinary settings, and we will use and discuss the journey as a metaphor for learning. We argue that teaching in interdisciplinary studies rests on movements between different understandings, and that it gives ample…

  14. Reflections on a Changing Educational Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awender, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Reflects on some serious educational problems--a lack of time, a lack of promotional possibilities that leads to morale and motivational difficulties, a lack of clear relevant curriculum, and a lack of leadership--faced by teachers. (Author/RK)

  15. Radar reflectivity of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhleman, D. O.; Grossman, A. W.; Butler, B. J.; Slade, M. A.

    1990-05-01

    The low dielectric constant of the liquid hydrocarbon and ethane-methane surface mixture of Titan has as a direct consequence a set of unique microwave-reflection properties which were sought out at 3.5-cm wavelength, using a 70-m transmitting antenna in conjunction with the VLA as a receiving instrument. The statistically significant echoes obtained indicate that Titan is not covered with a deep global ocean of ethane. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 m would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the experiment's detection limit.

  16. Focused crossed Andreev reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugen, H.; Brataas, A.; Waintal, X.; Bauer, G. E. W.

    2011-03-01

    We consider non-local transport mediated by Andreev reflection in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) connected to one superconducting and two normal metal terminals. A robust scheme is presented for observing crossed Andreev reflection (CAR) between the normal metal terminals based on electron focusing by weak perpendicular magnetic fields. At slightly elevated temperatures the CAR signature can be easily distinguished from a background of quantum interference fluctuations. The CAR-induced entanglement between electrons can be switched on and off over large distances by the magnetic field.

  17. Considerations on Temperature, Longevity and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Conti, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    A modest reduction in body temperature prolongs longevity and possibly retards aging in both poikilotherm and homeotherm animals. Some of the possible mechanisms mediating these effects are considered here with respect to major aging models and theories. PMID:18425417

  18. A Small as Possible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, Scott

    2003-01-01

    This story begins with a bit of serendipity: I was on a trip to see a Shuttle launch and I happened to sit next to a guy who was in charge of batteries for Space Systems/Loral. He told me that they needed to create a new battery bypass switch, the device that takes a battery out of commission if it goes bad. After discussing the conversation back at my company, we decided that we could create the switch. We contacted the folks at Loral and they said, 'Okay, let s see what you can come up with. We need it as small as possible.' We asked, 'How small?' They said, 'We need it as small as you can possibly make it.'

  19. Aging and Neuronal Vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.; Magnus, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Everyone ages, but only some will acquire a neurodegenerative disorder in the process. Disease might occur when cells fail to respond adaptively to age-related increases in oxidative, metabolic and ionic stress resulting in excessive accumulation of damaged proteins, DNA and membranes. Determinants of neuronal vulnerability might include cell size and location, metabolism of disease-specific proteins, and repertoire of signal transduction pathways and stress resistance mechanisms. Emerging evidence on protein interaction networks that monitor and respond to the normal aging process suggests that successful neural aging is possible for most, but also cautions that cures for neurodegenerative disorders are unlikely in the near future. PMID:16552414

  20. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  1. Reflecting on Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  2. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  3. Reflections on Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santini, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a teachers reflections on the matter of student expectations. Santini begins with a common understanding of the "Pygmalion effect" from research projects conducted in earlier years that intimated "people's expectations could influence other people in the world around them." In the world of deaf…

  4. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  5. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  6. Reflections on 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ramon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the events that took place in the year 1972. The author was a junior at the University of New Mexico back then, refusing to eat or buy grapes and lettuce, picketing grocers who did not carry United Farm Workers of America produce. He and his buddies cast their votes against granting Richard Nixon a second…

  7. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  8. Renew, Reflect, and Refresh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

  9. Reflections: Children and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cianciolo, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Six educational leaders--Patricia J. Cianciolo, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Nancy Larrick, Alan C. Purves, Morton Schindel, and James R. Squire--offer reflections on signficiant developments in children's literature during the 1970s, their hopes for the 1980s, and references that constitute required reading for elementary language arts teachers. (ET)

  10. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  11. Reflections/Selected Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Gillian; Gorman, Arlene; Junco, Carol; Martinez, Miriam; Perez, Bertha; Torres, Azucena; Tschoepe, Mary

    1998-01-01

    Offers reflections on lingering issues raised in this themed issue on the "Gardendale Family": maintaining the integrity of the family; issues of time; curriculum standards; and effects on the rest of the school. Offers a bibliography of works considering the global concerns which prompted the formation of the Gardendale Family. (SR)

  12. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  13. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

    2012-06-01

    Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

  14. Possible number systems.

    PubMed

    Rips, Lance J; Thompson, Samantha

    2014-03-01

    Number systems-such as the natural numbers, integers, rationals, reals, or complex numbers-play a foundational role in mathematics, but these systems can present difficulties for students. In the studies reported here, we probed the boundaries of people's concept of a number system by asking them whether "number lines" of varying shapes qualify as possible number systems. In Experiment 1, participants rated each of a set of number lines as a possible number system, where the number lines differed in their structures (a single straight line, a step-shaped line, a double line, or two branching structures) and in their boundedness (unbounded, bounded below, bounded above, bounded above and below, or circular). Participants also rated each of a group of mathematical properties (e.g., associativity) for its importance to number systems. Relational properties, such as associativity, predicted whether participants believed that particular forms were number systems, as did the forms' ability to support arithmetic operations, such as addition. In Experiment 2, we asked participants to produce properties that were important for number systems. Relational, operation, and use-based properties from this set again predicted ratings of whether the number lines were possible number systems. In Experiment 3, we found similar results when the number lines indicated the positions of the individual numbers. The results suggest that people believe that number systems should be well-behaved with respect to basic arithmetic operations, and that they reject systems for which these operations produce ambiguous answers. People care much less about whether the systems have particular numbers (e.g., 0) or sets of numbers (e.g., the positives).

  15. Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment: The Role of Parental Reflective Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benbassat, Naomi; Priel, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Reflective function (RF) is the capacity to reflect on one's own mental experiences and those of others. This study examined the relationship between parental RF and adolescent adjustment. One hundred and five adolescents, aged 14-18, and their mothers and fathers were interviewed and completed questionnaires during home visits. We measured…

  16. Engaging Young Students in Scientific Investigations: Prompting for Meaningful Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis; Perry, Michelle; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Grosshandler, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the verbal prompts a tutor used to promote reflection and young students' responses to these prompts. Seven children (ages 8-12) participated in 260 min of one-on-one tutoring to learn scientific concepts related to gear movement; the tutor spontaneously provided these students with 763 prompts for reflection. Prompts reliably…

  17. Possibilities of Engineering Ethics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Junya

    This paper discusses the possibilities of teaching engineering ethics in universities. This is based on the teaching experience of a newly developed course that has been introduced to the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering at the University of Fukui, since April 2004. Entitled “ethics for engineers”, the course targeted senior-level students and makes use of a newly written textbook that emphasizes social aspects of science and technology. To encourage students to think and form their own opinions with regards to their role as engineers in a modern technological society, the book is complemented by other materials such as videos, newspaper articles and some other relevant books. Students are also encouraged to write reports that reflect their own opinion on subjects such as what kind of engineers they intend to be, or what do ethics mean to them? The paper will conclude by giving a course evaluation including students' response, highlighting valuable experiences and stating the importance of further developing this topic in engineering education.

  18. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    PubMed

    Webb, J Taylor; Ferguson, Michael A; Nielsen, Jared A; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project) to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group), as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  19. Troubling Muddy Waters: Problematizing Reflective Practice in Global Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Naidu, Thirusha; Kumagai, Arno K

    2016-03-01

    The idea of exporting the concept of reflective practice for a global medical education audience is growing. However, the uncritical export and adoption of Western concepts of reflection may be inappropriate in non-Western societies. The emphasis in Western medical education on the use of reflection for a specific end--that is, the improvement of individual clinical practice--tends to ignore the range of reflective practice, concentrating on reflection alone while overlooking critical reflection and reflexivity. This Perspective places the concept of reflective practice under a critical lens to explore a broader view for its application in medical education outside the West. The authors suggest that ideas about reflection in medicine and medical education may not be as easily transferable from Western to non-Western contexts as concepts from biomedical science are. The authors pose the question, When "exporting" Western medical education strategies and principles, how often do Western-trained educators authentically open up to the possibility that there are alternative ways of seeing and knowing that may be valuable in educating Western physicians? One answer lies in the assertion that educators should aspire to turn exportation of educational theory into a truly bidirectional, collaborative exchange in which culturally conscious views of reflective practice contribute to humanistic, equitable patient care. This discussion engages in troubling the already-muddy waters of reflective practice by exploring the global applicability of reflective practice as it is currently applied in medical education. The globalization of medical education demands critical reflection on reflection itself.

  20. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  1. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  2. Landsat surface reflectance data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  3. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  4. Education: A Possibility for Empowering Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kump, Sonja; Krasovec, Sabina Jelenc

    2007-01-01

    Educating older adults (in the so-called third age) is becoming an increasingly important activity for the elderly, above all because it empowers them, while at the same time reducing their social exclusion. The aim of this paper is to closely examine the actual state of affairs and the education possibilities for older adults in Slovenia. The…

  5. Reflections on 25 Years of Journal Editorship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    These reflections range over some distinctive features of the journal Science & Education, they acknowledge in a limited way the many individuals who over the past 25 years have contributed to the success and reputation of the journal, they chart the beginnings of the journal, and they dwell on a few central concerns—clear writing and the contribution of HPS to teacher education. The reflections also revisit the much-debated and written-upon philosophical and pedagogical arguments occasioned by the rise and possible demise of constructivism in science education.

  6. Possibility of hyperbolic tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Mimoso, Jose P.

    2010-08-15

    Traversable wormholes are primarily useful as 'gedanken experiments' and as a theoretician's probe of the foundations of general relativity. In this work, we analyze the possibility of having tunnels in a hyperbolic spacetime. We obtain exact solutions of static and pseudo-spherically symmetric spacetime tunnels by adding exotic matter to a vacuum solution referred to as a degenerate solution of class A. The physical properties and characteristics of these intriguing solutions are explored, and through the mathematics of embedding it is shown that particular constraints are placed on the shape function, that differ significantly from the Morris-Thorne wormhole. In particular, it is shown that the energy density is always negative, and the radial pressure is positive, at the throat, contrary to the Morris-Thorne counterpart. Specific solutions are also presented by considering several equations of state, and by imposing restricted choices for the shape function or the redshift function.

  7. Software for a GPS-Reflection Remote-Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    A special-purpose software Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver designed for remote sensing with reflected GPS signals is described in Delay/Doppler-Mapping GPS-Reflection Remote-Sensing System (NPO-30385), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. The input accepted by this program comprises raw (open-loop) digitized GPS signals sampled at a rate of about 20 MHz. The program processes the data samples to perform the following functions: detection of signals; tracking of phases and delays; mapping of delay, Doppler, and delay/Doppler waveforms; dual-frequency processing; coherent integrations as short as 125 s; decoding of navigation messages; and precise time tagging of observable quantities. The software can perform these functions on all detectable satellite signals without dead time. Open-loop data collected over water, land, or ice and processed by this software can be further processed to extract geophysical information. Possible examples include mean sea height, wind speed and direction, and significant wave height (for observations over the ocean); bistatic-radar terrain images and measures of soil moisture and biomass (for observations over land); and estimates of ice age, thickness, and surface density (for observations over ice).

  8. Study on Reflection as a Source of Teacher Development: Pre-Service and Experienced Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaman, Saziye

    2016-01-01

    This study traces evidence of reflection in teacher education and teaching practice by measuring reflection of preservice teachers and experienced teachers and clarifying reflection-oriented reactions to possible confusions or problematic situations considering whether or not they are reflective practitioners. The data were collected from 514…

  9. Characterizing mechanical effects of aging damage

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, T.D.; Chen, S.P.; Schoonover, J.R.; Trent, B.C.; Howe, P.M.; Hjelm, R.P.; Browning, R.V.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal was to develop and apply several different experimental and theoretical/computational tools to better understand physical and chemical aging phenomena in plastic-bonded high explosives, and to develop a methodology for predicting the likely effects of aging on the mechanical properties of the composite based on input from these fundamental studies. Initial comparisons were done for spectra of fresh and aged Esane, as well as PBX-9501, and the authors found differences in the carbonyl region of the spectrum, which possibly reflect differences in hydrogen bonding due to aging phenomena. The micromechanical model of composites was extended to study various volume fractions of HMX with binders. The results showed that, as the binder fraction increases, there is a decrease in the maximum stress that can be supported but an increase in the percent strain at final fracture. A more realistic microstructural model was obtained through the use of a phase field model. Using this model, the authors have studied the microstructural evolution as a function of the grain boundary energy vs. misorientation relationship. The initial results indicate that there are some changes in the grain growth rate when the grain-boundary energy dependence on the angle is not constant. They also find that solute tends to segregate at the grain boundary and slows the grain growth kinetics.

  10. Seasonal variation in the structure of red reflectance of leaves from yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakke, Thomas W.; Wergin, William P.; Erbe, Eric F.; Harnden, Joann M.

    1993-01-01

    The light scattered from leaves was measured as a function of view angle in the principal plane for yellow poplar, red oak, and red maple. The source was a parallel-polarized helium-neon laser. Yellow poplar leaves had the highest reflectance of the three species, which may have been due to its shorter palisade cells and more extensive spongy mesophyll. Prior to senescence, there was a significant decrease, but not total extinction, in the reflectance of the beam incident at 60 deg from nadir on the adaxial side of the leaves of all three species. Low-temperature SEM observations showed differences in the surface wax patterns among the three species but did not indicate a cause of the reflectance changes other than possibly the accumulation and aging of the wax.

  11. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  12. Malnutrition and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Hickson, M

    2006-01-01

    This article aims to provide an overview of the problems that exist in relation to malnutrition and the elderly population. The changes that occur in body composition during ageing are described and how this may affect disease risk. The possible metabolic processes behind weight loss are discussed and the numerous factors that affect nutritional status in the older age group are described. Prevention of malnutrition in this group is important and so the roles of nutrition screening and assessment are examined. PMID:16397072

  13. Promoting Critical Reflection in Teacher Education through Popular Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patrick A.; Townsend, Jane S.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the possible influences of media narratives upon self-concepts, teacher educators have used films and television programs about teachers to promote preservice teachers' reflections on their professional identities and instructional practices. Theoretical models of reflection, in conjunction with media analysis, have the potential to…

  14. Of possible cheminformatics futures.

    PubMed

    Oprea, Tudor I; Taboureau, Olivier; Bologa, Cristian G

    2012-01-01

    For over a decade, cheminformatics has contributed to a wide array of scientific tasks from analytical chemistry and biochemistry to pharmacology and drug discovery; and although its contributions to decision making are recognized, the challenge is how it would contribute to faster development of novel, better products. Here we address the future of cheminformatics with primary focus on innovation. Cheminformatics developers often need to choose between "mainstream" (i.e., accepted, expected) and novel, leading-edge tools, with an increasing trend for open science. Possible futures for cheminformatics include the worst case scenario (lack of funding, no creative usage), as well as the best case scenario (complete integration, from systems biology to virtual physiology). As "-omics" technologies advance, and computer hardware improves, compounds will no longer be profiled at the molecular level, but also in terms of genetic and clinical effects. Among potentially novel tools, we anticipate machine learning models based on free text processing, an increased performance in environmental cheminformatics, significant decision-making support, as well as the emergence of robot scientists conducting automated drug discovery research. Furthermore, cheminformatics is anticipated to expand the frontiers of knowledge and evolve in an open-ended, extensible manner, allowing us to explore multiple research scenarios in order to avoid epistemological "local information minimum trap".

