Science.gov

Sample records for age pregnant women

  1. [Pregnant women's sick leave is behind the increased sick leave among women of fertile age. A study of pregnant women's sick leave 1978-1997].

    PubMed

    Sydsjö, A; Sydsjö, G

    2001-08-08

    Sick leave rates among pregnant women have been found to vary substantially over time. 8,884 woman delivered at Linköping and Värnamo Women's Clinics in 1978, 1986, 1988, 1992, 1995 and 1997 were studied. Sick leave nearly doubled between 1978 and 1986, and dropped back to the 1978 level in 1997. The somewhat paradoxical findings in our surveys indicate that attitudes, especially as observed in the youngest age groups, together with a sensible adaptation to the prevailing terms of the social security system, may well be the most plausible explanation. Studies on sick leave among women of fertile age should preferably also contain information on the proportion of sick-listed pregnant women, as a small proportion of pregnant women may have a profound impact on sick leave statistics among all insured women of fertile age.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Nordgren, Tara M.; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003–2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:28245632

  3. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Intake of Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in the United States: Potential for Deficiency?

    PubMed

    Nordgren, Tara M; Lyden, Elizabeth; Anderson-Berry, Ann; Hanson, Corrine

    2017-02-26

    Omega-3 fatty acids play critical roles during fetal growth and development with increased intakes associated with improved maternal-fetal outcomes. Omega-3 fatty acid intake in Western diets is low, and the impact of socioeconomic factors on omega-3 fatty acid intake in pregnant women and women of childbearing age has not been reported. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2003-2012 to assess the relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Out of 7266 eligible participants, 6478 were women of childbearing age, while 788 were identified as pregnant at the time of the survey. Mean EPA+DHA intake of the population was 89.0 mg with no significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women. By univariate and multivariate analyses adjusting for confounders, omega-3 fatty acid intake was significantly associated with poverty-to-income ratio, race, and educational attainment. Our results demonstrate that omega-3 fatty acid intake is a concern in pregnant women and women of childbearing age in the United States, and that socioeconomically disadvantaged populations are more susceptible to potential deficiencies. Strategies to increase omega-3 fatty acid intake in these populations could have the potential to improve maternal and infant health outcomes.

  4. Folate Intake and Markers of Folate Status in Women of Reproductive Age, Pregnant and Lactating Women: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Berti, Cristiana; Fekete, Katalin; Dullemeijer, Carla; Trovato, Monica; Souverein, Olga W.; Cavelaars, Adriënne; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie; Massari, Maddalena; Decsi, Tamás; van't Veer, Pieter; Cetin, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pregnant and breastfeeding women are at risk for folate deficiency. Folate supplementation has been shown to be associated with enhanced markers of folate status. However, dose-response analyses for adult women are still lacking. Objective. To assess the dose-response relationship between total folate intake (folic acid plus dietary folate) and markers of folate status (plasma/serum folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine); to evaluate potential differences between women in childbearing age, pregnant and lactating women. Methods. Electronic literature searches were carried out on three databases until February 2010. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and SE(β) were calculated using meta-analysis on a double-log scale. Results. The majority of data was based on nonpregnant, nonlactating women in childbearingage. The pooled estimate of the relationship between folate intake and serum/plasma folate was 0.56 (95% CI = 0.40–0.72, P < 0.00001); that is, the doubling of folate intake increases the folate level in serum/plasma by 47%. For red blood cell folate, the pooled-effect estimate was 0.30 (95% CI = 0.22–0.38, P < 0.00001), that is, +23% for doubling intake. For plasma-homocysteine it was –0.10 (95% = –0.17 to –0.04, P = 0.001), that is, –7% for doubling the intake. Associations tended to be weaker in pregnant and lactating women. Conclusion. Significant relationships between folate intake and serum/plasma folate, red blood cell folate, and plasma homocysteine were quantified. This dose-response methodology may be applied for setting requirements for women in childbearing age, as well as for pregnant and lactating women. PMID:23024859

  5. Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure - United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Mead, Paul S; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M; Ellington, Sascha R; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J Erin; Powers, Ann M; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R; Dieke, Ada; Muñoz, Jorge L; Honein, Margaret A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-02-12

    CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak (1). Updated guidelines include a new recommendation to offer serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women (women who do not report clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease) who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Testing can be offered 2-12 weeks after pregnant women return from travel. This update also expands guidance to women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, and includes recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant women and recommendations for counseling women of reproductive age (15-44 years). Pregnant women who reside in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission have an ongoing risk for infection throughout their pregnancy. For pregnant women with clinical illness consistent with Zika virus disease,* testing is recommended during the first week of illness. For asymptomatic pregnant women residing in areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission, testing is recommended at the initiation of prenatal care with follow-up testing mid-second trimester. Local health officials should determine when to implement testing of asymptomatic pregnant women based on information about levels of Zika virus transmission and laboratory capacity. Health care providers should discuss reproductive life plans, including pregnancy intention and timing, with women of reproductive age in the context of the potential risks associated with Zika virus infection.

  6. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  7. Serum Copper Status in School-Age Children and Pregnant Women in China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Li, Weidong; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-10-01

    Serum copper is an insensitive but reliable biomarker reflecting the change of copper nutritional status in both depleted and replete populations. The current study aimed to establish the reference values of serum copper in school-age children and pregnant women in China and to explore the adequate range of serum copper for both these two categories of people. A multistage, stratified, random sampling combined with probability proportionate to regional size sampling method was employed. A total of 4019 subjects (2736 school-age children and 1283 pregnant women) were selected from China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012 (CNHS 2010-2012). The concentration of serum copper was determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The adequate range of serum copper was determined by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives. The median concentration of serum copper was 1140.9 μg/L with a range of 746.7-1677.6 μg/L for school-age children and 1933.4 μg/L with a range of 947.4-3391.4 μg/L for pregnant women. The adequate range of serum copper was 905.7-1440.7 μg/L for school-age children and 1308.8-2537.8 μg/L for pregnant women. These parameters represent an essential prerequisite for the assessment of copper nutritional status, as well as nutrition interventions.

  8. Susceptibility to cytomegalovirus, parvovirus B19 and age-dependent differences in levels of rubella antibodies among pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Barlinn, Regine; Vainio, Kirsti; Samdal, Helvi Holm; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Nøkleby, Hanne; Dudman, Susanne G

    2014-05-01

    Infections caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV), parvovirus B19 (B19), and rubella can lead to serious complications in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to CMV, B19, and rubella antibodies in pregnant women in Norway. Consecutive sera samples were collected from pregnant women in two different regions in Norway. Sera were collected from age groups; ≤19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years old. Of the 2,000 pregnant women tested, anti-CMV IgG was positive in 62.8% anti-parvovirus B19 IgG in 59.7% and anti-rubella IgG in 94.4%. CMV IgG susceptibility has decreased in pregnant women less than 30 years of age, from 60% in a study conducted in 1973-1974 to 37.2% in present study. There was a significant difference in CMV IgG seropositivity rate between the two regions (58.6% and 67.1%). Serum levels of rubella IgG was lowest in age group 25-29 years with a positivity rate of 91.0%. Women born before vaccination with two doses of MMR started, had both a higher positivity rate and significantly higher levels of rubella antibody titre, 96.1% and 82.2 IU/ml compared to those born after 92.9% and 41.7 IU/ml. Significantly lower anti-rubella IgG titre found in the youngest age groups highlights the need for continued antenatal screening. A considerable increase in anti-CMV-IgG seropositivity rate was observed and might be associated with higher rate of breastfeeding and a higher percentage attending day-care centres.

  9. Life history of female preferences for male faces: a comparison of pubescent girls, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Although scientific interest in facial attractiveness has developed substantially in recent years, few studies have contributed to our understanding of the ontogeny of facial preferences. In this study, attractiveness of 30 male faces was evaluated by four female groups: girls at puberty, nonpregnant and pregnant young women, and middle-aged women. The main findings are as follows: (1) Preference for sexy-looking faces was strongest in young, nonpregnant women. (2) Biologically more mature girls displayed more adultlike preferences. (3) The intragroup consistency for postmenopausal women was relatively low. (4) In terms of the preference pattern, pregnant women were more similar to perimenopausal women than they were to their nonpregnant peers. (5) Preference for youthful appearance decreased with the age of the women. I argue that the life history of female preferences for male faces is, to a large extent, hormone-driven and underpinned by a set of evolutionary adaptations.

  10. Vaccinations for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Geeta K; Heine, R Phillips

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, eradication and reduction of vaccine-preventable diseases through immunization has directly increased life expectancy by reducing mortality. Although immunization is a public priority, vaccine coverage among adult Americans is inadequate. The Institute of Medicine, the Community Preventive Services Task Force, and other public health entities have called for the development of innovative programs to incorporate adult vaccination into routine clinical practice. Obstetrician-gynecologists are well suited to serve as vaccinators of women in general and more specifically pregnant women. Pregnant women are at risk for vaccine-preventable disease-related morbidity and mortality and adverse pregnancy outcomes, including congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, and low birth weight. In addition to providing direct maternal benefit, vaccination during pregnancy likely provides direct fetal and neonatal benefit through passive immunity (transplacental transfer of maternal vaccine-induced antibodies). This article reviews: 1) types of vaccines; 2) vaccines specifically recommended during pregnancy and postpartum; 3) vaccines recommended during pregnancy and postpartum based on risk factors and special circumstances; 4) vaccines currently under research and development for licensure for maternal-fetal immunization; and 5) barriers to maternal immunization and available patient and health care provider resources.

  11. Awareness of methylmercury in fish and fish consumption among pregnant and postpartum women and women of childbearing age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lando, Amy M; Fein, Sara B; Choinière, Conrad J

    2012-07-01

    In 2004, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reissued joint advice recommending that pregnant women, nursing mothers, young children, and women who may become pregnant not consume fish high in mercury such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tilefish, and not consume more than 12 ounces (340.2g) of other lower mercury fish per week. These groups were encouraged to eat up to 12 ounces (340.2g) of low mercury fish per week to get the health benefits of fish. Using a survey of 1286 pregnant women, 522 postpartum women, and a control group of 1349 non-pregnant/non-postpartum women of childbearing age, this study evaluated awareness of mercury as a problem in food and examined fish consumption levels across groups using regression analysis. We also compared awareness of mercury as a problem in food to awareness of Listeria, dioxins and PCBs. We found that the majority of all 3 groups of women were aware of mercury and that nearly all women in all 3 groups limited consumption consistent with the advice; they ate less than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish per week and no high mercury fish. Compared with the control group, pregnant and postpartum women were more likely to be aware of mercury as a problem in food, and pregnant women ate less total fish and were less likely to eat fish, to eat more than 340.2g (12 oz) of fish, and to eat high mercury fish. However, all groups ate much less than the recommended 340.2g (12 oz) of low mercury fish per week for optimum health benefits. Among women who ate fish, the median intake of total fish was 51.6 g/wk (1.8 oz/wk), 71.4 g/wk (2.5 oz/wk), and 85.3 g/wk (3.0 oz/wk) for the pregnant, postpartum, and control groups, respectively. Thus, it appears that the targeted groups of women were more aware of mercury and were eating fish within the FDA/EPA guidelines, but these women may be missing the health benefits to themselves and their children of eating a sufficient amount of fish.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of abacavir in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fauchet, Floris; Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Préta, Laure-Helene; Valade, Elodie; Pannier, Emmanuelle; Urien, Saik; Hirt, Déborah

    2014-10-01

    For the first time, a population approach was used to describe abacavir (ABC) pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women. A total of 266 samples from 150 women were obtained. No covariate effect (from age, body weight, pregnancy, or gestational age) on ABC pharmacokinetics was found. Thus, it seems unnecessary to adapt the ABC dosing regimen during pregnancy.

  13. ESTIMATES OF WATER INGESTION FOR WOMEN IN PREGNANT, LACTATING AND NON-PREGNANT AND NON-LACTATING CHILD BEARING AGE GROUPS BASED ON USDA'S 1994-96, 1998 CONTINUING SURVEY OF FOOD INTAKE BY INDIVIDUALS (Journal Article)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Women in the child bearing age of 15 to 44 years and, in particular, pregnant and lactating women in this age cohort are considered a sensitive subpopulation when assessing risk from ingestion of contaminated water because ingested contaminants may pose a risk not only to the mot...

  14. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M.; Strand, Tor A.

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR) (<2 μg/day). In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L) was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88%) also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon. PMID:27338469

  15. Lymph drainage in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Cataldo Oportus, Sylvia; de Paiva Rodrigues, Lilian; Pereira de Godoy, José Maria; Guerreiro Godoy, Maria de Fátima

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lymph drainage to reduce edema of pregnant women. Method. Pregnant women (30 limbs) from the Obstetrics Outpatient Clinic of the Medical School of Santa Casa in São Paulo in the period December 2009 to May 2010 were enrolled in this quantitative, prospective study. The patients, in the 5th to 8th months of gestation, were submitted to one hour of manual lymph drainage of the legs. The volume of the legs was measured by water displacement volumetry before and after one hour of drainage using the Godoy & Godoy manual lymph drainage technique. The paired t-test was used for statistical analysis with an alpha error of 5% being considered significant. Results. Manual lymph drainage significantly reduced swelling of the legs of pregnant women during the day (P = 0.04). Conclusion. Manual lymph drainage helps to reduce limb size during the day of pregnant women.

  16. Antithrombotic therapy for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Coagulability increases during pregnancy, and thromboembolism can easily occur. Venous thromboembolism is a cause of death in pregnant women, but arterial thrombosis such as ischemic stroke in pregnancy is also not uncommon. In pharmacotherapy for thromboembolism in pregnant women, fetal toxicity and teratogenicity must be carefully considered. As anticoagulants in pregnant women, unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin are recommended, but warfarin is not recommended since it has a low molecular weight and crosses the placenta. Various types of new oral anticoagulant drugs have been available in Japan since 2011. However, the Japanese package inserts for these anticoagulants advise quite cautious administration in pregnant women. The guidelines on pregnant women include less information about antiplatelet drugs than anticoagulant drugs. Aspirin may cause teratogenicity and fetal toxicity, and perinatal mortality is increased. However, when low doses of aspirin are administered as antiplatelet therapy, the US Food and Drug Administration has assigned pregnancy category C, and treatment is relatively safe. Neurosurgeons and neurologists commonly encounter pregnant women with thromboembolism, such as ischemic stroke. Up-to-date information and correct selection of drugs are necessary in consultation with specialists in perinatal care.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    von Mandach, U; Böni, R; Danko, J; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1995-02-01

    The beta 2-sympathomimetic drug fenoterol (fenoterol hydrobromide, CAS 1944-12-3, Partusisten) is routinely used to inhibit uterine contractions (tocolysis). Investigations of plasma concentrations of those receiving i.v. or oral tocolysis often show different results, both within particular groups of pregnant women and in comparison with non-pregnant persons. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of fenoterol in pregnant women, an important factor which so far had not been known. Four healthy pregnant women with similar weight and gestational age and all with premature labor were administered a continuous intravenous infusion of 4 micrograms fenoterol/min. During and up to 24 hours after the end of the infusion, venous blood samples were taken in order to determine the fenoterol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay. From a steady state concentration (css) of 2242 +/- 391 pg/ml (x +/- S.E.), a non-linear two-phased plasma elimination was seen with half-lives t1/2 of 11.40 min and 4.87 h. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) was 6.27 ng/ml x h. The total clearance (Cltot) was 114.8 l/h. These data are nearly the same as the data already known for healthy non-pregnant (male) volunteers. The deviations which are seen in the plasma concentrations in pregnant women in comparison to non-pregnant persons during or after continuous i.v. infusion can therefore not be caused by differences in the pharmacokinetics. Other factors, however, such as body weight and/or gestational age, might influence the results.

  18. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... waiver of the State plan covering pregnant women, as of March 23, 2010 or December 31, 2013, if higher... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19,...

  19. 42 CFR 435.116 - Pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... waiver of the State plan covering pregnant women, as of March 23, 2010 or December 31, 2013, if higher... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pregnant women. 435.116 Section 435.116 Public..., AND AMERICAN SAMOA Mandatory Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19,...

  20. Prenatal Vitamins: OK for Women Who Aren't Pregnant?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and women age 51 and older and all adult men need only 8 mg a day. Getting too much iron can be toxic because it can build up in your body, causing constipation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and, in severe cases, possibly death. Calcium. Pregnant adult women and healthy men and women ages 19 ...

  1. Sedentary behavior patterns in non-pregnant and pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Marquis; Kim, Youngdeok; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Rockette-Wagner, Bonny Jane; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234) women and non-pregnant (n = 1146) women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥ 4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥ 10 h/day. A count threshold of < 100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1) total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2) accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3) mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4) and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less) were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting < 10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥ 30 min) per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.

  2. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood

  3. [Prevalence of anti-rubella and anti-parvovirus B19 antibodies in pregnant women in the city of Córdoba, and in women of fertile age in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis].

    PubMed

    Pedranti, M S; Adamo, M P; Macedo, R; Zapata, M T

    2007-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies in 100 serum samples from pregnant women who attended routine examination at a private institution in the city of Córdoba, and in 100 serum samples from women of gestational age, 42 of whom were pregnant, attending health centres in the city of Villa Mercedes, province of San Luis. IgG antibodies against parvovirus 819 were also determined in the serum samples from Córdoba. Using the hemmagglutination inhibition test, we found a 98% prevalence of anti-rubella antibodies among pregnant women in Córdoba and of 96% among the women in Villa Mercedes, whereas the prevalence of anti-parvovirus 819 was 66% in the serum samples from Cordoba. These results coincide with those reported for other cities in the world, and establish an interest in continuing similar studies in order to monitor the immunization plan, which in Argentina has been going on since 1997. They also suggest the importance of the determination of IgM anti-parvovirus B19 in pregnant women who are symptomatic but with a negative result for rubella.

  4. Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 in childbearing-aged and pregnant women living in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Ozouaki, Francis; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Legoff, Jérôme; Onas, Isabelle Ndombi; Kendjo, Eric; Si-Mohamed, Ali; Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Malkin, Jean-Elie; Bélec, Laurent

    2006-02-01

    The prevalence of genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and related risk factors was evaluated in a prospective population of 355 women attending the Maternity Joséphine Bongo, in Libreville, Gabon. We found a high prevalence (66%) of HSV-2 seropositivity, with a high proportion, 14%, of women harbouring HSV-2 DNA shedding in their genital secretions. HSV-2 genital shedding was positively associated with previous episodes of genital blisters, current genital ulcer, current genital blister, HIV seropositivity and HSV-2 seropositivity. The high prevalence of HSV-2 in childbearing-aged population indicates that young women living in Gabon are at high risk for HIV acquisition in HIV-seronegative women sexually exposed to HIV, for HIV transmission in HIV-infected women co-infected by HSV-2 and finally for HSV-2 vertical transmission during pregnancy.

  5. Retrospective analysis of age-adjusted body mass index among pre-pregnant women in the Lithuanian urban area during three decades

    PubMed Central

    Francaite-Daugeliene, Migle; Petrenko, Vladimiras; Baliutaviciene, Dalia; Velickiene, Dzilda

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of maternal obesity at the beginning of pregnancy is increasing. However, there are some studies reporting the stabilisation of obesity epidemic or even the downward trend in the general population. Objective To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Lithuanian pre-pregnant women during 3 decades. Methods This observational retrospective study included a sample of 2827, women aged 18–44 years who gave birth in 1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010: 861 (30.5%), 995 (35.2%) and 971 (34.3%), respectively. All women were divided into groups by body mass index (BMI) calculated from self-reported weight and height, and age reported during the first antenatal visit. Quantitative parametric variables were expressed as mean and SD; qualitative variables, as absolute numbers (n) and percentage (%). For parametric data, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Differences were considered statistically significant at p<0.05. Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women aged 18–24 years decreased from 20.9% in 1987–1989 to 9.5% in 1996–1997 but increased to 15.7% in 2007–2010; among women aged 25–34 years, decreased from 35.5% in 1987–1989 to 23% in 1996–1997 and to 22.4% in 2007–2010; and among women aged 35–44 years decreased from 64.9% in 1987–1989 to 34% in 1996–1997 but increased to 45.3% in 2007–2010. BMI increased with an increasing age (r=0.254, p<0.05). Analysis by separate periods (1987–1989, 1996–1997 and 2007–2010) revealed a positive correlation between BMI and age at the first antenatal visit in all periods (r=0.325, p<0.01; r=0.266, p<0.01; and r=0.210, p<0.01, respectively). Conclusions The prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-pregnant women tended to decrease in the Lithuanian urban area during 3 decades. A slight increase in overweight and obesity documented in 2007–2010 compared with 1996–1997 most likely was caused by older maternal age. PMID

  6. Determination of numbers of lead-exposed women of childbearing age and pregnant women: An integrated summary of a report to the U. S. Congress on childhood lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Crocetti, A.F. ); Mushak, P. ); Schwartz, J. )

    1990-11-01

    In a Congressionally mandated study carried out under the aegis of the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and summarized in this article, the authors have provided estimates of the numbers of American women of childbearing age and the numbers of American pregnant women whose lead exposure is sufficiently elevated to pose an intrauterine toxicity risk. Exposures associated with such risk were defined as blood lead (PbB) levels > 10, > 15, < 20, and < 25 {mu}g/dL. Using PbB prevalence projection techniques based on the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), they first generated projected 1984 prevalence of these PbB levels in white and black women of childbearing age, ages 15 to 19 and 20 to 44. White women in the two age bands had rates of PbBs > 10 {mu}g/dL of 9.2 and 9.7%, respectively. For black women, the corresponding rates were 8.2 and 19.7%, respectively. Pregnant black and white women in US SMSAs are approximately 9% of the US black and white childbearing age total, i.e., 3.6 million out of a 41.3 million SMSA total. Of these, 403,200 pregnant women were estimated to have PbB levels > 10 {mu}g/dL. Cumulative totals of exposed fetuses with persisting long-term exposure will be greater, in as much as a given fetus is never counted more than once in this type of survey. Over 10 years, the number would be over 4 million fetuses at elevated risk of health effects.

  7. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month

    PubMed Central

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 1010/g vs. 1.1 × 1010/g and 2.3 × 1010/g vs. 9.7 × 109/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates. PMID:28245628

  8. Maternal Prebiotic Ingestion Increased the Number of Fecal Bifidobacteria in Pregnant Women but Not in Their Neonates Aged One Month.

    PubMed

    Jinno, Shinji; Toshimitsu, Takayuki; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Kubota, Takayuki; Igoshi, Yuka; Ozawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Taiji; Morita, Yoshinori; Arima, Takayasu; Yamaide, Fumiya; Kohno, Yoichi; Masuda, Kentaro; Shimojo, Naoki

    2017-02-26

    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria. Here, we investigated the effect of maternal FOS ingestion on maternal and neonatal gut bifidobacteria. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we administered 8 g/day of FOS or sucrose to 84 women from the 26th week of gestation to one month after delivery. The bifidobacteria count was detected using quantitative PCR in maternal (26 and 36 weeks of gestation) and neonatal (one month after delivery) stools. Maternal stool frequency was recorded from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. The number of fecal Bifidobacterium spp. and Bifidobacterium longum in the FOS group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group at 36 weeks of gestation (2.7 × 10(10)/g vs. 1.1 × 10(10)/g and 2.3 × 10(10)/g vs. 9.7 × 10⁸/g). In their neonates, these numbers did not differ between the groups. Also, stool frequency in the FOS group was slightly higher than that in the placebo group two weeks after the intervention (1.0 vs. 0.8 times/day), suggesting a potential constipation alleviation effect. In conclusion, the maternal FOS ingestion showed a bifidogenic effect in pregnant women but not in their neonates.

  9. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  10. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ... allergic conditions. How is the safety of flu vaccines in pregnant women monitored? CDC and FDA conduct ...

  11. Zika Virus: Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English ... Pregnancy Registry (50 US states and DC) Problem Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects ...

  12. Violence and Pregnancy: Are Pregnant Women at Greater Risk of Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined data from Second National Family Violence Survey. Found women under age 25 to be more likely than older women to be both pregnant and to be hit and abused by husbands and partners. Although pregnant women were not particularly vulnerable group, pregnancy did not insulate them from high rates of violence experienced by young women.…

  13. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37

  14. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  15. Psychological Empowerment Model in Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Ali; Sadat Borghei, Narjes; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Keramat, Afsaneh; Jabbari Nooghabi, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW) model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965) bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during pregnancy. PMID

  16. [Cartography of healthcare for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Costa, Milena Silva; Matsue, Regina Yoshie; Sousa, Girliani Silva de; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle; Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza

    2012-03-01

    This work uses cartography as a method for mapping the trajectory of primary healthcare provided to pregnant women. The scope of the study comprises 9 Basic Healthcare Units located in the city of Juazeiro do Norte in the State of Ceará. In all, fifteen women in the 37th to 39th week of pregnancy were selected. Interviews were conducted with these women during the period from January to June 2010. The cartographic findings were depicted in stages in the flowchart, which exposed lacunas in prenatal healthcare, such as the low number of oncotic cytology exams conducted and the lack of educational counseling. Nevertheless, in the interviews, a significant number of pregnant women expressed satisfaction with the prenatal care provided. The good relationships developed between the healthcare professionals and the pregnant women were the main reason that led them to continue the treatment. This fact reinforces the importance of dialogue between these two actors for the success of prenatal healthcare.

  17. Designing Drug Trials: Considerations for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Siegel, David; Mirochnick, Mark; Heine, R. Phillips; Nguyen, Christine; Bergman, Kimberly L.; Savic, Rada M.; Long, Jill; Dooley, Kelly E.; Nesin, Mirjana

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pharmacology studies that describe the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs in pregnant women are critical for informing on the safe and effective use of drugs during pregnancy. That being said, multiple factors have hindered the ability to study drugs in pregnant patients. These include concerns for maternal and fetal safety, ethical considerations, the difficulty in designing appropriate trials to assess the study objectives, and funding limitations. This document summarizes the recommendations of a panel of experts convened by the Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health. These experts were charged with reviewing the issues related to the development of preclinical and clinical drug studies in pregnant women and to develop strategies for addressing these issues. These findings may also be utilized in the development of future drug studies involving pregnant women and their fetus/neonate. PMID:25425722

  18. Impact of spiramycin treatment and gestational age on maturation of Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G avidity in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Lefevre-Pettazzoni, M; Bissery, A; Wallon, M; Cozon, G; Peyron, F; Rabilloud, M

    2007-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the maturation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) avidity after Toxoplasma gondii seroconversion during pregnancy and the factors that affect IgG avidity over time. The study used 309 serum samples from 117 women and a multiple linear mixed regression analysis to show the patterns of variation of IgG avidity throughout gestation. The IgG avidity ratios and the patterns of their evolution with time were quite diverse among the women and were statistically heterogeneous (P = 0.011); however, the trend was toward a statistically significant increase (P < 0.0001). On average, a 1.0167-fold increase was observed for each additional gestational week after the putative date of infection. At 12 weeks after putative infection (the expected IgG avidity maturation time), the mean avidity ratio was 16.6% (95% confidence interval, 15.4 to 17.9%). At all times, the avidity ratio remained significantly heterogeneous among the women (P < 0.05); for 95% of them, that ratio ranged from 7.8 to 35.3% at 12 weeks after putative infection. Maternal age at the putative time of infection did not influence the maturation of IgG avidity. However, on average, a 1.009-fold decrease (P = 0.03) in that avidity was observed for each additional week of gestational age before infection and a 1.03-fold increase (P = 0.0003) was observed for each additional week of delay to the onset of spiramycin treatment. The rate of increase in the avidity ratio was lower if infection occurred late in pregnancy and higher if the delay to treatment was long. This information cannot allow accurate determination of the delay since the time of infection. The present results provide support for interpretation of the assay and caution against overinterpretation.

  19. Zika virus and pregnant women: A psychological approach.

    PubMed

    Filgueiras Meireles, Juliana Fernandes; Neves, Clara Mockdece; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Caputo Ferreira, Maria Elisa

    2017-03-27

    Zika virus presents risk of physical harm to pregnant women, but the fear of infection is also affecting women around the world. There is a gap in the research on Zika virus in the areas involving the impact on the psychosocial well-being of pregnant women. Therefore, this study is aimed at the investigation of the psychosocial adjustment of pregnant women to the risks of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. We investigated 14 pregnant women who were classified in three different groups: six in the first trimester, five in the second trimester and three in the third trimester, aged from 28 to 40 years (33.43 ± 3.76 years). Content analysis was used to interpret data. Our results show that the psychosocial adjustment of participants was significantly negative and included five aspects: (1) negative feelings, (2) changes in family planning, (3) adopting new customs (avoiding places of risk, use of specific clothes and use of repellent), (4) changed attitudes regarding body image and (5) feeling of external demand regarding prevention. The fear of Zika virus infection and all its associated risks have a negative biopsychosocial impact on the pregnant women in this study.

  20. [Intracranial arteriovenous malformations in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Perquin, D A; Kloet, A; Tans, J T; Witte, G N; Dörr, P J

    1999-03-06

    Three women, aged 27, 32 and 30 years, respectively, suffered from headache, nausea and neurological abnormalities and were found to have an intracranial arteriovenous malformation (AVM). One of them after diagnosis had two pregnancies, both ended by caesarean section with good results. Another woman was 32 weeks pregnant when the AVM manifested itself with a haemorrhage; she recovered well and was delivered by caesarean section. After the AVM proved radiologically to have been obliterated, she delivered after her subsequent pregnancy by the vaginal route with vacuum extraction. The third woman was 15 weeks pregnant when major abnormalities developed. There was a large intracerebral haematoma with break-through to the ventricular system; this patient died. Intracranial haemorrhage during pregnancy is rate. It can result in maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. It appears that pregnancy does not increase the rate of first cerebral haemorrhage from an AVM. The management of AVM rupture during pregnancy should be based primarily on neurosurgical rather than on obstetric considerations. Close collaboration with a team of neurologists, neurosurgeons, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists is mandatory.

  1. Factors Associated with Periodontal Disease in Pregnant Diabetic Women.

    PubMed

    Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H

    2016-04-01

    There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.

  2. Assisting pregnant women to prepare for disaster.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Bonnie; Buchholtz, Susan; Rotanz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Disasters are natural or man-made life-altering events that require preplanning to save lives. Pregnant women are a particularly vulnerable population in such events, because they have special physical and psychosocial needs. Preparations made for labor and birth might have to be drastically altered in the event of an emergency, especially if a woman is separated from her familiar healthcare providers and facilities. The issue of breastfeeding also must be considered in disaster planning for pregnant women, along with occurrences such as food shortages and outbreak of illnesses caused by overcrowding of displaced persons. Recent events such as hurricane Katrina have demonstrated that maternal/child nurses need to become more aware of disaster planning and help to empower pregnant women with knowledge of how to handle their special needs in times of crisis.

  3. Pregnant Women in Louisiana Are Not Meeting Dietary Seafood Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Lammi-Keefe, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish), was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n = 221) chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women), followed by beef (71%), pork (65%), and fish (22%), respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month) was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations. PMID:27504202

  4. Need of tetraiodothyronine supplemental therapy in pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Timar, Romulus; Schiller, Adalbert; Pater, Liana; Craina, Marius

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormones are essential for fetal development. Normal thyroid function in pregnant women adjusts by itself in cases of pregnancy, phenomenon that is deficient in cases of previous maternal thyroid disease. The study group was represented by 120 females, with reproductive age, with known thyroid disease, that had a up to delivery pregnancy. Thyroid ultrasound parameters and functional parameters were follow-up during the 9-month of gestation. The study proposes a mathematical model of predicting the need and the amount of tetraiodothyronine treatment in pregnant women with prevalent thyroid disease.

  5. Anesthetic management of pregnant women with stroke.

    PubMed

    Yoshitani, Kenji; Inatomi, Yuzuru; Kuwajima, Ken; Ohnishi, Yoshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Stroke during pregnancy is rare, but after occurring, most patients develop serious neurological conditions. Hemorrhagic stroke, including intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage, often requires emergency surgical intervention. In addition to significant maternal physiological changes, the potential for fetal harm should be considered during anesthetic management of these patients. Whether cesarean section or neurosurgical intervention should be prioritized or performed simultaneously in pregnant women with stroke is an important issue. Whether the patients receive general or spinal and epidural anesthesia is another clinically significant issue. Finally neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and obstetricians should cooperate to manage pregnant women with stroke.

  6. Multivitamin supplements for pregnant women. New insights.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eric; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Koren, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients is planning pregnancy and has started taking multivitamin supplements. She is experiencing gastric discomfort. What are the alternatives? ANSWER: Gastric discomfort is usually related to iron intake; pregnant women could use supplements with less iron. Pregnant women need 0.4 to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. If they have a family history of neural tube defects (NTDs), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy, or are currently taking valproic acid, carbamazepine, or antifolates (eg, sulfonamides), they are at intermediate-to-high risk of having babies with NTDs and need 4.0 to 5.0 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:15171671

  7. Are pregnant and postpartum women: at increased risk for violent death? Suicide and homicide findings from North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.

  8. Elemental profile in amniotic fluid of some Nigerian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yahaya, M I; Ogunfowokan, A O; Orji, E O

    2011-06-01

    In this study concentration level of calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, nickel, lead and zinc were determined in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women, aged 15 - 45 years enrolled at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex Ile - Ife. This was with a view to predict the body burden of the metals in the pregnant women and assess the health implications of the toxic elements to the pregnant women and their fetuses. Fifty samples of the amniotic fluid were collected from the pregnant women. The efficiency of extraction of trace metals using conventional wet acid digestion method (CDM) and microwave induced acid digestion method (MWD) was determined by recovery experiments. Levels of trace metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The high percentage recoveries obtained from MWD made it a more efficient method than the CDM and hence its adoption for sample digestion. Statistical analysis of data using descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that age; education and profession have effects on the levels of the trace metals. The mean levels of most of the toxic metals obtained in this study were lower than the recommended limits of trace metals in women whole blood.

  9. Pregnant Women Need a Flu Shot

    MedlinePlus

    ... have not been shown to cause harm to pregnant women or their developing babies. If you have your baby before getting your flu shot, you still need to get vaccinated. The flu is spread from person to person. You, or others who care for ...

  10. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  11. Lactoferrin efficacy versus ferrous sulfate in curing iron disorders in pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Paesano, R; Berlutti, F; Pietropaoli, M; Goolsbee, W; Pacifici, E; Valenti, P

    2010-01-01

    Iron homeostasis in pregnancy compensates for increased iron requirements and in women of child-bearing age for iron loss in menses. Oral administration of ferrous sulfate, prescribed to cure iron deficiency (ID) and ID anemia (IDA), often fails to increase hematological parameters and causes adverse effects. Recently, we demonstrated safety and efficacy of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) in pregnant women suffering from ID/IDA. Two clinical trials were conducted on pregnant and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age suffering from ID/IDA. In both trials, women received oral administration of bLf 100 mg/twice/day (Arm A), or ferrous sulfate 520 mg/day (Arm B). Hematological parameters, serum IL-6 and prohepcidin were assayed before and after therapy. Unlike ferrous sulfate, bLf increased hematological parameters (P less than 0.0001). In pregnant women, bLf decreased serum IL-6 (P less than 0.0001), and increased prohepcidin (P=0.0007). In non-pregnant women bLf did not change the low IL-6 levels while it increased prohepcidin (P less than 0.0001). Ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 (P less than 0.0001) and decreased prohepcidin (P=0.093). bLf established iron homeostasis by modulating serum IL-6 and prohepcidin synthesis, whereas ferrous sulfate increased IL-6 and failed to increase hematological parameters and prohepcidin. bLf is a more effective and safer alternative than ferrous sulfate for treating ID and IDA.

  12. [Impact of nutritional deficiencies on anemia in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Leke, L; Kremp, D

    1989-12-01

    Dietary deficiency in iron and to a lesser extent folic acid is the principle cause of anemia in the world. Reproductive aged women and growing children are the principle groups at risk of anemia. About half of nonpregnant reproductive aged women in tropical countries have hemoglobin levels lower than 12 g/100 ml, the level used by the World Health Organization to define anemia. Nutritional anemia is even more widespread among pregnant and lactating women because of the increased needs for iron during those periods. Pregnant women need almost 500 mg of iron for their increased red blood cell mass, 220 mg for routine iron loss through the urine, bile, sweat, and other routes; 290 mg for the fetus, and almost 25 mg for the placenta. In all, the pregnant women theoretically requires over 1000 mg of iron through diet or bodily reserves. Healthy, well-nourished women have total iron reserves of 2500 mg, but according to published data almost 2/3 of pregnant women even in favorable circumstances end their pregnancies with no remaining iron reserves. In tropical regions the lack of iron reserves is aggravated by parasites and infections, closely spaced pregnancies that do not allow restoration of reserves, and poor dietary availability of iron. Anemia during pregnancy is associated with elevated risks of maternal morbidity and mortality. Fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations and tachycardia, vertigo, loss of appetite and cravings for soil or other inappropriate substances are frequently observed in anemic women. The risks of prematurity and low weight are increased for infants of anemic women. Fetal malformation may be associated with folic acid deficiency. Nutrition education is needed for pregnant women. Local foods may be enriched with iron, and pregnant women may be given iron and vitamin B12 supplements directly. Iron supplements may rapidly increase iron reserves, but they are poorly tolerated by many women. The supplements should be avoided if possible early in the

  13. Sympathetic baroreflex gain in normotensive pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Usselman, Charlotte W.; Skow, Rachel J.; Matenchuk, Brittany A.; Chari, Radha S.; Julian, Colleen G.; Stickland, Michael K.; Davenport, Margie H.

    2015-01-01

    Muscle sympathetic nerve activity is increased during normotensive pregnancy while mean arterial pressure is maintained or reduced, suggesting baroreflex resetting. We hypothesized spontaneous sympathetic baroreflex gain would be reduced in normotensive pregnant women relative to nonpregnant matched controls. Integrated muscle sympathetic burst incidence and total sympathetic activity (microneurography), blood pressure (Finometer), and R-R interval (ECG) were assessed at rest in 11 pregnant women (33 ± 1 wk gestation, 31 ± 1 yr, prepregnancy BMI: 23.5 ± 0.9 kg/m2) and 11 nonpregnant controls (29 ± 1 yr; BMI: 25.2 ± 1.7 kg/m2). Pregnant women had elevated baseline sympathetic burst incidence (43 ± 2 vs. 33 ± 2 bursts/100 heart beats, P = 0.01) and total sympathetic activity (1,811 ± 148 vs. 1,140 ± 55 au, P < 0.01) relative to controls. Both mean (88 ± 3 vs. 91 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.4) and diastolic (DBP) (72 ± 3 vs. 73 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.7) pressures were similar between pregnant and nonpregnant women, respectively, indicating an upward resetting of the baroreflex set point with pregnancy. Baroreflex gain, calculated as the linear relationship between sympathetic burst incidence and DBP, was reduced in pregnant women relative to controls (−3.7 ± 0.5 vs. −5.4 ± 0.5 bursts·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.03), as was baroreflex gain calculated with total sympathetic activity (−294 ± 24 vs. −210 ± 24 au·100 heart beats−1·mmHg−1; P = 0.03). Cardiovagal baroreflex gain (sequence method) was not different between nonpregnant controls and pregnant women (49 ± 8 vs. 36 ± 8 ms/mmHg; P = 0.2). However, sympathetic (burst incidence) and cardiovagal gains were negatively correlated in pregnant women (R = −0.7; P = 0.02). Together, these data indicate that the influence of the sympathetic nervous system over arterial blood pressure is reduced in normotensive pregnancy, in terms of both long-term and beat-to-beat regulation of arterial pressure

  14. [Antiparasitic treatments in pregnant women and in children in 2003].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lenoble, D; Chandenier, J; Duong, T H

    2003-01-01

    Like antibacterial agents, antiparasite drugs for pregnant women and children must be chosen in function of the stage of pregnancy, age of the child, and expected benefit-risk ratio. While no agent is totally safe, there are few absolute contraindications. Most zones of serious endemic parasite disease are located in developing countries where parasite, bacterial, or viral conditions combined with poor nutrition treatment make it necessary to treat disease in a complex pathogenic environment that weakens pregnant women and children with multiple parasite infections. In both temperate and tropical zones, there have been few real therapeutic advances involving release of new products on the market or development of new indications for existing products. Constant appearance and extension of hematozoa resistance to conventional and even more recent antimalarial agents have prompted research to find new active drugs and long-lasting treatment combinations. Real therapeutic breakthroughs have resulted from the need to develop safe drugs without substantial side-effects for single-dose use in control programs against endemic parasite diseases in mass populations including pregnant women and young children in tropical zones. There are several notable examples in the field of major verminous diseases. Ivermectin is a versatile drug that can be used against filariasis as well as for management of intestinal worms or ectoparasitosis in temperate and tropical countries. Praziquantel is an important advance in platyhelminthiasis, especially bilharziais. Triclabendazole, the latest addition to the benzimidazole family, has shown promise as a substitute for bithionol, that is difficult to procure and not recommended in pregnant women, for treatment distomiasis occurring in pregnant women and children. Other examples include albendazole against giardiasis, nitazoxamide against cryptosporidiosis, artemisinine against bilharziasis, and paramomycine, not recommended in pregnant women

  15. Correlates of Stress among Pregnant Hispanic Women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Marushka Leanne; Pekow, Penelope S.; Dole, Nancy; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prenatal psychosocial stress has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, even after controlling for known risk factors. This paper aims to evaluate correlates of high perceived stress among Hispanic women, a group with elevated rates of stress during pregnancy. Methods We conducted this analysis among 1426 pregnant Hispanic women using data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted in Western Massachusetts. Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) validated in English and Spanish was administered in early (mean=12.4 wks gestation), mid (mean=21.3 wks gestation) and late (mean=30.8 wks gestation) pregnancy at which time bilingual interviewers collected data on socio-demographic, acculturation, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. High perceived stress was defined as a PSS score>30. Results Young maternal age (odds ratio (OR) =0.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.4-0.9 for <19 vs. 19-23yrs), pre-pregnancy consumption of alcohol (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.4-3.5 for >12 drinks/mo. vs. none) and smoking (OR=2.2; 95% CI 1.3-3.7 for >10 cigarettes/day vs. none) were associated with high perceived stress during early pregnancy. Furthermore, higher annual household income (OR=0.4; 95% CI 0.1-0.9 for >$30,000 vs. <$15,000), greater number of adults in the household (OR=1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0 for ≥3 vs. 1) and language preference (OR=0.6; 95% CI 0.4-0.9 for Spanish vs. English) were associated with high stress during mid-pregnancy. Likewise, annual household income was inversely associated with high stress during late pregnancy. Conclusion Our results have important implications for incorporation of routine screening for psychosocial stress during prenatal visits and implementation of psychosocial counseling services for women at high risk. PMID:23010861

  16. High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency among Pregnant Saudi Women.

    PubMed

    Al-Faris, Nora A

    2016-02-04

    Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D < 50 nmol/L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.

  17. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Among Pregnant Women in Urmia, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostamzadeh Khameneh, Zakieh; Sepehrvand, Nariman; Khalkhali, Hamid-Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background While hepatitis E virus (HEV) mostly causes self-limited disease in general population, it is more severe in pregnant women. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran . Patients and Methods One hundred thirty six pregnant women referred to urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Anti-HEV IgG antibody was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA; Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes). Results Only five (3.6%) of 136 cases had positive results for anti-HEV IgG. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88), and income level (P = 0.19) of the two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusions The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in , similar to the rates reported from developed countries. Effective health services and provision of safe water supplies in Urmia may take role in this low prevalence rate. PMID:24348644

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection among pregnant women in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Njunda, Anna L.; Assob, Jules C.N.; Nsagha, Dickson S.; Kamga, Henri L.; Nde, Peter F.; Yugah, Vuchas C.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women's ages ranged from 20–44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05) and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05). This research showed that consumption of raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon. PMID:28299065

  19. Wanted: better care for pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kestler, E

    1993-01-01

    In three prenatal clinics in Latin America the average attendance time by pregnant women was 129 minutes but the average time spent with a doctor was only 8-10 minutes. In order to improve prenatal care, providers should analyse what happens during visits. Assessments should be made of the usefulness of the services offered and some thought should be given as to who might best provide them.

  20. [Children and pregnant women at high altitude].

    PubMed

    Rehakova, P; Rexhaj, E; Farron, F; Duplain, H

    2014-05-07

    Nowadays, high altitude resorts have become popular destinations for family vacations. Based on a limited number of publications and international guidelines, this article summarizes the effects of high altitude on children and pregnant women. Children also suffer from high altitude-related diseases, however their presentation and clinical significance are different from their adult counterparts. Careful planning of the itinerary with respect to altitude of the overnight stays, access to medical services and potential evacuation routes is the cornerstone of a successful vacation.

  1. [Low back pain in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Mrozikiewicz, Przemysław M; Kocur, Piotr; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Hoffmann, Marcin; Stryła, Wanda; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2010-11-01

    Pain of lumbosacral segment of the vertebral column and the pelvis concerns about 45% of all pregnant women. The change of the body posture during pregnancy is the result of gravity centre relocation, which affects the musculosceletal system. Development of the joint, ligament and myofascial dysfunctions, as well as the pain in the lumbosacral segment and the pelvis, are the most common reasons of spine pain. The aim of this review is to present the current state of knowledge about lumbar spine pain in pregnant women with special focus on the pain connected with muscular, joint and ligament disorders. Pregnancy is a serious burden for the female osteo-skeletal system. Lumbar pain with different location and intensification is the negative consequence of the position changes during pregnancy. Pharmacotherapy could be useful only in cases of intensive low back pain, with possible application of small spectrum of drugs that are safe during pregnancy. Physical therapy including manual therapy exercises, massage and techniques of local anesthesia are alternative methods in case of low back pain in pregnant women.

  2. Social Factors Determining the Experience of Blindness among Pregnant Women in Developing Countries: The Case of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's…

  3. Brazilian pregnant and lactating women do not change their food intake to meet nutritional goals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutritional requirements are increased during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this study was to compare the food intake and prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women. Methods Two-day dietary records of 322 pregnant and 751 lactating women were compared to those of 6837 non-pregnant and non-lactating women aged 19 to 40 years from a nationwide representative sample. The usual nutrient intake was estimated using the National Cancer Institute method, and compared to nutritional goals to estimate prevalence of inadequate intake. Results Pregnant, lactating and reproductive-age women did not differ in their average consumption of 18 food groups, except for rice, with greatest intake among lactating women. The prevalence of nutrient inadequacy in pregnant women was higher than in reproductive-age women for folate (78% versus 40%) and vitamin B6 (59% versus 33%). In lactating women, prevalence was higher than in reproductive-age women for vitamin A (95% versus 72%), vitamin C (56% versus 37%), vitamin B6 (75% vs. 33%), folate (72% versus 40%) and zinc (64% versus 20%). The percentage of sodium intake above the upper limit was greater than 70% in the three groups. Conclusions Inadequate intake is frequent in women and increases during pregnancy and lactation, because women do not change their food intake. Guidelines should stimulate healthy food intake for women across the lifespan. PMID:24890188

  4. Bacterial sensitivity to fosfomycin in pregnant women with urinary infection.

    PubMed

    Souza, Rodrigo Batista; Trevisol, Daisson José; Schuelter-Trevisol, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby-Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients' age, colony count, type(s) of identified bacterial(s) and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7). Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive) were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.

  5. [HIV infection in pregnant women in Dakar (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Diouf, A; Kebe, F; Faye, E O; Diallo, D; Ndour Sarr, A; Mboup, S; Diadhiou, F

    1996-01-01

    The epidemiologic and sociodemographic characteristics of human deficiency virus (HIV) infection vary from one country to another. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Dakar and associated factors. Systematic anonymous screening was performed in pregnant women admitted to the maternity ward. Women whose seropositivity was confirmed by Western blot retroviral serology were included. One woman out of four was assigned by simple random selection to the case control group. Over a 24 month period, 12,498 women were tested. 104 were seropositive (44 HIV1, 58HIV2, and 2 HIV1-HIV2 giving a prevalence of 0.8%. Factors associated with HIV1 and HIV2 were different: mean age 21.7 years for HIV1 versus 30.6 for HIV 2 (p = 0.05); origin in Guinea-Bissau for HIV2 (p = 0.001); mean number of pregnancies 2.6 for HIV1 versus 5.9 for HIV2 (p = 0.001); mean parity 1.5 for HIV1 versus 4.5 for HIV2 (p < 0.01); vitality of the conception product in 85.1% for HIV2 versus 67.5% for HIV1 (p = 0.0001). These data confirm the low prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women, with a predominance for HIV2. The factors identified in associated with virus type suggest a different mode of transmission and/or reduced virulence or HIV2 compared with HIV1. Knowledge of these factors helps orient management strategies, especially in pregnant women.

  6. [Psychotherapy for pregnant women with psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Müldner-Nieckowski, Łukasz; Cyranka, Katarzyna; Smiatek-Mazgaj, Bogna; Mielimąka, Michał; Sobański, Jerzy; Rutkowski, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a major life change for many women. The related biological changes, especially complications in its course and in the course of delivery, carry a risk of developing a variety of psychological problems and mental disorders. However, their treatment is challenging due to the teratogenic effects of most psychoactive drugs and specific requirements for entering different psychotherapeutic programs. Mental disorders during pregnancy are undoubtedly an important issue for both gynecology and psychiatry. There is still a discussion considering the question whether psychotherapy during pregnancy is safe, although no scientifically valid data contradicting the safety of psychotherapy during pregnancy has been published so far. Together with psychotherapy - as a treatment of choice - clinicians approve some other relatively safe treatment methods for psychiatric disorders in pregnant women. Light therapy, limited pharmacotherapy, ECT are included. The goal of this paper is to review current opinions of clinicians and researches concerning possibilities, indications and outcome of psychological treatments as a way to help pregnant women who suffer from different psychiatric conditions, and also because this subject is not yet present in Polish psychiatric journals.

  7. Women's autonomy and unintended pregnancy among currently pregnant women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mosfequr

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their pregnancy intention status among currently pregnant Bangladeshi women. This study is based on data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey, 2007 (BDHS). A subset of interviews from currently pregnant women (718) were extracted from 10,146 married women of reproductive age. The BDHS 2007 used a pre-tested, structured questionnaire to collect sociodemographic, women's empowerment, and pregnancy information. Associations between unintended pregnancy and explanatory variables were assessed using bivariate analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the net effect of women's autonomy on current pregnancy intention status after controlling for other variables. Results indicate that women's autonomy is a significant predictor of unintended pregnancy after adjusting for other factors. A unit increase in the autonomy scale decreases the odds of unintended pregnancy by 16%. Besides autonomy, our results also indicate that current age, number of children ever born, age at marriage, religion, media access, and contraceptive use exert strong influences over unintended pregnancy. Women who have ever used contraceptives are 82% more likely to classify their current pregnancies as unintended compared with women who are non-users of contraceptives. Improvement in women's autonomy and effective and efficient use of contraceptives may reduce unintended pregnancies as well as improve reproductive health outcomes.

