Science.gov

Sample records for age previous studies

  1. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  2. Cyclostratigraphy for Chinese red clay sequences: Implications to changing previous age models and paleoclimate interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, T.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Zhang, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau contains red clay sequence which has continuous alternation of sedimentary cycles with recurrent paleoclimatic fluctuations. Absence of abundant fossils and inability of radiometric dating method made magnetostratigraphy a leading method to build age model for the red clay. Here magnetostratigraphic age model in red clay sequence is tested using cyclostratigraphy as orbital parameters of Earth are known. Milankovitch periodicities recorded in magnetic susceptibility and grain size in the Shilou red clay section are investigated and previously found age of 11 Ma for this section is re-evaluated. Magnetostratigraphy dating based on only visual correlation could potentially lead to erroneous age model. In this study the correlation is executed through the iteration procedure until it is supported by cyclostratigraphy; i.e. Milankovitch cycles are resolved in the best possible manner. Our new approach provides an age of 5.2 Ma for the Shilou profile. Wavelet analysis reveals that a 400 kyr eccentricity cycle is well preserved and the existence of a 100 kyr eccentricity in the red clay sequence on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau suggests that eccentricity plays a vital role in Pliocene climate evolution. Paleomonsoon evolution is reconstructed and divided into three intervals (5.2-4.5 Ma, 4.5-3.6 Ma and 3.6-2.58 Ma). The earliest stage indicates that summer and winter monsoon cycles may rapidly alter, whereas the middle stage reflects an intensification of winter monsoon and aridification in Asia, and the youngest stage is characterized by relatively intensified summer monsoon. This study demonstrates that cyclostratigraphy can greatly assist magnetostratigraphy in dating the red clay sequences, and implies that many published age models for the red clay sequences should likely be re-assessed where possible. An evaluation of the monsoon system and climate change in eastern Asia might prominently benefit from this approach.

  3. New Ages for Gorgona Island, Colombia: Implications for Previous Petrogenetic and Tectonic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano Duran, L.; Lopez Martinez, M.; Ferrari, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Gorgona Island, located 50 km to the west of the Colombian Pacific coast, is the only known site with Phanerozoic komatiites in the world besides a key element in several reconstruction of the interaction between the Caribbean and the South America Plate. The Gorgona komatiites are part of an igneous complex that also includes picritic basalts and breccias, gabbros and peridotites (dunites and wherlites), and is covered by deformed mid-Eocene and younger underformed marine sediments. Datings of the igneous rocks were only performed on basalts and include an 86 Ma K-Ar age, an 88.9 ± 1.2 Ma weighted mean of four Ar-Ar ages and an 89.2 ± 5.2 Ma Re-Os isochron age from basalts. Gorgona rocks are affected by reverse faulting with a general eastward vergence. The island is the only subaerially exposed part of a NE elongated sliver accreted in a dextral transpressional regime to the South America continental margin between the Late Eocene and the Early Miocene. Petrologic studies found large spread in radiogenic isotopes and incompatible trace element ratios in Gorgona ultramafic rocks, which have been interpreted as requiring at least two different sources of: 1) a depleted mantle responsible for the generation of the komatiites and most basalts, and 2) an enriched mantle responsible for some rarer enriched basalts and picrites. Despite the large compositional and isotopic heterogeneity the most common interpretation is that the Gorgona ultramafic rocks are the product of a single mantle plume, although it has recently proposed that this would be a separate plume from that generating the bulk of the Caribbean plateau at ~90 Ma. Our new study focused on the geochronology of the Gorgona igneous suite as we consider that this tectonically and petrologically complex island is unlike to have such a narrow age range. We attempted to date eight samples of komatiites, basalts and gabbros by Ar-Ar laser step heating. For four of these samples we successfully obtain

  4. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure.

  5. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  6. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    PubMed

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p < .01). Vocational interest was related to performance on three scenarios (p < .01). Graduate-entry applicants outperformed all other groups on three scenarios (p < .01) and at least one other group on the other three scenarios (p < .01). Female applicants outperformed male applicants on three scenarios (p < .01) and age was positively related to performance on two scenarios (p < .05). A good fit between applicants' vocational interests and SJT scenario was related to better performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  7. Intravitreal aflibercept in neovascular age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Rachel Hui Fen; Gupta, Bhaskar; Simcock, Peter

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the change in visual acuity and central macular thickness (CMT) following treatment with intravitreal aflibercept injections in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with suboptimum response to ranibizumab. METHODS This was a retrospective study. The inclusion criteria were patients with nAMD who responded poorly to ranibizumab. Patients then received either 3 consecutive aflibercept injections followed by pro re nata (PRN) treatment or PRN alone. Primary endpoints were mean change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and CMT at 12mo. Secondary endpoints were number of injections and adverse events. RESULTS Forty-nine eyes from 49 patients met the inclusion criteria and completed 12-month follow up on aflibercept. Thirty-eight eyes received 3 consecutive aflibercept injections followed by PRN treatment and 11 eyes received PRN injections alone. At 12mo, mean BCVA improved by one letters (logMAR 0.56±0.31 to 0.54±0.34) and mean CMT decreased from 303.9±82.1 to 259.2±108.3 µm. Four percent of eyes gained 15 letters or more, 6% lost more than 15 letters and the remaining 90% had stable BCVA. The mean number of aflibercept injections was 6. There was one case of infectious endophthalmitis. CONCLUSION Intravitreal aflibercept in patients with nAMD with a previous suboptimal response to ranibizumab resulted in an anatomical improvement in macular appearance at 12mo without a corresponding improvement in visual acuity. PMID:28393034

  8. A phase I/II study of oral clofarabine plus low-dose cytarabine in previously treated acute myeloid leukaemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome patients at least 60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sarah A; Mawad, Raya; Gooley, Ted A; Becker, Pamela S; Sandhu, Vicky; Hendrie, Paul; Scott, Bart L; Wood, Brent L; Walter, Roland B; Smith, Kelly; Dean, Carol; Estey, Elihu H; Pagel, John M

    2015-08-01

    Outcomes for older adults with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are generally poor, and new effective therapies are needed. We investigated oral clofarabine combined with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) in patients aged 60 years and above with relapsed or refractory AML or high-risk MDS in a phase I/II trial. A 3 + 3 dose escalation of oral clofarabine was followed by a phase II expansion with the aim of obtaining a complete response (CR) rate ≥30%. We identified 20 mg/d for 5 d as the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of oral clofarabine. A total of 35 patients, with a median age of 72 years, were treated. Of 26 patients enrolled at the MTD, 4 had treatment-related grade 3-4 non-haematological toxicities, but none died within 28 d. The observed CR rate and median survival were 34% [95% confidence interval (CI), 18-50%] and 6.8 months overall and 38% [95% CI, 19-57%] and 7.2 months at the MTD. The median disease-free survival was 7.4 months. Fifty-two percent (23/44) of cycles administered at the MTD were done without hospital admission. This combination of oral clofarabine and LDAC demonstrated efficacy with a CR rate of >30% and acceptable toxicity in older patients.

  9. Resistance of calves to Cryptosporidium parvum: effects of age and previous exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Harp, J A; Woodmansee, D B; Moon, H W

    1990-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite that causes diarrheal disease in many vertebrate species, including young (less than or equal to 1 month old) calves. Older calves and adult cattle are resistant to infection. In this study, newborn calves were raised in isolation from C. parvum for 1 week to 3 months before experimental challenge with the parasite. Calves orally challenged with C. parvum at 1 week of age shed oocysts in their feces and had diarrhea after challenge exposure. When these calves were rechallenged at 1 and 3 months of age, they neither shed oocysts nor had diarrhea. There was no significant increase in the mean anticryptosporidium enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serum antibody titer in these calves following any of the challenge exposures. Calves orally inoculated with C. parvum for the first time at 1 month of age shed oocysts, had diarrhea after challenge exposure, and were resistant to rechallenge at 3 months of age. These calves had a twofold increase in serum antibody titer after the first challenge and no increase after the second challenge. Calves orally inoculated with C. parvum for the first time at 3 months of age shed oocysts, and two of seven animals had diarrhea. These calves had a 10-fold increase in serum antibody to C. parvum after exposure. This study demonstrates that calves raised in isolation from C. parvum remain susceptible to challenge until at least 3 months of age. Furthermore, within this time period, initial exposure and recovery renders calves resistant to further challenge with the parasite. The data also suggest that exposure of young calves to C. parvum may inhibit the development of a serum antibody response to the parasite. PMID:2365460

  10. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  11. Studying aging in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-06-15

    Drosophila melanogaster represents one of the most important genetically accessible model organisms for aging research. Studies in flies have identified single gene mutations that influence lifespan and have characterized endocrine signaling interactions that control homeostasis systemically. Recent studies have focused on the effects of aging on specific tissues and physiological processes, providing a comprehensive picture of age-related tissue dysfunction and the loss of systemic homeostasis. Here we review methodological aspects of this work and highlight technical considerations when using Drosophila to study aging and age-related diseases.

  12. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  13. Concrete containment aging study

    SciTech Connect

    Pachner, J.; Tai, T.M.; Naus, D.

    1994-04-01

    In 1989, IAEA initiated a pilot study on the management of aging of nuclear power plant components. The Phase I and II studies of concrete containment are discussed. With the data base, plant owners will be able to review and enhance their existing programs. IAEA will analyze data provided by participating plants and the report is scheduled to be released by late 1994 (final report release mid-1995).

  14. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valid study. 152.93 Section 152.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency....

  15. Effect of previous miscarriage on the maternal birth experience in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of miscarriage is related to birth experience and/or maternal fear of an adverse birth outcome for self or infant during a subsequent delivery. Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, the First Baby Study. Sample Women aged 18-35 who were expecting to deliver their first live-born infants in Pennsylvania between January 2009 and April 2011. Participants Four hundred fifty-three pregnant women who reported perinatal loss prior to 20 weeks gestation (miscarriage) in a previous pregnancy and 2401 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage were interviewed during pregnancy and again one month after their first live birth. Methods Maternal birth experience and fear of an adverse birth outcome measured via telephone interview were compared across groups. Results Maternal birth experience scores did not significantly differ between women with and without previous miscarriage. Women with a history of miscarriage reported that they feared an adverse birth outcome for themselves or their infants more frequently than women without a history of miscarriage (52.1% vs. 46.6%; p=0.033), however, this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there is no association between miscarriage history and birth experience. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial including an in-depth examination of fear of adverse outcome during birth. However, nurses and midwives may consider using therapeutic communication techniques to ensure that women with a history of miscarriage receive strong emotional support and reassurance during birth. PMID:23772602

  16. The age of production system and previous Salmonella infections on-farm are risk factors for low-level Salmonella infections in laying hen flocks.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorebeke, S; Van Immerseel, F; De Vylder, J; Ducatelle, R; Haesebrouck, F; Pasmans, F; de Kruif, A; Dewulf, J

    2010-06-01

    An explorative field study was carried out to determine risk factors for Salmonella infections in commercial laying hen flocks. For this purpose, 29 laying hen farms, including farms using conventional and alternative housing systems, were intensively sampled. An on-farm questionnaire was used to collect information on general management practices and specific characteristics of the sampled flock such as flock size, age of the hens, and age of the infrastructure. Salmonella was detected in laying hens from 6 of the 29 sampled farms. Using multivariate logistic regression with the Salmonella status of the flock as an outcome variable, a previous Salmonella contamination on the farm and the age of the production system were identified as risk factors for the presence of Salmonella in laying hens (P<0.05). The housing system did not have a significant influence on the prevalence of Salmonella in the current study.

  17. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  18. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-01-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

  19. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    PubMed

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L

    2013-12-15

    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; p<0.05), and report substance use (16.35≤χ(2)≥27.57; p<0.01) before the acute injury, compared to those with no previous TBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  20. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with previous preeclampsia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bramham, Kate; Briley, Annette L.; Seed, Paul; Poston, Lucilla; Shennan, Andrew H.; Chappell, Lucy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess recurrence rates of preeclampsia and neonatal outcomes in women with a history of preeclampsia that required preterm delivery. Study Design Five hundred women with previous preeclampsia that required delivery at <37 weeks' gestation were followed prospectively. Results Preeclampsia reoccurred in 117 women (23%). Predictive factors included black (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–4.53) or Asian (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.33–6.59) ethnicity, enrollment systolic blood pressure of >130 mm Hg (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.52–5.50), current antihypertensive use (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 2.38–17.16), and proteinuria of ≥2+ on enrollment urinalysis (OR, 12.35; 95% CI, 3.45–44.21). Women who previously delivered at <34 weeks' gestation were more likely to deliver preterm again (29% vs 17%; relative risk, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19–2.40) than were those women with previous delivery between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Conclusion Although this study confirms that women with previous preeclampsia that required early delivery are at high risk of the development of preeclampsia, the study identifies risk factors for recurrence and illustrates that women with previous preeclampsia are at greater risk of adverse neonatal outcome. PMID:21457915

  1. NREL Study Finds U.S. Wind Energy Potential Triples Previous Estimates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times greater than previously estimated, according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind turbine hub heights of 80 meters and 100 meters. These hub heights, which reflect current and future models of wind turbines, are higher than those used in previous national estimates and are mainly responsible for the increased wind potential in the study.

  2. Adaptive-filtering of trisomy 21: risk of Down syndrome depends on family size and age of previous child

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven

    2007-02-01

    The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.

  3. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  4. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Potential groundwater age tracer found: Halon-1301 (CF3Br), as previously identified as CFC-13 (CF3Cl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Monique; van der Raaij, Rob; Morgenstern, Uwe; Jackson, Bethanna

    2014-09-01

    Groundwater dating using anthropogenic and natural tracer substances is a powerful tool for understanding groundwater dynamics for improved management of groundwater resources. Due to limitations in individual dating methods, often multiple tracers are used to reduce ambiguities. It is commonly accepted that there is a need for further complementary age tracers, in addition to current ones (e.g., tritium, SF6, and CFCs). We propose a potential new groundwater age tracer, Halon-1301 (CF3Br), which can easily be determined using gas chromatography with an attached electron capture detector (GC/ECD) developed by Busenberg and Plummer (2008). Its peak was noted by Busenberg and Plummer (2008), but they believed it to be CFC-13 (CF3Cl) at that time. We performed rigorous tests on gases containing or excluding Halon-1301 and CFC-13 and modern water samples and concluded that the two compounds have extremely similar retention times. Additionally, we found that the ECD response of CFC-13 is far too low to be detected in groundwater or air using standard volumes and sampling techniques. However, the peak areas and concentrations Busenberg and Plummer (2008) reported are in line with what would be expected for Halon-1301. Thus, we are confident that the peak formerly identified as CFC-13 is actually Halon-1301. Busenberg agrees with our findings. We further suggest that Halon-1301 has potential as a (complementary) age tracer, due to its established atmospheric history, and could hypothetically be used to date groundwater recharged in the 1970s or onward. We discuss known relevant properties, such as solubility and stability of Halon-1301 in the context of how these effect its potential application as a groundwater age tracer. Some open questions remain concerning how conservative Halon-1301 is—is it subject to degradation, retardation, and/or local contamination in groundwater. We are confident that Halon-1301 possesses important tracer relevant properties, but further

  6. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    SciTech Connect

    P. McDaniel

    2002-04-05

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  7. Complex adjustments of photosynthetic potentials and internal diffusion conductance to current and previous light availabilities and leaf age in Mediterranean evergreen species Quercus ilex.

    PubMed

    Niinemets, Ulo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Tosens, Tiina

    2006-06-01

    mass (g(m)M) was negatively associated with light in current-year leaves. Greater photosynthetic potentials and moderate changes in diffusion conductance resulted in greater internal diffusion limitations of photosynthesis in higher light. Both area- and mass-based g(m) decreased with increasing leaf age. The decrease in diffusion conductance was larger than changes in photosynthetic potentials, leading to larger CO2 drawdown from leaf internal air space to chloroplasts (delta(c)) in older leaves. The increases in diffusion limitations in older leaves and at higher light scaled with age- and light-dependent increases in MA and D(F). Overall, our study demonstrates a large potential of foliage photosynthetic acclimation to changes in leaf light environment, but also highlights enhanced structural diffusion limitations in older leaves that result from leaf structural acclimation to previous rather than to current light environment and accumulation of structural compounds with leaf age.

  8. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  9. A Survival Association Study of 102 Polymorphisms Previously Associated with Survival Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxiong; Werdyani, Salem; Shestopaloff, Konstantin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort. PMID:26064972

  10. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs

  11. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  12. [Incidence of previous engagement in sports among patients with symptomatic arthrosis. Controlled study].

    PubMed

    Boyer, T; Delaire, M; Beranek, L; Lasserre, P P; Tekaya, M; Kahn, M F

    1981-12-01

    The authors investigated sports-related precedents in two groups of male subjects, aged 40 years and over, of French nationality. One group had consulted for a degenerative, chronic rheumatic disorder, and the control group showed no signs of this type of disorder. Care was taken to verify that the two groups did not differ in terms of profession, means of commuting from home to work, and non-sporting leisure physical activities. The authors observed that the subjects of the first group (chronic degenerative rheumatic disease) more frequently engaged in a sports activity, and in a significant manner, than did the control subjects. A separate study of the certain kinds of sports and the various arthritic localisations also revealed significant correlations. Although this involved a retrospective enquiry, the authors feel that the results provide arguments in favor of the pathogenic role of sports activity, with regard to peripheral joints and the spine. However, this role of sports is probably only partial and irregular. The risks of sports activity must be put in perspective and balanced with the various advantages afforded by the practice of sports.