  15. Of possible cheminformatics futures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oprea, Tudor I.; Taboureau, Olivier; Bologa, Cristian G.

    2012-01-01

    For over a decade, cheminformatics has contributed to a wide array of scientific tasks from analytical chemistry and biochemistry to pharmacology and drug discovery; and although its contributions to decision making are recognized, the challenge is how it would contribute to faster development of novel, better products. Here we address the future of cheminformatics with primary focus on innovation. Cheminformatics developers often need to choose between "mainstream" (i.e., accepted, expected) and novel, leading-edge tools, with an increasing trend for open science. Possible futures for cheminformatics include the worst case scenario (lack of funding, no creative usage), as well as the best case scenario (complete integration, from systems biology to virtual physiology). As "-omics" technologies advance, and computer hardware improves, compounds will no longer be profiled at the molecular level, but also in terms of genetic and clinical effects. Among potentially novel tools, we anticipate machine learning models based on free text processing, an increased performance in environmental cheminformatics, significant decision-making support, as well as the emergence of robot scientists conducting automated drug discovery research. Furthermore, cheminformatics is anticipated to expand the frontiers of knowledge and evolve in an open-ended, extensible manner, allowing us to explore multiple research scenarios in order to avoid epistemological "local information minimum trap".

  16. Learning to integrate versus inhibiting information is modulated by age.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Pikkat, Helen; Upstill, Emily; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-02-04

    Cognitive training aiming at improving learning is often successful, but what exactly underlies the observed improvements and how these differ across the age spectrum are currently unknown. Here we asked whether learning in young and older people may reflect enhanced ability to integrate information required to perform a cognitive task or whether it may instead reflect the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information for successful task performance. We trained 30 young and 30 aging human participants on a numerosity discrimination task known to engage the parietal cortex and in which cue-integration and inhibitory abilities can be distinguished. We coupled training with parietal, motor, or sham transcranial random noise stimulation, known for modulating neural activity. Numerosity discrimination improved after training and was maintained long term, especially in the training + parietal stimulation group, regardless of age. Despite the quantitatively similar improvement in the two age groups, the content of learning differed remarkably: aging participants improved more in inhibitory abilities, whereas younger subjects improved in cue-integration abilities. Moreover, differences in the content of learning were reflected in different transfer effects to untrained but related abilities: in the younger group, improvements in cue integration paralleled improvements in continuous quantity (time and space), whereas in the elderly group, improvements in numerosity-based inhibitory abilities generalized to other measures of inhibition and corresponded to a decline in space discrimination, possibly because conflicting learning resources are used in numerosity and continuous quantity processing. These results indicate that training can enhance different, age-dependent cognitive processes and highlight the importance of identifying the exact processes underlying learning for effective training programs.

  17. Force reflection with compliance control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Won S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Two types of systems for force-reflecting control, which enables high force-reflection gain, are presented: position-error-based force reflection and low-pass-filtered force reflection. Both of the systems are combined with shared compliance control. In the position-error-based class, the position error between the commanded and the actual position of a compliantly controlled robot is used to provide force reflection. In the low-pass-filtered force reflection class, the low-pass-filtered output of the compliance control is used to provide force reflection. The increase in force reflection gain can be more than 10-fold as compared to a conventional high-bandwidth pure force reflection system, when high compliance values are used for the compliance control.

  18. Portable reflectance spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Graham, R. A.; Ozawa, T. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A portable reflectance spectrometer is disclosed. The spectrometer essentially includes an optical unit and an electronic recording unit. The optical unit includes a pair of thermoelectrically-cooled detectors, for detecting total radiance and selected radiance projected through a circular variable filter wheel, and is capable of operating to provide spectral data in the range 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers without requiring coventional substitution of filter elements. The electronic recording unit includes power supplies, amplifiers, and digital recording electronics designed to permit recordation of data on tape casettes. Both the optical unit and electronic recording unit are packaged to be manually portable.

  19. Reflections on Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, S L

    1982-02-01

    As longevity increases, society will face a silent epidemic of idiopathic dementias. The concept, Alzheimer's disease, reflects a cumbersome and vaguely-defined cluster of signs, symptoms and other variables which might more appropriately be labelled as the idiopathic dementias, Alzheimer-type or IDAT. Diagnosis, which is made by exclusion and treatment, primarily custodial, demonstrates the complex nature and unfortunate prognosis of the problem. Dramatic progress, nevertheless, has been made in various scientific aspects of the issue, namely, in histology, genetics and neurochemistry. The resulting evidence warrants further speculation on the role of central cholinergic neurotransmission in cognitive functioning.

  20. Reflections on Wilderness Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggleston, Erin J.

    Te Whakapakari Youth Programme on Great Barrier Island, New Zealand, is a Maori initiative initially designed to help young Maori, particularly those involved in drug abuse. The program now accepts adjudicated youth, aged 13-18, from many cultures who experience drug, physical, or sexual abuse and exhibit antisocial or violent tendencies. The…

  1. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  2. Teaching Reflective Care in Japanese Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Anette

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the way preschool teachers teach reflective care in Japan. The article builds on a two-month ethnographic study conducted in Japanese kindergartens and nurseries among children aged 3-6 years. The data were analysed using concepts of age and gender. The results show that care in Japan, in contrast to…

  3. Hypertension in aging patients.

    PubMed

    Logan, Alexander G

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension, especially isolated systolic hypertension, is commonly found in older (60-79 years of age) and elderly (≥80 years of age) people. Antihypertensive drug therapy should be considered in all aging hypertensive patients, as treatment greatly reduces cardiovascular events. Most classes of antihypertensive medications may be used as first-line treatment with the possible exception of α- and β-blockers. An initial blood pressure treatment goal is less than 140/90 mmHg in all older patients and less than 150/80 mmHg in the nonfrail elderly. The current paradigm of delaying therapeutic interventions until people are at moderate or high cardiovascular risk, a universal feature of hypertensive patients over 60 years of age, leads to vascular injury or disease that is only partially reversible with treatment. Future management will likely focus on intervening earlier to prevent accelerated vascular aging and irreversible arterial damage.

  4. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  5. Reflection: Journals and Reflective Questions: A Strategy for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Reflective journals have been used widely in teacher education programs to promote reflective thinking (Freidus, 1998; Carter & Francis, 2000; Yost, Senter & Forlenzo-Bailey, 2000). Smyth (1992) advocated that posing a series of questions to be answered in written journals could enhance reflective thinking. It was for this reason that…

  6. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly

  7. Factors related to onset age of Huntington disease.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, R H; Madden, J J; Teague, J L; Falek, A

    1982-01-01

    One prominent feature of Huntington disease (HD) is the variable age at which the characteristic neurological or psychiatric symptoms appear. Ages of manifestation varying from 4 to 65 years are found in a sample of 95 HD pedigrees compiled since 1968 from the Southeastern United States. Significant parent-child correlations of age of onset indicate consistency of onset age within nuclear families. However, an average intrafamily range of 9 years and an average intrapedigree range of 12 years reveal substantial variability of onset age within these groups. Of the nine cases of juvenile-onset HD identified in this sample, seven were of paternal descent. The preponderance of juvenile patients inheriting the HD gene from a father confirms similar findings from other studies. In addition, a trend toward earlier onset in all offspring of paternal transmission suggests that the juvenile-onset phenomenon is only the tail of a shift in the curve of onset ages for this group. A trend toward earlier onset in successive generations was noted. This "anticipation" may reflect the finding that persons of early onset in prior generations are selectively nonreproductive as a result of manifestation of the disorder. By identifying familial factors influencing onset age of HD, it may be possible to more effectively evaluate environmental factors that influence the onset of the disorder. PMID:6211092

  8. Teaching: A Reflective Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Susan; O'Day, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they used formative assessments to ferret out possible misconceptions among middle-school students in a unit about weather-related concepts. Because they teach fifth- and eighth-grade science, this assessment also gives them a chance to see how student understanding develops over the years. This year they…

  9. Reflections on Aesthetic Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotiropoulou-Zormpala, Marina

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how it is possible to use the aesthetic process to enrich teaching practices in preschool and elementary school education. What is under scrutiny is the aesthetic dimension of a core curricular subject, the ultimate goal being to achieve an understanding of curricular content through aesthetic learning processes. For this…

  10. Reflecting on 80 years of excellence

    PubMed Central

    Savla, Ushma

    2004-01-01

    A small group of members of the American Society for Clinical Investigation began chatting in 1916 about the possibility of launching a new biomedical research journal. By October 1924, they managed to make the idea a reality with the publication of the first issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation. Our 80th birthday seems an appropriate time to reflect on the history of biomedical science as it has been played out on our pages. PMID:15489943

  11. Reflection Acoustic Microscopy for Micro-NDE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    WORDS (Coni, wu rere side. 14 It noeeeey And Idenify1 by block esife) Nondestructive Evaluation Acoustic Microscopy I Subsurface Imaging Pulsecio Cmrsin... subsurface imaging is presented and it is shown that with such lenses it is possible to obtain good focussing performance over a wide depth range...typically few millimeters at 50 MHz. A major problem in subsurface imaging derives from the large reflection obtained frnm the surface, and the small amount

  12. Autoantibodies, mortality and ageing.

    PubMed

    Richaud-Patin, Y; Villa, A R

    1995-01-01

    Immunological failure may be the cause of predisposition to certain infections, neoplasms, and vascular diseases in adulthood. Mortality risks through life may reflect an undetermined number of causes. This study describes the prevalence of positivity of autoantibodies through life, along with general and specific mortality causes in three countries with different socioeconomic development (Guatemala, Mexico and the United States). Prevalence of autoantibodies by age was obtained from previous reports. In spite of having involved different ethnic groups, the observed trends in prevalence of autoantibodies, as well as mortality through life, showed a similar behavior. Thus, both the increase in autoantibody production and death risk as age rises, may share physiopathological phenomena related to the ageing process.

  13. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOEpatents

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  14. The concept of reproductive rights: reflections from experiences.

    PubMed

    Dutting, G

    1993-01-01

    This speech was given at the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights' (WGNRR) Conference on women and health held in September 1993 in Kampala, Uganda. WGNRR's definition of reproductive rights referred to "women's rights to decide whether, when, and how to have children in social, economic, and political conditions that make decisions possible." The right for a woman to make a fertility decision must be possible regardless of nationality, class, ethnicity, race, age, religion, disability, sexuality, or marital status. Ongoing discussions about reproductive rights focused on political dynamics and conceptual changes. Current conditions placed women in compromised positions economically, politically, and socially. The focus on reproductive rights was considered a political statement that challenged patriarchal societies and the dominant development model and offered alternatives. The achievement of reproductive rights meant the acquisition of political power to change conditions and change relations in society. WGNRR formed an international movement to achieve reproductive rights in a changed society. Women's international collective capacity will determine whether reproductive rights will be effectuated. The struggle for attaining reproductive rights for women was viewed as a learning process that necessarily would bring out women's contradictions and differences. Reproductive rights pertained to self-determination of procreation and sexuality that was global, local, and context specific. The rubric of reproductive rights was actualized in many forms, narrowly and broadly focused. There was a worldwide mobilization of women from diverse backgrounds. Common concerns have been conceptualized globally and have reflected a rich diversity.

  15. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms. PMID:27873831

  16. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  17. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  18. Population aging.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    This paper focuses on the impact of population aging in China, the most densely populated country in the world. Statistics indicate that by the end of 1998, 83.75 million out of the 1.248 billion Chinese people will be over 65 years old. According to the UN standards, China will soon become an aging society. The aging population poses several challenges to the country with the greatest challenge being the increasing social responsibility to care for the aged. With the undeveloped legislative framework to protect the interests of the aged and the serious drawbacks in the pension system to cater only to the income part and not the service part of the aged, China is not yet ready for the advent of aging. Violation of the rights of senior citizens is still very rampant despite enactment of the law on Protection of the Rights of the Elderly in 1996. Moreover, China is not economically ready to become an aging society. China faces this challenge by adopting a three-pronged approach to solve the problem namely: family support, establishment of nursing homes, and creating a social security framework that addresses the needs of the society suited to the Chinese condition. It is believed that with the growing economy of the country and the rising income of its people, a comprehensive social security net will be created to take care of the aged.

  19. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  20. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited.

  1. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  2. Teacher Reflection: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca E.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the reflective practices of middle school teachers. Based on Dewey's theory of reflective practice and Schon's types of reflection, this experience is one of student learning, relationships, curriculum planning, and lesson delivery. This is a qualitative study using the research method of phenomenology through…

  3. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  4. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  5. Structures for Facilitating Student Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe a continuum of levels of reflection. It briefly focuses on Deanna Kuhn's research into the development of scientific thinking and Robert Kegan's Object-Subject Theory of Development applied to the problems of inspiring students to be able to reflect. Assignments for improving students' ability to reflect are…

  6. Reflective writing and nursing education.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa

    2005-02-01

    Reflective writing is a valued tool for teaching nursing students and for documentation, support, and generation of nursing knowledge among experienced nurses. Expressive or reflective writing is becoming widely accepted in both professional and lay publications as a mechanism for coping with critical incidents. This article explores reflective writing as a tool for nursing education.

  7. A Good Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The story of the Austin Groups for the Elderly (AGE), a conglomeration of service agencies serving older adults and children, is related in this document. The agencies' decision to coordinate services as much as possible and to share a building to facilitate coordination and lower costs in financially difficult times is explained. The activities…

  8. Determination of moisture in Cheddar cheese by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wehling, R L; Pierce, M M

    1988-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the moisture content of Cheddar cheese. Through multiple linear regression analysis, a 3-wavelength calibration was developed for use with a commercial filter monochromator instrument. For a validation set of 47 samples, the correlation coefficient squared (r2) between the NIR and oven moisture methods was 0.92, with a standard error of performance (SEP) of 0.38%. Sample temperature was found to significantly affect the spectral response; therefore, it was necessary to equilibrate all samples to a uniform temperature prior to NIR analysis. Aging may also affect the NIR characteristics of cheese, although it was possible to develop a successful calibration that encompassed a wide range of aging times.

  9. Bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine original and useful information about the bidirection reflectance of zinc oxide. The bidirectional reflectance will be studied for the spectra between .25-2.5 microns and the hemisphere above the specimen. The following factors will be considered: (1) surface conditions; (2) specimen preparation; (3) specimen substrate, (4) polarization; (5) depolarization; (6) wavelength; and (7) angles of incident and reflection. The bidirectional reflectance will be checked by experimentally determined angular hemispherical measurements or hemispherical measurements will be used to obtain absolute bidirectional reflectance.