  8. Breast cancer in pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Usmani, K; Moran, E M; Haider, W; Afzal, H; Ahmad, N

    1995-01-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, we treated 595 women with breast cancer in the Breast Disease Section of the Cancer Research Foundation of Pakistan. We report here on 61 patients who were pregnant or lactating. Most patients presented at a late stage of disease because of ignorance, social taboos, or fear of hospitalization and operation. The largest diameter of the breast mass at presentation was 15 cm. Lymph nodes were involved in 70.5% of cases. Multiparity, young marriages, malnutrition, and unhygienic conditions are ripe in the rural environment of Pakistan. No oral contraceptives are used. Modern and conventional methods of treatment did not increase the survival rate of these cancer patients.

  9. Effectiveness of the Gold Standard Programmes (GSP) for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Background: Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life. Methods: This was a prospective cohort study based on data from a national Danish registry on smoking cessation interventions. The study population included 10,682 women of a fertile age. The pregnancy status of the study population was identified using the National Patient Registry. Results: The response rate to follow up was 76%. The continuous abstinence rate for both pregnant and non-pregnant smokers was 24–32%. The following prognostic factors for continuous abstinence were identified: programme format (individual/group), older age, heavy smoking, compliance with the programme, health professional recommendation, and being a disadvantaged smoker. Conclusions: The GSP seems to be as effective among pregnant smokers as among non-pregnant smoking women. Due to the relatively high effect and clinical significance, the GSP would be an attractive element in smoking cessation intervention among pregnant women. PMID:23959083

  10. How Metformin Acts in PCOS Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Romualdi, Daniela; De Cicco, Simona; Gagliano, Donatella; Busacca, Matteo; Campagna, Giuseppe; Lanzone, Antonio; Guido, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Metformin has been reported to reduce the risk of gestational diabetes (GD) in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). However, little is known about the mechanisms of action of this drug during pregnancy. In the attempt to fill this gap, we performed a prospective longitudinal study providing a detailed examination of glucose and insulin metabolism in pregnant women with PCOS undergoing metformin therapy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We enrolled 60 women with PCOS who conceived while undergoing metformin treatment. An oral glucose tolerance test and a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp were performed at each trimester of gestation in 47 ongoing pregnancies. RESULTS Twenty-two of the study subjects had development of GD despite the treatment. At baseline, insulin sensitivity was comparable between women who had development of GD and women who did not. A progressive decline in this parameter occurred in all subjects, independently of the trimester of GD diagnosis. Insulin secretion was significantly higher during the first trimester in patients with an early failure of metformin treatment. Women with third trimester GD and women with no GD exhibited a significant increase in insulin output as gestation proceeded. All newborns were healthy and only one case of macrosomia was observed. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS who enter pregnancy in a condition of severe hyperinsulinemia have development of GD earlier, independently of metformin treatment. The physiologic deterioration of insulin sensitivity is not affected by the drug and does not predict the timing and severity of the glycemic imbalance. Despite the high incidence of GD observed, the drug itself or the intensive monitoring probably accounted for the good neonatal outcome. PMID:23315599

  11. Economic Evaluation of Health Services Costs During Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Pdm09 Infection in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women in Spain

    PubMed Central

    MORALES-SUÁREZ-VARELA, María; LLOPIS-GONZÁLEZ, Agustín; GONZÁLEZ-CANDELA, Fernando; ASTRAY, Jenaro; ALONSO, Jordi; GARIN, Olatz; CASTRO, Ady; GALAN, Juan Carlos; SOLDEVILA, Nuria; CASTILLA, Jesús; GODOY, Pere; DELGADO-RODRÍGUEZ, Miguel; MARTIN, Vicente; MAYORAL, Jose María; PUMAROLA, Tomas; QUINTANA, José Maria; TAMAMES, Sonia; RUBIO-LÓPEZ, Nuria; DOMINGUEZ, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Background: The healthcare and socio-economic burden resulting from influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 in Spain was considerable. Our aim was to estimate and compare the management (resource utilization) and economic healthcare impact in an at-risk group of unvaccinated pregnant women with an unvaccinated group of non-pregnant woman of childbearing age (15–44 yr old). Methods: We addressed this question with a longitudinal, observational, multicentre study. Inputs were the requirements in managing both groups of women. Outcome measures were healthcare costs. Direct healthcare (including medical utilisation, prescriptions of antivirals, medication, diagnostic tests, and hospitalisation) costs and indirect (productivity loss) costs were considered. Unit of cost was attributed to the frequency of health service resources utilisation. The mean cost per patient was calculated in this group of women. Results: We found that the influenza clinical pattern was worse in non-pregnant women as they had a high medical risk of 20.4% versus 6.1% of pregnant women. Non-pregnant required more antipyretics and antibiotics, and needed more health service resource utilisation (338 medical visits in non-pregnant women vs. 42 in pregnant women). The total cost of non-pregnant women was higher (€4,689.4/non-pregnant and €2,945.07/pregnant). Conclusions: Cost per (H1N1) pdm09 was lower for pregnant women, probably due to more preventive measures adopted for their protection in Spain. The highest costs were incurred by hospitalisations/day and work absenteeism for non-pregnant than for pregnant women. These data will allow better future pandemic influenza planning. PMID:27252911

  12. Breastfeeding, pregnant, and non-breastfeeding nor pregnant women's food consumption: A matched within-household analysis in India

    PubMed Central

    Fledderjohann, Jasmine; Vellakkal, Sukumar; Stuckler, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective Promoting breastfeeding is major maternal and child health goal in India. It is unclear whether mothers receive additional food needed to support healthy breastfeeding. Methods Using the latest National Family and Health Survey (2005–2006), we applied multilevel linear regression models to document correlates of nutrition for (n = 20,764) breastfeeding women. We then compared consumption of pulses, eggs, meat, fish, dairy, fruit, and vegetables across a sample of breastfeeding, non-breastfeeding/pregnant (NBP), and pregnant women (n = 3,409) matched within households and five-year age bands. We tested whether breastfeeding women had greater advantages in the 18 high-focus states of India's National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). Results Vegetarianism, caste, and religion were the strongest predictors of breastfeeding women's nutrition. Breastfeeding women had no nutritional advantage compared to NBP women, and were disadvantaged in their consumption of milk (b = −0.14) in low-focus states. Pregnant women were similarly disadvantaged in their consumption of milk in low-focus states (b = −0.32), but consumed vegetables more frequently (b = 0.12) than NBP women in high-focus states. Conclusions Breastfeeding women do not receive nutritional advantages compared to NBP women. Targeted effort is needed to assess and improve nutritional adequacy for breastfeeding Indian women. PMID:26826049

  13. Rubella Immune Status in Pregnant Women in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Salas-Pacheco, Jose Manuel; Sandoval-Carrillo, Ada Agustina; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio; Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Irasema; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in northern Mexico is largely unknown. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of rubella virus infection in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango, Mexico. Seroprevalence association with the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women was also investigated. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we determined the seroprevalence of IgG and IgM anti-rubella virus in 279 pregnant women (mean age 29.17 ± 5.96 years; range 15 - 43 years) attending in a clinic of family medicine using enzyme-linked fluorescent assays. A questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the pregnant women. The association of rubella seropositivity and characteristics of the women was assessed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-rubella IgG antibodies (≥ 15 IU/mL) were found in 271 (97.1%) of the 279 pregnant women examined. None of the 279 pregnant women were positive for anti-rubella IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and behavioral variables showed that seroreactivity to rubella virus was positively associated with national trips (OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.41 - 38.78; P = 0.01), and negatively associated with age (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.06 - 0.99; P = 0.04). Conclusions Rate of rubella immunity in pregnant women in the northern Mexican city of Durango is high. However, nearly 3% of pregnant women are susceptible to rubella in our setting. Risk factors associated with rubella seropositivity found in this study may be useful for optimal design of preventive measures against rubella and its sequelae. PMID:27540439

  14. Physiological reactivity of pregnant women to evoked fetal startle

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Voegtline, Kristin M.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Aguirre, Frank; Kivlighan, Katie; Chen, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The bidirectional nature of mother-child interaction is widely acknowledged during infancy and childhood. Prevailing models during pregnancy focus on unidirectional influences exerted by the pregnant woman on the developing fetus. Prior work has indicated that the fetus also affects the pregnant woman. Our objective was to determine whether a maternal psychophysiological response to stimulation of the fetus could be isolated. Methods Using a longitudinal design, an airborne auditory stimulus was used to elicit a fetal heart rate and motor response at 24 (n = 47) and 36 weeks (n = 45) gestation. Women were blind to condition (stimulus versus sham). Maternal parameters included cardiac (heart rate) and electrodermal (skin conductance) responses. Multilevel modeling of repeated measures with 5 data points per second was used to examine fetal and maternal responses. Results As expected, compared to a sham condition, the stimulus generated a fetal motor response at both gestational ages, consistent with a mild fetal startle. Fetal stimulation was associated with significant, transient slowing of maternal heart rate coupled with increased skin conductance within 10 s of the stimulus at both gestational ages. Nulliparous women showed greater electrodermal responsiveness. The magnitude of the fetal motor response significantly corresponded to the maternal skin conductance response at 5, 10, 15, and 30 s following stimulation. Conclusion Elicited fetal movement exerts an independent influence on the maternal autonomic nervous system. This finding contributes to current models of the dyadic relationship during pregnancy between fetus and pregnant woman. PMID:24119937

  15. Adjustment Disorder in Pregnant Women: Prevalence and Correlates in a Northern Mexican City

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Sifuentes-Alvarez, Antonio; Salas-Martinez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women is largely unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence and correlates of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Durango City, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women (n = 300) attending in a public hospital in Durango City, Mexico were studied. All enrolled pregnant women had a psychiatric interview to evaluate the presence of adjustment disorder using the DSM-IV criteria. A questionnaire was submitted to obtain general epidemiological data of the pregnant women studied. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess the association of adjustment disorder with the epidemiological data of the women studied. Results Fifteen (5.0%) of the 300 women studied had adjustment disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. Adjustment disorder was not associated with age, occupation, marital status, or education of pregnant women. In contrast, multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables showed that adjustment disorder was associated with the variables lack of support from her couple (odds ratio (OR) = 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00 - 14.63; P = 0.04) and couple living abroad (OR = 10.12; 95% CI: 1.56 - 65.50; P = 0.01). Conclusions This is the first report about the epidemiology of adjustment disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results provide evidence of the presence of adjustment disorder and contributing psychosocial factors associated with this disorder in pregnant women in Mexico. Results point towards further clinical and research attention should be given to this neglected disorder in pregnant women. PMID:26346070

  16. Predictors of Prenatal Empowerment Among Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Borghei, Narjes Sadat; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Keramat, Afsaneh; Noghabi, Hadi Jabbari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Considering that empowering expectant mothers is an important issue to maintain a healthy pregnancy, this study was conducted to evaluate the predictors of empowerment among Iranian pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study was conducted in Golestan, North of Iran in 2015. A total number of 161 pregnant women were selected through random cluster sampling from urban health centers, using PASS software. The socio-political, educational, and mental-financial predictors of empowerment were measured using a self-structured questionnaire during pregnancy and was analyzed by a linear regression model using SPSS version 16. Results The findings of linear regression showed that educational dimension of empowerment had the highest coefficient in the regression model, on total empowerment (βeta standardized coefficient [β]=0.696 with DW=1.830 and means error=0). The total empowerment score of pregnant women was controlled by individual factors such as the age of marriage (β-0.228), employment (β-0.210), and educational factors such as participation in prenatal education classes (β-0.246), and moral issues such as sense of spiritual support (β-0.217). Conclusion By recognizing and observing predictors of empowerment during pregnancy, health care providers can increase women’s power over their pregnancy. Educational predictors of empowerment were the most important factors to empower women during pregnancy. The objective of childbirth education classes, therefore, should shift from simply giving information to women, towards giving them appropriate knowledge in order to provide them with empowerment during pregnancy. PMID:27790351

  17. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnant women: peculiarities].

    PubMed

    Grau Gandía, S; Martínez Ramón, M A

    1998-01-01

    This review main purpose is to show nursing the present knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in pregnant women because of the scarce information published by Spanish Nursing Publications. The bibliographical research was made using both the Medline (from January 1982 to March 1998) and Index de Enfermería databases. There, we can find 32 references from which only 23 were selected (all of them belong to the Medline database) in spite of 3 chapters that had already been selected from other different books. Although maternal cardiac arrest rarely happens during pregnancy, it is very important for sanitary staff to be familiarized with the specifics thecnics and equipment (ultrasound and cardiotocograph monitoring). This review describes the physiological changes that take place during pregnancy and have an incidence into CPR. The article also includes the conclusions about the checked papers and the peculiarities that have to be taken into account in each CPR, such as the fetal viability evaluation, right CPR position, airway and breathing, desfibrillation, external cardiac compression and use of pharmacologic therapy and intravenous fluids. Moreover, there is a special mention of the perimortem cesarean delivery features: antecedents, foetus-maternals consequences and managements, due to the fact that this surgical operation should be included inside the CPR protocols of the pregnant.

  18. Obstetricians and the rights of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M

    2007-05-01

    At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.

  19. Smoking habits of pregnant women in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Counsilman, J J; Mackay, E V

    1985-11-01

    A survey of postpartum women in Brisbane revealed that many gave up smoking just before or shortly after becoming pregnant, and that many of the remainder reduced their rate of consumption. Husbands who smoked showed no comparable changes in behaviour. Thus apparently many couples were aware of the dangers to the fetus of active smoking by the woman, but not of the dangers of her passive inhalation of smoke. Other significant findings included (i) increasing rates of consumption during successive pregnancies, (ii) high degrees of conformity for most habits (e.g. use of filters), and (iii) stronger addiction and earlier starting ages among heavy smokers than light smokers.

  20. [Poor, propertyless and pregnant: classification of women's status by country].

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly

  1. [Syphilis in addicted pregnant women: better care through more awareness and contract between organizations involved].

    PubMed

    Schneider, A J; Bosman, A

    1999-11-13

    Three women, aged 21, 20 and 30 years, were cocaine users and pregnant. There had been no prenatal monitoring until they reported with uterine contractions. Blood of the first two women was then tested; serology revealed active syphilis infections: their children had died in utero. The blood of the third woman had been tested as part of a street project; it revealed an active syphilitic infection but she could not be found for treatment. After delivery, the child showed withdrawal symptoms. The first and third women and the child of the third woman were treated with benzylpenicillin. The system for screening and treating drug-addicted pregnant women should be intensified.

  2. Amniocentesis in HIV pregnant women: 16 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population.

  3. Karyotype analysis with amniotic fluid in 12365 pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis and strategies of prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xiao, H; Yang, Y L; Zhang, C Y; Liao, E J; Zhao, H R; Liao, S X

    2016-01-01

    We explored the strategies of prenatal diagnosis by foetal karyotype analysis in pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. Karyotype analysis of amniotic fluid was performed on 12365 pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. The detection rates and distributions of abnormal karyotypes were observed in a variety of indications for genetic amniocentesis. The detection rates of abnormal karyotype were 57.4% in either a mother or father with chromosomal abnormality, 8.5% in the pregnant women with pathological ultrasound finding (PUF), 2.79% in the pregnant women with advanced age (35 years and over) and 2.23% in the women with abnormal maternal serum screening (MSS) tests. Foetal abnormal karyotype was found in 86 pregnant women with PUF; of the 86 pregnant women, 42 had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Of the 12365 pregnant women, foetal abnormal karyotype was found in 428 (3.46%); of the 428 foetuses, only 154 had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. In the pregnant women with abnormal MSS, 111 foetuses had abnormal karyotype, but only 36 foetuses had trisomy 13, 18 or 21. We conclude that (1) ultrasound is an important approach to prevent the birth of foetuses with chromosomal disease. (2) Non-invasive prenatal DNA detection cannot completely replace invasive prenatal diagnosis and MSS. (3) The strategies of prenatal diagnosis: Genetic amniocentesis is strongly recommended for the pregnant women with indications for genetic amniocentesis. For pregnant women who refuse invasive prenatal diagnosis, non-invasive prenatal DNA detection is first performed. If the results of non-invasive prenatal DNA detection are negative, the pregnant women are followed up by ultrasound; if the results of non-invasive prenatal DNA detection are positive, the pregnant women should undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis.

  4. Knowledge and practice on Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Andiappan, Hemah; Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao; Khaing, Si-Lay; Salibay, Cristina C; Cheung, Mary Mae M; Dungca, Julieta Z; Chemoh, Waenurama; Xiao Teng, Ching; Lau, Yee-Ling; Mat Adenan, Noor A

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, is one of the infectious agents of congenital TORCH infections, causes severe clinical outcomes in fetus and newborns. Nevertheless this life-threatening parasitic disease is preventable by simple preventive measures related to lifestyle during pregnancy. We aim to study on the knowledge about toxoplasmosis and practices that prevents this infection among the pregnant women. Total of 2598 pregnant women from Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand were randomly surveyed to determine the knowledge and their practices on Toxoplasma infection. The questionnaire covered respondents' general information and knowledge on plausible risks factors, symptoms, timing of infection, prevention knowledge, and preventive behavior regarding Toxoplasma infection. Majority of these pregnant women were in their age group of 20-29 years (50.9%), completed secondary level of education (51.7%), in their second trimester of pregnancies (38.1%), non-parous (36.6%), and had no history of abortion (90.4%). Based on this survey, only 11% of these pregnant women had read, heard, or seen information regarding toxoplasmosis and 3.5% of them were aware of being tested for the infection. A small percentage of these pregnant women knew that T. gondii were shed in the feces of infected cats (19.4%) and sometimes found in the raw or undercooked meat (11.0%). There was 16.1% of responding women knew that toxoplasmosis is caused by an infection. Demographic profiles such as age group, level of education, pregnancy term, and number of children of the pregnant women showed significant association with their responses toward prevention knowledge and preventive behavior related questions (P < 0.05). Thus, it is suggested that health education on toxoplasmosis and primary behavioral practices should be consistently offered to reproductive age women in general and pregnant women in particular. This information could help to reduce vertical transmission of Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy.

  5. Observations related to chronologic and gynecologic age in pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Felice, M. E.; James, M.; Shragg, P.; Hollingsworth, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    A low chronologic age (less than or equal to 15 years) and low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2 years) have been considered factors that increase medical complications among adolescent pregnant women. Gynecologic age (GA) is defined in this study as age in years at conception minus age at menarche. Two hundred twelve consecutive pregnant teenagers were followed prospectively in the Teen OB Clinic at the University of California, San Diego Medical Center, between August 1978 and July 1981. The clinic population consisted of 37.3 percent Whites, 35.8 percent Hispanics, 20.8 percent Blacks, and 6.1 percent other (mostly Indochinese). Sixty-eight percent of the patients were funded by MediCal. The patient population was divided by chronological age (CA) at conception into those 15 years or less or 16 years or older. A low chronological age was found to be a significant risk factor for premature rupture of membranes. Teenagers with a low gynecologic age (less than or equal to 2) had a lower mean pre-pregnancy weight and body mass index (Kg/M2) than teenagers with a higher gynecologic age. In this study, we did not find that a low CA or GA was correlated with a higher frequency of pregnancy-induced hypertension, prenatal medical problems, obstetrical problems at labor or delivery, or an excessive number of low-birthweight infants. PMID:6523906

  6. Domestic violence against pregnant women: A prospective study in a metropolitan city, İstanbul

    PubMed Central

    Cengiz, Hüseyin; Kanawati, Ammar; Yıldız, Şükrü; Süzen, Sema; Tombul, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Violence against women, particularly against pregnant women, is increasingly being recognized as a significant problem around the world. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy and the factors affecting it. Material and Methods This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, between January 2012 and April 2013. A total of 1349 pregnant women, irrespective of age and socioeconomic status, were interviewed using a questionnaire in the local language. Results The incidence of domestic violence in this study was 2.37%. The mean age of women who reported violence was 29.06±5.53 years. Age, marriage duration, gravidity, parity, educational level, partner’s educational level, and monthly income exerted no significant influences on women who experienced domestic violence during their pregnancies (p>0.05). Women who resided in the same houses with large extended families were at significantly higher risk of domestic violence during pregnancy in comparison with the pregnant women who lived within a core family (p=0.018). Conclusion Domestic violence during pregnancy is a potential public health problem. Education, improvements in economic autonomy, and society’s attitudes may reduce domestic violence. Health-care providers should increase their awareness of risk factors to protect women from domestic violence. PMID:24976770

  7. Characteristics of pregnant women who report previous induced abortions*

    PubMed Central

    Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael

    1975-01-01

    Associations between previous induced abortion and demographic and health factors in pregnancy were measured in 9 874 women who gave birth and who had been interviewed during pregnancy. Previous abortion was most rare among women having their first baby and increased with increasing birth order up to the fourth, thereafter decreasing. It was positively correlated with maternal age and negatively with age at marriage. There was no effect of years of schooling, when other variables were taken into account, but there were significant differences between ethnic groups, abortion being commonest among Jewish women from North African countries and more prevalent in those from western and Asian countries than in the second-generation Israel-born or in Arab women. Women who reported abortions were less likely to be strict as regards religious observance and less likely to have had a previous stillbirth or child death, other variables being equal. They were more likely to be smokers or former smokers and to be delivered of their babies in certain obstetric units. They more often reported vomiting, bleeding, and medication in early pregnancy. On the other hand, there was no significant association with diabetes, anaemia, blood groups, or season of birth. The findings show that women reporting previous induced abortions differ significantly from other pregnant women in a wide range of demographic and health characteristics. Such women may also be biased for complications of pregnancy and outcome, particularly if selected from a clinic population. Observations that indicate a deleterious effect of induced abortions on subsequent pregnancy outcomes must therefore be interpreted with considerable caution. PMID:1083303

  8. Effects of Personality on Psychiatric and Somatic Symptoms in Pregnant Women: The Role of Pregnancy Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Cecilia Penacoba; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona; Abellan, Isabel Carretero; Morales, Dolores Marin

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of personality and pregnancy worries on pregnant women's mental and physical health with 154 women in the first half of their gestational period. Self-report questionnaires were used to collect information about control variables, sociodemographic (age, educational level, and work), and pregnancy variables…

  9. Antibodies against oxidized low density lipoproteins in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fialová, L; Mikulíková, L; Malbohan, I; Benesová, O; Stípek, S; Zima, T; Zwinger, A

    2002-01-01

    Oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxLDL) formed in vivo induce a humoral immune response. Oxidative modification of LDL renders it immunogenic and a heterogeneous population of specific anti-oxLDL antibodies is produced. These antibodies could represent a biological marker of oxidative stress and serve as markers of atherosclerosis. Autoantibodies against oxLDL (oLAb) have been detected in human subjects practically of every age. oLAb also appear in the blood of pregnant women. Some studies have shown that the levels of antibodies to oxLDL were elevated in women with established preeclampsia. The present study was aimed to estimate the oLAb IgG levels in the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, we estimated the correlation between maternal serum (MS) levels of oLAb and alpha-1-fetoprotein (MS AFP), human chorionic gonadotrophin (MS HCG) and trophoblast-specific-beta-1-glycoprotein (MS SP1), because these proteins are determined as a part of prenatal biochemical screening for fetal congenital abnormalities. Our study deals with the oLAb changes in women with pregnancy-induced hypertension. We also investigated the correlation between oLAb IgG and anticardiolipin antibodies IgG (ACA) in the serum of pregnant women. We examined 40 pregnant women attending Institute for Mother and Child Care for their antenatal care as outpatients. Routine blood samplings between the 9-13th week of pregnancy and 16-18th week of pregnancy were performed as a part of biochemical prenatal screening for fetal congenital abnormalities (Group 1). Their mean age was 27 +/- 4.1 years. Furthermore, we examined 26 women in the second or third trimester with pregnancy-induced hypertension (Group 2). Group 2 was compared with 49 pregnant women in the second or third trimester who were normotensive (Group 3). We used commercial standardized ELISA kits for determination of oLAb IgG, ACA IgG, MS AFP and MS HCG, MS SP1 was analyzed by single radial immunodiffusion. We did not find

  10. Emotional state and dreams in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Alfredo; De Vivo, Antonio; Fanara, Giusi; Settineri, Salvatore; Giacobbe, Annamaria; Pizzo, Alfonsa

    2008-09-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of recall and the content of dreams during pregnancy, as well as their correlation with socio-demographic, obstetric and physician-patients relationship variables, emotional state and duration of labour. A questionnaire, designed to analyse background characteristics, was given to 290 women in the third trimester of gestation. The psychiatric analysis of anxiety and depression was performed using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, while dreams were divided into masochistic and pleasant according to Beck's criteria. Oneiric activity was found to be associated with age >or= 35 years, higher family income, higher educational level, and a "satisfactory" physician-patient relationship. Masochistic content was associated with age<35 years, quality of information and frequent thoughts of delivery. Concerning the emotional state, depression levels were higher in women reporting masochistic dreams, while no difference in anxiety levels was found. Labour duration was shorter in the dreamer group and in patients with masochistic dream content. These findings may indicate that, also in pregnancy, the number and the content of dreams are influenced by women's mood and that the evaluation of the oneiric activity might represent a useful tool for clinicians either to investigate the women's emotional state or to predict its repercussions on the course of labour.

  11. Cluster Sampling with Referral to Improve the Efficiency of Estimating Unmet Needs among Pregnant and Postpartum Women after Disasters

    PubMed Central

    Horney, Jennifer; Zotti, Marianne E.; Williams, Amy; Hsia, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Background Women of reproductive age, in particular women who are pregnant or fewer than 6 months postpartum, are uniquely vulnerable to the effects of natural disasters, which may create stressors for caregivers, limit access to prenatal/postpartum care, or interrupt contraception. Traditional approaches (e.g., newborn records, community surveys) to survey women of reproductive age about unmet needs may not be practical after disasters. Finding pregnant or postpartum women is especially challenging because fewer than 5% of women of reproductive age are pregnant or postpartum at any time. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted three pilots of a sampling strategy that aimed to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women of reproductive age who were included in postdisaster reproductive health assessments in Johnston County, North Carolina, after tornadoes, Cobb/Douglas Counties, Georgia, after flooding, and Bertie County, North Carolina, after hurricane-related flooding. Results Using this method, the percentage of pregnant and postpartum women interviewed in each pilot increased from 0.06% to 21%, 8% to 19%, and 9% to 17%, respectively. Conclusion and Discussion Two-stage cluster sampling with referral can be used to increase the proportion of pregnant and postpartum women included in a postdisaster assessment. This strategy may be a promising way to assess unmet needs of pregnant and postpartum women in disaster-affected communities. PMID:22365134

  12. Imported malaria in pregnant women: a retrospective pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740

  13. Immediate Needs and Concerns among Pregnant Women During and after Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda)

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Mari; Nakamura, Yasuka; Atogami, Fumi; Horiguchi, Ribeka; Tamaki, Raita; Yoshizawa, Toyoko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant and postpartum women are especially vulnerable to natural disasters. These women suffer from increased risk of physical and mental issues including pregnant related problems. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which hit the Philippines affected a large number of people and caused devastating damages. During and after the typhoon, pregnant women were forced to live in particularly difficult circumstances. The purpose of this study was to determine concerns and problems regarding public health needs and coping mechanisms among pregnant women during and shortly after the typhoon. Methods: This study employed a cross-sectional design utilizing focus group discussions (FGDs). Participants were 53 women (mean age: 26.6 years old; 42 had children) from four affected communities who were pregnant at the time of the typhoon. FGDs were conducted 4 months after the typhoon, from March 19 to 28, 2014, using semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using the qualitative content analysis. Result: Three themes were identified regarding problems and concerns during and after the typhoon: 1) having no ideas what is going to happen during the evacuation, 2) lacking essentials to survive, and 3) being unsure of how to deal with health concerns. Two themes were identified as means of solving issues: 1) finding food for survival and 2) avoiding diseases to save my family. As the pregnant women already had several typhoon experiences without any major problems, they underestimated the catastrophic nature of this typhoon. During the typhoon, the women could not ensure their safety and did not have a strong sense of crisis management. They suffered from hunger, food shortage, and poor sanitation. Moreover, though the women had fear and anxiety regarding their pregnancy, they had no way to resolve these concerns. Pregnant women and their families also suffered from common health problems for which they would usually seek medical services. Under such conditions, the

  14. The use of hormones indicators in human saliva in diagnosing parodontitis in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Dolomatov, S. I.; Zukow, W.; Atmazhov, I. D.; Muszkieta, R.; Skaliy, A.

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: The purpose of this work– was to study the dynamics of biochemical parameters of human saliva and analyze the features of the chemical composition of the saliva of women with abnormal pregnancy and in periodontitis against pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included four groups of women: a control group of nonpregnant women of childbearing age (10), pregnant women with physiological pregnancy (24-28 weeks) without any signs of periodontal disease (10), pregnant with a generalized periodontitis I--II degrees in remission (10), women with pathological pregnancy with no signs of periodontal inflammation (10). In each of the groups over two samples of saliva were collected, the first collection of saliva in the morning on an empty stomach. Then mouthwash 0.9% sodium chloride solution was assigned and after 30 minutes the second portion of saliva. By enzyme immunoassay in samples of saliva of control groups of nonpregnant and pregnant women, as well as women with signs of a pathological course of pregnancy, the content of estriol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was determined. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Statistical data analysis was performed by the standard technique using Student's t-test. RESULTS: The results of biochemical analysis of saliva samples collected before rinsing the mouth with saline in groups of healthy nonpregnant and pregnant women were compared. It was established that during pregnancy the concentration of salivary estriol increases, but in pregnant women with periodontitis, the amount of this hormone in the saliva was significantly reduced. The highest content of testosterone in saliva samples, observed in healthy pregnant women, was significantly higher than nonpregnant women. In pregnant women with periodontitis concentration of testosterone in saliva is reduced, while remaining significantly higher than its level in the saliva of nonpregnant women. The highest concentration of testosterone is observed in the

  15. FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162543.html FDA Issues Anesthesia Warning for Pregnant Women, Kids Under 3 A long ... latest published studies, the agency announced that these warnings need to be added to the labels of ...

  16. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC Advisory follows reports of ... border with Mexico, because five cases of local Zika infection have been reported there, U.S. health officials ...

  17. Effect of reproductive ageing on pregnant mouse uterus and cervix

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rima; Moffatt, James D.; Mourmoura, Evangelia; Demaison, Luc; Seed, Paul T.; Poston, Lucilla

    2017-01-01

    Key points Older pregnant women have a greater risk of operative delivery, still birth and post‐term induction.This suggests that maternal age can influence the timing of birth and processes of parturition.We have found that increasing maternal age in C57BL/6J mice is associated with prolongation of gestation and length of labour.Older pregnant mice also had delayed progesterone withdrawal and impaired myometrial function.Uterine ageing and labour dysfunction should be investigated further in older primigravid women. Abstract Advanced maternal age (≥35 years) is associated with increased rates of operative delivery, stillbirth and post‐term labour induction. The physiological causes remain uncertain, although impaired myometrial function has been implicated. To investigate the hypothesis that maternal age directly influences successful parturition, we assessed the timing of birth and fetal outcome in pregnant C57BL/6J mice at 3 months (young) and 5 months (intermediate) vs. 8 months (older) of age using infrared video recording. Serum progesterone profiles, myometrium and cervix function, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complex enzymatic activities were also examined. Older pregnant mice had a longer mean gestation and labour duration (P < 0.001), as well as reduced litter size (P < 0.01) vs. 3‐month‐old mice. Older mice did not exhibit the same decline in serum progesterone concentrations as younger mice. Cervical tissues from older mice were more distensible than younger mice (P < 0.05). Oxytocin receptor and connexin‐43 mRNA expression were reduced in the myometrium from 8‐month‐old vs. 3‐month‐old mice (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively) in tandem with more frequent but shorter duration spontaneous myometrial contractions (P < 0.05) and an attenuated contractile response to oxytocin. Myometrial mitochondrial copy number was reduced in older mice, although there were no age‐induced changes to the enzymatic

  18. Factors influencing intent to get pregnant in HIV-infected women living in the southern USA.

    PubMed

    Sowell, R L; Murdaugh, C L; Addy, C L; Moneyham, L; Tavokoli, A

    2002-04-01

    This descriptive study sought to identify factors that influence HIV-infected women's intent to get pregnant. Interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of n = 322 HIV-infected women at risk for pregnancy. Participants were predominantly African-American (84.4%), single (57.9%), and ranged in age from 17 to 48 years. Forty per cent (n = 128) of the women had been pregnant since becoming HIV-positive. Potential factors influencing intent to get pregnant that were examined included demographic characteristics, HIV-related factors and personal beliefs and attitudes. In simple logistic regression models, younger age, increased motivation for child bearing, decreased perceived threat of HIV, decreased HIV symptomatology, higher traditional gender role orientation, and greater avoidance coping were all associated with greater intent to get pregnant. Following a model selection procedure, motivation for child bearing (OR = 16.05, 95% CI 7.95, 30.41) and traditional sex roles (OR = 4.49, 95% CI 1.44, 13.55) were significantly associated with greater intent to get pregnant. Traditional gender role orientation and motivation for childbearing are significant factors in predicting intent to get pregnant among HIV-infected women. These factors, as well as other non HIV-related factors, need to be routinely assessed by health care providers in developing plans of care for HIV-infected women.

  19. 45 CFR 46.204 - Research involving pregnant women or fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. 46... PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS Additional Protections for Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.204 Research involving pregnant women or fetuses. Pregnant women or fetuses may...

  20. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rakchanok, Noochpoung; Amporn, Dejpitak; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2010-02-01

    The aims of this study were to identify dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant women, and to compare it with those in non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected from 197 women (94 pregnant and 103 non-pregnant) from June to August, 2008. Dental caries and gingivitis was defined clinically according to the World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria. Over 74.0% of pregnant women had caries, and 86.2% had gingivitis. There were significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women with regard to dental caries (p < 0.001) and gingivitis (p = 0.021). The pregnant women were 2.9 times more likely to suffer from dental caries (95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.6-5.4), and 2.2 times more (95% CI, 1.1-4.7) from gingivitis compared to non-pregnant women. Farmers (Odd ratio (OR), 7.0; 95% CI, 1.8-26.3), high school graduation (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.2-7.3), and universal health insurance coverage (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3) were significant predictors for gingivitis. Only high school graduates were found to be significant predictors of dental caries with an OR of 2.8 (95% CI, 1.2-6.3). Poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 0.8-6.5), lack of knowledge (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 0.6-6.3), and poor oral hygiene habits (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-8.6) were important risk factors for dental caries. Similarly, inadequate oral hygiene status (OR, 24.8; 95% CI, 5.5-112.2), and poor oral health habits (OR, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.1-25.2) were found to be significant risk factors for gingivitis among pregnant women indicating, that most women should be trained in proper oral hygiene practices. Community awareness programs should be conducted to increase women's awareness of such hygienic practices.

  1. Relationship Between Quality of Life and Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Abbaszadeh, Fatemeh; Kafaei Atrian, Mahboobe; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Bagheri, Azam; Sadat, Zohreh; Karimian, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quality of life differs for different people in different situations and is related to one's self-satisfaction with life. Quality of life is affected by health status. Objectives: The current study examined the relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnant women in Kashan city. Patients and Methods: A Case - control study was performed on 112 depressed pregnant women (Case Group) and 353 Non-depressed pregnant women (Control Group) who referred to the prenatal health care centers of Kashan University of Medical Sciences .They completed Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) to assess the quality of life and the Beck Depression Inventory to assess the level of depressive symptoms. T-test, chi-square and Pearson correlation coefficient statistical tests were used for data analysis. Results: The findings showed that there was an inverse relationship between quality of life and depression in pregnancy (P = 0.0001). Average scores in all eight domains of quality of life were significantly lower in depressed pregnant women compared to non- depressed women. The strongest relationship was observed between depression and vitality (r =-0.52, P = 0.0001), mental health (r = -0.50, P = 0.001) and social functioning (r =-0.38, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Depressed pregnant women had a lower quality of life. The proper management of depression during pregnancy can improve the quality of life in women. It is recommended that antenatal services integrate screening for depression into routine antenatal care. PMID:25414858

  2. Physical activity and energy expenditure: findings from the Ibadan Pregnant Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Adeniyi, Ade F; Ogwumike, Omoyemi O

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity, if there are no medical caveats, is beneficial to all people including pregnant women. This study examined the level of physical activity in a group of pregnant Nigerian women. Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess the physical activity of 453 pregnant women. The mean age of participants was 30.89 +/- 4.44 years, 222 (49.0%) were sedentary, and only 46 (10.2%) presented with moderate activity level. The highest amount of energy (75.9 MET-h x wk(-1)) was expended on household activities. Women in the third trimester of pregnancy had more than three times the risk of being sedentary (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 2.11-4.56) but the risk reduced by 58% in gravid > or = 5 women. Most of the pregnant women recorded physical activity that was lower than the recommended level, which could lead to unfavourable health outcomes for mother and child. Efforts to promote physical activity in pregnant women in this environment are desirable.

  3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Dysfunctions among Indian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Arun G.; Kumar, Pratap; Kamath, Asha

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy triggers a wide range of changes in a woman's body leading to various musculoskeletal dysfunctions. Most commonly reported musculoskeletal discomforts by pregnant women are low back pain and symphysis pubis pain. The culture and the environmental factors may influence the discomforts experienced by a pregnant woman. There is a dearth of literature in India, regarding the common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by a pregnant woman, and hence this study. Method. A questionnaire to identify the musculoskeletal dysfunction was developed; content was validated and was translated to local languages through parallel back translation. 261 primiparous pregnant women participated in the study and filled the questionnaire in their native language. Results. Among the musculoskeletal dysfunctions reported by the pregnant women, 64.6% reported calf muscle cramps, 37.1% reported foot pain, and 33.7% experienced low back pain in their third trimester. In the second trimester, common musculoskeletal dysfunctions experienced by the women were that of calf pain (47.8%), low back pain (42%), and pelvic girdle pain (37%). Conclusion. Musculoskeletal dysfunctions and general discomforts very commonly affect the activities of daily living of pregnant women. Understanding the common discomforts during various trimesters of pregnancy will help to develop a comprehensive program for prevention and cure. PMID:25642349

  4. Supporting pregnant Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women to quit smoking: views of antenatal care providers and pregnant indigenous women.

    PubMed

    Passey, Megan E; Sanson-Fisher, Rob W; Stirling, Janelle M

    2014-12-01

    To assess support for 12 potential smoking cessation strategies among pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers. Cross-sectional surveys of staff and women in antenatal services providing care for Indigenous women in the Northern Territory and New South Wales, Australia. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of a list of possible strategies would be helpful in supporting pregnant Indigenous women to quit smoking. Current smokers (n = 121) were less positive about the potential effectiveness of most of the 12 strategies than the providers (n = 127). For example, family support was considered helpful by 64 % of smokers and 91 % of providers; between 56 and 62 % of smokers considered advice and support from midwives, doctors or Aboriginal Health Workers likely to be helpful, compared to 85-90 % of providers. Rewards for quitting were considered helpful by 63 % of smokers and 56 % of providers, with smokers rating them more highly and providers rating them lower, than most other strategies. Quitline was least popular for both. This study is the first to explore views of pregnant Australian Indigenous women and their antenatal care providers on strategies to support smoking cessation. It has identified strategies which are acceptable to both providers and Indigenous women, and therefore have potential for implementation in routine care. Further research to explore their feasibility in real world settings, uptake by pregnant women and actual impact on smoking outcomes is urgently needed given the high prevalence of smoking among pregnant Indigenous women.

  5. Early Phthalates Exposure in Pregnant Women Is Associated with Alteration of Thyroid Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Hsin; Liang, Wei-Yen; Li, Sih-Syuan; Huang, Han-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies revealed that phthalate exposure could alter thyroid hormones during the last trimester of pregnancy. However, thyroid hormones are crucial for fetal development during the first trimester. We aimed to clarify the effect of phthalate exposure on thyroid hormones during early pregnancy. Method We recruited 97 pregnant women who were offered an amniocentesis during the early trimester from an obstetrics clinic in southern Taiwan from 2013 to 2014. After signing an informed consent form, we collected amniotic fluid and urine samples from pregnant women to analyze 11 metabolites, including mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-butyl phthalate (MnBP), of 9 phthalates using liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry. We collected blood samples from each subject to analyze serum thyroid hormones including thyroxine (T4), free T4, and thyroid-binding globulin (TBG). Results Three phthalate metabolites were discovered to be >80% in the urine samples of the pregnant women: MEP (88%), MnBP (81%) and MECPP (86%). Median MnBP and MECPP levels in pregnant Taiwanese women were 21.5 and 17.6 μg/g-creatinine, respectively, that decreased after the 2011 Taiwan DEHP scandal. Results of principal component analysis suggested two major sources (DEHP and other phthalates) of phthalates exposure in pregnant women. After adjusting for age, gestational age, TBG, urinary creatinine, and other phthalate metabolites, we found a significantly negative association between urinary MnBP levels and serum T4 (β = –5.41; p-value = 0.012; n = 97) in pregnant women using Bonferroni correction. Conclusion We observed a potential change in the thyroid hormones of pregnant women during early pregnancy after DnBP exposure. Additional study is necessitated to clarify these associations. PMID:27455052

  6. Epidemiology of anaemia among pregnant women in Geizera, central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, M A; Khalid, A R; Ashmaig, A L; Ibrahim, A R M; Ahmed, A-Aziz M; Adam, I

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2010 at the antenatal care clinic of the Araba Waeshreen Hospital (Geizera), central Sudan. Sociodemographic, medical, obstetric and use of pica information were gathered. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Haemoglobin levels were measured and blood films and stools were examined for malaria and schistosomiasis. Out of the 292 women, 119 (40.8%) had anaemia (HB < 11 g/dl); eight (2.7%) had severe anaemia (HB < 7 g/dl). One patient had a positive blood film for malaria. A total of 38 (13.0%) out of the 292 pregnant women had S. mansoni infections. While age, parity, gestational age, education, occupation, interpregnancy interval and BMI were not associated with anaemia, pica (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.9, p = 0.02) and S. mansoni infections (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.2-6.7, p = 0.01) were significantly associated with anaemia using univariate and multivariate analyses. The high prevalence of anaemia among these women needs to be controlled through preventive measurement of S. mansoni infections and health education to prevent practising pica.

  7. Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Feb 9, 2017 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...

  8. Health Care Resources for Children and Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perloff, Janet D.

    1992-01-01

    Reviews evidence about health care resources currently available to children and pregnant women in the United States. Evidence suggests that the maldistribution of resources remains a serious threat to health care access for women and children at greatest risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and child morbidity and mortality. (SLD)

  9. School Exclusion and Educational Inclusion of Pregnant Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudoe, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the school exclusion and subsequent educational inclusion of pregnant young women participating in a course of antenatal and key skills education at an alternative educational setting. It examines the young women's transitions from "failure" in school to "success" in motherhood and re-engagement with…

  10. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  11. Perinatal Outcomes in Pregnant Women Users of Illegal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio

    2016-04-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p < 0.001). Low birth weight (2,620 g versus 3,333 g on average, p < 0.001) and maternal syphilis (15.7% versus 0%, p < 0.001) were associated with the use of these illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs.

  12. Metabolic Equivalent in Adolescents, Active Adults and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Katarina; Heydenreich, Juliane; Schutz, Yves; Renaud, Anne; Kayser, Bengt; Mäder, Urs

    2016-01-01

    “Metabolic Equivalent” (MET) represents a standard amount of oxygen consumed by the body under resting conditions, and is defined as 3.5 mL O2/kg × min or ~1 kcal/kg × h. It is used to express the energy cost of physical activity in multiples of MET. However, universal application of the 1-MET standard was questioned in previous studies, because it does not apply well to all individuals. Height, weight and resting metabolic rate (RMR, measured by indirect calorimetry) were measured in adolescent males (n = 50) and females (n = 50), women during pregnancy (gestation week 35–41, n = 46), women 24–53 weeks postpartum (n = 27), and active men (n = 30), and were compared to values predicted by the 1-MET standard. The RMR of adolescent males (1.28 kcal/kg × h) was significantly higher than that of adolescent females (1.11 kcal/kg × h), with or without the effects of puberty stage and physical activity levels. The RMR of the pregnant and post-pregnant subjects were not significantly different. The RMR of the active normal weight (0.92 kcal/kg × h) and overweight (0.89 kcal/kg × h) adult males were significantly lower than the 1-MET value. It follows that the 1-MET standard is inadequate for use not only in adult men and women, but also in adolescents and physically active men. It is therefore recommended that practitioners estimate RMR with equations taking into account individual characteristics, such as sex, age and Body Mass Index, and not rely on the 1-MET standard. PMID:27447667

  13. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF Streptococcus agalactiae ISOLATED FROM PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    de MELO, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; SANTOS, Nathally Claudiane de Souza; de OLIVEIRA, Marcia; SCODRO, Regiane Bertin de Lima; CARDOSO, Rosilene Fressatti; PÁDUA, Rúbia Andreia Falleiros; SILVA, Flavia Teixeira Ribeiro; COSTA, Aline Balandis; CARVALHO, Maria Dalva de Barros; PELLOSO, Sandra Marisa

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Introduction: Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae can colonize the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts and has been considered one of the most important risk factors for the development of neonatal disease. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of GBS isolates from pregnant women who were attended at a public health service in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Methods: A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 544 pregnant women, at ≥ 35 weeks of gestation. One hundred and thirty-six GBS isolates from pregnant women were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: All of the GBS isolates showed susceptibility to the drug that is most frequently used for intrapartum prophylaxis: penicillin. Resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin was detected, thus decreasing the options of prophylaxis in women who are allergic to penicillin. Conclusions: Additional studies should be conducted to increase the knowledge of GBS sensitivity profile to antimicrobials in other health centers. PMID:27828624

  15. Perceived Barriers to Physical Activity among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Moos, Merry-K; Carrier, Kathryn; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objective Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but barriers to activity during this time period are not well understood. The objective was to examine barriers to physical activity in a large cohort of pregnant women and to explore these barriers in more depth with qualitative data derived from a separate focus group study using a socioecologic framework. Method A total of 1535 pregnant women (27–30 weeks’ gestation) enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study were asked an open-ended question about their primary barrier to physical activity; responses were coded into categories according to the socioecologic framework. To further elucidate, 13 focus groups of a total of 58 pregnant women (20–37 weeks’ gestation) were conducted among Hispanic, African American, and White participants. Results Among the 1535 pregnant women participating in the survey, 85% reported an intrapersonal barrier to physical activity, of which almost two-thirds were health related. Only 2% of the women reported their main barrier to physical activity as interpersonal and 3% reported a neighborhood or environmental barrier. These results were supported by the focus group data, overall and by race/ethnicity and body mass index. Although women discussed barriers to physical activity at a variety of levels, the intrapersonal level was the most frequently cited and discussed factor in both studies. Conclusions Since pregnancy may trigger the development of obesity and since physical activity is recommended for healthy pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity in a more relevant way. These quantitative and qualitative studies revealed many barriers to physical activity among pregnant women and some suggestions for interventions. PMID:18478322

  16. Nutritional status and weight gain in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (p<0.001). The mean of total weight gain in the pregnant women who began the pregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (p<0.05). The study highlights the importance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.

  17. Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Pregnant Women in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P < .01). Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349

  18. Special health care needs of homeless pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Killion, C M

    1995-12-01

    As women and families join the ranks of the homeless in increasing numbers, many women find themselves confronting both pregnancy and homelessness. When pregnancy accompanies the precarious state of homelessness, the need for adequate shelter is not being met during one of the most critical periods of a woman's life. This article focuses on the unique health needs of homeless pregnant women. Detailed accounts of the daily life experiences of African American, Anglo, and Latina homeless pregnant women were derived from an ethnographic study conducted in a large metropolitan area in southern California. Their pregnancies were difficult because normal physiological changes of pregnancy often became pathological, signs of potential complications went unnoticed or unattended, and minor discomforts of pregnancy were exacerbated by the women's environment. Nursing therapeutics that support health maintenance and coping strategies of the women while on the streets or in shelters were explicated.

  19. Heart failure in pregnant women: is it peripartum cardiomyopathy?

    PubMed

    Dennis, Alicia Therese

    2015-03-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare but important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women with peripartum cardiomyopathy often present with symptoms and signs of heart failure. The diagnosis of peripartum cardiomyopathy is made after all other causes of heart failure are excluded. Emphasis is on the immediate recognition of an unwell pregnant or recently pregnant woman, early diagnosis with the use of echocardiography, and the correct treatment of heart failure.

  20. Serum HSV-1 and -2 IgM in pregnant women in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okonko, I O; Cookey, T I; Okerentugba, P O; Frank-Peterside, N

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken for the purpose of finding IgM antibodies against HSV-1 and 2 infections among pregnant women and also to evaluate correlation of Serum HSV-1 and 2 IgM in these pregnant women. A total of 180 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Braithwaite Memorial Specialist Hospital (BMSH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria were consecutively recruited, after they had given consents to participate in the study. Serum of each sample was assayed for HSV-1&2 IgM antibody using a commercial ELISA. Five (2.8%) of the pregnant women were positive for IgM antibody against HSV-1&2. Marital status mainly correlated (χ(2) = 221.5, P < 0.05) with HSV-2 infection and HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection. Age, educational level, occupation, and gestation were not consistently associated (P>0.05) with HSV-1/HSV-2 infection and co-infection. We also observed a high overall anti-HSV-1&2 IgM seronegativity of 97.2% among these pregnant women. Group-specific seronegativity was also high ranging from 93.3-100%. Although the age-groups significantly differed, none of their variables showed statistical association with the seronegativity. This represents the first analysis of HSV IgM antibody reported in Port Harcourt, Nigeria and has important public health implications, particularly for pregnant women. Consideration of this information would benefit physicians providing primary gynecological and obstetric care to this population of women.

  1. Should all pregnant women be screened for syphilis?

    PubMed

    Buvé, Anne

    2007-09-01

    In industrialized countries, the incidence of syphilis has decreased dramatically since the discovery of penicillin in the 1940s. However, syphilis and congenital syphilis are far from eradicated, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Syphilis in pregnant women is a cause of adverse pregnancy outcomes that can be prevented by screening for syphilis and early treatment in pregnancy. Several studies have found screening of pregnant women for syphilis to be a highly cost-effective intervention, even if the prevalence of syphilis is low. Obstacles to universal screening of pregnant women include low awareness of syphilis and low quality of antenatal care and healthcare in general in many low- and middle-income countries. For these settings, we need simpler and more reliable serological tests for syphilis, but we also need to strengthen health services in general to ensure sustainable antenatal care services to ensure sustainability of syphilis screening programmes.