  13. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  14. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205.

  15. The incidence of hip fracture in Shiraz, Iran: a promising rate comparing to previous studies.

    PubMed

    Maharlouei, N; Atefi, S; Namazi, H; Kazemifar, S; Soveid, M; Shahraki, H R; Farahmand, Z; Khodayari, M; Arab, P; Forouzan, F; Allamehzadeh, N; Fazilat, S; Khademolhosseini, S; Nafari, F; Lankarani, K B

    2017-03-16

    We evaluate the incidence of hip fracture in 50 years old or above in southwest of Iran. Age-adjusted incidence rates of hip fracture, standardized to the 2000 US white population, were 79.55 per 10(5) in total and 66.51 and 92.37 per 10(5) in male and female, respectively.

  16. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  17. Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS)

    PubMed Central

    Justice, Amy C.; Dombrowski, Elizabeth; Conigliaro, Joseph; Fultz, Shawn L.; Gibson, Deborah; Madenwald, Tamra; Goulet, Joseph; Simberkoff, Michael; Butt, Adeel A.; Rimland, David; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Gibert, Cynthia L.; Oursler, Kris Ann K.; Brown, Sheldon; Leaf, David A.; Goetz, Matthew B.; Bryant, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    Background The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected and uninfected patients seen in infectious disease and general medical clinics. VACS includes the earlier 3 and 5 site studies (VACS 3 and VACS 5) as well as the ongoing 8 site study. Objectives We sought to provide background and context for analyses based upon VACS data, including study design and rationale as well as its basic protocol and the baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample. Research Design We undertook a prospectively consented multisite observational study of veterans in care with and without HIV infection. Measures Data were derived from patient and provider self report, telephone interviews, blood and DNA samples, focus groups, and full access to the national VA “paperless” electronic medical record system. Results More than 7200 veterans have been enrolled in at least one of the studies. The 8 site study (VACS) has enrolled 2979 HIV-infected and 3019 HIV-uninfected age–race–site matched comparators and has achieved stratified enrollment targets for race/ethnicity and age and 99% of its total target enrollment as of October 30, 2005. Participants in VACS are similar to other veterans receiving care within the VA. VACS participants are older and more predominantly black than those reported by the Centers for Disease Control. Conclusions VACS has assembled a rich, in-depth, and representative sample of veterans in care with and without HIV infection to conduct longitudinal analyses of questions concerning the association between alcohol use and related comorbid and AIDS-defining conditions. PMID:16849964

  18. Mechanistic studies of photothermal aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Cracks were observed forming in Tedlar back cover films on PV modules mounted outdoors in the natural environment. The cracks appear to approximate reasonable straight lines and, in general, are parallel to each other. It is implied that the directionality of these cracks may be in some way related to film orientation. Preliminary results from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) studies investigating the causes of these cracks indicate that Tedlar does not become brittle on aging. It was speculated that perhaps compounding ingredients employed in EVA may migrate into the Tedlar film, thus causing a potential for chemical effects.

  19. Applicant Age as a Subjective Employability Factor: A Study of Workers over and under Age Fifty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Catherine Sabin; Hansvick, Christine L.

    1999-01-01

    Three hundred employers in a suburban area of the Pacific Northwest were surveyed for their perceptions of older (ages 50 and over) and younger (aged 49 and under) workers on 12 attributes. In contrast to previous research, this study found more favorable ratings for older workers overall, including categories such as attendance and salary…

  20. Aging studies in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake, and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity.

  1. Aging Studies in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaning; Yolitz, Jason; Wang, Cecilia; Spangler, Edward; Zhan, Ming; Zou, Sige

    2015-01-01

    Summary Drosophila is a genetically tractable system ideal for investigating the mechanisms of aging and developing interventions for promoting healthy aging. Here we describe methods commonly used in Drosophila aging research. These include basic approaches for preparation of diets and measurements of lifespan, food intake and reproductive output. We also describe some commonly used assays to measure changes in physiological and behavioral functions of Drosophila in aging, such as stress resistance and locomotor activity. PMID:23929099

  2. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  3. Revisiting Previously Investigated Plants: A Molecular Networking-Based Study of Geissospermum laeve.

    PubMed

    Fox Ramos, Alexander E; Alcover, Charlotte; Evanno, Laurent; Maciuk, Alexandre; Litaudon, Marc; Duplais, Christophe; Bernadat, Guillaume; Gallard, Jean-François; Jullian, Jean-Christophe; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Poupon, Erwan; Champy, Pierre; Beniddir, Mehdi A

    2017-03-10

    Three new monoterpene indole alkaloids (1-3) have been isolated from the bark of Geissospermum laeve, together with the known alkaloids (-)-leuconolam (4), geissolosimine (5), and geissospermine (6). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by analysis of their HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of geissolaevine (1) was deduced from the comparison of experimental and theoretically calculated ECD spectra. The isolation workflow was guided by a molecular networking-based dereplication strategy using an in-house database of monoterpene indole alkaloids. In addition, five known compounds previously undescribed in the Geissospermum genus were dereplicated from the G. laeve alkaloid extract network and were assigned with various levels of identification confidence. The antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani as well as the cytotoxic activity against the MRC-5 cell line were determined for compounds 1-5.

  4. Case-control study of current validity of previously described risk factors for SIDS in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    l'Hoir, M P; Engelberts, A C; van Well, G T; Westers, P; Mellenbergh, G J; Wolters, W H; Huber, J

    1998-11-01

    This study aimed to assess whether previously established risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are still valid now that the incidence in the Netherlands has dropped to 0.26 per 1000 liveborn infants. A distinction was made between immutable and mutable risk factors. This case-control study (part of the European Concerted Action on SIDS) comprised 73 SIDS cases and 146 controls and lasted from March 1995 to September 1996. Adjustments were made for sleeping position and bedding factors by treating them as covariables. Apart from these factors, well known risk factors that remain of importance in the Netherlands are: male sex, young maternal age, twins, and low socioeconomic status. These factors are largely immutable. Other well known risk factors which might reflect attitudes to child care and could possibly be mutable are: smoking, alcohol consumption by the mother, bottle feeding, and change of babycare routine. Intervention strategies should focus on early signalling, thereby assisting parents in changing these unfavourable parenting attitudes. Information on optimal child care and extra support by public health nurses specifically aimed at families at risk could help to decrease further the incidence of SIDS in the Netherlands.

  5. The Natural History of Respiratory Syncytial Virus in a Birth Cohort: The Influence of Age and Previous Infection on Reinfection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ohuma, E. O.; Okiro, E. A.; Ochola, R.; Sande, C. J.; Cane, P. A.; Medley, G. F.; Bottomley, C.; Nokes, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the effect of age, time since last infection, and infection history on the rate of respiratory syncytial virus infection and the effect of age and infection history on the risk of respiratory syncytial virus disease. A birth cohort of 635 children in Kilifi, Kenya, was monitored for respiratory syncytial virus infections from January 31, 2002, to April 22, 2005. Predictors of infection were examined by Cox regression and disease risk by binomial regression. A total of 598 respiratory syncytial virus infections were identified (411 primary, 187 repeat), with 409 determined by antigen assay and 189 by antibody alone (using a “most pragmatic” serologic definition). The incidence decreased by 70% following a primary infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.30, 95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.42; P < 0.001) and by 59% following a secondary infection (hazard ratio = 0.41, 95% confidence interval: 0.22, 0.73; P = 0.003), for a period lasting 6 months. Relative to the age group <6 months, all ages exhibited a higher incidence of infection. A lower risk of severe disease following infection was independently associated with increasing age (P < 0.001) but not reinfection. In conclusion, observed respiratory syncytial virus incidence was lowest in the first 6 months of life, immunity to reinfection was partial and short lived, and disease risk was age related. PMID:23059788

  6. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  7. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  8. Management of Electronic Test Equipment. Volume 2. Previous Studies and Initiatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    standard on definition of with respect to testability because of the testability terms. absence of universally accepted terminology . The proliferation of...effectiveness of the ,JLC 4Q82AT Program. ACQUISITION SUPPORT Terminology Compilation and revision of Joint Service termi- 4Q83 nology standard , MIL-STD... Terminology 1- .1 Organization 1- 1 42. OSD EFFORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2- 1 *Defense Science Board Study

  9. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    PubMed Central

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  10. Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Vincenzo . E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Morganti, Alessio G.; Gambacorta, M. Antonietta; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Doglietto, G. Battista; Coco, Claudio; De Paoli, Antonino; Rossi, Carlo; Di Russo, Annamaria; Valvo, Francesca; Bolzicco, Giampaolo; Dalla Palma, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma has significantly lowered the incidence of local recurrence. However, a new problem is represented by the patient with locally recurrent cancer who has received previous irradiation to the pelvis. In these patients, local recurrence is very often not easily resectable and reirradiation is expected to be associated with a high risk of late toxicity. The aim of this multicenter phase II study is to evaluate the response rate, resectability rate, local control, and treatment-related toxicity of preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically proven pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma, with the absence of extrapelvic disease or bony involvement and previous pelvic irradiation with doses {<=}55 Gy; age {>=}18 years; performance status (PS) (Karnofsky) {>=}60, and who gave institutional review board-approved written informed consent were treated by preoperative chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV2) including the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus a 4-cm margin, with a dose of 30 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily with a minimum 6-h interval). A boost was delivered, with the same fractionation schedule, to a PTV1 including the GTV plus a 2-cm margin (10.8 Gy). During the radiation treatment, concurrent chemotherapy was delivered (5-fluorouracil, protracted intravenous infusion, 225 mg/m{sup 2}/day, 7 days per week). Four to 6 weeks after the end of chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for tumor resectability, and, when feasible, surgical resection of recurrence was performed between 6-8 weeks from the end of chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed to all patients, using Raltitrexed, 3 mg/square meter (sm), every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 cycles. Patients were staged using the computed tomography (CT)-based F

  11. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  12. Aging Studies of VCE Dismantlement Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S; Alviso, C; Pearson, M; Albo, R; Small, W; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2011-10-17

    VCE is an ethylene/vinyl acetate/vinyl alcohol terpolymer binder for filled elastomers which is designed to accept high filler loadings. Filled elastomer parts consist of the binder (VCE), a curing agent (Hylene MP, diphenol-4-4{prime}-methylenebis(phenylcarbamate)), a processing aid (LS, lithium stearate), and filler particles (typically 70% fraction by weight). The curing of the filled elastomer parts occurs from the heat-activated reaction between the hydroxyl groups of VCE with the Hylene MP curing agent, resulting in a cross-linked network. The final vinyl acetate content is typically between 34.9 and 37.9%, while the vinyl alcohol content is typically between 1.27 and 1.78%. Surveillance data for this material is both scarce and scattered, complicating the assessment of any aging trends in systems. In addition, most of the initial surveillance efforts focused on mechanical properties such as hardness and tensile strength, and chemical information is therefore lacking. Material characterization and aging studies had been performed on previous formulations of the VCE material but the Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) starting copolymer is no longer commercially available. New formulations with replacement EVA materials are currently being established and will require characterization as well as updated aging models.

  13. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  14. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  15. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  16. Immunological persistence in 5 y olds previously vaccinated with hexavalent DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at 3, 5, and 11 months of age.

    PubMed

    Silfverdal, Sven A; Assudani, Deepak; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Van Der Meeren, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-poliomyelitis/Haemophilus influenza vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib: Infanrix™ hexa, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) is used for primary vaccination of infants in a range of schedules world-wide. Antibody persistence after 4 DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib doses in the first 2 y of life has been documented, but long-term persistence data following the 3, 5, 11-12 months (3-5-11) infant vaccination schedule, employed for example in Nordic countries, are limited. We assessed antibody persistence in 57 5-year-old children who had received either DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib or DTPa-IPV/Hib (Infanrix™-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Vaccines) in the 3-5-11 schedule. Among DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib recipients, 7/12 retained seroprotective antibody concentrations for diphtheria, 10/12 for tetanus, 5/12 for hepatitis and 10/12 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 0/12 children for pertussis toxin (PT), 12/12 for filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) and 8/12 for pertactin (PRN). Among DTPa-IPV/Hib recipients, 28/45 retained seroprotective anti-diphtheria concentrations, 34/44 for tetanus and 40/45 for Hib. Detectable antibodies were observed for 9/45 children for PT, 41/45 for FHA and 34/45 for PRN. Antibody persistence in DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib and DTPa-IPV/Hib-vaccinees appeared similar in 5 y olds to that previously observed in children of a similar age who had received 4 prior doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib (or DTPa-IPV/Hib). As in subjects primed with 4 prior doses, we observed that antibodies markedly declined by 5 y of age, calling for the administration of a pre-school booster dose in order to ensure continued protection against pertussis.

  17. Persistence of immunity in healthy adults aged ≥50 years primed with a hepatitis B vaccine 3 years previously

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajiv; Ahlm, Clas; Ostergaard, Lars; Dowell, Anthony; Tran, Clément; Thomas, Stéphane; Eymin, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B vaccines do not generate protective immune responses in older adults as effectively as they do in children and young adults. Improved formulations of existing vaccines may have the potential to improve this. This study investigated the persistence of serum antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigens (anti-HBs) 3.1–3.5 years following primary vaccination with 3 doses of HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in healthy adults aged ≥50 years who were further challenged with 1 dose of recombinant hepatitis B antigen. This was an open-label extension study. Individuals (N = 204) with a mean (standard deviation) age at enrollment of 63.7 (7.0) years receiving HBvaxPRO® or Engerix B™ in a randomized, double-blind primary study were challenged with 1 dose of HBvaxPRO® (10 μg). Anti-HBs were measured pre- and 30 days post-challenge. 45.5% (34.8, 56.4 [95% CI]) of individuals who received HBvaxPRO® in the per protocol set (PPS) had anti-HBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL pre-challenge and 85.2% (76.1, 91.9) 1-month post-challenge. In those who received Engerix B™ in the primary vaccination series, the results were 58.8% (48.6, 68.5) and 88.3% (80.5, 93.8), respectively. The challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was generally well tolerated. Subjects aged ≥50 years receiving a challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® demonstrated immune memory against hepatitis B 3 years after a 3-dose primary. The safety profile of this challenge dose of HBvaxPRO® was consistent with the well-established safety profile of the vaccine HBvaxPRO®. PMID:25996838

  18. [Deafness and aging: studies in experimental models].

    PubMed

    Gil Loyzaga, Pablo E

    2002-01-01

    Since 1970 a progressive aging of the world population, mainly in the most developed countries, has been observed. Spain could have, around 2050, the most aged human population of the world. Therefore, scientist show an increasing interest on the study of the aging-related pathologies (i.e. deafness linked to aging process: presbycusis). The deep analysis of the presbycusis physiopathology will be based on the study of patients, but also on animal models. This report summarizes our results obtained on the analysis of the deafness linked to aging on the C57/BL/6 mice.

  19. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  20. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p < 0.001). Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  1. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  2. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various…

  3. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  4. A study of menarcheal age in India.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D F; Chinn, S; Girija, B; Singh, H D

    1977-03-01

    A study of menarcheal age was carried out in southern India. A logit method of analysis was applied to status quo data on 1267 Tamil and Telugu speaking girls aged 9 to 18 years in 3 schools catering for different socio-economic groups. There appears to be no relationship of menarcheal age with dietary pattern classified simply as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. Differences in median age at menarche between schools correspond well with the socio-economic differences between them. The median age in the most advantaged school (12-86 years) is comparable with that in recent studies in southern and eastern Europe, and may perhaps be in advance of some recent north-west European samples.

  5. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús

    2003-11-01

    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  6. Study of solar activity and cosmic ray modulation during solar cycle 24 in comparison to previous solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V. K.; Mishra, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the monthly data of sunspot numbers (SSN), sunspot area of full disc (SSA) and cosmic ray intensity (CRI) observed by neutron monitors (NM) located at Oulu (Cut off Rigidity = 0.8 GV) and Moscow (Cut off Rigidity = 2.3 GV), the trend of solar activity variation and cosmic ray modulation has been studied during the cycles 23 & 24. The SSN have maintained its minimum level exceptionally for a long period (July 2008-Aug. 2009) of time. The intensity of galactic cosmic rays measured by ground based detectors is the highest ever recorded by Oulu NM since April 1964 during the recent solar minimum. Furthermore, the maximum value of SSN is found to be very low in the present cycle in comparison to previous solar cycles (19-23). The correlation coefficient between SSN and CRI without and with time-lag as well as regression analysis during the solar cycle 24 (Jan. 2008-Dec. 2015) has been estimated and compared with previous solar cycle. Based on the maximum value of correlation coefficient, the time-lag during present solar cycle is found to be 4 and 10 months for both the stations, while it is 13-14 months during cycle 23. The behaviour of running cross correlation function has also been examined during present solar cycle and it is found that it attains its maximum value -0.8 to -0.9 for a long duration in comparison to previous cycles. The variation of SSN and SSA has also been compared and found that they are highly correlated to each other (r > .92) for both the cycles. In the light of exceptional behaviour of solar cycle 24, the trend of cosmic ray modulation has been discussed and compared with earlier cycles.