  10. Andreev Reflection in Bosonic Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, I.; Sols, F.

    2009-05-08

    We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

  11. The natural, the normal and the normative: contested terrains in ageing and old age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ian Rees; Higgs, Paul F

    2010-10-01

    Improvements in health and longevity in countries such as the UK and USA have radically destabilised notions of ageing and old age. From the 19th century onwards the idea of a natural lifecourse following normatively understood stages ending in infirmity and death has been challenged by social and bio-medical developments. Breakthroughs in bio-gerontology and in bio-medicine have created the possibility of an increasingly differentiated idea of normal ageing. The potential to overcome or significantly reduce the age-associated effects of bodies growing older has led many social gerontologists to argue for a return to a more 'normatively' based conception of ageing and old age. This paper examines and outlines the tensions between these different discourses and points out that our understanding of the norm is also fast changing as it intersects with the somatic diversity inherent in contemporary consumer society. Drawing on the theoretical work of Ulrich Beck and Zygmunt Bauman, this paper argues that the normalization of diversity leads to a reworking of the idea of normativity which in turn is reflected in profound transformations at the level of institutional arrangements and legal systems. Such changes not only lead to more discussion of what is legally and socially acceptable but also potentially lead to greater calls for regulation concerning outcomes. In this paper we argue that we need to distinguish between the newly reconfigured domains of the natural, the normal and the normative now being utilised in the understanding of ageing if we are to understand this important field of health.

  12. Therapist Reflective Functioning, Therapist Attachment Style and Therapist Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cologon, John; Schweitzer, Robert D; King, Robert; Nolte, Tobias

    2017-01-28

    This study investigated the relationship between two therapist attributes (reflective functioning and attachment style) and client outcome. Twenty-five therapists treated a total of 1001 clients. Therapists were assessed for reflective functioning and attachment style using the Adult Attachment Interview and the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale. Clinical outcome was measured using the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45). Data were analysed using hierarchical linear modelling. Results indicated that therapist reflective functioning predicted therapist effectiveness, whereas attachment style did not. However, there was evidence of an interaction between therapist attachment style and therapist reflective functioning. Secure attachment compensated somewhat for low reflective functioning and high reflective functioning compensated for insecure attachment. Possible implications for the selection of therapy training candidates and therapist training are discussed.

  13. Spectral reflectance and photometric properties of selected rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, Robert D.

    1971-01-01

    Studies of the spectral reflectance and photometric properties of selected rocks at the USGS Mill Creek, Oklahoma, remote sensing test site demonstrate that discrimination of rock types is possible through reflection measurements, but that the discrimination is complicated by surface conditions, such as weathering and lichen growth. Comparisons between fresh-broken, weathered, and lichen-covered granite show that whereas both degree of weathering and amount of lichen cover change the reflectance quality of the granite, lichen cover also considerably changes the photometric properties of the granite. Measurements of the spectral reflectance normal to the surface of both limestone and dolomite show limestone to be more reflective than dolomite in the wavelength range from 380 to 1550 nanometers. The reflectance difference decreases at view angles greater than 40° owing to the difference in the photometric properties of dolomite and limestone.

  14. Developmentally Sensitive Markers of Personality Functioning in Adolescents: Age-Specific and Age-Neutral Expressions.

    PubMed

    Debast, Inge; Rossi, Gina; Feenstra, Dineke; Hutsebaut, Joost

    2016-05-23

    Criterion D of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) refers to a possible onset of personality disorders (PDs) in adolescence and in Section II the development/course in adolescence is described by some typical characteristics for several PDs. Yet, age-specific expressions of PDs are lacking in Section III. We urgently need a developmentally sensitive assessment instrument that differentiates developmental and contextual changes on the one hand from expressions of personality pathology on the other hand. Therefore we investigated which items of the Severity Indices for Personality Problems-118 (SIPP-118) were developmentally sensitive throughout adolescence and adulthood and which could be considered more age-specific markers requiring other content or thresholds over age groups. Applying item response theory (IRT) we detected differential item functioning (DIF) in 36% of the items in matched samples of 639 adolescents versus 639 adults. The DIF across age groups mainly reflected a different degree of symptom expressions for the same underlying level of functioning. The threshold for exhibiting symptoms given a certain degree of personality dysfunction was lower in adolescence for areas of personality functioning related to the Self and Interpersonal domains. Some items also measured a latent construct of personality functioning differently across adolescents and adults. This suggests that several facets of the SIPP-118 do not solely measure aspects of personality pathology in adolescents, but likely include more developmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Venus Highland Anomalous Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Richard A.; Tyler, G. L.; Häusler, B.; Mattei, R.; Patzold, M.

    2009-09-01

    Maxwell Montes was one of several unusually bright areas identified from early Venus radar backscatter observations. Pioneer Venus' orbiting radar associated low emissivity with the bright areas and established a correlation between reflectivity and altitude. Magellan, using an oblique bistatic geometry, showed that the bright surface dielectric constant was not only large but also imaginary -- i.e., the material was conducting, at least near Cleopatra Patera (Pettengill et al., Science, 272, 1996). Venus Express (VEX) repeated Magellan's bistatic observations over Maxwell, using the more conventional circular polarization carried by most spacecraft. Although VEX signal-to-noise ratio was lower than Magellan's, echoes were sufficiently strong to verify the Magellan conclusions near Cleopatra (see J. Geophys. Res., 114, E00B41, doi:10.1029/2008JE003156). Only about 40% of the surface at Cleopatra scatters specularly, opening the Fresnel (specular) interpretation model to question. Elsewhere in Maxwell, the specular percentage may be even lower. Nonetheless, the echo polarization is reversed throughout Maxwell, a result that is consistent with large dielectric constants and difficult to explain without resorting qualitatively (if not quantitatively) to specular models. VEX was scheduled to explore other high altitude regions when its S-Band (13-cm wavelength) radio system failed in late 2006, so further probing of high altitude targets awaits arrival of a new spacecraft.

  16. Simulation Tool for GNSS Ocean Surface Reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høeg, Per; von Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Durgonics, Tibor

    2015-04-01

    GNSS coherent and incoherent reflected signals have the potential of deriving large scale parameters of ocean surfaces, as barotropic variability, eddy currents and fronts, Rossby waves, coastal upwelling, mean ocean surface heights, and patterns of the general ocean circulation. In the reflection zone the measurements may derive parameters as sea surface roughness, winds, waves, heights and tilts from the spectral measurements. Previous measurements from the top of mountains and airplanes have shown such results leading. The coming satellite missions, CYGNSS, COSMIC-2, and GEROS on the International Space Station, are focusing on GNSS ocean reflection measurements. Thus, simulation studies highlighting the assumptions for the data retrievals and the precision and the accuracy of such measurements are of interest for assessing the observational method. The theory of propagation of microwaves in the atmosphere is well established, and methods for propagation modeling range from ray tracing to numerical solutions to the wave equation. Besides ray tracing there are propagation methods that use mode theory and a finite difference solution to the parabolic equation. The presented propagator is based on the solution of the parabolic equation. The parabolic equation in our simulator is solved using the split-step sine transformation. The Earth's surface is modeled with the use of an impedance model. The value of the Earth impedance is given as a function of the range along the surface of the Earth. This impedance concept gives an accurate lower boundary condition in the determination of the electromagnetic field, and makes it possible to simulate reflections and the effects of transitions between different mediums. A semi-isotropic Philips spectrum is used to represent the air-sea interaction. Simulated GPS ocean surface reflections will be presented and discussed based on different ocean characteristics. The spectra of the simulated surface reflections will be analyzed

  17. Reflections on military psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Arthur, R J

    1978-07-01

    The need for psychiatrists in the military was recognized for the first time during World War I, which involved millions of men in unusually protracted warfare. The policy of treating psychiatric casualties close to the from and returning soldiers to their military units as quickly as possible proved of great significance in the U.S. war effort. During World War II, the Korean conflict, and the war in Viet Nam, military psychiatry made great contributions and learned many lessions, both at home and abroad. The lessions learned by military psychiatry have important applications for the rest of medicine, especially in the fields of stress, crisis therapy, and community psychiatry.

  18. [Care in Heidegger: an ontological possibility for nursing].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira; Carraro, Telma Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Given the dimensions involving human care, this study aimed at providing a reflection on nursing care as an ontological possibility. In Heidegger we consider the concepts that underlie the foundation of his thought. These reflections offer theoretical resource that allows the recognition that live in the everyday actions of nursing is a challenge that leads us to a new look at the magnitude of care. However, the actions of care should not target only the perspective of a philosopher, but live with that thought in search of reflection, and find, scrutinizing everything you contribute to a nursing care committed to the right, with ethics, and with respect for others.

  19. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning.

  20. Practicing Possibilities: Parents' Explanations of Unusual Events and Children's Possibility Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan-Reyes, Charlotte; Callanan, Maureen A.; Haigh, Kirsten A.

    2016-01-01

    Young children tend to judge improbable events to be impossible, yet there is variability across age and across individuals. Our study examined parent-child conversations about impossible and improbable events and links between parents' explanations about those events and children's possibility judgments in a reasoning task. Regression analyses…

  1. Rejuvenating stem cells to restore muscle regeneration in aging

    PubMed Central

    Bengal, Eyal; Perdiguero, Eusebio; Serrano, Antonio L.; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2017-01-01

    Adult muscle stem cells, originally called satellite cells, are essential for muscle repair and regeneration throughout life. Besides a gradual loss of mass and function, muscle aging is characterized by a decline in the repair capacity, which blunts muscle recovery after injury in elderly individuals. A major effort has been dedicated in recent years to deciphering the causes of satellite cell dysfunction in aging animals, with the ultimate goal of rejuvenating old satellite cells and improving muscle function in elderly people. This review focuses on the recently identified network of cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors and processes contributing to the decline of satellite cells in old animals. Some studies suggest that aging-related satellite-cell decay is mostly caused by age-associated extrinsic environmental changes that could be reversed by a “youthful environment”. Others propose a central role for cell-intrinsic mechanisms, some of which are not reversed by environmental changes. We believe that these proposals, far from being antagonistic, are complementary and that both extrinsic and intrinsic factors contribute to muscle stem cell dysfunction during aging-related regenerative decline. The low regenerative potential of old satellite cells may reflect the accumulation of deleterious changes during the life of the cell; some of these changes may be inherent (intrinsic) while others result from the systemic and local environment (extrinsic). The present challenge is to rejuvenate aged satellite cells that have undergone reversible changes to provide a possible approach to improving muscle repair in the elderly. PMID:28163911

  2. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  3. Ageing doctors.

    PubMed

    Lillis, Steven; Milligan, Eleanor

    2017-03-01

    Doctors are neither more nor less susceptible than the general population to the effects of ageing. The relevance of deterioration with age depends on the nature of the work undertaken. Reduced muscle strength and visual and auditory deterioration can compromise clinical ability. Accumulation of chronic disease further reduces capacity. Cognitive decline is of particular importance, as good medical care requires considerable cognitive function. Patient safety is paramount, yet older doctors are an important part of the medical workforce and their value should be recognised. Changes in patient case mix, work place support systems and individual adjustments can assist safe practice. Deterioration in health should be acknowledged and requires proactive management. Current methods of ensuring competence are inadequate for supporting ageing doctors. A new initiative is recommended comprising collaboration between regulators, colleges and employing institutions to support the ageing doctor in providing safe and effective practice.

  4. [Neuronal ageing].

    PubMed

    Piechota, Małgorzata; Sunderland, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Ageing leads to irreversible alterations in the nervous system, which to various extent impair its functions such as capacity to learn and memory. In old neurons and brain, similarly to what may take place in other cells, there is increased oxidative stress, disturbed energetic homeostasis and metabolism, accumulation of damage in proteins and nucleic acids. Characteristic of old neurons are alterations in plasticity, synaptic transmission, sensitivity to neurotrophic factors and cytoskeletal changes. Some markers of senescence, whose one of them is SA-beta-galactosidase were used to show the process of neuronal ageing both in vitro, and in vivo. Some research suggest that, despite the fact that neurons are postmitotic cells, it is cell cycle proteins which play a certain role in their biology, e.g. differentiation. However, their role in neuronal ageing is not known or explained. Ageing is the serious factor of development of neurodegenerative diseases among others Alzheimer disease.

  5. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  6. Aging in the glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Jocelyn E

    2012-12-01

    Kidney function declines with age in the majority of the population. Although very few older people progress to end stage, the consequences of doing so are burdensome for the patient and very expensive for the society. Although some of the observed decline is likely due to changes in the vasculature, much is associated with the development of age-associated glomerulosclerosis. This article will review the well-established structural and functional changes in the glomerulus with age. The role of calorie restriction in modifying age-related pathology will be discussed. The importance of the podocyte as a critical cell in the aging process is considered using animal models and human biopsy material. Newer data on changes in gene expression driven by nuclear factor kappa beta (NFkB) and possible changes in biology in the glomerulus are discussed. The relationship between pathways involved in aging and the decline in kidney function is reviewed. There is speculation on the significance of these changes in relation to normal and pathological aging.

  7. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  8. Multilayer reflectance during exposure to EUV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, Sebastian; Klein, Roman; Scholze, Frank; Jonkers, Jeroen; Louis, Eric; Yakshin, Andrey E.; Goerts, Peter C.; Ulm, Gerhard; Haidl, Markus; Bijkerk, Fred

    2000-11-01

    Mo/S multilayer mirrors have been exposed to intense monochromatic EUV radiation in order to investigate a possible deterioration of the mirror reflectance under different vacuum conditions. Power densities up to 3 mW/mm2 were applied at the PB undulator beamline at BESSY II, applying a hydrocarbon enriched vacuum. The mirror reflectance has been monitored in situ during several hours of exposure. Vacuum pressures of 3 X 10-8 mbar (without hydrocarbons) and 10-7 mbar (with hydrocarbons) at EUV intensities of 3 mW/mm2, respectively 0.2 mW/mm2 have been applied. The reflectance of the mirrors decreased when exposed to EUV radiation in hydrocarbon enriched vacuum, while no loss in reflectance was observed when no hydrocarbons were added to the vacuum. Ozone-cleaning experiments, using UV produced ozone from air at atmospheric pressure, were performed and show that Mo/S mirrors do not suffer from prolonged exposure to ozone.

  9. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  10. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Howard, Thomas C.

    1986-01-01

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  11. Atlas of soil reflectance properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.; Biehl, L. L.; Robinson, B. F.

    1979-01-01

    A compendium of soil spectral reflectance curves together with soil test results and site information is presented in an abbreviated manner listing those soil properties most important in influencing soil reflectance. Results are presented for 251 soils from 39 states and Brazil. A narrative key describes relationships between soil parameters and reflectance curves. All soils are classified according to the U.S. soil taxonomy and soil series name for ease of identification.

  12. Senescence, aging, and disease.

    PubMed

    Crews, Douglas E

    2007-05-01

    All over the world people are surviving into their seventh and later decades of life more frequently today than ever before in human history. Some remain in good health, while others show chronic degenerative conditions (CDCs), frailty, and relatively rapid mortality. Thereafter, multiple factors promoting health and well-being become ever more complex as we age. After attainment of reproductive maturation, many physiological decrements occurring in concert with age reflect both senescent and disease processes, not simply the passage of time. Senescence is a process that begins with DNA, molecules and cells and ultimately terminates in cellular death, loss of organ function, and somatic frailty. These changes are different from benign changes with age that do not alter function. Both differ from the pathological processes represented by disease. Either disease or senescence may be age-related, but neither is age-determined. Disease results from pathological alterations and it affects all age groups. Diseases need not be related to senescence, which includes alterations due to inherent aspects of organismal biology. Distinctions among senescence, aging, and disease blur for the late-life CDCs because, in addition to disease processes, many CDCs are phenotypic manifestations of senescing DNA, organelles, cells, and organs. During earlier epochs of human evolution, greater environmental exposures and fewer cultural buffers likely lead to greater frailty and mortality before senescence progressed greatly, as they still do for most animals. In modern-day settings, culturally patterned behaviors have allowed human frailty to become disconnected somewhat from mortality, unlike non-human species.