  2. The prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant women of Ardabil in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Habibzadeh, Shahram; Peeri-Doghaheh, Hadi; Mohammad-Shahi, Jafar; Mobini, Elham; Shahbazzadegan, Samira

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Trans-placental transmission of parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can causes adverse outcomes. Regarding its importance in prenatal care, we decided to study prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant woman in Ardabil, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a community based study with a cluster sampling, 350 pregnant women that attended in health care centers in Ardabil were selected. Serum samples were collected and Anti-B19 specific IgG was detected using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Euroimmune Elisa kit, Germany). Furthermore, a questionnaire filled for all participants during samples collection. Results: 64.6% (226/350) of participants were Ardabil citizen and the rest were from rural area (124/350). Anti-B19-specific IgG antibody was detected in 69.1% of pregnant women (242/350). Participants’ ages ranged from 15 to 34 years with average of 23 years. According to our study, seroprevalence of IgG antibodies had positive significant correlation with the participants’ age (r=0.268) but there were no significant relations between B19 seropositivity and living area, family member, number of commensals, number of living children, and the amount of hemoglobin (p>0.05). Conclusion: Approximately, one-third of the participants were at risk of primary B19 infection. Therefore, health education of pregnant women and screening of infected pregnant women is recommended to prevent fetal complications. PMID:27928490

  3. Comparison of Vitamin D levels in cases with preeclampsia, eclampsia and healthy pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Bakacak, Murat; Serin, Salih; Ercan, Onder; Köstü, Bülent; Avci, Fazıl; Kılınç, Metin; Kıran, Hakan; Kiran, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess vitamin D levels in eclampsia, preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women and the role of vitamin D deficiency in the etiology of preeclampsia (PE). Forty healthy pregnant women, 83 preeclamptic and 32 eclamptic pregnant women were included. Maternal and infant medical records were reviewed. Blood samples were obtained from all groups. Demographics and serum vitamin D levels were compared between the groups. No statistical differences were observed in age, gravidity, parity, weight, height and BMI between the three groups. Week of pregnancy and weight at birth in eclamptic and preeclamptic patients were lower compared to the healthy patients (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in eclamptic (P<0.001) and preeclamptic patients (P<0.001) compared to the healthy pregnant group. The rate of cesarean section was found to be higher in preeclamptic and eclamptic patients (P<0.001). Vitamin D levels were lower in both preeclamptic and eclamptic patients compared to healthy normotensive pregnant women (P<0.001). Preeclamptic and eclamptic women were similar in terms of the data compared. Vitamin D supplementation is considered to decrease the risk of both preeclampsia and eclampsia in the patient population at risk for vitamin D deficiency. PMID:26629145

  4. Assessment of Placental Stiffness Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography in Pregnant Women with Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Göya, Cemil; Tunç, Senem; Teke, Memik; Hattapoğlu, Salih

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate placental stiffness measured by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography in pregnant women in the second trimester with a normal fetus versus those with structural anomalies and non-structural findings. Materials and Methods Forty pregnant women carrying a fetus with structural anomalies diagnosed sonographically at 18–28 weeks of gestation comprised the study group. The control group consisted of 34 healthy pregnant women with a sonographically normal fetus at a similar gestational age. Placental shear wave velocity (SWV) was measured by ARFI elastography and compared between the two groups. Structural anomalies and non-structural findings were scored based on sonographic markers. Placental stiffness measurements were compared among fetus anomaly categories. Doppler parameters of umbilical and uterine arteries were compared with placental SWV measurements. Results All placental SWV measurements, including minimum SWV, maximum SWV, and mean SWV were significantly higher in the study group than the control group ([0.86 ± 0.2, 0.74 ± 0.1; p < 0.001], [1.89 ± 0.7, 1.59 ± 0.5; p = 0.04], and [1.26 ± 0.4, 1.09 ± 0.2; p = 0.01]), respectively. Conclusion Placental stiffness evaluated by ARFI elastography during the second trimester in pregnant women with fetuses with congenital structural anomalies is higher than that of pregnant women with normal fetuses. PMID:26957906

  5. Urinary antibiotics of pregnant women in Eastern China and cumulative health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Qian, Junhua; Hu, Lingyun; Huang, Peixin; Su, Meifang; Yu, Xin; Fu, Chaowei; Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Qi; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Haijiang; He, Gengsheng; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2017-02-23

    Exposure to antibiotics during pregnancy can pose a systematic effect on human health. A few bio-monitoring studies have demonstrated an extensive exposure of children to antibiotics, but there is still lack of data for pregnant women. To assess the exposure of pregnant women to antibiotics and potential health risk, we investigated 536 pregnant women aged 16-42 years from two geographically different study sites in Eastern China in 2015. We measured 21 antibiotics of five categories (seven fluoroquinolones, three phenicols, four tetracyclines, three macrolides, and four sulfonamides) in urines by using the isotope dilution ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time of-flight mass spectrometry. Hazard index (HI) was calculated based on estimated daily exposure dose and acceptable daily intakes. Sixteen antibiotics were found in urines with detection frequencies between 0.2% and 16.0%. Antibiotics were overall detected in 41.6% of urines, and two or more antibiotics were detected in 13.1% of urines. Ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were most frequently detected in urine with detection frequencies between 10% and 20%. The majority of the antibiotics tested had an estimated daily exposure dose less than 1μg/kg/day and 4.3% of pregnant women had a HI value more than one. These findings indicated that pregnant women were frequently exposed to antibiotics and some individuals were in the potential risk of adverse microbiological effects induced by antibiotics.

  6. Breast cancer screening of pregnant and breastfeeding women with BRCA mutations.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Harris; Matsen, Cindy; Freer, Phoebe; Kohlmann, Wendy; Stein, Matthew; Buys, Saundra S; Colonna, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Screening recommendations for women with BRCA mutations include annual breast MRI starting at age 25, with annual mammogram added at age 30. The median age of childbearing in the US is age 28, therefore many BRCA mutation carriers will be pregnant or breastfeeding during the time when intensive screening is most important to manage their increased breast cancer risk. Despite this critical overlap, there is little evidence to guide clinicians on the appropriate screening for women with BRCA mutations during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Hormonal shifts that occur during pregnancy, the postpartum period, and breastfeeding result in changes to the breasts that may further complicate the sensitivity and specificity of screening modalities. We explore the safety and efficacy of available breast cancer screening modalities, including clinical breast exam, mammogram, breast MRI, and ultrasound among women with BRCA mutations who are pregnant or breastfeeding, providing recommendations from the most current published literature and expert opinion.

  7. Bile Acid Determination after Standardized Glucose Load in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Adams, April; Jacobs, Katherine; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Lupo, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Objective Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a rare liver disorder, usually manifesting in the third trimester and associated with increased perinatal morbidity and mortality. The hallmark laboratory abnormality in ICP is elevated fasting serum bile acids; however, there are limited data on whether a nonfasting state affects a pregnant woman's total bile acids. This study assesses fasting and nonfasting bile acid levels in 10 healthy pregnant women after a standardized glucose load to provide insight into the effects of a glucose load on bile acid profiles. Study Design Pilot prospective cohort analysis of serum bile acids in pregnant women. A total of 10 healthy pregnant women from 28 to 32 weeks' gestation were recruited for the study before undergoing a glucose tolerance test. Total serum bile acids were collected for each subject in the overnight fasting state, and 1 and 3 hours after the 100-g glucose load. Results There was a statistically significant difference between fasting versus 3-hour values. There was no statistically significant difference between fasting versus 1-hour and 1-hour versus 3-hour values. Conclusion There is a difference between fasting and nonfasting total serum bile acids after a 100-g glucose load in healthy pregnant women. PMID:26495178

  8. 'Get alongside us', women's experiences of being overweight and pregnant in Sydney, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mills, Annie; Schmied, Virginia A; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2013-07-01

    Studies of women's experiences of being overweight and pregnant are limited in the literature. Given the increasing rates of obesity in pregnant women, and the impact of being overweight on the health of the mother and the child, this qualitative descriptive study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of overweight pregnant women attending two maternity units in Sydney, Australia. Fourteen women aged between 25 and 42 years with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2) participated in a face-to-face interview in their third trimester of pregnancy or in the early post-natal period. All interviews were recorded and transcribed. Field notes were also recorded following each interview. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified in the data: 'being overweight and pregnant', 'being on a continuum of change', 'get alongside us' and finally 'wanting the same treatment as everyone else'. Most women recognised their weight as an issue both for their own health and well-being and for its impact on the baby. Women believed health professionals should address the issue of obesity with them but do so in a supportive and positive way that recognised their individual needs and expectations. Health professionals need to consider new approaches or models of care for overweight women that give them support and enable individual needs and expectations to be met. Culturally specific programs may also need to be developed.

  9. Establishment of Trimester-Specific Reference Intervals for Thyroid Hormones in Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Won; Chung, Hee-Jung; Park, Chul-Min; Hur, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Background Establishment of trimester- and assay-specific reference intervals for every population is recommended. The aim of this study was to establish a trimester- and assay-specific reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT4) in Korean pregnant women. Methods From April 2012 to December 2012, 531 pregnant women receiving prenatal care and 238 age-matched, non-pregnant women were enrolled in this study. After excluding patients with pregnancy-associated complications or thyroid-specific autoantibody, 465 pregnant and 206 non-pregnant women were included. Non-parametric analysis (2.5-97.5th percentile) was performed to determine the reference interval. Levels of TSH and FT4 were determined by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Elecsys thyroid tests, Roche Diagnostics, Germany). Results The TSH reference intervals were 0.01-4.10, 0.01-4.26, and 0.15-4.57 mIU/L for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively. From the first trimester to the third trimester, the median TSH levels showed a significantly increasing trend (P<0.0001). The FT4 reference intervals were 0.83-1.65, 0.71-1.22, and 0.65-1.13 ng/dL for the first, second, and third trimester, respectively, showing a significantly decreasing trend (P<0.0001). Conclusions Establishing trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnant women is essential for accurate assessment of thyroid function. Our population-specific and method-specific reference intervals will be useful for screening Korean pregnant women for thyroid disease. PMID:25729721

  10. [Determinants of urban obstetrical service utilization in rural pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Park, J S

    1991-12-01

    This study examines the decisions of rural pregnant women who sought obstetric care elsewhere, especially in an urban area. The principal data source was the "Patients' Survey of 1988", a nationwide data collection. Among 4091 rural pregnant women, 3090 women left their home counties for obstetric care; 1946 women went to small or medium-sized cities, 645 to large cities. Multivariate techniques were used to examine the factors related to selecting urban obstetric care. The analysis shows that younger, abnormally delivered women were more likely to seek urban obstetrical facilities. In addition, medical insurance, the number of registered cars/1000, the number of general hospitals in the county, and the distance to the nearest large city were positively related to the decision to go to any city. However, distance to the nearest small or medium-sized city had a negatively significant effect on urban obstetrical service utilization. (author's modified)

  11. Hygiene practices and sexual activity associated with urinary tract infection in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Amiri, F N; Rooshan, M H; Ahmady, M H; Soliamani, M J

    2009-01-01

    A case-control study determined the association of urinary tract infection (UTI) with genital hygiene practices and sexual activity in pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Babol, Islamic Republic of Iran. A sample of 100 pregnant women with positive urine cultures (cases) were compared with 150 healthy pregnant women matched for age, social, economic and education status and parity (controls). Escherichia coli was the infecting organism in 83% of cases. Factors associated with UTI included sexual intercourse > or = 3 times per week (OR = 5.62), recent UTI (OR = 3.27), not washing genitals precoitus (OR = 2.16), not washing genitals postcoitus (OR = 2.89), not voiding urine postcoitus (OR = 8.62) and washing genitals from back to front (OR = 2.96).

  12. [Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Rabat, Morocco].

    PubMed

    El Mansouri, B; Rhajaoui, M; Sebti, F; Amarir, F; Laboudi, M; Bchitou, R; Hamad, M; Lyagoubi, M

    2007-10-01

    In Morocco, the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women living in Rabat, was estimated by analyzing antibodies (IgG, IgM) levels using an ELISA test. The analysis of 2456 serums at the Institut National d'Hygiène showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis is about 50.6%. According to the questionnaire, the lack of knowledge about this disease and soil contact could be the main causes of toxoplasmosis infection. The use of IgG avidity test has excluded a recent infection in 93.5% of pregnant women with IgM positive sera.

  13. [International recommandations on physical exercise for pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Filhol, G; Bernard, P; Quantin, X; Espian-Marcais, C; Ninot, G

    2014-12-01

    Benefits of physical exercise on the physical and psychological health lead to specifics guidelines during pregnancy. For pregnant women, to take part in aerobics exercise (walking, biking) (i.e. 30 minutes, three times per week at 60-90% of the maximal heart rate) and strength training (i.e. one to two times per week) is recommended. Physical exercise programs during pregnancy have shown benefits for preventing and treating complications pregnancy (e.g. gestational diabetes mellitus, overweight). Benefits of exercise and risks associated with sedentary should be widely diffused among pregnant women and prenatal caregivers.

  14. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes].

    PubMed

    Maciołek-Blewniewska, G; Wilczyński, J; Woch, G

    1994-04-01

    Results of studies of the urinary tract of 43 pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes have been presented. No clinical symptoms of infection of this system were observed in particular trimesters of pregnancy. It was found that, despite the lack of symptoms of the urinary tract infection, the infection as such did occur-most frequently in the 2nd trimester. The most common bacteria in pregnant women with insulin-dependent diabetes (lasting over 10 years) were Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus saprophiticus.

  15. Health screening - women - over age 65

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  16. Influence of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending their antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Orish, Verner N; Onyeabor, Onyekachi S; Boampong, Johnson N; Afoakwah, Richmond; Nwaefuna, Ekene; Acquah, Samuel; Orish, Esther O; Sanyaolu, Adekunle O; Iriemenam, Nnaemeka C

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the influence of the level of education on HIV infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Sekondi-Takoradi, Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals in the Sekondi-Takoradi metropolis. The study group comprised 885 consenting pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics. Questionnaires were administered and venous blood samples were screened for HIV and other parameters. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the level of education attained by the pregnant women and their HIV statuses. The data showed that 9.83% (87/885) of the pregnant women were HIV seropositive while 90.17% (798/885) were HIV seronegative. There were significant differences in mean age (years) between the HIV seropositive women (27.45 ± 5.5) and their HIV seronegative (26.02 ± 5.6) counterparts (p = .026) but the inference disappeared after adjustment (p = .22). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that pregnant women with secondary/tertiary education were less likely to have HIV infection compared with those with none/primary education (adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.30-0.91; p = .022). Our data showed an association with higher level of education and HIV statuses of the pregnant women. It is imperative to encourage formal education among pregnant women in this region.

  17. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women and cats in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Asthana, Sumita P; Macpherson, Calum N L; Weiss, Stanley H; Stephens, Richard; Denny, Thomas N; Sharma, R N; Dubey, J P

    2006-06-01

    Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii was studied in 534 pregnant women and 40 domestic cats in Grenada, West Indies. Antibodies (IgG) for T. gondii were sought in human sera by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and in cat sera by using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies were found in 57 % of pregnant women. Seroprevalence increased with age; 51% of 15- to 19-yr-old women (100 total) had antibodies versus 60% of 20- to 24-yr-old women (127 total). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT, 1:25 serum dilution) were found in 35% of cats; titers were 1:25 in 7 cats, 1:50 in 4 cats, and 1:500 in 3 cats. Epidemiological data suggested that the ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts was an important mode of transmission of T. gondii to women.

  18. Psychiatric Disorders and Treatment in Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Flick, Louise H.; Homan, Sharon M.; Campbell, Claudia; McSweeney, Maryellen; Gallagher, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aims This study estimated the prevalence of twenty-two 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders in a sample of 744 low-income pregnant women and the frequency that women with psychiatric disorders received treatment. Method To identify psychiatric disorders, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) was administered to Medicaid or Medicaid-eligible pregnant women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC). The sample was stratified by the rural or urban location of the WIC sites in southeastern Missouri and the city of St. Louis. Eligible women were enrolled at each site until their numbers were proportional to the racial distribution of African American and Caucasian pregnant women served there. Results The 12-month prevalence of one or more psychiatric disorders was 30.9%. Most common were affective disorders (13.6%), particularly major depressive disorder (8.2%) and bipolar I disorder (5.2%). Only 24.3% of those with a psychiatric disorder reported that they received treatment in the past year. Lifetime prevalence of at least one disorder was 45.6%, with affective disorders being the most frequent (23.5%). Caucasian women were more likely than African Americans to have at least one 12-month disorder, with the difference largely accounted for by nicotine dependence. Higher prevalence of lifetime disorders was also found in Caucasian women, particularly affective disorders and substance use disorders. There were no differences in the prevalence of 12-month or lifetime psychiatric disorders by the urban or rural residence of subjects. Conclusions With nearly one third of pregnant women meeting criteria for a 12-month psychiatric disorder and only one fourth receiving any type of mental health treatment, comprehensive psychiatric screening during pregnancy is needed along with appropriate treatment. PMID:20524895

  19. How Does Heroin Use Affect Pregnant Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  20. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E; Doherty, Irene A; Kline, Tracy L; Key, Mary E; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group.

  1. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Key, Mary E.; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group. PMID:27087804

  2. Lipoproteins in pregnant women before and during delivery: influence on neonatal haemorheology.

    PubMed Central

    Uberos-Fernández, J; Muñoz-Hoyos, A; Molina-Carballo, A; Puertas-Prieto, A; Valenzuela-Ruiz, A; Ruiz-Cosano, C; Molina-Font, J A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether the lipid profile of pregnant women during parturition differs from the profile at previous stages of pregnancy and to determine the effects of maternal lipid changes on fetal or neonatal haemorheology. METHODS: Sixty pregnant women were studied, divided into two groups. Group 1 contained 30 women of mean age of 27 (SD 3) years and gestational age > 38 weeks in whom delivery had not yet begun; all these pregnancies followed an uncomplicated course and there was no evidence of any fetal pathology from previous obstetric examinations. All the women reached term and birth weight was 3340 (350) g. Group 2 contained women of mean age 26 (4) years, in whom delivery was ongoing, all of whose pregnancies reached term. The following variables were determined in all cases: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL), free fatty acids and phospholipids, and apoprotein A (apo-A) and apoprotein B (apo-B). Serum and plasma viscosity was measured with a capillary viscosimeter. RESULTS: The apo-B/apo-A and HDL/apo-A ratios increased during delivery, indicating that in pregnant women these atherogenic indices are raised during delivery compared with previous gestational stages. Significant correlation coefficients were obtained between maternal lipids (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, total cholesterol/HDL, and LDL/HDL) and plasma viscosity in the neonate. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma atherogenic indices increase progressively until birth. These changes have implications for neonatal haemorheology because they cause an increase in plasma viscosity. PMID:8655676

  3. Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163680.html Don't Punish Pregnant Women for Opioid Use, Docs Say Better prevention and ... should be the focus when dealing with pregnant women who use opioids, a leading pediatricians' group says. ...

  4. Dietary Diversity Is Not Associated with Haematological Status of Pregnant Women Resident in Rural Areas of Northern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Oladele, Jeremiah; Larbi, Asamoah; Hoeschle-Zeledon, Irmgard

    2017-01-01

    Background. Information regarding how dietary diversity is related to haematological status of the pregnant women in rural areas of Northern Ghana is limited. This study therefore evaluated maternal dietary intake and how it relates to the nutritional status of pregnant women belonging to different socioeconomic conditions in Northern Ghana. Methods. This study was cross-sectional in design involving 400 pregnant women. Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) and anaemia status were used to assess the nutritional status of pregnant women. Results. The mean dietary diversity score (DDS) of the study population from ten food groups was 4.2 ± 1.5 (95% CI: 4.08 to 4.37). Of the 400 women, 46.1% (95% CI: 40.0 to 52.2) met the new minimum dietary diversity for women (MDD-W). The mean haemoglobin concentration among the pregnant women studied was 10.1 g/dl ± 1.40 (95% CI: 9.8 to 10.3). The independent predictors of haemoglobin concentration were maternal educational attainment, gestational age, frequency of antenatal care (ANC) attendance, number of under-five children in the household, size of MUAC, and maternal height. Conclusions. Irrespective of the socioeconomic status, women minimum dietary diversity (MDD-W) was not associated with anaemia among pregnant women resident in the rural areas of Northern Ghana. PMID:28168052

  5. Perceptions, Uses of, and Interests in Complementary Health Care Approaches in Depressed Pregnant Women: The PAW Survey.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Jennifer; Huberty, Jennifer L; Leiferman, Jenn A; McClain, Darya; Larkey, Linda K

    2017-01-01

    Depression affects up to 23% of pregnant women and is associated with adverse physical/mental health outcomes for both the mother and baby. Depressed pregnant women may be more likely to engage in unhealthy lifestyle behaviors that contribute to an increased risk for chronic disease. Little is known regarding depressed pregnant women's perceptions, uses of, and interests in complementary health approaches. Study participants (mean age 28.7 ± 6.8; n = 1032) included pregnant women ≥8 weeks gestation who responded to a survey assessing physical and mental health and wellness practices. Of those completing the survey, depressed pregnant women (n = 272) had significantly higher levels of anxiety (P < .001) and stress (P < .001) and had poorer sleep quality (P < .001), mindfulness (P < .001), and social support (P < .001) compared to nondepressed pregnant women (n = 760). A majority (84%) of depressed pregnant women would consider using a complementary health approach for weight and/or stress management during pregnancy, and more than 50% were interested in yoga.

  6. Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant and Postpartum Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Blanco, Carlos; Keyes, Katherine; Olfson, Mark; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT Psychiatric disorders and substance use during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. Information about the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders and substance use in this population is lacking. OBJECTIVE To examine sociodemographic correlates, rates of DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders, substance use and treatment-seeking among past-year pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 43,093). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prevalence of 12-month DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders, substance use, and treatment seeking. RESULTS There were no significant differences in the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders between past-year pregnant (25.3%), postpartum women (27.5%), and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age (30.1%), except for the significantly higher prevalence of major depressive disorder in postpartum women (9.3%) than in non-pregnant women (8.1%) (OR 1.59, 95% CI=1.15–2.20). Past-year pregnant and postpartum women had significantly lower rates of alcohol use disorders, and any substance use, except illicit drug use, than non-pregnant women. Age, marital status, health status, stressful life events, and history of traumatic experiences were all significantly associated with higher risk of psychopathology in pregnant and postpartum women. Most women with a current psychiatric disorder did not receive any mental health care in the 12-months prior to the survey regardless of pregnancy status. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy per se is not associated with increased risk of mental disorders, though the risk of major depressive disorder may be increased during the postpartum period. Young, unmarried women with recent stressful life events, complicated pregnancies, and poor overall health were at significantly increased risk of mental disorders during pregnancy

  7. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in the healthcare system in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection. This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening. A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland. The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15–24 = 0.86%; 35–44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = −0.001 × year + 1.9451; R2 = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P < 0.0001). Analysis of real-world data of female patients in Poland provides evidence that screening based on an individual's medical history and behavioral risk factors in clinical circumstances would be more effective than obligatory testing of all pregnant women. PMID:27472714

  8. Unlike pregnant adult women, pregnant adolescent girls cannot maintain glycine flux during late pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jean W; Thame, Minerva M; Gibson, Raquel; Baker, Tameka M; Tang, Grace J; Chacko, Shaji K; Jackson, Alan A; Jahoor, Farook

    2016-03-14

    During pregnancy, glycine and serine become more important because they are the primary suppliers of methyl groups for the synthesis of fetal DNA, and more glycine is required for fetal collagen synthesis as pregnancy progresses. In an earlier study, we reported that glycine flux decreased by 39% from the first to the third trimester in pregnant adolescent girls. As serine is a primary precursor for glycine synthesis, the objective of this study was to measure and compare glycine and serine fluxes and inter-conversions in pregnant adolescent girls and adult women in the first and third trimesters. Measurements were made after an overnight fast by continuous intravenous infusions of 2H2-glycine and 15N-serine in eleven adolescent girls (17·4 (se 0·1) years of age) and in ten adult women (25·8 (se 0·5) years of age) for 4 h. Adolescent girls had significantly slower glycine flux and they made less glycine from serine in the third (P<0·05) than in the first trimester. Baby birth length was significantly shorter of adolescent girls (P=0·04) and was significantly associated with third trimester glycine flux. These findings suggest that the pregnant adolescent cannot maintain glycine flux in late pregnancy compared with early pregnancy because of decreased synthesis from serine. It is possible that the inability to maintain glycine synthesis makes her fetus vulnerable to impaired cartilage synthesis, and thus linear growth.

  9. Kinetics of CMV seroconversion in a Swiss pregnant women population.

    PubMed

    Maine, Gregory T; Stricker, René; Stricker, Reto

    2012-07-01

    Retrospective evaluation of the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroconversion with CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity assays, in a Swiss pregnant women population, has shown that the current published CMV serologic diagnostic algorithms were valid and fit for use. In 19% of the cases analyzed, CMV-specific IgM was detected before IgG.

  10. Dilemmas in Managing Pregnant Women With Ebola: 2 Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Caluwaerts, Séverine; Fautsch, Tessy; Lagrou, Daphne; Moreau, Michel; Modet Camara, Alseny; Günther, Stephan; Di Caro, Antonino; Borremans, Benny; Raymond Koundouno, Fara; Akoi Bore, Joseph; Logue, Christopher H; Richter, Martin; Wölfel, Roman; Kuisma, Eeva; Kurth, Andreas; Thomas, Stephen; Burkhardt, Gillian; Erland, Elin; Lionetto, Fanshen; Lledo Weber, Patricia; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Macpherson, Hassan; Van Herp, Michel

    2016-04-01

    We report 2 cases of Ebola viral disease (EVD) in pregnant women who survived, initially with intact pregnancies. Respectively 31-32 days after negativation of the maternal blood EVD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) both patients delivered a stillborn fetus with persistent EVD-PCR amniotic fluid positivity.

  11. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  12. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  13. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The... Director for Substance Abuse Services. (f) The State shall develop effective strategies for monitoring.... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall...

  14. Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women and Their Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abbasian, Maryam; Chaman, Reza; Amiri, Mohammad; Ajami, Mohammad Esmaeil; Jafari-Koshki, Tohid; Rohani, Hossein; Taghavi-Shahri, Seyed Mahmood; Sadeghi, Erfan; Raei, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy is a worldwide problem. Studies have reported prevalence ranged 18-84% in pregnant women. Receiving adequate calcium and vitamin D during pregnancy period is necessary for calcium homeostasis, fetal growth and bone mineralization. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women and their neonates in Shahroud city in the northeast Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 284 pregnant women and their neonates referred to Fatemiyeh Hospital of Shahroud were included. Blood samples of mothers and umbilical cords were collected during the delivery and were sent to laboratory in order to measure calcium and 25-hydroxy vitamin D. Findings: Amounts of Vitamin D insufficiency (20-30 ng/mL) and deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in (mothers, neonates) were found to be (60.2%, 48.9%) and (1.1%, 2.5%) respectively. Calcium deficiency (<8.5 mg/dL) was present in 33.5% of mothers and 25% of neonates. There was a weak correlation between maternal serum and cord blood 25-hydroxy vitamin D (r=0.12, p=0.053). Conclusion: More than half of the mothers and their neonates had some degrees of vitamin D deficiency. It is recommended to evaluate the nutritional status of vitamin D in pregnant women along with public health interventions to be carried out. PMID:27157170

  15. Current Concepts in Nutrition--Pregnant Women and Premature Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Janet C.; Charlet, Sara

    1978-01-01

    Discusses energy and nutrient requirements of pregnant women with respect to kcal needs and vitamins B-6, folacin, vitamin E, and intake of certain trace elements. Also discusses nutritional needs of the premature infant and the ways of supplying these nutrients. (MA)

  16. Utilization of Pregnant Enlisted Women Transferred Off Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    pregnant women in their division worked until 2 weeks before delivery. 12 Afterconvalmesew leave, wome geeamly returned to their work center. according...by circling the number In front of your choice. You may write In an answer If you feel that none of the answers is right for you. Please be honest in

  17. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii amongst Pregnant Women in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aqeely, Hussein; El-Gayar, Eman K.; Najmi, Abdullah; Alvi, Ayesha; Bani, Ibrahim; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Abdalla, Saif Elden; Elhassan, Ibrahim M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors were collected from each participant. Venous blood samples were collected following standard operating procedures. Serological analysis for latent toxoplasmosis (levels of IgG) and active toxoplasmosis (IgM) was done using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results. The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii in the study area was 24.1%. The seroprevalence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG was 20% (39 out of 195), whereas IgM seropositivity was 6.2% (12 out of 195). Only 4 pregnant women tested positive for both IgG and IgM. The highest IgG and IgM seroprevalence was among the study participants aged 35 to 39 years (13.5% and 35.1%, resp.). The seropositivity rate of T. gondii-specific antibodies was higher among pregnant women from the urban areas than those from rural communities (7.4% versus 0% and 21% versus 15.4% for IgM and IgG, resp.). Conclusions. The seroprevalence of T. gondii was high in pregnant woman in Jazan. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases with increase of age. Awareness health education program in Jazan needs to be maintained and developed to targeted pregnant women. PMID:25484905

  18. Ambient air pollution and annoyance responses from pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalia; Ramón, Rosa; Marco, Alfredo; Aguirre, Amelia; Sunyer, Jordi; Iñiguez, Carmen; INMA-Valencia cohort

    ObjectivesTo describe the degree of annoyance caused by air pollution and noise in pregnant women in a birth cohort; to determine the modifying factors and their relation with exposure to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2). MethodsThe study population was 855 pregnant women in Valencia, Spain. Annoyance caused by air pollution and noise, and explanatory factors were obtained from 786 pregnant women through a questionnaire. NO 2 levels were determined combining measurements at 93 points within the area of study and using geostatistical techniques (kriging). ResultsIn all 7.9% of the women reported high annoyance caused by air pollution and 13.1% high annoyance caused by noise. There was a significant difference in the degree of annoyance due to both air pollution and noise depending on the area where the women lived and their working status. The degree of annoyance correlated better with measured NO 2 at the municipality level (air pollution: r=0.53; noise: r=0.44) than at the individual level (air pollution and noise: r=0.21). On multivariate analysis, being a housewife, higher NO 2 levels and high traffic density were associated with higher degrees of annoyance. ConclusionsThere was a high percentage of women who perceived medium-high annoyance due to noise and air pollution. Annoyance caused by environmental pollutants could lead to some psychological effects, which impair the quality of life, or even physiological ones, which affect prenatal development.

  19. [The expectancy-stress factor in pregnant refugee women].

    PubMed

    Gogol', K N; Gotsiridze, E G; Guruli, Z V; Kintraia, N P; Tsaava, F D

    2006-09-01

    Our study revealed that refugee status increases the risks and worsens the outcome of pregnancy among Georgian refugees. 125 Georgian refugee women participated in this study. The study included examinations of the psychological status of expecting mothers, clinical development of pregnancy, complications of labor, functional status of the fetus, and EEG and neuro-ultrasound data of newborns. The control group comprised 125 pregnant women who experienced no stress during pregnancy. An examination of the psycho-emotional status of pregnant refugee women revealed high percentage indicators (82%) for hypochondria, depression, psychopathy, hysteria and psychoastenia in contrast to the control group. The deterioration of psycho-emotional status and biochemical indicators in pregnant refugee women was directly proportional to the worsening of functional and clinical conditions in fetuses. Prolonged stress is the cause of increased morbidity and mortality during pregnancy and child birth in refugee women. Infants born to refugee women also faced increased risks and belong to the group of special premature care and observation.

  20. Humoral and cell mediated immune responses to a pertussis containing vaccine in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    Huygen, Kris; Caboré, Raïssa Nadège; Maertens, Kirsten; Van Damme, Pierre; Leuridan, Elke

    2015-08-07

    Vaccination of pregnant women is recommended for some infectious diseases in order to protect both women and offspring through high titres of maternal IgG antibodies. Less is known on the triggering of cellular immune responses by vaccines administered during pregnancy. In an ongoing study on maternal pertussis vaccination (2012-2014) 18 pregnant women were vaccinated with a tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) containing vaccine (Boostrix®) during the third pregnancy trimester. Sixteen age-matched nonpregnant women received the same vaccine in the same time period. A blood sample was taken at the moment of, but before vaccination and one month and one year after vaccination. Anti-Pertussis Toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), tetanus toxin (TT) and diphtheria toxin (DT) antibodies were measured by ELISA. Cellular immune responses were analyzed using a diluted whole blood assay, measuring proliferation, and cytokine release in response to vaccine antigens PT, FHA, TT, and to pokeweed mitogen (PWM) as polyclonal stimulus. Antibody levels to all five vaccine components increased significantly and to the same extent after vaccination in pregnant and nonpregnant women. One year after vaccination, antibody titres had decreased particularly to PT, but they were still significantly higher to all antigens than before vaccination. In contrast, proliferative and IFN-γ responses were increased to TT, PT, and FHA in nonpregnant women one month after vaccination, whereas in pregnant women only TT specific T cell responses were increased and to a lesser extent than in the control group. One year after vaccination, cellular responses equaled the baseline levels detected prior to vaccination in both groups. In conclusion, a Tdap vaccination can increase vaccine specific IgG antibodies to the same extent in pregnant and in nonpregnant women, whereas the stimulation of vaccine specific Th1 type cellular immune responses with this acellular vaccine

  1. Possible Zika Virus Infection Among Pregnant Women - United States and Territories, May 2016.

    PubMed

    Simeone, Regina M; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Petersen, Emily E; Galang, Romeo R; Oduyebo, Titilope; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Newsome, Kimberly B; Pérez-Padilla, Janice; Williams, Tonya R; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A

    2016-05-27

    Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and it is the first known mosquito-borne infection to cause congenital anomalies in humans. The establishment of a comprehensive surveillance system to monitor pregnant women with Zika virus infection will provide data to further elucidate the full range of potential outcomes for fetuses and infants of mothers with asymptomatic and symptomatic Zika virus infection during pregnancy. In February 2016, Zika virus disease and congenital Zika virus infections became nationally notifiable conditions in the United States (2). Cases in pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection who have either 1) symptomatic infection or 2) asymptomatic infection with diagnosed complications of pregnancy can be reported as cases of Zika virus disease to ArboNET* (2), CDC's national arboviral diseases surveillance system. Under existing interim guidelines from the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), asymptomatic Zika virus infections in pregnant women who do not have known pregnancy complications are not reportable. ArboNET does not currently include pregnancy surveillance information (e.g., gestational age or pregnancy exposures) or pregnancy outcomes. To understand the full impact of infection on the fetus and neonate, other systems are needed for reporting and active monitoring of pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Thus, in collaboration with state, local, tribal, and territorial health departments, CDC established two surveillance systems to monitor pregnancies and congenital outcomes among women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection(†) in the United States and territories: 1) the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR),(§) which monitors pregnant women residing in U.S. states and all U.S. territories except Puerto Rico, and 2) the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System (ZAPSS), which monitors pregnant women

  2. Issues and concerns of healthy pregnant women.

    PubMed Central

    Burst, H V

    1987-01-01

    The issues and concerns of the 85 percent of essentially healthy women who have normal pregnancies and births are reviewed. The importance of their issues in relation to their health care and outcomes is discussed. PMID:3120221

  3. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  4. 42 CFR 435.170 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 435... Mandatory Coverage of Special Groups § 435.170 Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. (a) The agency... pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible for, and received Medicaid services...

  5. 42 CFR 435.116 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... Categorically Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.116 Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The agency must...

  6. 42 CFR 436.122 - Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pregnant women eligible for extended coverage. 436... ISLANDS Mandatory Coverage of the Categorically Needy § 436.122 Pregnant women eligible for extended... period following termination of pregnancy to women who, while pregnant, applied for, were eligible...

  7. Consumption habits of pregnant women and implications for developmental biology: a survey of predominantly Hispanic women in California

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. Methods The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. Results A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. Conclusions The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to

  8. In-Country Migration and Risk Factors for HIV Acquisition among Pregnant Women in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Viani, Rolando M.; Araneta, Maria R.; Spector, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare HIV prevalence and HIV acquisition risk behaviors between pregnant women residents and migrants. Design A cross-sectional study of pregnant women of unknown HIV status seeking care at Tijuana General Hospital, Mexico. Methods Pregnant women attending the labor and delivery unit or the prenatal clinic had a rapid HIV test drawn, with positive results confirmed by Western blot. Migrants were defined as women who had resided in Tijuana for less than 5 years. Results Between 2007 and 2008, a total of 3331 pregnant women consented to participate. The HIV seroprevalence did not differ between Tijuana residents (18 of 2502, 0.72%) and migrants (3 of 829, 0.36%, P = .32). In multivariate regression analyses, HIV acquisition risk behaviors included methamphetamine use (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 6.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3–15.8, P < .001) and first presentation at labor (adjusted OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.6–15.3, P = .005), adjusted for migrant status, age, and history of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion The overall HIV seroprevalence was 0.63% and did not differ between Tijuana residents and migrants. PMID:24935694

  9. Health screening - women - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - women - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - women - ages 40 to 64; Women's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  10. Health screening - women - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - women - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - women - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - women - ages 18 to 39; Women's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care - women - ages ...

  11. Substance Use among Pregnant Women: The Report of the Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use among Pregnant Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayye, Paul T.; Relos, Ruth

    This document contains a report from the North Carolina Task Force for the Prevention of Substance Use Among Pregnant Women, a task force established to develop a long-range plan to decrease infant death and disability due to exposure to toxic substances in utero. The executive summary identifies four major problem areas which negatively affect…

  12. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  13. Acute HIV infection among pregnant women in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cynthia L; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M; Kwiek, Jesse J; Fiscus, Susan A; Meshnick, Steven R; Cohen, Myron S

    2010-04-01

    There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Among 3,825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative, and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2,666 seronegative specimens, 2,327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery.

  14. Acute HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Cynthia L.; Mwapasa, Victor; Murdoch, David M.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Fiscus, Susan A.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Cohen, Myron S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction There are limited data on acute HIV infection (AHI) prevalence during pregnancy. Methods Malawian pregnant women admitted in the third trimester and meeting eligibility criteria underwent dual HIV rapid antibody testing. AHI prevalence was retrospectively detected through HIV RNA pooling of seronegative plasma. Results Among 3825 pregnant women screened, dual HIV rapid testing indicated that 30.2% were HIV positive, 69.7% were HIV negative and 0.1% were indeterminate. Sensitivity and specificity of dual rapid testing was 99.0% and 98.7%, respectively. Of 2666 seronegative specimens, 2327 had samples available for HIV RNA pooling; 5 women (0.21%) (95% CI: 0.03, 0.40%) had AHI with a median peripartum viral load of 1,324,766 copies/mL. Discussion Pregnant women are at risk for AHI, warranting counseling of all women and their sexual partners about incident HIV during pregnancy. Dual HIV rapid tests have high sensitivity and specificity. HIV testing should be repeated in the third trimester and/or at delivery. PMID:20226326

  15. Birth planning--is it beneficial to pregnant women?

    PubMed

    Peart, Kerry

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the experience of birth planning for pregnant women. Research in Australia and overseas has suggested that there are a number of conflicting issues with women's preparation and participation in childbirth. The researcher interviewed forty-two first time mothers in a variety of maternity settings around Victoria to ascertain the importance of birth planning in their approach to childbirth and the ways they went about making their plan and negotiating their needs with health professionals. The data from those interviews demonstrated that the means women used to negotiate their needs for childbirth with health professionals had little influence on their overall pregnancy and birth experience.

  16. Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-06-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age.

  17. Listeriosis Prevention Knowledge Among Pregnant Women in the USA

    DOE PAGES

    Ogunmodede, Folashade; Jones, Jeffery L.; Scheftel, Joni; ...

    2005-01-01

    Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care. Methods: Volunteer pregnant women were recruited to complete a questionnaire to assess their knowledge of listeriosis and its prevention, in two separate studies. One study was a nationalmore » survey of 403 women from throughout the USA, and the other survey was limited to 286 Minnesota residents. Results: In the multi-state survey, 74 of 403 respondents (18%) had some knowledge of listeriosis, compared with 43 of 286 (15%) respondents to the Minnesota survey. The majority of respondents reported hearing about listeriosis from a medical professional. In the multi-state survey, 33% of respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by not eating delicatessen meats, compared with 17% in the Minnesota survey ( p = 0.01). Similarly, 31% of respondents to the multi-state survey compared with 19% of Minnesota survey respondents knew listeriosis could be prevented by avoiding unpasteurized dairy products (p = 0.05). As for preventive behaviors, 18% of US and 23% of Minnesota respondents reported avoiding delicatessen meats and ready-to-eat foods during pregnancy, whereas 86% and 88%, respectively, avoided unpasteurized dairy products. Conclusions: Most pregnant women have limited knowledge of listeriosis prevention. Even though most respondents avoided eating unpasteurized dairy products, they were unaware of the risk associated with ready-to-eat foods. Improved education of pregnant women regarding the risk and sources of listeriosis in pregnancy is needed.« less

  18. Influenza vaccination of pregnant women: attitudes and behaviors of Oregon physician prenatal care providers.

    PubMed

    Arao, Robert F; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; McWeeney, Shannon; Hedberg, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    In spite of increased risk of influenza complications during pregnancy, only half of US pregnant women get influenza vaccination. We surveyed physician prenatal care providers in Oregon to assess their knowledge and behaviors regarding vaccination of pregnant women. From September through November 2011, a state-wide survey was mailed to a simple random sample (n = 1,114) of Oregon obstetricians and family physicians. The response rate was 44.5 %. Of 496 survey respondents, 187 (37.7 %) had provided prenatal care within the last 12 months. Of these, 88.5 % reported that they routinely recommended influenza vaccine to healthy pregnant patients. No significant differences in vaccine recommendation were found by specialty, practice location, number of providers in their practice, physician gender or years in practice. In multivariable regression analysis, routinely recommending influenza vaccine was significantly associated with younger physician age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.01, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.29-3.13] and greater number of pregnant patients seen per week (AOR 1.95, 95 % CI 1.25-3.06). Among rural physicians, fewer obstetricians (90.3 %) than family physicians (98.5 %) had vaccine-appropriate storage units (p = 0.001). Most physician prenatal care providers understand the importance of influenza vaccination during pregnancy. To increase influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women, it will be necessary to identify and address patient barriers to receiving influenza vaccination during pregnancy.

  19. Determinants of ETS exposure in a sample of Slovak pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Argalášová, Ľubica; Ševčíková, Ľudmila; Jurkovičová, Jana; Babjaková, Jana; Janeková, Etela; Totka, Adrián; Šimko, Martin; Weitzman, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the greatest and the most frequent environmental toxic exposures presenting a high risk to children and to their mothers as well. The aim of the study was to find determinants of the household ETS in the sample of pregnant women living in the household with smokers and to assess their physical and mental health. The survey was distributed to women being seen for follow-up at the obstetric/gynecology departments in hospitals and at gynecological out-patient departments in Bratislava, Slovakia. The medical outcomes short form-12 (SF-12) was included to quantify the mental and physical health of mothers. From the total sample of 617 women, 35.5% (219) were pregnant, 88.6% of them (194) non-smokers, 27.8% (54) lived with a smoking partner, the average mental component summary (MCS) score was 50.8±9.1 and physical component summary (PCS) score was 41.6±10.3. The average age was 31.3±5.1 years. In the sample of 309 non-pregnant non-smoking mothers 23% (71) lived with a smoking partner; the average age was 31.7±4.8 years. The average PCS score was 47.8±8.7 and MCS score 49.1±9. Non-smoking, pregnant women living with a smoker have fewer years of education (p=0.0003) and lower MCS scores (48.50±9.8) (p=0.03). Non-smoking, non-pregnant women living with a smoker are older (p=0.0042), with lower income (p=0.0145), have fewer years of education (p=0.002) and lower PCS score (45±9.1) (p=0.0056). Multivariate analyses revealed the decrease of MCS score in pregnant women and the decrease of PCS score in non-pregnant women living with a smoker. Our results show that living with a smoker is independently associated with worse physical and mental health in a selected sample of Slovak women, which represents an important argument for intervention in families.

  20. Attitudes of pregnant women towards participation in perinatal epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Nechuta, Sarah; Mudd, Lanay M; Biery, Lynette; Elliott, Michael R; Lepkowski, James M; Paneth, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    We assessed attitudes of a multi-ethnic sample of pregnant women in regard to participation in five data collection procedures planned for use in the National Children's Study. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in nine prenatal clinics in Kent County, Michigan between April and October 2006. Women were approached in clinic waiting rooms at the time of their first prenatal visit and 311 (91.0%) participated. Women were asked about their willingness to participate, and the smallest amount of compensation required for participation in a 45-min in-person interview, a 15-min telephone interview, maternal and infant medical record abstraction, and an infant physical examination. Percentages for willingness to participate were highest for telephone interview (83%), followed by in-person interview (60%), infant examination (57%), and maternal (56%) and infant medical records (54%). About 34-48% of women reported that no compensation would be required for participation by data procedure. Some women reported unwillingness to participate in telephone (9%) or personal (17%) interview, record abstraction (34%) or infant examination (26%), even with compensation. Education greater than high school was associated with increased odds of refusal for infant physical examination, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 [95% confidence interval 1.41, 4.23]. In conclusion, 9-34% of pregnant women, depending on procedure, stated they would not participate in non-invasive research procedures such as medical record abstraction and infant examination, even with compensation. Resistance to these research procedures was especially noted among more highly educated women. Planning for the National Children's Study will have to address potential resistance to research among pregnant women.

  1. Rural pregnant women's stressors and priorities for stress reduction.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Tina L; Bullock, Linda F C; Parsons, Lindsay

    2012-12-01

    Rural residence and maternal stress are risk factors for adverse maternal-child health outcomes across the globe, but rural women have been largely overlooked in maternal stress research. We recruited low-income, rural pregnant women for qualitative interviews to explore their stress exposures during pregnancy, reactions to stress, and priorities for stress reduction. We also used quantitative measures (Perceived Stress Scale, Center for Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale-Revised, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian, Lifetime Exposure to Violence Scale) to describe stress exposures and reactions. We interviewed 24 pregnant rural women from a Midwestern US state, who were primarily young, white, partnered, and unemployed. Women's predominant stressor was financial stress, compounded by a lack of employment, transportation, and affordable housing options; extended family interdependence; small-town gossip; isolation/loneliness; and boredom. Quantitative measures revealed high levels of global perceived stress, violence exposure, and symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among the sample. Women most commonly reported that employment and interventions to increase their employability would most effectively decrease their stress, but faced numerous barriers to education or job training. Tested maternal stress interventions to date include nurse-case management, teaching women stress management techniques, and mind-body interventions. Pregnant women's own priorities for stress-reduction intervention may differ, depending on the population under study. Our findings suggest that rural clinicians should address maternal stress, violence exposure, and mental health symptoms in prenatal care visits and that clinicians and researchers should include the voices of rural women in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and evaluation of maternal stress-reduction interventions.

  2. Perceptions of emerging tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy among pregnant women and women planning a pregnancy.

    PubMed

    England, Lucinda J; Tong, Van T; Koblitz, Amber; Kish-Doto, Julia; Lynch, Molly M; Southwell, Brian G

    2016-12-01

    The increasing availability of emerging non-combusted tobacco products (snus, dissolvables, and electronic nicotine delivery systems or ENDS) may have implications for pregnant women and women of reproductive age. We conducted 15 focus groups to explore how women perceive emerging non-combusted tobacco products and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in general, and during pregnancy. Sessions were held in 2013 in four U.S. cities. Participants were 18-40 years old and were pregnant smokers, pregnant quitters, or smokers planning a pregnancy. Responses were coded and analyzed to identify key themes using NVivo 10.0 qualitative software (QSR). Several themes emerged from focus groups. Participants generally found snus unappealing, but viewed dissolvables as a discreet and stigma-free way to use tobacco during pregnancy. Participants perceived NRT as ineffective and having undesired side effects. ENDS were thought to offer advantages over cigarettes, including use in smoke-free areas, lower cost, appealing flavors, and fewer health effects, and were seen by some as a potential quit aid. Some participants, however, worried that the lack of natural stopping point could lead to excessive use. Many participants felt that the use of any tobacco or NRT product is harmful during pregnancy. Women seeking to reduce health risks or stigma related to smoking during pregnancy may perceive advantages of using some emerging products over cigarettes. These findings can inform future public health efforts to reduce risks associated with tobacco product use among women of reproductive age.

  3. Prevalence of various antiphospholipid antibodies in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Fialová, L; Mikulíková, L; Matous-Malbohan, I; Benesová, O; Zwinger, A

    2000-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (APAs) are characterized as a heterogeneous population of autoantibodies directed against different target antigens, predominantly anionic phospholipids or phospholipid-containing structures. The presence of APAs has been strongly associated with a variety of clinical disorders including adverse pregnancy complications such as spontaneous abortions, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of anticardiolipin antibodies (ACAs), which are routinely examined, with APAs directed against phosphatidylserine (APS), phosphatidylinositol (API), phosphatidylethanolamine (APE) and phosphatidylcholine (APC) in the sera of pregnant women. We examined 410 serum samples of pregnant women hospitalized in the department for pathological pregnancies. They underwent prenatal biochemical screening of fetal congenital abnormalities in the first and the second trimester of gravidity. Anticardiolipin IgG and IgM were measured using commercial ELISA kits (ImmuLisa Anti-Cardiolipin Antibody), whereas APS, APE, API and APC were determined by our modified ELISA kit. Among 410 pregnant women we found 21 patients (5.1%) positive for ACA IgG (>20 GPL) and 30 patients (7.3%) positive for ACA IgM (>10 MPL). It was found that 7.8% of pregnant women had at least one high-titer APA IgG and 9.8% high-titer APA IgM. One third of ACA IgG or IgM positive sera contained polyspecific autoantibodies reactive to at least two various phospholipids. In the group of IgG ACA positive women, 28.6% patients were positive for APS, 28.6% were positive or moderately positive for API, 23.8% for APC and 19% for APE. In the group of IgM ACA positive women, 33.3% were also positive for APS, 26.7% for APE, 26.7% for API and 23.3% for APC were present. IgG and IgM ACA negative patients exhibited a significantly lower incidence of other APA than the group of ACA positive pregnant women. It still

  4. Fetal Biometry of Head Circumference for Malaysian Pregnant Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Remsen Maizan; Jaafar, M. S.; Ismail, N. E.; Saltani, Hend A. A.; Ahmad, A. L.; Bermakai, M. Yahaya

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the fetal head circumference (HC) biometry for local population. Retrospective study was selected, done at Hospital Pulau Pinang and 5551 files of pregnant women were collected. The HC mean values of this study (HCmean) was compared with other published studies to see whether there was any difference between the various populations in the world. Comparison of means, regression analysis and paired sample t-test in SPSS software version 11.5 were used in the analysis. A total of 9874 HC data (mm) were recorded for gestational age (GA) of 12 to 41 weeks. The HC growth rate in second trimester (11.32 mm/week) has decreased to nearly half than in third trimester (5.53 mm/week). The HCmean was found to be highly significant difference (SD) than other 9 studies and only lower than HC values of USA, UK and Zimbabwe populations. The HC values of German show close similarity with HCmean. From 45 comparisons done, more than three-quarter of the comparisons resulted as SD (37) compared to insignificant differences (8). Consequently, each country should have their own standard HC of fetus biometry of the various gestations for their own population.

  5. [An approach to a sanitary and social problem: urinary iodine excretion in pregnant women from a iodine deficient region].