  7. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    PubMed

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  8. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study

    PubMed Central

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  9. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  10. Observational cohort study focused on treatment continuity of patients administered XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masahito; Ikeda, Fusao; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshioka, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Kyogoku, Takahisa; Kato, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been remarkable progress in systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer due to the widespread use of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. It is important to continue treatment with the optimal combination of these drugs and prolong progression-free survival (PFS) to improve overall survival (OS). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 40 patients treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer to investigate treatment continuity. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria were as follows: 1) histologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer; 2) lesions evaluable by imaging; 3) previously untreated; 4) suitable condition to receive XELOX plus bevacizumab; and 5) written informed consent. Outcomes were treatment continuity, overall response rate, resection rate, liver resection rate, time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS. Forty patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 years. Results Between July 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were enrolled. The median number of treatment cycles was 7.5, and the reasons for discontinuation of treatment were as follows: complete response (five patients), resection (ten patients), progression (15 patients), adverse events (seven patients), and patient refusal (three patients). The overall response rate was 57.5%, resection rate was 25%, and liver resection rate was 15%. After a median follow-up of 31.4 months, the median time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS were 5.3, 13.3, and 38.9 months, respectively. Conclusion Although the median time to treatment failure was 5.3 months, the median PFS and OS were prolonged to 13.3 and 38.9 months, respectively. This may have resulted from the chemotherapy-free interval due to complete response in five patients and resection in ten patients. PMID:27468238

  11. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density is associated with previous fracture during childhood and adolescence in males: the GOOD study.

    PubMed

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Rudäng, Robert; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2010-03-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been associated with fracture risk in children and adolescents, but it remains unclear whether this association is due to volumetric BMD (vBMD) of the cortical and/or trabecular bone compartments or bone size. The aim of this study was to determine whether vBMD or bone size was associated with X-ray-verified fractures in men during growth. In total, 1068 men (aged 18.9 +/- 0.6 years) were included in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study. Areal BMD was measured by DXA, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD and bone size were measured by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). X-ray records were searched for fractures. Self-reported fractures in 77 men could not be confirmed in these records. These men were excluded, resulting in 991 included men, of which 304 men had an X-ray-verified fracture and 687 were nonfracture subjects. Growth charts were used to establish the age of peak height velocity (PHV, n = 600). Men with prevalent fractures had lower aBMD (lumbar spine 2.3%, p = .005; total femur 2.6%, p = .004, radius 2.1%, p < .001) at all measured sites than men without fracture. Using pQCT measurements, we found that men with a prevalent fracture had markedly lower trabecular vBMD (radius 6.6%, p = 7.5 x 10(-8); tibia 4.5%, p = 1.7 x 10(-7)) as well as a slightly lower cortical vBMD (radius 0.4%, p = .0012; tibia 0.3%, p = .015) but not reduced cortical cross-sectional area than men without fracture. Every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD of the radius and tibia was associated with 1.46 [radius 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.69; tibia 95% CI 1.26-1.68] times increased fracture prevalence. The peak fracture incidence coincided with the timing of PHV (+/-1 year). In conclusion, trabecular vBMD but not aBMD was independently associated with prevalent X-ray-verified fractures in young men. Further studies are

  12. Chicago Healthy Aging Study: Objectives and Design

    PubMed Central

    Pirzada, Amber; Reid, Kathryn; Kim, Daniel; Garside, Daniel B.; Lu, Brandon; Vu, Thanh-Huyen T.; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; Zee, Phyllis; Liu, Kiang; Stamler, Jeremiah; Daviglus, Martha L.

    2013-01-01

    Investigators in the Chicago Healthy Aging Study (CHAS) reexamined 1,395 surviving participants aged 65–84 years (28% women) from the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry (CHA) 1967–1973 cohort whose cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles were originally ascertained at ages 25–44 years. CHAS investigators reexamined 421 participants who were low-risk (LR) at baseline and 974 participants who were non-LR at baseline. LR was defined as having favorable levels of 4 major CVD risk factors: serum total cholesterol level <200 mg/dL and no use of cholesterol-lowering medication; blood pressure 120/≤80 mm Hg and no use of antihypertensive medication; no current smoking; and no history of diabetes or heart attack. While the potential of LR status in overcoming the CVD epidemic is being recognized, the long-term association of LR with objectively measured health in older age has not been examined. It is hypothesized that persons who were LR in 1967–1973 and have survived to older age will have less clinical and subclinical CVD, lower levels of inflammatory markers, and better physical performance/functioning and sleep quality. Here we describe the rationale, objectives, design, and implementation of this longitudinal epidemiologic study, compare baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and nonparticipants, and highlight the feasibility of reexamining study participants after an extended period postbaseline with minimal interim contact. PMID:23669655

  13. Disease surveillance based on Internet-based linear models: an Australian case study of previously unmodeled infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rohart, Florian; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Avril, Simon M. R.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is critical to the functioning of health systems. Traditional approaches are, however, limited in their ability to deliver timely information. Internet-based surveillance systems are a promising approach that may circumvent many of the limitations of traditional health surveillance systems and provide more intelligence on cases of infection, including cases from those that do not use the healthcare system. Infectious disease surveillance systems built on Internet search metrics have been shown to produce accurate estimates of disease weeks before traditional systems and are an economically attractive approach to surveillance; they are, however, also prone to error under certain circumstances. This study sought to explore previously unmodeled diseases by investigating the link between Google Trends search metrics and Australian weekly notification data. We propose using four alternative disease modelling strategies based on linear models that studied the length of the training period used for model construction, determined the most appropriate lag for search metrics, used wavelet transformation for denoising data and enabled the identification of key search queries for each disease. Out of the twenty-four diseases assessed with Australian data, our nowcasting results highlighted promise for two diseases of international concern, Ross River virus and pneumococcal disease. PMID:27994231

  14. Paleoseismicity of the Ovindoli-Pezza fault, central Apennines, Italy: A history including a large, previously unrecorded earthquake in the Middle Ages (860-1300 A.D.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantosti, Daniela; D'Addezio, Giuliana; Cinti, Francesca R.

    1996-03-01

    Geomorphic and trenching investigations along the Ovindoli-Pezza fault show that this normal fault is one of the major seismogenic faults in the central Apennines. We found clear geological evidence for three Holocene surface-faulting earthquakes on this fault: the most recent earthquake occurred in the Middle Ages between 860 and 1300 A.D., the penultimate occurred about 1900 B.C. or shortly after, and the oldest probably occurred between 3300 and 5000 B.C. Although the most recent surface faulting earthquake occurred during historical time, no evidence for it has been found in the historical record. Slip per event ranges between 2 and 3 m, and the length of the rupture is at least 12-20 km, suggesting M 6.5-7.0 for the paleoearthquakes. The dip-slip rate determined from trenching is 0.7-1.2 mm/yr and is consistent with the long-term slip rate of 0.9-2.5 mm/yr (lower values preferred) obtained from displaced geomorphic features. Trench data combined with long-term slip rate estimates suggest the recurrence interval is longer than a millennium and possibly as long as 3300 years. The time elapsed since the most recent earthquake is 700-1130 years. The seismic behavior of the Ovindoli-Pezza fault is consistent with other well-known seismogenic faults of the central and southern Apennines. The lack of mention or mislocation of the most recent event on the Ovindoli-Pezza fault in the historical record of the past two millennia should be attributed mainly to the unsettled cultural and social conditions and poor economic state that characterized the Middle Ages, especially in thinly populated regions such as the central Apennines. This example highlights an intrinsic limit of the historical data and raises the possibility that other regions considered "seismically quiet" on the basis of a long historical record may in reality have had large earthquakes that were not recorded.

  15. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C.; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  16. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  17. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Naoya; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Uhara, Hisashi; Uehara, Jiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Otsuka, Masaki; Uchi, Hiroshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2017-03-25

    Treating advanced or recurrent melanoma remains a challenge. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by blocking T-cell activation via overexpression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab blocks the inhibitory signal in T cells, thus overcoming the immune resistance of cancer cells. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising anti-cancer activity in various cancers. We conducted a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously untreated Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. Twenty-four patients with stage III/IV or recurrent melanoma were enrolled and received intravenous nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate evaluated by an independent radiology review committee. The independent radiology review committee-assessed overall response rate was 34.8% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 20.8, 51.9), and the overall survival rate at 18 months was 56.5% (90% CI: 38.0, 71.4). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of grade 3 or 4 only occurred in three patients (12.5%). Two patients discontinued nivolumab because of AEs, but all AEs were considered manageable by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Subgroup analyses showed that nivolumab was clinically beneficial and tolerable regardless of BRAF genotype and that patients with treatment-related select AEs and with vitiligo showed tendency for better survival. In conclusion, nivolumab demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent melanoma, with or without BRAF mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Building on previous OSL dating techniques for gypsum: a case study from Salt Basin playa, New Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, Shannon; Kay, John

    2012-01-01

    The long term stability and reliability of the luminescence signal for gypsum has not been well documented or systematically measured until just recently. A review of the current literature for luminescence dating of gypsum is compiled here along with original efforts at dating an intact and in-situ bed of selenite gypsum at Salt Basin Playa, New Mexico and Texas. This effort differs from other documented luminescence dating efforts because the gypsum is not powdery or redistributed from its original growth patterns within the playa basin but is instead of a crystalline form. Sixteen ages from eight cores were ultimately produced with seven of the ages coming from rare detrital quartz encased in or with the gypsum crystals while the remaining ages are from the crystalline gypsum. As far as can be ascertained, the quartz was measured separately from the gypsum and no contaminants were noted in any of the aliquots. Some basic and preliminary tests of signal stability were measured and found to be mitigated by lessening of pre-heat protocols. Ages ranged from 8 ka to 10 ka in the shallow cores and 16 ka to 22 ka in the deeper cores. These ages will be useful in determining rates of gypsum growth within a sequence of evaporates which, in turn, will help to better document historic rates of evaporation and thus estimate, with more precision, the corresponding annual evaporation rates.

  19. Progression of aging in Mexico: the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) 2012

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; Michaels-Obregón, Alejandra; Palloni, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; González-González, César; López-Ortega, Mariana; Téllez-Rojo, Martha María; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the third wave of the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), completed in 2012, and present preliminary results. Materials and methods Descriptive analyses by gender and age group of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health conditions and health behaviors, as well as social support and life satisfaction measures are presented. In addition, external validations are presented by comparing MHAS 2012 indicators with other national data sources. Results For the panel of older adults in the sample, the rate of health care insurance coverage increased greatly between 2001 and 2012, a significantly higher change in rural compared to urban areas. The results for 2012 are consistent with the previous two waves for the main indicators of health and physical disability prevalence, risk factors, and behaviors. Conclusions The MHAS offers a unique opportunity to study aging in Mexico, as well as to complete cross-national comparisons. The cumulative number of deaths in the cohort should support the study of mortality and its association with health outcomes and behaviors over the life cycle. In addition, the sub-samples of objective markers will enable methodological research on self-reports and associations of biomarkers in old age with similar health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:26172238

  20. XTX8003 Aging Study Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.; Coleman, K.; Foster, P.; Klassen, S.; Loyola, V.

    1999-03-08

    XTX8003 is an extrudable explosive composed of 80% PETN and 20% Sylgard 182 (polydimethylsiloxane). Knowledge of the aging characteristics of XTX8003 is desired to understand the relationship between chemical and physical changes and performance. This understanding will allow improved assessment of the current state and also projected lifetime of components that contain this material. A literature search revealed few published studies of the aging behavior of XTX8003 or a chemically similar material, LX-13. Two studies showed that detonation velocity had decreased after storage at 70 C for two years. Another study showed a 30% decrease in target penetration by conical shaped charge after 12 weeks of storage at 82 C. Only one study was found which evaluated chemical and physical changes, but no information was available to correlate performance degradation to chemical and physical changes in the material. In summary, the major changes seen in aged XTX8003 are in detonation velocity and particle morphology, but particle morphology does not appear to be the determining factor in the loss of detonation velocity. The study will continue at least 24 months, at which time the data will be evaluated to determine how best to continue with the remaining test samples.

  1. A phase 2 study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in poor-risk and elderly patients with previously untreated acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lancet, Jeffrey E; Gojo, Ivana; Gotlib, Jason; Feldman, Eric J; Greer, Jacqueline; Liesveld, Jane L; Bruzek, Laura M; Morris, Lawrence; Park, Youn; Adjei, Alex A; Kaufmann, Scott H; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Peter L; Wright, John J; Karp, Judith E

    2007-02-15

    Outcomes for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are poor due to both disease and host-related factors. In this phase 2 study, we tested the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in 158 older adults with previously untreated, poor-risk AML. The median age was 74 years, and a majority of patients had antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 22 patients (14%); partial remission or hematologic improvement occurred in 15 patients, for an overall response rate of 23%. The median duration of CR was 7.3 months and the median survival of complete responders was 18 months. Adverse karyotype, age 75 years or older, and poor performance status correlated negatively with survival. Early death in the absence of progressive disease was rare, and drug-related nonhematologic serious adverse events were observed in 74 patients (47%). Inhibition of farnesylation of the surrogate protein HDJ-2 occurred in the large majority of marrow samples tested. Baseline levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT did not correlate with clinical response. Tipifarnib is active and well tolerated in older adults with poor-risk AML and may impart a survival advantage in those patients who experience a clinical response.

  2. Aging, Spirituality, and Time: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Black, Helen K.; Hannum, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the concepts of aging, time, spirituality, and future care needs in four randomly selected informants from a group of 54 never-married childless older women. Using data from the Generativity and Lifestyles of Older Women (GLOW) study, we questioned how women’s perceptions of these concepts came together in current older age. We employed cultural theory, (our theoretical framework), ethnography, (our methodological framework), and phenomenology, (our philosophical foundation) to produce a portrait of each woman interviewed. Through a three-session interview process, we elicited the women’s life stories, reasons for childlessness, and topics that emerged as significant to the women, including aging, a sense of time remaining, and spirituality. A key finding was that the context of each woman’s life, both biographical and historical, transpired as a foundation for these concepts. That is, a woman’s “place in time” shaped their experiences of aging, as well as her reasons for childlessness and perceptions of finitude. PMID:26539067

  3. Cohort profile: the European Male Ageing Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Pye, Stephen R; Tajar, Abdelouahid; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W

    2013-04-01

    The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) was designed to examine the hypothesis that inter-individual and regional variability in symptomatic dysfunctions, alterations in body composition and health outcomes in ageing men can be explained by different rates of decline in anabolic hormones, the most important of which being testosterone. Between 2003 and 2005, 3369 community-dwelling men, aged between 40 and 79 years, were recruited from population-based registers in eight European centres to participate in the baseline survey, with follow-up investigations performed a median of 4.3 years later. Largely, identical questionnaire instruments and clinical investigations were used in both phases to capture contemporaneous data on general health (including cardiovascular diseases and chronic conditions), physical and cognitive functioning, mental health, sexual function, quality of life, bone health, chronic pain, disease biomarkers, hormones (sex hormones and metabolic hormones) and genetic polymorphisms. EMAS actively encourages new collaborations, data sharing for validation studies and participation in genetic study consortia. Potential collaborators should contact the principal investigator (F.C.W.W.) in the first instance.

  4. Studying disability trends in aging populations.

    PubMed

    Gu, Danan; Gomez-Redondo, Rosa; Dupre, Matthew E

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the current literature on disability trends in aging populations and proposes a framework for studying disability trends built upon existing models of disablement. In addition to considering disablement and its associated factors, our framework also includes factors at population level and the interplays among personal resources and health behaviors, intervention programs, technological advances, and the consequences of disability trends in the context of life course and socio-ecological perspective. The framework is abbreviated FE-BRIT-SE to denote individual-level (F)ixed attributes, including genetic factors, personality, age, sex, and earlier life conditions, and the (E)nvironment; individual (B)ehaviors, (R)esources, (I)nterventions, (T)echnology; and (S)ocioeconomic and (E)cological consequences of disability trends. The overview offers an integrated framework for understanding the disablement process, trends and their complex milieu of causes and consequences.

  5. Fluorosilicone and silicone o-ring aging study.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Robert; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2007-10-01

    Fluorosilicone o-ring aging studies were performed. These studies examined the compressive force loss of fluorosilicone o-rings at accelerated (elevated) temperatures and were then used to make predictions about force loss at room temperature. The results were non-Arrhenius with evidence for a lowering in Arrhenius activation energies as the aging temperature was reduced. The compression set of these fluorosilicone o-rings was found to have a reasonably linear correlation with the force loss. The aging predictions based on using the observed curvature of the Arrhenius aging plots were validated by field aged o-rings that yielded degradation values reasonably close to the predictions. Compression set studies of silicone o-rings from a previous study resulted in good correlation to the force loss predictions for the fluorosilicone o-rings from this study. This resulted in a preliminary conclusion that an approximately linear correlation exists between compression set and force decay values for typical fluorosilicone and silicone materials, and that the two materials age at similar rates at low temperatures. Interestingly, because of the observed curvature of the Arrhenius plots available from longer-term, lower temperature accelerated exposures, both materials had faster force decay curves (and correspondingly faster buildup of compression set) at room temperature than anticipated from typical high-temperature exposures. A brief study on heavily filled conducting silicone o-rings resulted in data that deviated from the linear relationship, implying that a degree of caution must be exercised about any general statement relating force decay and compression set.

  6. When patients report diseases that prescribers seem unaware of: discordance between patient and physician reporting of risk-related previous history in NSAID users from the CADEUS study.