  13. Ultraviolet reflection of berries attracts foraging birds. A laboratory study with redwings (Turdus iliacus) and bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus)

    PubMed Central

    Siitari, H.; Honkavaara, J; Viitala, J.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike humans, birds perceive ultraviolet (UV) light (320 to 400 nm), a waveband which is known to play a role in avian mate choice. However, less attention has been paid to the role of UV light in avian foraging. Some blue, violet and black berries reflect UV light. The colour of berries might be an effective advertisement for avian seed dispersers and indicate the stage of fruit ripeness. We conducted an experiment to test how the UV reflection of berries affects birds' foraging. Redwings were allowed to choose between UV-reflecting bilberries and rubbed bilberries (UV reduced) in the presence and absence of UV light. We used wild-caught adult and hand-raised juvenile birds to assess possible differences between experienced and naive birds. We found that adult redwings preferred UV-reflecting berries when UV illumination was present, but when UV illumination was absent, they did not distinguish between the two berry types. Our study therefore shows, for the first time, that UV wavelengths are used when birds feed on fruit. However, naive birds showed no preferences, suggesting that age and/or learning may affect frugivore preference for UV reflectance.

  14. Chasing the reflected wave back into the heart: a new hypothesis while the jury is still out

    PubMed Central

    Codreanu, Ion; Robson, Matthew D; Rider, Oliver J; Pegg, Tammy J; Jung, Bernd A; Dasanu, Constantin A; Clarke, Kieran; Holloway, Cameron J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Arterial stiffness directly influences cardiac function and is independently associated with cardiovascular risk. However, the influence of the aortic reflected pulse pressure wave on left ventricular function has not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to obtain detailed information on regional ventricular wall motion patterns corresponding to the propagation of the reflected aortic wave on ventricular segments. Methods: Left ventricular wall motion was investigated in a group of healthy volunteers (n = 14, age 23 ± 3 years), using cardiac magnetic resonance navigator-gated tissue phase mapping. The left ventricle was divided into 16 segments and regional wall motion was studied in high temporal detail. Results: Corresponding to the expected timing of the reflected aortic wave reaching the left ventricle, a characteristic “notch” of regional myocardial motion was seen in all radial, circumferential, and longitudinal velocity graphs. This notch was particularly prominent in septal segments adjacent to the left ventricular outflow tract on radial velocity graphs and in anterior and posterior left ventricular segments on circumferential velocity graphs. Similarly, longitudinal velocity graphs demonstrated a brief deceleration in the upward recoil motion of the entire ventricle at the beginning of diastole. Conclusion: These results provide new insights into the possible influence of the reflected aortic waves on ventricular segments. Although the association with the reflected wave appears to us to be unambiguous, it represents a novel research concept, and further studies enabling the actual recording of the pulse wave are required. PMID:21731888

  15. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work.

  16. Aging causes morphological alterations in astrocytes and microglia in human substantia nigra pars compacta.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, H J; Vidyadhara, D J; Mahadevan, Anita; Philip, Mariamma; Parmar, Suresh Kumar; Manohari, S Gowri; Shankar, S K; Raju, Trichur R; Alladi, Phalguni Anand

    2015-12-01

    Age being a risk factor for Parkinson's disease, assessment of age-related changes in the human substantia nigra may elucidate its pathogenesis. Increase in Marinesco bodies, α-synuclein, free radicals and so forth in the aging nigral neurons are clear indicators of neurodegeneration. Here, we report the glial responses in aging human nigra. The glial numbers were determined on Nissl-stained sections. The expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S100β, 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase, and Iba1 was assessed on cryosections of autopsied midbrains by immunohistochemistry and densitometry. The glial counts showed a biphasic increase, of which, the first prominent phase from fetal age to birth could be physiological gliogenesis whereas the second one after middle age may reflect mild age-related gliosis. Astrocytic morphology was altered, but glial fibrillary acidic protein expression increased only mildly. Presence of type-4 microglia suggests possibility of neuroinflammation. Mild reduction in 2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3' phosphodiesterase-labeled area denotes subtle demyelination. Stable age-related S100β expression indicates absence of calcium overload. Against the expected prominent gliosis, subtle age-related morphological alterations in human nigral glia attribute them a participatory role in aging.

  17. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  18. Oxidative stress and ageing.

    PubMed

    Birch-Machin, M A; Bowman, A

    2016-10-01

    a wide age range. Complex II activity significantly decreased with age in fibroblasts (P = 0·015), but not in keratinocytes. This was associated with a significant decline in transcript expression (P = 0·008 and P = 0·001) and protein levels (P = 0·0006 and P = 0·005) of the SDHA and SDHB catalytic subunits of complex II respectively. In addition there was a significant decrease in complex II activity with age (P = 0·029) that was specific to senescent skin cells, our study being the first to investigate these differences with senescence and skin age. There was no decrease in complex IV activity with increasing age, suggesting possible locality to complex II. Our study provides a future potential biomarker for monitoring the progression of skin ageing.

  19. Embodied Reflection and the Epistemology of Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinsella, Elizabeth Anne

    2007-01-01

    Donald Schon's theory of reflective practice has been extensively referred to and has had enormous impact in education and related fields. Nonetheless, there continues to be tremendous conceptual and practical confusion surrounding interpretations of reflective practice and philosophical assumptions underlying the theory. In this paper, I argue…

  20. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  1. Specular Reflection and Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy of Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies on the occurrence and effects of specular reflection in mid-infrared spectra of soils have shown that distortions due to specular reflection occur for both organic (humic acid) and non-organic fractions (carbonates, silica, ashed fraction of soil). The results demonstrated explain why the s...

  2. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  3. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  4. Reflection on fitness to practise.

    PubMed

    Brindley, J

    2016-10-21

    Aim The focus of this review was to identify the role of reflection in continuing dental education. By understanding the expectations that our statutory regulative authority has of their registrants there is an opportunity to help to shape the continued professional development activities undertaken by current registrants in the future.Objective Conduct a review of General Dental Council (GDC) Fitness to Practise cases which were given conditions (restrictions) between February 2012 and November 2015, identifying relevant emergent outcomes in relation the Fitness to Practise (FTP) process.Design A Framework Approach (FA) was used to interrogate the qualitative data generated from GDC cases, the data were reviewed by a secondary person to ensure inter-rater reliability. Ethical approval was not sought for this research project as the GDC cases are published and available for open access via the internet. However, this does not negate the need for consideration of those GDC registrants who have been reviewed by the FTP process, indeed information regarding their identities was removed during data collection, as individual identification as part of this research project may have impacted on these individuals (bearing in mind the principle of non-maleficence; do no harm) and disclosure of personal information would not have contributed to the findings of this review. Although FTP cases are in the public domain, the information is still sensitive to those registrants, therefore it was not possible to review those cases which were not available for public view. To ensure that individual identification of registrants did not occur for the available to view cases (n = 56), each case file was individually downloaded from the GDC website and immediately given an individual numerical identifier before the frame work analysis. For the purpose of this research only the data from the FTP cases which resulted in 'conditions' were subject to review, as these were cases where it

  5. Reliability of reflectance measures in passive filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldiva de André, Carmen Diva; Afonso de André, Paulo; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Carvalho de Oliveira, Regiani; Singer, Julio M.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of optical reflectance in passive filters impregnated with a reactive chemical solution may be transformed to ozone concentrations via a calibration curve and constitute a low cost alternative for environmental monitoring, mainly to estimate human exposure. Given the possibility of errors caused by exposure bias, it is common to consider sets of m filters exposed during a certain period to estimate the latent reflectance on n different sample occasions at a certain location. Mixed models with sample occasions as random effects are useful to analyze data obtained under such setups. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the mean of the m measurements is an indicator of the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates. Our objective is to determine m in order to obtain a pre-specified reliability of the estimates, taking possible outliers into account. To illustrate the procedure, we consider an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, University of São Paulo, Brazil (LPAE/FMUSP), where sets of m = 3 filters were exposed during 7 days on n = 9 different occasions at a certain location. The results show that the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates for each occasion obtained under homoskedasticity is km = 0.74. A residual analysis suggests that the within-occasion variance for two of the occasions should be different from the others. A refined model with two within-occasion variance components was considered, yielding km = 0.56 for these occasions and km = 0.87 for the remaining ones. To guarantee that all estimates have a reliability of at least 80% we require measurements on m = 10 filters on each occasion.

  6. The strong connection between sensory and cognitive performance in old age: not due to sensory acuity reductions operating during cognitive assessment.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Scherer, H; Baltes, P B

    2001-06-01

    Cognitive aging research has documented a strong increase in the covariation between sensory and cognitive functioning with advancing age. In part, this finding may reflect sensory acuity reductions operating during cognitive assessment. To examine this possibility, the authors administered cognitive tasks used in prior studies (e.g., Lindenberger & Baltes, 1994) to middle-aged adults under age-simulation conditions of reduced visual acuity, auditory acuity, or both. Visual acuity was lowered through partial occlusion filters, and auditory acuity through headphone-shaped noise protectors. Acuity manipulations reduced visual acuity and auditory acuity in the speech range to values reaching or approximating old-age acuity levels, respectively, but did not lower cognitive performance relative to control conditions. Results speak against assessment-related sensory acuity accounts of the age-related increase in the connection between sensory and cognitive functioning and underscore the need to explore alternative explanations, including a focus on general aspects of brain aging.

  7. Children's Literature-Some Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Shelton L., Jr.

    Ten reflections may be made regarding children's literature and its teaching. The reflections are as follows: (1) Teachers can make a profound difference in the lives of students and should attempt to do so. (2) Teachers of children's literature are a badly fragmented lot and need a common meeting ground where they can share their thinking. (3)…

  8. Reflections on Justice in Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Patricia F.

    2012-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the concept of justice as practiced in the public schools in the United States. Examples of justice denied or misconstrued are included. Cases, stories, and concepts invite educational leaders to reflect anew on delivering justice in education to all children. Underlying the article is the belief that understanding…

  9. Can Reflective Practice Be Taught?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Gail; Thomas, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Almost ubiquitous in discourses about the development of teachers, reflective practice describes the process that occurs when persons are apprenticed to any meaningful activity. But reflective practice is a descriptive term for that process: it does not imply that the process is itself open to dissection and instruction. We contend that mistaken…

  10. Why Reflection in Teacher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBoskey, Vicki Kubler

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on preservice teacher education by considering teacher reflectivity as an end rather than a means. The article provides a rationale for reflective teacher education in arguing the need to have teachers who are thoughtful, passionate, and principled educational decision makers. (GLR)

  11. Reflections on Becoming a Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Katherine K.; Pearson, P. David

    2013-01-01

    In this joint reflection two of the contributors to this issue of the "Journal of Education" consider the processes and practices that led to the publication of their respective pieces. Since one of the authors, Katherine Frankel, was a doctoral advisee of the other, David Pearson, they also reflect on the mentoring practices they shared…

  12. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  13. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  14. Neurobiology of the aging dog.

    PubMed

    Head, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    Aged canines naturally accumulate several types of neuropathology that may have links to cognitive decline. On a gross level, significant cortical atrophy occurs with age along with an increase in ventricular volume based on magnetic resonance imaging studies. Microscopically, there is evidence of select neuron loss and reduced neurogenesis in the hippocampus of aged dogs, an area critical for intact learning and memory. The cause of neuronal loss and dysfunction may be related to the progressive accumulation of toxic proteins, oxidative damage, cerebrovascular pathology, and changes in gene expression. For example, aged dogs naturally accumulate human-type beta-amyloid peptide, a protein critically involved with the development of Alzheimer's disease in humans. Further, oxidative damage to proteins, DNA/RNA and lipids occurs with age in dogs. Although less well explored in the aged canine brain, neuron loss, and cerebrovascular pathology observed with age are similar to human brain aging and may also be linked to cognitive decline. Interestingly, the prefrontal cortex appears to be particularly vulnerable early in the aging process in dogs and this may be reflected in dysfunction in specific cognitive domains with age.

  15. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    PubMed

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills.

  16. Utilizing Calibrated GPS Reflected Signals to Estimate Soil Reflectivity and Dielectric Constant: Results from SMEX02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Stephen J.; Torres, Omar; Grant, Michael S.; Masters, Dallas

    2006-01-01

    Extensive reflected GPS data was collected using a GPS reflectometer installed on an HC130 aircraft during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02) near Ames, Iowa. At the same time, widespread surface truth data was acquired in the form of point soil moisture profiles, areal sampling of near-surface soil moisture, total green biomass and precipitation history, among others. Previously, there have been no reported efforts to calibrate reflected GPS data sets acquired over land. This paper reports the results of two approaches to calibration of the data that yield consistent results. It is shown that estimating the strength of the reflected signals by either (1) assuming an approximately specular surface reflection or (2) inferring the surface slope probability density and associated normalization constants give essentially the same results for the conditions encountered in SMEX02. The corrected data is converted to surface reflectivity and then to dielectric constant as a test of the calibration approaches. Utilizing the extensive in-situ soil moisture related data this paper also presents the results of comparing the GPS-inferred relative dielectric constant with the Wang-Schmugge model frequently used to relate volume moisture content to dielectric constant. It is shown that the calibrated GPS reflectivity estimates follow the expected dependence of permittivity with volume moisture, but with the following qualification: The soil moisture value governing the reflectivity appears to come from only the top 1-2 centimeters of soil, a result consistent with results found for other microwave techniques operating at L-band. Nevertheless, the experimentally derived dielectric constant is generally lower than predicted. Possible explanations are presented to explain this result.

  17. Using a model for structured reflection on palliative care nursing: exploring the challenges raised.

    PubMed

    Souter, Jill

    2003-01-01

    Reflection on palliative care nursing practice has to encompass every dimension of the holistic care we offer. In this article a possible structured model for reflection on palliative care nursing is discussed and used to reflect on the care given during a community Macmillan nurse visit. The reflection revealed a number of challenges. These included the possible conflict between patient autonomy and quality of life for carers; the role of intuition in palliative nursing and spiritual care. The article concludes that reflection has a role to play in exploring the innate tensions in palliative care, voicing the often silent intuitive knowledge and promoting expertise in spiritual care.

  18. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults.

  19. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  20. Near-100 percent Bragg Reflectivity of X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Y Shvydko; S Stoupin; V Blank; S Terentyev

    2011-12-31

    Ultrahigh-reflectance mirrors are essential optical elements of the most sophisticated optical instruments devised over the entire frequency spectrum. In the X-ray regime, super-polished mirrors with close to 100% reflectivity are routinely used at grazing angles of incidence. However, at large angles of incidence, and particularly at normal incidence, such high reflectivity has not yet been achieved. Here, we demonstrate by direct measurements that synthetic, nearly defect-free diamond crystals reflect more than 99% of hard X-ray photons backwards in Bragg diffraction, with a remarkably small variation in magnitude across the sample. This is a quantum leap in the largest reflectivity measured to date, which is at the limit of what is theoretically possible. This accomplishment is achieved under the most challenging conditions of normal incidence and with extremely hard X-ray photons.

  1. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education.

    PubMed

    Tsingos, Cherie; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-02-12

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.(1-2) Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student's own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education.