    PubMed

    Olivares, Jorge L; Ortiz, Valeria A; Mayer, Marcos; Demaria, Cecilia I; Nancucheo, Ester; Cresto, Juan C

    2009-12-01

    The urinary iodine excretion (UIE) assay is an effective method to detect reduced iodine intake. UIE was measured in two different samples (morning and evening) from 121 pregnant women, with a turbid-metric method modified by Pino (normal value =150 ugl/1). Furthermore, thyroid function was evaluated in pregnant women with UIE <100 ug/l. From 121 pregnant women, the UIE was normal in 75 with similar morning and evening samples (morning: 305.2 +/- 7.0; evening: 319.2 +/- 8.8; p: NS). The UIE did no showed differences in different trimesters and in morning and evening samples. The UIE was low in 46 women (36.9%), without significant differences between morning and evening (morning: 88.12 +/- 5.07 microg/l; evening: 88.7 +/- 6.2 microg/l; p: NS). Normal or low UIE were not influenced by the age of pregnant women and 45% of pregnant women with UIE < 100 ug/l showed impaired thyroid function. Morning and evening study of UIE allowed us to detect a higher number of pregnant women with low iodine intake. This study let us to find thyroid function abnormalities likes a screening method, because in our state there is not a public screening program for gestational hypothyroidism.

  6. Obesity-Related Dietary Behaviors among Racially and Ethnically Diverse Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ashley; Chilukuri, Nymisha; West, Meredith; Henderson, Janice; Lawson, Shari; Polk, Sarah; Levine, David; Bennett, Wendy L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Obesity is common among reproductive age women and disproportionately impacts racial/ethnic minorities. Our objective was to assess racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related dietary behaviors among pregnant and postpartum women, to inform peripartum weight management interventions that target diverse populations. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 212 Black (44%), Hispanic (31%), and White (25%) women, aged ≥ 18, pregnant or within one year postpartum, in hospital-based clinics in Baltimore, Maryland, in 2013. Outcomes were fast food or sugar-sweetened beverage intake once or more weekly. We used logistic regression to evaluate the association between race/ethnicity and obesity-related dietary behaviors, adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Results. In adjusted analyses, Black women had 2.4 increased odds of fast food intake once or more weekly compared to White women (CI = 1.08, 5.23). There were no racial/ethnic differences in the odds of sugar-sweetened beverage intake. Discussion. Compared with White or Hispanic women, Black women had 2-fold higher odds of fast food intake once or more weekly. Black women might benefit from targeted counseling and intervention to reduce fast food intake during and after pregnancy. PMID:27298738

  7. Prevalence of urinary tract infection among pregnant women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Masinde, A; Gumodoka, B; Kilonzo, A; Mshana, S E

    2009-07-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women attending Bugando Medical centre (BMC) in Mwanza, Tanzania. A total of 247 pregnant women were enrolled, of these 78 (31.5%) were symptomatic and 169 (68.4%) asymptomatic. UTI was diagnosed using mid stream urine (MSU) culture on standard culture media and urinalysis was done using rapid dip stick. The prevalence of bacteriuria among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women were 17.9% and 13.0% respectively, with no significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.307). Using univariate analysis there was no association of parity (p = 0.825), gestational age (p = 0.173), education (p = 0.615), age (p = 0.211) and marital status (p = 0.949) with bacteriuria. The sensitivity and specificity of urine dipstick was 38.9% and 86.7% respectively. Escherichia coli (47.2%) and Enterococcus spp (22.2%) were the most commonly recovered pathogens. The rate of resistance of Escherichia coli to ampicillin, tetracycline, sulfamethaxazole/trimethoprim, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem were 53%, 58.8%, 64.7%, 5.9%, 11.8%, 5.9%, 29.4% and 0%, respectively. In conclusion, asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women is prevalent in our setting and majority of Escherichia coli are resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, SXT and ceftriaxone. Due to low sensitivity of rapid dip stick, routine urine culture and susceptibility testing is recommended to all pregnant women at booking.

  8. The Association between Hair Cortisol and Self-Reported Symptoms of Depression in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Wikenius, Ellen; Moe, Vibeke; Kjellevold, Marian; Smith, Lars; Lyle, Robert; Waagbø, Rune; Page, Christian Magnus; Myhre, Anne Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Depression has been linked to an imbalance in cortisol. Until recently, cortisol has been studied by measuring concentrations at single time points in blood or saliva samples. Cortisol concentrations vary with circadian rhythm and experiences, from time point to time point. The measurement of hair cortisol concentration (HCC) is a new method of accessing mean, long-term cortisol concentrations. Recent studies show positive associations between depression and HCC, and prenatal maternal cortisol is thought to influence the developing fetus. We therefore examined the association between HCC and self-reported symptoms of depression in second trimester pregnant women. Participants were 181 women, recruited between September 2011 and October 2013 to the Little-in-Norway (LiN)-study. These women answered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Rating Scale (EPDS) on self-reported symptoms of depression, and one cm maternal scalp hair was collected and analyzed for cortisol concentrations. Multiple regression analyses did not show depressive symptoms as a predictor for HCC in our selection of pregnant women, while gestational age was significantly related. In conclusion, our study indicated that symptoms of depression during pregnancy did not predict HCC, but further studies of clinically depressed, pregnant women using gestational age as an adjustment variable are warranted. PMID:27584584

  9. Physical Activity Level of Urban Pregnant Women in Tianjin, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Dong, Shengwen; Zuo, Jianhua; Hu, Xiangqin; Zhang, Hua; Zhao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the physical activity level and factors influencing physical activity among pregnant urban Chinese women. Methods This prospective cross-sectional study enrolled 1056 pregnant women (18–44 years of age) in Tianjin, China. Their socio-demographic characteristics were recorded, and the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to assess their physical activity during pregnancy. The data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Median total energy expenditure of pregnant women in each of the three trimesters ranged from 18.50 to 21.90 metabolic equivalents of task (METs) h/day. They expended 1.76–1.85 MET h/day on moderate and vigorous activities and 0.11 MET h/day on exercise. Only 117 of the women (11.1%) met the international guideline for physical activity in pregnancy (≥150 min moderate intensity exercise per week). The most frequent reason given for not being more physically active was the fear of miscarriage. Higher education level (OR: 4.11, 95% CI: 1.59–10.62), habitual exercise before pregnancy (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.39–3.28), and husbands who exercised regularly (OR: 2.21, 95% CI: 1.33–3.67) significantly increased the odds of meeting the guideline (p<0.001). A low pre gravid body mass index (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.20–0.87) significantly decreased the odds (p<0.001). Conclusions Few urban Chinese pregnant women met the recommended physical activity guideline. They also expended little energy exercising. Future interventions should be based on the clinic environment and targeting family members as well as the subjects. All pregnant women should be targeted, not just those in high-risk groups. PMID:25286237

  10. Traditional medicine practitioners’ knowledge and views on treatment of pregnant women in three regions of Mali

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread use of medicinal plants in Mali, knowledge about how traditional practitioners (TPs) treat pregnant and lactating women is lacking. Aim of the study The aim of this study was to investigate how traditional practitioners in Mali treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. Methods Data was collected through structured interviews of traditional practitioners in one urban (Bamako) and two rural areas (Siby and Dioila) in Mali. The TPs were interviewed about how they treat common diseases and ailments during pregnancy. They were also asked to name harmful plants in pregnancy and plants that could affect breast milk production. In addition, we asked about nine specific medicinal plants commonly used in Mali; Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia), Ximenia americana, Cola cordifolia, Combretum glutinosum, Parkia biglobosa, Trichilia emetica, Combretum micranthum, Lippia chevalieri and Vepris heterophylla. Results A total of 72 traditional practitioners (64% women, age: 34 to 90 years) were interviewed during an eight week period October 2011 to December 2011. They treated between 1 and 30 pregnant women with medicinal plants per months. We found a relatively high consensus for treatment of pregnant women with common diseases and ailments like nausea and dermatitis. The highest informer consensus was found for the treatment of malaria during pregnancy. TPs generally recommended pregnant women to avoid medicinal plants with bitter tastes like stem and root bark of Khaya senegalensis and Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). TPs distinguished between oral (potentially unsafe) and dermal use (safe) of Opilia amentacea (syn. Opilia celtidifolia). Cola cordifolia was used to facilitate labor. Conclusion Experience and knowledge about treatment of pregnant women with medicinal plants was broad among the traditional practitioners in the three investigated regions in Mali. Collaborating with traditional practitioners on the

  11. Toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in relation to knowledge and practice among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p < 0.001). Keeping pet cats was not common and poorly associated with infections (OR = 1.15, p ≥ 0.64). Consumption of undercooked meat was reported frequently and only slight risk was associated with sheep/goat meat (OR = 1.39, p = 0.15). Eating outside the home at restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.

  12. Symbolic expression of feelings and depressive symptoms in high-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wobie, K; Eyler, F D; Behnke, M; Conlon, M

    1997-01-01

    Pregnant women using rural health departments for prenatal care often experience chronic stressors (minority status, poor education, low income, young age, and single parenting of young children) that contribute to depression. Yet these same women may be reluctant to express their feelings. Because depression has been related to negative patterns of motherchild interaction and even newborn irritability, it is important to identify symptoms in high-risk mothers. For years, symbolic methods of expression have been used to reveal psychological traits or to identify clinical diagnoses, but few have been used to evaluate pregnant women. Women attending a rural health department were administered a comprehensive health and psychosocial questionnaire, including the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). They were then asked to complete a drawing expressing their feelings regarding their pregnancy. The relationship between CES-D scores and drawing ratings determined by two different methods of interpretation (expert, non-expert) was then examined. Non-expert art analysis was able to distinguish those women with the highest scores on the depression index, while expert analysis was able to discern racial differences consistent with risk status. Suggestions for the use of this drawing measure in the clinical setting are discussed. Alternative (non-verbal) methods of assessment that may improve communication with pregnant women are important for optimizing maternal and infant health and well-being and child development.

  13. Assessment of blood and urine lead levels of some pregnant women residing in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Iheoma M; Ogundele, Joseph A; Oguntoke, Olusegun; Akinloye, Oluseyi A

    2010-11-01

    Assessment of lead in blood (BLL) and lead in urine (ULL) of some non-occupationally exposed, nonsmoking 214 pregnant Nigerian women, aged 17 to 49 years, and resident in Lagos was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with control subjects consisting of 113 nonpregnant women. From results, the mean BLL and ULL (μg/dL) for pregnant women (59.5±2.1; 29.4±1.1) were significantly (p<0.01) higher than the values obtained for nonpregnant women (27.7±1.1; 9.2±0.6). BLL found in women in the first, second, and third trimesters were 57.2±2.3, 61.6±2.2, and 63.1±1.8, respectively. ULL could not serve to predict BLL due to weak correlations (r=-0.06 to +0.15; p>0.10). Study is a contribution to blood and urine lead status of Nigerian pregnant women, being relevant for healthcare management purposes, public health decision making, and possible primary prevention activities.

  14. Identifying pregnant women experiencing domestic violence in an urban emergency department.

    PubMed

    Datner, Elizabeth M; Wiebe, Douglas J; Brensinger, Colleen M; Nelson, Deborah B

    2007-01-01

    The article describes characteristics of pregnant women presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) who are experiencing current violence and presented a screening tool to identify pregnant women experiencing violence. Women completed an in-person interview regarding violence, sociodemo-graphic factors, health status, and drug use. Fifteen percent of women reported at least one episode of violence during the pregnancy. Young age (OR = 3.37, 95% CI: 1.79-6.36), current alcohol use (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.06-2.19), current marijuana use (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.32-2.92), less than a high school education (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.01-2.12), and a prior diagnosis of trichomonas (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.20-2.72) were significantly related to experiencing current violence. Screening patients using these five characteristics identified 8 out of 10 women reporting violence (sensitivity = 75.6%). These results identify a set of predictors that may be helpful in identifying pregnant women who are experiencing current domestic violence.

  15. Exploring a self-help coping intervention for pregnant women with a miscarriage history.

    PubMed

    Ockhuijsen, Henrietta D L; van den Hoogen, Agnes; Boivin, Jacky; Macklon, Nicholas S; de Boer, Fijgje

    2015-11-01

    Pregnant women with a history of miscarriages experience symptoms of anxiety and depression in a subsequent pregnancy and are in need of support in the period after miscarriage, when trying to get pregnant again and during the first phase of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a Positive Reappraisal Coping Intervention (PRCI) and Daily Record Keeping (DRK) chart, developed for use in assisted conception treatment, are also appropriate for use in pregnant women with a history of miscarriage(s). In this convergent parallel mixed method study, thirteen women visiting an Early Pregnancy Unit and/or Recurrent Miscarriage Clinic in a university medical center in the Netherlands were selected on the basis of the number of miscarriages and age. Exclusion criteria were not speaking the Dutch language, pregnancy after fertility treatment and having a medical cause identified for the miscarriages. Women used the PRCI and DRK for 3 weeks in a subsequent pregnancy. Quantitative data were obtained from the DRK and were analyzed by reporting frequencies and means for each case. Qualitative data were collected by semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The majority of the women were able to use the PRCI and DRK for 3weeks. Women adapted the way in which they used the PRCI and DRK based on their judgment about the effect, the intensity of the emotions they experienced, or whether they felt the effort to use these instruments to be worthwhile or not.

  16. Knowledge and beliefs regarding oral health among pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Boggess, Kim A.; Urlaub, Diana M.; Moos, Merry-K; Polinkovsky, Margaret; El-Khorazaty, Jill; Lorenz, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial or ethnic and economic disparities exist in terms of oral diseases among pregnant women and children. The authors hypothesized that women of a racial or ethnic minority have less oral health knowledge than do women not of a racial or ethnic minority. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to assess and compare maternal oral health knowledge and beliefs and to determine if maternal race and ethnicity or other maternal factors contributed to women’s knowledge or beliefs. Methods The authors administered a written oral health questionnaire to pregnant women. The authors calculated the participants’ knowledge and belief scores on the basis of correct answers or answers supporting positive oral health behaviors. They conducted multivariable analysis of variance to assess associations between oral health knowledge and belief scores and characteristics. Results The authors enrolled 615 women in the study, and 599 (97.4 percent) completed the questionnaire. Of 599 participants, 573 (95.7 percent) knew that sugar intake is associated with caries. Almost one-half (295 participants [49.2 percent]) did not know that caries and periodontal disease are oral infections. Median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores were 6.0 (5.5–7.0) and 6.0 (5.0–7.0), respectively. Hispanic women had median (interquartile range) knowledge and belief scores significantly lower than those of white or African American women (6.0 [4.0–7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0–7.0] versus 7.0 [6.0–7.0], respectively [P < .001]; and 5.0 [4.0–6.0] versus 6.0 [5.0–7.0] versus 6.0 [5.0–7.0], respectively [P < .001]). Multivariable analysis of variance results showed that being of His-panic ethnicity was associated significantly with a lower knowledge score, and that an education level of eighth grade or less was associated significantly with a lower belief score. Conclusions Pregnant women have some oral health knowledge. Knowledge varied according to maternal race or

  17. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects.

  18. Inhaled beclomethasone in pregnant asthmatic women--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women.

  19. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research.

  20. Seroprevalence and Seroconversion Rates of Cytomegalovirus pp65 Antigen and Cord Blood Screening of Pregnant Women in Malatya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, Keziban; Kafkasli, Ayse; Kaya, Cihan; Cengiz, Huseyin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The rates of seropositivity, seroconversion and fetal infection with human cytomegalovirus were analyzed in pregnant women and newborn cord blood in this study. The relationships between maternal age, parity, cytomegalovirus serology and polymerase chain reaction results were evaluated. Materials and Methods: A total of 217 pregnant women attended our pregnancy clinic between April 2004 and October 2005. During each trimester, 5 cc of maternal blood was obtained and 5 cc of cord blood was collected after birth. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess these samples for the presence of human cytomegalovirus protein pp65 antigen (in leukocytes) and cytomegalovirus DNA (in plasma). Results: The mean age of the pregnant women in our study was 28.1±5.3 years. No seroconversion was observed. Among the pregnant women, 212 (97.7%) were IgG positive, and 29 (13.4%) were IgM positive. Five of the pregnant women were positive for IgM alone (2.3%), whereas 24 (11.3%) were positive for both IgM and IgG. The 29 IgM-positive patients were reevaluated using the polymerase chain reaction, and no seropositivity was found. None of the cord blood samples were IgM positive, whereas 211 (97.3%) were IgG positive. There was no significant correlation between parity and seropositivity (p=0.487). The relationship between human cytomegalovirus seropositivity and maternal age was evaluated by dividing the pregnant women into two groups, with a cut-off age of 35 years. There was a significant difference in seropositivity between these two groups (p=0.045). Conclusion: Clearly, there is no need to screen pregnant women for Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the Malatya region. Confirming serology results using the polymerase chain reaction and antigenemia testing to detect false positive results offers the advantage of avoiding unnecessary invasive interventions. PMID:25610259

  1. Serum metabolic profiles of pregnant women with burdened obstetrical history.

    PubMed

    Khaustova, S A; Senyavina, N V; Tonevitsky, A G; Eremina, O V; Pavlovich, S V

    2013-11-01

    The content of low-molecular-weight components in blood serum was studied by tandem mass-spectrometry in pregnant women. Serum metabolic profiles of patients with a grave obstetrical history were detected. The most significant changes were observed for the concentrations of low-molecular-weight substances involved in glucogenesis and β-oxidation processes and in metabolic chains involving carbohydrates, carnitines, amino acids, and lipids.

  2. [Magnesium orotate in treatment of chronic hypertension in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Gaĭsin, I R; Valeeva, R M; Maksimov, N I; Iskhakova, A S; Khodyrev, L A; Shilina, L V

    2013-01-01

    We examined 150 pregnant women with essential hypertension (EHT), EHT and connective tissue dysplasia (CTD), and healthy. Presence of CTD aggravated clinical picture of EHT and was associated with pronounced cardialgic, neurological, asthenic, vertebrogenic, visceral, and other syndromes. The use of antihypertensive, metabolic (magnesium orotate) drugs, sedative and uroseptic phytotherapy, application of other nondrug measures in conditions of multidisciplinary dynamic support of the gestational period facilitated regress of clinical symptoms of EHT and EHT+CTD, favorable course of pregnancy and successful delivery.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence among pregnant women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kita, Sachiko; Yaeko, Kataoka; Porter, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy can result in adverse outcomes for both mothers and their infants. This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence and risk factors of IPV associated with abuse during pregnancy via a self-administered questionnaire completed by 302 healthy pregnant women. Demographic information was also collected from medical records to analyze risk factors for abuse. Of the 302 women, 48 (15.9%) were identified as experiencing IPV. The identified risk factors were age over 30, multipara, previous abortion experience, and male partner aged under 30.

  4. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B.; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  5. Male Partner’s Role during Pregnancy, Labour and Delivery: Expectations of Pregnant women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Abiodun S.; Aboyeji, Abiodun P.; Fawole, Adegboyega A.; Balogun, Olayinka R.; Adesina, Kikelomo T.; Adeniran, Peace I.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the expectations of pregnant women on the role of the male partner during conception and delivery. Methodology A prospective multi-centre observational study comprising 506 pregnant women at eight health facilities in Ilorin, Nigeria from January to June 2014. Consenting women were recruited at antenatal clinics using multistage purposive sampling and a self-administered questionnaire was administered with provision for interpreters in local dialects for those without western education. The data was analyzed using SPSS using percentages and chi-square test; p <0.05 was termed significant. Results Participants were aged 17 to 49 years (mean 30.23±4.81), 82.4% desire male partners company during antenatal clinic visits and 59.1% experienced this in index pregnancy. During labour and delivery, 427(84.4%) want company; 345(80.8%) chose the male partner with 211(57.7%) hoping men will appreciate the value of females afterwards although 27.9% feared the men may disturb the health workers, 72(14.2%) male partners attended previous delivery and 84.8% of the women were satisfied with the experience. Significant predictors of support for male partner’s presence at delivery were maternal age (p=0.001), secondary or higher education (p=0.001) and parity less than four (p=0.001); religion (x21.010; p>0.001) and social status (p>0.001) were statistically insignificant. Pregnant women wanted education for male partners on care of pregnant women (77.0%) and sex during conception (25.2%). Conclusion Parturient desire male partners’ presence at deliveries but their past participation was low; health facility modifications and education for men are required to meet the desires. PMID:26609295

  6. Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) in non-vaccinated, pregnant women in Spain (2009-2010).

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; González-Candelas, Fernando; Astray, Jenaro; Alonso, Jordi; Castro, Ady; Cantón, Rafael; Galán, Juan Carlos; Garin, Olatz; Soldevila, Núria; Baricot, Maretva; Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Martín, Vicente; Mayoral, José María; Pumarola, Tomás; Quintana, José Maria; Tamames, Sonia; Llopis-González, Agustín; Domínguez, Angela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the main characteristics of non-vaccinated pregnant women who were hospitalised for influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pandemic versus pregnant women hospitalised for non-influenza-related reasons in Spain, and to characterise the clinical presentation of the disease in this population to facilitate early diagnosis and future action programmes. Understanding influenza infection during pregnancy is important as pregnant women are a high-risk population for increased morbidity from influenza infection. We investigated the socio-demographic and clinical features of 51 non-vaccinated, pregnant women infected with the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus in Spain (cases) and compared them to 114 controls (non-vaccinated and non-infected pregnant women) aged 15-44 years. Substantial and significant odd ratios (ORs) for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) were found for the pregnant women who were obese compared with controls (body mass index > 30) (OR 3.03; 95% confidence intervals 1.13-8.11). The more prevalent symptoms observed in pandemic influenza-infected pregnant women were high temperature, cough (82.4%), malaise (80.5%), myalgia (56.1%), and headaches (54.9%). Our results suggest that the initial symptoms and risk factors for infection of pregnant women with the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus are similar to the symptoms and risk factors for seasonal influenza, which make early diagnosis difficult, and reinforces the need to identify and protect high-risk groups.

  7. Toward Earlier Inclusion of Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Tuberculosis Drug Trials: Consensus Statements From an International Expert Panel.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amita; Mathad, Jyoti S; Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Albano, Jessica D; Botgros, Radu; Brown, Vikki; Browning, Renee S; Dawson, Liza; Dooley, Kelly E; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Kim, Peter; Lyerly, Anne D; Mirochnick, Mark; Mofenson, Lynne M; Montepiedra, Grace; Piper, Jeanna; Sahin, Leyla; Savic, Radojka; Smith, Betsy; Spiegel, Hans; Swaminathan, Soumya; Watts, D Heather; White, Amina

    2016-03-15

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women of childbearing age (15-44 years). Despite increased tuberculosis risk during pregnancy, optimal clinical treatment remains unclear: safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic data for many tuberculosis drugs are lacking, and trials of promising new tuberculosis drugs exclude pregnant women. To advance inclusion of pregnant and postpartum women in tuberculosis drug trials, the US National Institutes of Health convened an international expert panel. Discussions generated consensus statements (>75% agreement among panelists) identifying high-priority research areas during pregnancy, including: (1) preventing progression of latent tuberculosis infection, especially in women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus; (2) evaluating new agents/regimens for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; and (3) evaluating safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of tuberculosis drugs already in use during pregnancy and postpartum. Incorporating pregnant women into clinical trials would extend evidence-based tuberculosis prevention and treatment standards to this special population.

  8. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  9. Virtual traumatology of pregnant women: the PRegnant car Occupant Model for Impact Simulations (PROMIS).

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M

    2014-01-03

    This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed.

  10. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort.

    PubMed

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Wright, Rosalind J

    2010-12-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  11. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  12. Anaemia, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in central Sudan.

    PubMed

    Bushra, Mohamed; Elhassan, Elhassan M; Ali, Naji I; Osman, Elfatih; Bakheit, Khalid H; Adam, Ishag I

    2010-12-01

    Anaemia is a widespread problem in many parts of the world especially in tropic areas. Among pregnant women, it has negative consequences on maternal and perinatal outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of anaemia, iron, zinc and copper deficiencies among pregnant women in Wad Medani hospital, central Sudan and to examine the relationship of these micronutrients with haemoglobin (Hb) levels. One hundred four (52.5%) out of 200 pregnant women had anaemia (Hb < 11 gm/dl) and 3 (1.5) % had severe anaemia (Hb < 7 gm/dl). Iron deficiency (S-ferritin < 15 µg/l), iron deficiency anaemia (<11 gm/dl and S-ferritin < 15 µg/l) were prevalent in 25 (12.5%) and 13 (6.5%) of these women, respectively. Ninety (45.0%) and eight (4.0%) of these women had zinc (<80 µg/ml) and copper (<80 µg/ml) deficiency, respectively. In 24 (12.0%) of these women, there were ≥2 deficiencies of these elements. S-copper was not [corrected] significantly lower in patients with anaemia. While age, parity, gestational age, ferritin, zinc and copper were not predictors for anaemia, women who practiced pica were at higher risk for anaemia (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-7.9, P = 0.004). Gestational age was significantly inversely correlated with haemoglobin (r = 0.161, P = 0.03), S-ferritin (r = 0.285, P = 0.001) and S-zinc (r = 0.166, P = 0.02). Thus, dietary and supplement interventions are required to prevent and control anaemia in this setting. Further research is needed.

  13. [Pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits after the second millennium in South-East Hungary].

    PubMed

    Battancs, Emese; Gorzó, István; Pál, Attila; Novák, Tibor; Eller, József; Kókai, Erzsébet L; Radnai, Márta

    2011-09-01

    Among the predisposing agents for inflammatory periodontal lesion dental plaque is the most important, but different local and systemic factors may influence the seriousness or progression of periodontitis. Hormonal changes during pregnancy belong to the systemic aggravating factors. The aim of the present study was to assess pregnant women's oral hygiene knowledge and habits, and if these have a relationship with age, residence, educational level and profession/occupation. Questionnaires were used for the data collection. 275 pregnant women, who underwent prenatal care at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Szeged, volunteered to answer the questions. The results showed that almost all the women brushed their teeth daily, but only about one third of them used special oral hygiene tools, like dental floss. Many of the women claimed to have gingival bleeding when brushing their teeth. More then 70% visited a dentist during pregnancy. There was a significant relationship between educational level and the use of dental floss (p=0.004) and gingival bleeding (p=0.023) Oral hygiene education, dental and periodontal treatment of pregnant women need more emphasis during prenatal care.

  14. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946

  15. Iodine deficiency among Belgian pregnant women not fully corrected by iodine-containing multivitamins: a national cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Amsalkhir, Sihame; Mourri, Ahmed Bensouda; Van Oyen, Herman; Moreno-Reyes, Rodrigo

    2013-06-28

    Low iodine intake during pregnancy may cause thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women and their newborn. In the present study, iodine status among a nation-wide representative sample of Belgian pregnant women in the first and third trimester of pregnancy was determined, and determinants of iodine status were assessed 1 year after the introduction of bread fortified with iodised salt. The women were selected according to a multistage proportionate-to-size sampling design. Urine samples were collected and a general questionnaire was completed face to face with the study nurse. The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) among pregnant women (n 1311) was 124.1mg/l and 122.6 mg/g creatinine when corrected for urinary creatinine. The median UIC in the first trimester (118.3 mg/l) was significantly lower than that in the third trimester (131.0 mg/l) but significantly higher than among non-pregnant women (84.8 mg/l). Iodine-containing supplement intake was reported by 60.8% of the women and 57.4% of the women took this supplement daily. The risk of iodine deficiency was significantly higher in younger women, in women not taking iodine-containing supplements, with low consumption of milk and dairy drinks and during autumn. Women with a higher BMI had a higher risk of iodine deficiency but the risk was lower in women who reported alcohol consumption. The median UIC during pregnancy indicates iodine deficiency in Belgium and some women are at a higher risk of deficiency. The current low iodine intake in women of childbearing age precludes the correction of iodine deficiency in pregnant women supplemented with multivitamins containing 150 mg iodine as recommended.

  16. Collagen Fiber Orientation and Dispersion in the Upper Cervix of Non-Pregnant and Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kristin M.; Vink, Joy Y.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Hendon, Christine P.

    2016-01-01

    The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue’s structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1—the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2—the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant. PMID:27898677

  17. Normal range and lateral symmetry in the skin temperature profile of pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Tânia; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Simoes, Ricardo

    2016-09-01

    Body skin temperature is a useful parameter for diagnosing diseases and infrared thermography can be a powerful tool in providing important information to detect body temperature changes in a noninvasive way. The aim of this work was to study the pattern of skin temperature during pregnancy, to establish skin temperature reference values and to find correlations between these and the pregnant population characteristics. Sixty-one healthy pregnant women (mean age 30.6 ± 5.1 years) in the 8th-40th gestational week with normal pregnancies were examined in 31 regions of interest (ROI). The ROIs were defined all over the body in order to determine the most influenced by factors such as age or body mass index (BMI). The results obtained in this work highlight that in normal pregnant women the skin temperature is symmetrically distributed, with the symmetrical areas differing less than 0.5 °C , with a mean value of 0.25 ± 0.23 °C . This study identified a significant negative correlation between the BMI and temperature. Age has been shown to have great influence on the skin temperature, with a significant increase of temperature observed with age. This work explores a novel medical application of infrared thermography and provides a characterization of thermal skin profile in human pregnancy for a large set of ROIs while also evaluating the effects of age and BMI.

  18. Hair mercury levels in pregnant women in Mahshahr, Iran: fish consumption as a determinant of exposure.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Zohreh; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas

    2010-09-15

    MeHg is a well-documented neurotoxicant even at low levels of exposure. Developing brain, in particular, is vulnerable to that. Through bioaccumulating to differing degrees in various fish species, it can have serious adverse effects on the development and functioning of the human central nervous system, especially during prenatal exposure. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate mercury concentration in hair samples of pregnant women living in Mahshahr located in Khuzestan province, Iran. It assessed the association between fish consumption and specific characteristics that can influence exposure. From April to June 2008, 149 pregnant women were invited to participate in this study. An interview administered questionnaire was used to collect information about age, body weight, height, fish (fresh, canned and shrimp) consumption, pregnancy stage, residence duration, education level, family income and number of dental amalgam fillings. The obtained results showed that the geometric mean and range for hair total Hg concentration was 3.52 microg/g (0.44-53.56 microg/g). About 5.4% of mothers had hair total Hg levels in excess of 10 microg/g. Maternal hair mercury level was less than threshold level of WHO (5 microg/g). As expected, there was a clear increase in hair Hg with reported fresh marine fish consumption (p=0.04). The highest mean for hair mercury level in a group who consumed fish several times per week, was 4.93 microg/g. Moreover, a significant effect of age and residential time on Hg concentration in the hair of the women was found. Pregnant women in Mahshahr consumed large amounts of fish; consequently, most of their offspring were prenatally exposed to moderately high levels of mercury. The results found suggest that pregnant women should decrease their fish consumption.

  19. Vitamin D status in Moroccan pregnant women and newborns: reports of 102 cases

    PubMed Central

    Loudyi, Fouzia Mnebhi; Kassouati, Jalal; Kabiri, Meryem; Chahid, Naima; Kharbach, Aicha; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in Morocco, as it supports the program of systematic supplementation of pregnant women in the third quarter. Its results have established a new program for the fight against the deficit of various nutrients, thereby intake of vitamin D has become routine. So this work is a true example of action research. Methods It’s an observational and a cross sectional study. The data was collected prospectively from the 1st January to 31 December 2012 in the labor room of the Souissi maternity hospital, at the Ibn Sina university center of Rabat in Morocco. Women included were consented to participate in the study. Data on epidemiological, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics was recolted by interview, physical exam and biochemistry parameters. Hypovitaminosis D is defined as serum level of vitamin D ≤ 50 nmol/l (20 ng/ml). Results Our study included 102 cases of mother-newborn pairs. The average age of mothers was 28.3 +/- 6.7 years (range 17-43 years), 90.1% of women enrolled had a hypovitaminosis D, the average weight of newborns was 3377.9 +/- 509g (2270 - 4880g). Hypovitaminosis D is not correlated with the origin, season, body mass index, birth interval and birth weight. It was positively correlated with maternal serum calcium (p=0.000). Conclusion The maternal hypovitaminosis D is real public health problem. The prevention is necessary, by the systematic vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women. PMID:27795767

  20. [Management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Vincens, C; Dupaigne, D; de Tayrac, R; Mares, P

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to update the management of pregnant women with advanced cervical cancer, thanks to a literature review indexed in Medline((R)) (from 1980 till 2006 using those keywords: advanced cervix cancer, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pregnancy), ScienceDirect (from 1990 till 2006) and the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale. It occurs that pregnancy is a privileged period to diagnose cervical cancer, particularly in early stages. We ought to beware of symptoms such as vaginal bleeding, which could be underestimated during pregnancy. Colposcopically selected biopsies are reference techniques to confirm the diagnostic. The assessment of extension includes an abdominal and pelvic MRI and echography and a radiography of the chest for locally advanced stages. The decision to interrupt pregnancy should be based on a collegial evaluation and depends on state and histology of disease, patient's desire for pregnancy, as well as gestational age and disease evolution. Cesarean is preferred to natural delivery even though survival rates are the same. The cesarean section prevents from short-term complications and recurrence on the episiotomy, but the hysterotomy type is controversial throughout literature. The prognosis of cervical cancer does not seem to be influenced by pregnancy. Management is the same, even though we have to adapt the treatment from the pregnancy state. No study could show the benefit and the safety of neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy, due to few cases, but it could be a solution with patients suffering from an advanced cancer and not willing to stop pregnancy. To conclude, the detection by cervical smears should be systematic during pregnancy. When cancer is diagnosed, cesarean section is the favourite way to deliver. Pregnancy does not modify disease's prognosis and the therapeutic choice depends on the stage of the disease.

  1. Perceived psychosocial stress and glucose intolerance among pregnant Hispanic women

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, M.L.; Whitcomb, B.W.; Pekow, P.; Braun, B.; Markenson, G.; Dole, N.; Manson, J.E.; Solomon, C.G.; Carbone, E.T.; Chasan-Taber, L.

    2016-01-01

    Aim Prior literature suggests a positive association between psychosocial stress and the risk of diabetes in non-pregnant populations, but studies during pregnancy are sparse. We evaluated the relationship between stress and glucose intolerance among 1115 Hispanic (predominantly Puerto Rican) prenatal care patients in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study in Western Massachusetts (2006–2011). Methods Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) was administered in early (mean = 12.3 weeks gestation; range 4.1–18 weeks) and mid-(mean = 21.3 weeks gestation; range 18.1–26 weeks) pregnancy. Participants were classified as having a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance, based on the degree of abnormality on glucose tolerance testing between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, and abnormal glucose tolerance was 4.1%, 7.2%, and 14.5%, respectively. Absolute levels of early or mid-pregnancy stress were not significantly associated with glucose intolerance. However, participants with an increase in stress from early to mid-pregnancy had a 2.6-fold increased odds of gestational diabetes mellitus (95% confidence intervals: 1.0–6.9) as compared to those with no change or a decrease in stress after adjusting for age and pre-pregnancy body mass index. In addition, every one-point increase in stress scores was associated with a 5.5 mg/dL increase in screening glucose level (β = 5.5; standard deviation = 2.8; P = 0.05), after adjusting for the same variables. Conclusion In this population of predominantly Puerto Rican women, stress patterns during pregnancy may influence the risk of glucose intolerance. PMID:24948416

  2. Inadequate status of iodine nutrition among pregnant women residing in three districts of Niamey, the Niger Republic's capital.

    PubMed

    Sadou, Hassimi; Seyfoulaye, Amina; Malam Alma, Mousbahou; Daouda, Hamani

    2014-10-01

    Universal dietary salt iodisation (UDSI) programme was implemented in Niger in 1996. However, since 2000, there has been a slowdown in progress against iodine deficiency. The aim of our study was to assess the iodine status among pregnant women in a context where national controls are not effective at ensuring universal availability of adequately iodised salt. This is mainly to assess the impact of the slowdown in the fight against iodine deficiency in this vulnerable group. The study was centred on 240 healthy pregnant women volunteers recruited in three districts primary health centres. A control group of 60 non-pregnant, non-lactating healthy women was also studied and compared. Median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of all pregnant women was 119 μg L(-1) , and 61.67% had UIC below 150 μg L(-1) . Median UIC for the first, second and third trimester were 144, 108 and 92 μg L(-1) , respectively. The percentage of pregnant women with UIC below 150 μg L(-1) increased from 52% in the first trimester to 66% in the third trimester. The median UIC of the control group was 166 μg L(-1) , and 28.33% had UIC below 100 μg L(-1) . No significant relationship was found between nutritional iodine status and provenance, age and parity. However, significant relationship was found between iodine status and stage of pregnancy, gestational age and educational level (P < 0.05). Iodine nutrition status thus observed was inadequate in 61.67% of all the pregnant women. It is therefore urgent to revitalise implementation of the UDSI programme, and in the short term to consider iodine supplementation for pregnant women.

  3. Decreased maternal-fetal attachment in methadone-maintained pregnant women: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, M S; Youchah, J; DeVore, N; Ho, G Y; Anyaegbunam, A

    1995-01-01

    Maternal-fetal attachment represents the mother's affiliation and interaction with her unborn fetus. It develops during pregnancy and may be critical to successful mother-infant adaptation. The purpose of this study was to investigate maternal-fetal attachment in methadone-maintained pregnant women. We studied a cross-sectional sample of women (n = 67), 15 to 35 years of age, with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies, at 28 to 37 weeks of gestation. The study population comprised two groups: group 1 consisted of 17 women enrolled in a substance abuse program who were using methadone, 40 to 80 mg a day, for a period of more than 3 months; group 2 included 50 women with no history of substance abuse. The Cranley 24-item scale was used as a measure of maternal-fetal attachment. Methadone-maintained pregnant women had diminished maternal-fetal attachment scores compared with controls (P < .05). This may be attributed to methadone use or to behavior characteristics of women with substance abuse. In either case, decreased maternal-fetal attachment may conceivably reduce women's compliance with prenatal health care, interfere with maternal adjustment during pregnancy, and/or have negative long-term effects on mother-child attachment.

  4. Avidity of Antibodies against HSV-2 and Risk to Neonatal Transmission among Mexican Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Conde-Glez, Carlos Jesús; Vergara-Ortega, Dayana Nicté; García-Cisneros, Santa; Olamendi-Portugal, Ma. Leonidez; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine HSV-2 seroprevalence, risk factors, and antibody avidity among a sample of Mexican pregnant women. Material and Methods. The avidity test was standardized with different urea concentrations and incubation times; the cut-off point was calculated to determine the low avidity (early infection). IgG antibodies against HSV-2 were detected from pregnant and postpartum women from Morelos, Mexico, and the avidity test was performed to positive samples. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was employed to evaluate demographic and sexual behavior characteristics associated with HSV-2 infection. Results. HSV-2 seroprevalence among Mexican women analyzed was 14.5% (333/2300), demographic factors (location of General Hospital, age, education level, and civil status), and risky sexual behaviors (STI self-report and number of sexual partners during last year) were associated with HSV-2 infection. Seventeen women were detected with low avidity antibodies (early infection) with a cut-off point of 66.1%. Conclusions. HSV-2 infection was common among this group of women from Mexico; the avidity test detected women with recent infections, and these women were more likely to transmit HSV-2 to their neonates. Neonatal herpes has no epidemiological surveillance, the disease could be overlooked, and so more studies are needed to estimate the magnitude of neonatal infection. PMID:23986628

  5. High prevalence of human papillomaviruses in Ghanaian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Marco H; Völker, Fabian M; Lugert, Raimond; Cooper, Paul; Hasenclever, Kai; Groß, Uwe; Pfister, Herbert; Silling, Steffi

    2016-12-01

    Data about the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV) in African women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology are still scarce. Current HPV vaccines contain HPV types, which mainly represent the HPV epidemiology of industrial countries. As further developments of HPV vaccines are going on, it is necessary to regard regional differences in HPV type prevalence to ensure optimal protection by the vaccine. Vaginal swabs of Ghanaian pregnant women, routinely collected before delivery to rule out bacterial infections causing early onset sepsis, were screened for 12 high-risk (HR), 13 probably/possibly (pHR), and 18 low-risk (LR) HPV types. Most pregnant women come for delivery to the hospital. This was considered as appropriate possibility to have an unselected group of women. HPV DNA were detected in 55/165 women (33.3, 95 % CI 26.3-41.1 %). Thirty-four out of fifty-five (61.8, 95 % CI 47.7-74.3 %) of HPV-positive women were infected with HR and/or pHR HPV types. The five most prevalent HR or pHR HPV types were HPV-52 and HPV-67 (7 women each, 4.2, 95 % CI 1.9-8.9 %), HPV-53 (six women, 3.6, 95 % CI 1.5-8.1 %), HPV-45 (five women, 3.0, 95 % CI 1.1-7.3 %), and HPV-18 (four women, 2.4, 95 % CI 0.8-6.5 %), respectively. HPV-16 was found in two women only (1.2, 95 % CI 0.2-4.8 %). Future HPV vaccine research may devote special interest to HPV-67 and HPV-53 provided further studies confirm their high prevalence in the general population of Sub-Saharan African countries. The true carcinogenic potential of HPV-67, which is a member of species alpha9 including HPV-16, and so far categorized as pHR, should be clarified.

  6. Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, José P; Moreira, M Elisabeth; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Rabello, Renata S; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Halai, Umme-Aiman; Salles, Tania S; Zin, Andrea A; Horovitz, Dafne; Daltro, Pedro; Boechat, Marcia; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Pilotto, José H; Medialdea-Carrera, Raquel; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Pone, Marcos; Machado Siqueira, André; Calvet, Guilherme A; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Neves, Elizabeth S; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Hasue, Renata H; Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Janzen, Carla; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2016-12-15

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to central nervous system malformations in fetuses. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnant women and infants, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in infants. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed women prospectively to obtain data on pregnancy and infant outcomes. Results A total of 345 women were enrolled from September 2015 through May 2016; of these, 182 women (53%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 6 to 39 weeks of gestation. Predominant maternal clinical features included a pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 27% had fever (short-term and low-grade). By July 2016, a total of 134 ZIKV-affected pregnancies and 73 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies had reached completion, with outcomes known for 125 ZIKV-affected and 61 ZIKV-unaffected pregnancies. Infection with chikungunya virus was identified in 42% of women without ZIKV infection versus 3% of women with ZIKV infection (P<0.001). Rates of fetal death were 7% in both groups; overall adverse outcomes were 46% among offspring of ZIKV-positive women versus 11.5% among offspring of ZIKV-negative women (P<0.001). Among 117 live infants born to 116 ZIKV-positive women, 42% were found to have grossly abnormal clinical or brain imaging findings or both, including 4 infants with microcephaly. Adverse outcomes were noted regardless of the trimester during which the women were infected with ZIKV (55% of pregnancies had adverse outcomes after maternal infection in the first trimester, 52% after infection in the second trimester, and 29% after infection in the third trimester

  7. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  8. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    PubMed

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  9. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Amy M.; Collins, Clare E.; Brown, Leanne J.; Rae, Kym M.; Rollo, Megan E.

    2017-01-01

    Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application) of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete), median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05), and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05) and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05) supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women. PMID:28106758

  10. Influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women--National 2009 H1N1 Flu Survey (NHFS).

    PubMed

    Ding, Helen; Santibanez, Tammy A; Jamieson, Denise J; Weinbaum, Cindy M; Euler, Gary L; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Lu, Peng-Jun; Singleton, James A

    2011-06-01

    We sought to describe vaccination with influenza A (H1N1) 2009 monovalent (2009 H1N1) and trivalent seasonal (seasonal) vaccines among pregnant women during the 2009 through 2010 influenza season. A national H1N1 flu survey was conducted April through June 2010. The 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage estimates were 45.7% and 32.1%, respectively, among pregnant women aged 18-49 years. Receipt of a health care provider's recommendation for vaccination, perceived effectiveness of influenza vaccinations, and perceived high chance of influenza infection were independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 and seasonal vaccination coverage. Pregnancy during October 2009 through January 2010 was independently associated with higher 2009 H1N1 vaccination coverage. The 2009 H1N1 vaccination level among pregnant women was higher than the seasonal vaccination level during the 2009 through 2010 season; it was also higher than vaccination among nonpregnant women with and without high-risk conditions. Health care providers and public health messaging played important roles in influencing vaccination behavior.

  11. Process of construction of an educational booklet for health promotion of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Reberte, Luciana Magnoni; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Gomes, Ana Luisa Zaniboni

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the production process of an educational booklet focusing on health promotion of pregnant women. The action research method was used in this process composed of the following steps: choice of the content based on the needs of pregnant women, creation of illustrations, content preparation based on scientific literature, validation of the material by experts and pregnant women. This work resulted in the final version of the booklet, which was entitled "Celebrating life: our commitment with the health promotion of pregnant women". Active participation of health professionals and pregnant women through dialogue and collective strategy permeated the process of development of the booklet. The opinions of pregnant women and experts who considered the booklet enriching and enlightening justify the use of it as an additional resource of educational activities carried out during the prenatal care.

  12. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  13. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  14. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  15. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  16. 40 CFR 26.304 - Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in observational research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... women and fetuses involved in observational research. 26.304 Section 26.304 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.304 Additional protections for pregnant women and fetuses involved in...

  17. [Seroprevalence of antibodies for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, syphilis and HIV among pregnant women in Sergipe].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Ana Dorcas de Melo; Oliveira, Lívia Albuquerque Resende de; Oliveira, Maria Fabiana Batista de; Santos, Ricardo Cley Silvestre; Araújo, Raquel Melo; Alves, José Antonio Barreto; Pinheiro, Kariny Souza; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Márcia

    2009-01-01

    The seroprevalence of antibodies for HIV, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirosis and rubella and its association with age and origin was investigated among pregnant women in Sergipe, northeastern Brazil. A total of 9,550 pregnant women (2,112 from the state capital and 7,438 from other municipalities) were enrolled in the study and consecutively tested during their first antenatal care visit in 2007. The following serum prevalences were found: syphilis (0.9%; 95% CI 0.7%-1.6%), HIV (0.14%; 95% CI 0.08%-0.2%), toxoplasmosis (IgG 69.3%; 95% CI 68.3%-70.2%; IgM 0.4%, 95% CI 0.3%-0.6%), cytomegalovirosis (IgG 76.6%, 95% CI 75.7%-77.5%; IgM 0.2%, 95% CI 0.09%-0.3%) and rubella (IgG 71.6%, 95% CI 70.7%-72.6%; IgM 0.1%, 95% CI 0.04%-0.2%). Toxoplasmosis seropositivity increased with age. The prevalences of IgG antibodies for toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus and rubella were higher in Aracaju (state capital) than in other municipalities in the State of Sergipe. The results showed that a large proportion of the pregnant women, particularly in municipalities other than the state capital, were susceptible to toxoplasmosis, rubella and cytomegalovirus, with a risk for their infants.

  18. [Serum homocysteine levels in pregnant women with preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Stoĭkova, V; Ivanov, S; Mazneĭkova, V; Tsoncheva, A

    2005-01-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the most common and severe pregnancy complications, which ethiology remains unclear. It is certain that endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in the development of preeclampsia. Homocysteine is an important independent cardiovascular risk factor, which might induce the endothelial dysfunction observed in preeclampsia. 26 pregnant women--14 with preeclampsia (group 1) and 12 healthy term pregnant controls (group 2) were enrolled in the study between December 2003 and August 2004. Six of the women in this group had a superimposed preeclampsia. The mean homocysteine level in the first group was 11,04 mol/l, while in the control group it was 6,24 micromol/l (p < 0.05). The women with a severe preeclampsia had a significantly higher serum homocysteine levels than those with mild form (F = 0.025). Seven of the patients (50%) gave birth before 34th weeks of gestation. The study finds a link between the serum homocysteine as an endothelial dysfunction marker and the development of preeclampsia and a relation between the severity of preeclampsia and the degree of the elevation of the serum homocysteine levels.

  19. Periodontitis-associated risk factors in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    de Vasconcellos Piscoya, Maria Dilma Bezerra; de Alencar Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes; da Silva, Genivaldo Moura; Jamelli, Sílvia Regina; Coutinho, Sônia Bechara

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1) socio-demographic variables; 2a) variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b) variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth ≥4 mm and an attachment loss ≥3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene. PMID:22249477

  20. Influenza Vaccination in Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Galvao, Tais F.; Silva, Marcus T.; Zimmermann, Ivan R.; Lopes, Luiz Antonio B.; Bernardo, Eneida F.; Pereira, Mauricio G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effects of the inactivated influenza virus vaccine on influenza outcomes in pregnant women and their infants. Methods. We performed a systematic review of the literature. We searched for randomized controlled trials and cohort studies in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other relevant databases (inception to September 2013). Two researchers selected studies and extracted the data independently. We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to assess the quality of the evidence. Results. We included eight studies out of 1,967 retrieved records. Influenza vaccination in pregnant women significantly reduced the incidence of influenza-like illness in mothers and their infants when compared with control groups (high-quality evidence) and reduced the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza in infants (moderate-quality evidence). No difference was found with regard to influenza-like illness with fever higher than 38°C (moderate-quality evidence) or upper respiratory infection (very-low-quality evidence) in mothers and infants. Conclusions. Maternal vaccination against influenza was shown to prevent influenza-like illness in women and infants; no differences were found for other outcomes. As the quality of evidence was not high overall, further research is needed to increase confidence and could possibly change these estimates. PMID:24971194

  1. Daily versus intermittent iron supplementation in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was compare of daily iron supplementation in three time frames- daily, weekly and three time weekly supplementation in preventing anemia in healthy pregnant women. Method The present study was a prospective simply randomized clinical trial. During January 2006- January 2008, 150 healthy pregnant women without anemia, in their 16th week of pregnancy were randomly allocated into three equal groups. The first group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet daily, second group (n = 50) received a 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablet three times a week, and the third group (n = 50) received two 50 mg-ferrous sulfate tablets (100 mg) weekly, respectively for 12 consecutive weeks. Serum hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were measured before and after the supplementation. Paired t and ANOVA tests were used as appropriated. Results There were no significant differences between the pre- and post-treatment hemoglobin levels with iron supplementation in the three group (P = 0.518, P = 0.276, respectively). The mean serum iron level before and after treatment with iron supplementation in the three groups was not statistically significant (P = 0.962, P = 0.970, respectively). Although the mean serum ferritin level before and after treatment with iron supplementation was statistically significant in the three groups, no significant differences were found comparing the three groups (P = 0.827, P = 0.635 respectively). Conclusions This results suggested, three times a week or weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for healthy pregnant women without anemia. Trial Registration ISRCTN: IRCT201101093820N1 PMID:22026956

  2. HYPERTENSION, PREECLAMPSIA AND ECLAMPSIA AMONG HIV-INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN FROM LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz; Krauss, Margot R; Megazzini, Karen; Coutinho, Conrado Milani; Kreitchmann, Regis; Melo, Victor Hugo; Pilotto, José Henrique; Ceriotto, Mariana; Hofer, Cristina B.; Siberry, George K.; Watts, D. Heather

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for hypertensive disorders in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women. Methods Hypertensive disorders (HD) including preeclampsia/eclampsia (PE/E) and pregnancy-induced hypertension, and risk factors were evaluated in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women from Latin America and the Caribbean enrolled between 2002-2009. Only pregnant women enrolled for the first time in the study and delivered at ≥ 20 weeks gestation were analyzed. Results HD were diagnosed in 73 (4.8%, 95%CI: 3.8%-6.0%) of 1513 patients; 35(47.9%) had PE/E. HD was significantly increased among women with a gestational age-adjusted body mass index (gBMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 (OR=3.1; 95%CI: 1.9-5.0), hemoglobin (Hg) ≥11 g/dL at delivery (OR=2.1; 95%CI: 1.2-3.6) and age ≥35 years (OR=1.8; 95%CI: 1.1-3.2). PE/E was increased among women with a gBMI ≥25 kg/m2 (OR=3.0; 95%CI: 1.5-6.0) and Hg ≥11 g/dL at delivery (OR=2.8; 95%CI: 1.2-6.5). A previous history of PE/E increased the risk of PE/E 6.7 fold (95%CI: 1.8-25.5). HAART before conception was associated with PE/E (OR=2.3; 95%CI: 1.1-4.9) Conclusions HIV-infected women, with a previous history of PE/E, a gBMI ≥25 kg/m2, Hg at delivery ≥11 g/dL and in use of HAART before conception are at an increased risk of developing PE/E during pregnancy. PMID:24462561

  3. Factors associated with risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    reduction in malaria infection among the study participants with malaria parasitaemia. Young maternal age (<20years) (RR = 2.86, 95% C.I. 1.48 – 5.50), but not primigravidity (RR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 0.90-2.05), was associated with an increased risk of malaria infection during pregnancy. After a multivariate logistic regression, young maternal age (OR = 2.61, 95% C.I. 1.13 – 6.03) and the use of insecticide spray (OR = 0.38, 95% C.I. 0.24-0.63) were associated with an increase and a reduction in malaria infection, respectively. Conclusion Malaria prevalence was low among the pregnant women studied. Young maternal age and non-usage of insecticidal spray were the main factors associated with an increased risk of malaria infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. PMID:24001135

  4. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in pregnant Turkish women and their families.