    PubMed

    Fourrier-Réglat, A; Lacoin, L; Pariente, A; Lassalle, R; Robinson, P; Droz-Perroteau, C; Bégaud, B; Blin, P; Moore, N D

    2010-11-01

    Prescribers are often unaware of possibly dangerous previous medical histories (PMHs) of their patients. Data from a study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) users served to identify factors associated with this lack of awareness. In this study, we analyzed the factors that may have led prescribers to report the absence of some PMHs that the patients reported as being present. Of 26,618 patients prescribed an NSAID, 469 (1.7%) reported a PMH of unstable angina, 648 (2.4%) reported heart failure, 2,244 (8.4%) reported gastric or duodenal ulcer, 489 (1.8%) reported upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (UGIB), 5,343 (20.0%) reported gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 7,832 (29.4%) reported dyspepsia. Between 64 (GERD) and 92% (UGIB) of these patient-reported PMHs were absent in the corresponding prescribers' reports. This discordance was associated with the following factors: patients of younger age, female patients, less frequent patient-prescriber contact, prescription of NSAID by a specialist, no recent specialist consultation, hospitalization or surgery related to the PMH, and no dispensation of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for digestive disorder-related PMHs. The study showed that a substantial proportion of prescribers seemed unaware of the presence of risk-related PMHs that the patient reported when asked.

  7. Studies in cutaneous aging: II. The microvasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, I.M.; Fonferko, E.

    1982-05-01

    Researchers studied by light and electron microscopy the microcirculatory vessels in the sun exposed and sun protected skin of normal and psoriatic individuals in order to separate the features of actinic damage from those of chronological aging. In actinically damaged skin, the vascular walls of postcapillary venules and of arterial and venous capillaries were thickened by the peripheral addition of a layer of basement membrane-like material. The veil cells which were intimately related to these layers often had dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum containing electron dense material. In 3 of 8 individuals, 70, 70 and 72 yr old, the buttock skin showed mold vascular wall thickening. In 5 other patients, 59-88 yr old the vessels of the buttock skin were normal. In 4 individuals 80-93 yr old, the vessels were abnormally thin (0.5-1.0 micrometer). The veil cells were either absent or decreased in number in these specimens. Researchers propose that (1) the veil cell is responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of the peripheral portion of the vascular wall of the dermal microcirculatory vessels; (2) the veil cell is stimulated to produce excessive basement membrane-like material in response to UV light, factors associated with diabetes mellitus, and possibly to factors associated with the early phase of chronological aging; and (3) with progressive aging there is a decrease in the number and synthetic activity of veil cells which correlates with the appearance of abnormally thin walled vessels.

  8. Harvard Aging Brain Study: Dataset and accessibility.

    PubMed

    Dagley, Alexander; LaPoint, Molly; Huijbers, Willem; Hedden, Trey; McLaren, Donald G; Chatwal, Jasmeer P; Papp, Kathryn V; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Blacker, Deborah; Rentz, Dorene M; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Schultz, Aaron P

    2017-01-01

    The Harvard Aging Brain Study is sharing its data with the global research community. The longitudinal dataset consists of a 284-subject cohort with the following modalities acquired: demographics, clinical assessment, comprehensive neuropsychological testing, clinical biomarkers, and neuroimaging. To promote more extensive analyses, imaging data was designed to be compatible with other publicly available datasets. A cloud-based system enables access to interested researchers with blinded data available contingent upon completion of a data usage agreement and administrative approval. Data collection is ongoing and currently in its fifth year.

  9. General practitioners' adoption of new drugs and previous prescribing of drugs belonging to the same therapeutic class: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Kragstrup, Jakob; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Søndergaard, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that general practitioners (GPs) with high prescribing levels of certain drugs will adopt new drugs belonging to the same therapeutic group faster than those with low prescribing levels. Methods The adoption of four new drugs: esomeprazol, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, new triptans, and angiotensin-II receptor blockers were analysed using population-based prescription data. We used the preference proportion (prescriptions for new rather than older alternatives for the same indication) to measure GPs' adoption rate. Annual prescribing volume and prevalence were used to measure previous prescribing of older drug alternatives. We modelled the preference proportion using multiple linear regression analysis and the prescribing of older drugs as independent variables. We controlled for the GPs' general prescribing level and weighted for practice size. In the first three analyses, we dichotomized data using the median, lower and upper quartile as cut-off point. Next, we grouped data into quartiles and finally, we used continuous data. Results For esomeprazol and new triptans there was a higher preference for new drugs among ‘high prescribers’, but only when this term was defined as the upper quarter and the upper half of previous prescribing levels, respectively (mean difference in preference proportion: 10.2% (99% confidence interval = 1.3%, 19.1%) and 8.2% (0.2%, 16.2%)). For the remaining two drug classes the associations were weak and almost all statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion There is no consistent association between GPs' level of drug prescribing and their adoption of new drugs of the same therapeutic group. PMID:16236043

  10. Binary 193nm photomasks aging phenomenon study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufaye, Félix; Sartelli, Luca; Pogliani, Carlo; Gough, Stuart; Sundermann, Frank; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Hidenori, Yoshioka; Charras, Nathalie; Brochard, Christophe; Thivolle, Nicolas

    2011-05-01

    193nm binary photomasks are still used in the semiconductor industry for the lithography of some critical layers for the nodes 90nm and 65nm, with high volumes and over long period. These 193nm binary masks seem to be well-known but recent studies have shown surprising degrading effects, like Electric Field induced chromium Migration (EFM) [1] or chromium migration [2] [3] . Phase shift Masks (PSM) or Opaque MoSi On Glass (OMOG) might not be concerned by these effects [4] [6] under certain conditions. In this paper, we will focus our study on two layers gate and metal lines. We will detail the effects of mask aging, with SEM top view pictures revealing a degraded chromium edge profile and TEM chemical analyses demonstrating the growth of a chromium oxide on the sidewall. SEMCD measurements after volume production indicated a modified CD with respect to initial CD data after manufacture. A regression analysis of these CD measurements shows a radial effect, a die effect and an isolated-dense effect. Mask cleaning effectiveness has also been investigated, with sulphate or ozone cleans, to recover the mask quality in terms of CD. In complement, wafer intrafield CD measurements have been performed on the most sensitive structure to monitor the evolution of the aging effect on mask CD uniformity. Mask CD drift have been correlated with exposure dose drift and isolated-dense bias CD drift on wafers. In the end, we will try to propose a physical explanation of this aging phenomenon and a solution to prevent from it occurring.

  11. Mortality in cancer patients previously diagnosed with herpes zoster in the hospital setting: a nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S A J; Sørensen, G V; Horváth-Puhó, E; Pedersen, L; Obel, N; Petersen, K L; Schønheyder, H C; Sørensen, H T

    2015-01-01

    Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) is associated with underlying immunodeficiency and may thereby predict mortality of subsequent cancer. Methods: By using Danish nationwide medical databases, we identified all cancer patients with a prior hospital-based HZ diagnosis during 1982–2011 (n=2754) and a matched cancer cohort without prior HZ (n=26 243). We computed adjusted mortality rate ratios (aMRRs) associating prior HZ with mortality following cancer. Results: Prior HZ was associated with decreased mortality within the year after cancer diagnosis (aMRR 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81–0.93), but not thereafter (aMRR 1.07; 95% CI: 0.99–1.15). However, prior HZ predicted increased mortality throughout the entire follow-up among patients aged <60 years (aMRR 1.39; 95% CI: 1.15–1.68) and those with disseminated HZ (aMRR 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01–1.37). The increased mortality rates were observed primarily for haematological and immune-related cancers. Conclusions: Overall, HZ was not a predictor of increased mortality following subsequent cancer. PMID:25880013

  12. Everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma previously treated with bevacizumab: a prospective multicenter study CRAD001LRU02T.

    PubMed

    Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Snegovoy, Anton; Varlamov, Sergei; Safina, Sufia; Varlamov, Ilya; Gurina, Ludmila; Manzuk, Ludmila

    2015-09-01

    Everolimus is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) recommended for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed on previous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Efficacy of everolimus in patients who progressed on anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab is unknown. We did a multicenter prospective trial of everolimus in patients with mRCC whose disease had progressed on bevacizumab ± interferon alpha (IFN). Patients with clear-cell mRCC which had progressed on bevacizumab ± IFN received everolimus 10 mg once daily. The primary end point was the proportion of patients remaining progression-free for 56 days, and a two-stage Simon design was used, with 80% power and an alpha risk of 5%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02056587. From December 2011 to October 2013, a total of 37 patients (28 M, 9 F) were enrolled. Median age was 60.5 years (range 41-66), 1% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) >2, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) favorable/intermediate risk was 38/62%. Five (14%) patients had a confirmed partial response and 26 (70%) patients had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI, 8.8-14.2). Median overall survival was not reached. No grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities were observed. The most common grade 2 adverse events were fatigue (19%) and pneumonitis (8%). Everolimus demonstrated a favorable toxicity profile and promising anti-tumor activity as a second-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients previously treated with bevacizumab ± IFN.

  13. Genomewide association study for onset age in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Latourelle, Jeanne C; Pankratz, Nathan; Dumitriu, Alexandra; Wilk, Jemma B; Goldwurm, Stefano; Pezzoli, Gianni; Mariani, Claudio B; DeStefano, Anita L; Halter, Cheryl; Gusella, James F; Nichols, William C; Myers, Richard H; Foroud, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    Background Age at onset in Parkinson disease (PD) is a highly heritable quantitative trait for which a significant genetic influence is supported by multiple segregation analyses. Because genes associated with onset age may represent invaluable therapeutic targets to delay the disease, we sought to identify such genetic modifiers using a genomewide association study in familial PD. There have been previous genomewide association studies (GWAS) to identify genes influencing PD susceptibility, but this is the first to identify genes contributing to the variation in onset age. Methods Initial analyses were performed using genotypes generated with the Illumina HumanCNV370Duo array in a sample of 857 unrelated, familial PD cases. Subsequently, a meta-analysis of imputed SNPs was performed combining the familial PD data with that from a previous GWAS of 440 idiopathic PD cases. The SNPs from the meta-analysis with the lowest p-values and consistency in the direction of effect for onset age were then genotyped in a replication sample of 747 idiopathic PD cases from the Parkinson Institute Biobank of Milan, Italy. Results Meta-analysis across the three studies detected consistent association (p < 1 × 10-5) with five SNPs, none of which reached genomewide significance. On chromosome 11, the SNP with the lowest p-value (rs10767971; p = 5.4 × 10-7) lies between the genes QSER1 and PRRG4. Near the PARK3 linkage region on chromosome 2p13, association was observed with a SNP (rs7577851; p = 8.7 × 10-6) which lies in an intron of the AAK1 gene. This gene is closely related to GAK, identified as a possible PD susceptibility gene in the GWAS of the familial PD cases. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest an influence of genes involved in endocytosis and lysosomal sorting in PD pathogenesis. PMID:19772629

  14. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD) was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.5) had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p < 0.001). The most common AEs were GI in nature (stomach pain, GI upset, nausea, and reflux). In addition, 23 patients discontinued alendronate due to BMD reduction after January 2006. In these patients, BMD scores were significantly reduced from their prior BMD measures (change of -0.0534, p < 0.001 for spine BMD and change of -0.0338, p = 0.01 for femur BMD). Among patients who discontinued due to BMD reduction, BMD was stable in the period prior to January 2006 (change of -0.0066, p = 0.5 for spine BMD and change of 0.0011, p = 0.9 for femur BMD); however, testing for reduction after January 2006 in BMD measures (one-sided T-test) revealed there was a significant reduction in BMD scores for both anatomic sites (change of -0.0321, p = .005 for spine, change of -0.0205, p = 0.05 for femur). Conclusions

  15. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  17. Neuropathologic Studies of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Richard J.; Resnick, Susan M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Crain, Barbara J.; Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay; Iacono, Diego; Riudavets, Miguel A.; Driscoll, Ira; Price, Donald L.; Martin, Lee J.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) was established in 1958 and is one the oldest prospective studies of aging in the USA and the world. The BLSA is supported by the National Institute of Aging (NIA) and its mission is to learn what happens to people as they get old and how to sort out changes due to aging and from those due to disease or other causes. In 1986, an autopsy program combined with comprehensive neurologic and cognitive evaluations was established in collaboration with the Johns Hopkins University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center (ADRC). Since then, 211 subjects have undergone autopsy. Here we review the key clinical neuropathological correlations from this autopsy series. The focus is on the morphological and biochemical changes that occur in normal aging, and the early neuropathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, especially Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We highlight the combined clinical, pathologic, morphometric, and biochemical evidence of asymptomatic AD, a state characterized by normal clinical evaluations in subjects with abundant AD pathology. We conclude that in some individuals, successful cognitive aging results from compensatory mechanisms that occur at the neuronal level (i.e., neuronal hypertrophy and synaptic plasticity) whereas a failure of compensation may culminate in disease. PMID:19661626

  18. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  19. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  20. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  1. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  2. A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Bredie, Wender L P; Nielsen, Belinda; Tománková, Jana; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate beef quality of longissimus muscle after ageing in dry ageing bags, traditional dry ageing or vacuum for 8 or 19 days. Lower ageing weight loss, odour score and microbial growth were found in meat aged in dry ageing bags than after traditional dry ageing. The sensory panel detected no differences for most of the sensory attributes between samples using the two dry ageing methods, except for the odour of the cutting surface. The dry-aged steaks had more umami and butter fried meat taste compared with vacuum-aged steaks. Ageing time affected most of the sensory traits in this study, which improved as ageing time increased from 8 to 19 days. In a consumer test, meat aged for 21 days in dry ageing bags was preferred than the samples aged in vacuum. This may be due to the higher tenderness and juiciness obtained during storage in dry ageing bags than meat aged in vacuum.

  3. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  4. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    PubMed Central

    Podzamczer, Daniel; Rozas, Nerea; Domingo, Pere; Ocampo, Antonio; Van den Eynde, Eva; Deig, Elisabeth; Vergara, Antonio; Knobel, Hernando; Pasquau, Juan; Antela, Antonio; Crespo, Manuel; Clotet, Bonaventure; Muñoz, Jessica; Fernandez, Pedro; Geijo, Paloma; Rodríguez de Castro, Eduardo; Diz, Julio; Casado, Araceli; Torres, Covadonga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR) RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index), quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV), adherence (SMAQ), preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR) through 48 weeks were performed. Results Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80%) were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4%) had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6%) patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF) and 33 (26.4%) from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%), CNS adverse events (40.8%), gastrointestinal (19.2%) and metabolic disorders (19.2%). At the time of this analysis (week 16), four patients (3.2%) discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2%) were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55) to week 4 (10.89±12.36) & week 16 (10.81±12.62), p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1). Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ) from

  5. Headlines Previous Editions

    Science.gov Websites

    Previous Editions: Volume 17 Volume 16 Volume 15 Volume 14 Volume 13 FEB 2017 JAN 2017 DEC 2016 NOV 2016 OCT 2016 SEP 2016 AUG 2016 JUL 2016 JUN 2016 MAY 2016 APR 2016 MAR 2016 FEB ...

  6. Social activity and healthy aging: a study of aging Danish twins.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Christensen, Kaare

    2007-04-01

    Although social and intellectual engagement have been consistently associated with late-life functioning, rather than true causation, these associations may reflect the experiential choices of high functioning individuals (i.e., selection effects). We investigated the association of social activity with late-life physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology using data from 1112 pairs of like-sex twins who participated in the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins. Consistent with previous research, we found that social activity was significantly correlated with overall level of physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and depression symptomatology. We also found that social activity was significantly and moderately heritable (estimate of .36), raising the possibility that its association with late-life functioning might reflect selection processes. Further, social activity did not predict change in functioning and in monozygotic twin pairs discordant on level of social activity, the more socially active twin was not less susceptible to age decreases in physical and cognitive functioning and increases in depression symptomatology than the less socially active twin. These results are interpreted in the context of the additional finding that nonshared environmental factors, although apparently not social activity, are the predominant determinant of changes in late-life functioning.

  7. X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study A A A What's in this article? What ... edad ósea What It Is A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a child's ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Bone Age Study Print A A A What's in this ... la edad ósea What It Is A bone age study helps doctors estimate the maturity of a ...

  9. Age Identification in the Framework of Successful Aging: A Study of Older Finnish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uotinen, Virpi; Suutama, Timo; Ruoppila, Isto

    2003-01-01

    A person-oriented approach was used in a study of age identification among community-dwelling older people. The study was based on 8-year follow-up data; 843 persons aged 65-84 were involved in the first phase of the study, and 426 persons aged 73-92, in the second phase. Loosely, on the basis of the distinction between successful, usual, and…

  10. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  11. Molecular pathology endpoints useful for aging studies.

    PubMed

    Niedernhofer, L J; Kirkland, J L; Ladiges, W

    2016-10-06

    The first clinical trial aimed at targeting fundamental processes of aging will soon be launched (TAME: Targeting Aging with Metformin). In its wake is a robust pipeline of therapeutic interventions that have been demonstrated to extend lifespan or healthspan of preclinical models, including rapalogs, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and senolytics. This ensures that if the TAME trial is successful, numerous additional clinical trials are apt to follow. But a significant impediment to these trials remains the question of what endpoints should be measured? The design of the TAME trial very cleverly skirts around this based on the fact that there are decades of data on metformin in humans, providing unequaled clarity of what endpoints are most likely to yield a positive outcome. But for a new chemical entity, knowing what endpoints to measure remains a formidable challenge. For economy's sake, and to achieve results in a reasonable time frame, surrogate markers of lifespan and healthy aging are desperately needed. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of molecular endpoints that are currently being used as indices of age-related phenomena (e.g., morbidity, frailty, mortality) and proposes an approach for validating and prioritizing these endpoints.