  2. Polarization-ratio reflectance measurements in the extreme ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Brimhall, N; Heilmann, N; Ware, M; Peatross, J

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining optical constants of materials in the extreme UV from the ratio of p-polarized to s-polarized reflectance. The measurements are based on laser-generated high-order harmonics, which have easily rotatable linear polarization but that are prone to brightness fluctuations and systematic drifts during measurement. Rather than measure the absolute reflectance, we extract the optical constants of a material from the ratio of p-polarized to s-polarized reflectance at multiple incident angles. This has the advantage of dividing out long-term fluctuations and possible systematic errors. We show that the reflectance ratio is as sensitive as the absolute reflectance to material optical properties.

  3. Reflective Practice and Its Implications for Pharmacy Education

    PubMed Central

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacy students require critical-thinking and problem-solving skills to integrate theory learned in the classroom with the complexities of practice, yet many pharmacy students fall short of acquiring these skills.1-2 Reflective practice activities encourage learning from the student’s own experiences and those of others, and offer a possible solution for the integration of knowledge-based curricula with the ambiguities of practice, as well as enhance communication and collaboration within a multidisciplinary team. Although reflective practices have been embraced elsewhere in health professions education, their strengths and shortcomings need to be considered when implementing such practices into pharmacy curricula. This review provides an overview of the evolution of theories related to reflective practice, critically examines the use of reflective tools (such as portfolios and blogs), and discusses the implications of implementing reflective practices in pharmacy education. PMID:24558286

  4. The Possible Selves of Young Fathers in Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Rosie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on the social psychological concept of possible selves, this study explores the future self concept of young fathers in prison. In considering life after release from prison, qualitative data relating to hoped-for, feared and expected possible selves was generated by 34 young fathers aged between 18 and 21 years. The most common categories…

  5. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    PubMed Central

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished. PMID:23476644

  6. Politics, Practices, and Possibilities of Open Educational Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on the politics, practices and possibilities of the open educational resources (OER). OER raise important implications for current and potential students, for postsecondary education institutions, and for those currently teaching in higher education. The key questions raised by OER centre on the role of teaching in…

  7. Citizenship Education Research in Varied Contexts: Reflections and Future Possibilities. A Review Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudball, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Three books are the subject of this review essay: (1) Avril Keating's (2014) publication, "Education for Citizenship in Europe: European Policies, National Adaptations and Young People's Attitudes"; (2) "The Political Classroom: Evidence and Ethics in Democratic Education", Diana Hess and Paula McAvoy (2015); and (3) "We…

  8. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  9. A Time for Silence? Its Possibilities for Dialogue and for Reflective Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmermann, Ana Cristina; Morgan, W. John

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of history sounds have played a fundamentally important role in humanity's development as ways of expression and of communication. However in contemporary western society, and indeed globally, we are experiencing an excess of speech and a relentless encouragement to expression. Such excess indicates a misunderstanding about what…

  10. Possibilities of achromatization of coaxial asymmetric phase shifters with an even number of reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, V. I.; Ali, M.; Kovalev, S. V.; Kovalev, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    Two types of coaxial phase shifters (PSs) are considered. They are designed for spectral ellipsometry, where achromatism is improved using a pair of parallel Al mirrors oriented at small angle θ2 with respect to the incident laser beam. In a phase device based on a fused silica Fresnel rhomb, a high degree of achromatism (Δ = 440° ± 0.4° in the wavelength range of 250-1000 nm) is obtained with the aid of two Al mirrors coated by a native oxide layer about 5 nm thick and tilted at θ2 = 18°. The achromatism of four-mirror PSs can be improved using two mirrors with a thin dielectric coating (Al2O3 or MgF2) 20-80 nm thick, for which phase shift Δ is close to 180° at small angles θ2 and there are fragments of spectrum Δ(λ) where Δ decreases with an increase in the light wavelength.

  11. Effects of aging and divided attention on memory for items and their contexts.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M; Luo, Lin; Sakuta, Yuiko

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly found that memory for context declines disproportionately with aging, arguably due to a general age-related deficit in associative memory processes. One possible mechanism for such deficits is an age-related reduction in available processing resources. In two experiments we compared the effects of aging to the effects of division of attention in younger adults on memory for items and context. Using a technique proposed by Craik (1989), linear functions relating memory performance for items and their contexts were derived for a Young Full Attention group, a Young Divided Attention group, and an Older Adult group. Results suggested that the Old group showed an additional deficit in associative memory that was not mimicked by divided attention. It is speculated that both divided attention and aging are associated with a loss of available processing resources that may reflect inefficient frontal lobe functioning, whereas the additional age-related decrement in associative memory may reflect inefficient processing in medial-temporal regions.

  12. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  13. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  14. Stability of auditory discrimination and novelty processing in physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Rundo, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Complex higher-order cognitive functions and their possible changes with aging are mandatory objectives of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials (ERPs) allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. N100, Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory ERP components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if N100, MMN and P3a parameters are stable in healthy aged subjects, compared to those of normal young adults. Normal young adults and older participants were assessed using standardized cognitive functional instruments and their ERPs were obtained with an auditory stimulation at two different interstimulus intervals, during a passive paradigm. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests. No significant differences were found for any ERP parameters obtained from the two age groups. This study shows that aging is characterized by a stability of the auditory discrimination and novelty processing. This is important for the arrangement of normative for the detection of subtle preclinical changes due to abnormal brain aging.

  15. Stability of Auditory Discrimination and Novelty Processing in Physiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Alberto; Tasca, Domenica; Rundo, Francesco; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Complex higher-order cognitive functions and their possible changes with aging are mandatory objectives of cognitive neuroscience. Event-related potentials (ERPs) allow investigators to probe the earliest stages of information processing. N100, Mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a are auditory ERP components that reflect automatic sensory discrimination. The aim of the present study was to determine if N100, MMN and P3a parameters are stable in healthy aged subjects, compared to those of normal young adults. Normal young adults and older participants were assessed using standardized cognitive functional instruments and their ERPs were obtained with an auditory stimulation at two different interstimulus intervals, during a passive paradigm. All individuals were within the normal range on cognitive tests. No significant differences were found for any ERP parameters obtained from the two age groups. This study shows that aging is characterized by a stability of the auditory discrimination and novelty processing. This is important for the arrangement of normative for the detection of subtle preclinical changes due to abnormal brain aging. PMID:23242351

  16. Synergies in Critical Reflective Practice and Science: Science as Reflection and Reflection as Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieson, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The conceptions of reflective practice in education have their roots at least partly in the work of Dewey, who describes reflection as "the active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends" (Dewey 1933, p.9).…

  17. Perceptions of and Attitudes towards Ageing in Zambia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapoma, Christopher C.; Masaiti, Gift

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects part of the wider outlook on ageing in general in Zambia and was intended to investigate perceptions of and attitudes towards the aged and ageing in Zambia by members of the community who, by definition and chronologically are not classified as aged i.e. not yet 60 years and over. Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used to…

  18. Identification of natural red and purple dyes on textiles by Fiber-optics Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maynez-Rojas, M A; Casanova-González, E; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J L

    2017-05-05

    Understanding dye chemistry and dye processes is an important issue for studies of cultural heritage collections and science conservation. Fiber Optics Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS) is a powerful technique, which allows preliminary dye identification, causing no damage or mechanical stress on the artworks subjected to analysis. Some information related to specific light scattering and absorption can be obtained in the UV-visible and infrared range (300-1400nm) and it is possible to discriminate the kind of support fiber in the near infrared region (1000-2500nm). The main spectral features of natural dye fibers samples, such as reflection maxima, inflection points and reflection minima, can be used in the differentiation of various red natural dyes. In this work, a set of dyed references were manufactured following Mexican recipes with red dyes (cochineal and brazilwood) in order to determine the characteristic FORS spectral features of fresh and aged dyed fibers for their identification in historical pieces. Based on these results, twenty-nine indigenous textiles belonging to the National Commission for the Development of Indigenous People of Mexico were studied. Cochineal and brazilwood were successfully identified by FORS in several pieces, as well as the mixture of cochineal and indigo for purple color.

  19. Seismic reflection data from Lake Elsinore, Southern CA, reveal a sustained late-Holocene lake lowstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyke, B. N.; Kirby, M. E.; Scholz, C. A.; Cattaneo, P.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Elsinore, located 120 kilometers southeast of Los Angeles, California, is Southern California’s largest natural lake. In December 2008, we collected over 75 km of high-resolution seismic reflection data using a CHIRP single-channel seismic-reflection Edgetech Geostar and the Geopulse™ Boomer systems. Initial interpretations reveal several interesting seismic sequences over the past 10,000 calendar years before present (cy BP: age control is based on dated sediment cores tied to the seismic lines). Most intriguing is evidence for a sustained interval of low lake level bracketed between ~ 3,000 and 1,800 cy BP. Prominent truncated stratal terminations characterize the upper boundary of this low stand seismic sequence. Sediment core data in the form of mudcracks, grain size variations, and geochemical data from various depositional environments (i.e., littoral and profundal) within Lake Elsinore support the seismic reflection interpretation for a low stand. Regionally, there is evidence for a similar interval of dry climate at Tulare Lake, the Mojave lakes, the Salton Sea, and possibly Dry Lake. A comparison to marine proxies along the eastern Pacific is less straight forward. The reason for this interval of sustained dry climate is not clear at this time. However, these results suggest that the already water-poor, over populated region of Southern California is subject to “droughts” of longer duration than that seen in the historical or tree-ring records from the region.

  20. Tribal Aging Programs: A Basic Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Council on Aging, Albuquerque, NM.

    A national training session for administrators of tribal aging programs held by the National Indian Council on Aging in November 1979 was the basis for the training manual. The seven chapter titles reflect workshop topics with the text of each chapter incorporating material presented in the workshops and examples of model programs on reservations.…

  1. Plant canopy specular reflectance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Grant, L.

    1985-01-01

    A model is derived for the amount of light specularly reflected and polarized by a plant canopy. The model is based on the morphological and phenological characteristics of the canopy and upon the Fresnel equations of optics. The theory demonstrates that the specular reflectance of the plant canopy is a function of the angle of incidence and potentially contains information to help discriminate between species. The theory relates the specular reflectance to botanical condition of the canopy - to factors such as development stage, plant vigor, and leaf area index (LAI).

  2. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents’ alcohol consumption. PMID:25545451

  3. [A reflection interference method for determining optical constants and thickness of a thin solid film].

    PubMed

    Yang, P; Xu, Z; Xu, L

    2000-06-01

    In this paper we report a simple method for deducing optical constants and thickness from the reflection interference spectrum of a thin transparent film which is on a substrate of high reflection coefficient. When a light beam is incident on the surface of the film, the reflection light beams at the front and rear faces are coherent. We calculated the optical constants and thickness of the film from the reflection spectrum. This simple method makes a directly programmable calculation possible.

  4. Timing of Early Cretaceous angiosperm diversification and possible links to major paleoenvironmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimhofer, U.; Hochuli, P. A.; Burla, S.; Dinis, J. M. L.; Weissert, H.

    2005-02-01

    Palynological records from the Western Portuguese and Algarve basins (Portugal) provide new insights on the timing and pattern of the early diversification of angiosperms (flowering plants) and its relationship to global environmental perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous. Angiosperm pollen displays a stepwise increase in both diversity and relative abundance during the late Barremian to middle Albian interval (ca. 124 104 Ma), reflecting the incipient radiation of flowering plants in lower midlatitude floras. Our results provide new evidence for the age interpretation of the previously described angiosperm mesofossil floras and associated in situ pollen assemblages from the Western Portuguese basin, until now interpreted as Barremian or possibly Aptian in age. Biostratigraphic and sedimentologic evidence indicates a post-Aptian age for these assemblages, hence demonstrating a major radiation phase of angiosperms during the early Albian. Correlation of the angiosperm pollen record with data on global paleoenvironmental changes suggests a link between the rapid adaptive radiation of flowering plants and major climatic and oceanographic perturbations during the late Early Cretaceous.

  5. Well posedness and physical possibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyenis, Balazs

    There is a sentiment shared among physicists that well posedness is a necessary condition for physical possibility. The arguments usually offered for well posedness have an epistemic flavor and thus they fall short of establishing the metaphysical claim that lack of well posedness implies physical impossibility. In this work we analyze the relationship of well posedness to prediction and confirmation as well as the notion of physical possibility and we devise three novel and independent argumentative strategies that may succeed where the usual epistemic arguments fail. Keywords: determinism, laws of nature, metaphysics, philosophy of physics, physical possibility, prediction, well posed problem.

  6. Transmitted, reflected, quasi-reflected, and multiply reflected ions in low-Mach number shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedalin, M.

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of ion dynamics on the cross-shock potential and upstream βi in low-Mach number marginally critical shocks is studied using advanced test particle analysis,. The directly transmitted ions provide the main contribution to the downstream ion pressure. The fraction of reflected ions increases with the increase of the cross-shock potential and βi. This fraction is small and their contribution to the downstream ion pressure is negligible in marginally critical shocks. A population of quasi-reflected ions is identified. These ions make a loop inside the ramp and do not appear upstream. They acquire energies comparable to the energies of the true reflected ions, are observed as a halo in the downstream ion distribution, and contribute significantly to the downstream pressure. Thus, the transmitted and quasi-reflected ions shape the downstream magnetic profile. At higher cross-shock potentials and βi the reflected ions cause formation of a magnetic dip just ahead of the ramp. A small fraction of ions are multiply reflected at the shock front. All these ions escape into the upstream region and all escaping ions are mutliply reflected.

  7. Age Distribution of Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Daughney, C. J.

    2012-04-01

    Groundwater at the discharge point comprises a mixture of water from different flow lines with different travel time and therefore has no discrete age but an age distribution. The age distribution can be assessed by measuring how a pulse shaped tracer moves through the groundwater system. Detection of the time delay and the dispersion of the peak in the groundwater compared to the tracer input reveals the mean residence time and the mixing parameter. Tritium from nuclear weapons testing in the early 1960s resulted in a peak-shaped tritium input to the whole hydrologic system on earth. Tritium is the ideal tracer for groundwater because it is an isotope of hydrogen and therefore is part of the water molecule. Tritium time series data that encompass the passage of the bomb tritium pulse through the groundwater system in all common hydrogeologic situations in New Zealand demonstrate a semi-systematic pattern between age distribution parameters and hydrologic situation. The data in general indicate high fraction of mixing, but in some cases also indicate high piston flow. We will show that still, 45 years after the peak of the bomb tritium, it is possible to assess accurately the parameters of age distributions by measuring the tail of the bomb tritium.

  8. [Strategies for successful ageing].

    PubMed

    Orozco Ríos, Adriana Martha; López Velarde Peña, Tatiana; Martínez Gallardo Prieto, Lorenza

    2016-01-01

    There has been an increase in the interest of anti-ageing medicine in the last few years, with a growth in the industry of products that promise to prolong life and restore all the suffering or "defects" produced by age. The understanding of ageing has changed over the years, giving rise to the possibility of intervening in different metabolic and cellular pathways, and thus, delaying the appearance of the degenerative chronic diseases that appear with age, and that are finally the causing factors of the vulnerability that leads to our death. It is hoped that we can help the clinician to orientate their patients, who, due to the overwhelming amount of information they receive by the Internet, arrive at the clinic full of questions, waiting to receive absolute answer from their physician in order to increase their longevity and quality of life. This article presents an analysis of the physical activity, diets, supplements and drugs that are being investigated as anti-ageing measures and of the many clinical studies that have produced encouraging, measurable and reproducible results.