    PubMed

    Kuru, U; Turan, O; Kuru, N; Saglam, Z; Ceylan, Y; Nurluoglu, M; Agacfidan, A

    1996-03-01

    A total of 5,366 pregnant Turkish women were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 225 (4.2%) of them were found to be positive. Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) was detected in 6.2% of HBsAg-positive pregnant women. the overall prevalence of HBsAg and antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) among the spouses, previous children, mothers and first degree relatives of the HBsAg-positive pregnant women was 56%, 49%, 79% and 74% respectively. The prevalence of HBsAg is thus high in pregnant Turkish women with familial clustering of hepatitis B virus infection.

  5. FlowCytomix analysis for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chou, C S; Lin, L Y; Chen, K M; Lai, S C

    2011-07-01

    The study was to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the sera of pregnant women in central Taiwan and to investigate the levels of cytokine in the sera of pregnant women with Toxoplasma gondii infection. The 220 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. The haematological parameters of peripheral blood were analysed by a haematology analyser. Serum samples of the pregnant women were analysed by a commercially available anti-T. gondii IgM/IgG antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and FlowCytomix assays. Six (2.7%) of the sera samples had IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies, and twenty (9.1%) had T. gondii IgG seropositive. All six IgM seropositive samples had low IgG avidity, indicative of acute infection. Total white blood cells and eosinophils were statistically significantly increased (p<0.05) in pregnant women with T. gondii infection, as compared with healthy pregnant women. Th1 cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-12 p70, and Th2 cytokines IL-10 in pregnant women with T. gondii IgM/IgG seropositive were significantly increased (p<0.05), as compared with healthy pregnant women. These results showed that both of Th1 and Th2 cytokines play an important role in the toxoplasmosis of pregnant women.

  6. Salivary Iron (Fe) Ion Levels, Serum Markers of Anemia and Caries Activity in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Costa, Elisa Miranda; Azevedo, Juliana Aires Paiva de; Martins, Rafiza Félix Marão; Rodrigues, Vandilson Pereira; Alves, Cláudia Maria Coêlho; Ribeiro, Cecília Cláudia Costa; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Anemia is a very frequent event among pregnant women. There are evidences of differences in the incidence of dental caries between pregnant and non-pregnant women, but the relationship between salivary iron (Fe) and serum markers of anemia and caries development has not been investigated. Objective To evaluate the correlation between salivary (Fe) and serum iron (Fe, ferritin and hemoglobin) parameters in pregnant women with the development of dental caries. Methods A prospective cohort was conducted with 59 women. The outcome of interest was represented by new dental caries lesions during pregnancy, using the Nyvad criteria. Pregnant women were evaluated at three clinical times: up to the 16th week of gestational age (GA) (T1), in the last trimester of pregnancy (T2), and postpartum (T3), at the Mother and Child Unit of University Hospital of the Universidade Federal do Maranhão. A stimulated saliva sample was collected for biochemical analysis of salivary Fe, and a blood sample was collected early in the morning. The correlation between salivary and serum Fe was evaluated through the Pearson correlation test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis were used to compare the means of anemia parameters at different times. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the anemia parameters between the groups of pregnant women (with and without new caries lesions). Results Serum Fe concentrations were higher in the first trimester of pregnancy and lower after delivery (p = 0.036). It was also observed that the ferritin concentrations were higher in the first trimester and lower at the end of gestation (p = 0.011). There was no association between the expositions of salivary iron and anemia, and the development of dental caries. There was a positive correlation between serum Fe in T1 and salivary Fe in T2 (p < 0.05). Conclusion The serum markers of anemia were more prevalent in the last trimester of pregnancy.

  7. Access and Use of Interventions to Prevent and Treat Malaria among Pregnant Women in Kenya and Mali: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women’s access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Methods Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15–49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data. Results Women and men’s perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Conclusion Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or

  8. Breastfeeding intention among pregnant Hong Kong Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ying

    2010-09-01

    This study set out to (1) estimate the prevalence of three forms of feeding intention among 2,178 pregnant women in six of Hong Kong's regional hospitals and (2) identify the associated demographic, socioeconomic, obstetric and relational correlates. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The Chinese version of a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the demographic, socio-economic, and obstetric characteristics of the women. Couples' relationships were investigated using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. All women in the second trimester of their pregnancies who attended the target antenatal clinics within the data collection period of December 2004 to December 2006 were recruited. The prevalence rates of breastfeeding, mixed feeding and artificial feeding were 53.9%, 14.8%, and 31.3%, respectively. Women who had been born in Hong Kong, lived in accommodation that was > or = 300 feet(2) (approximately 30 m(2)), had made an early antenatal booking, had a planned pregnancy, were experiencing their first pregnancy, and had a lower level of conflict with their partners were significantly more likely to opt for breastfeeding. Women who had been born in Hong Kong and already had children were significantly more likely to choose mixed feeding, compared with the artificial group in a multinomial logistic regression model. These findings suggest that effective promotion of breastfeeding during the prenatal period must target the correlates of feeding intention.

  9. Morning sickness and vitamin B6 status of pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Schuster, K; Bailey, L B; Dimperio, D; Mahan, C S

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between the vitamin B6 status of 180 pregnant women and the incidence and degree of morning sickness experienced during the first trimester was investigated. There were no significant differences in plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), erythrocyte aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) activity, and stimulation of erythrocyte AspAT activity by exogenous PLP between subjects who experienced morning sickness and those who did not. No relationship was found between these indicators of vitamin B6 status and the degree of morning sickness experienced by this group during early pregnancy. There were no differences in the number of women who experienced morning sickness or in the number with different degrees of sickness when plasma levels of PLP, erythrocyte AspAT activity or stimulation by PLP were divided into upper and lower 50th percentile groups and compared. Therefore these data show no relationship between vitamin B6 status and the incidence or degree of morning sickness.

  10. Plasma immunoreactive relaxin levels in pregnant and nonpregnant women.

    PubMed

    O'Byrne, E M; Carriere, B T; Sorensen, L; Segaloff, A; Schwabe, C; Steinetz, B G

    1978-11-01

    Immunoreactive relaxin was measured in plasma samples obtained from human volunteers utilizing the RIA procedure of Sherwood et al., as modified by O'Byrne and Steinetz for heterologous plasma samples. Immunoreactive hormone was not detected in samples obtained from men, and only rarely in plasma of nonpregnant women. Immunoreactive relaxin was present as early as the fourth week of pregnancy and was detectable throughout the course of gestation. Immunoreactive relaxin tended to be higher early in pregnancy, and there was no peak just before parturition as occurs in many other species. Our results are at variance with those of Bryant and coworkers, who reported high levels of immunoreactive relaxin in men and nonpregnant as well as pregnant women. The possible reasons for this discrepancy are presented.

  11. Smoking cessation support for pregnant women: role of mobile technology

    PubMed Central

    Heminger, Christina L; Schindler-Ruwisch, Jennifer M; Abroms, Lorien C

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy has deleterious health effects for the fetus and mother. Given the high risks associated with smoking in pregnancy, smoking cessation programs that are designed specifically for pregnant smokers are needed. This paper summarizes the current landscape of mHealth cessation programs aimed at pregnant smokers and where available reviews evidence to support their use. Methods A search strategy was conducted in June–August 2015 to identify mHealth programs with at least one component or activity that was explicitly directed at smoking cessation assistance for pregnant women. The search for text messaging programs and applications included keyword searches within public health and medical databases of peer-reviewed literature, Google Play/iTunes stores, and gray literature via Google. Results Five unique short message service programs and two mobile applications were identified and reviewed. Little evidence was identified to support their use. Common tools and features identified included the ability to set your quit date, ability to track smoking status, ability to get help during cravings, referral to quitline, and tailored content for the individual participant. The theoretical approach utilized was varied, and approximately half of the programs included pregnancy-related content, in addition to cessation content. With one exception, the mHealth programs identified were found to have low enrollment. Conclusion Globally, there are a handful of applications and text-based mHealth programs available for pregnant smokers. Future studies are needed that examine the efficacy of such programs, as well as strategies to best promote enrollment. PMID:27110146

  12. Nutritional status and the impact of socioeconomic factors on pregnant women in Kamrup district of Assam.

    PubMed

    Mahanta, Lipi B; Roy, Tanusree Deb; Dutta, Rongmili Gogoi; Devi, Arundhuti

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is a critical time in the course of life, having both health and social impacts for individuals, family, and society. The prevalence of undernutrition among pregnant women in a rural area of Assam, India, was examined using anthropometric and biochemical assessments. Key socioeconomic factors that affect nutritional status were examined. A cross-sectional study with a sample of 285 women from all three trimesters was done. The results found that 48% of the women were below normal for Body Mass Index (BMI), indicating a high level of undernutrition. The age of the mother and husband's occupation showed a strong positive correlation with BMI, while family size and income level showed a negative correlation. The results of the biochemical analysis showed that 62% of the women were anemic, and copper and zinc levels were 29% and 12% below normal levels, respectively. The study findings indicate that undernutrition is far higher than national and global standards.

  13. Safety of Tdap vaccine in pregnant women: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Walls, Tony; Watson, Donna; Paynter, Janine; Graham, Patricia; Turner, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Actively recruit and intensively follow pregnant women receiving a dose of acellular pertussis vaccine for 4 weeks after vaccination. Design and settings A prospective observational study conducted in 2 New Zealand regions. Participants Women in their 28th–38th week of pregnancy, recruited from primary care and antenatal clinics at the time of Tdap administration. Telephone interviews were conducted at 48 h and 4 weeks postvaccination. Main outcomes measures Outcomes were injection site reactions, systemic symptoms and serious adverse events (SAEs). Where available, data have been classified and reported according to Brighton Collaboration definitions. Results 793 women participated with 27.9% receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine concomitantly. 79% of participants reported mild or moderate pain and 2.6% severe pain. Any swelling was reported by 7.6%, induration by 12.0% (collected from 1 site only, n=326), and erythema by 5.8% of participants. Fever was reported by 17 (2.1%) participants, 14 of these occurred within 24 h. Headache, dizziness, nausea, myalgia or arthralgia was reported by <4% of participants, respectively, and fatigue by 8.4%. During the study period, there were 115 adverse events in 113 participants, most of which were minor. At the end of the reporting period, 31 events were classified as serious (eg, obstetric bleeding, hypertension, infection, tachycardia, preterm labour, exacerbation of pre-existing condition and pre-eclampsia). All had variable onset time from vaccination. There were two perinatal deaths. Clinician assessment of all SAEs found none likely to be vaccine related. Conclusions Vaccination with Tdap in pregnant women was well tolerated with no SAE likely to be caused by the vaccine. Trial registration number ACTRN12613001045707. PMID:27091823

  14. Risks and benefits of immunizing pregnant women: the risk of doing nothing.

    PubMed

    Brent, Robert L

    2006-05-01

    The medical, social and legal risks of immunizing pregnant women are obstacles preventing the initiation of programs to immunize women for their protection and for their infant's protection. Recent projects devoted to vaccine development have focused on protecting newborns and infants. But there are many other reasons for developing or utilizing vaccines before or during pregnancy, beyond the protection of the newborn. Besides the usual reasons for utilizing immunizations to protect the mother and the neonate, the threat of bio-terrorism adds a new dimension to the necessity for addressing this issue. The potential advantages for thinking about vaccinating pregnant women include an array of possible programs associated with risks and benefits. The immunization of pregnant women or women of reproductive age has multiple purposes: to protect the mother, to protect the newborn and infant and to prevent diseases and complications of pregnancy. (1) Preparation of vaccines against infectious agents that are known to result in reproductive pathology and congenital malformation if the infection of the mother occurs during pregnancy. (2) To utilize vaccines used routinely to protect the non-pregnant population, for administration during pregnancy, i.e., influenza, tetanus and other vaccines. Should these vaccines and other routinely used vaccines for children and non-pregnant adults be administered to women during pregnancy if they are medically indicated? (3) Utilization of vaccines to protect women from diseases to which they are susceptible because of pregnancy (poliomyelitis, hepatitis). (4) Utilization of vaccines for use before or during pregnancy, primarily to protect the newborn and infant via maternal transplacental antibodies, i.e., GBD (group B streptococcus). (5) The prevention of intrauterine infection that has been alleged to initiate premature labor. (6) The preparation of a vaccine for use before or during pregnancy to protect both the mother and the neonate

  15. A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Mucci, María J; Cuestas, María L; Cervetto, María M; Landaburu, María F; Mujica, María T

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of yeast, bacteria or protozoa in pregnant women and to correlate the possible associations of these microorganisms and their relationships with vulvovaginitis (VV) and cervicitis. Vaginal specimens were collected and prepared for smears in microscope slides for the evaluation of yeast, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacteria. Samples were cultured in specific culture medium. Cervical specimens were used to investigate the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis. We enrolled 210 pregnant women, aged 10-42 years old. Of them, 38.1% were symptomatic. Symptoms were most prevalent in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy coincident with a major prevalence of microorganisms. In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non-infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non-albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively.

  16. Dental pain and associated factors among pregnant women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Marta S M; Lang, Celina A; Almeida, Luiza H S; Bello-Corrêa, Fernanda O; Romano, Ana R; Pappen, Fernanda G

    2015-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy and its association with sociodemographic factors and oral health conditions among 315 pregnant women in South Brazil. Participants were interviewed to obtain sociodemographic data, such as age, educational level, employment status, family income, and marital and parity status. Medical and dental histories were also collected, including the occurrence of dental pain and the use of dental services during pregnancy. Clinical examinations were performed to assess the presence of visible plaque and gingival bleeding and to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index. Means and standard deviations of continuous variables and frequencies and percentages of categorical variables were calculated. Independent variables were included in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. A total of 173 (54.9 %) pregnant women reported dental pain during pregnancy. After adjustment of the analysis, caries activity remained the main determinant of dental pain (odds ratio 3.33, 95 % CI 1.67-6.65). The prevalence of dental pain during pregnancy was high and the presence of caries activity was a determinant of dental pain. Moreover, access to oral health care was low, despite pregnant women's increased need for dental assistance.

  17. A Prospective Study of Serum Trace Elements in Healthy Korean Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Sun, Jiyu; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-Young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-11-23

    This prospective study sought to investigate serum levels of trace elements (cobalt, copper, zinc, and selenium) and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum levels of trace elements in 245 Korean pregnant women (median gestational age at delivery was 39 + 4 weeks and interquartile range was 38 + 4-40 + 1 weeks) were compared with those of 527 general adults and those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities were assessed. The median serum trace element concentrations of all pregnant women were: cobalt: 0.39 μg/L (interquartile range, IQR 0.29-0.53), copper: 165.0 μg/dL (IQR 144.0-187.0), zinc: 57.0 μg/dL (IQR 50.0-64.0), and selenium: 94.0 μg/L (IQR 87.0-101.0). Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were higher in pregnant women than in the general population, whereas zinc and selenium levels were lower (p < 0.01). Concentrations of all four trace elements varied significantly during the three trimesters (p < 0.05), and seasonal variation was found in copper, zinc, and selenium, but was not observed for cobalt. The prevalence of preeclampsia was significantly lower with high copper (p = 0.03). Trace element levels varied by pregnancy trimester and season, and alteration in copper status during pregnancy might influence pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia.

  18. The Comparative Clinical Course of Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women Hospitalised with Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Stephen J.; Enstone, Joanne E.; Read, Robert C.; Openshaw, Peter J. M.; Semple, Malcolm G.; Lim, Wei Shen; Taylor, Bruce L.; McMenamin, James; Nicholson, Karl G.; Bannister, Barbara; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN) was established to gather detailed clinical and epidemiological information about patients with laboratory confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection in UK hospitals. This report focuses on the clinical course and outcomes of infection in pregnancy. Methods A standardised data extraction form was used to obtain detailed clinical information from hospital case notes and electronic records, for patients with PCR-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 infection admitted to 13 sentinel hospitals in five clinical 'hubs' and a further 62 non-sentinel hospitals, between 11th May 2009 and 31st January 2010.Outcomes were compared for pregnant and non-pregnant women aged 15–44 years, using univariate and multivariable techniques. Results Of the 395 women aged 15–44 years, 82 (21%) were pregnant; 73 (89%) in the second or third trimester. Pregnant women were significantly less likely to exhibit severe respiratory distress at initial assessment (OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.30–0.82)), require supplemental oxygen on admission (OR = 0.40 (95% CI: 0.20–0.80)), or have underlying co-morbidities (p-trend <0.001). However, they were equally likely to be admitted to high dependency (Level 2) or intensive care (Level 3) and/or to die, after adjustment for potential confounders (adj. OR = 0.93 (95% CI: 0.46–1.92). Of 11 pregnant women needing Level 2/3 care, 10 required mechanical ventilation and three died. Conclusions Since the expected prevalence of pregnancy in the source population was 6%, our data suggest that pregnancy greatly increased the likelihood of hospital admission with A(H1N1)pdm09. Pregnant women were less likely than non-pregnant women to have respiratory distress on admission, but severe outcomes were equally likely in both groups. PMID:22870239

  19. Evaluation of Low Blood Lead Levels and Its Association with Oxidative Stress in Pregnant Anemic Women: A Comparative Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Amit Kumar Mani; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Sharma, Sudarshna; Negi, Mahendra Pal Singh

    2012-07-01

    To correlate blood lead levels (BLLs) and oxidative stress parameters in pregnant anemic women. A total of 175 pregnant women were found suitable and included for this study. Following WHO criteria, 50 each were identified as non-anemic, mild anemic and moderate anemic and 25 were severe anemic. The age of all study subjects ranged from 24-41 years. At admission, BLLs and oxidative stress parameters were estimated as per standard protocols and subjected with ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results showed significantly (p < 0.01) high BLLs, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), lipid peroxide (LPO) levels while low delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), red blood cell (RBC) count, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in all groups of anemic pregnant women as compared with non anemic pregnant women. In all groups of pregnant women, BLLs showed significant (p < 0.01) and direct association with ZPP, GSSG and LPO while inverse relation with δ-ALAD, Fe, Se, Zn, Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, GSH, SOD, CAT and TAC. Study concluded that low BLLs perturb oxidant-antioxidant balance and negatively affected hematological parameters which may eventually Pb to Fe deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

  20. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV, HCV, and HTLV among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo

    2016-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.

  1. MULTILEVEL LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING BODY MASS INDEX AMONG BANGLADESHI MARRIED NON-PREGNANT WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Kamruzzaman, Md; Mamun, A S M A; Bakar, Sheikh Muhammad Abu; Saw, Aik; Kamarul, T; Islam, Md Nurul; Hossain, Md Golam

    2016-11-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the socioeconomic and demographic factors influencing the body mass index (BMI) of non-pregnant married Bangladeshi women of reproductive age. Secondary (Hierarchy) data from the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey, collected using two-stage stratified cluster sampling, were used. Two-level linear regression analysis was performed to remove the cluster effect of the variables. The mean BMI of married non-pregnant Bangladeshi women was 21.60±3.86 kg/m2, and the prevalence of underweight, overweight and obesity was 22.8%, 14.9% and 3.2%, respectively. After removing the cluster effect, age and age at first marriage were found to be positively (p<0.01) related with BMI. Number of children was negatively related with women's BMI. Lower BMI was especially found among women from rural areas and poor families, with an uneducated husband, with no television at home and who were currently breast-feeding. Age, total children ever born, age at first marriage, type of residence, education level, level of husband's education, wealth index, having a television at home and practising breast-feeding were found to be important predictors for the BMI of married Bangladeshi non-pregnant women of reproductive age. This information could be used to identify sections of the Bangladeshi population that require special attention, and to develop more effective strategies to resolve the problem of malnutrition.

  2. Anaemia among pregnant women in northern Tanzania: prevalence, risk factors and effect on perinatal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Msuya, Sia E; Hussein, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2011-01-01

    Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there is limited data regarding prevalence and effects of anaemia during pregnancy in northern Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for anaemia and its effect on perinatal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. A cohort of pregnant women aged 14-43 years and in their 3rd trimester, was recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and haematological examinations were conducted on 2654 consenting women. Perinatal outcomes were recorded during delivery and at 1 week after delivery. Of the 2654 participants, 47.4% had anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11g/dl), 35.3% had mild anaemia (Hb= 9-10.9g/dl), 9.9% had moderate anaemia (Hb =7- 8.9g/dl), and 2.1% had severe anaemia (Hb < 7 g/dl). Anaemia was significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive (56.4%) than in HIV-negative women (46.7%), (P = 0.01). In logistic regression anaemia was independently associated with maternal HIV (OR= 1.5), malaria (OR= 5.2), clinic of recruitment (OR= 1.5) and low income (OR= 1.9). Pregnant women with anaemia were more likely to have low birth weight (LBW) infants. Compared with non-anaemic women, the risk of LBW was 1.6 times and 4.8 times higher for children born to women with moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In conclusion, anaemia in pregnancy is a severe public health problem in northern Tanzania. Control of maternal anaemia may be one important strategy to prevent LBW in this setting. Measures to prevent malaria and to control anaemia among all pregnant women irrespective of HIV status, should be strengthened. Outside of the health sector broader approaches for anaemia prevention targeting women of lower income, are required.

  3. A Comparison of Physical Activity and Nutritional Practices in Hypertensive and Non- hypertensive Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sehati Shafayi, Fahimeh; Akef, Maryam; Sadegi, Homayoon; sallakh Niknazhad, Akram

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hypertension is the most common medical problem affecting pregnant women during pregnancy contributing to one third of substantial maternal mortality and varieties of fetal and neonatal health problems, while representing health status of a society. This study aimed to investigate the links between a healthy life style and developing hypertension during pregnancy in order to improve healthier behaviors. Methods In a case-control study from October 2009 to April 2010, physical activity and nutritional practices of two groups of pregnant women (220 in each group) with gestational age of 20 weeks or more, single pregnancy, without any previous medical disorders were compared. Samples in case group had pregnancy induced hypertension. Data were collected using a two-part questionnaire after obtaining informed written consents from mothers before enrollment; later the data were analyzed using the SPSS 13 and Stata software. Results Women in two groups did not differ regarding their socioeconomic characteristics. There were no significant differences in nutritional practices and level of physical activity in pregnant women of study groups; mean score of physical activity was 54.6±14.8 in test and 57.3±15.0 in control group (P=0.06) and it was 72.9±10.3 and 73.719.5 about nutritional habits in test and control group respectively. Mean pre-pregnancy BMI was higher in case group (P=0.02); these women also had a higher percentage of previous prenatal mortality and history of hypertension. Conclusion Results state that health during pregnancy is relevant to healthy life style especially preconceptional period; therefore employing proper strategies to improve women knowledge and attitude of the important dimensions of healthy life considering good and healthy diet and active life seem to solve the problem; this needs to unite all health workers to set proper educational programs and courses and support of health policy makers. PMID:24250984

  4. The Effect of Active and Passive Household Cigarette Smoke Exposure on Pregnant Women With Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Momirova, Valerija; Dombrowski, Mitchell P.; Schatz, Michael; Wise, Robert; Landon, Mark; Rouse, Dwight J.; Lindheimer, Marshall; Caritis, Steve N.; Sheffield, Jeanne; Miodovnik, Menachem; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael W.; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Conway, Deborah L.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The article was designed to estimate the effect of active and passive household cigarette smoke exposure on asthma severity and obstetric and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with asthma. Methods: We used a secondary observational analysis of pregnant women with mild and moderate-severe asthma enrolled in a prospective observational cohort study of asthma in pregnancy and a randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing inhaled beclomethasone and oral theophylline. A baseline questionnaire detailing smoking history and passive household smoke exposure was given to each patient. Smoking status was confirmed in the RCT using cotinine levels. Data on asthma severity and obstetric and neonatal outcomes were collected and analyzed with respect to self-reported tobacco smoke exposure. Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson χ2 statistics were used to test for significance. Results: A total of 2,210 women were enrolled: 1,812 in the observational study and 398 in the RCT. Four hundred and eight (18%) women reported current active smoking. Of the nonsmokers, 790 (36%) women reported passive household smoke exposure. Active smoking was associated with more total symptomatic days (P < .001) and nights of sleep disturbance (P < .001). Among the newborns of active smokers, there was a greater risk of small for gestational age < 10th percentile (P < .001), and a lower mean birth weight (P < .001). There were no differences in symptom exacerbation or outcome between nonsmokers with and without passive household cigarette smoke exposure. Conclusions: Among pregnant women with asthma, active but not passive smoking is associated with increased asthma symptoms and fetal growth abnormalities. PMID:19820079

  5. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence Among Pregnant Women Attending Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Omolo, Jared; Kamweya, Abel M.; Harder, Valarie S.; Mutai, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with intimate partner violence (IPV) among pregnant women seeking antenatal care. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Kisumu District Hospital, Kenya amongst randomly selected pregnant women. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Participants self-reported about their own IPV experience (lifetime, 12 months prior to and during index pregnancy) and associated risk factors. Data were analyzed using Epi-info. The mean age of the 300 participants was 23.7 years. One hundred and ten (37 %) of them experienced at least one form of IPV during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common (29 %), followed by sexual (12 %), and then physical (10 %). Women who experienced IPV during pregnancy were more likely to have witnessed maternal abuse in childhood (aOR 2.27, 95 % CI = 1.05–4.89), been in a polygamous union (aOR 2.48, 95 % CI = 1.06–5.8), been multiparous (aOR 1.94, 95 % CI = 1.01–3.32) or had a partner who drank alcohol (aOR 2.32, 95 % CI = 1.21–4.45). Having a partner who attained tertiary education was protective against IPV (aOR 0.37, 95 % CI = 0.16–0.83). We found no association between HIV status and IPV. IPV is common among women seeking antenatal care at Kisumu District Hospital. Health care providers should be alerted to the possibility of IPV during pregnancy in women who witnessed maternal abuse in childhood, are multiparous, polygamous, have a partner who drinks alcohol or has low level education. Screening for IPV, support and referral is urgently needed to help reduce the burden experienced by pregnant women and their unborn babies. PMID:22569943

  6. Intestinal Helminth Infections in Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic at Kitale District Hospital, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Wekesa, A. W.; Mulambalah, C. S.; Muleke, C. I.; Odhiambo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes including low birth weight and prenatal mortality. The infections are a major public health problem in developing countries. A hospital based survey was undertaken for six months to determine the infection prevalence, intensity, and risk factors. The study involved expectant women attending antenatal clinic. Stool samples were screened microscopically for helminth ova using Kato Katz technique. Information on risk factors was collected using semistructured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. Epidemiological data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis. The overall prevalence of infection was 21 (13.8%). Ascariasis was the most prevalent 10 (6.5%), hookworm infection was 6 (3.9%), and trichuriasis was 2 (1.3%). Pregnant women aged below 29 years (OR = 3.63, CI = 0.87–11.75) and those with primary level of education (OR = 3.21, CI = 0.88–11.75) were at a higher risk of infection compared to those aged ≥ 29 years with secondary level of education. Hand washing was significantly associated with reduced likelihood of infection (OR = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.06–0.57). It was concluded that intestinal helminth infections were prevalent among pregnant women. We recommended that all expectant women visiting antenatal clinics be screened for intestinal helminth infections and positive cases be advised to seek treatment. PMID:24971167

  7. Risk factors of hypertensive disorders among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong; Li, Ying-xue; Di, Hai-hong; Li, Zhi-wei; Zhang, Chun-hua; Shen, Xian-ping; Zhu, Jun-feng; Yan, Wei-rong

    2015-12-01

    -induced hypertension, low maternal educational level, and poor relationship with their parents-in-law were independent risk factors for hypertensive disorders among Chinese pregnant women.

  8. Impact of the quality of life related to foot health in a sample of pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Daniel; Rodríguez-Vila, Inés; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Rodríguez-Sanz, David; Calvo-Lobo, César; Romero-Morales, Carlos; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pregnancy women coincide with numerous anatomical and physiological changes, which are believed to have a harmful effect on the quality of life related to foot health. The goal of this research was to identify and compare the impact foot health and overall health in a sample of pregnancy women and women without pregnancies with normalised reference values. A sample of 159 participants of a mean age of 30.13 ± 6.28 came to the area of midwifery center where self-reported data were registered, informants’ with a 1 or various pregnancy was determined and the scores obtained were compared in the foot health status questionnaire (FHSQ). This has 13 questions that assess 4 health domains of the feet, namely pain, function, general health, and footwear. The pregnant women group showed a worse quality of life related to health in general and to foot health specifically at the following domains, foot function, footwear, general foot, health, physical activity, social capacity, and vigor (P < 0.05) and there were no differences at foot pain and general health (P > 0.05). Pregnant women present a negative impact on the quality of life related to foot health, which appears to be associated with the pregnancy period. PMID:28328852

  9. Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P; Borja-Aburto, V H; Rios, C; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Rojas-Lopez, M; Chavez-Ayala, R

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8930548

  10. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy.

  11. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate Levels among a Sample of Pregnant Women Attending Health Centers in Erbil-Iraq

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khazal, Suhad Ali; Zangana, Jwan M. Sabir

    2016-01-01

    There are so many significant hematological changes occurring in pregnancy, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is one of them. The objectives of this study were to determine the range of erythrocyte sedimentation rate values obtained in healthy pregnant women and to examine the effect of gestational age and hemoglobin concentration on…

  12. Comparative Haematological Screening of Urban and Rural Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Lagos and Its Environs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Olukoya, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Compared blood screening data for 200 urban and rural pregnant women in Nigeria. Found that rural subjects had a greater incidence of moderate anemia than did urban subjects, and corpuscular hemoglobin concentrations fell with increased gestational age. No relationship was found between hemoglobin counts and nutrition habits. (HTH)

  13. Iron Status of Pregnant Women in Rural and Urban Communities of Cross River State, South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Okafor, I M; Okpokam, D C; Antai, A B; Usanga, E A

    2017-03-06

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria. Iron deficiency is one of the major causes of anaemia in pregnancy.  Inadequate iron intake during pregnancy can be dangerous to both baby and mother. Iron status of pregnant women was assessed in two rural and one urban communities in Cross River State Nigeria. Packed cell volume, haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, red cell count, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ratio were measured in plasma/serum of 170 pregnant women within the age range of 15-45 years. Seventy participants were from antenatal clinic of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar (urban community), 50 from St Joseph Hospital Ikot Ene (rural community) in Akpabuyo Local Government Area and the remaining 50 from University of Calabar Teaching Hospital   extension clinic in Okoyong (rural community), Odukpani Local Government Area of Cross River state. The prevalence of   anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia were found to be significantly higher among pregnant women from the two rural communities when compared to the urban community. it was also observed that  the prevalence of  anaemia, iron deficiency, iron depletion and iron deficiency anaemia   were significantly higher (p<0.05) among pregnant women from Akpabuyo   38(76.00%),   20(40.00%),   23(46.0%)   ,   16(32.00%)   respectively followed   by  Okoyong 24(48.0%),  20(40.0%),  16(32.0%),  6(12.0)     and  then  those  from     Calabar  14(20%), 12(17.90%) , 14(20.0%).  The mean haemoglobin and haematocrit were significantly reduced in pregnant women from the two rural communities. Serum iron, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation showed no significant difference while total iron binding capacity and soluble transferrin receptor significantly increased among

  14. Determining rubella immunity in pregnant Alberta women 2009-2012.

    PubMed

    Lai, Florence Y; Dover, Douglas C; Lee, Bonita; Fonseca, Kevin; Solomon, Natalia; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jaipaul, Joy; Tipples, Graham A; Charlton, Carmen L

    2015-01-29

    Rubella IgG levels for 157,763 pregnant women residing in Alberta between 2009 and 2012 were analyzed. As there have been no reported cases of indigenous rubella infection in Canada since 2005, there has been a lack of naturally acquired immunity, and the current prenatal population depends almost entirely on vaccine induced immunity for protection. Rubella antibody levels are significantly lower in younger maternal cohorts with 16.8% of those born prior to universal vaccination programs (1971-1980), and 33.8% of those born after (1981-1990) having IgG levels that are not considered protective (<15 IU/mL). Analysis across pregnancies showed only 35.0% of women responded with a 4-fold increase in antibody levels following post-natal vaccination. Additionally, 41.2% of women with antibody levels <15 IU/mL had previously received 2 doses of rubella containing vaccine. These discordant interpretations generate a great deal of confusion for laboratorians and physicians alike, and result in significant patient follow-up by Public Health teams. To assess the current antibody levels in the prenatal population, latent class modeling was employed to generate a two class fit model representing women with an antibody response to rubella, and women without an antibody response. The declining level of vaccine-induced antibodies in our population is disconcerting, and a combined approach from the laboratory and Public Health may be required to provide appropriate follow up for women who are truly susceptible to rubella infection.

  15. Psychometric Evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue Scale for Use with Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K.; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results…

  16. Sources of Malaria Information among Pregnant Women in Ebonyi State and Implications for Malaria Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amari-Omaka, Lois Nnenna; Obande-Ogbuinya, Nkiru Edith

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine sources of malaria information among pregnant women in Ebonyi state and implications for malaria education. The cross sectional research design was adopted and stratified sampling technique was used to select a total of five hundred and four (504) pregnant women from 12 hospitals in the state. A self…

  17. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Whittemore, Kate; Tate, Anna; Illescas, Alex; Saffa, Alhaji; Collins, Austin; Varma, Jay K.

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel. PMID:27855041

  18. Zika Virus Knowledge among Pregnant Women Who Were in Areas with Active Transmission.

    PubMed

    Whittemore, Kate; Tate, Anna; Illescas, Alex; Saffa, Alhaji; Collins, Austin; Varma, Jay K; Vora, Neil M

    2017-01-01

    We surveyed women in New York, New York, USA, who were in areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant. Of 99 women who were US residents, 30 were unaware of the government travel advisory to areas with active Zika virus transmission while pregnant, and 37 were unaware of their pregnancies during travel.

  19. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  20. Assessment of Anemia Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviors among Pregnant Women in Sierra Leone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    M'Cormack, Fredanna A. D.; Drolet, Judy C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Iron deficiency anemia prevalence of pregnant Sierra Leone women currently is reported to be 59.7%. Anemia is considered to be a direct cause of 3-7% of maternal deaths and an indirect cause of 20-40% of maternal deaths. This study explores knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of urban pregnant Sierra Leone women regarding anemia.…

  1. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  2. Prevention of supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Deborah Rubin; Wang, Eileen

    2014-08-15

    In our studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation in pregnant women with major depressive disorder, two subjects had an episode of supine hypotensive syndrome and one subject had an episode of dizziness without hypotension. Prevention of the supine hypotensive syndrome in pregnant women receiving transcranial magnetic stimulation is described.

  3. Recruitment and Retention of Substance-Using Pregnant and Parenting Women: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laken, Marilyn Poland; Hutchins, Ellen

    According to current estimates, approximately 5.5 percent of all American pregnant women use an illicit drug during pregnancy. National concern for drug-exposed infants prompted interest in the needs of substance using pregnant women and in the development of drug treatment programs for them. A total of 147 comprehensive programs have been funded…

  4. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  5. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  6. 42 CFR 436.120 - Qualified pregnant women and children who are not qualified family members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Qualified pregnant women and children who are not... women and children who are not qualified family members. (a) The Medicaid agency must provide Medicaid to a pregnant woman whose pregnancy has been medically verified and who— (1) Would be eligible for...

  7. Deoxynivalenol Exposure Assessment for Pregnant Women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nurshad; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Al Nahid, Abdullah; Rahman, Mustafizur; Degen, Gisela H

    2015-09-24

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a contaminant of crops worldwide and known to cause adverse health effects in exposed animals and humans. A small survey reported the presence of DON in maize samples in Bangladesh, but these data are insufficient to assess human exposure, and also, biomonitoring data are still scarce. The present study applied biomarker analysis to investigate the DON exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh. Urine samples were collected from pregnant women living in a rural (n = 32) and in a suburban (n = 22) area of the country. Urines were subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis of glucuronic acid conjugates and to immunoaffinity column clean-up prior to LC-MS/MS analysis of DON and its de-epoxy metabolite DOM-1. The limits of detection (LOD) for DON and DOM-1 in urine were 0.16 ng/mL and 0.10 ng/mL, respectively. DOM-1 was not detected in any of the urines, whilst DON was detectable in 52% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.18-7.16 ng/mL and a mean DON concentration of 0.86 ± 1.57 ng/mL or 2.14 ± 4.74 ng/mg creatinine. A significant difference in mean urinary DON levels was found between the rural (0.47 ± 0.73 ng/mL) and suburban (1.44 ± 2.20 ng/mL) cohort, which may be related to different food habits in the two cohorts. Analysis of food consumption data for the participants did not show significant correlations between their intake of typical staple foods and DON levels in urine. The biomarker concentrations found and published urinary excretion rates for DON were used to estimate daily mycotoxin intake in the cohort: the mean DON intake was 0.05 µg/kg b.w., and the maximum intake was 0.46 µg/kg b.w., values lower than the tolerable daily intake of 1 µg/kg b.w. These first results indicate a low dietary exposure of pregnant women in Bangladesh to DON. Nonetheless, further biomonitoring studies in children and in adult cohorts from other parts of the country are of interest to gain more insight into DON exposure in the

  8. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Mary E; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J; Pirkle, James L; Merrill, Lori S; Moye, John

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction-isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols.

  9. Disparities in unmet dental need and dental care received by pregnant women in Maryland.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Garcia, A Isabel; Adams, Amy B; Cheng, Diana

    2014-09-01

    To examine prenatal dental care needs, utilization and oral health counseling among Maryland women who delivered a live infant during 2001-2003 and identify the factors associated with having a dental visit and having an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System is an ongoing population based surveillance system that collects information of women's attitudes and experiences before, during, and shortly after pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to model dental visits and unmet dental need using predictor variables for Maryland 2001-2003 births. Less than half of all women reported having a dental visit and receiving oral health advice during pregnancy. Twenty-five percent of women reported a need for dental care, of which 33 % did not receive dental care despite their perceived need. Multivariate modeling revealed that racial minorities, women who were not married and those with annual income <$40,000 were least likely to have a dental visit. Women who were not married, had low annual income, were older than 40 years of age, had an unintended pregnancy and received prenatal care later than desired were most likely to have an unmet dental need during pregnancy. Despite reported needs and existing recommendations to include oral health as a component of prenatal care, less than half of pregnant women have a dental visit during their pregnancy. One-third of women with a dental problem did not have a dental visit highlighting the unmet need for dental care during pregnancy.

  10. Is Diabetes Associated with Lower Vitamin C Status in Pregnant Women? A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Juhl, Bente; Lauszus, Finn Friis; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2017-02-16

    Few studies have examined how vitamin C status is affected in diabetic pregnancy and no comparison between normal and diabetic pregnancies has been found. This study evaluated vitamin C status prospectively during pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (n=76), in non-diabetic women (n=60), and in their respective neonates. Vitamin C was lower in diabetic women throughout all trimesters compared to controls (p<0.01). Repeated measurements analysis showed significant differences between diabetic and non-diabetic women; also when adjusted for birth weight ratio and age. In non-diabetic women, vitamin C levels were lower in 3rd trimester compared to 1st and 2nd trimester (both p<0.05). Poor vitamin C status - defined as a plasma concentration <23µM - was found in 51% and 12% of the diabetic and nondiabetic women, respectively, at some stage during pregnancy. Umbilical cord vitamin C levels were higher than in the diabetic as well as in the non-diabetic mothers (p<0.01). The umbilical vitamin C was two to three times higher than maternal vitamin C. In conclusion, our results suggests that vitamin C status is lower in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes, while no effect on vitamin C status was observed in the neonates of diabetic women based on umbilical measurements.

  11. The cause and consequence of domestic violence on pregnant women in India.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, N N

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate and elucidate the impact of domestic violence on the health and pregnancy outcomes of women. Data were extracted from literature through the MEDLINE database for years 2000-2011. Domestic violence occurs in every society, irrespective of class, creed, religion and country. Women attending antenatal clinics in Delhi reported experience of 26.9% physical, 29% mental and 6.2% sexual abuse, irrespective of their age. The spouse was the perpetrator of abuse in 47% cases and his family members were responsible for 31%. Pregnant women were hit by their husbands on the back and abdomen, sometimes repeatedly, besides psychological abuse. Incidence of domestic violence was more when the male spouse was less educated or in the habit of consuming alcohol, opium or tobacco. Illiteracy, poverty, family status and uncaring attitude of community about spousal violence were the causes of domestic violence. Women having experience of violence were less likely to receive antenatal care or home visits by health workers and had a risk of perinatal and neonatal mortality of 2.59 and 2.37 times higher, respectively, than women having no violence during pregnancy. The survey indicated that 4.5% of abused women required hospitalisation and 3.8% needed medical care. Women's education, economic autonomy and empowerment may reduce the incidence of domestic violence among Indian women.

  12. Preparedness of pregnant women for childbirth and the postpartum period: their knowledge and fear.

    PubMed

    Tugut, N; Tirkes, D; Demirel, G

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify knowledge and fear related to childbirth and the postpartum period in pregnant women. The sample consisted of 114 pregnant women. It was determined that pregnant women had insufficient levels of knowledge related to childbirth and the postpartum period. The Fear of Childbirth and Postpartum Anxiety Scale score for childbirth and the postpartum period related to 'fear regarding the action of childbirth', was found to be the highest. The highest causes for concern were determined to be 'infant-related anxiety' and 'fear regarding infant and puerperal health'. No statistically significant correlation was observed between the perceived sufficiency of the knowledge of pregnant women in terms of maintaining their own health and care, and their mean childbirth and postpartum period concern score. These findings indicate that the level of concern among pregnant women with relation to the postpartum period and childbirth is rather high.

  13. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host–microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1–V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:26846451

  14. 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis reveals differences in bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Young; Rho, Mina; You, Young-Ah; Kwon, Eun Jin; Kim, Min-Hye; Kym, Sungmin; Jee, Young-Koo; Kim, Yoon-Keun; Kim, Young Ju

    2016-02-05

    Recent evidence has indicated that bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important for host-microbe communication. The aims of the present study were to evaluate whether bacteria-derived EVs are excreted via the urinary tract and to compare the composition of bacteria-derived EVs in the urine of pregnant and non-pregnant women. Seventy-three non-pregnant and seventy-four pregnant women were enrolled from Dankook University and Ewha Womans University hospitals. DNA was extracted from urine EVs after EV isolation using the differential centrifugation method. 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing was performed using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing after amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. The composition of 13 taxa differed significantly between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. At the genus level, Bacillus spp. EVs were more significantly enriched in the urine of the pregnant women than in that of the non-pregnant women (45.61% vs 0.12%, respectively). However, Pseudomonas spp. EVs were more dominant in non-pregnant women than in pregnant women (13.2% vs 4.09%, respectively). Regarding the compositional difference between pregnant women with normal and preterm delivery, EVs derived from Ureaplasma spp. and the family Veillonellaceae (including Megasphaera spp.) were more abundant in the urine of preterm-delivered women than in that of women with normal deliveries. Taken together, these data showed that Bacillus spp. EVs predominate in the urine of pregnant women, whereas Pseudomonas spp. EVs predominate in the urine of non-pregnant women; this suggests that Bacillus spp. EVs might have an important role in the maintenance of pregnancy.

  15. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1–Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Colbers, Angela; Best, Brookie; Schalkwijk, Stein; Wang, Jiajia; Stek, Alice; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Hawkins, David; Taylor, Graham; Kreitchmann, Regis; Burchett, Sandra; Haberl, Annette; Kabeya, Kabamba; van Kasteren, Marjo; Smith, Elizabeth; Capparelli, Edmund; Burger, David; Mirochnick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected women during pregnancy and post partum. Methods. HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed during the third trimester and ≥2 weeks after delivery. Cord blood samples and matching maternal blood samples were taken at delivery. The data were collected in 2 studies: P1026 (United States) and PANNA (Europe). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Results. Eighteen women were included in the analysis. Most women (12; 67%) received 150 mg of maraviroc twice daily with a protease inhibitor, 2 (11%) received 300 mg twice daily without a protease inhibitor, and 4 (22%) had an alternative regimen. The geometric mean ratios for third-trimester versus postpartum maraviroc were 0.72 (90% confidence interval, .60–.88) for the area under the curve over a dosing interval (AUCtau) and 0.70 (0.58–0.85) for the maximum maraviroc concentration. Only 1 patient showed a trough concentration (Ctrough) below the suggested target of 50 ng/mL, both during pregnancy and post partum. The median ratio of maraviroc cord blood to maternal blood was 0.33 (range, 0.03–0.56). The viral load close to delivery was <50 copies/mL in 13 women (76%). All children were HIV negative at testing. Conclusions. Overall maraviroc exposure during pregnancy was decreased, with a reduction in AUCtau and maximum concentration of about 30%. Ctrough was reduced by 15% but exceeded the minimum Ctrough target concentration. Therefore, the standard adult dose seems sufficient in pregnancy. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00825929 and NCT000422890. PMID:26202768

  16. Intimate partner violence and suicidal ideation in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Frohman, N; Purcell, Genevieve

    2015-08-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy is a major public health issue with significant implications for maternal mental health. Less studied is the association between IPV during pregnancy and suicidal ideation. This study reports the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among low-income pregnant women receiving prenatal care at a university obstetrical clinic from February 2009 to March 2010. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 166 women surveyed between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS). Multiple logistic regression identified factors associated with antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 22.89 %. In the fully adjusted model, antenatal depressive symptomatology (OR = 17.04; 95 % CI 2.10-38.27) and experiencing IPV (OR = 9.37; 95 % CI 3.41-25.75) were significantly associated with an increased risk of antenatal suicidal ideation. The prevalence of antenatal suicidal ideation in the current study was higher than other population-based samples though this sample was predominantly single, low-income, and 19 % experienced IPV during pregnancy. Given the strong association of antenatal suicidal ideation, depressive symptomatology, and IPV, health care providers are urged to identify those women at risk so that antenatal care can be tailored to best support optimal maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  17. Abnormal vaginal flora in symptomatic non-pregnant and pregnant women in a Greek hospital: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tansarli, G S; Skalidis, T; Legakis, N J; Falagas, M E

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), candidiasis, and trichomoniasis were the three established types of vaginal conditions until aerobic vaginitis (AV) was defined in the early 2000s. We sought to study the prevalence of abnormal vaginal flora (AVF) with inflammation in our hospital and to correlate it with AV. We prospectively collected vaginal smear specimens originated from symptomatic women who were examined at Iaso Obstetrics, Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Athens from April 2014 until September 2015. Amsel's criteria were used for the diagnosis of BV. The presence of leukocytes and lactobacillary grade were evaluated to classify a condition as AVF with inflammation; subsequently, bacterial cultures were performed. A total of 761 women were included. Five hundred and seventy-nine women were diagnosed with candidiasis, BV, trichomoniasis, or other types of vaginitis in which no pathogenic bacterial growth occurred in cultures. One hundred and eighty-two women (23.9 %) were diagnosed with AVF with inflammation (116 non-pregnant, 66 pregnant). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen among these women (non-pregnant: 45.7 %, pregnant: 34.8 %). Other common pathogens were Group-B-Streptococcus (non-pregnant: 20.7 %, pregnant: 22.7 % respectively), Enterococcus faecalis (14.7 %, 18.2 %), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.9 %, 12.1 %). The prevalence of AVF with inflammation may be high. Since inflammation criteria were applied, most cases of BV were eliminated and the majority of cases of AVF are AV. Therefore, clinicians should include AV in the differential diagnosis of vaginitis, while microbiologists should take into account the growth of aerobic bacteria in vaginal cultures originating from women with microscopic findings of AV.

  18. Intimate partner violence experienced by HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Molly; Phillips, Tamsin; Zerbe, Allison; McIntyre, James A; Brittain, Kirsty; Petro, Greg; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy may be common in settings where HIV is prevalent but there are few data on IPV in populations of HIV-infected pregnant women in Southern Africa. We examined the prevalence and correlates of IPV among HIV-infected pregnant women. Setting A primary care antenatal clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants 623 consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women initiating lifelong antiretroviral therapy. Measures IPV, depression, substance use and psychological distress were assessed using the 13-item WHO Violence Against Women questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders Identification Tests (AUDIT/DUDIT) and the Kessler 10 (K-10) scale, respectively. Results The median age in the sample was 28 years, 97% of women reported being in a relationship, and 70% of women reported not discussing and/or agreeing on pregnancy intentions before conception. 21% of women (n=132) reported experiencing ≥1 act of IPV in the past 12 months, including emotional (15%), physical (15%) and sexual violence (2%). Of those reporting any IPV (n=132), 48% reported experiencing 2 or more types. Emotional and physical violence was most prevalent among women aged 18–24 years, while sexual violence was most commonly reported among women aged 25–29 years. Reported IPV was less likely among married women, and women who experienced IPV were more likely to score above threshold for substance use, depression and psychological distress. In addition, women who reported not discussing and/or not agreeing on pregnancy intentions with their partner prior to conception were significantly more likely to experience violence. Conclusions HIV-infected pregnant women in the study reported experiencing multiple forms of IPV. While the impact of IPV on maternal and child health outcomes in the context of HIV infection requires further research attention, IPV screening and support services should be

  19. [Radiation effects on pregnant women, fetuses, and children].

    PubMed

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Monzen, Yoshio; Okamoto, Naomasa

    2012-03-01

    We conducted a review of literature related to radiation effects on pregnant women, fetuses, and children from the perspective of epidemiology, pathology, and radiobiology. During 8-25 weeks post-conception the central nervous system is particularly sensitive to radiation. Fetal doses in excess of 100 mGy can result in some reduction of IQ (intelligence quotient). Fetal doses in the range of 1000 mGy can lead to severe mental retardation and microcephaly, particularly during 8-15 weeks and to a lesser extent 16-25 weeks after conception. Recent studies of cancers and chromosome aberrations indicated less radiosensitivity in prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors compared with postnatally exposed survivors, for which we provide possible hypotheses as an explanation.