  12. Aging Issues in Social Studies Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; McAuley, William J.

    1987-01-01

    Examined the treatment of Social Security, civil rights, political power, and population trends in 19 secondary schools' United States history and government textbooks. Found that only Social Security was given adequate treatment. Concluded that the coverage of aging issues in secondary textbooks was generally weak and insufficient. (Author/NB)

  13. A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C. W.; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5–17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  14. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  15. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  16. Aging studies of Kevlar 49 fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, R.J.; Pruneda, C.O.; Kong, F.M.

    1983-11-01

    The aging mechanisms in service environment of Kevlar 49 fibers, E.I. duPont, (poly(p-phenylene)terephthalamide) are reviewed. The principal aging mechanisms considered are (i) u.v.-, (ii) hydrolytic- and (iii) stress-induced macromolecular chain scission and microvoid growth. U.V.-induced strength degradation can be significant as a result of photo-oxidative and photodegradative radical formation but in Kevlar 49-epoxy composites only the exterior yarn layer is deteriorated. Hydrolytic chain scission of the amide linkage and corresponding fiber strength deterioration is considered in terms of R.H., time, temperature and stress level. The rates of hydrolytic degradation at 100% R.H. in the 100 to 200/sup 0/C range are reported. The estimated rates of fiber degradation in various service environment conditions are also reported and shown not to be serious. The stress-induced aging of Kevlar 49 fibers is considered in terms of the growth and coalescence of inherent microvoids along the fiber axis together with the generation of new microvoids. (These growth processes involve no detectable macromolecular chain scission or deterioration in fiber strength.) At a critical microvoid volume fraction catastrophic failure occurs by interconnection of such voids.

  17. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  18. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  19. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  20. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  1. [Cognitive capacity in advanced age: initial results of the Berlin Aging Study].

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1995-01-01

    This study reports data on intellectual functioning in old and very old age from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516; age range = 70-103 years; mean age = 85 years). A psychometric battery of 14 tests was used to assess five cognitive abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the broad fluid-mechanical as well as knowledge and fluency from the broad crystallized-pragmatic domains. Cognitive abilities had a negative linear relationship with age, with more pronounced age-based reductions in fluid-mechanical than crystallized-pragmatic abilities. At the same time, ability intercorrelations formed a highly positive manifold, and did not follow the fluid-crystallized distinction. Interindividual variability was of about equal magnitude across the entire age range studied. There was, however, no evidence for substantial sex differences. As to origins of individual differences, indicators of sensory and sensorimotor functioning were more powerful predictors of intellectual functioning than cultural-biographical variables, and the two sets of predictors were, consistent with theoretical expectations, differentially related to measures of fluid-mechanical (perceptual speed) and crystallized pragmatic (knowledge) functioning. Results, in general indicative of sizeable and general losses with age, are consistent with the view that aging-induced biological influences are a prominent source of individual differences in intellectual functioning in old and very old age. Longitudinal follow-ups are underway to examine the role of cohort effects, selective mortality, and interindividual differences in change trajectories.

  2. Aging Trajectories in Different Body Systems Share Common Environmental Etiology: The Healthy Aging Twin Study (HATS).

    PubMed

    Moayyeri, Alireza; Hart, Deborah J; Snieder, Harold; Hammond, Christopher J; Spector, Timothy D; Steves, Claire J

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which aging trajectories of different body systems share common sources of variance. We here present a large twin study investigating the trajectories of change in five systems: cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, morphometric, and metabolic. Longitudinal clinical data were collected on 3,508 female twins in the TwinsUK registry (complete pairs:740 monozygotic (MZ), 986 dizygotic (DZ), mean age at entry 48.9 ± 10.4, range 18-75 years; mean follow-up 10.2 ± 2.8 years, range 4-17.8 years). Panel data on multiple age-related variables were used to estimate biological ages for each individual at each time point, in linear mixed effects models. A weighted average approach was used to combine variables within predefined body system groups. Aging trajectories for each system in each individual were then constructed using linear modeling. Multivariate structural equation modeling of these aging trajectories showed low genetic effects (heritability), ranging from 2% in metabolic aging to 22% in cardiovascular aging. However, we found a significant effect of shared environmental factors on the variations in aging trajectories in cardiovascular (54%), skeletal (34%), morphometric (53%), and metabolic systems (53%). The remainder was due to environmental factors unique to each individual plus error. Multivariate Cholesky decomposition showed that among aging trajectories for various body systems there were significant and substantial correlations between the unique environmental latent factors as well as shared environmental factors. However, there was no evidence for a single common factor for aging. This study, the first of its kind in aging, suggests that diverse organ systems share non-genetic sources of variance for aging trajectories. Confirmatory studies are needed using population-based twin cohorts and alternative methods of handling missing data.

  3. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  4. Does age matter? The impact of rodent age on study outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Samuel J; Andrews, Nick; Ball, Doug; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Gray, James; Hachoumi, Lamia; Holmes, Alan; Latcham, Judy; Petrie, Anja; Potter, Paul; Rice, Andrew; Ritchie, Alison; Stewart, Michelle; Strepka, Carol; Yeoman, Mark; Chapman, Kathryn

    2017-04-01

    Rodent models produce data which underpin biomedical research and non-clinical drug trials, but translation from rodents into successful clinical outcomes is often lacking. There is a growing body of evidence showing that improving experimental design is key to improving the predictive nature of rodent studies and reducing the number of animals used in research. Age, one important factor in experimental design, is often poorly reported and can be overlooked. The authors conducted a survey to assess the age used for a range of models, and the reasoning for age choice. From 297 respondents providing 611 responses, researchers reported using rodents most often in the 6-20 week age range regardless of the biology being studied. The age referred to as 'adult' by respondents varied between six and 20 weeks. Practical reasons for the choice of rodent age were frequently given, with increased cost associated with using older animals and maintenance of historical data comparability being two important limiting factors. These results highlight that choice of age is inconsistent across the research community and often not based on the development or cellular ageing of the system being studied. This could potentially result in decreased scientific validity and increased experimental variability. In some cases the use of older animals may be beneficial. Increased scientific rigour in the choice of the age of rodent may increase the translation of rodent models to humans.

  5. Does age matter? The impact of rodent age on study outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Nick; Ball, Doug; Bellantuono, Ilaria; Gray, James; Hachoumi, Lamia; Holmes, Alan; Latcham, Judy; Petrie, Anja; Potter, Paul; Rice, Andrew; Ritchie, Alison; Stewart, Michelle; Strepka, Carol; Yeoman, Mark; Chapman, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models produce data which underpin biomedical research and non-clinical drug trials, but translation from rodents into successful clinical outcomes is often lacking. There is a growing body of evidence showing that improving experimental design is key to improving the predictive nature of rodent studies and reducing the number of animals used in research. Age, one important factor in experimental design, is often poorly reported and can be overlooked. The authors conducted a survey to assess the age used for a range of models, and the reasoning for age choice. From 297 respondents providing 611 responses, researchers reported using rodents most often in the 6–20 week age range regardless of the biology being studied. The age referred to as ‘adult’ by respondents varied between six and 20 weeks. Practical reasons for the choice of rodent age were frequently given, with increased cost associated with using older animals and maintenance of historical data comparability being two important limiting factors. These results highlight that choice of age is inconsistent across the research community and often not based on the development or cellular ageing of the system being studied. This could potentially result in decreased scientific validity and increased experimental variability. In some cases the use of older animals may be beneficial. Increased scientific rigour in the choice of the age of rodent may increase the translation of rodent models to humans. PMID:27307423

  6. Self-perceptions of aging predict mortality and change with approaching death: 16-year longitudinal results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Kleinspehn-Ammerlahn, Anna; Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui

    2009-09-01

    Satisfaction with one's own aging and feeling young are indicators of positive well-being in late life. Using 16-year longitudinal data from participants of the Berlin Aging Study (P. B. Baltes & K. U. Mayer, 1999; N = 439; 70- to 100-year-olds), the authors examined whether and how these self-perceptions of aging change with age and how such changes relate to distance from death. Extending previous studies, they found that it is not only higher aging satisfaction and younger subjective age but also more favorable change patterns (e.g., less decline in aging satisfaction) that are uniquely associated with lower mortality hazards. These effects are robust after controls for objective measures such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, diagnosis of dementia, or number of illnesses. As individuals approach death, they become less satisfied with their aging and report feeling older. For aging satisfaction, mortality-related decline is much steeper than age-related decline, whereas change in subjective age is best characterized as an age-related process. The authors discuss how self-perceptions of aging are embedded in mechanisms underlying pathways of dying late in life.

  7. Age and Fertility: A Study on Patient Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Deatsman, Sara; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rhoton-Vlasak, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Objective Fertility declines as women age. Advancing maternal age increases pregnancy risks such as diabetes or hypertension. Studies suggest women are not aware of the risks of aging on fertility and pregnancy. The study objective was to assess women's knowledge of fertility and reproductive outcomes affected by aging. Methods Prospective IRB approved survey of women (n=94) attending an obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) clinic. Data collected included demographics, pregnancy history, and knowledge of age-related fertility decline and pregnancy risks. Statistical analysis performed using JMP Pro11.0. Results Ages ranged from 18 to 67. One third (30.5%) were aware fertility begins to decline at age 35, however this varied among groups depending on prior history of infertility or requiring fertility treatment. Nulliparous women were more unaware of the health risks of pregnancy over age 35 (1.4% vs 13.6%, P 0.02). African Americans (AA) women were less likely to think obesity (76% Caucasian vs 47.8% AA vs 66.7% other, P < 0.05) and older age (88% Caucasian vs 60.9% AA vs 82.7% other, P 0.02) affected fertility. Conclusion Knowledge regarding fertility and reproduction related to aging was variable and differed by age and race. Difficulty conceiving appears to be associated with higher knowledge levels. Public education will increase awareness of age-related fertility declines. Increased contact during pregnancy is an excellent opportunity to educate women in a nondirective way. PMID:27584600

  8. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.

  9. Toxicity of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with or without rituximab as initial therapy for patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomised phase II study.

    PubMed

    Eve, Heather E; Linch, David; Qian, Wendi; Ross, Moira; Seymour, John F; Smith, Paul; Stevens, Lindsey; Rule, Simon A J

    2009-02-01

    The National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) is currently coordinating a Phase III randomised study (LY05) comparing fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) with or without rituximab (R) for previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The combination of FC is well-recognised as significantly immunosuppressive and there are concerns that adding rituximab may increase infection risk further. The impact of rituximab on other markers of toxicity is also unclear. We analysed the toxicity data on 139 patients treated within the NCRN LY05 trial. Non-hematological toxicity was similar between the two treatment arms. The only difference in hematological toxicity was a higher rate of lymphocytopenia with fludarabine cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), which did not translate into increased febrile episodes or infections. In conclusion, the addition of rituximab to FC for previously untreated MCL has no significant impact on toxicity.

  10. A Study in Bivalve Aging and Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Karl R.; Schlenker, Richard M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how high school biology students use the clam to study the bivalve body plan anatomy. Employs an open-ended investigation format that is rich with measurement opportunities including body mass, valve mass, and volume. (DDR)

  11. Age differences in the motor control of speech: An fMRI study of healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Pascale; Sato, Marc; Deschamps, Isabelle

    2017-03-06

    Healthy aging is associated with a decline in cognitive, executive, and motor processes that are concomitant with changes in brain activation patterns, particularly at high complexity levels. While speech production relies on all these processes, and is known to decline with age, the mechanisms that underlie these changes remain poorly understood, despite the importance of communication on everyday life. In this cross-sectional group study, we investigated age differences in the neuromotor control of speech production by combining behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Twenty-seven healthy adults underwent fMRI while performing a speech production task consisting in the articulation of nonwords of different sequential and motor complexity. Results demonstrate strong age differences in movement time (MT), with longer and more variable MT in older adults. The fMRI results revealed extensive age differences in the relationship between BOLD signal and MT, within and outside the sensorimotor system. Moreover, age differences were also found in relation to sequential complexity within the motor and attentional systems, reflecting both compensatory and de-differentiation mechanisms. At very high complexity level (high motor complexity and high sequence complexity), age differences were found in both MT data and BOLD response, which increased in several sensorimotor and executive control areas. Together, these results suggest that aging of motor and executive control mechanisms may contribute to age differences in speech production. These findings highlight the importance of studying functionally relevant behavior such as speech to understand the mechanisms of human brain aging. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Relocation at older age: results from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Prina, A. Matthew; Barnes, Linda E.; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background Community environment might play an important role in supporting ageing in place. This paper aims to explore relocation at older age and its associations with individual and community level factors. Methods The postcodes of the 2424 people in the year-10 interview of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (CFAS) in England were mapped onto Enumeration Districts and linked to their corresponding Townsend deprivation score and the 2011 rural/urban categories. Multilevel logistic regression was conducted to examine the influence of the baseline individual (age, gender, education and social class) and community (rural/urban categories and area deprivation) level factors on relocation over 10 years. Results One-third of people moved residence after the age of 65 years and over. Older age, low education, low social class and living in rural areas at baseline were associated with higher probability of moving later in life. The likelihood of relocation in later life increased from least to most deprived areas (odds ratio: 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.8). Conclusions Urban/rural contexts and area deprivation are associated with relocation at older age and indicate that community environment may be relevant to ageing in place. PMID:25922369

  13. Phase II study of alemtuzumab-rituximab therapy in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frankfurt, Olga; Ma, Shuo; Gordon, Leo; Winter, Jane N; Horowitz, Jeanne M; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Peterson, LoAnn C; Altman, Jessica K; Tallman, Martin S; Petrich, Adam; Rosen, Steven T

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of alemtuzumab and rituximab (AR) combination therapy in previously untreated patients with CLL. Thirty patients, ages 28-80 years, 47% older than 60 years, 90% Rai clinical stages II-IV, and 67% without favorable cytogenetics received AR. Based on the NCI-WG 1996 criteria, OR was 100%, with 60% CR. With CT scans OR was 70%, with 23% CR, 47% PR, and 30% SD. Sixty-seven percent of patients showed no evidence of MRD in the bone marrow by 6-color flow cytometry. Median PFS, TFS, and 5-year OS were 24.4, 50.7 months, and 80%, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 30% and 7% of patients, respectively. CMV reactivation, asymptomatic in all but one patient, occurred in 8 patients. Immunotherapy with alemtuzumab and rituximab results in robust responses and long asymptomatic therapy-free intervals. It is well tolerated with infrequent, predictable, and easily managed complications.

  14. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  15. Aging Studies of Filled and Unfilled VCE

    SciTech Connect

    Letant, S; Herberg, J; Alviso, C; Small, W; Mulcahy, H; Pearson, M; Wilson, T; Chinn, S; Maxwell, R

    2009-11-10

    This report presents data on the effects of temperature and gamma radiation on the chemical and structural properties of both filled and unfilled VCE material produced by the Kansas City Plant using WR-qualified processes. Thermal effects up to 300 C and gamma irradiation doses of 1 MRad and 25 MRad were investigated under atmospheric conditions. Characterization techniques used in the study comprise Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Tensile Testing, Solid Phase MicroExtraction - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS), phenol extraction followed by HPLC, and various Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques including: {sup 13}C, {sup 13}C {l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} cross polarization (CP), {sup 1}H magic angle spinning (MAS), 13C{l_brace}{sup 1}H{r_brace} Wide-line-Separation (2D-WISE) and development of Center band-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX).

  16. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year`s findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H{sub 2}. Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs.

  17. Effects of Aging on True and False Memory Formation: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Compared to young, older adults are more likely to forget events that occurred in the past as well as remember events that never happened. Previous studies examining false memories and aging have shown that these memories are more likely to occur when new items share perceptual or semantic similarities with those presented during encoding. It is…

  18. A Quantification of Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Regions in the Central/Western U.S. and a Comparison to Previous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne measurements of methane and ethane taken aboard a NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over five regions of oil and natural gas extraction in March and April, 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. The five regions are the (1) Haynesville, (2) Barnett, and (3) Eagle Ford regions in Texas, (4) the Denver-Julesburg region of Colorado, and (5) the Bakken region of North Dakota. From these measurements, we derive methane emission rates from these regions using the mass balance method. Next, we attribute the methane emissions to oil and natural gas extraction, livestock operations, and other source sectors based on correlations of methane with ethane and ammonia. We then compare these emissions to those reported from previous studies, where applicable. Finally, we compare reported methane emissions from multiple regional-scale studies with inventory estimates of methane emissions from U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  19. Impact of availability and use of ART/PMTCT services on fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Lindsay E.; Makumbi, Frederick E.; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess fertility desires by availability and use of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai, Uganda. Design Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Methods Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai was defined in three periods: 1) Pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), 2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-06), and 3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by chi-square. “Modified” Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRR were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. Results 4,227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout (adjusted PRR: 1.08, CI: 1.04-1.13) and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, CI: 1.08-1.14) compared to pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and non-users in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, CI: 0.62-1.14) and one year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, CI: 0.83-1.94). Conclusion Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women. PMID:25835605

  20. "Oxygen supply" as modulator of aging processes: hypoxia and hyperoxia models for aging studies.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Amelia; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2009-07-01

    Cell growth is regulated by several factors, including oxygen supply, which influence cell metabolism. Aging is characterized by decreased oxygen supply to tissue, a reduction of tissue PO(2) and of the activity of several enzymes and metabolic factors. The oxygen-gradient diffusion at capillary tissue level is essential for the cellular survival, while the homeostasis of the oxygen in the arterial blood is mediated by reflexes sensitive to oxygen decrease and by release of several factors. Aging is correlated with a reduction of cells' oxygen supply concomitant to a parallel decrease in oxygen demand by tissues. Both chronic hypoxia or hyperoxia are considered as stresses. Indeed, in both conditions, free radical species, which damage structural and functional components of the membrane, are generated. ROS (reactive oxygen species) are physiological products of aerobic life and their accumulation affects aging. Because hypoxia per se modulates mitochondria activity, influencing oxygen consumption, hypoxia and aging could share some link. Moreover, the observation that in hypoxia or hyperoxia there is an accumulation of lipofucsine as a general reaction to stress is consistent with the accumulation of such components during aging. Correlation between hypoxia-hyperoxia and life-span remains open until we solve the question of how and why do cells sense oxygen. In other words, to better understand aging we need to know what O(2) species are being sensed by cells. In conclusion, hypoxia and hyperoxia represent an experimental model adequate for studying aging processes.