  9. Changes in the Earth's UV Reflectivity (1979 to 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermana, J. R.; Ziemkeb, J. R.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of the Earth,s 380 nm UV reflectivity combine the effects of surface reflectivity, aerosols, haze, cloud optical thickness, and the fraction of the scene covered by clouds. Since the 380 nm surface reflectivity is low (2 to 8%) over most surfaces, water and land, the observed reflectivity changes are mostly caused by changes in the amount of snow/ice, cloudiness and aerosols. Time-series analysis of TOMS reflectivity over the period from 1979 to 1992 shows that there were no significant changes in annually-averaged zonal-average reflectivity at latitudes within 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N, even though there were changes at higher latitudes (e.g., 3% per decade, in reflectivity units, between 60 degrees N and 70 degrees N). When the effects of the 11-year solar cycle and ENSO (El Nino Southern Oscillation) are removed from the data, statistically significant reflectivity changes are observed poleward of both 40 degrees S and 40 degrees N. The solar-cycle results suggest a possible Sun-weather relationship.

  10. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  11. Motherhood, Choice and the British Media: A Time to Reflect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadfield, L.; Rudoe, N.; Sanderson-Mann, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask: How is motherhood being represented in the British media, especially in relation to choice, age and fertility? Do media discourses reflect a redefinition or transformation of "motherhood" in the twenty-first century, and what implications do they have for feminist research into maternal identity and motherhood? As…

  12. Reflections of a Lifelong Learner Teaching in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and summarizes the author's experience of teaching in Italy for three months and the impact it had on him and his learning. The author, at the age of 61, lived in Italy for three months and here he reflects on what he learned and how it relates to adult learning theory concepts.

  13. Body and Bulimia Revisited: Reflections on "A Secret Life"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillmann, Lisa M.

    2009-01-01

    In 1996, the author published "A Secret Life in a Culture of Thinness: Reflections on Body, Food, and Bulimia" (Tillmann-Healy, 1996), an account of her struggle with binging and purging from ages 15 to 25. She came to understand bulimia as a communicative act, expressing fear, anxiety, and grief. From 25 to 35, her recovery from bulimia involved…

  14. Possible improvements in gasoline engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziembinski, S

    1923-01-01

    High-compression engines are investigated with the three main objects being elimination of vibration, increase of maximum efficiency, and conservation of this efficiency at the highest possible speeds.

  15. Seismic Reflection Imaging of Subduction Bending-Related Faults at Cascadia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Carton, H. D.; Gibson, J. C.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The hydration state of the downgoing Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate is important to a number of subduction processes at Cascadia, yet is poorly known. As oceanic plates subduct, faults develop at the outer rise due to flexural bending and have been shown to facilitate plate hydration near the trench. We present pre-stack time migrated (PSTM) images of two cross-plate transects offshore Oregon and Washington to characterize faulting within the Juan de Fuca Plate. Basement faulting evident from vertical offsets in the sediment section is observed as far as 200 km seaward of the deformation front, and may result from complex intraplate stresses within the JdF plate. Along the Oregon margin, bright fault plane reflections within the crust are observed beginning ~40 km seaward of the deformation front. They are sparsely spaced, form in conjugate pairs, and cut completely through the crust. We suggest they are related to plate bending. Within the same region, a set of mantle reflections, possibly originating from the continuations at depth of some of the crustal faults, extend as deep as ~6 km beneath the Moho. The waveforms of the fault plane reflections vary with depth, implying variation of the internal structure and/or pore fluid pressure within the fault zones. Along the Washington margin, densely spaced faults that may be bending-related are confined to the upper and middle crust and most of them are seaward dipping. Mantle reflections are not observed on this transect. In the lower crust, a set of dipping events is imaged, they are spaced at 1-2 km, dip ~ 30° towards the ridge and shoal into the Moho reflection. The crust in which these reflections are observed is 6-8 Ma old. Lower crustal reflections with similar characteristics are also observed in crust of same age on our Oregon transect, suggesting they are related to accretionary processes at the JdF Ridge during this time period. We conclude that different faulting patterns at Oregon and Washington margin result

  16. Nail DNA and Possible Biomarkers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joshua; Liang, Debbie; Kim, Jung Woo; Luo, Yongjun; Huang, Taesheng; Kim, Soo-Young

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nail has been a substitute DNA source for genotyping. To investigate the integrity and consistency of nail DNA amplification for biomarker study, nail clippings from 12 subjects were collected at monthly intervals. The possibility of longer amplification and existence of GAPDH RNA/protein, were also investigated with three nail samples. Methods Three primer sets were designed for quantitative amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and analysis of their consistency. The mean threshold cycles in amplification of the target genes were compared to test the consistency of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performance among individual factors including age groups, sex, family, the nail source, and by the size of the amplification segments. Results The amplification of the target genes from nail DNA showed similar integrity and consistency between the nail sources, and among the serial collections. However, nail DNA from those in their forties showed earlier threshold cycles in amplification than those in their teens or seventies. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) showed better DNA integrity and consistency in amplification of all three targets than did nuclear DNA (nucDNA). Over 9 kb of mtDNA was successfully amplified, and nested quantitative PCR showed reliable copy numbers (%) between the two loci. Reverse transcription PCR for mRNA and immunoblotting for GAPDH protein successfully reflected their corresponding amounts. Regarding the existence of RNA and protein in nails, more effective extraction and detection methods need to be set up to validate the feasibility in biomarker study. Conclusions Nail DNA might be a feasible intra-individual monitoring biomarker. Considering integrity and consistency in target amplification, mtDNA would be a better target for biomarker research than nucDNA. PMID:22880155

  17. Aging and memory for dreams.

    PubMed

    Waterman, D

    1991-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of aging on memory for home drams and the extent to which cognitive variables such as visual memory, visuospatial IQ, and verbal IQ could account for possible differences herein. Subjects were 80 men and women of ages 45 to 75 years. Memory for dreams was measured by narrative length and frequency of recall. With respect to both measures no significant age differences were noted. Over-all differences in dream recall seemed best explained by visual memory scores. Partial correlational analyses, however, indicated that the small age differences memory or on any of the other cognitive variables. Dream contents were scored for aggression, friendliness, emotion, activities, and the number of characters and objects. The incidence of emotions among women appeared to be lower beyond the age of 60. Comparisons with previous data for young adults indicated that large reductions in aggression, friendliness, and emotion occur before the age of 45.

  18. A novel reflectometer for relative reflectance measurements of CCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Murdock; Barkhouser, Robert H.; Gunn, James E.; Smee, Stephen A.

    2016-07-01

    The high quantum efficiencies (QE) of backside illuminated charge coupled devices (CCD) has ushered in the age of the large scale astronomical survey. The QE of these devices can be greater than 90%, and is dependent upon the operating temperature, device thickness, backside charging mechanisms, and anti-reflection (AR) coatings. But at optical wavelengths the QE is well approximated as one minus the reflectance, thus the measurement of the backside reflectivity of these devices provides a second independent measure of their QE. We have designed and constructed a novel instrument to measure the relative specular reflectance of CCD detectors, with a significant portion of this device being constructed using a 3D fused deposition model (FDM) printer. This device implements both a monitor and measurement photodiode to simultaneously collect in- cident and reflected measurements reducing errors introduced by the relative reflectance calibration process. While most relative reflectometers are highly dependent upon a precisely repeatable target distance for accurate measurements, we have implemented a method of measurement which minimizes these errors. Using the reflectometer we have measured the reflectance of two types of Hamamatsu CCD detectors. The first device is a Hamamatsu 2k x 4k backside illuminated high resistivity p-type silicon detector which has been optimized to operate in the blue from 380 nm - 650 nm. The second detector being a 2k x 4k backside illuminated high resistivity p-type silicon detector optimized for use in the red from 640 nm - 960 nm. We have not only been able to measure the reflectance of these devices as a function of wavelength we have also sampled the reflectance as a function of position on the device, and found a reflection gradient across these devices.

  19. [Meta-cognitive strategies: a possibility in nursing education].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Miriam de Abreu

    2002-01-01

    This article is a theoretical reflection about the possibility of the application of metacognition strategies in nursing education. Metacognition is a reflective attitude of self-awareness and control of the mental processes. The metacognition area of cognitive psychology is analyzed, focusing on the problem solving process. The importance of metacognition in education is approached with emphasis on the teacher's role as a mediator in the student's learning process, in which "learning to learn" is emphasized. Some examples of its use in different situations of nursing education such as in text reading and nursing process, are reported.

  20. As Old as You Feel: Age Identity in Middle and Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, John R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Interviewed 1,200 adults aged 40 and older to study age identity (labels reflecting self-perception in terms of age) and its relationship to well-being. Chronological age, poor health, and widow or divorce status are associated with older age identity. Having children is related to middle-aged identity. (KS)

  1. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  2. [Reflections].

    PubMed

    Drygas, A

    2000-01-01

    The author remembers the time, when in the gloomy years of Stalin's regime after the II World War, the lectures of the history of medicine were eliminated in the Medical Academies in Poland. A similar thing happened to the history of pharmacy in pharmaceutical faculties, which is why the author is now asking if lectures on the history of pharmacy or medicine were really necessary? After all, many outstanding doctors and pharmacists graduated at that time? And his answer is that it was a great educational mistake. The history of medicine and the history of pharmacy carry humanitarian lessons of great importance to doctors and pharmacists. History demonstrates that they, off all professions should understand the suffering and pain of a sick patient. Knowledge of the history of medicine and the history of pharmacy can only help.

  3. Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    From 1998-2000, Carol Bartell served as President of the California Council on the Education of Teachers. However, election to office in this organization is generally a six-year commitment, because an individual will serve for two years as President Elect, two years as President, and two more as Past President. In this article, she expresses that…

  4. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOEpatents

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  5. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  6. Instrument independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Fu, Henry L; Ramanujam, Nirmala

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy with a fiber optic probe is a powerful tool for quantitative tissue characterization and disease diagnosis. Significant systematic errors can arise in the measured reflectance spectra and thus in the derived tissue physiological and morphological parameters due to real-time instrument fluctuations. We demonstrate a novel fiber optic probe with real-time, self-calibration capability that can be used for UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in biological tissue in clinical settings. The probe is tested in a number of synthetic liquid phantoms over a wide range of tissue optical properties for significant variations in source intensity fluctuations caused by instrument warm up and day-to-day drift. While the accuracy for extraction of absorber concentrations is comparable to that achieved with the traditional calibration (with a reflectance standard), the accuracy for extraction of reduced scattering coefficients is significantly improved with the self-calibration probe compared to traditional calibration. This technology could be used to achieve instrument-independent diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in vivo and obviate the need for instrument warm up and post∕premeasurement calibration, thus saving up to an hour of precious clinical time.

  7. Seasonal Variations of Stratospheric Age Spectra in GEOSCCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.; Strahan, Susan E.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2011-01-01

    There are many pathways for an air parcel to travel from the troposphere to the stratosphere, each of which takes different time. The distribution of all the possible transient times, i.e. the stratospheric age spectrum, contains important information on transport characteristics. However, it is computationally very expensive to compute seasonally varying age spectra, and previous studies have focused mainly on the annual mean properties of the age spectra. To date our knowledge of the seasonality of the stratospheric age spectra is very limited. In this study we investigate the seasonal variations of the stratospheric age spectra in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We introduce a method to significantly reduce the computational cost for calculating seasonally dependent age spectra. Our simulations show that stratospheric age spectra in GEOSCCM have strong seasonal cycles and the seasonal cycles change with latitude and height. In the lower stratosphere extratropics, the average transit times and the most probable transit times in the winter/early spring spectra are more than twice as old as those in the summer/early fall spectra. But the seasonal cycle in the subtropical lower stratosphere is nearly out of phase with that in the extratropics. In the middle and upper stratosphere, significant seasonal variations occur in the sUbtropics. The spectral shapes also show dramatic seasonal change, especially at high latitudes. These seasonal variations reflect the seasonal evolution of the slow Brewer-Dobson circulation (with timescale of years) and the fast isentropic mixing (with timescale of days to months).

  8. Alienation and alterity: Age in the existentialist discourse on others.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Harm-Peer

    2016-12-01

    Aging Studies and Postcolonial Studies belong together in a rather fundamental way, given that they share profound theoretical roots and far-reaching critical perspectives. These derive not only from the more recent poststructuralist discourse on others but also, further back, from the existentialist discourse on others - particularly in issues relating to "The Look" as elaborated by Jean-Paul Sartre in his major philosophical treatise Being and Nothingness and in his reflections on racism, colonialism and humanism. These texts have had a decisive influence on both Aging Studies and Postcolonial Studies. First, no less a figure than one of the main progenitors of Postcolonial Studies, Frantz Fanon, drawing on Sartre, analyses the gaze of the colonial masters and black responses. Second, two of the most significant theoretical works on aging and age to have appeared since 1945 were directly inspired by Sartre: Jean Améry's On Aging and Simone de Beauvoir's The Coming of Age. Additional sources of interest are the phenomenology of responsibility by Emmanuel Lévinas and works on absurdity and rebellion by Albert Camus. It is this early influence that is explored from two perspectives adopted by more recent postcolonialist discourse: debates around the concept of alienation involve analysing and critiquing the kind of epistemic violence which renders abject and invisible not only old people but also all those who are 'othered' by a dominant gaze (racism, ageism, othering); and the concept of alterity involves debating ways of acknowledging otherness responsibly on the one hand and being able to articulate and represent oneself on the other: Can the subaltern speak? We might similarly ask "Can the old speak?" Postcolonial discourse tells us that this is not quite as easy as some versions of so-called "Happy Gerontology" proclaim. The aim of the present article is to examine the foundational existentialist critique of racism and ageism and to render it useful for re

  9. Value of Reflected Light Microscopy in Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasteris, Jill Dill

    1983-01-01

    Briefly reviews some optical and other physical properties of minerals that can be determined in reflected/incident light. Topics include optical properties of minerals, reflectance, internal reflections, color, bireflectance and reflection pleochroism, anisotropism, zonation, and reflected light microscopy as a teaching tool in undergraduate…

  10. Age association of language task induced deactivation induced in a pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Sun, Binjian; Berl, Madison M; Burns, Thomas G; Gaillard, William D; Hayes, Laura; Adjouadi, Malek; Jones, Richard A

    2013-01-15

    Task-induced deactivation (TID) potentially reflects the interactions between the default mode and task specific networks, which are assumed to be age dependent. The study of the age association of such interactions provides insight about the maturation of neural networks, and lays out the groundwork for evaluating abnormal development of neural networks in neurological disorders. The current study analyzed the deactivations induced by language tasks in 45 right-handed normal controls aging from 6 to 22 years of age. Converging results from GLM, dual regression and ROI analyses showed a gradual reduction in both the spatial extent and the strength of the TID in the DMN cortices as the brain matured from kindergarten to early adulthood in the absence of any significant change in task performance. The results may be ascribed to maturation leading to either improved multi-tasking (i.e. reduced deactivation) or reduced cognitive demands due to greater experience (affects both control and active tasks but leads to reduced overall difference). However, other effects, such as changes in the DMN connectivity that were not included in this study may also have influenced the results. In light of this, researchers should be cautious when investigating the maturation of DMN using TID. With a GLM analysis using the concatenated fMRI data from several paradigms, this study additionally identified an age associated increase of TID in the STG (bilateral), possibly reflecting the role of this area in speech perception and phonological processing.