  20. Diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in the healthcare system in Poland: Is it worth the effort?

    PubMed

    Walewska-Zielecka, Bożena; Religioni, Urszula; Juszczyk, Grzegorz; Czerw, Aleksandra; Wawrzyniak, Zbigniew; Soszyński, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is globally recognized as a serious public health concern. Current statistics indicate that approximately 2% of people worldwide and 1.9% of people in Poland suffer from HCV infection.This study was conducted to assess the anti-HCV seroprevalence in pregnant women in Poland and subsequently provide recommendations on the rationale for obligatory screening.A total of 42,274 women participated in our study, of which 16,130 were pregnant. We were granted access to their health data stored in the form of electronic medical records kept by the network of outpatient clinics throughout Poland.The lowest rate of positive anti-HCV test results was found in women ages 25 to 34 (0.73%); however, younger and older age groups had similar rates (15-24 = 0.86%; 35-44 = 0.84%). Additional analysis of data from the period between 2011 and 2014 revealed a downward trend in the proportion of positive anti-HCV tests among pregnant women (mean positive anti-HCV = -0.001 × year + 1.9451; R = 0.7274). Regardless of the gradual increase in the number of female patients undergoing screening between 2004 and 2015, there has been a constant decrease in the rate of positive cases. The rate of pregnant women potentially infected with HCV was twice as lower than that in a control group of women undergoing tests for other medical circumstances: 0.76% vs 1.67% (P < 0.0001).Analysis of real-world data of female patients in Poland provides evidence that screening based on an individual's medical history and behavioral risk factors in clinical circumstances would be more effective than obligatory testing of all pregnant women.

  1. Chronic diseases in pregnant women: prevalence and birth outcomes based on the SNiP-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The subject of “pregnancy and disease” is of particular importance for maternal well-being and neonatal outcomes. The international literature has focused on acute diseases during pregnancy; however, there are only a few studies investigating chronic diseases in pregnant women. The focus of this study is on diseases of women in childbearing age that are not related to the pregnancy. The objective of the paper is to deliver population based prevalences of chronic dieases in childbearing women and compare the two groups of chronically ill women and healthy women in detail regarding sociodemography, peri- and prenatal parameters and birth outcomes. Methods Data of n = 5320 childbearing women were evaluated in the context of the population-based Survey of Neonates in Pomerania (SNiP). Data were obtained via face-to-face interviews, self-applied questionnaires, and abstraction from medical records at the time of giving birth. Sociodemographic and health status data were assessed, including chronic diseases that were taken out of medical records. A comprehensive set of pre- and perinatal varaiables were assessed. Results In the SNiP, every fifth pregnant woman suffers from at least one chronic disease, and higher prevalence rates have been reported in the literature. There was a significant difference between chronically ill women and healthy women in age, education and income. Prenatal complications were more frequent in the healthy group than in the chronic disease group. Women with chronic diseases delivered by Cesarean section more frequently than women in the healthy group. Every tenth woman with at least one chronic disease gave birth to a premature infant, while only one in every 13 woman in the healthy control group gave birth to a premature infant. Conclusions This analysis is the first population-based study in which all chronic diseases could be taken into consideration. The population-based prevalences rates in the SNiP data are

  2. Introduction and history of the Hungarian project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Christian, M S; Czeizel, A E

    2008-01-01

    The introduction describes the series of manuscripts resulting from the Hungarian Project for monitoring suicide attempts in pregnant women, as well as a history of the project, its various phases and participating individuals. This unique database contains information on all patients who attempted suicide by "self-poisoning" and were cared for at central toxicological inpatient clinic in Budapest, between 1960 and 1993. A total of 1044 patients were pregnant women, of which 19 died and 411 delivered live-born babies. Of these 411 live-born children, 367 exposed children were examined and/or evaluated. This is the first report of data on the human teratogenic potential of 93 medicinal products separately used for a suicide attempt during pregnancy. Each manuscript presents results for drugs used by at least 10 pregnant women for a suicide attempt, whereas the final paper summarizes the data of drugs used rarely for suicide attempt by pregnant women. Each patient consented to participate in the study. Critical information collected under medical supervision included examination of the patients upon admittance, stage of pregnancy at suicide attempt, blood levels of the drug(s) taken for the suicide attempt (at admittance), evaluation of the infant at birth for gestational age, weight and congenital abnormalities, and follow-up studies for 2 years after a child's birth. These studies provide insight into the potential effects of a high dose of a drug or drugs taken during pregnancy because it is well accepted that "pulse high doses" of a drug during the initial susceptible period of pregnancy are those most likely to result in congenital abnormality. Although it is obvious that these data are not sufficient to ensure safety, and that it is necessary to have a larger population of exposed children, to achieve better statistical power, as well as to include data on other populations, this collection of papers provides an important introduction of the so-called disaster

  3. Attitudes, Intentions, and Barriers Toward Influenza Vaccination Among Pregnant Korean Women.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; De Gagne, Jennie C; Kim, Jung-Hee

    2015-09-01

    Following our study of attitudes, barriers, and intentions concerning the influenza vaccination among pregnant women in South Korea, we discovered that women displaying a more positive attitude toward the influenza vaccination were more likely to receive it during their pregnancy. We also found that attitudes toward vaccination were more positive among vaccinated pregnant women than among those who were unvaccinated. Furthermore, women showed a greater intention to get vaccinated if a clinician, rather than friends, recommended it. The major perceived barriers to receiving an influenza vaccination were being pregnant, fearing harm to the baby, feeling healthy, and thinking it is unnecessary.

  4. A Pilot Study of the Nutritional Status of Opiate Abusing Pregnant Women on Methadone Maintenance Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tomedi, Laura E.; Bogen, Debra; Hanusa, Barbara H.; Wisner, Katherine L.; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnant women in methadone maintenance therapy may have poor nutrition during pregnancy. In 2006–2008, methadone treated pregnant women (n = 22) were recruited at an urban academic medical center and compared with non-drug using pregnant women (n = 119) at 20–35 weeks gestation. We measured adiposity using pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, and micronutrient and essential fatty acid status using biomarkers. Methadone treated women had lower BMI, consumed more calories, had lower serum carotenoid concentrations and higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than controls. The study’s limitations and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22217127

  5. Prevalence and Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Determinants of Anemia during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Sheng; Rao, Yunshuang; Shi, Zumin; Wang, LianLian; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the differences regarding anemia among pregnant women with diverse characteristics and lifestyle factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was conducted between June and August 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces of Mainland China. Self-reported doctor-diagnosed anemia was used in the study. Results: We included 2345 pregnant women. Of the participants, 1755 (74.8%) were pregnant women of first pregnancy (PWFP) and 590 (25.2%) were second pregnancy (PWSP). The mean age of the participants was 28.1 years (SD 4.1). Overall, the prevalence of anemia was 12.7% (13.4% and 10.7% among PWFP and PWSP, respectively). The prevalence for not eating breakfast was 11.0%. Compared with PWFP, PWSP was inversely associated with the risk of anemia (odds ratio (OR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.48–0.91). Compared with those being registered in a low ranking hospital, pregnant women who were admitted to a high (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.28–0.57) or a medium ranking hospital (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.37–0.92) were inversely associated with the risk of anemia. Compared with women of low income (<¥4,500), those with high income were less likely to have anemia (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50–0.94). Compared with women with non-manual jobs, women with manual jobs (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17–2.45) and unemployed women (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.93) were associated with a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Conclusions: Pregnant women not eating breakfast are of concern. Anemia is highly prevalent among pregnant women in China. Lower socio-economic status, manual jobs, PWFP, and those who attend a lower quality hospital have a greater likelihood of suffering from anemia. Tailored interventions are needed to address these issues. PMID:27649213

  6. Implications of Nutritional Beliefs and Taboos--Hausa and Yoruba Pregnant Women in Lagos, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Akinpelumi, O. B.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated taboos and beliefs about the nutritional value of foods among pregnant women from Nigeria's Hausa and Yoruba tribes. Found that Hausa women had greater nutritional anemia than Yoruba women; their babies had greater incidence of low birth weights and smaller chest and head measurements. Hausa women learned food-related beliefs from…

  7. Social interventions in the care of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Levine, C; Allen, M H

    1995-08-01

    The incidence of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasing among women of childbearing age. Women now account for 18% of the total number of cases of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), compared with 9% a decade ago. The medical care of pregnant HIV-infected women must take into account the high prevalence of substance abuse, preceded and often accompanied by significant levels of physical, emotional, and sexual trauma, and the concomitant stigmatization of these women in their families and communities. Pregnancy is often a time when women are motivated to make major positive behavioral and life-style changes. To do this, they need ongoing, multidisciplinary counseling and support, with recognition that progress may be intermittent and slow. The Special Prenatal Care Program at Bellevue Hospital is described to show the level of resource commitment that is needed as well as the nearly universal acceptance of voluntary HIV counseling and testing in these conditions. Trends in permanency planning for the children of HIV-infected women are described. Future research needs are outlined, including female-specific drug treatment and more effective contraceptive technology for both men and women.

  8. [Evaluation of the toxoplasmosis seroprevalence in pregnant women and creating a diagnostic algorithm].

    PubMed

    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Toyran, Alparslan; Cetin, Feyza; Coskun, Feride Alaca; Baran, Irmak; Aksu, Neriman; Aksoy, Altan

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, an obligatory intracellular protozoon is widely distributed around the world and can infect all mammals and birds. While acquired toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic in healthy subjects, acute infection during pregnancy may lead to abortion, stillbirth, fetal neurological and ocular damages. For the prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis it is recommended that a screening programme and a diagnostic algorithm in pregnant women should be implemented while considering the cost effectiveness. Thus, it is necessary to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women and the actual risk of T.gondii transmission during pregnancy in a certain area. The aims of this study were to detect the T.gondii seropositivity in the pregnant women admitted to our hospital and to create a diagnostic algorithm in order to solve the problems arising from interpretation of the serological test results. A total of 6140 women aged 15-49 years who were admitted to our hospital between April 1st, 2010 to July 31st, 2013, were evaluated retrospectively. In the serum samples, T.gondii IgM, IgG and IgG avidity tests were performed by VIDAS automated analyzer using TOXO IgM, TOXO IgG II and TOXO IgG avidity kits (bioMerieux, France). It was noted that, both T.gondii IgM and IgG tests were requested from 4758 (77.5%) of the pregnant women, while only IgM test from 1382 (22.5%) cases. Sole IgM positivity was found as 0.2% (11/6140), IgG as 26.4% (1278/4758) and both IgM + IgG as 0.9% (44/4758). T.gondii IgG avidity tests were requested from 12 of 44 women who were found both IgM and IgG positive and eight of them revealed high avidity and four low avidity. Avidity test was ordered for the 91 (7.1%) of 1278 sole IgG positive cases and four of them were found to have low avidity. IgG avidity test was ordered for 554 (16.2%) of IgM and/or IgG negative subjects, however, the test was not performed according to rejection criteria of the laboratory. It was noticed that

  9. 34 CFR 403.81 - How must funds be used under the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program? 403.81 Section 403.81 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women... Pregnant Women Program? A State shall use funds reserved in accordance with § 403.180(b)(2)(i)...

  10. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  11. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  12. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  13. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare Department of Health... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  14. 45 CFR 46.203 - Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. 46.203 Section 46.203 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... Pregnant Women, Human Fetuses and Neonates Involved in Research § 46.203 Duties of IRBs in connection with research involving pregnant women, fetuses, and neonates. In addition to other responsibilities assigned...

  15. Effect of betel chewing on the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in pregnant women and women using oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, P K; Ghosh, R

    1988-06-01

    The incidence of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was investigated in the lymphocyte chromosomes of betel chewing and non-chewing normal women, pregnant women, and women using oral contraceptives. The frequency of SCE was found to be 7.82 +/- 0.24 and 8.27 +/- 0.27 in non-chewing pregnant women and women using oral contraceptives respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean value of 5.21 +/- 0.18 observed in non-chewing normal women. Betel chewing induced higher SCE in pregnant women and women using oral contraceptives, the frequencies being 11.79 +/- 0.38 and 12.51 +/- 0.44, respectively, which were significantly higher than the SCE frequency of 6.28 +/- 0.21 found in normal betel chewing females.

  16. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Artemether, Dihydroartemisinin, Lumefantrine, and Quinine in Pregnant Women with Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kloprogge, Frank; Dhorda, Mehul; Jullien, Vincent; Nosten, Francois; White, Nicholas J.; Guerin, Philippe J.; Piola, Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many drugs used in the treatment of malaria, usually resulting in lower drug exposures. This increases the risks of treatment failure, adverse outcomes for the fetus, and the development of resistance. The pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and its principal metabolite dihydroartemisinin (n = 21), quinine (n = 21), and lumefantrine (n = 26) in pregnant Ugandan women were studied. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in a nonpregnant control group (n = 17) were also studied. Frequently sampled patient data were evaluated with noncompartmental analysis. No significant correlation was observed between estimated gestational age and artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, or quinine exposures. Artemether/dihydroartemisinin and quinine exposures were generally low in these pregnant women compared to values reported previously for nonpregnant patients. Median day 7 lumefantrine concentrations were 488 (range, 30.7 to 3,550) ng/ml in pregnant women compared to 720 (339 to 2,150) ng/ml in nonpregnant women (P = 0.128). There was no statistical difference in total lumefantrine exposure or maximum concentration. More studies with appropriate control groups in larger series are needed to characterize the degree to which pregnant women are underdosed with current antimalarial dosing regimens. PMID:23917320

  17. Pharmacokinetic properties of artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, and quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum malaria in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Tarning, Joel; Kloprogge, Frank; Dhorda, Mehul; Jullien, Vincent; Nosten, Francois; White, Nicholas J; Guerin, Philippe J; Piola, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Pregnancy alters the pharmacokinetic properties of many drugs used in the treatment of malaria, usually resulting in lower drug exposures. This increases the risks of treatment failure, adverse outcomes for the fetus, and the development of resistance. The pharmacokinetic properties of artemether and its principal metabolite dihydroartemisinin (n = 21), quinine (n = 21), and lumefantrine (n = 26) in pregnant Ugandan women were studied. Lumefantrine pharmacokinetics in a nonpregnant control group (n = 17) were also studied. Frequently sampled patient data were evaluated with noncompartmental analysis. No significant correlation was observed between estimated gestational age and artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, or quinine exposures. Artemether/dihydroartemisinin and quinine exposures were generally low in these pregnant women compared to values reported previously for nonpregnant patients. Median day 7 lumefantrine concentrations were 488 (range, 30.7 to 3,550) ng/ml in pregnant women compared to 720 (339 to 2,150) ng/ml in nonpregnant women (P = 0.128). There was no statistical difference in total lumefantrine exposure or maximum concentration. More studies with appropriate control groups in larger series are needed to characterize the degree to which pregnant women are underdosed with current antimalarial dosing regimens.

  18. Alcohol use and binge drinking among women of childbearing age - United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H; Denny, Clark H; Cheal, Nancy E; Sniezek, Joseph E; Kanny, Dafna

    2015-09-25

    Excessive alcohol use is risk factor for a wide range of health and social problems including liver cirrhosis, certain cancers, depression, motor vehicle crashes, and violence. Alcohol use during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and other adverse birth outcomes . Community studies estimate that as many as 2% to 5% of first grade students in the United States might have an FASD, which include physical, behavioral, or learning impairments. In 2005, the Surgeon General reissued an advisory urging women who are or might be pregnant to abstain from alcohol consumption to eliminate the risk for FASDs or other negative birth outcomes. To estimate current prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking (consuming four or more drinks on an occasion) among pregnant and nonpregnant women aged 18-44 years in the United States, CDC analyzed 2011-2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Among pregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 10.2% and 3.1%, respectively. Among nonpregnant women, the prevalences of any alcohol use and binge drinking in the past 30 days were 53.6% and 18.2%, respectively. Among binge drinkers, pregnant women reported a significantly higher frequency of binge drinking than nonpregnant women (4.6 and 3.1 episodes, respectively); the largest amount consumed during binge drinking was also higher among pregnant women than nonpregnant women (7.5 versus 6.0 drinks), although this difference was not statistically significant. Implementation of evidence-based clinical and community-level strategies would be expected to reduce binge drinking among pregnant women and women of childbearing age, and any alcohol consumption among women who are or might be pregnant. Healthcare professionals can support these efforts by implementing alcohol screening and brief interventions in their primary care practices, and informing women that there is no known safe level of

  19. Patterns of Internet Use by Pregnant Women, and Reliability of Pregnancy-Related Searches.

    PubMed

    Narasimhulu, Deepa Maheswari; Karakash, Scarlett; Weedon, Jeremy; Minkoff, Howard

    2016-12-01

    Objective To assess patterns of e-health use in pregnancy in an underserved racially diverse inner-city population, and to assess the accuracy of pregnancy-related information obtained from the Internet. Methods A cross sectional study of 503 pregnant/postpartum women belonging to an underserved racially diverse inner-city population who completed a survey regarding e-health use. To assess accuracy, four independent expert-reviewers rated the first 10 webpages on Google searches for each of five questions based upon those in ACOG bulletins. Results 70.8 % of pregnant/postpartum women belonging to an underserved racially diverse inner-city population were e-health users. E-health users were younger (mean age 29.4 vs. 31.2, P = 0.009), more likely to be nulliparous (50.3 vs. 21.3 %, P < 0.001), have English as their primary language (62.3 vs. 49.1 %, P = 0.014) and have a college/graduate education (78 vs. 26.6 %, P < 0.001). While 60 % of these women said e-health influenced decision making, only 71.3 % of them discussed their searches with their provider. Expert reviewers determined that the online information was fairly accurate (mean score: +1.48 to +4.33 on a scale of -5 to +5) but not uniformly accurate, and there was at least one webpage with inaccurate information for every question. Conclusions for practice Pregnant women frequently use e-health resources but do not routinely share their findings with their providers. Most, but not all, information obtained is accurate. Therefore it is important for providers to discuss their patients' use, and help to guide them to reliable information.

  20. [Survey on the attitudes of pregnant and lactating women about the use of drugs].

    PubMed

    Takagi, Kayoko; Onda, Mitsuko; Iwaki, Akifumi; Nishikawa, Naoki; Arakawa, Yukio

    2010-10-01

    The purposes of this survey were to determine the attitudes and the extent of anxiety of pregnant and lactating women about drug use, and to research priority issues for pharmacists' intervention. Postpartum lactating women and mothers with children in a Growing Care Unit (GCU) in hospitals certified as Baby Friendly Hospital (BFH) were surveyed. The questions included the images the respondents had of drugs before pregnancy, the extent of anxiety about drug use, and ways to relieve it. The highest number of respondents (49.1%) did not want to use drugs often before pregnancy, but said "physician-prescribed drugs are fine". 24.5% had no negative images, and they "take drugs when necessary without worrying". An additional 14.2% did not like drugs, and "avoid them whenever possible", followed by 9.4% who did not want to use drugs, but were willing to take health food and other over-the-counter items. The respondents reported that the extent of anxiety about drug use was 79.3% during pregnancy, which was higher than 71.7% during lactation. It was not influenced by birth experience and age. "The images of drugs before pregnancy" and "the extent to which the anxiety was relieved during pregnancy" were extracted as factors related to the extent of anxiety, verifying that negative images of drugs and low degrees of relief from anxiety raise the anxiety of pregnant women. The above shows that pharmacists need to understand the anxiety of pregnant and lactating women about drug use, and the images they had of drugs before pregnancy, thereby they are expected to work actively to determine and relieve the anxiety.

  1. Urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: Distribution, temporal variability, and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Cantonwine, David E.; Cordero, José F.; Rivera-González, Luis O.; Del Toro, Liza V. Anzalota; Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Calafat, Antonia M.; Crespo, Noe; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio; Padilla, Ingrid Y.; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Phthalate contamination exists in the North coast karst aquifer system in Puerto Rico. In light of potential health impacts associated with phthalate exposure, targeted action for elimination of exposure sources may be warranted, especially for sensitive populations such as pregnant women. However, information on exposure to phthalates from a variety of sources in Puerto Rico is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations and predictors of urinary phthalate biomarkers measured at multiple times during pregnancy among women living in the Northern karst area of Puerto Rico. Methods We recruited 139 pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico and collected urine samples and questionnaire data at three separate visits (18±2 weeks, 22±2 weeks, and 26±2 weeks of gestation). Urine samples were analyzed for eleven phthalate metabolites: mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate, mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate, mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, mono-isobutyl phthalate, mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (MCPP), mono carboxyisononyl phthalate (MCNP), and mono carboxyisooctyl phthalate (MCOP). Results Detectable concentrations of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women living in Puerto Rico was prevalent, and metabolite concentrations tended to be higher than or similar to those measured in women of reproductive age from the general US population. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from very weak (MCNP; 0.05) to moderate (MEP; 0.44) reproducibility among all phthalate metabolites. We observed significant or suggestive positive associations between urinary phthalate metabolites concentrations and water usage/storage habits (MEP, MCNP, MCOP), use of personal care products (MEP), and consumption of certain food items (MCPP, MCNP, and MCOP). Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first study to report concentrations

  2. Evidence of Subclinical mtDNA Alterations in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Compared to HIV-Negative Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Money, Deborah M.; Wagner, Emily C.; Maan, Evelyn J.; Chaworth-Musters, Tessa; Gadawski, Izabelle; van Schalkwyk, Julie E.; Forbes, John C.; Burdge, David R.; Albert, Arianne Y. K.; Lohn, Zoe; Côté, Hélène C. F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can effectively prevent vertical transmission of HIV but there is potential risk of adverse maternal, foetal or infant effects. Specifically, the effect of cART use during pregnancy on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in HIV-positive (HIV+) women is unclear. We sought to characterize subclinical alterations in peripheral blood mtDNA levels in cART-treated HIV+ women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Methods This prospective longitudinal observational cohort study enrolled both HIV+ and HIV-negative (HIV-) pregnant women. Clinical data and blood samples were collected at three time points in pregnancy (13-<23 weeks, 23-<30 weeks, 30–40 weeks), and at delivery and six weeks post-partum in HIV+ women. Peripheral blood mtDNA to nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio was measured by qPCR. Results Over a four year period, 63 HIV+ and 42 HIV- women were enrolled. HIV+ women showed significantly lower mtDNA/nDNA ratios compared to HIV- women during pregnancy (p = 0.003), after controlling for platelet count and repeated measurements using a multivariable mixed-effects model. Ethnicity, gestational age (GA) and substance use were also significantly associated with mtDNA/nDNA ratio (p≤0.02). Among HIV+ women, higher CD4 nadir was associated with higher mtDNA/nDNA ratios (p<0.0001), and these ratio were significantly lower during pregnancy compared to the postpartum period (p<0.0001). Conclusions In the context of this study, it was not possible to distinguish between mtDNA effects related to HIV infection versus cART therapy. Nevertheless, while mtDNA levels were relatively stable over time in both groups during pregnancy, they were significantly lower in HIV+ women compared to HIV- women. Although no immediate clinical impact was observed on maternal or infant health, lower maternal mtDNA levels may exert long-term effects on women and children and remain a concern. Improved knowledge of such subclinical alterations is

  3. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Eliassen, Anna M.; Hauff, Samantha J.; Tang, Alice L.; Thomas, Dafydd H.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Walline, Heather M.; Stoerker, Jay; Maxwell, Jessica H.; Worden, Francis P.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Czerwinski, Michael J.; Papagerakis, Silvana M.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Bradford, Carol R.; Hanauer, David A.; Carey, Thomas E.; Prince, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate oral cancer in pregnant women, a rare but therapeutically challenging patient subset. Methods After IRB approval, an EMERSE search was used to identify all women treated at the University of Michigan from 1998–2010 with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) during pregnancy. This identified four patients with tongue cancer. Biomarkers and HPV were assessed by immunohistochemistry and multiplex PCR/Mass spectrometry, respectively. Results Two patients responded well to therapy and are alive more than 10 years after diagnosis; two died of disease. All tumors overexpressed EGFR and Bcl-xL, three of four overexpressed c-Met, both tumors that progressed overexpressed p53. All tumors were negative for HPV, p16, ER, PR, and HER-2. Conclusions Biomarkers of aggressive tumors (high EGFR, Bcl-xL, c-Met; low p53) did not correlate with outcome. Additional studies are needed to determine whether perineural invasion, delay in diagnosis, and p53 overexpression are factors related to poorer survival. PMID:22422571

  4. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara Solomon Islands, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, Aneley; Baekalia, Margaret; Panda, Nixon; Lee, Alice; Puiahi, Elliot; Khan, Sabiha; Tahani, Donald; Manongi, Doris

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara, Solomon Islands. METHODS This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in seven area health centers in Honiara. From March to June 2015, identification of eligible pregnant women in each site was conducted using systematic random sampling technique. A total of 243 pregnant women who gave written informed consent were enrolled. Standardized tool was used to record demographics, obstetric history and serology results. HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were tested using point-of-care rapid diagnostic test. All HBsAg positive samples were verified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS The mean age of participants was 26 ± 6 years. The overall hepatitis HBsAg prevalence was 13.8% with higher rate (22%) reported in women between 30-34 years of age. Majority of HBsAg positive participants were Melanesians (29 out for 33). None of the pregnant women in the 15-19 years and ≥ 40 years tested positive for HBsAg. There was no statistically significant difference in HBsAg prevalence by age, ethnicity, education and residential location. The overall HBeAg seroprevalence was 36.7%. Women between 20-24 years of age had the highest rate of 54.5%. Low level of knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination was reputed. Overall, 54.6% of participants were not aware of their hepatitis B vaccination status and only 65.2% of mothers reported their child had been vaccinated. CONCLUSION Hepatitis B is a disease of public health importance in Solomon Islands and emphasize the need for integrated preventative interventions for its control. PMID:28008343

  5. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Mulligan, Nikki; Schalkwijk, Stein; Best, Brookie M.; Colbers, Angela; Wang, Jiajia; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Moltó, José; Stek, Alice M.; Taylor, Graham; Smith, Elizabeth; Hidalgo Tenorio, Carmen; Chakhtoura, Nahida; van Kasteren, Marjo; Fletcher, Courtney V.; Mirochnick, Mark; Burger, David

    2016-01-01

    Background: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. Methods: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women. Intensive steady-state 12-h pharmacokinetic profiles were performed from 2nd trimester through postpartum. Etravirine was measured at two labs using validated ultra performance liquid chromatography (detection limits: 0.020 and 0.026 mcg/mL). Results: Fifteen women took etravirine 200 mg twice-daily. Etravirine AUC0–12 was higher in the 3rd trimester compared to paired postpartum data by 34% (median 8.3 vs. 5.3 mcg*h/mL, p = 0.068). Etravirine apparent oral clearance was significantly lower in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy compared to paired postpartum data by 52% (median 24 vs. 38 L/h, p = 0.025). The median ratio of cord blood to maternal plasma concentration at delivery was 0.52 (range: 0.19–4.25) and no perinatal transmission occurred. Conclusion: Etravirine apparent oral clearance is reduced and exposure increased during the third trimester of pregnancy. Based on prior dose-ranging and safety data, no dose adjustment is necessary for maternal health but the effects of etravirine in utero are unknown. Maternal health and infant outcomes should be closely monitored until further infant safety data are available. Clinical Trial registration: The IMPAACT protocol P1026s and PANNA study are registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT00042289 and NCT00825929. PMID:27540363

  6. Intention for Cesarean Section Versus Vaginal Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Isfahan: Correlates and Determinants

    PubMed Central

    Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Zahra; Khalajabadi-Farahani, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Iran has the second highest rate of cesarean section in the world. the corresponding rate in the third metropolitan city of Iran, Isfahan, is even higher. This paper aimed to assess correlates and determinants of intention for cesarean section versus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) among pregnant women in Isfahan. Methods: A study was conducted among 400 pregnant women aged 18–38 years, with gestational age of 24–40 weeks who attended labor clinics of nine hospitals in Isfahan during June and July 2014. Probability proportional to size was used to estimate the number of cases required to be selected for each hospital. T-test, chi-square and logistic regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. Results: Mean age of women was 26.6±4.4 years. Multivariate analysis identified selected factors as determinants of intention for CS. These were “the role of physician” (OR=1.33, p<0.001), “subjective norms” (OR=1.19, p<0.01) and “body Image” (OR= 1.46, p<0.001) upon control of education, income and intended fertility (number of children intended). Moreover, path analysis showed that “attitude towards cesarean section” and “individualism” influence CS decision through subjective norm. Conclusion: Choosing cesarean section voluntarily is a multifaceted decision which is shaped by various factors; hence, comprehensive interventions are suggested to discourage voluntary cesarean section. These interventions need to encompass changes in physicians’ role, social norms, body image and correcting misperceptions among women towards CS and NVD during prenatal courses. PMID:27921002

  7. Urinary Concentrations of Insecticide and Herbicide Metabolites among Pregnant Women in Rural Ghana: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Blair J; Ae-Ngibise, Kenneth A; Boamah, Ellen A; Mujtaba, Mohammed; Messerlian, Carmen; Hauser, Russ; Coull, Brent; Calafat, Antonia M; Jack, Darby; Kinney, Patrick L; Whyatt, Robin; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Asante, Kwaku P

    2017-03-29

    Use of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. However, few data are available about exposure to pesticides among this population. Our objective was to quantify urinary concentrations of metabolites of organophosphate (OP), pyrethroid, and select herbicides during pregnancy, and to explore exposure determinants. In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits (n = 51 samples). A total of 90.1% (46/51) of samples had detectable OP metabolites [geometric mean, GM (95% CI): 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol 0.54 µg/L (0.36-0.81), para-nitrophenol 0.71 µg/L (0.51-1.00)], 75.5% (37/49) had detectable pyrethroid metabolites [GM: 3-phenoxybenzoic acid 0.23 µg/L (0.17, 0.32)], and 70.5% (36/51) had detectable 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid levels, a herbicide [GM: 0.46 µg/L (0.29-0.73)]. Concentrations of para-nitrophenol and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in Ghanaian pregnant women appear higher when compared to nonpregnant reproductive-aged women in a reference U.S.

  8. Vaginal yeast flora of pregnant women in the Cusco region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Vidotto, V; Guevara Ochoa, L; Ponce, L M; Tello, G M; Prada, G R; Bruatto, M

    1992-01-01

    A study of the vaginal yeast flora in pregnant women living in Cusco and in its region (Peru), located approximately 3000 m above sea level, is reported. We observed 300 pregnant, healthy and non-diabetic women who attended a gynaecological clinic in the Lorena, Regional or IPSS (Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social) hospitals in Cusco. A comprehensive clinical history was obtained from each patient. It included age, work, parity, time of pregnancy, use of contraceptives or antibiotics, type of vaginal symptoms, type and amount of vaginal secretion. The yeasts were isolated from 44.3% of the cases. The positive cases were more frequently found in the following categories: 20-30 year-old patients (69.2%), ninth month of pregnancy (49.6%), first pregnancy (41.4%), no delivery (58.7%) and no abortion (66.9%). Most women complained of leukorrhea (75.9%) with mucus, scarce without odour (18.8%) or lumpy, regular, without odour (15.8%) secretion. The yeasts isolated were Candida albicans (66.2%), other Candida species (12.8%), Torulopsis glabrata (8.3%) or other Torulopsis species (2.2%), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (7.5%), Rhodotorula sp. (1.5%) and Trichosporon cutaneum (1.5%).

  9. The second wave: Toward responsible inclusion of pregnant women in research

    PubMed Central

    Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia; Faden, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Though much progress has been made on inclusion of non-pregnant women in research, thoughtful discussion about including pregnant women has lagged behind. We outline resulting knowledge gaps and their costs and then highlight four reasons why ethically we are obliged to confront the challenges of including pregnant women in clinical research. These are: the need for effective treatment for women during pregnancy, fetal safety, harm from the reticence to prescribe potentially beneficial medication, and the broader issues of justice and access to benefits of research participation. Going forward requires shifting the burden of justification from inclusion to exclusion and developing an adequate ethical framework that specifies suitable justifications for excluding pregnant women from research. PMID:19774226

  10. Early risk factors for miscarriage: a prospective cohort study in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Arck, Petra C; Rücke, Mirjam; Rose, Matthias; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Douglas, Alison J; Pritsch, Maria; Blois, Sandra M; Pincus, Maike K; Bärenstrauch, Nina; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Nakamura, Katrina; Sheps, Sam; Klapp, Burghard F

    2008-07-01

    Many pregnancies are lost during early gestation, but clinicians still lack tools to recognize risk factors for miscarriage. Thus, the identification of risk factors for miscarriage during the first trimester in women with no obvious risk for a pregnancy loss was the aim of this prospective cohort trial. A total of 1098 women between gestation weeks 4 and 12 in whom no apparent signs of a threatened pregnancy could be diagnosed were recruited. Demographic, anamnestic, psychometric and biological data were documented at recruitment and pregnancy outcomes were registered subsequently. Among the cases with sufficiently available data, 809 successfully progressing pregnancies and 55 subsequent miscarriages were reported. In this cohort, risk of miscarriage was significantly increased in women at higher age (>33 years), lower body mass index (< or =20 kg/ m(2)) and lower serum progesterone concentrations (< or =12 ng/ml) prior to the onset of the miscarriage. Women with subsequent miscarriage also perceived higher levels of stress/demands (supported by higher concentrations of corticotrophin-releasing hormone) and revealed reduced concentrations of progesterone-induced blocking factor. These risk factors were even more pronounced in the subcohort of women (n = 335) recruited between gestation weeks 4 and 7. The identification of these risk factors and development of an interaction model of these factors, as introduced in this article, will help clinicians to recognize pregnant women who require extra monitoring and who might benefit from therapeutic interventions such as progestogen supplementation, especially during the first weeks of pregnancy, to prevent a miscarriage.

  11. Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study

    SciTech Connect

    Mortensen, Mary E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Wong, Lee-Yang; Wright, David J.; Pirkle, James L.; Merrill, Lori S.; Moye, John

    2014-02-01

    Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction–isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009–2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols. - Highlights: • Limited biomonitoring data are available in pregnant women. • Seven urinary phenols were measured in 506 third trimester women enrolled in the NCS. • Urine benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol differed by race/ethnicity. • Urinary concentrations of 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol were

  12. Do pregnant women have a higher risk for venous thromboembolism following air travel?

    PubMed Central

    Izadi, Morteza; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Kazemisaleh, Davood; Moshkani-Farahani, Maryam; Shafiee, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    International travel has become increasingly common and accessible, and it is part of everyday life in pregnant women. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a serious public health disorder that occurs following long-haul travel, especially after air travel. The normal pregnancy is accompanied by a state of hypercoagulability and hypofibrinolysis. Thus, it seems that pregnant women are at a higher risk of VTE following air travel, and, if they have preexisting risk factors, this risk would increase. There is limited data about travel-related VTE in pregnant women; therefore, in the present study, we tried to evaluate the pathogenesis of thrombosis, association of thrombosis and air travel, risk factors and prevention of VTE in pregnant women based on available evidences. Pregnancy is associated with a five- to 10-fold increased risk of VTE compared with nonpregnant women; however, during the postpartum period, this risk would increase to 20–80-fold. Furthermore, the risk of thrombosis is higher in individuals with preexisting risk factors, and the most common risk factor for VTE during pregnancy is a previous history of VTE. Pregnant women are at a higher risk for thrombosis compared with other women. Thus, the prevention of VTE and additional risk factors should be considered for all pregnant women who travel by plane. PMID:25802829

  13. The Most Commonly Dispensed Prescription Medications Among Pregnant Women Enrolled in the United States Medicaid Program

    PubMed Central

    Palmsten, Kristin; Hernández-Díaz, Sonia; Chambers, Christina D; Mogun, Helen; Lai, Sophia; Gilmer, Todd P; Huybrechts, Krista F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the 20 most common prescription medications and the 10 most common prescription medications classified in the former U.S. Food and Drug Administration categories D or X dispensed to pregnant women enrolled in the U.S. Medicaid program. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 1,106,757 pregnant women with live births using 2000-2007 Medicaid Analytic eXtract data. We used outpatient pharmacy records to identify medication dispensings and reported the proportion of pregnancies that were dispensed at least one prescription medication. Maternal age and race and ethnicity–stratified estimates were compared using prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During pregnancy, 82.5% of the cohort had a dispensing for one or more prescription medication. The most commonly dispensed medications during pregnancy included nitrofurantoin (21.6%), metronidazole (19.4%), amoxicillin (18.0%), azithromycin (16.9%), and promethazine (13.5%). Proportions were highest among younger women for several medications; eg, nitrofurantoin (23.9% vs 15.4%; PR: 1.55, CI: 1.52-1.58), metronidazole (20.7% vs 12.0%; PR: 1.73, CI: 1.69-1.77), and azithromycin (21.1% vs 11.0%; PR: 1.93, CI: 1.89-1.97) were more common among women younger than 20 than among women aged 35 years or older. Proportions were highest among white women with some exceptions; eg, compared with white women, metronidazole was more common among black women (29.8% vs 14.4%; PR: 2.07, CI: 2.05-2.09). Excluding fertility treatments, 42.0% had at least one dispensing for a D or X medication during pregnancy. Codeine (11.9%) and hydrocodone (10.2%) were the most common D medications. Conclusions Medications used to treat infections were the most commonly dispensed prescription medications. Dispensing of commonly used prescription medications during pregnancy varied by maternal age and race–ethnicity. PMID:26244530

  14. A Prospective Study on Serum Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine in Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Rihwa; Choi, Sunkyu; Lim, Yaeji; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-Young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-12-08

    This study aimed to investigate serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine levels and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum MMA and homocysteine levels in 278 pregnant Korean women, determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in each trimester, were compared with those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. We investigated the association between MMA and homocysteine status with pregnancy and neonatal events: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities. The median (range) MMA level was 0.142 (0.063-0.446) µmol/L and homocysteine level was 10.6 (4.4-38.0) µmol/L in pregnant women. MMA levels were significantly higher in the third trimester than during other trimesters (p < 0.05), while homocysteine levels were not. No significant association was observed between MMA or homocysteine levels and any of the maternal or neonatal outcomes examined. Future studies are needed to assess the associations among maternal serum concentrations of MMA and homocysteine, and maternal and neonatal outcomes.

  15. A Prospective Study on Serum Methylmalonic Acid and Homocysteine in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Choi, Sunkyu; Lim, Yaeji; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine levels and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum MMA and homocysteine levels in 278 pregnant Korean women, determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry in each trimester, were compared with those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. We investigated the association between MMA and homocysteine status with pregnancy and neonatal events: gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth, small for gestational age, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities. The median (range) MMA level was 0.142 (0.063–0.446) µmol/L and homocysteine level was 10.6 (4.4–38.0) µmol/L in pregnant women. MMA levels were significantly higher in the third trimester than during other trimesters (p < 0.05), while homocysteine levels were not. No significant association was observed between MMA or homocysteine levels and any of the maternal or neonatal outcomes examined. Future studies are needed to assess the associations among maternal serum concentrations of MMA and homocysteine, and maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:27941633

  16. [Characteristics of pregnant women, labor, and the newborn at the Skopje Clinic from 1978 to 1979].

    PubMed

    Antonovski, L; Curciev, K

    1979-01-01

    An analysis was made of the first computer data received from the IFRP (International Fertility Research Program) within the framework of the International Study "Maternity Record" -- "Maternity Monitoring Care'. The main findings are the following: The women who were confined at the Skopje University Hospital during 1978--1979 were young, in their twenties. Women over thirty were confined very rarely. Most of the women surveyed had about 12 years of education. Pregnant women had artificial abortions very rarely (1:5.7 in favor of terminating pregnancy). Preventive work on contraception should include women at the time of delivery. Pregnant women in Skopje come to the Consulting Centers for a check-up mostly five times. The higher the parity, the less frequent the visits. More than half of pregnant women during the antenatal period had no complaints. Younger pregnant women had fewer difficulties and complications. The values of haemoglobin under 10 g% were very often in primiparas and over 12 g% in multiparas. The birthweight of women smoker's babies proved lower than that of women non-smokers' babies. In two thirds of women the delivery was induced by drugs and amniotomy. The delivery mostly lasted between 7--12 h, regardless of parity. Prolonged deliveries were the more frequent the younger the women. Primiparas gave birth to babies with a lower birthweight than multiparas. Almost all women (92.4%) were previously using no contraceptive devices. The main method of protection was coitus interruptus.

  17. Novel pandemic A (H1N1) influenza vaccination among pregnant women: motivators and barriers.

    PubMed

    Steelfisher, Gillian K; Blendon, Robert J; Bekheit, Mark M; Mitchell, Elizabeth W; Williams, Jennifer; Lubell, Keri; Peugh, Jordon; DiSogra, Charles A

    2011-06-01

    We sought to examine motivators and barriers related to monovalent 2009 influenza A (H1N1) vaccination among pregnant women. We conducted a national poll of pregnant women using a random online sample (237) and opt-in supplement (277). In all, 42% of pregnant women reported getting the vaccine. Vaccination was positively associated with attitudinal factors including believing the vaccine is very safe or benefits the baby, and with provider recommendations. Women in racial/ethnic minority groups, women with less education, and women <35 years were less likely to get the vaccine and had differing views and experiences. Despite H1N1 vaccination rates that are higher than past seasonal influenza rates, barriers like safety concerns may persist in a pandemic. Messaging from providers that encourages women to believe the vaccine is very safe and benefits their baby may be compelling. Messaging and outreach during future pandemics may require customization to increase vaccination among high-risk groups.

  18. Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sungeun; Kim, Sunmi; Park, Jeongim; Kim, Hae-Joong; Lee, Jeongjae; Choi, Gyuyeon; Choi, Sooran; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Su Young; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kim, Sungkyoon; Kho, Young Lim; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Parabens have been used in multiple products including personal care products, pharmaceuticals, and foods for more than 50 years but increasing numbers of studies have raised concerns on their safety. The present study was designed to determine urinary paraben levels among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants (<48 h after delivery), and the association between paraben levels and stress markers. Pregnant women (n=46) and their matching newborn infants were recruited from four university hospitals located in Seoul, Ansan and Jeju of Korea, 2011. Parabens including methyl paraben (MP), ethyl paraben (EP), n-propyl paraben (PP), and n-butyl paraben (BP) were measured in the urine using an automatic, high throughput online SPE-LC-MS/MS method. Urinary concentrations were normalized with specific gravity (SG). Free cortisol, malondealdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured in the urine as stress marker. Urinary MP was detected as the highest, and BP was detected as the lowest paraben in the urine samples of both pregnant women and their infants. Significant correlations between paraben concentrations of maternal and their newborn infant's urine were observed. The levels of urinary parabens among Korean pregnant women are comparable to those reported elsewhere, except for EP which were 4-9 folds higher than pregnant women of other countries. The ratios of infant to maternal urinary paraben concentrations varied between 0.5 and 0.6 for MP and PP, but approximately 10 fold lower for EP. Urinary MP or EP levels were associated with several oxidative stress related biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and MDA, even after the adjustment of relevant covariates such as maternal age, mode of delivery, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational age and parity. This is the first study that reported the levels of major parabens in the first urine of newborn infants. Further studies are warranted to understand the implications of paraben exposure among

  19. Geophagy (Soil-eating) in relation to Anemia and Helminth infection among HIV-infected pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kosuke; Saathoff, Elmar; Antelman, Gretchen; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2009-01-01

    Geophagy, the regular and deliberate consumption of soil, is prevalent among pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the associations of geophagy with anemia and helminth infection among 971 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Tanzania. About 29% of pregnant women regularly consumed soil. Occupation, marital status, and gestational age were associated with geophagy. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was associated with the prevalence of geophagy (adjusted-prevalence ratio 1.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-2.40); however, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura, and Strongyloides stercoralis showed no association. Anemia and red blood cell characteristics suggestive of iron deficiency were strongly correlated with geophagy at baseline. In longitudinal analyses, we found evidence suggesting that soil consumption may be associated with an increased risk of anemia (adjusted-relative risk 1.16; 95% CI = 0.98-1.36) and a lower hemoglobin concentration (adjusted-mean difference -3.8 g/L; 95% CI [-7.3, -0.4]). Pregnant women should be informed about the potential risks associated with soil consumption.

  20. The role of patient characteristics in pregnant women's satisfaction of care.

    PubMed

    Donaghy, B; Gaziano, C; Petersen, D E; VanAlstine, K; Uhler, K L; Molumby, M

    2000-01-01

    In an increasingly competitive market, hospitals have an interest in achieving high satisfaction among obstetrical patients since women are the main family healthcare decision makers. Increasingly, the role of nurse clinicians, coordinators, and managers is to integrate quality care while achieving client satisfaction. This report describes findings from a pilot study of nursing care coordination and education that relate pregnant women's social and demographic characteristics to satisfaction with hospital and nursing services after childbirth. Most important for satisfaction were being well educated and having a less anxious mood at 29 to 34 weeks' gestation. Also important were age (being older), marital status (being married), large friendship networks, and strong community ties. Satisfaction is highly related to communication. The less educated, those experiencing more anxious mood prior to delivery, and those feeling less connected to others may require more information and emotional support in order to facilitate accurate communication and high patient satisfaction.

  1. A Prospective Study of Serum Trace Elements in Healthy Korean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Rihwa; Sun, Jiyu; Yoo, Heejin; Kim, Seonwoo; Cho, Yoon Young; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon; Oh, Soo-young; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study sought to investigate serum levels of trace elements (cobalt, copper, zinc, and selenium) and to assess their effects on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Serum levels of trace elements in 245 Korean pregnant women (median gestational age at delivery was 39 + 4 weeks and interquartile range was 38 + 4–40 + 1 weeks) were compared with those of 527 general adults and those of previous studies in other ethnic groups. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, neonatal birth weight, and congenital abnormalities were assessed. The median serum trace element concentrations of all pregnant women were: cobalt: 0.39 μg/L (interquartile range, IQR 0.29–0.53), copper: 165.0 μg/dL (IQR 144.0–187.0), zinc: 57.0 μg/dL (IQR 50.0–64.0), and selenium: 94.0 μg/L (IQR 87.0–101.0). Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were higher in pregnant women than in the general population, whereas zinc and selenium levels were lower (p < 0.01). Concentrations of all four trace elements varied significantly during the three trimesters (p < 0.05), and seasonal variation was found in copper, zinc, and selenium, but was not observed for cobalt. The prevalence of preeclampsia was significantly lower with high copper (p = 0.03). Trace element levels varied by pregnancy trimester and season, and alteration in copper status during pregnancy might influence pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia. PMID:27886083

  2. Screening of Fetal Chromosome Aneuploidies in the First and Second Trimester of 125,170 Iranian Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    SEYYED KAVOOSI, Elham; YOUNESSI, Sarang; FARHUD, Dariush D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aneuploidy is one of the main causes of congenital anomalies, mental and physical disabilities, in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine various chromosomal aneuploidies in the first and second trimester screening of pregnant women, in Iran. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted on 125,170 pregnant women referred to a major referral medical diagnostic laboratory (Niloo Laboratory, Tehran) for prenatal screening tests (2010–2013). Patients were divided into 3 groups: first trimester screening (FTS), second trimester screening (STS), and combined screening groups. In positive and borderline cases, and amniocentesis and cytogenetic analysis were carried out. Results: Total prevalence of aneuploidy in 125,170 pregnant women was one in 491, (Detection Rate=82.7% for Down syndrome). The DR for DS in three groups was as follow: 87.5% for FTS (25783 women), 80.9% for STS (91345 women), and 94.7% for combined tests (8042 women). Total number of cases with Edward's syndrome was 18, Patau's syndrome six, Klinefelter syndrome six, triploidy three, and Cri-du-chat syndrome one. Conclusion: The present study shows the frequency of aneuploidy in the first and second trimester screenings in a major medical laboratory in Tehran. The prevalence of aneuploidies grows with increased maternal age. The rate of aneuploidy in first trimester is higher than second. PMID:26258091

  3. Oxidative stress elevated DNA damage and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in a segment of Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Shazia A; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Ibrahim, Z; Jalal, Fatima; Rana, Shahid Mahboob; Nagra, Saeed A

    2011-04-01

    Maternal oxidative stress during pregnancy may impair fetal growth and help in the development of diseases in adulthood. The aim of current study was to assess total oxidation status (TOS), related parameters and their relationship to DNA damage (%) and homocysteine level in normal pregnant women in low-income participants. In a cross-sectional study healthy women were grouped as normal, while age matched nulliparous and singleton pregnancies were included for first, second and third trimester groups. TOS (P<0.01), melanodialdehyde (MDA) (P<0.001), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P<0.01), triiodothyronine (T3) (P<0.01), thyroxine (T4) (P<0.01), and homocysteine (P<0.001), in pregnant women were significantly higher as compared to normal healthy women. While serum total proteins (P<0.01), albumin (P<0.01) and total antioxidant status (TAS) (P<0.001) decreased significantly as compared to normal healthy women. Women in third trimester showed a significantly high level of body temperature (P<0.01), triglyceride (P<0.01), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05), AST (P<0.01), T3 (P<0.01), homocysteine (P<0.001), TOS (P<0.01) and MDA (P<0.001) but a lower concentration of serum proteins, albumin and TAS at the end of the pregnancy. Pearson correlation indicated a positive relationship of homocysteine with triglycerides (P<0.027), TOS (P<0.01), MDA (P<0.035) and had a negative relationship with total protein (P<0.026). DNA damage was strongly related with T3 (P<0.008), TOS (P<0.02), MDA (P<0.037) and MBI (P<0.048) profiles of pregnant women. These changes were considered normal for pregnant women having optimum blood pressure and normal child birth. Hormonal influences and hemodilution may contribute towards the observed changes in this study.

  4. [The structure of extragenital pathology in pregnant women with diabetes in endemic by iodine region].

    PubMed

    Bobyk, Iu Iu; Lemish, N Iu

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a complex clinical and paraclinical study of 108 women, 78 of which had diabetes and 30 healthy women that made a control group. In 60.3% of the pregnant patients type 1 diabetes was diagnosed, in 11.5%--type 2. Gestational diabetes was found in 28.2% of pregnant women. The vast number of the surveyed pregnant women (52.6%) was diagnosed with moderate and severe (38.5%) degree of the disease. In 12.5% of them the disease was compensated, in 82.1% subcompensated, while in 5.1%--decompensated. In pregnant women with diabetes a high incidence of extragenital diseases was revealed, the most common of which was iron deficiency anemia, which complicated the pregnancy of more than half of the pregnant of the basic group (57.7%), while in the control--in 13.3% of women (p < 0.05). Thyroid diseases in the study group were more than three times more common compared to the control group (47.4% and 13.3%, p < 0.05), while in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes in 55.3% of the patients. Herewith in 29.4% of cases were diagnosed with hypothyroidism, in 52.9--subclinical hypothyroidism, in 25.5% of pregnant women were found autoimmune thyroiditis. These data indicate the need of screening of the pregnant women with diabetes to identify the pathology of the thyroid gland even if the clinical symptom are absent, particularly in the areas of iodine deficiency.

  5. [Vegetarian diets in the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding women].