  1. Undergraduate Knowledge of Aging: A Comparative Study of Biopsychosocial Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Funderburk, Brooke; Lee, Martin; Solomon, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses undergraduate knowledge of aging, distinguishing between types of deficits (ignorance vs. misinformation) and content areas as delineated by a biopsychosocial framework. Knowledge is examined as an outcome of taking an aging elective, while accounting for course rating and knowledge retention. A diverse body of UCLA…

  2. What Drives Teacher Engagement: A Study of Different Age Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guglielmi, Dina; Bruni, Ilaria; Simbula, Silvia; Fraccaroli, Franco; Depolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on work engagement, little is known about what drives work engagement among different age cohorts. This study aims to investigate whether engagement varies across age cohorts and examines the job resources that foster teacher engagement. A questionnaire was distributed to 537 teachers who were employed in…

  3. Age and Workers' Perceptions of Workplace Safety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyekye, Seth Ayim; Salminen, Simo

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between age and I) safety perception; ii) job satisfaction; iii) compliance with safety management policies; and (iv) accident frequency. Participants were Ghanaian industrial workers (N = 320) categorized into 4 age groups: 19-29 years; 30-39 years; 40-50 years; and 51 years and above. Workplace safety…

  4. Aging and Alzheimer's Disease: Lessons from the Nun Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowdon, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a woman who maintained high cognitive test scores until her death at 101 years of age despite anatomical evidence of Alzheimer's disease. The woman was part of a larger "Nun Study" in which 678 sisters donated their brains to teach others about the etiology of aging and Alzheimer's disease. Findings are discussed. (RJM)

  5. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  6. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed. PMID:27034910

  7. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS).

    PubMed

    Cherry, Katie E; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-02-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed.

  8. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  9. Age-related differences in emotion recognition ability: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mill, Aire; Allik, Jüri; Realo, Anu; Valk, Raivo

    2009-10-01

    Experimental studies indicate that recognition of emotions, particularly negative emotions, decreases with age. However, there is no consensus at which age the decrease in emotion recognition begins, how selective this is to negative emotions, and whether this applies to both facial and vocal expression. In the current cross-sectional study, 607 participants ranging in age from 18 to 84 years (mean age = 32.6 +/- 14.9 years) were asked to recognize emotions expressed either facially or vocally. In general, older participants were found to be less accurate at recognizing emotions, with the most distinctive age difference pertaining to a certain group of negative emotions. Both modalities revealed an age-related decline in the recognition of sadness and -- to a lesser degree -- anger, starting at about 30 years of age. Although age-related differences in the recognition of expression of emotion were not mediated by personality traits, 2 of the Big 5 traits, openness and conscientiousness, made an independent contribution to emotion-recognition performance. Implications of age-related differences in facial and vocal emotion expression and early onset of the selective decrease in emotion recognition are discussed in terms of previous findings and relevant theoretical models.

  10. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  12. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly.

  13. Risk factors for fatal and non-fatal child maltreatment in families previously investigated by CPS: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sheridan; Romano, Patrick S; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Thurston, Holly; Dharmar, Madan; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify individual, family and caregiver risk factors for serious child maltreatment, resulting in hospitalization or death, among children and families investigated by Child Protective Services (CPS). We conducted a matched case-control study of 234 children who sustained fatal or serious nonfatal maltreatment due to physical abuse or neglect and whose mother was named in a CPS investigation between 1999 and 2013. A total of 702 children and their caregivers were included in the study with 234 cases matched 2:1,resulting in 468 controls. Data on potential risk factors were abstracted from three county administrative databases. Differences between cases and controls were calculated and multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate risk models. Variables associated with increased risk for serious maltreatment included male child gender,younger caregivers, three or more children under the age of 5 living in the home, families in which a biologic child was not living with either parent, and scoring moderate or high on the Structured Decision Making Risk Tool(®). Caregiver involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) and child enrollment in public health insurance appears to mitigate the risk of serious maltreatment.

  14. Studies in cutaneous aging: I. The elastic fiber network

    SciTech Connect

    Braverman, I.M.; Fonferko, E.

    1982-05-01

    We studied by light and electron microscopy the elastic fibers in he sun exposed and sun protected skin of normal and psoriatic individuals of different ages in order to separate the changes of actinic damage from those of chronological aging. The sun exposed skin showed 2 types of elastic fiber abnormalities-one related to actinic damage and the other to chronological aging. The sun protected buttock skin showed only the latter. From ages 30 to 70, a minority of the elastic fibers exhibited abnormalities that appeared to represent a process of fiber disintegration. After age 70, the majority of elastic fibers showed these abnormalities. These abnormalities were present without accompanying inflammatory cells. Also, there was morphological evidence of continuing synthesis of elastic fibers during the lifetime of these subjects, except that from ages 50-93, the fibers appeared to be loosely, rather than compactly, assembled. Incubation of dermal slices from buttock skin of young adults with porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin produced elastic fiber degradation that closely simulated the changes that were observed in aged sun protected skin. Researcher propose that one of the features of cutaneous aging is a slow, spontaneous, progressive degradative process inherent in the elastic fiber that can be enzymatically accelerated from decades to hours by elastase and chymotrypsin.

  15. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  16. A computational approach to studying ageing at the individual level

    PubMed Central

    Mourão, Márcio A.; Schnell, Santiago; Pletcher, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    The ageing process is actively regulated throughout an organism's life, but studying the rate of ageing in individuals is difficult with conventional methods. Consequently, ageing studies typically make biological inference based on population mortality rates, which often do not accurately reflect the probabilities of death at the individual level. To study the relationship between individual and population mortality rates, we integrated in vivo switch experiments with in silico stochastic simulations to elucidate how carefully designed experiments allow key aspects of individual ageing to be deduced from group mortality measurements. As our case study, we used the recent report demonstrating that pheromones of the opposite sex decrease lifespan in Drosophila melanogaster by reversibly increasing population mortality rates. We showed that the population mortality reversal following pheromone removal was almost surely occurring in individuals, albeit more slowly than suggested by population measures. Furthermore, heterogeneity among individuals due to the inherent stochasticity of behavioural interactions skewed population mortality rates in middle-age away from the individual-level trajectories of which they are comprised. This article exemplifies how computational models function as important predictive tools for designing wet-laboratory experiments to use population mortality rates to understand how genetic and environmental manipulations affect ageing in the individual. PMID:26865300

  17. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  18. The othering of old age: Insights from Postcolonial Studies.

    PubMed

    van Dyk, Silke

    2016-12-01

    When it comes to old age, we are witnessing almost revolutionary changes at the present time. After decades of ignorance and lack of public interest, old age has fundamentally been re-negotiated. A diverse range of authors have diagnosed the growing bifurcation of old age into a rather independent and capable Third Age and a deep old Fourth Age that is characterized by sickness, frailty and dependency. Against this backdrop, many gerontologists claim that the so-called young-old are praised and valued for their (ongoing) "sameness" in terms of midlife-norms and capabilities, whereas the oldest old are increasingly excluded from humanity by radical "othering". Taking up this diagnosis, the article elaborates on this growing polarization within later life: Based on empirical research on the re-negotiation of old age in Germany, this contribution argues that the juxtaposition of "sameness" and "otherness" obscures the true character of the polarization, particularly with regard to the social role of the Third Age. Instead of sameness and otherness, we rather witness different processes of othering, with the young-old being valued as the other and the oldest old being disdained as the other. Despite the existence of profound critical analyses of the abjection associated with the Fourth Age as well as a considerable amount of literature on old age activation and the new role of the young-old, the specific point of this article's concern-the othering of the Third Age-has been completely neglected. The article discusses the reasons for this gap in more detail and will indicate to what extent concepts from Postcolonial Studies may help us to understand the dual process of othering-glorification and abjection.

  19. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  20. Parental age and lifespan influence offspring recruitment: a long-term study in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6-12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations.

  1. Parental Age and Lifespan Influence Offspring Recruitment: A Long-Term Study in a Seabird

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Roxana; Drummond, Hugh; Velando, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of wild populations provide compelling evidence that survival and reproduction decrease with age because of senescence, a decline in functional capacities at old ages. However, in the wild, little is known about effects of parental senescence on offspring quality. We used data from a 21-year study to examine the role of parental age on offspring probability of recruitment in a long-lived bird, the blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii). Offspring probability of recruiting into the breeding population varied over the life of parents and effects age were similar in mothers and fathers. Offspring recruitment was high when parents were roughly 6–12 years old and low before and after then. Effects of parental age on offspring recruitment varied with lifespan (parental age at last reproduction) and previous breeding experience. Offspring recruitment from young and old parents with long reproductive lifespans was greater than that of offspring from parents with short lifespans at young and old ages. For parents with little previous breeding experience recruitment of offspring decreased with their hatch date, but experienced parents were no similarly affected. We found evidence of terminal effects on offspring recruitment in young parents but not in older parents, suggesting that senescence is more likely a gradual process of deterioration than a process of terminal illness. Failure to recruit probably reflects mortality during the first years after independence but also during the fledgling transition to full independence. Our results show effects of parental age and quality on offspring viability in a long-lived wild vertebrate and support the idea that wild populations are composed of individuals of different quality, and that this individual heterogeneity can influence the dynamics of age-structured populations. PMID:22087271

  2. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  3. Genetic Contribution to Biological Aging: The Framingham Study

    PubMed Central

    Karasik, David; Hannan, Marian T.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Felson, David T.; Kiel, Douglas P.

    2005-01-01

    This study assessed the contribution of genetic and nongenetic factors to biological aging in American Caucasians. The studied sample included 1402 members of 288 pedigrees from the Framingham Heart Study. The original cohort participants received hand radiography in 1967–1969 (mean age, 58.7 years) and their offspring in 1992–1993 (mean age, 51.6 years). An osseographic score was applied to hand radiographs. Standardized residuals between Osseographic Scoring System-predicted age and actual age were used as a measure of biological age (BA). In variance component genetic analysis, sex, cohort, height, body mass index, and, in women, menopausal status and estrogen use, jointly explained approximately 6% of the total variance of BA. Genetic factors explained an additional 57%. Linkage analysis of covariate-adjusted BA suggested the presence of quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 3p, 7q, 11p, 16q, and 21q. In conclusion, the variation in BA measured by radiography was strongly governed by genetic factors in a sample of American adults. PMID:15031305

  4. Statistical Approaches for the Study of Cognitive and Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaihou; Zhao, Bingxin; Cao, Guanqun; Proges, Eric C.; O'Shea, Andrew; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of cognitive and brain aging often yield massive datasets that create many analytic and statistical challenges. In this paper, we discuss and address several limitations in the existing work. (1) Linear models are often used to model the age effects on neuroimaging markers, which may be inadequate in capturing the potential nonlinear age effects. (2) Marginal correlations are often used in brain network analysis, which are not efficient in characterizing a complex brain network. (3) Due to the challenge of high-dimensionality, only a small subset of the regional neuroimaging markers is considered in a prediction model, which could miss important regional markers. To overcome those obstacles, we introduce several advanced statistical methods for analyzing data from cognitive and brain aging studies. Specifically, we introduce semiparametric models for modeling age effects, graphical models for brain network analysis, and penalized regression methods for selecting the most important markers in predicting cognitive outcomes. We illustrate these methods using the healthy aging data from the Active Brain Study. PMID:27486400

  5. Stability and Change in Intelligence from Age 12 to Age 52: Results from the Luxembourg MAGRIP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalke, Daniela; Brunner, Martin; Geiser, Christian; Preckel, Franzis; Keller, Ulrich; Spengler, Marion; Martin, Romain

    2013-01-01

    The present longitudinal study tackled 2 key aspects of the development of intelligence across a 40-year time period from age 12 to age 52 concerning (a) stability and change in the structure of intelligence with reference to the age differentiation-dedifferentiation hypothesis (how different cognitive abilities relate to each other across age)…

  6. Spinal alignment evolution with age: A prospective gait analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Pesenti, Sébastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Peltier, Emilie; Viehweger, Elke; Pomero, Vincent; Authier, Guillaume; Fuentes, Stéphane; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    AIM To describe, using gait analysis, the development of spinal motion in the growing child. METHODS Thirty-six healthy children aged from 3 to 16 years old were included in this study for a gait analysis (9 m-walk). Various kinematic parameters were recorded and analyzed such as thoracic angle (TA), lumbar angle (LA) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The kinetic parameters were the net reaction moments (N.m/kg) at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junctions. RESULTS TA and LA curves were not statistically correlated to the age (respectively, P = 0.32 and P = 0.41). SVA increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). Moments in sagittal plane at the lumbosacral junction were statistically correlated to the age (P = 0.003), underlining the fact that sagittal mechanical constraints at the lumbosacral junction increase with age. Moments in transversal plane at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junctions were statistically correlated to the age (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0006), revealing that transversal mechanical constraints decrease with age. CONCLUSION The kinetic analysis showed that during growth, a decrease of torsional constraint occurs while an increase of sagittal constraint is observed. These changes in spine biomechanics are related to the crucial role of the trunk for bipedalism acquisition, allowing stabilization despite lower limbs immaturity. With the acquisition of mature gait, the spine will mainly undergo constraints in the sagittal plane. PMID:28361018

  7. Prognostic nomogram for overall survival in previously untreated patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, Y-J; Zhu, Y; Cao, J-Z; Yuan, Z-Y; Xu, L-M; Wu, J-X; Wang, W; Wu, T; Lu, B; Zhu, S-Y; Qian, L-T; Zhang, F-Q; Hou, X-R; Liu, Q-F; Li, Y-X

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a widely accepted prognostic nomogram for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (NKTCL). The clinical data from 1383 patients with NKTCL treated at 10 participating institutions between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. A nomogram was developed that predicted overall survival (OS) based on the Cox proportional hazards model. To contrast the utility of the nomogram against the widely used Ann Arbor staging system, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI), we used the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration curve to determine its predictive and discriminatory capacity. The 5-year OS rate was 60.3% for the entire group. The nomogram included five important variables based on a multivariate analysis of the primary cohort: stage; age; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; and primary tumor invasion. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was able to predict 5-year OS accurately. The C-index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.72 for both cohorts, which was superior to the predictive power (range, 0.56-0.64) of the Ann Arbor stage, IPI and KPI in the primary and validation cohorts. The proposed nomogram provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with NKTCL.

  8. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-06-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20-41) and 285 days (range 50-1,240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients.

  9. Molecular studies of exercise, skeletal muscle, and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, James A.; Gallagher, Iain J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of an F1000 review is to reflect on the bigger picture, exploring controversies and new concepts as well as providing opinion as to what is limiting progress in a particular field. We reviewed about 200 titles published in 2015 that included reference to ‘skeletal muscle, exercise, and ageing’ with the aim of identifying key articles that help progress our understanding or research capacity while identifying methodological issues which represent, in our opinion, major barriers to progress. Loss of neuromuscular function with chronological age impacts on both health and quality of life. We prioritised articles that studied human skeletal muscle within the context of age or exercise and identified new molecular observations that may explain how muscle responds to exercise or age. An important aspect of this short review is perspective: providing a view on the likely ‘size effect’ of a potential mechanism on physiological capacity or ageing. PMID:27303646

  10. In vivo multiphoton tomography in skin aging studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Bückle, Rainer; Weinigel, Martin; Köhler, Johannes; Elsner, Peter; Kaatz, Martin

    2009-02-01

    High-resolution clinical multiphoton tomography based on the femtosecond laser system DermaInspect has been performed on hundreds of patients and volunteers in Australia, Asia, and Europe. The system enables the in vivo detection of the elastin and the collagen network as well as the imaging of melanin clusters in aging spots. The epidermis-dermis junction can be detected with submicron resolution. One major applications of this novel HighTech imaging tool is the determination of the skin aging index SAAID as well as the study of the effects of anti-aging products. In particular, the stimulated biosynthesis of collagen can be investigated over long periods of time. The system with its sub-500 nm lateral resolution is able to image age-related modifications of the extracellular matrix on the level of a single elastin fiber.