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells, aging and regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Raggi, Chiara; Berardi, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tissue maintenance and regeneration is dependent on stem cells and increasing evidence has shown to decline with age. Stem cell based-aging is thought to influence therapeutic efficacy. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in tissue regeneration. Here, we discuss the effects of age-related changes on MSC properties considering their possible use in research or regenerative medicine. PMID:23738303

  12. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  13. Microseismic reflection imaging of the Central Andean crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelzbach, C.; Kummerow, J.; Wigger, P.; Reshetnikov, A.; Salazar, P.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The coda of passive seismic recordings is often rich in arrivals that are coherent across several stations. If reflections can be extracted, then they may be used for seismic reflection subsurface imaging. With the objective to image the upper crust of the North Chilean Precordillera (Central Andes; approximate location 21°S 69°W), we developed a workflow to process passive seismic data into subsurface reflection images. We analysed the waveform recordings of several hundred microseismic events using signal processing and imaging techniques adapted from active (controlled source) seismic imaging as used in the oil industry. Key processing steps involved precise arrival time picking and hypocentre determination, removing signal amplitude variations due to varying source radiation patterns, identification and separation of reflections from coherent noise, and transformation of the processed waveforms into images of the subsurface reflectivity. When designing our microseismic reflection imaging workflow, we took advantage of the fact that the passive seismic recording geometry with the hypocentres located at depth and the receivers positioned at the surface resembles a reverse vertical-seismic profiling experiment. The resultant P- and S-wave reflection images reveal several reflective features, such as an approximate 15° westward dipping reflector over the 5-25 km depth range that largely coincides with a distinct seismicity boundary. We interpret the imaged interface as the brittle-ductile transition zone boundary, possibly enhanced by a tectonic shear zone. For the area of the North Chilean Precordillera, the deduced microseismic reflection sections with horizontal extensions of about 50 km represent the first high-resolution images of the shallow crust, which could not be obtained from previous active-source seismic-reflection data.

  14. Plutonium age dating reloaded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Monika; Richter, Stephan; Aregbe, Yetunde; Wellum, Roger; Mayer, Klaus; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Although the age determination of plutonium is and has been a pillar of nuclear forensic investigations for many years, additional research in the field of plutonium age dating is still needed and leads to new insights as the present work shows: Plutonium is commonly dated with the help of the 241Pu/241Am chronometer using gamma spectrometry; in fewer cases the 240Pu/236U chronometer has been used. The age dating results of the 239Pu/235U chronometer and the 238Pu/234U chronometer are scarcely applied in addition to the 240Pu/236U chronometer, although their results can be obtained simultaneously from the same mass spectrometric experiments as the age dating result of latter. The reliability of the result can be tested when the results of different chronometers are compared. The 242Pu/238U chronometer is normally not evaluated at all due to its sensitivity to contamination with natural uranium. This apparent 'weakness' that renders the age dating results of the 242Pu/238U chronometer almost useless for nuclear forensic investigations, however turns out to be an advantage looked at from another perspective: the 242Pu/238U chronometer can be utilized as an indicator for uranium contamination of plutonium samples and even help to identify the nature of this contamination. To illustrate this the age dating results of all four Pu/U clocks mentioned above are discussed for one plutonium sample (NBS 946) that shows no signs of uranium contamination and for three additional plutonium samples. In case the 242Pu/238U chronometer results in an older 'age' than the other Pu/U chronometers, contamination with either a small amount of enriched or with natural or depleted uranium is for example possible. If the age dating result of the 239Pu/235U chronometer is also influenced the nature of the contamination can be identified; enriched uranium is in this latter case a likely cause for the missmatch of the age dating results of the Pu/U chronometers.

  15. Wave reflection at a stent.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Antonio; García, Javier; Manuel, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    A simple analytical expression has been derived to calculate the characteristics of a wave that reflects at a stent implanted in a uniform vessel. The stent is characterized by its length and the wave velocity in the stented region. The reflected wave is proportional to the time derivative of the incident wave. The reflection coefficient is a small quantity of the order of the length of the stent divided by the wavelength of the unstented vessel. The results obtained coincide with those obtained numerically by Charonko et al. The main simplifications used are small amplitude of the waves so that equations can be linearized and that the length of the stent is small enough so that the values of the wave functions are nearly uniform along the stent. Both assumptions hold in typical situations.

  16. Person-centred reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Devenny, Bob; Duffy, Kathleen

    Person-centred health and person-centred care have gained prominence across the UK following the publication of reports on public inquiries exploring failings in care. Self-awareness and participation in reflective practice are recognised as vital to supporting the person-centred agenda. This article presents an education framework for reflective practice, developed and used in one NHS board in Scotland, and based on the tenets of the clinical pastoral education movement. Providing an insight into the usefulness of a spiritual component in the reflective process, the framework provides an opportunity for nurses and other healthcare professionals to examine the spiritual dimensions of patient encounters, their own values and beliefs, and the effect these may have on their practice.

  17. Cartilage analysis by reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laun, T.; Muenzer, M.; Wenzel, U.; Princz, S.; Hessling, M.

    2015-07-01

    A cartilage bioreactor with analytical functions for cartilage quality monitoring is being developed. For determining cartilage composition, reflection spectroscopy in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectral region is evaluated. Main goal is the determination of the most abundant cartilage compounds water, collagen I and collagen II. Therefore VIS and NIR reflection spectra of different cartilage samples of cow, pig and lamb are recorded. Due to missing analytical instrumentation for identifying the cartilage composition of these samples, typical literature concentration values are used for the development of chemometric models. In spite of these limitations the chemometric models provide good cross correlation results for the prediction of collagen I and II and water concentration based on the visible and the NIR reflection spectra.

  18. Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy for identifying the finish on wooden furniture.

    PubMed

    Poli, T; Chiantore, O; Nervo, M; Piccirillo, A

    2011-05-01

    Mid-IR fiber-optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) is a totally noninvasive infrared analytical technique allowing the investigation of artworks without the need for any sampling. The development and optimization of this analytical methodology can provide a tool that is capable of supporting conservators during the first steps of their interventions, yielding fast results and dramatically reducing the number of samples needed to identify the materials involved. Furthermore, since reflection IR spectra suffer from important spectral anomalies that complicate accurate spectral interpretation, it is important to characterize known reference materials and substrates in advance. This work aims to verify the possibility of investigating and identifying the most widely used wood finishes by means of fiber-optic (chalcogenide and metal halides) mid-infrared spectroscopy. Two historically widely employed wood finishes (beeswax, shellac) and two modern ones (a hydrogenated hydrocarbon resin and a microcrystalline wax) were investigated in an extended IR range (from 1000 to 6000 cm(-1)) with reflectance spectroscopy and with FORS. The broad spectral response of the MCT detector was exploited in order to include overtones and combination bands from the NIR spectral range in the investigation. The reflectance spectra were compared with those collected in transmission mode in order to highlight modifications to shapes and intensities, to assign absorptions, and finally to select "marker" bands indicating the presence of certain finishing materials, even when applied onto a substrate such as wood, which shows many absorptions in the mid-infrared region. After the characterization, the different products were applied to samples of aged pear wood and investigated with the same techniques in order to check the ability of mid-IR FORS to reveal the presence and composition of the product on the wooden substrate.

  19. On Reflecting the Reflectiveness of the Teacher-Scholar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Kinsey

    2007-01-01

    The nature of teaching requires reflection for anyone (students or teacher) to learn anything at all, especially in the community-college classroom, where students often come because traditional teaching methods simply haven't served their needs. As all teacher-scholars know, stand and deliver simply does not work for most of them. They do have to…

  20. Making Reflective Practice More Concrete through Reflective Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Lana

    2008-01-01

    Reflective decision making is an important component in a teacher's professional expertise, and aptness for integrating it into professional practice can be nurtured in most teachers. This article uses vignettes from student teachers' journals to describe four modes of thinking that can provide a useful framework for fostering growth in novice and…

  1. Reflecting on Reflection as a Critical Component in Service Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomquist, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Despite the popularity of service learning, it is sometimes criticized for its lack of academic rigor. This piece provides a counterpoint to that argument by describing a LIS service-learning course from the student's perspective. I focus particularly on the role of reflection, a key component in service-learning courses that helps to…

  2. Is extinction age dependent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doran, N.A.; Arnold, A.J.; Parker, W.C.; Huffer, F.W.

    2006-01-01

    Age-dependent extinction is an observation with important biological implications. Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis triggered three decades of research testing its primary implication: that age is independent of extinction. In contrast to this, later studies with species-level data have indicated the possible presence of age dependence. Since the formulation of the Red Queen hypothesis, more powerful tests of survivorship models have been developed. This is the first report of the application of the Cox Proportional Hazards model to paleontological data. Planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies allow the taxonomic and precise stratigraphic resolution necessary for the Cox model. As a whole, planktonic foraminiferal morphospecies clearly show age-dependent extinction. In particular, the effect is attributable to the presence of shorter-ranged species (range < 4 myr) following extinction events. These shorter-ranged species also possess tests with unique morphological architecture. The morphological differences are probably epiphenomena of underlying developmental and heterochronic processes of shorter-ranged species that survived various extinction events. Extinction survivors carry developmental and morphological characteristics into postextinction recovery times, and this sets them apart from species populations established independently of extinction events. Copyright ?? 2006, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  3. Markers of Psychological Differences and Social and Health Inequalities: Possible Genetic and Phenotypic Overlaps.

    PubMed

    Mõttus, René; Marioni, Riccardo; Deary, Ian J

    2017-02-01

    Associations between markers of ostensible psychological characteristics and social and health inequalities are pervasive but difficult to explain. In some cases, there may be causal influence flowing from social and health inequalities to psychological differences, whereas sometimes it may be the other way around. Here, we focus on the possibility that some markers that we often consider as indexing different domains of individual differences may in fact reflect at least partially overlapping genetic and/or phenotypic bases. For example, individual differences in cognitive abilities and educational attainment appear to reflect largely overlapping genetic influences, whereas cognitive abilities and health literacy may be almost identical phenomena at the phenotypic, never mind genetic, level. We make the case for employing molecular genetic data and quantitative genetic techniques to better understand the associations of psychological individual differences with social and health inequalities. We illustrate these arguments by using published findings from the Lothian Birth Cohort and the Generation Scotland studies. We also present novel findings pertaining to longitudinal stability and change in older age personality traits and some correlates of the change, molecular genetic data-based heritability estimates of Neuroticism and Extraversion, and the genetic correlations of these personality traits with markers of social and health inequalities.

  4. Reflection of curved shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-03-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  5. Achieving change through reflective practice: closing the loop.

    PubMed

    Page, S; Meerabeau, L

    2000-07-01

    This paper draws on a small scale, exploratory study which was conducted in the clinical area in the early 1990s (Page 1992). The study drew on the principles of reflective practice in order to enable practitioners to identify learning needs in relation to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Whilst considerable benefit from the reflective sessions was noted, one unanticipated and unpalatable outcome was what might be termed professional apathy. This was manifest in several ways, most importantly in that issues 'for action', identified through reflection, were not prioritised or acted upon. Whilst partial responsibility for this may lie with the somewhat naive way in which the reflective process was facilitated, some responsibility also rests with the nurses in question. One possible explanation is that, for changes in practice to occur, the planning and management of change should form an integral part of the reflective cycle. This point has been largely absent in the reflection literature to date. Such concerns are reviewed here in the context of nurse education's ongoing involvement with the notion of reflective practice and the role of the educationalist in the clinical area. The current political backdrop of 'quality initiatives' to create and demonstrate high standards of clinical care may be useful in advancing the debate.

  6. Bidirectional reflectance modeling of non-homogeneous plant canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a 3-dimensional radiative transfer model for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) for heterogeneous vegetation canopies. Leaf bidirectional reflectance and transmittance distribution functions were measured for corn and soybean leaves. The measurements clearly show that leaves are complex scatterers and considerable specular reflectance is possible. Because of the character of leaf reflectance, true leaf reflectance is larger than the nadir reflectances that are normally used to represent leaves. A 3-dimensional reflectance model, named BIGAR (Bidirectional General Array Model), was developed and compared with measurements from corn and soybean. The model is based on the concept that heterogeneous canopies can be described by a combination of many subcanopies, which contain all the foliage, and these subcanopy envelopes can be characterized by ellipsoids of various sizes and shapes. The model/measurement comparison results indicate that this relatively simple model captures the essential character of row crop BRDF's. Finally, two soil BDRF models were developed: one represents soil particles as rectangular blocks and the other represents soil particles as spheres. The sphere model was found to be superior.

  7. Monitoring Stand Level Photosynthesis from Spectral Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilker, T.; Coops, N. C.; Hall, F. G.; Black, A. T.; Krishnan, P.; Chen, B.; Wulder, M. A.; Nesic, Z.; Huemmrich, K. F.; Middleton, E. M.; Margolis, H. A.; Drolet, G.; Cheng, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Global determination and monitoring of gross primary production (GPP) is a critical component of climate change research. On local scales, GPP can be assessed from measuring CO2 exchange above the plant canopy using tower-based eddy covariance (EC) systems. The limited footprint inherent to this method however, restricts observations to relatively few discrete areas making continuous predictions of global CO2 fluxes challenging. Recently, the advent of high resolution optical remote sensing devices has offered new possibilities to address some of the scaling issues related to GPP using approaches based on spectral reflectance. One key component for inferring GPP from remote sensing is the efficiency (e) with which plants can convert absorbed photosynthetically active radiation into biomass. Whilst recent years have seen progress determining e at the leaf level using the photochemical reflectance index PRI, little is known about the temporal and spatial requirements for upscaling PRI. For instance, satellite observations of canopy reflectance are subject to view and illumination geometry effects induced by the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of canopies that can confound the desired signal; however little is known about interactions between these effects and PRI. Further areas of research include dependencies of PRI on canopy structure, understorey and species composition. One potential way to investigate these requirements is using automated tower-based remote sensing platforms, facilitating spectral observations of the canopy with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. The experimental setup presented herein features an automated spectral radiometer (AMSPEC) with a motor-driven probe allowing observations in a nearly full circle around the tower. Year round data are sampled every 5 sec., a full rotation is completed within 15 min. The spatial similarity to the flux-footprint allows direct comparisons with EC and micro

  8. A phylogenetically based transcriptome age index mirrors ontogenetic divergence patterns.

    PubMed

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Tautz, Diethard

    2010-12-09

    Parallels between phylogeny and ontogeny have been discussed for almost two centuries, and a number of theories have been proposed to explain such patterns. Especially elusive is the phylotypic stage, a phase during development where species within a phylum are particularly similar to each other. Although this has formerly been interpreted as a recapitulation of phylogeny, it is now thought to reflect an ontogenetic progression phase, where strong constraints on developmental regulation and gene interactions exist. Several studies have shown that genes expressed during this stage evolve at a slower rate, but it has so far not been possible to derive an unequivocal molecular signature associated with this stage. Here we use a combination of phylostratigraphy and stage-specific gene expression data to generate a cumulative index that reflects the evolutionary age of the transcriptome at given ontogenetic stages. Using zebrafish ontogeny and adult development as a model, we find that the phylotypic stage does indeed express the oldest transcriptome set and that younger sets are expressed during early and late development, thus faithfully mirroring the hourglass model of morphological divergence. Reproductively active animals show the youngest transcriptome, with major differences between males and females. Notably, ageing animals express increasingly older genes. Comparisons with similar data sets from flies and nematodes show that this pattern occurs across phyla. Our results indicate that an old transcriptome marks the phylotypic phase and that phylogenetic differences at other ontogenetic stages correlate with the expression of newly evolved genes.