    PubMed

    Brzezińska, Małgorzata; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata

    2016-04-01

    Pregnant and breastfeeding women who eat vegetarian are a source of much controversy. This is the result of concern that eliminating some or all animal produce may lead to nutritional deficiencies and thus adversely affect the mother's and child's health. The American Dietetic Association's position is that appropriately planned vegan, lacto-vegetarian and lacto-ovo-vegetarian diets ensure a normal course of pregnancy and lactation. However, in practice the balancing of such a diet can pose certain difficulties, especially for individuals without the necessary experience or knowledge about nutrition. Nutrients to which particular attention needs to be paid to ensure their sufficient supply include: protein (essential amino acids), Omega-3 essential fatty acids, iron and calcium as well as vitamins D and B(12). The proper adherence to recommendations can be attained with a varied diet containing suitable plant products compensating for the nutritional value of the eliminated animal products. Supplementation with vitamin D and vitamin B(12) is also necessary. Research shows that infants born to vegetarian mothers are born at term and have normal birth weight. There is an increased risk of hypospadias in boys. The main difference in the composition of vegetarian mothers' milk compared to non-vegetarians' is lower content of docosahexaenoic acid and higher content of Linoleic and α-Linolenic acid.

  6. Calcium and magnesium status is not impaired in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Vivianne S; Lavanda, Ivana; Nakano, Eduardo Y; Ruano, Rodrigo; Zugaib, Marcelo; Colli, Célia

    2012-07-01

    Deficiencies in calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are associated with various complications during pregnancy. To test the hypothesis that the status of these minerals is inadequate in pregnancy, a cross-sectional study was conducted of the dietary intake and status of Ca and Mg in pregnant women (n = 50) attending a general public university hospital in Brazil. Dietary intake was assessed from 4-day food records; levels of plasma Mg, erythrocyte Mg, and urinary Ca and Mg excretion were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy; and type I collagen C-telopeptides were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Probabilities of inadequate Ca and Mg intake were exhibited by 58 and 98% of the study population, respectively. The mean levels of urinary Ca and Mg excretion were 8.55 and 3.77 mmol/L, respectively. Plasma C-telopeptides, plasma Mg, and erythrocyte Mg were within normal levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed positive relationships among urinary Ca excretion, Ca intake (P = .002) and urinary Mg excretion (P < .001) and between erythrocyte Mg and Mg intake (P = .023). It is concluded that the Ca and Mg status of participants was adequate even though the intake of Ca and Mg was lower than the recommended level.

  7. Eye care services utilisation among pregnant women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Waheed A; Ibraheem, Anifat B; Owonikoko, Musliudeen; Tijani, Aramide; Olamoyegun, Michael Adeyemi; AbdSalam, Soliu

    2016-07-01

    One hundred and sixty-five pregnant Nigerian women attending the antenatal clinic of LAUTECH teaching hospital, Ogbomoso, Nigeria between January and April 2014 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents were obtained. Respondents were also asked: if they had had their eye examined by an eye specialist during the index pregnancy, frequencies of visit to eye care centers and indications for their visitation. A history of previous eye examination by eye care specialist/visit to eye clinic was considered as eye care utilisation. Selection of eligible subjects who consented to participate in the study was done using simple random technique. Logistic regression model was used to control sociodemographic and obstetric factors in order to determine independent covariate factor influencing the use of eye care services. Among the population studied, only 46 (32%) had eye examination during the index pregnancy. Level of education and occupational status of the respondents were found to be statistically significant factors (p = 0.001 and 0.008, respectively). There is a need for a policy that will encourage regular eye care services usage during pregnancy.

  8. Systemic alterations and their oral manifestations in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Silva de Araujo Figueiredo, Camilla; Gonçalves Carvalho Rosalem, Cíntia; Costa Cantanhede, Andre Luis; Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Érika Bárbara; Fontoura Nogueira da Cruz, Maria Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this literature review are: to depict the main oral diseases that are related to pregnancy; to clarify some of the possible systemic mechanisms that are associated with these changes; and to address issues about oral care during pregnancy. A woman's organs undergo various physiological, neurological, and hormonal changes during pregnancy. Such changes occur gradually and are essential for the development of the fetus, providing what is needed for tissue formation and establishment of reserves for uterine and fetal life. In turn, the oral cavity shows some events during this period. Among the changes most frequently cited in the literature are pyogenic granuloma, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The inflammation of the periodontal tissues due to the formation of the biofilm increases dramatically in size and severity during the course of a normal pregnancy, even without changes in the amount of biofilm present. In addition, a decrease in salivary pH is observed in pregnant women and may lead to an increased incidence of dental caries in this period.

  9. Depression and Rural Environment are Associated With Poor Oral Health Among Pregnant Women in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    McNeil, Daniel W; Hayes, Sarah E; Randall, Cameron L; Polk, Deborah E; Neiswanger, Kathy; Shaffer, John R; Weyant, Robert J; Foxman, Betsy; Kao, Elizabeth; Crout, Richard J; Chapman, Stella; Brown, Linda J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Both oral health problems and depression among pregnant women contribute to maternal-infant health outcomes. Little is known, however, about the potential effects of clinically significant depression on the oral health status of pregnant women. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of clinically significant depression and rural- or urban-dwelling status on oral health outcomes among pregnant women. Pregnant women (N = 685) in rural (i.e., West Virginia) and urban (i.e., Pittsburgh, PA) areas of northern Appalachia were assessed by calibrated examiners regarding gingivitis, oral hygiene, and DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth), completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) and provided demographics. Participants were categorized based on clinically significant depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16) and rural/urban domicile. Women with depression and those living in rural areas had worse oral health on all three indices than their non-depressed and urban counterparts. Depression, particularly among women in rural areas, affects certain oral health indices and represents a modifiable target for intervention. Moreover, treatments designed specifically for rural populations may be of particular utility. Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant may benefit from regular depression screenings from their dental and medical health care providers.

  10. Pregnant women in vehicles: Driving habits, position and risk of injury.

    PubMed

    Auriault, F; Brandt, C; Chopin, A; Gadegbeku, B; Ndiaye, A; Balzing, M-P; Thollon, L; Behr, M

    2016-04-01

    This study proposed to broadly examine vehicle use by pregnant women in order to improve realism of accident simulations involving these particular occupants. Three research pathways were developed: the first consisted in a questionnaire survey examining the driving habits of 135 pregnant women, the second obtained measurements of 15 pregnant women driving position in their own vehicle from the 6th to the 9th month of pregnancy by measuring distances between body parts and vehicle parts, and the third examined car accidents involving pregnant occupants. Results obtained indicate that between 90% and 100% of pregnant women wore their seat belts whatever their stage of pregnancy, although nearly one third of subjects considered the seat belt was dangerous for their unborn child. The measurements obtained also showed that the position of the pregnant woman in her vehicle, in relation to the various elements of the passenger compartment, changed significantly during pregnancy. In the studied accidents, no correlation was found between the conditions of the accident and the resulting fetal injury. Results reveal that pregnant women do not modify significantly the seat setting as a function of pregnancy stage. Only the distance between maternal abdomen and steering wheel change significantly, from 16 cm to 12 cm at 6 and 9 month respectively. Pregnant women are mainly drivers before 8 months of pregnancy, passengers after that. Car use frequency falls down rapidly from 6 to 9 months of pregnancy. Real crashes investigations indicate a low rate of casualties, i.e. 342 car accidents involving pregnant women for a period of 9 years in an approximately 1.7 million inhabitants area. No specific injury was found as a function of stage of pregnancy.

  11. Serodiscordance and disclosure among HIV-positive pregnant women in the Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Nacius, Lori A; Levison, Judy; Minard, Charles G; Fasser, Carl; Davila, Jessica A

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women in relationships with HIV-negative men in the United States is unclear. The purpose of this study was to calculate the prevalence of HIV-positive pregnant women with a serodiscordant (HIV-negative) partner within a single clinic population, assess disclosure of their HIV status, and examine factors associated with disclosure. All HIV-positive pregnant women who received prenatal care at the Harris County Hospital District Women's Program at Northwest Health Center in Houston TX between 1/1/2006 and 4/1/2011 were identified. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure was calculated, and predictors of disclosure were evaluated. We identified 212 HIV-positive pregnant women. About 40% had a serodiscordant partner, and 34% had a partner with an unknown HIV status. Disclosure occurred in over 90% of women with a serodiscordant partner and in 68% of women with partners whose HIV status was unknown. Among pregnant women who knew their HIV status prior to the current pregnancy and had a serodiscordant partner, 92% reported disclosing their status prior to conception. Our data indicated that serodiscordant relationships are common in our clinic population. Suboptimal disclosure rates were observed, especially among women who have a partner with an unknown HIV status. Further research is needed to evaluate the prevalence of serodiscordance and disclosure in other United States populations.

  12. Activity of histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women during exacerbation of cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Lutsenko, M T; Andrievskaya, I A

    2014-10-01

    We studied the effect of active cytomegalovirus infection on histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women at gestation weeks 20-22 and its involvement into hemoglobin oxygenation. Using the histochemical technique developed by us, we studied the distribution of products of specific reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women. The percentage of histidine-positive erythrocytes and their area were evaluated. The relationship between the distribution of the products of the reaction for histidine in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women and the titer of anti-cytomegalovirus IgG was revealed. The histidine content in peripheral blood erythrocytes of pregnant women with active cytomegalovirus infection was reduced, which impaired heme binding to globin and decreased the formation of oxyhemoglobin.

  13. Webinar Presentation: The Contribution of Diet to Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women and Children

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, The Contribution of Diet to Pesticide Exposure in Pregnant Women and Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Food and Children's Health held on Dec. 9, 2015.

  14. Distribution and determinants of urinary biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rican pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Cantonwine, David E.; Anzalota Del Toro, Liza V.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Davis, Mark D.; Montesano, M. Angela; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Cordero, José F.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, human exposures to organophosphate (OP) insecticides may pose a significant burden to the health of mothers and their developing fetuses. Unfortunately, relevant data is limited in certain areas of the world concerning sources of exposure to OP insecticides in pregnant populations. To begin to address this gap in information for Puerto Rico, we studied repeated measures of urinary concentrations of 10 OP insecticide metabolites among 54 pregnant women from the northern karst region of the island. We also collected demographic data and self-reported information on the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and legumes in the past 48-hr before urine collection and home pest-related issues. We calculated the distributions of the urinary biomarkers and compared them to women of reproductive age from the general U.S. population. We also used statistical models accounting for correlated data to assess within-subject temporal variability of the urinary biomarkers and to identify predictors of exposure. We found that for all but two metabolites (para-nitrophenol [PNP], diethylthiophosphate [DETP]), 50th or 95th percentile urinary concentrations (the metric that was used for comparison was based on the biomarker’s detection frequency) of the other eight metabolites (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPY], 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine, malathion dicarboxylic acid, diethylphosphate, diethyldithiophosphate, dimethylphosphate, dimethylthiophosphate [DMTP], dimethyldithiophosphate) were somewhat lower in our cohort compared with similarly aged women from the continental United States. TCPY, PNP, DETP, and DMTP, which were the only urinary metabolites detected in greater than 50% of the samples, had poor reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.19–0.28) during pregnancy. Positive predictors of OP insecticide exposure included: age; marital or employment status; consumption of cherries, grape juice, peanuts, peanut butter, or raisins; and

  15. Social factors determining the experience of blindness among pregnant women in developing countries: the case of India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan; Collier-Tenison, Shannon; Bodden, Jamie

    2012-08-01

    Approximately 10 million pregnant women around the world develop night blindness annually. In India, one in 11 pregnant women suffers from night blindness. This study used a nationally representative sample of 35,248 women from India between the ages of 15 and 49 who had given birth in the past five years to understand the effect of women's empowerment on developing blindness during pregnancy. Findings from logistic regression showed that several empowerment-related factors, including women's increased age at the birth of their first child, high school education, and participation in their own health care decisions, significantly reduced the odds of developing blindness, whereas their experience of spousal control, humiliation, and physical abuse significantly increased the odds of developing blindness during pregnancy. Interestingly, antenatal care visits that included nutritional advice and iron supplements during pregnancy had no effect on blindness after controlling for other factors. To reduce blindness during pregnancy in India, more attention should be given to delaying age at marriage and first birth; improving women and girl's education and autonomy; and implementing strategies to reduce spousal control, humiliation, and abuse.

  16. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels.

    PubMed

    Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Candalla, Barbara M; Ehrlich, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the impact of pica, the craving for and intentional ingestion of substances not defined as food, as a risk factor for lead poisoning in New York City (NYC) pregnant women. In order to describe pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) who report pica, NYC health department data from 491 cases of lead-poisoned pregnant women from January 2001 to June 2009 were reviewed. Descriptive frequencies were obtained for women reporting pica. Data were compared between women reporting and not reporting pica. In NYC, of the 43 (9%) lead-poisoned pregnant women reporting pica, 42 (97.7%) were immigrants and 28 (64.6%) had consumed soil. Compared to lead-poisoned pregnant women not reporting pica, women reporting pica had higher peak BLLs (29.5 vs. 23.8 μg/dL, P = 0.0001), were more likely to have had a BLL ≥ 45 μg/dL (OR = 3.3, 95% CI, 1.25, 8.68) and receive chelation (OR = 10.88, 95% CI, 1.49, 79.25), more likely to have emigrated from Mexico (OR = 3.05, 95% CI, 1.38–6.72), and less likely to have completed high school (OR = indeterminate; 0 vs. 34%; P = 0.003). Among NYC lead-poisoned pregnant women, pica was associated with higher peak BLLs. Providers in NYC, and possibly other urban settings, should be vigilant and question pregnant women, especially immigrants, about pica and strongly consider testing this at-risk population for lead poisoning.

  17. 34 CFR 403.82 - In what settings may the Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pregnant women. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 2335(b)) Sex Equity Program ... Homemakers, and Single Pregnant Women Program be offered? 403.82 Section 403.82 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? Single Parents, Displaced Homemakers, and Single Pregnant...

  18. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant...

  19. 40 CFR 26.303 - Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... observational research involving pregnant women and fetuses. 26.303 Section 26.303 Protection of Environment... Protections for Pregnant Women and Fetuses Involved as Subjects in Observational Research Conducted or Supported by EPA § 26.303 Duties of IRBs in connection with observational research involving pregnant...

  20. [Effect of respiratory and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive potential of pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Krivonogova, T S; Gerget, O M; Agarkova, L A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with one of the most promising methods for the assessment of the health status of pregnant women and their children based on information criteria in the framework of an intelligent system. Inter-relations between the revealed adaptation strategies and functional disturbances in the organism are considered with special reference to various types of adaptive reactions in pregnant women and adaptational capacities of their children.

  1. Plasma levels of antiprogestin RU 486 following oral administration to non-pregnant and early pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.

    1986-11-01

    RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.

  2. Interim Guidelines for Pregnant Women During a Zika Virus Outbreak--United States, 2016.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Emily E; Staples, J Erin; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Fischer, Marc; Ellington, Sascha R; Callaghan, William M; Jamieson, Denise J

    2016-01-22

    CDC has developed interim guidelines for health care providers in the United States caring for pregnant women during a Zika virus outbreak. These guidelines include recommendations for pregnant women considering travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and recommendations for screening, testing, and management of pregnant returning travelers. Updates on areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission are available online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/notices/). Health care providers should ask all pregnant women about recent travel. Pregnant women with a history of travel to an area with Zika virus transmission and who report two or more symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, or conjunctivitis) during or within 2 weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of fetal microcephaly or intracranial calcifications, should be tested for Zika virus infection in consultation with their state or local health department. Testing is not indicated for women without a travel history to an area with Zika virus transmission. In pregnant women with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, serial ultrasound examination should be considered to monitor fetal growth and anatomy and referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or infectious disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is recommended. There is no specific antiviral treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is recommended.

  3. Views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study explores the views of pregnant women and clinicians regarding discussion of exposure to phthalate plasticizers during pregnancy, subsequent to the 2011 Health Canada ban of certain phthalates at a concentration greater than 1000 mg/kg in baby toys. This occurred with no regulation of products to which pregnant women are exposed, such as food packaging and cosmetics. Methods Pregnant women, physicians and midwives were recruited through posters and pamphlets in prenatal clinics in Southwestern Ontario for a semi-structured interview. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and subjected to rigorous qualitative analysis through a grounded theory approach, supported by NVIVO™ software. Themes emerged from line by line, open, and axial coding in an iterative manner. Results Theoretical sufficiency was reached after 23 pregnant women and 11 clinicians had been interviewed. The themes (and subthemes from which they arose) were: Theme I-Information Provision (IA-Sources of Information, IB-Standardization, IC-Constraints, ID-Role of Government); Theme II-Risk (IIA-Significant Risk, IIB-Perceived Relevance, IIC-Reconciliation); and Theme III- Factors Influencing Level of Concern (IIIA-Current Knowledge, IIIB-Demographic Factors). Conclusion To respond to the increasing media and research attention regarding risk of phthalates to women, and pregnant women in particular, national professional organizations should provide patient information. This could include pamphlets on what a pregnant woman should know about phthalates and how they can be avoided, as well as information to clinicians to facilitate this discussion. PMID:24952638

  4. Use of Herbal Medicine Among Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care at Nekemte Hospital, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu

    2014-01-01

    Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and use of herbal drugs among pregnant women attending Nekemte Hospital to provide baseline information for future studies. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by quantitative and qualitative approaches to identify the prevalence of using herbal medicines among pregnant women. About 50.4% of study participants used herbal drugs during their pregnancy. The proportion of herbal drug usage was gradually decreased along with the first, second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The most and least commonly used herbs were ginger (44.36%) and tenaadam (9.15 %), respectively. The common indications of herbal remedies use during pregnancy were nausea (23.90%) and morning sickness (21.05%). Results: The result of the present study confirmed wide use of herbal drugs use during pregnancy that need to report the safety concerns of these drugs during pregnancy. Conclusions: To achieve the requirements of pregnant women, it is vital for health care workers to be familiar with the effect of herbal medicine in pregnancy. PMID:25625049

  5. Periodontal disease and some adverse perinatal outcomes in a cohort of low risk pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of periodontal disease (PD) in pregnancy with some adverse perinatal outcomes. Method This cohort study included 327 pregnant women divided in groups with or without PD. Indexes of plaque and gingival bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and gingival recession were evaluated at one periodontal examination below 32 weeks of gestation. The rates of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) neonates and prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM) were evaluated using Risk Ratios (95%CI) and Population Attributable Risk Fractions. Results PD was associated with a higher risk of PTB (RRadj. 3.47 95%CI 1.62-7.43), LBW (RRadj. 2.93 95%CI 1.36-6.34) and PROM (RRadj. 2.48 95%CI 1.35-4.56), but not with SGA neonates (RR 2.38 95%CI 0.93 - 6.10). Conclusions PD was a risk factor for PT, LBW and PROM among Brazilian low risk pregnant women. PMID:21047427

  6. Factors Influencing Prevention and Control of Malaria among Pregnant Women Resident in Urban Slums, Southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dako-Gyeke, Mavis; Kofie, Humphrey M

    2015-03-01

    Throughout Africa and particularly in Ghana, there are concerns about malaria infection during pregnancy. This study aimed to investigate factors that influence malaria prevention and control practices among pregnant women residing in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno in Accra, Ghana. One hundred and twenty pregnant women between ages 18-49 were randomly recruited during antenatal sessions at a maternity facility in Accra, as participants for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which were analysed using SPSS version16.0. It was found that in Chorkor and Korle-Gonno, 57.4% and 42.6% participants respectively reported having been infected with malaria during their current pregnancy. There was no significant relationship between religious beliefs of participants and their malaria prevention and control practices (X2 = 0.28, P = .53). However, there was a significant relationship between malaria prevention and control practices of participants and their income earning (X2 = 53.94, P = .00) and employment (X2 = 61.76, P = .00) statuses. With the exception of ethnicity (X2 = 35.62, P =.22), other socio-cultural conditions had a significant relationship with malaria prevention and control practices of the participants. The findings suggest the need to consider and integrate factors, such as poverty and poor living conditions in malaria prevention and control strategies.

  7. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Paciorek, Christopher J; Flaxman, Seth R; Branca, Francesco; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Low haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia are important risk factors for the health and development of women and children. We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011. Methods We obtained data about haemoglobin and anaemia for children aged 6–59 months and women of childbearing age (15–49 years) from 257 population-representative data sources from 107 countries worldwide. We used health, nutrition, and household surveys; summary statistics from WHO's Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System; and summary statistics reported by other national and international agencies. We used a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. We quantified the uncertainty of our estimates. Findings Global mean haemoglobin improved slightly between 1995 and 2011, from 125 g/L (95% credibility interval 123–126) to 126 g/L (124–128) in non-pregnant women, from 112 g/L (111–113) to 114 g/L (112–116) in pregnant women, and from 109 g/L (107–111) to 111 g/L (110–113) in children. Anaemia prevalence decreased from 33% (29–37) to 29% (24–35) in non-pregnant women, from 43% (39–47) to 38% (34–43) in pregnant women, and from 47% (43–51) to 43% (38–47) in children. These prevalences translated to 496 million (409–595 million) non-pregnant women, 32 million (28–36 million) pregnant women, and 273 million (242–304 million) children with anaemia in 2011. In 2011, concentrations of mean haemoglobin were lowest and anaemia prevalence was highest in south Asia and central and west Africa. Interpretation Children's and women's haemoglobin statuses improved in some regions where concentrations had been low in the 1990s, leading to a modest global increase in

  8. A micronutrient-fortified beverage prevents iron deficiency, reduces anemia and improves the hemoglobin concentration of pregnant Tanzanian women.

    PubMed

    Makola, Diklar; Ash, Deborah M; Tatala, Simon R; Latham, Michael C; Ndossi, Godwin; Mehansho, Haile

    2003-05-01

    Maternal malnutrition continues to be a major contributor to adverse reproductive outcomes in developing countries, despite longstanding efforts to fortify foods or to distribute medicinal supplements to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to test the effect of a micronutrient-fortified beverage containing 11 micronutrients (iron, iodine, zinc, vitamin A, vitamin C, niacin, riboflavin, folate, vitamin B-12, vitamin B-6 and vitamin E) on the hemoglobin, iron and vitamin A status of pregnant women in Tanzania. A group of 259 pregnant women with gestational ages of 8 to 34 wk were enrolled in a randomized double-blind controlled trial in which study women received 8 wk of supplementation. Hemoglobin, ferritin and dried blood spot retinol were measured at baseline and at the end of the supplementation period. The supplement resulted in a 4.16 g/L increase in hemoglobin concentration and a 3 micro g/L increase in ferritin and reduced the risk of anemia and iron deficiency anemia by 51 and 56%, respectively. The risk of iron deficiency was reduced by 70% among those who had iron deficiency at baseline and by 92% among those who had adequate stores. The micronutrient-fortified beverage may be a useful and convenient preventative measure, one that could help improve the nutritional status of women both before and during pregnancy and thereby help avoid some of the potential maternal and fetal consequences of micronutrient deficiencies.

  9. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... Programs which serve an injecting drug abuse population and who receive Block Grant funds shall give preference to treatment as follows: (1) Pregnant injecting drug users; (2) Pregnant substance abusers; (3) Injecting drug users; and (4) All others. (b) The State will, in carrying out this provision publicize...

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis infection among young pregnant women in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Angelica E; Pinto, Valdir M; Gaydos, Charlotte A

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis and its associated risk factors in parturient women aged 15-24 years attending Brazilian public maternity units. Participants answered a demographic, behavioral, and clinical data questionnaire. A sample of urine was screened for T. vaginalis. A total 299 women participated in this study. The prevalence rate of T. vaginalis was 7.7% (95% CI: 4.7-10.7%). The factors associated with T. vaginalis were use of illicit drugs [OR=4.70 (95% CI: 1.63-13.56, p=0.004)] and not attending antenatal care [OR=5.15 (95% CI: 1.15-23.25, p=0.032)]. These data demonstrate that it is important to discuss how to include routine screening for T. vaginalis during antenatal care in Brazil.

  11. Salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA in Brazilian pregnant and non-pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Rockenbach, Maria I; Marinho, Sandra A; Veeck, Elaine B; Lindemann, Laura; Shinkai, Rosemary S

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies on salivary variables and pregnancy in Latin America are scarce. This study aimed to compare salivary flow rate, pH, and concentrations of calcium, phosphate, and sIgA of unstimulated whole saliva in pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians. Methods Cross-sectional study. Sample was composed by 22 pregnant and 22 non-pregnant women attending the Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, São Lucas Hospital, in Porto Alegre city, South region of Brazil. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected to determine salivary flow rate, pH, and biochemical composition. Data were analyzed by Student t test and ANCOVA (two-tailed α = 0.05). Results No difference was found for salivary flow rates and concentrations of total calcium and phosphate between pregnant and non-pregnant women (p > 0.05). Pregnant women had lower pH (6.7) than non-pregnant women (7.5) (p < 0.001), but higher sIgA level (118.9 mg/L) than the latter (90.1 mg/L) (p = 0.026). Conclusion Some of the tested variables of unstimulated whole saliva were different between pregnant and non-pregnant Brazilians in this sample. Overall, the values of the tested salivary parameters were within the range of international references of normality. PMID:17132167

  12. Iron Supplementation Alters Heme and Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) Levels In Pregnant Women in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Salifu, Hassana; Wilson, Nana O.; Liu, Mingli; Dickinson-Copeland, Carmen; Yatich, Nelly; Keenan, John; Turpin, Cornelius; Jolly, Pauline; Gyasi, Richard; Adjei, Andrew A.; Stiles, Jonathan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Iron supplementation is recommended for pregnant women to meet their iron requirement for a healthy pregnancy. The benefits and risks of universal iron supplementation during pregnancy in malaria endemic countries are currently being debated. As part of a broader study that focused on the effect of heme/HO-1 on pregnancy outcomes in malaria in pregnancy, we determined the association between iron supplementation and free heme levels in blood of pregnant women with and without malaria in Ghana. We hypothesized that pregnant women with malaria who took iron supplements will have higher levels of Heme/HO-1 than those who did not take iron supplements. Methods A total of 337 women were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for malaria diagnosis and heme/HO-1 measurement. Quantification of heme was done using a heme colorimetric assay kit and HO-1 levels were performed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) on plasma samples. Results Malaria positive iron supplemented women, in their third trimester, had significantly higher median levels of heme 59.3(43.1 – 60.4) than non-malaria iron supplemented women 35.7(33.0 – 62.2), p = 0.026. Also, malaria positive iron supplemented women had significant higher median levels of HO-16.2(IQR 4.9 – 8.1) than pregnant women who did not take iron supplements 2.9 (IQR 2.1 – 3.8), p = <0.001 Conclusion Although iron supplementation may be highly beneficial and improve pregnancy outcomes for iron deficient or anemic mothers, it is also likely that iron supplementation for pregnant women who are not iron deficient may put this group of women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Findings from this study sheds light on the effect of iron supplementation on malaria derived heme in pregnancy, which may inform how iron supplementation is recommended for pregnant women who are not iron deficient. PMID:28124024

  13. Physician Counseling of Pregnant Women About Active and Second-hand Smoking in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Raul; Martinez, Valeria Guil; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Describe physicians' practices of smoking cessation and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure counseling during prenatal visits. Design Cross-sectional survey Setting 13 public and private hospitals from three cities in Argentina Population 300 obstetrician/gynecologists Methods Self-administered survey included knowledge and attitudes about tobacco use during pregnancy, frequency, type and duration of smoking cessation counseling, barriers to counseling, communication skills, level of understanding, and personal smoking history. Main Outcome Measures Composite outcomes of 4 items, each representative of counseling on smoking cessation and SHS exposure. Results 235 (78.3%) questionnaires were completed; 54.5% men, mean age 45, 35% current smokers. Only 22% had received training in smoking cessation counseling and 48.5% reported insufficient knowledge to provide smoking cessation advice. Although 88.9% always or almost always advised women to stop smoking, 75% believed it was acceptable for pregnant women to smoke up to 6 cigarettes per day. The risk of SHS exposure was “always or almost always discussed” by only 34.5% of physicians. Multivariate logistic regression showed that lack of training was associated with less counseling about smoking cessation (OR 0.18; 95%CI 0.04-0.82) and SHS exposure (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.12-0.59). Current compared to never smokers had lower odds of smoking cessation counseling (OR 0.39; 95%CI 0.05-0.82). Current smokers were less likely than former smokers to counsel about SHS (OR 0.25, 95%CI 0.11-0.62). Conclusions Smoking cessation counseling during pregnancy in Argentina occurs infrequently, interventions are needed to assist physicians motivate and counsel women to quit smoking and avoid SHS exposure. Physicians taking care of pregnant women also need to quit smoking. PMID:20367427

  14. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Amany M; Ahmed, Azza K; Abdellatif, Manal Z M; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2015-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women.

  15. Seropositivity of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women by ELISA at Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Amany M.; Ahmed, Azza K.; Abdellatif, Manal Z. M.; Tawfik, Mohamed; Hassan, Ebtesam E.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is considered as an important risk factor for bad obstetric history (BOH) and one of the major causes of congenitally acquired infections. The present study aimed to estimate the seropositivity of T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among the attendees of high risk pregnancy and low risk antenatal care clinic of Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt. The study was carried out from April 2013 to April 2014 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. A total of 120 high risk pregnant and 120 normal pregnant females were submitted to clinical examinations, serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA, and an interview questionnaire. Seropositive cases were subjected to spiramycin course treatment. The results showed that the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in high-risk pregnancy group was 50.8%, which was significantly different from that of normal pregnancy group (P<0.05). Analysis of seropositive women in relation to BOH showed that abortion was the commonest form of the pregnancy wastage (56.5%). The high prevalence of T. gondii seropositive cases was observed in the age group of 21-30 years. Post-delivery adverse outcome was observed in 80.3% of high-risk pregnancy group compared to 20% of normal pregnancy group. There was a statistically significant relationship between seropositivity and living in rural area, low socioeconomic level, and undercooked meat consumption (P<0.05). Serological screening for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies should be routine tests especially among high-risk pregnant women. PMID:26537040

  16. Obesity and periodontal disease in diabetic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Chapper, Ana; Munch, Artur; Schermann, Camila; Piacentini, Carolina Carraro; Fasolo, Maria Thereza Martins

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the impact of pregestational overweight and obesity on periodontal status of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Sixty pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were recruited for the study. According to the pregestational body mass index (BMI), patients were classified into 3 groups: normal, overweight or obese. The periodontal assessment parameters were the presence of gingival bleeding (GB) and bleeding on probing (BOP) per tooth. Clinical attachment loss (CAL) was assessed per tooth and classified according to following values: 1) absence of attachment loss; 2) between 1 and 2 mm, 3) between 3 and 5 mm; and 4) CAL > or = 6 mm. The means of individual percentage of teeth with GB and BOP and the means of the individual classified values of CAL were compared through ANOVA. Differences between the groups were established through post hoc Bonferroni test for multiple comparisons (p < 0.05). The analysis revealed significant differences between the normal group and the obese group considering GB (52.76% +/- 27.99% and 78.85% +/- 27.44%, respectively) and CAL (2.21 +/- 0.41 and 2.61 +/- 0.54, respectively). Although an increase was found in BOP as the BMI increased (ranging from 55.65% to 75.31%), no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Patients with GDM and pregestational obesity had significantly more gingivitis and periodontal attachment loss that those with normal pregestational BMI. Periodontal treatment should be considered in the establishment of future recommendations for metabolic control for this special group of patients.

  17. Online nutrition information for pregnant women: a content analysis.

    PubMed

    Storr, Tayla; Maher, Judith; Swanepoel, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Pregnant women actively seek health information online, including nutrition and food-related topics. However, the accuracy and readability of this information have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe and evaluate pregnancy-related food and nutrition information available online. Four search engines were used to search for pregnancy-related nutrition web pages. Content analysis of web pages was performed. Web pages were assessed against the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines to assess accuracy. Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), Gunning Fog Index (FOG) and Flesch reading ease (FRE) formulas were used to assess readability. Data was analysed descriptively. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between web page characteristics. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to check for differences among readability and other web page characteristics. A total of 693 web pages were included. Web page types included commercial (n = 340), not-for-profit (n = 113), blogs (n = 112), government (n = 89), personal (n = 36) and educational (n = 3). The accuracy of online nutrition information varied with 39.7% of web pages containing accurate information, 22.8% containing mixed information and 37.5% containing inaccurate information. The average reading grade of all pages analysed measured by F-K, SMOG and FOG was 11.8. The mean FRE was 51.6, a 'fairly difficult to read' score. Only 0.5% of web pages were written at or below grade 6 according to F-K, SMOG and FOG. The findings suggest that accuracy of pregnancy-related nutrition information is a problem on the internet. Web page readability is generally difficult and means that the information may not be accessible to those who cannot read at a sophisticated level. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Presence and resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae in vaginal specimens of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women and association with other aerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina

    2017-02-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy.

  19. Understanding pregnant women's attitudes and behavior toward influenza and pertussis vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Kerrie E; Cooper, Spring C; Wood, Nicholas; Leask, Julie

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, pregnant and postpartum women have been the focus of influenza and pertussis immunization campaigns, with differing levels of vaccine acceptance. We used semistructured interviews to explore pregnant women's perspectives on influenza vaccination during pregnancy and postpartum pertussis vaccination. Many women saw pregnancy as a busy time filled with advice on what they "should" and "should not" do to ensure the health of their fetus, and vaccinating themselves was regarded as just one of these tasks needing consideration. Women were more concerned about potential risks to their infants' health before their own. They saw influenza as a disease affecting the mother, whereas they viewed pertussis as a threat to the baby and therefore comparatively more risky. They were thus more likely to intend to vaccinate against pertussis to protect their infant. Framing of vaccination information toward protection of the baby might help increase vaccine uptake among pregnant women.

  20. [Caries and periodontal state of pregnant women. Part II. Periodontal state].

    PubMed

    Radnai, Márta; Gorzó, István; Nagy, Erzsébet; Urbán, Edit; Eller, József; Novák, Tibor; Pál, Attila

    2005-06-01

    A great number of clinical studies focused on the periodontal health of the pregnant women in the last decades, since an association has been presumed between the pregnant women's periodontal disease and the adverse pregnancy outcome. Altogether 161 healthy women were examined soon after delivery in Szeged/Hungary. The periodontal status of the patients was recorded by the Silness-Löe Plaque index (0.67), frequency of calculus (21.07%), mean probing pocket depth (1.67 mm) and the frequency of bleeding on probing (37.8%). A significant correlation was found between the state of the periodontium and the educational level and the pregnant women's profession. The periodontal state of women with higher education and the intellectuals was much better, than of the less educated patients and the manual workers.

  1. Influenza vaccination acceptance among diverse pregnant women and its impact on infant immunization

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M; Zhang, Siyu; Saint-Victor, Diane S; Schade, Ashley C; Benedict, Samantha; Banan, Maral; Ren, Xiang; Omer, Saad B

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined pregnant women’s likelihood of vaccinating their infants against seasonal influenza via a randomized message framing study. Using Prospect Theory, we tested gain- and loss-frame message effects and demographic and psychosocial correlates of influenza immunization intention. We also explored interactions among pregnant women who viewed “Contagion” to understand cultural influences on message perception. Methods: Pregnant women ages 18–50 participated in a randomized message framing study from September 2011 through May 2012 that included exposure to intervention or control messages, coupled with questionnaire completion. Venue-based sampling was used to recruit racial and ethnic minority female participants at locations throughout Atlanta, Georgia. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate key outcomes. Results: The study population (n = 261) included many lower income (≤ $20 000/yearly household earnings) pregnant participants (69.2%, n = 171) inclusive of Black/African Americans (88.5%, n = 230), Hispanic/Latinas (7.3%, n = 19), and Other/Multicultural women (4.2%, n = 11). Both gain [OR = 2.13, 90% CI: (1.120, 4.048)] and loss-frame messages [OR = 2.02, 90% CI: (1.083, 3.787)] were significantly associated with infant influenza vaccination intention compared with the control condition. Intention to immunize against influenza during pregnancy had a strong effect on intent to immunize infants [OR = 10.83, 90%CI: (4.923, 23.825)]. Those who had seen the feature film “Contagion” (n = 54, 20.69%) viewed gain- and loss-framed messages as appealing (x2 = 6.03, p = 0.05), novel (x2 = 6.24, p = 0.03), and easy to remember (x2 = 16.33, P = 0.0003). Conclusions: In this population, both gain- and loss-framed messages were positively associated with increased maternal intent to immunize infants against influenza. Message resonance was enhanced among those who saw the film “Contagion.” Additionally, history of

  2. Preventing abuse to pregnant women: implementation of a "mentor mother" advocacy model.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, J; Wiist, W

    1997-01-01

    Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.

  3. Vaccines in pregnancy: The dual benefit for pregnant women and infants

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, H.; McMillan, M.; Andrews, R. M.; Macartney, K.; Edwards, K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal immunization has the potential to reduce the burden of infectious diseases in the pregnant woman and her infant. Many countries now recommend immunization against influenza at any stage of pregnancy and against pertussis in the third trimester. Despite evidence of the safety and effectiveness of these vaccines when administered during pregnancy, uptake generally remains low for influenza and moderate for pertussis vaccine. Enhancing confidence in both immunization providers and pregnant women by increasing the evidence-base for the safety and effectiveness of vaccines during pregnancy, improving communication and access by incorporating immunization into standard models of antenatal care are likely to improve uptake. Developing a framework for implementation of vaccines for pregnant women which is cognizant of local and national cultural, epidemiological, behavioral and societal factors will enable a smooth transition and high uptake for new vaccines currently in development for pregnant women. PMID:26857450

  4. The OptiMUM-study: EMDR therapy in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder after previous childbirth and pregnant women with fear of childbirth: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Baas, M. A. M.; Stramrood, C. A. I.; Dijksman, L. M.; de Jongh, A.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the protocol of the OptiMUM-study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with childbirth-related PTSD or FoC. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of this approach will be analysed. Method: The single-blind OptiMUM-study consists of two two-armed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overlapping design. In several hospitals and community midwifery practices in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, all eligible pregnant women with a gestational age between eight and 20 weeks will be administered the Wijma delivery expectations questionnaire (WDEQ) to asses FoC. Multiparous women will also receive the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to screen for possible PTSD. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS-5) will be used for assessing PTSD according to DSM-5 in women scoring above the PCL-5 cut-off value. Fifty women with childbirth-related PTSD and 120 women with FoC will be randomly allocated to either EMDR therapy carried out by a psychologist or care-as-usual. Women currently undergoing psychological treatment or women younger than 18 years will not be included. Primary outcome measures are severity of childbirth-related PTSD or FoC symptoms. Secondary outcomes are percentage of PTSD diagnoses, percentage caesarean sections, subjective childbirth experience, obstetrical and neonatal complications

  5. Demographic and behavioral predictors of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among pregnant women. The Vaginal Infections and Prematurity Study Group.

    PubMed

    Cotch, M F; Pastorek, J G; Nugent, R P; Yerg, D E; Martin, D H; Eschenbach, D A

    1991-12-01

    There is little available information on the demographic and behavioral factors associated with Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnant women. Among 13,816 women from six urban clinic centers, the prevalence rate by culture at mid-pregnancy was 12.6%. Women colonized with T vaginalis were significantly more likely to be black, cigarette smokers, unmarried, and less educated (all P less than .01). Several behavioral factors associated with T vaginalis included greater numbers of sexual partners both lifetime and in the last year, 5 years or more of sexual activity, and a history of gonorrhea (all P less than .01). Trichomonas vaginalis-colonized women were less sexually active in the preceding month compared with uncolonized women (P less than .01). Women using either barrier or oral contraception in the 6 months before becoming pregnant were far less likely to be colonized (P less than .01). Other factors such as age, gravidity, income level, age at first coitus, and use of antibiotics, alcohol, or douche during pregnancy were not independently associated with T vaginalis colonization. Because many of the factors predictive of increased risk of colonization have also been shown to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, they should be considered in assessing the association of T vaginalis with adverse pregnancy outcome.

  6. Performance of Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt Medium for Group B Streptococcus Screening in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Simone Cristina Castanho Sabaini; Gavena, Angela Andréia França; Silva, Flávia Teixeira Ribeiro; Moreira, Ricardo Castanho; de Lima Scodro, Regiane Bertin; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti; Siqueira, Vera Lúcia Dias; de Pádua, Rúbia Andreia Faleiros; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa

    2015-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS), which commonly colonizes the female genital tract and rectum, can cause infections in newborns with varying severity, possibly leading to death. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Hitchens-Pike-Todd-Hewitt (HPTH) medium performance for GBS screening in pregnant women. A descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was performed with 556 pregnant women, of which 496 were at 35-37 weeks of gestation and 60 were at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation. The study was conducted from September 2011 to March 2014 in northern Paraná, Brazil. Vaginal and anorectal clinical specimens from each pregnant woman were plated on sheep blood agar (SBA) and seeded on HPTH medium and Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 496 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, 141 (28.4%) were positive for GBS, based on the combination of the three culture media and clinical specimens. The GBS colonization rates that were detected by each medium were 22.2% for HPTH medium, 21.2% for SBA, and 13.1% for Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth. Of the 60 pregnant women at ≥ 38 weeks of gestation, seven (11.7%) were positive for GBS. These results demonstrate that HPTH medium and SBA were more sensitive than Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth for GBS screening in pregnant women and good GBS recovery in culture, indicating that the two media should be used together for vaginal and anorectal specimens. PMID:25881083

  7. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Terrones-Saldívar, María del Carmen; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Muñoz-Terrones, María Daniela Enriqueta; Gallegos-González, Roberto Oswaldo; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Reyes-Robles, Martha Elena; Jaramillo-Juárez, Fernando; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Estrada-Martínez, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We determined the seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Aguascalientes City, Mexico. Design A cross-sectional survey. Setting Pregnant women were enrolled in the central Mexican city of Aguascalientes. Participants We studied 338 pregnant women who attended prenatal care in 3 public health centres. Primary and secondary outcome measures Women were examined for IgG/IgM antibodies to T. gondii by using commercially available enzyme immunoassays, and an avidity test. Multiple analyses were used to determine the association of T. gondii seropositivity with the characteristics of the pregnant women. Results Of the 338 pregnant women studied, 21 (6.2%) had IgG antibodies to T. gondii, and 1 (4.8%) of them was also positive for IgM antibodies to T. gondii. Avidity of IgG antibodies to T. gondii was high in the IgM-positive sample. Logistic regression analysis of sociodemographic, behavioural and housing variables showed that T. gondii seropositivity was associated with white ethnicity (OR=149.4; 95% CI 10.8 to 2054.1; p<0.01), not washing hands before eating (OR=6.41; 95% CI 1.73 to 23.6; p=0.005) and use of latrine (OR=37.6; 95% CI 4.63 to 306.31; p=0.001). Conclusions Results demonstrate that pregnant women in Aguascalientes City have a low seroprevalence of T. gondii infection. However, this low prevalence indicates that most pregnant women are at risk for a primary infection. Factors associated with T. gondii exposure found in this study, including food hygiene, may be useful to determine preventive measures against T. gondii infection and its sequelae. PMID:27371556

  8. Preliminary report of HIV and Toxoplasma gondii occurrence in pregnant women from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Sitoe, Sonia Paula Benedito Luis; Rafael, Bernardete; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Andrade, Heitor Franco de; Thompson, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, a protozoan disease, causes severe disease in fetuses during pregnancy and deadly encephalitis in HIV patients. There are several studies on its seroprevalence around the world, but studies focusing on African countries are limited in number and mostly anecdotal. We studied two groups of samples from Mozambique by ELISA, using serum samples from 150 pregnant women and six Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from AIDS patients with encephalitis. HIV status was confirmed, and CD4 blood counts were obtained from HIV-positive pregnant women. IgG seroprevalence of the group as a whole was 18.7% (28/150), with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive individuals compared to those who were HIV-negative (31.3%, [18/58] vs. 10.9%, [10/92]) patients. These data may be biased due to cumulative effects of exposition affecting disease prevalence. If corrected, this data may indicate an interaction of HIV and T. gondii. Prevalence of both diseases increases with age, but this is more clearly seen for toxoplasmosis (p < 0.005) than HIV infection, possibly explained by higher transmission of HIV after childhood. In HIV patients suffering from encephalitis, CSF serology showed that 33% of specific IgG CSF had a high avidity, which was in accordance with the data from the group of pregnant women. Lower prevalence rates of both infections in older groups could be explained by more deaths in the infected groups, resulting in an artificially lower prevalence. Using CD4 counts as a marker of time of HIV infection, and correcting for age, patients with contact with T. gondii had fewer CD4 cells, suggesting prolonged HIV disease or other causes. Toxoplasma IgG prevalence is higher in HIV+ groups, which could be ascribed to HIV- and T. gondii-associated risk factors, such as exposure to higher and more diverse social contacts. The low incidence of Toxoplasma IgG in younger age groups shows that transmission could be related to better access to cyst-containing meat in adulthood, as

  9. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Masoumeh; Malekafzali, Hossein; Simbar, Masoumeh; Seyed Mosaavi, Hassan; Merghati Khoei, Effat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life is affected by electromagnetic field exposure in each person everyday life. However, this is extremely controversial issue. Objective: Investigation of the associations between electromagnetic field exposure and miscarriage among women of Tehran. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 462 pregnant women with gestational age <12 wks from seven main regions of Tehran city in Iran with similar social and cultural status were participated. Women were interviewed face-to face to collect data. Reproductive information was collected using medical file recorded in those hospitals the subjects had delivery. The measuring device measured electromagnetic waves, Narda safety test solutions with valid calibration date at the entrance door of their houses. Results: A significant likelihood of miscarriage in women who exposed to significant level of electromagnetic wave. However, this association was not confirmed by Wald test. Conclusion: This study may not provide strong or consistent evidence that electromagnetic field exposure is associated or cause miscarriage. This issue may be due to small sample size in this study. PMID:27326421

  10. Determinants of second pregnancy among pregnant women: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianglong; Zuo, Hanxiao; Rao, Yunshuang; Wang, LianLian; Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Lei; Sharma, Manoj; Reis, Cesar; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to explore determinants of second pregnancy and underlying reasons among pregnant Chinese women. Design The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey. Setting 16 hospitals in 5 provinces of Mainland China were included. Participants A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years or above were surveyed face to face by investigators between June and August 2015. Main outcome measures The pregnancy statuses (first or second pregnancy) and reasons for entering second pregnancy. Results A total of 1755 (74.8%) and 590 (25.2%) women in their respective first and second pregnancies were enrolled in this study. The most common self-reported reasons for entering second pregnancy among participants included the benefits to the first child (26.1%), love of children (25.8%), adoption of the 2-child policy (11.5%), concerns about losing the first child (7.5%) and suggestions from parents (7.5%). Pregnant women with low (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.96; 95% CI 1.62 to 2.36) and moderate education level (PR 1.97; 95% CI 1.65 to 2.36) were more likely to have a second pregnancy than their higher educated counterparts. Income was inversely associated with second pregnancy. However, unemployed participants (PR 0.79; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95) were less likely to enter a second pregnancy than those employed. Women with moderate education were 3 times more likely to have a second child following the ‘2-child policy’ than the low education level subgroup. Conclusions 1 in every 4 pregnant women is undergoing a second pregnancy. The benefits of the firstborn or the love of children were the key drivers of a second pregnancy. Low socioeconomic status was positively associated with a second pregnancy as well. The new 2-child policy will have an influence on China's demographics. PMID:28348193

  11. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in west Iran: determined by ELISA and PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpour, Gholam Reza; Ezatpour, Behrouz; Hadighi, Ramtin; Oormazdi, Hormoz; Akhlaghi, Lame; Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Azami, Mehdi; Nejad, Mozafar Mohammadi; Mahmoudvand, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Congenital toxoplasmosis can lead to severe damage for the fetus and newborn. Considering that the seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma infection in the pregnant women is poorly studied in west of Iran, the main objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence and potential risk factors for congenital toxoplasmosis in Delfan, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, the serum samples obtained from pregnant women who were referred to health centers for routine monitoring of the pregnancy. Totally, 264 sera were screened for IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. All women with IgM anti-T. gondii positive checked by RT-PCR and confirmed. In addition, structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM were positive in 66 (25 %) and 15 (5.7 %) respectively. Seropositive subjects were more frequently seen in those with >30 years old compared to younger women (<25 years old) (p < 0.001). No significant relationship was found between the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and level of education, and gestational age (p > 0.05), while there was statistical difference between the infection with cat exposure, consumption of raw/undercooked meat, eating raw or uncooked eggs, consumption of unwashed vegetables and drinking unpasteurized milk (p < 0.001). In the present study, it was found that T. gondii infection was present among pregnant women in west of Iran. Therefore, it is suggested to provide health education for preventing primary infection during pregnancy and subsequently congenital toxoplasmosis in the pregnant women.

  12. Depression, Social Support, and Coping Styles among Pregnant Women after the Lushan Earthquake in Ya’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianrong; Li, Xirong; Liu, Xinghui; Pang, Meiche

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya’an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%). The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa. Conclusion The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major

  13. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  14. Iron and iodine deficiencies among under-2 children, adolescent girls, and pregnant women of Bangladesh: association with common diseases.

    PubMed

    Harun-Or-Rashid, M; Khatun, Uh Farida; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Morita, Satoshi; Chowdhury, Nuruddin; Sakamoto, Junichi

    2009-02-01

    We examined the frequency of iron and iodine deficiencies and associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases among under-2 children, adolescent girls, and pregnant women of Bangladesh. We assayed the blood hemoglobin concentration in 395 under-2 children, 355 adolescent girls, and 263 pregnant women, the urinary iodine concentration of those adolescent girls and pregnant women, and the iodine level of all household salt specimens. The history of common diseases within their previous 2 weeks were also obtained from recall to explore the associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases. Anemia was found in 49.1% of children, 24.8% of adolescent girls, and 44.4% of pregnant women using defined cut-off values (Hb < 11.0 g/dL for under-2 children and pregnant women; <12.0 g/dL for adolescent girls). Prevalence of iodine deficiencies (urinary iodine <100 microg/L) was 38.4% in adolescent girls and 39.4% in pregnant women, and 39.4% of salt specimens had inadequate iodine (<15 ppm). The relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated and adjusted for age, sex, and gestational age to explore the associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases. The RR of anemia was increased for fever (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.3-2.3), ear infection (RR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.3-8.5), skin disease (RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9-2.2), and pneumonia (RR = 3.7, 95% CI = 0.7-19.5). The RR of iodine deficiency was elevated for diarrhea/dysentery (RR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1l-4.4) and eye infection (RR = 2.1, 95% CI = 0.5-9.4). We concluded that iron and iodine deficiencies are quite high among the Bangladeshi population. Observed associations of iron and iodine deficiencies with common diseases indicated the necessity of eliminating iron and iodine deficiencies from this vulnerable population through strengthening of iron and iodine supplementation, in order to prevent diseases and promote health conditions.