  11. [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed. Only events (n=411) without cerebral, oncology, endocrine and other pathology are taken in database. The material was grouped to time and date of the study, sex and age in accordance with generally accepted categorization. Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

  12. Understanding Nontraditionally Aged College Students: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Julie R.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation was written in partial fulfillment of the doctoral degree requirements in Counseling Psychology at Capella University. This study was interested in exploring the growing population of nontraditionally aged college students. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that correlated with the academic success of this group…

  13. Unbiased Average Age-Appropriate Atlases for Pediatric Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fonov, Vladimir; Evans, Alan C.; Botteron, Kelly; Almli, C. Robert; McKinstry, Robert C.; Collins, D. Louis

    2010-01-01

    Spatial normalization, registration, and segmentation techniques for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) often use a target or template volume to facilitate processing, take advantage of prior information, and define a common coordinate system for analysis. In the neuroimaging literature, the MNI305 Talairach-like coordinate system is often used as a standard template. However, when studying pediatric populations, variation from the adult brain makes the MNI305 suboptimal for processing brain images of children. Morphological changes occurring during development render the use of age-appropriate templates desirable to reduce potential errors and minimize bias during processing of pediatric data. This paper presents the methods used to create unbiased, age-appropriate MRI atlas templates for pediatric studies that represent the average anatomy for the age range of 4.5–18.5 years, while maintaining a high level of anatomical detail and contrast. The creation of anatomical T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and proton density-weighted templates for specific developmentally important age-ranges, used data derived from the largest epidemiological, representative (healthy and normal) sample of the U.S. population, where each subject was carefully screened for medical and psychiatric factors and characterized using established neuropsychological and behavioral assessments. . Use of these age-specific templates was evaluated by computing average tissue maps for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid for each specific age range, and by conducting an exemplar voxel-wise deformation-based morphometry study using 66 young (4.5–6.9 years) participants to demonstrate the benefits of using the age-appropriate templates. The public availability of these atlases/templates will facilitate analysis of pediatric MRI data and enable comparison of results between studies in a common standardized space specific to pediatric research. PMID:20656036

  14. The Philosophy of Local Studies in the Interactive Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Peter H.; Macafee, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    The authors examine strategic priorities for local studies libraries in the context of the interactive Web. They examine the implications for access, investigations and the needs of different users. The philosophy that has previously guided local studies is articulated as a number of maxims, taking into account also social inclusion and lifelong…

  15. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Age-related Hearing Loss: The VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Kyun; Elmarsafawy, Sahar; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Although lead has been associated with hearing loss in occupational settings and in children, little epidemiologic research has been conducted on the impact of cumulative lead exposure on age-related hearing loss in the general population. We determined whether bone lead levels, a marker of cumulative lead exposure, are associated with decreased hearing ability in 448 men from the Normative Aging Study, seen between 1962 and 1996 (2,264 total observations). Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured at 0.25 to 8 kHz and pure tone averages (PTA) (mean of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) were computed. Tibia and patella lead levels were measured using K x-ray fluorescence between 1991 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders including occupational noise, patella lead levels were significantly associated with poorer hearing thresholds at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 kHz and PTA. The odds of hearing loss significantly increased with patella lead levels. We also found significant positive associations between tibia lead and the rate change in hearing thresholds at 1, 2, and 8 kHz and PTA in longitudinal analyses. Our results suggest that chronic low-level lead exposure may be an important risk factor for age-related hearing loss and reduction of lead exposure could help prevent or delay development of age-related hearing loss. PMID:20638461

  16. The New Mexico aging process study (1979-2003). A longitudinal study of nutrition, health and aging.

    PubMed

    Garry, P J; Wayne, S J; Vellas, B

    2007-01-01

    In 1979, Dr. James S. Goodwin, M.D., assisted by Philip J. Garry, Ph.D., submitted a grant proposal to the United States Public Health Service/ National Institute on Aging (NIA) entitled, "A prospective study of nutrition in the elderly". This study was approved and funded by the NIA beginning in 1979. Initially, approximately 300 men and women over 65 years of age with no known medical illnesses and no prescription medications were selected for this study. The primary purpose of this multi disciplinary study, known in the literature as the New Mexico Aging Process Study (NMAPS), was to examine the role of nutrition and resultant changes in body composition and organ function in relation to the aging process and health status of the elderly. This was accomplished by following prospectively healthy elderly volunteers, obtaining in-depth information about dietary habits, lifestyle, body composition, organ function, cognitive status, vitamin metabolism, genetic markers, and biochemical measures of nutritional status and then examining these data in relationship to age and health status and changes in health status. Some of the specific aims of the study were modified over the course of this longitudinal study because of availability of University of New Mexico School of Medicine faculty with expertise in different areas of aging research. In 1988, Dr. Bruno Vellas from the University Hospital in Toulouse, France became an on-going visiting professor at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. From 1988, until the study was terminated in 2003, Dr. Vellas has collaborated with the faculty involved in the NMAPS on a number of research projects. In this article, we provide information about the studies overall design and briefly describe some of the major finding of the NMAPS.

  17. Phase I study of dasatinib in combination with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab followed by an expanded cohort in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, John H.; McCall, Shannon; Nixon, Andrew B.; Brady, John C.; Pang, Herbert; Rushing, Christel; Cohn, Allen; Starodub, Alexander; Arrowood, Christy; Haley, Sherri; Meadows, Kellen L.; Morse, Michael A.; Uronis, Hope E.; Blobe, Gerard C.; Hsu, S. David; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dasatinib inhibits src family kinases and has anti-angiogenic properties. We conducted a phase I study of dasatinib, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab (CapeOx/bevacizumab), with an expansion cohort in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients were enrolled in a dose escalation cohort to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Using a “3+3” design, twelve patients with advanced solid tumors received dasatinib (50mg twice daily or 70mg daily), capecitabine (850mg/m2 twice daily, days 1-14), oxaliplatin (130mg/m2 on day 1) and bevacizumab (7.5mg/kg on day1), every 3 weeks. Ten patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC were then enrolled in an expansion cohort. Activated src (srcact) expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, using an antibody that selectively recognizes the active conformation of src (clone 28). Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled between June 2009 and May 2011. Two DLTs were observed in the 50mg bid dasatinib cohort, and one DLT was observed in the 70mg daily dasatinib cohort. The MTD and RP2D for dasatinib was 70mg daily. The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (20; 91%) and diarrhea (18; 82%). Biomarker analysis of srcact expression demonstrated that the overall response rate (ORR) was 75% (6/8) for patients with high srcact expression (IHC≥ 2), compared to 0% (0/8) for patients with low srcact expression (IHC 0 or 1); (p =0.007). Conclusions The RP2D of dasatinib is 70 mg daily in combination with CapeOx/bevacizumab. High levels of srcact expression may predict those patients most likely to benefit from dasatinib. PMID:24173967

  18. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  19. Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

    2013-01-01

    The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ≥50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

  20. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife.

  1. Do Cherished Children Age Successfully? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lewina O.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Wang, Joyce M.; Spiro, Avron

    2015-01-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (1) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains; (2) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life; and (3) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M=69, SD=7). Analyses yielded three profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and non-normative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed seven years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n=496; age: M=76, SD=7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  2. Dental age estimation using Willems method: A digital orthopantomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Krishnamraju, P. V.; Prasanth, P. S.; Sanghvi, Praveen; Lata Reddy, M. Asha; Jyotsna, S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, age estimation has become increasingly important in living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility, and for many other social events such as a birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army, and retirement. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of left seven mandibular teeth for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population using Willems method. Materials and Methods: Digital Orthopantomogram of 332 subjects (166 males, 166 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular teeth (from central incisor to the second molar on left quadrant) development was undertaken and DA was assessed using Willems method. Results and Discussion: The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males (r = 0.71 and females (r = 0.88). The overall mean difference between the estimated DA and CA for males was 0.69 ± 2.14 years (P < 0.001) while for females, it was 0.08 ± 1.34 years (P > 0.05). Willems method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.69 years and females by 0.08 years and showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. The mean difference between DA and CA according to Willems method was 0.39 years and is statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This study showed significant relation between DA and CA. Thus, digital radiographic assessment of mandibular teeth development can be used to generate mean DA using Willems method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. PMID:25191076

  3. The study on telomere length for age estimation in a Thai population.

    PubMed

    Srettabunjong, Supawon; Satitsri, Saravut; Thongnoppakhun, Wanna; Tirawanchai, Nednapis

    2014-06-01

    Age is one of the key parameters in establishing a physical characteristic profile of an individual. For biological evidence left in crime scenes such as blood, saliva, hair, etc, the evidence owner's age can be determined only by DNA extracted from these materials. Previous researches have found that there are certain DNA regions with specialized characteristic and function called telomere being able to predict age. The present study was to determine the correlation between telomere length and age as well as the effect of sex on the correlation and to create linear regression equation for age estimation in Thai population for forensic purposes. Blood samples obtained from unrelated healthy Thai fresh cadavers without anatomical organ abnormalities were used in this study. All cadaver subjects underwent the postmortem examination in jurisdiction of the Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Police General Hospital. Fifty blood samples from both sexes of all ages divided into 6 groups for equal age distribution (0-11, 12-23, 24-35, 36-47, 48-59, and 60 years old and older) were collected for a total of 100 samples. The extracted genomic DNA samples were then subjected to telomere length estimation by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) assay. The results showed that the mean TRF length was inversely correlated with age (r = -0.625), and sex did not have a statistically significant influence on the association between age and mean TRF length (P > 0.05). The obtained linear regression equation was y = 113.538 ± 9.604 - 0.012 × (R = 0.391; P < 0.001). However, the correlation was too low to be used for age estimation with high certainty and a possible reason for this in part would be the postmortem DNA degradation at some level, even using fresh cadaver blood, and other biological factors such as ethnicity and DNA sources. Roughly, those individuals who had a mean TRF length

  4. iPSC technology to study human aging and aging-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Hui; Ding, Zhichao; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2012-12-01

    A global aging population, normally accompanied by a high incidence of aging-associated diseases, has prompted a renewed interest in basic research on human aging. Although encouraging progress has been achieved using animal models, the underlying fundamental mechanisms of aging remain largely unknown. Here, we review the human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-based models of aging and aging-related diseases. These models seek to advance our knowledge of aging molecular mechanisms and help to develop strategies for treating aging-associated human diseases.

  5. Study Healthy Ageing and Intellectual Disabilities: Recruitment and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hermans, Heidi; Penning, Corine; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Problems encountered in epidemiologic health research in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) are how to recruit a large-scale sample of participants and how to measure a range of health variables in such a group. This cross-sectional study into healthy ageing started with founding a consort of three large care providers with a total…

  6. Studies of the Future Aged. An International Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friis, Henning; Sheppard, Harold L., Ed.

    These six papers report on future-oriented studies of the situation of the elderly. "Changing Elderly in a Changing Society: Danish Elderly in the Next Century" (Henning Friis) reports on research dealing with preferences of the future elderly for their life when they grow older. "Aging Effectively: Meeting the Challenge of an Aging…

  7. A phase II/III randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of rigosertib plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. H.; Scott, A. J.; Ma, W. W.; Cohen, S. J.; Aisner, D. L.; Menter, A. R.; Tejani, M. A.; Cho, J. K.; Granfortuna, J.; Coveler, L.; Olowokure, O. O.; Baranda, J. C.; Cusnir, M.; Phillip, P.; Boles, J.; Nazemzadeh, R.; Rarick, M.; Cohen, D. J.; Radford, J.; Fehrenbacher, L.; Bajaj, R.; Bathini, V.; Fanta, P.; Berlin, J.; McRee, A. J.; Maguire, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Maniar, M.; Jimeno, A.; Gomes, C. L.; Messersmith, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a first-in-class Ras mimetic and small-molecule inhibitor of multiple signaling pathways including polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), has shown efficacy in preclinical pancreatic cancer models. In this study, rigosertib was assessed in combination with gemcitabine in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle plus rigosertib 1800 mg/m2 via 2-h continuous IV infusions given twice weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle (RIG + GEM) versus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle (GEM). Results A total of 160 patients were enrolled globally and randomly assigned to RIG + GEM (106 patients) or GEM (54). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (8% in the RIG + GEM group versus 6% in the GEM group), hyponatremia (17% versus 4%), and anemia (8% versus 4%). The median overall survival was 6.1 months for RIG + GEM versus 6.4 months for GEM [hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–1.81]. The median progression-free survival was 3.4 months for both groups (HR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.68–1.36). The partial response rate was 19% versus 13% for RIG + GEM versus GEM, respectively. Of 64 tumor samples sent for molecular analysis, 47 were adequate for multiplex genetic testing and 41 were positive for mutations. The majority of cases had KRAS gene mutations (40 cases). Other mutations detected included TP53 (13 cases) and PIK3CA (1 case). No correlation between mutational status and efficacy was detected. Conclusions The combination of RIG + GEM failed to demonstrate an improvement in survival or response compared with GEM in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Rigosertib showed a similar safety profile to that seen in previous trials using the IV

  8. Age difference in numeral recognition and calculation: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Dong; Wang, Suhong; Yang, Yilin; Meng, Ping; Xu, Feng; Yang, Wen; Sheng, Wei; Yang, Yuxia

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the age difference in numeral recognition and calculation in one group of school-aged children (n = 38) and one of undergraduate students (n = 26) using the event-related potential (ERP) methods. Consistent with previous reports, the age difference was significant in behavioral results. Both numeral recognition and calculation elicited a negativity peaking at about 170-280 ms (N2) and a positivity peaking at 200-470 ms (pSW) in raw ERPs, and a difference potential (dN3) between 360 and 450 ms. The difference between the two age groups indicated that more attention resources were devoted to arithmetical tasks in school-aged children, and that school-aged children and undergraduate students appear to use different strategies to solve arithmetical problems. The analysis of frontal negativity suggested that numeral recognition and mental calculation impose greater load on working memory and executive function in schoolchildren than in undergraduate students. The topography data determined that the parietal regions were responsible for arithmetical function in humans, and there was an age-related difference in the area of cerebral activation.

  9. Forensic age diagnostics using projection radiography of the clavicle: a prospective multi-center validation study.

    PubMed

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Ottow, Christian; Schulz, Ronald; Püschel, Klaus; Bajanowski, Thomas; Ramsthaler, Frank; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Vieth, Volker; Schmidt, Sven; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The radiological investigation of the ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphysis represents the crucial tool for assessing whether a living individual has completed the age of 18 years. However, exposure to radiation cannot always be accepted due to legal reasons and radiation-free methods still lack reference data or are not available. Therefore, this study examines the role of pre-existing radiographic material of the clavicles, making it necessary to prospectively validate the established five-stage classification system for evaluating the clavicular ossification process as well as to enlarge the so far very limited pool of available reference data. Accordingly, standard posterior-anterior projection radiographs of 836 sternoclavicular joints prospectively obtained during 418 forensic autopsies (age range 15-30 years) were analyzed. Stage III was first found at ages 16 and 15 (males/females), stage IV at ages 22 and 21 (males/females), and stage V at age 26 in both sexes. The presented results principally corroborate the previous reference data from 2004, suggesting reliability of the five-stage classification system. In conclusion, chest radiographs may still be useful for forensic age diagnostics in living individuals but only in certain cases. In age estimations which can be planned in advance, projection radiography of the clavicle must still be considered obsolete.

  10. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  11. Do Hassles and Uplifts Change with Age? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed three scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Growth based modelling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative non-linear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

  12. Aging affects the interaction between attentional control and source memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-12-01

    Age-related source memory impairments may be due, at least in part, to deficits in executive processes mediated by the PFC at both study and test. Behavioral work suggests that providing environmental support at encoding, such as directing attention toward item-source associations, may improve source memory and reduce age-related deficits in the recruitment of these executive processes. The present fMRI study investigated the effects of directed attention and aging on source memory encoding and retrieval. At study, participants were shown pictures of objects. They were either asked to attend to the objects and their color (source) or to their size. At test, participants determined if objects were seen before, and if so, whether they were the same color as previously. Behavioral results showed that direction of attention improved source memory for both groups; however, age-related deficits persisted. fMRI results revealed that, across groups, direction of attention facilitated medial temporal lobe-mediated contextual binding processes during study and attenuated right PFC postretrieval monitoring effects at test. However, persistent age-related source memory deficits may be related to increased recruitment of medial anterior PFC during encoding, indicative of self-referential processing, as well as underrecruitment of lateral anterior PFC-mediated relational processes. Taken together, this study suggests that, even when supported, older adults may fail to selectively encode goal-relevant contextual details supporting source memory performance.

  13. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for the study of aging and exercise: physical ability and trainability decrease with age.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Matthew J H; Zerulla, Tanja C; Tierney, Keith B

    2014-02-01

    A rapidly aging global population has motivated the development and use of models for human aging. Studies on aging have shown parallels between zebrafish and humans at the internal organization level; however, few parallels have been studied at the whole-organism level. Furthermore, the effectiveness of exercise as a method to mitigate the effects of aging has not been studied in zebrafish. We investigated the effects of aging and intermittent exercise on swimming performance, kinematics and behavior. Young, middle-aged and old zebrafish (20-29, 36-48 and 60-71% of average lifespan, respectively) were exercised to exhaustion in endurance and sprint swimming tests once a week for four weeks. Both endurance and sprint performance decreased with increased age. Swimming performance improved with exercise training in young and middle-aged zebrafish, but not in old zebrafish. Tail-beat amplitude, which is akin to stride length in humans, increased for all age groups with training. Zebrafish turning frequency, which is an indicator of routine activity, decreased with age but showed no change with exercise. In sum, our results show that zebrafish exhibit a decline in whole-organism performance and trainability with age. These findings closely resemble the senescence-related declines in physical ability experienced by humans and mammalian aging models and therefore support the use of zebrafish as a model for human exercise and aging.