  9. Determination of age at death using combined morphology and histology of the femur

    PubMed Central

    THOMAS, C. D. L.; STEIN, M. S.; FEIK, S. A.; WARK, J. D.; CLEMENT, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    Bone is characterised by age-related morphological and histological changes. We have previously established an automated method of recording bone morphometry and histology from entire transverse sections of cortical bone. Our aim was to determine whether data acquired using this automated system were useful in the prediction of age. Ninety-six specimens of human femoral middiaphysis were studied from subjects aged 21–92 y. Equations predicting specimen age were constructed using macroscopic data (total subperiosteal area (TSPA), periosteal perimeter (PP), endosteal perimeter (EP), cortical bone area (CA) and moments of area) and microscopic data (the number, size and diversity of pores and intracortical porosity) together with sex, height and weight. Both TSPA and PP were independent predictors of age but the number of pores was not a significant predictor of age in any equation. The age predicted by these equations was inaccurate by more than 8 y in over half the subjects. We conclude that we could not predict age at a clinically acceptable level using data from our automated system. This most likely reflects an insensitivity to regional age-related changes in bone histology because we recorded data from each entire cortex. Automated bone measurement according to cortical region might be more useful in the prediction of age. The inclusion of TSPA together with PP as independent predictors of age raises the possibility that a future measure of periosteal shape at the femoral diaphysis could also be helpful in the prediction of age. The accuracy reached with the relatively simple methods described here is sufficient to encourage the development of image-analysis systems for the automatic detection of more complex features. PMID:10853968

  10. Penis Fracture: Is It Possible?

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Sexual health Is it possible to fracture your penis? Answers from Landon Trost, M.D. Yes. Although rare, penis fracture ... Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/sexual-health/expert-answers/penis-fracture/faq-20058154 . Mayo Clinic ...

  11. On probability-possibility transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klir, George J.; Parviz, Behzad

    1992-01-01

    Several probability-possibility transformations are compared in terms of the closeness of preserving second-order properties. The comparison is based on experimental results obtained by computer simulation. Two second-order properties are involved in this study: noninteraction of two distributions and projections of a joint distribution.

  12. Possible Ice Lenses on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitala, J.; Aittola, M.; Korteniemi, J.; Öhman, T.; Törmänen, T.; Kukkonen, S.

    2010-03-01

    In a crater on Noachis Terra there are domes within a narrow crater floor unit. The unit is connected to a channel that breaches the crater rim. In this study we discuss of a possible pingo-like characteristics of the domes.

  13. Environmental Education: Practice and Possibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robottom, Ian, Ed.

    This collection of essays describes practices in environmental education and points to possibilities in the field. The intention is to appraise selected practices in order to prepare the ground for a consideration of alternative images of environmental education that may shape future action. The following articles are included: (1) "A…

  14. Medical office design: new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Malkin, J

    1992-01-01

    In summary, I have presented some unique projects that boldly deviate from our expectations for healthcare facilities. Perhaps this will inspire design professionals to look for opportunities to challenge "formula design" and to envision new possibilities for the 21st century. Remember that design professionals are creating the future today with every project they design.

  15. Occurrence and Magnitude of High Reflectance Materials on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuno, R. G.; Boyd, A. K.; Robinson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize a Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) 643 nm photometrically normalized (30°, 0°, 30°; i, e, g) reflectance map to investigate the occurrence and origin of high reflectance materials on the Moon. Compositional differences (mainly iron and titanium content) and maturity state (e.g. Copernican crater rays and swirls) are the predominant factors affecting reflectance variations observed on the Moon. Therefore, comparing reflectance values of different regions yields insight into the composition and relative exposure age of lunar materials. But an accurate comparison requires precise reflectance values normalized across every region being investigated. The WAC [1] obtains monthly near-global ground coverage, each month's observations acquired with different lighting conditions. Boyd et al. [2] utilized a geologically homogeneous subset [0°N to 90°N, 146°E to 148°E] of the WAC observations to determine an equation that describes how viewing and lighting angles affect reflectance values. A normalized global reflectance map was generated by applying the local empirical solution globally, with photometric angles derived from the WAC Global Lunar Digital Terrain Model (DTM)(GLD100) [3]. The GLD100 enables accurate correction of reflectance differences caused by local topographic undulations at the scale of 300 meters. We compare reflectance values across the Moon within 80°S to 80°N latitude. The features with the highest reflectance are steep crater walls within Copernican aged craters, such as the walls of Giordano Bruno, which have normalized reflectance values up to 0.35. Near-impact ejecta of some craters have high reflectance values, such as Virtanen (0.22). There are also broad relatively flat features with high reflectance, such as the 900-km Thales-Compton region (0.24) and the 600-km extent of Anaxagoras (Copernican age) ejecta (0.20). Since the interior of Anaxagoras contains occurrences of pure anorthosite [4], the high

  16. Spectral reflectance pattern in soybean for assessing yellow mosaic disease.

    PubMed

    Gazala, I F Saad; Sahoo, R N; Pandey, Rakesh; Mandal, Bikash; Gupta, V K; Singh, Rajendra; Sinha, P

    2013-09-01

    Remote sensing technique is useful for monitoring large crop area at a single time point, which is otherwise not possible by visual observation alone. Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is a serious constraint in soybean production in India. However, hardly any basic information is available for monitoring YMD by remote sensing. Present study examines spectral reflectance of soybean leaves due to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) infection in order to identify YMD sensitive spectral ratio or reflectance. Spectral reflectance measurement indicated significant (p < 0.001) change in reflectance in the infected soybean canopy as compared to the healthy one. In the infected canopy, reflectance increased in visible region and decreased in near infra-red region of spectrum. Reflectance sensitivity analysis indicated wavelength ~642, ~686 and ~750 nm were sensitive to YMD infection. Whereas, in yellow leaves induced due to nitrogen deficiency, the sensitive wavelength was ~589 nm. Due to viral infection, a shift occurred in red and infra-red slope (called red edge) on the left in comparison to healthy one. Red edge shift was a good indicator to discriminate yellow mosaic as chlorophyll gets degraded due to MYMIV infection. Correlation of reflectance at 688 nm (R688) and spectral reflectance ratio at 750 and 445 nm (R750/R445) with the weighted mosaic index indicated that detection of yellow mosaic is possible based on these sensitive bands. Our study for the first time identifies the yellow mosaic sensitive band as R688 and R750/R445, which could be utilized to scan satellite data for monitoring YMD affected soybean cropping regions.

  17. Age-related changes in the thymus gland: CT-pathologic correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, A.V.; Korobkin, M.; Olanow, W.; Heaston, D.K.; Ram, P.C.; Dunnick, N.R.; Silverman, P.M.

    1983-08-01

    Recent reports suggest that computed tomography (CT) is useful for thymoma detection in patients with myasthenia gravis. However, that usefulness may be conditioned by the state of the normal thymus. To examine this concept, the CT findings in 64 consecutive patients with histologic confirmation of thymic status after thymectomy or thymic biopsy during mediastinal exploration were reviewed. The normal thymus has a bilobed, arrowhead-shaped cross section at all ages, with gradual focal or diffuse fatty infiltration of the parenchyma usually occurring between 20 and 40 years of age. A thymoma is usually a spherical or oval mass, often producing a focal, distinct bulge in the adjacent pleural reflection. The differentiation of thymoma from normal thymus should be possible in most patients if age-related changes in the normal gland are appreciated.

  18. Is a clinical sociolinguistics possible?

    PubMed

    Ball, M J

    1992-01-01

    This paper considers the idea of developing a clinical sociolinguistics. Various areas of the field are examined, and the importance of the 'core' area of the correlation of non-linguistic variables with linguistic variables stressed. Issues concerning language and class, region, sex, age and context of utterance are investigated, together with the implications for clinical linguistics. Finally, the difficulty of integrating such issues into clinical assessment is explored, and a tentative step forward suggested along the lines of a 'clinical sociolinguistic checklist'.

  19. Sustained Attention at Age 5 Predicts Attention-Related Problems at Age 9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Razza, Rachel A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether two aspects of sustained attention (focused attention and lack of impulsivity) measured at child age 5 predicted attention problems reported by mothers and teachers at age 9. Because lack of impulsivity reflects the executive control network, and ADHD is commonly characterized as a deficit in executive function, it was…

  20. Aspirations for Older Age in the 21st Century: What is Successful Aging?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling, Ann

    2007-01-01

    The literature on successful aging reveals a wide range of definitions, generally reflecting the academic discipline of the investigator. Biomedical models primarily emphasise physical and mental functioning as successful aging; socio-psychological models emphasise social functioning, life satisfaction and psychological resources as successful…

  1. [Biological Age as a Method for Systematic Assessment of Ontogenetic Changes in the State of an Organism].

    PubMed

    Dontsov, V I; Krut'ko, V N

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a common feature of living and nonliving systems as a disturbance of the structure of the system accumulating with age. The only cause of aging of a living system, which is capable of renewal, is the insufficiency of renewal. The latter manifests itself as two global mechanisms of aging: the genetically determined nonrenewal of a number of structures that can only die with age (stochastic aging) and the regulatory reduction in the rate of self-renewal of living structures. The regulatory reduction in cellular self-renewal (cell growth and division) is most important. At the same chronological age, the degree of aging of the organism in general, as well as individual organs, cells, and systems of the organism, may be different, reflecting the concept of biological age (BA)--an indicator of the level of development, changes, or deterioration of a structure or function of an element of the organism, a functional system, or the organism as a whole. It is expressed in units oftime by relating the values of biomarkers defining the processes of aging with the standard average statistical dependences of changes in these biomarkers with the chronological age. The concept of BA is directly related to the concept of viability of the organism, which is determined by the sum (integral) of viabilities of its parts (in practice, the residual functional resource). For quantitative characterization of aging in general, the index of integrated biological age is used. To give a detailed characterization, the partial biological ages are used, which reflect the aging of different systems of the organism, as well as a number of indices reflecting its functional and psychological possibilities. The contribution of pathological processes to BA is also taken into account. In addition, the amount of retained adaptive reserves in the physical and nervous and mental aspects, the risk factors, and the factors of longevity should be determined. For this purpose, it is necessary to take

  2. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  3. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  4. Reflections on the Gordon Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue of Teachers College Record. Purpose: The forward-looking vision of the Gordon Commission is contrasted with…

  5. Reflections on CME Congress 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary reflects the author's impressions of Continuing Medical Education (CME) Congress 2012, a provocative international conference on professional development and quality improvement in the health professions that took place in Toronto, Ontario, last spring. The sessions he attended and conversations he had with other attendees were…

  6. Trainee Teachers' Experience of Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of trainee teachers' experience of reflection whilst undertaking a teaching qualification for the post-compulsory sector. The study used a sequential, mixed-methods design, employing a structured questionnaire and a semi-structured interview; 127 individuals completed the questionnaire about their experience…

  7. Critical Reflection as Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers how doctoral education, particularly in applied settings such as education, social work, counseling, and health care, could be reimagined if it was organized around the idea and process of critical reflection: of helping students to better understand how power operates in educational environments and how students' sense of…

  8. Reflections on Teaching: Meaningful Scribbles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, Fay

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her reflections on teaching and learning. The author's teaching philosophy is rooted in her studies of developmental psychology and educational psychology. The theoretical approach most compatible with her view of teaching and learning advocates a contextualist and interactionist view that Tharp and Gallimore…

  9. Capturing Rehearsals to Facilitate Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albayrak, Meltem; Smith, Brian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many learning environments involve rituals for rehearsal and reflection. Musicians, for instance, spend countless hours practicing scales and adjusting their bodies to increase their skills. But they do more than simply practice: They also play for instructors and others who can provide valuable critiques of their performances. Architectural…

  10. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  11. Reflections: The Child as Linguist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downing, John; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Five educational leaders--John Downing, Richard E. Hodges, Charlton Laird, Pose Lamb, and Roy C. O'Donnell--offer reflections on significant developments in research on language development during the 1970s and on their hopes for language research and instruction in the 1980s. (GT)

  12. The Hiroshima Experience: Two Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enloe, Walter; Cogan, John

    1985-01-01

    The bombing of Hiroshima changed forever the concept of conflict and warfare in the human family. Two Americans, one having grown up in Hiroshima and the other having spent one year in the city as a Fullbright research scholar, reflect on the Hiroshima experience. (RM)

  13. Reflections on Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

  14. Reflectance spectroscopy for soil analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades or more, researchers have estimated soil properties using visible and near infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), with varying results. This presentation reviews the history and state-of –the art of VNIR-DRS, including relative estimation accuracy for var...

  15. Creating Frameworks for Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2007-01-01

    The task of creating organizational policies and systems that promote and support reflective teaching is multifaceted and seldom enumerated in early childhood professional literature. One of the best overviews the author has found comes from Carol Brunson Phillips and Sue Bredekamp (1998). The author opines that if the early childhood profession…

  16. MODIS Solar Reflective Calibration Traceability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Butler, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Long-term climate data records often consist of observations made by multiple sensors. It is, therefore, extremely important to have instrument overlap, to be able to track instrument stability, to quantify, measurement uncertainties, and to establish absolute scale traceable to the International System of Units (SI). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is a key instrument for both the Terra and Aqua missions, which were launched in December 1999 and May 2002, respectively. It has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB) with wavelengths from 0.41 to 2.2 micrometers and observes the Earth at three nadir spatial resolutions: 0.25km, 0.5km, and 1km. MODIS RSB on-orbit calibration is reflectance based with reference to the bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) of its on-board solar diffuser (SD). The SD BRF characterization was made pre-launch by the instrument vendor using reference samples traceable directly to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). On-orbit SD reflectance degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser monitor (SDSM). This paper provides details of this calibration chain, from prelaunch to on-orbit operation, and associated uncertainty assessments. Using MODIS as an example, this paper also discusses challenges and key design requirements for future missions developed for accurate climate studies.

  17. The Promise of Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud

    1991-01-01

    Like wildflowers blooming in the cracks of city sidewalks, reflective practice celebrates the organic over the artificial. Inquiry-oriented teaching, rejecting logical-positivist methods, engages teachers in a cycle of thought and action based on professional experience. Teachers subjected to quality control pressures reduce their teaching to the…

  18. Reflections on Elwyn Richardson Commemoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Nesta

    2016-01-01

    This article was written as the final presentation to be delivered at our day of reflection on the educational work of Elwyn Richardson. As such, the tone is somewhat different to that which is usual for this journal, but I elect to leave it substantially the same as it was when delivered. I address first the question of what we do when we mourn…

  19. Reflective Shields for Artificial Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes reflective shield that protects spacecraft from radiant energy. Also gives some protection against particle beams and cosmic rays. Conceptual shield essentially advanced version of decorative multifaceted mirror balls often hung over dance floors. Mirror facets disperse radiant energy in many directions.

  20. Offering Reflection to an Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Ann; Gooding, Guy

    2010-01-01

    From 1998 to 2008, the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD) offered its employees a variety of options for formation, a type of reflective practice. The district encompasses 10 locations, seven of them independently accredited colleges. Formation is based primarily on Parker Palmer's model for Circles of Trust as described in "A…