  15. Urogenital consequences in ageing women.

    PubMed

    Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Chrysanthopoulou, Eleftheria L

    2013-10-01

    Various anatomical, physiological, genetic, lifestyle and reproductive factors interact throughout a woman's life span and contribute to pelvic floor disorders. Ageing affects pelvic floor anatomy and function, which can result in a variety of disorders, such as pelvic organ prolapse, lower urinary tract symptoms, dysfunctional bowel and bladder evacuation, and sexual dysfunction. The exact mechanisms and pathophysiological processes by which ageing affects pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function are not always clear. In most cases, it is difficult to ascertain the exact role of ageing per se as an aetiological, predisposing or contributing factor. Other conditions associated with ageing that may co-exist, such as changes in mental status, can result in different types of pelvic floor dysfunction (e.g. functional incontinence). Pelvic organ dysfunction may be associated with significant morbidity and affect quality of life. These groups of patients often pose difficult diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas owing to complex medical conditions and concurrent morbidities. In this chapter, we summarise the current evidence on the management of pelvic floor disorders, with emphasis on elderly women and the associations between the ageing process and these disorders. Clinicians with an understanding of the affect of ageing on the pelvic floor and lower urinary and gastrointestinal tract anatomy and function, and the complex interplay of other comorbidities, will be able to investigate, diagnose and treat appropriately there women. A holistic approach may result in substantial improvements in their quality of life.

  16. More Pregnant Women Getting Flu Shot, But Improvement Needed

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are or might become pregnant during flu season be vaccinated," according to a team led by ... 2005. The investigators found that in the flu seasons before the 2009-2010 H1N1 flu pandemic, only ...

  17. Maternal and foetal outcomes among pregnant women hospitalised due to interpersonal violence: A population based study in Western Australia, 2002-2008

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Interpersonal violence is responsible for more ill-health and premature death in women under the age of 45 than other preventable health conditions, but findings concerning the effects of violence during pregnancy on both maternal and foetal health have been inconsistent. Methods A retrospective population-based cohort study was undertaken using linked data from the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection and the Western Australian Midwives' Notification System from 2002 to 2008. The aim was to determine the association between exposure to interpersonal violence during pregnancy and adverse maternal and foetal health outcomes at the population level. Results A total of 468 pregnant women were hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence during the study period, and 3,744 randomly selected pregnant women were included as the comparison group. The majority of violent events were perpetrated by the pregnant women's partner or spouse. Pregnant Indigenous women were over-represented accounting for 67% of all hospitalisations due to violence and their risk of experiencing adverse maternal outcomes was significantly increased compared to non-Indigenous women (adjusted odds ratio 1.53, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.95, p = 0.01). Pregnant women hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence sustained almost double the risk for adverse maternal complications than the non-exposed group (95% CI 1.34 to 2.18, p < 0.001). The overall risk for adverse foetal complications for pregnant women exposed to violence was increased two-fold (95% CI 1.50 to 2.76, p < 0.001). Conclusions The risk of adverse health outcomes for both the mother and the baby increases if a pregnant woman is hospitalised for an incident of interpersonal violence during pregnancy. PMID:21989086

  18. How well are pregnant women in Croatia informed about the oral glucose tolerance test?

    PubMed Central

    Kocijancic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preanalytical errors still constitute the largest source of errors in laboratory work. Proper patient preparation and patient’s knowledge about a particular procedure affects its accuracy and reliability. We hypothesized that most of pregnant women are not well enough informed about the proper procedure for the OGTT. The aims of this study were to investigate: (i) how well pregnant women are informed about the OGTT; (ii) the most common way to inform pregnant women about OGTT and (iii) whether pregnant women’s level of knowledge about the OGTT differ regarding source of information. Materials and methods The anonymous questionnaire was conducted across the country in 23 Croatian primary and secondary healthcare centres. The questionnaire contained 9 questions on certain demographic data and familiarity with OGTT procedure. All 343 participants filled the questionnaire before the first blood draw. Results 42% of the participants demonstrated high and 38% adequate level of knowledge about the OGTT procedure. Majority of participants were informed about the procedure by gynaecologist (56%). The level of knowledge differed among participants with different sources of information (P = 0.030). Further analysis showed that the level of knowledge was lower in pregnant women having received information from their gynaecologist compared to pregnant women who received information from the laboratory staff. Conclusions In general, pregnant women are familiar with OGTT procedure, main source of information about the OGTT procedure is their gynaecologist, but the level of knowledge was higher in women who received information about the OGTT procedure from the laboratory staff. PMID:26110035

  19. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant women in the United States: Evidence from the NSDUH 2005-2014.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sehun; Reingle Gonzalez, Jennifer M; Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; DiNitto, Diana M

    2017-04-01

    Alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy are among the strongest and most preventable risk factors for adverse neonatal health outcomes, but few developmentally sensitive, population-based studies of this phenomenon have been conducted. To address this gap, the present study examined the prevalence and correlates of alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant adolescents (aged 12-17) and adults (aged 18-44) in the United States. Data were derived from the population-based National Survey of Drug Use and Health (80,498 adolescent and 152,043 adult women) between 2005 and 2014. Findings show disconcerting levels of past-month use among pregnant women with 11.5% of adolescent and 8.7% of adult women using alcohol, and 23.0% of adolescent and 14.9% of adult women using tobacco. Compared to their non-pregnant counterparts, pregnant adolescents were less likely to report past 30-day alcohol use (AOR=0.52, 95% CI=0.36-0.76), but more likely to report past 30-day tobacco use (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.53-3.18). Compared to their non-pregnant adult counterparts, pregnant adults were less likely to report using alcohol (AOR=0.06, 95% CI=0.05-0.07) and tobacco (AOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.43-0.52). Compared to pregnant abstainers, pregnant women reporting alcohol/tobacco use were more likely to have had a major depressive episode in the past 12months, report criminal justice system involvement, and endorse comorbid alcohol/tobacco use. Given alcohol and tobacco's deleterious consequences during pregnancy, increased attention to reducing use is critical. Findings suggest that tobacco use is especially problematic for both adolescents and adults and is strongly linked with depression and criminal justice involvement, especially among adults.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of iron-deficiency anaemia among pregnant women in rural districts of Menoufia governorate, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Rezk, M; Marawan, H; Dawood, R; Masood, A; Abo-Elnasr, M

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional community-based study with analytic component was conducted among Egyptian pregnant women in rural districts during January to December 2013. A total of 2470 pregnant women were enrolled for laboratory tests for iron- deficiency anaemia (IDA). The prevalence of IDA was 51.3% (1267 of 2470); IDA affects about one in every two pregnant women in rural districts in Egypt. Women who are older than 30 years (Odds ratio [OR], 0.73) had more than three children (OR, 0.73), with body mass index less than 20 (OR, 1.57), shorter birth spacing less than 2 years (OR, 0.68), lack of antenatal care visits (OR, 1.25), low intake of foods of animal origin (OR, 1.57), vegetables and fruits (OR, 1.29) and having intestinal parasites (OR, 0.74) were positively associated with anaemia [at confidence interval 95%]. In addition to nutritional deficiency, multiparity and increasing maternal age are the main causes of IDA.

  1. Patients' Characteristics and Providers' Attitudes: Predictors of Screening Pregnant Women for Illicit Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerker, Bonnie D.; Horwitz, Sarah M.; Leventhal, John M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study's aim was to determine how patients' and providers' characteristics affect hospital providers' decisions to screen pregnant and postpartum women for illicit substances. Methods: A retrospective design was used. Participants included all low-income women (N=1,100) who delivered at an urban teaching hospital over a 12-month…

  2. Seasonal influenza vaccine coverage among pregnant women: pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Ahluwalia, Indu B; Singleton, James A; Jamieson, Denise J; Rasmussen, Sonja A; Harrison, Leslie

    2011-05-01

    Since 2004, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) have recommended that pregnant women receive the seasonal influenza vaccine, regardless of pregnancy trimester, because of their increased risk for severe complications from influenza. However, the uptake of the influenza vaccine by pregnant women has been low. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, pregnant women were identified as a priority population to receive the influenza A (H1N1) 2009 (2009 H1N1) monovalent vaccine in addition to the seasonal influenza vaccine. In this issue, we highlight information from the 10 states that collected data using the survey administered by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) about seasonal vaccine coverage among women with recent live births and reasons for those who chose not to get vaccinated. The combined estimates from PRAMS of influenza vaccination coverage for the 2009-2010 season, which included data from October 2009 to March 2010, from 10 states were 50.7% for seasonal and 46.6% for 2009 H1N1 vaccine among women with recent live births. Among women who did not get vaccinated, reasons varied from worries about the safety of the vaccines for self and baby to not normally getting the vaccination. Further evaluation is needed on ways to increase influenza vaccination among pregnant women, effectively communicate the risk of influenza illness during pregnancy, and address women's concerns about influenza vaccination safety during pregnancy.

  3. Strategies Pregnant Rural Women Employ to Deal with Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored strategies from the Intimate Partner Violence Strategy Index (IPVSI) that a sub-set of 20 rural, low-income, abused women of a larger, multi-site, mixed-method study employed to deal with Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) during the perinatal period. We conducted 32 in-depth interviews with women who were pregnant (N = 12) and/or…

  4. Family Foundations: A New Program for Pregnant and Parenting Women Offenders with Substance Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiewel, Brenda; Mosley, Toni

    2006-01-01

    A new program in California partners the California Department of Corrections with a non-profit drug treatment agency on behalf of pregnant or parenting women who are drug offenders with substance abuse histories. The women are sentenced to the family foundations facility for one year and receive a range of special services to prepare for…

  5. Disparities in HIV Screening among Pregnant Women – El Salvador, 2011

    PubMed Central

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I.; Dubón Abrego, María A.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Methods A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. Results A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. Conclusions We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador. PMID:24349356

  6. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anup

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women and mothers about feeding habits and infant oral health. Materials and methods: A total of 230 study subjects were divided into two groups: Group A included pregnant women and group B were mothers of child up to 1 year of age. Each group comprised of 170 subjects. A self-administered questionnaire comprising of total 23 questions on infant feeding practices, nocturnal bottle feeding, correct age of eruption of first teeth and first dental visit. Two separate questionnaires were framed for both the groups. Results: There was a lack of knowledge among both the groups about infant feeding and weaning. Nocturnal bottle feeding was more prevalent. Conclusion: The present study reflects a need for maternal counseling on infant oral health. How to cite this article: Nagaraj A, Pareek S. Infant Oral Health Knowledge and Awareness: Disparity among Pregnant Women and Mothers visiting a Government Health Care Organization. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):167-172. PMID:25206162

  7. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; Todorova, Ralitsa; Kao, Jennifer Chien-Wen; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, and transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment.

  8. Mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in the USA.

    PubMed

    Byatt, Nancy; Xiao, Rui S; Dinh, Kate H; Waring, Molly E

    2016-02-01

    We examined mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Logistic regression models estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios for mental health care use in the past year in relation to depressive symptoms. While 8.2 % (95 % CI 4.6-11.8) of pregnant women were depressed, only 12 % (95 % CI 1.8-22.1) of these women reported mental health care use in the past year.

  9. A qualitative study of treatment needs among pregnant and postpartum women with substance use and depression

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Zlotnick, Caron; Bates, Nicole; RalitsaTodorova; Chien-Wen Kao, Jennifer; Johnson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about treatment for pregnant and postpartum women with co-occurring substance use and depression. Funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse, we conducted three focus groups with 18 pregnant and postpartum women in 2011 at an urban substance use treatment clinic. A semi-structured discussion guide probed for factors impacting treatment outcomes and needs. Data were analyzed using grounded theory. Women identified motivational, family, friend, romantic, and agency characteristics as facilitative or challenging to their recoveries, and desired structure (group treatment, a safe environment, transportation) and content (attention to mental health, family, and gender-specific issues) of treatment. PMID:23819737

  10. Obesity at age 20 and the risk of miscarriages, irregular periods and reported problems of becoming pregnant: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Bjarne K; Knutsen, Synnøve F; Oda, Keiji; Fraser, Gary E

    2012-12-01

    In a group of 46,000 North-American Adventist women aged 40 and above, we investigated the relationships between body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) at age 20 and the proportion of women who reported at least one miscarriage, periods with irregular menstruation or failing to become pregnant even if trying for more than one straight year. Approximately 31, 14 and 17 %, respectively, reported the three different problems related to reproduction. Positive age- and marital status adjusted relationships were found between BMI at age 20 and periods with irregular menstruation or failing to become pregnant even if trying for more than 1 year, but not with the risk of miscarriages. Women with BMI ≥ 32.5 kg/m(2) when aged 20 had approximately 2.0 (95 % CI: 1.6, 2.4) and 1.5 (95 % CI: 1.3, 1.9) higher odds for irregular periods or failing to get pregnant, respectively, than women with BMI in the 20-24.9 kg/m(2) bracket. These relationships were consistently found in a number of strata of the population, including the large proportion of the women who never had smoked or never used alcohol. Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2)) when aged 20 marginally (approximately 15 %) increased the risk of failing to get pregnant within a year. Thus, obesity at age 20 increases the risk of reporting some specific reproductive problems, but not the risk of miscarriages.

  11. The study of physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health-Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Mohamadirizi, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity generally declines during pregnancy, but activity barriers during this period are not well understood. The objective was to determine physical activity and some relative factors in referred pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 384 in referred pregnant women to Isfahan Health Care Centers and Shahid Beheshti Hospital in second stage sampling method in 2013. Demographic/prenatal characteristics, physical activity (36Q) and prenatal life quality questionnaire (26Q) were completed by participants. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as the t-test, one-way ANOVA, individual correlation coefficient, and linear regression using SPSS statistical software (version 16). Results: Based on the findings, 98.7% (n = 378) of pregnant women had low physical activity. Also, there were a correlation among physical activity and parity, age, gestational age (P ≤ 0.005). Conclusion: Since physical activity is recommended for the most of pregnant women, it is imperative to promote physical activity between pregnant women and some intervention suggestions. PMID:27462642

  12. Care of drug-addicted pregnant women: current concepts and future strategies - an overview.

    PubMed

    Goettler, Simone M; Tschudin, Sibil

    2014-03-01

    This review focuses on drug use during pregnancy and the perinatal period, a constellation that is seen more often. Drug use in pregnant women poses an increased risk for adverse health outcomes both for the mother and child. Care is often complicated by social and environmental factors, as well as psychiatric comorbidities. It is, therefore, very important to provide drug-using pregnant women with optimal ante-, peri- and post-natal care. Health professionals should approach them in a nonjudgmental and supportive way, and provide them with the same care and attention as nondrug-using women. Adequate care requires interdisciplinary teams. Ideally, healthcare providers should be specialized in the care of drug-using pregnant women.

  13. Physiological Effects of Aquatic Exercise in Pregnant Women on Bed Rest.

    PubMed

    Sechrist, Dawndra M; Tiongco, Cynthia Gorter; Whisner, Sandra M; Geddie, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the effectiveness of an Aquatic Exercise Program (AEP) provided by an occupational therapist for pregnant women on hospitalized bed rest. Researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of hospitalized pregnant women comparing those who attended an AEP (n = 19) to a control group who received no AEP (n = 12). Statistical tests were used to assess evidence of differences in length of gestation as well as blood pressure and amniotic fluid index (AFI) at discharge. Women who received an AEP had increased AFI and length of gestation compared to the control group. This study supports the use of an AEP as an intervention for pregnant women on prescribed bed rest. Further research is recommended to validate these findings with a larger sample.

  14. Antiviral therapy for hepatitis C: Has anything changed for pregnant/lactating women?

    PubMed

    Spera, Anna Maria; Eldin, Tarek Kamal; Tosone, Grazia; Orlando, Raffaele

    2016-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) affects about 3% of the world's population, with the highest prevalence in individuals under 40. The prevalence in pregnant women varies with geographical distribution (highest in developing countries). Prevalence also increases in sub-populations of women at high risk for blood-transmitted infections. HCV infection in pregnancy represents a non-negligible problem. However, most of the past antiviral regimens cannot be routinely offered to pregnant or breastfeeding women because of their side effects. We briefly reviewed the issue of treatment of HCV infection in pregnant/breastfeeding women focusing on the effects of the new direct-acting antivirals on fertility, pregnancy and lactation in animal studies and on the potential risk for humans based on the pharmacokinetic properties of each drug. Currently, all new therapy regimens are contraindicated in this setting because of lack of sufficient safety information and adequate measures of contraception are still routinely recommended for female patients of childbearing potential.

  15. Relationship between air pollution and pre-eclampsia in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Nahidi, F; Gholami, R; Rashidi, Y; Majd, H Alavi

    2014-01-09

    Pre-eclampsia is the main cause of maternal and fetal death and disability worldwide. Its incidence in the Islamic Republic of Iran is 5%-12%. Air pollution has been reported to be one of the causative factors, and this case-control study determined its effect on pre-eclampsia in 195 pregnant women (65 with pre-eclampsia and 130 without) admitted to hospitals in Tehran. Women were divided into high and low exposure groups according to the mean density of exposure to pollutants during pregnancy. There was no statistically significant relationship between exposure to air pollutants including CO, particulate matter, SO2, NO2 and O3 and pre-eclampsia. The combined effect was also not significant. Air pollution is one of the problems of modern society and its avoidance is almost impossible for pregnant women. This study should reduce concern about pregnant women living in polluted cities.

  16. [Pathogenic mechanisms of proatherogenic changes in pregnant women with concomitant obesity].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, K V; Mamontova, T V

    2013-12-01

    The concentration of insulin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) and indices of lipid metabolism (concentrations of triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, cholesterol of low density lipoproteins and cholesterol of very low density lipoproteins) in women with concomitant obesity in the second trimester of pregnancy were studied. Changes of the lipid profile in the pregnant women with concomitant obesity indicate development of type IV hyperlipoproteinemia. Concentrations of insulin and CRP in the blood serum of the pregnant women with obesity were respectively 92.1% and 62.5% higher than in the control group. On the basis of literature data and our own research it was concluded that the complex of the metabolic changes (insulin resistance, dislipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, systemic inflammation) in pregnant women with obesity promotes development of proatherogenic changes.

  17. Timing of First Antenatal Care Attendance and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, Gamo Gofa Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Feleke; Dibaba, Yohannes; Admassu, Bitiya

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess the timing of first antenatal care attendance and associated factors among pregnant women in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District, south Ethiopia. Method. Facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from February to March, 2014, in Arba Minch Town and Arba Minch District. Data were collected from 409 pregnant women attending antenatal care clinics in nine public health facilities using systematic random sampling. Analysis was done using SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics and binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were done. Results. The mean (SD±) age of the respondents was 26 ± 5.5 years. The mean gestational age at first antenatal care attendance was 5 ± 1.5 months. This study indicated that pregnant women with low monthly income (AOR = 4.9, CI: 1.71, 14.08), women who did not receive advise on when to start ANC (AOR = 3, CI: 1.48, 6.24), women with household food insecurity (AOR = 4.66, CI: 1.007, 21.59) and women with unplanned pregnancy (AOR = 4.49, CI: 2.16, 9.35) had higher odds of late antenatal care attendance compared with their counterparts. Conclusions. The study showed that majority of the pregnant women attended late for first antenatal care. Hence, providing health education on the timing of antenatal care is important. PMID:26543485

  18. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  19. Nausea in pregnancy: attitudes among pregnant women and general practitioners on treatment and pregnancy care

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Kristine; Svendsen, Hans Christian; Sporsheim, Ingvild H.; Holst, Lone

    2016-01-01

    Objective Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and may have great impact on a woman’s life. The aim of this study was to explore thoughts and attitudes among Norwegian pregnant women and GPs on treatment of NVP and pregnancy care. Design Focus-group study. Setting and subjects Separate focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and GPs. Results Two focus-group discussions were conducted with pregnant women and two with GPs. The GPs thought it was important to normalize NVP symptoms. However, the women felt their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. The women were sceptical towards the use of medicines while pregnant, and avoidance was sought despite being ill. The GPs appeared uncertain with respect to medical treatment of NVP, which was stated to be considered only after progression to quite severe symptoms. Sick leave seemed to be an important part of the treatment regime applied by the GPs. The women had good experiences with graded sick leave. Conclusion This Norwegian study identifies attitudes among GPs and pregnant women that may act as obstacles to appropriate care for women with NVP. The pregnant women and the GPs seemed to talk at cross-purposes; GPs’ normalization of the symptoms made the women feel that their distress due to NVP was trivialized by the GPs. Our results indicate that pregnant women with NVP requiring medical treatment probably need comprehensive and reassuring information about treatment options before considering using any medicines. Key pointsNausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is very common, and considered to be of clinical significance for 35% of women. While the GPs agreed on the importance of normalizing the symptoms, the women felt their distress was trivialized, and missed being properly evaluated.Both the GPs and the women showed a reluctant attitude to medical treatment of NVP.The GPs gave the impression of considering medical treatment only after progression of

  20. Sugary beverage and food consumption, and leukocyte telomere length maintenance in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Leung, C W; Laraia, B A; Coleman-Phox, K; Bush, N R; Lin, J; Blackburn, E H; Adler, N E; Epel, E S

    2016-09-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) has been inversely associated with sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption in cross-sectional studies, but no studies have examined whether dietary intake influences LTL over time. This study examined longitudinal associations between sugary foods and beverages and LTL. Participants were 65 overweight and obese pregnant women, aged 18-45 years, from a mindfulness intervention study conducted from early pregnancy (⩽16 weeks gestation) and followed through 9 months postpartum. During pregnancy and postpartum, dietary intake was measured with 24-h diet recalls, and LTL was assessed using quantitative PCR. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics, decreased SSB consumption from baseline to 9 months postpartum was associated with greater concurrent LTL lengthening (β=-0.102, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.192, -0.013). No associations between sugary foods and LTL were found in either period. The finding that reduced SSB consumption is associated with increased LTL warrants investigation in large cohort studies.

  1. Determinants of Antenatal Care Attendance among Pregnant Women Living in Endemic Malaria Settings: Experience from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Manianga, Célestin; Kapanga, Serge; Mona, Esther; Pululu, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antenatal care (ANC) attendance helps pregnant women to benefit from preventive and curative services. Methods. Determinants for ANC attendance were identified through a cross-sectional survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Sociocultural bottlenecks were assessed via focus groups discussion of married men and women. Results. In this survey, 28 of the 500 interviewed pregnant women (5.6%) did not attend ANC services and 82.4% booked over the first trimester. The first visit is positively influenced by the reproductive age (OR: 0.52, 95% CI(0.28–0.95), p < 0.04), the educational level (OR: 0.41,95% CI(0.17–0.97), p < 0.04), the nearby health center (OR: 0.43, 95% CI(0.2–0.92), p < 0.03), and the presence of a male partner (OR: 10.48, 95% CI(2.1–52.23), p < 0.001). The barriers to early booking were (i) the cost of service; (ii) the appearance or individual income; (iii) the geographical inaccessibility or distance to health facilities; (iv) social and religious prohibitions; (v) the stigmatization from other women when conceiving in the late ages or young or while still lactating (parity); (vi) the time for waiting for services. Conclusion. The early ANC attendance is delayed among poor women with little education and living alone. PMID:27703482

  2. Maternal Anaemia and Neonatal Outcome: A Prospective Study on Urban Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Manpreet; Chauhan, Aarti; Manzar, Md Dilshad

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maternal anaemia is a major contributor of adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly compromised birth weight and head circumference. Objective To assess the relationship between maternal anaemia and neonatal measures in a sample of low-middle income group urban mothers. Materials and Methods One hundred pregnant women with population representative prevalence of anaemia were enrolled. Socio-demographic, anthropometry, obstetric profile (parity, abortion history, food habits, gap period with last pregnancy etc), and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were documented. Neonatal outcomes (gestational age and type of delivery), and birth anthropometry (weight, length, and head circumference) were measured at delivery. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis for associating maternal haemoglobin levels and neonatal outcomes were performed. Results The anaemic and non-anaemic pregnant women differed significantly in interval between previous & index pregnancy (p=0.031), parity (p=0.009), systolic blood pressure (p=0.026), diastolic blood pressure (p=0.042), maternal Hb (p<0.01). The mean gestational age (p<0.01), weight (p<0.01), length (p<0.01) and head circumference (p<0.01) of the neonates differed significantly between the two groups. On using maternal haemoglobin as a continuous variable, these anthropometric birth outcomes were positively correlated with maternal haemoglobin (p<0.05). Further, univariate linear regression showed similar associations between maternal haemoglobin (g/dL) and birth weight (p=0.004), length (p=0.010) and head circumference (p=0.003). Conclusion Maternal haemoglobin has a positive relationship with the neonatal measures of weight, length and head circumference. PMID:26816949

  3. The effect of Ramadan fasting on LH, FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khoshdel, A; Kheiri, S; Hashemi-Dehkordi, E; Nasiri, J; Shabanian-Borujeni, S; Saedi, E

    2014-10-01

    Many pregnant Muslim women fast during Ramadan. Leptin has an important role in the reproductive system and hormones. In this study, FSH, LH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin were measured in the first, second and fourth week of Ramadan and the second week post-Ramadan, in 30 fasting pregnant women. Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS. The weight and BMI did not change during the study. A significant change in FSH, oestrogen, progesterone and leptin was observed (p < 0.05). The lowest value of FSH was in the second week of Ramadan. Progesterone increased at the end of Ramadan and the second week after. Oestrogen increased significantly during Ramadan and decreased after Ramadan. A decreasing trend was seen in LH during the Ramadan and 2 weeks after (p < 0.1). Leptin decreased significantly 2 weeks after Ramadan. We found poor weight gain and hypoleptinaemia in pregnant fasted women during the study. Food restriction in pregnant fasted women during Ramadan may induce poor weight gain during pregnancy. These data confirm that Ramadan fasting by pregnant women may have potential risks during pregnancy. We recommend further study to evaluate long-term effects of Ramadan fasting during pregnancy in different countries with different food habits and traditions, to obtain reliable and documented data.

  4. The Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Iranian Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghafari, Mahin; Baigi, Vali; Cheraghi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of bacteria in urine without having signs and symptoms. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the overall prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Iranian pregnant women. Methods Major national and international databases were searched up to November 2015, including Scientific Information Database, MagIran, Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, Science Direct and Ovid. The checklist of the STROBE statement was used for evaluating the quality of reporting. The extracted data were analyzed and the results were reported using a random-effects model with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results From 3709 obtained studies, 20 included in the meta-analysis, which involved 15108 pregnant women. The overall prevalence of ASB was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.17). The prevalence of ASB in the northern and southern regions of Iran was 0.13 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.18) and 0.11 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.16), respectively. Conclusion Prevalence of ASB among Iranian pregnant women is considerable. Due to the complications of ASB for pregnant women and their children, preventative planning and control of ASB among pregnant women in Iran is necessary. PMID:27336476

  5. [Contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in pregnant women with obesity].

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, K

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate contribution of leptin in the development of insulin resistance in obese pregnant women depending on the obesity class as well as its effect on the progression of pregnancy. 36 pregnant women of I and II obesity classes and 21 pregnant women with normal body mass participated in the study. Concentrations of insulin, leptin and C-reactive protein in blood serum were measured with immunoenzymatic assays. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined with the Caro index. Contribution of leptin to development of IR was assessed with the ratio "leptin/Caro index". An increase of leptin concentration in blood serum was found in pregnant women with obesity compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the ratio "leptin/Caro index" increased with IR progression and reached maximum in the group with obesity class II, where it was 5.8 times higher than in the control group. An increased frequency of gestoses and placentary dysfunction were manifestations of weakening of adaptive mechanisms of the organism associated with the IR progression and increased role of leptin in its development. Therefore, activation of adipocyte function through the increased leptin secretion and increased ratio "leptin/Caro index" reflects the important role of leptin in pathogenesis of IR in pregnant women with obesity.

  6. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. Aim To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Materials and Methods Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. Results There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (p< 0.05, significant) which indicates that mindfulness meditation is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system and can thereby reduce the day-to-day perceived stress in pregnant women. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy. PMID:27190795

  7. Evaluation of psychosocial measures for understanding weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kendall, A; Olson, C M; Frongillo, E A

    2001-01-01

    The greatest weight gain for US. women occurs during the childbearing years of 25 to 34, and many obese women attribute their adult weight gain to childbearing. Few studies have examined psychosocial influences on women's behaviors during pregnancy, in part because of the lack of valid and reliable measures of psychosocial constructs relevant to pregnant women. Based on existing theory and an in-depth interview study, the psychosocial constructs of locus of control, self-efficacy, body image, feelings about motherhood, and career orientation were identified. Scales for each construct were constructed by drawing items from existing validated scales and writing items based on the in-depth interviews; their content validity assessed using factor analysis with oblique rotation and their reliability using Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was assessed by examining the associations between scale scores and preexisting conditions of participants. Data for evaluating the scales came from a study of 622 pregnant women in a rural health care system who completed questionnaires and whose medical records were audited. Cronbach's alpha of the scales ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Scale scores were strongly associated with lifestyle behaviors, body weight, and demographic characteristics of the participants. The analysis provides evidence of the validity of measures of psychosocial factors related to health behaviors of pregnant women. These measures should be useful in studying weight-related behaviors in pregnant women.

  8. Introducing a new measure for assessing self-efficacy in response to air pollution hazards for pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A self-efficacy instrument should be condition-specific. There are several instruments for measuring self-efficacy, but none are air pollution-specific. This study aimed to develop a self-efficacy measure for assessing pregnant women’s responses to air pollution hazards. A random sample of pregnant women aged between 18 and 35 years attending three prenatal care centers were entered into the study. Prenatal care centers randomly selected from a list of centers located in different geographical regions of Tehran, Iran. After careful consideration and performing content and face validity, a 4-item measure was developed and participants completed the questionnaire. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and validity was assessed by performing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and known group comparison. In all 200 eligible pregnant women were studied. The mean age of participants was 26.9 (SD = 4.8) years and it was 27.9 (SD = 9.1) weeks for gestational age. The findings showed almost perfect results for both content validity ratio (CVR = 1) and content validity index (CVI = 1). The confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the data, and known group comparison revealed satisfying results. Internal consistency as measured by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.74. In general, the findings suggest that this new generated scale is a reliable and valid specific measure of self-efficacy in response to air pollution hazards for pregnant women. However, further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire. PMID:24491221

  9. Consumer product exposures associated with urinary phthalate levels in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Jessie P; Palmieri, Rachel T; Matuszewski, Jeanine M; Herring, Amy H; Baird, Donna D; Hartmann, Katherine E; Hoppin, Jane A

    2012-09-01

    Human phthalate exposure is ubiquitous, but little is known regarding predictors of urinary phthalate levels. To explore this, 50 pregnant women aged 18-38 years completed two questionnaires on potential phthalate exposures and provided a first morning void. Urine samples were analyzed for 12 phthalate metabolites. Associations with questionnaire items were evaluated via Wilcoxon tests and t-tests, and r-squared values were calculated in multiple linear regression models. Few measured factors were statistically significantly associated with phthalate levels. Individuals who used nail polish had higher levels of mono-butyl phthalate (P=0.048) than non-users. Mono-benzyl phthalate levels were higher among women who used eye makeup (P=0.034) or used makeup on a regular basis (P=0.004). Women who used cologne or perfume had higher levels of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate metabolites. Household products, home flooring or paneling, and other personal care products were also associated with urinary phthalates. The proportion of variance in metabolite concentrations explained by questionnaire items ranged between 0.31 for mono-ethyl phthalate and 0.42 for mono-n-methyl phthalate. Although personal care product use may be an important predictor of urinary phthalate levels, most of the variability in phthalate exposure was not captured by our relatively comprehensive set of questionnaire items.

  10. Widespread 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Deficiency in Affluent and Nonaffluent Pregnant Indian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Rati; Palekar, Suhaila; Munipally, Tanya; Ghugre, Padmini; Udipi, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This cross-sectional study primarily aimed to assess vitamin D adequacy in the third trimester of pregnancy using 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and explore lifestyle characteristics (sun exposure index, diet, and economic indicators) associated with serum 25(OH)D. The secondary aim was to examine the relationship of serum 25(OH)D with birth weight and gestational age. Methods. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay in 150 pregnant women from Mumbai. Sun exposure index was computed. Dietary calcium, phytate : calcium ratio, and dietary phosphorus was calculated using the 24-hour diet recall method. Results. All women had 25(OH)D levels < 30.00 ng/ml. Multivariable linear regression showed that nonaffluent women had poorer 25(OH)D status than their affluent counterparts (β = −0.20; P = 0.03). Higher sun exposure index was associated with higher 25(OH)D concentrations (β = 0.31; P < 0.001), which remained significant after controlling for covariates. At the bivariate level, mothers of infants weighing <2500 g had lower serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to mothers whose infants weighed ≥2500 g (P = 0.02). This association became non-significant after controlling for covariates. Conclusions. Vitamin D deficiency was universally prevalent in the cohort studied. There is a need to develop culturally sensitive strategies for improving the 25(OH)D status. PMID:25045711

  11. A Changing Landscape: Implications of Pregnant Women's Internet Use for Childbirth Educators

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    Internet use among pregnant women is common and frequent, while attendance at childbirth education classes appears to be on the decline. This article explores why women turn to the Internet in pregnancy and how Internet use may affect their knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It suggests strategies for engaging women's interest in the Internet and describes how doing so may help increase the effectiveness of “traditional” childbirth education while mitigating the potentially overwhelming and confusing aspects of Internet use. PMID:18769519

  12. Serum FRAP Levels and Pre-eclampsia among Pregnant Women in a Rural Community of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Prakash, Shyam; Kalaivani, Mani; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is a balance between the oxidative and the anti-oxidative forces in human body. Some studies document decreased level of anti-oxidant in pre-eclampsia while other studies showed normal level of anti-oxidant in pre-eclampsia and the evidence is equivocal. Aim The aim of the present study was to assess enzymatic anti-oxidant activities in pre-eclamptic women and compare it with normotensive pregnant women with period of gestation between 28 to 36 weeks. Materials and Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted (from November 2012-December 2013) at the Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site which was managed by Centre for Community Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. All registered pregnant women with period of gestation between 28 weeks – 36 weeks were eligible for inclusion in the study. All eligible pregnant women were contacted through home visit. A total of 217 pregnant women were enrolled out of which 209 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. About three ml of blood from antecubital vein was drawn without use of tourniquet, under aseptic conditions. It was later analysed for the serum anti-oxidative measures {Malanoaldehyde, Vitamin C, Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) levels}. Data were entered on Epi-Info version 3.5.4. Data management and analysis was carried out in Stata 11. The means were compared using t-test and p-value stated. Categorical data was analysed using chi-square test. Logistic regression was used and adjusted p-value was stated. Results A total of 217 pregnant women were eligible for the study and all were enrolled. Out of the 217 blood samples collected, eight samples accidently got destroyed. A total of 28 out of remaining 209 pregnant women (13.4%) had pre-eclampsia. Mean age (SD) was 22.4 (2.3) years, mean height (SD) was 156.6 (6.9) cm, mean weight (SD) was 65.1 (9.7) kg in pre-eclampsia group. In pre-eclampsia group mean

  13. Alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy and correlated factors among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei

    2012-02-01

    To examine the rates and factors associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women, as well as the rates and factors associated with continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan. A total of 806 indigenous women who had just given birth in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan were recruited. They were interviewed to collect their substance use information, demographic characteristics, psychological health status, history of physical abuse, and pregnancy history. The rates of alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy in all indigenous pregnant women and the rates of continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among those who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were calculated. The factors relating to alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were examined using logistic regression analyses. The results of this study found that 26.6% of indigenous pregnant women drank alcohol at any stage after the recognition of pregnancy, and 52.5% of indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy persisted in drinking alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy. Multiple parities, smoking or chewing betel quid after the recognition of pregnancy, and a higher frequency of drinking alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. Meanwhile, being single or divorced, and intimate partner violence after the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. High prevalence rates of alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of

  14. Frequency and Risk Indicators of Tooth Decay among Pregnant Women in France: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. Methods A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women’s medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. Results 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. Discussion The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations. PMID:22586442

  15. Nutritional Practices and Taboos Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at General Hospital in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors contributing to maternal undernutrition in pregnancy. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore some of the taboos and nutritional practices among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu LGA, Kano, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 220 pregnant women. Interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to interview the respondents, which showed various sociodemographic information, cultural nutritional processes, taboos of the community, and a 24 h food recall. The ages, parities, and gestational ages of the women were collated. Descriptive statistics was used. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software Version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritional practices and taboos was determined using Chi-square test and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: At the end of the study, 200 participants (91%) gave complete information. Most of the women, 70% (140/200) were in the 20–39 years age range with mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 23.7 (6.1) years, mostly uneducated, 70% (140/200), and unemployed, 51% (102/200). Most of the women did a child spacing of 12–24 months, 62% (124/200) with mean (SD) child spacing interval of 26.32 (10.19) months. Gestational age at booking was mostly 13–26 weeks, 48% (96/200) with an average of 26.60 (8.01). Most of the women had 1–4 children, 54.5% (109/200) with mean (SD) of 2.47 (2.50). Most of the women agreed that they had adequate intake of oil, 86% (172/200), meat/fish, 92% (194/200), fruit/vegetables 56% (112/200), and had 3 meals/day 80% (152/200), and did not practice pica 83% (166/200). All of the women, 100% (200/200) believe that women should eat more during pregnancy in order to have healthy babies. They were mostly supported by their husbands, 53% (106/200) and

  16. The Quality of Life in Pregnant Women Conceiving Through in Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    GLOBEVNIK VELIKONJA, Vislava; LOZEJ, Tina; LEBAN, Gaja; VERDENIK, Ivan; VRTAČNIK BOKAL, Eda

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim was to determine whether pregnant women conceiving through in vitro fertilization (IVF) differ from those conceiving spontaneously in terms of psychological well-being and the quality of life. Methods In a prospective study we included 75 women conceived after IVF and 78 who conceived spontaneously in the same time period (control group). All the women were sent a self-report questionnaire about demographic and reproductive history, health, pregnancy concerns, containing Subjective Quality of Life Scale (QLS), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWB), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Zung Self-Assessment Anxiety Scale (SAS); obstetric and newborn’s data were obtained from medical records. Response rate was 66.6% in the IVF and 83.3% in control group. Results The mean women’s age was 33.8 years in the IVF, and 32.5 years in the control group (NS). There were no significant differences between groups on the most of the outcome measures assessing psychological status. IVF mothers were just less satisfied in “friend/acquaintances” (P=0.03), a higher percentage had sexual problems prior to conception (P=0.03); the length of hospitalization during pregnancy was longer (P=0.02), and the preterm delivery rate was higher (P=0.01). Withingroup changes over gestation time indicated that IVF women, not controls, showed an increase in positive affect (P=0.04) and purpose in life (P=0.05). Conclusions IVF women are inclined to social isolation. Despite more medical problems during pregnancy, they reported improved positive emotions and purpose in life as the pregnancy progressed. PMID:27647083

  17. [Clinical analysis of 19 cases of pregnant women with rapid arrhythmia in the treatment of radiofrequency catheter ablation].

    PubMed

    Chu, L; Zhang, J; Li, Y N; Long, D Y

    2016-10-25

    Objective: To investigate the risk of radiofrequency catheter ablation and maternal and infant in pregnant women with rapid arrhythmia during pregnancy. Methods: The clinical data of the 19 cases of pregnancy complicated with rapid arrhythmia were retrospectively analyzed and followed up, including the gestational week, the type of arrhythmia, the treatment, and the outcome of the mother and child in Beijing Anzhen Hospital of Capital Medical University from January 2002 to March 2016. Results: (1)Clinical characteristics: the ages of the 19 cases were(31±4)years old(ranged from 26 to 35 years old), the onset gestational ages were(21±4)weeks(ranged from 15 to 32 weeks).

  18. Iodine deficiency in pregnant women living in the South East of the UK: the influence of diet and nutritional supplements on iodine status.

    PubMed

    Bath, Sarah C; Walter, Alan; Taylor, Andrew; Wright, John; Rayman, Margaret P

    2014-05-01

    Iodine is a key component of the thyroid hormones which are crucial for brain development. Adequate intake of iodine in pregnancy is important as in utero deficiency may have lifelong consequences for the offspring. Data on the iodine status of UK pregnant women are sparse, and there are no such data for pregnant women in the South East of the UK. A total of 100 pregnant women were recruited to a cross-sectional study carried out at the Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, at their first-trimester visit for an ultrasound scan. The participants provided a spot-urine sample (for the measurement of urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and creatinine concentration) and 24 h iodine excretion was estimated from the urinary iodine:creatinine ratio. Women completed a general questionnaire and a FFQ. The median UIC (85·3 μg/l) indicated that the group was iodine deficient by World Health Organisation criteria. The median values of the iodine:creatinine ratio (122·9 μg/g) and of the estimated 24 h iodine excretion (151·2 μg/d) were also suggestive of iodine deficiency. UIC was significantly higher in women taking an iodine-containing prenatal supplement (n 42) than in those not taking such a supplement (P< 0·001). In the adjusted analyses, milk intake, maternal age and iodine-containing prenatal supplement use were positively associated with the estimated 24 h urinary iodine excretion. Our finding of iodine deficiency in these women gives cause for concern. We suggest that women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be given advice on how to improve their iodine status through dietary means. A national survey of iodine status in UK pregnant women is required.

  19. Psychometric evaluation of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue scale for use with pregnant and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Fairbrother, Nichole; Hutton, Eileen K; Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy; Kluka, Sandy

    2008-06-01

    Although fatigue is a common experience for pregnant women and new mothers, few measures of fatigue have been validated for use with this population. To address this gap, the authors assessed psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF) scale, which was used in 2 independent samples of pregnant women. Results indicated that the psychometric properties of the scale were very similar across samples and time points. The scale possesses a high level of internal consistency, has good convergent validity with measures of sleep quality and depression, and discriminates well from a measure of social support. Contrary to previous evaluations of the MAF, data strongly suggest that the scale represents a unidimensional construct best represented by a single factor. Results indicate that the MAF is a useful measure of fatigue among pregnant and postpartum women.

  20. Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness Practice and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Little is known about birth preparedness and complication readiness (BPCR) plan in resource limited settings to decrease maternal mortality. Therefore, this study was done to assess the status of BPCR and associated factors among pregnant women in South Wollo, Northwest Ethiopia, by involving 819 pregnant women from March to April, 2014. Data were collected by using pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and analyzed using a computer program of SPSS version 20.00. Results. Pregnant women who were prepared for at least three elements of BPCR were 24.1%. Pregnant women knowing at least three key danger signs during pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period were 23.2%, 22.6%, and 9.6%, respectively. Women having secondary education and higher were 6.20 (95% CI = [1.36, 28.120]) times more likely to be prepared than illiterates. Women having a lifetime history of stillbirth [5.80 (1.13, 29.63)], attending ANC for last child pregnancy [5.44 (2.07, 14.27)], participating in community BPCR group discussion [4.36 (1.17, 16.26)], and having their male partner involved in BPCR counseling during ANC follow-up [4.45 (1.95, 10.16)] were more likely to be prepared. Conclusions. BPCR was very low and should be strengthened through health communication by involving partner in BPCR counseling. PMID:27722201

  1. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W.; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E.; Weyant, Robert J.; Shaffer, John R.; Crout, Richard J.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.; Beach, Scott R.; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G.; Brown, Linda J.; Strotmeyer, Stephen J.; Maurer, Jennifer L.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies. PMID:26089906

  2. Oral Health in a Sample of Pregnant Women from Northern Appalachia (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Neiswanger, Katherine; McNeil, Daniel W; Foxman, Betsy; Govil, Manika; Cooper, Margaret E; Weyant, Robert J; Shaffer, John R; Crout, Richard J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Beach, Scott R; Chapman, Stella; Zovko, Jayme G; Brown, Linda J; Strotmeyer, Stephen J; Maurer, Jennifer L; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Chronic poor oral health has a high prevalence in Appalachia, a large region in the eastern USA. The Center for Oral Health Research in Appalachia (COHRA) has been enrolling pregnant women and their babies since 2011 in the COHRA2 study of genetic, microbial, and environmental factors involved in oral health in Northern Appalachia. Methods. The COHRA2 protocol is presented in detail, including inclusion criteria (healthy, adult, pregnant, US Caucasian, English speaking, and nonimmunocompromised women), recruiting (two sites: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, USA), assessments (demographic, medical, dental, psychosocial/behavioral, and oral microbial samples and DNA), timelines (longitudinal from pregnancy to young childhood), quality control, and retention rates. Results. Preliminary oral health and demographic data are presented in 727 pregnant women, half from the greater Pittsburgh region and half from West Virginia. Despite similar tooth brushing and flossing habits, COHRA2 women in West Virginia have significantly worse oral health than the Pittsburgh sample. Women from Pittsburgh are older and more educated and have less unemployment than the West Virginia sample. Conclusions. We observed different prevalence of oral health and demographic variables between pregnant women from West Virginia (primarily rural) and Pittsburgh (primarily urban). These observations suggest site-specific differences within Northern Appalachia that warrant future studies.

  3. Dengue and hepatitis E virus infection in pregnant women in Eastern Sudan, a challenge for diagnosis in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Elduma, Adel Hussein; Osman, Waleed Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever and hepatitis E virus infection are both a public health problem in developing countries due to poor sanitation. Infection with viral hepatitis and dengue fever can present with similar clinical such and fever, headache and abortion. This study was conducted in Port-Sudan city in the eastern part of the country. ELISA and Real Time PCR tests were used to detect the infection. A total number of 39 pregnant women with a mean age 26 ±7.8 were included in the study. All of them had fever, 32 (92.3%) admitted with headache, 11 (28.2%) of them had vomiting, and abortion was reported in two cases (5.1%). The study showed that 4 (10.3%) of pregnant women were positive for the Hepatitis E virus, 5 (12.8%) positive for Dengue virus IgG, and only one sample (2.6%) was positive for IgM capture ELISA and real time PCR. Death due to hepatitis E infection was reported in one case with 7(th) month of pregnancy. Most of hepatitis cases were reported in the central sector of the Portsudan city. The diagnosis of hepatitis E virus and dengue virus in an endemic area is a great challenge for health care staff working in these areas. Both Dengue virus and Hepatitis E virus infection should be considered in pregnant women especially in similar settings.

  4. Validation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale in a sample of hospitalized Greek high-risk pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Karpathiotaki, Natassa; Karapanou, Vassiliki; Antzaklis, Panos; Daskalakis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the authors in this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Greek adaptation of the High-Risk Pregnancy Stress Scale (HRPSS) in a sample of high-risk hospitalized pregnant women. The sample consisted of 133 high-risk pregnant women with gestational age from 9 to 37 weeks. Data were collected between February and June of 2014. HRPSS was "forward-backward" translated from English to Greek. Principal axis factoring with promax rotation was used to test the factor structure of the HRPSS. Measures of state anxiety (STAI) and depressive symptoms (EPDS) were used to assess the convergent validity of the HRPSS. Exploratory factor analysis suggested three factors: concerns of pregnancy, movement restriction, and isolation and restriction of external activities. Construct validity was confirmed by computing correlations between the HRPSS and constructions of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory (α = 0.813). The original factor structure of the HRPSS was only partly replicated. The results of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that a three-factor solution instead of a two-factor solution would be the most adequate. The HRPSS is an appropriate measure for assessing the levels of concerns regarding pregnancy outcome, movement restriction, isolation, and external activity restrictions in Greek high-risk pregnant women.

  5. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3.

  6. Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs among Pregnant Women of Raichur District, India: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Pregnancy can be a risk factor for dental diseases as oral tissues are liable to changes due to hormonal variations. The aim of the study was to assess the oral health status and treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, Karnataka, India. Methods. Cross-sectional data was collected from 300 primigravidae from all the 5 taluks of Raichur district visiting the respective community health centre at taluk headquarters. A specially designed questionnaire was used to assess the demographic variables and oral hygiene practices. A clinical examination was done according to WHO (World Health Organization) criteria 1997 and recorded using WHO Oral Health Assessment Form. Results. The mean age of the pregnant women in the study was 21.8 (2.12) years. The prevalence of caries and periodontal diseases was 62.7% and 95%, respectively. The mean DT, MT, FT, and DMFT were 2.06 (2.5), 0.03 (0.17), 0.04 (0.27), and 2.13 (2.54), respectively. The mean OHI-S was 2.87 (1.27). Chi-square test showed that CPI scores increased with the trimester of pregnancy. Conclusion. The present study demonstrates poor oral hygiene and high prevalence of periodontal diseases, as well as a large proportion of unmet dental treatment needs among pregnant women of Raichur district, India. PMID:27293984

  7. Effect of education based on the theory of planned behavior on adoption of oral health behaviors of pregnant women referred to health centers of Birjand in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimipour, Sediqe; Ebrahimipoiur, Hossein; Alibakhshian, Fateme; Mohamadzadeh, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oral health of pregnant women is very important because of the adverse effects of pregnancy on the oral hard and soft tissues and vice versa. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of education on oral health behaviors of pregnant women based on the theory of planned behavior in Birjand. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was carried out among 150 pregnant women admitted to health centers, who were selected using simple sampling (75 females in each case and control group). Educational program through face-to-face training was performed in the case group, and the control group received only usual training through leaflet distribution. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18 software at 0.05 significance level. Results: The most frequent age group was 26–30 years. Before the intervention, the mean scores of knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, behavioral intention, and performance of the intervention and control groups showed no significant difference (P ≥ 0.05). After the intervention, the average of all scores in the intervention group showed significant increase compared to the control group (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Face-to-face training using the theory of planned behavior has positive impact on oral health behaviors of pregnant women. Accordingly, training sessions in order to raising awareness and positive attitude and controlling healthcare behaviors can improve oral health behaviors of pregnant women. PMID:28032052

  8. Predictors of cesarean delivery in pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Gascho, Carmem Luiza Lucht; Leandro, Danieli Mayumi Kimura; Ribeiro E Silva, Thiago; Silva, Jean Carl

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate which risk factors may lead patients with gestational diabetes mellitus to cesarean delivery. Methods This was a retrospective, descriptive study. The subjects of the study were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus attending a public maternity hospital in the south of Brazil. The primary outcomes assessed were based on maternal and fetal characteristics. The data were correlated using an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI), calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Results A total of 392 patients with gestational diabetes mellitus were analyzed, and 57.4% of them had cesarean deliveries. Among the maternal characteristics, the mean age of the patients and the pregestational body mass index were greater when a cesarean delivery was performed (p = 0.029 and p < 0.01 respectively). Gestational age at birth, newborn weight, weight class according to gestational age, and Apgar score were not significant. The analysis of the OR showed that the chance of cesarean delivery was 2.25 times (95%CI = 1.49-2.39) greater if the pregnant woman was obese, 4.6 times (95%CI = 3.017-7.150) greater if she was a primigravida, and 5.2 times (95%CI = 2.702-10.003) greater if she had a previous cesarean delivery. The other parameters analyzed showed no differences. Conclusion The factors that led to an increase in the occurrence of cesarean deliveries included history of a prior cesarean section, first pregnancy, and obesity.

  9. Need for population specific validation of a portable metabolic testing system: a case of sedentary pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Yeo, SeonAe; Ronis, David L; Antonakos, Cathy L; Roberts, Katherine; Hayashi, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Commercially available portable metabolic systems have been validated with samples of young, healthy, and well-fit subjects, but use of these systems with a special population, such as healthy but sedentary pregnant women, requires a unique set of considerations. These include a woman's limited testing time necessary for fetal safety, relatively low oxygen consumption, and the unique physiology of pregnancy (woman, the placenta, and the fetus). The purpose of this study was to validate a portable metabolic testing system (VO2000) with healthy sedentary pregnant women. A total of 9 sedentary pregnant