  14. Study of the formation mechanisms of some volatile compounds during the aging of sweet fortified wines.

    PubMed

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    1999-07-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental laboratory study investigated the aging of red and white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The formation of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Among the molecules studied, sotolon [3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] was one of the few molecules present in concentrations above the perception threshold, in both red and white wines. Buildup was strongly affected by the presence of oxygen in white wine subjected to accelerated aging. (Ethoxymethyl)furfural, formed from 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and furfural, derived from sugars, are also involved in the aroma of sweet fortified white wines aged in oxygen-free conditions. The substances most characteristic of accelerated aging of sweet fortified red wines were 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, acetylformoin, and hydroxymaltol, the formation of which is affected by oxidation, and dihydromaltol, formed in the absence of oxidation.

  15. The Effect of Age on Fracture Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To precisely estimate the effect of age on the risk of fracture hospitalisation among the Western Australia population over the life course. Methods. This population-based cohort study used hospital data on fractures for the period January 1991 to January 2013 among Western Australians born between 1915 and 1990. Results. The average incidence rates (per 10,000 person-years) of fracture hospitalisation (95% confidence interval) were 50.12 (49.90, 50.35), 55.14 (54.82, 55.48), and 45.02 (44.71, 45.32) for both males and females, males only, and females only, respectively. The age-specific rate of fracture hospitalisation (in natural logarithm form) in adults (>18 years) was well predicted by age at its 1st, 2nd, and 3rd power in males with an adjusted R-squared of 0.98 and p < 0.001. For females, the trend was also well predicted by its 1st and 2nd powers (the 3rd power term of age was removed due to its p value > 0.8) with an adjusted R-squared of 0.99 and p < 0.001. Conclusions. Overall trends in age and gender specific risk of fracture among the Western Australian population were similar to estimates reported from previous studies. The trend in fracture hospitalisation risk over the life course can be almost fully explained by age. PMID:27340566

  16. Association of maternal age with child health: A Japanese longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Average maternal age at birth has been rising steadily in Western and some Asian countries. Older maternal age has been associated with adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes; however, studies on the relationship between maternal age and young children’s health remain scarce. Therefore, we sought to investigate the association of maternal age with child health outcomes in the Japanese population. We analyzed data from two birth cohorts of the nationwide Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in 21st Century (n2001 = 47,715 and n2010 = 38,554). We estimated risks of unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 and 66 months according to maternal age, controlling for the following potential confounders: parental education; maternal parity, smoking status, and employment status; household income; paternal age, and sex of the child. We also included the following as potential mediators: preterm births and birthweight. We observed a decreasing trend in the risks of children’s unintentional injuries and hospital admissions at 18 months according to maternal age in both cohorts. In the 2001 cohort, compared to mothers <25 years, odds ratios of hospital admission at 18 months were 0.97 [95% CI: 0.86, 1.09], 0.92 [0.81, 1.05], 0.76 [0.65, 0.90], and 0.71 [0.51, 0.98] for mothers aged 25.0–29.9, 30.0–34.9, 35.0–39.9, and >40.0 years, respectively, controlling for confounders. Our findings were in line with previous findings from population-based studies conducted in the United Kingdom and Canada suggesting that older maternal age may be beneficial for early child health. PMID:28234951

  17. Study of Intermediate Age (~10-30 Myr) Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olguin, Lorenzo; Michel, Raul; Contreras, Maria; Hernandez, Jesus; Schuster, William; Chavarria-Kleinhenn, Carlos

    2013-07-01

    We present the study of a sample of intermediate age open clusters (age ~ 10-30 Myr) using optical (UBVRI) and infrared photometric data. Optical photometry was obtained as part of the San Pedro Martir Open Clusters Project (SPM-OCP, Schuster et al. 2007; Michel et al. 2013). Infrared photometry was retrieved from 2MASS public data archive and WISE database. Open clusters included in the SPM-OCP were selected from catalogues presented by Dias et al. (2002) and Froebrich, Scholz & Raftery (2007). One of the main goals of the SPM-OCP is to compile a self-consistent and homogeneous set of cluster fundamental parameters such as reddening, distance, age, and metallicity whenever possible. In this work, we have analyzed a set of 25 clusters from the SPM-OCP with estimated ages between 10 and 30 Myr. Derived fundamental parameters for each cluster in the sample as well as an example of typical color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are presented. Kinematic membership was established by using proper motion data taken from the literature. Based on infrared photometry, we have searched for candidate stars to posses a circumstellar disk within each clusters. For those selected candidates a follow-up spectroscpic study is being carried out. This work was partially supported by UNAM-PAPIIT grant IN-109311.

  18. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  19. Hypoxia and dehydroepiandrosterone in old age: a mouse survival study

    PubMed Central

    Debonneuil, Edouard H; Quillard, Janine; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile

    2006-01-01

    Background Survival remains an issue in pulmonary hypertension, a chronic disorder that often affects aged human adults. In young adult mice and rats, chronic 50% hypoxia (11% FIO2 or 0.5 atm) induces pulmonary hypertension without threatening life. In this framework, oral dehydroepiandrosterone was recently shown to prevent and reverse pulmonary hypertension in rats within a few weeks. To evaluate dehydroepiandrosterone therapy more globally, in the long term and in old age, we investigated whether hypoxia decreases lifespan and whether dehydroepiandrosterone improves survival under hypoxia. Methods 240 C57BL/6 mice were treated, from the age of 21 months until death, by normobaric hypoxia (11% FIO2) or normoxia, both with and without dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (25 mg/kg in drinking water) (4 groups, N = 60). Survival, pulmonary artery and heart remodeling, weight and blood patterns were assessed. Results In normoxia, control mice reached the median age of 27 months (median survival: 184 days). Hypoxia not only induced cardiopulmonary remodeling and polycythemia in old animals but also induced severe weight loss, trembling behavior and high mortality (p < 0.001, median survival: 38 days). Under hypoxia however, dehydroepiandrosterone not only significantly reduced cardiopulmonary remodeling but also remarkably extended survival (p < 0.01, median survival: 126 days). Weight loss and trembling behavior at least partially remained, and polycythemia completely, the latter possibly favorably participating in blood oxygenation. Interestingly, at the dose used, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was detrimental to long-term survival in normoxia (p < 0.05, median survival: 147 days). Conclusion Dehydroepiandrosterone globally reduced what may be called an age-related frailty induced by hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. This interestingly recalls an inverse correlation found in the prospective PAQUID epidemiological study, between dehydroepiandrosterone blood levels and

  20. Nothobranchius as a model for aging studies. A review

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Sánchez, Alejandro; Almaida-Pagán, Pedro Francisco; Mendiola, Pilar; de Costa, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the increase in human longevity has made it increasingly important to expand our knowledge on aging. To accomplish this, the use of animal models is essential, with the most common being mouse (phylogenetically similar to humans, and a model with a long life expectancy) and Caenorhabditis elegans (an invertebrate with a short life span, but quite removed from us in evolutionary terms). However, some sort of model is needed to bridge the differences between those mentioned above, achieving a balance between phylogenetic distance and life span. Fish of the genus Nothobranchius were suggested 10 years ago as a possible alternative for the study of the aging process. In the meantime, numerous studies have been conducted at different levels: behavioral (including the study of the rest-activity rhythm), populational, histochemical, biochemical and genetic, among others, with very positive results. This review compiles what we know about Nothobranchius to date, and examines its future prospects as a true alternative to the classic models for studies on aging. PMID:25110612

  1. State-of-the-art in longitudinal studies on aging: an overview of the supplement.

    PubMed

    Tappen, Ruth M; Ouslander, Joseph G

    2010-10-01

    The articles in this supplement are based on a conference held in January 2008 sponsored by a grant from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The purpose of the conference was to summarize major findings and methodological issues in previous and ongoing longitudinal studies on aging and to identify potentially fruitful areas for future research. This article is a review and synthesis of the articles in this supplement. Each of the articles makes important contributions to summarizing existing research, identifying challenging methodological issues, or proposing areas that should be explored in future research. Three themes were identified: general improvement in the health status of the population aged 65 and older in the United States, a shift in longitudinal research on aging from a focus on the endpoints of disease to a focus on the preclinical stage and underlying mechanisms of these diseases, and contemporary developments in longitudinal research methodology. A number of practical suggestions were also drawn from the articles reviewed.

  2. Microbiota and healthy ageing: observational and nutritional intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Brüssow, Harald

    2013-07-01

    Hundred years ago Metchnikoff associated human health and particularly healthy ageing with a specific type of gut microbiota. Classical culture methods associated a decrease in bifidobacteria and an increase in enterobacteria with ageing. Modern molecular methods blurred this simple picture and documented a substantial inter-individual variability for the gut microbiome even when stratifying the elderly subjects according to health status. Nutritional interventions with resistant starch showed consistent gut microbiota changes across studies from different geographical areas and prebiotic supplementation induced a 10-fold increase in gut bifidobacteria. However, in the ELDERMET study, microbiota changes do not precede, but follow the changes in health status of elderly subjects possibly as a consequence of diet changes.

  3. Online aging study of a high rate MRPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Yi; Feng, S. Q.; Xie, Bo; Lv, Pengfei; Wang, Fuyue; Guo, Baohong; Han, Dong; Li, Yuanjing

    2016-05-01

    With the constant increase of accelerator luminosity, the rate requirements of MRPC detectors have become very important, and the aging characteristics of the detector have to be studied meticulously. An online aging test system has been set up in our lab, and in this paper the setup of the system is described and the performance stability of a high-rate MRPC studied over a long running time under a high luminosity environment. The high rate MRPC was irradiated by X-rays for 36 days and the accumulated charge density reached 0.1 C/cm2. No obvious performance degradation was observed for the detector. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11420101004, 11461141011, 11275108), Ministry of Science and Technology (2015CB856905)

  4. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E

    2014-01-01

    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  5. Rejuvenation of Gene Expression Pattern of Aged Human Skin by Broadband Light Treatment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Bitter, Patrick H; Qu, Kun; Lin, Meihong; Rapicavoli, Nicole A; Chang, Howard Y

    2013-01-01

    Studies in model organisms suggest that aged cells can be functionally rejuvenated, but whether this concept applies to human skin is unclear. Here we apply 3′-end sequencing for expression quantification (“3-seq”) to discover the gene expression program associated with human photoaging and intrinsic skin aging (collectively termed “skin aging”), and the impact of broadband light (BBL) treatment. We find that skin aging was associated with a significantly altered expression level of 2,265 coding and noncoding RNAs, of which 1,293 became “rejuvenated” after BBL treatment; i.e., they became more similar to their expression level in youthful skin. Rejuvenated genes (RGs) included several known key regulators of organismal longevity and their proximal long noncoding RNAs. Skin aging is not associated with systematic changes in 3′-end mRNA processing. Hence, BBL treatment can restore gene expression pattern of photoaged and intrinsically aged human skin to resemble young skin. In addition, our data reveal, to our knowledge, a previously unreported set of targets that may lead to new insights into the human skin aging process. PMID:22931923

  6. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  7. Does Sensory Function Decline Independently or Concomitantly with Age? Data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gadkaree, Shekhar K.; Sun, Daniel Q.; Li, Carol; Lin, Frank R.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether sensory function declines independently or in parallel with age within a single individual. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants who underwent vision (visual acuity threshold), proprioception (ankle joint proprioceptive threshold), vestibular function (cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential), hearing (pure-tone average audiometric threshold), and Health ABC physical performance battery testing. Results. A total of 276 participants (mean age 70 years, range 26–93) underwent all four sensory tests. The function of all four systems declined with age. After age adjustment, there were no significant associations between sensory systems. Among 70–79-year-olds, dual or triple sensory impairment was associated with poorer physical performance. Discussion. Our findings suggest that beyond the common mechanism of aging, other distinct (nonshared) etiologic mechanisms may contribute to decline in each sensory system. Multiple sensory impairments influence physical performance among individuals in middle old-age (age 70–79). PMID:27774319

  8. Twins for epigenetic studies of human aging and development.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qihua; Christiansen, Lene; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A; Christensen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    Most of the complex traits including aging phenotypes are caused by the interaction between genome and environmental conditions and the interface of epigenetics may be a central mechanism. Although modern technologies allow us high-throughput profiling of epigenetic patterns already at genome level, our understanding of genetic and environmental influences on the epigenetic processes remains limited. Twins are of special interest for genetic studies due to their genetic similarity and rearing-environment sharing. The classical twin design has made a great contribution in dissecting the genetic and environmental contributions to human diseases and complex traits. In the era of functional genomics, the valuable sample of twins is helping to bridge the gap between gene activity and the environments through epigenetic mechanisms unlimited by DNA sequence variations. We propose to extend the classical twin design to study the aging-related molecular epigenetic phenotypes and link them with environmental exposures especially early life events. Different study designs and application issues will be highlighted and novel approaches introduced with aim at making uses of twins in assessing the environmental impact on epigenetic changes during development and in the aging process.

  9. The role of the DLPFC in inductive reasoning of MCI patients and normal agings: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, YanHui; Liang, PeiPeng; Lu, ShengFu; Li, KunCheng; Zhong, Ning

    2009-08-01

    Previous studies of young people have revealed that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in inductive reasoning. An fMRI experiment was performed in this study to examine whether the left DLPFC was involved in inductive reasoning of MCI patients and normal aging, and whether the activation pattern of this region was different between MCI patients and normal aging. The fMRI results indicated that MCI patients had no difference from normal aging in behavior performance (reaction time and accuracy) and the activation pattern of DLPFC. However, the BOLD response of the DLPFC region for MCI patients was weaker than that for normal aging, and the functional connectivity between the bilateral DLPFC regions for MCI patients was significantly higher than for normal aging. Taken together, these results indicated that DLPFC plays an important role in inductive reasoning of aging, and the functional abnormity of DLPFC may be an earlier marker of MCI before structural alterations.

  10. Uranium-series comminution ages of continental sediments: Case study of a Pleistocene alluvial fan

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Victoria E.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Christensen, John N.

    2010-04-30

    Obtaining quantitative information about the timescales associated with sediment transport, storage, and deposition in continental settings is important but challenging. The uranium-series comminution age method potentially provides a universal approach for direct dating of Quaternary detrital sediments, and can also provide estimates of the sediment transport and storage timescales. (The word"comminution" means"to reduce to powder," reflecting the start of the comminution age clock as reduction of lithic parent material below a critical grain size threshold of ~;;50 mu m.) To test the comminution age method as a means to date continental sediments, we applied the method to drill-core samples of the glacially-derived Kings River Fan alluvial deposits in central California. Sediments from the 45 m core have independently-estimated depositional ages of up to ~;;800 ka, based on paleomagnetism and correlations to nearby dated sediments. We characterized sequentially-leached core samples (both bulk sediment and grain size separates) for U, Nd, and Sr isotopes, grain size, surface texture, and mineralogy. In accordance with the comminution age model, where 234U is partially lost from small sediment grains due to alpha recoil, we found that (234U/238U) activity ratios generally decrease with age, depth, and specific surface area, with depletions of up to 9percent relative to radioactive equilibrium. The resulting calculated comminution ages are reasonable, although they do not exactly match age estimates from previous studies and also depend on assumptions about 234U loss rates. The results indicate that the method may be a significant addition to the sparse set of available tools for dating detrital continental sediments, following further refinement. Improving the accuracy of the method requires more advanced models or measurements for both the recoil loss factor fa and weathering effects. We discuss several independent methods for obtaining fa on individual samples

  11. Weighing the Benefits of Studying a Foreign Language at a Younger Starting Age in a Minimal Input Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson-Hall, Jenifer

    2008-01-01

    This study examined whether a younger starting age is advantageous in a situation of minimal exposure to an instructed foreign language ([less than or equal] 4 hours classroom contact per week). Previous theoretical and empirical studies indicated there should be no advantage for an earlier start. Japanese college students who started studying…

  12. Intellectual functioning in old and very old age: cross-sectional results from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Baltes, P B

    1997-09-01

    This study documents age trends, interrelations, and correlates of intellectual abilities in old and very old age (70-103 years) from the Berlin Aging Study (N = 516). Fourteen tests were used to assess 5 abilities: reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed from the mechanic (broad fluid) domain and knowledge and fluency from the pragmatic (broad crystallized) domain. Intellectual abilities had negative linear age relations, with more pronounced age reductions in mechanic than in pragmatic abilities. Interrelations among intellectual abilities were highly positive and did not follow the mechanic-pragmatic distinction. Sociobiographical indicators were less closely linked to intellectual functioning than sensory-sensorimotor variables, which predicted 59% of the total reliable variance in general intelligence. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in intelligence in old and very old age.

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Atzmon, Gil; Demerath, Ellen W.; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kumari, Meena; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J.; Völker, Uwe; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Alice; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Biffar, Reiner; Buchman, Aron S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Couper, David; De Jager, Philip L.; Evans, Denis A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kocher, Thomas; Kuningas, Maris; Launer, Lenore J.; Lohman, Kurt K.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Mackenbach, Johan; Marciante, Kristin; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiman, Eric M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shardell, Michelle D.; Smith, Albert V.; van Duijn, Cornelia; Walston, Jeremy; Zillikens, M. Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Bennett, David A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Liu, Yongmei; Murabito, Joanne M.; Newman, Anne B.; Tiemeier, Henning; Franceschini, Nora

    2011-01-01

    Human longevity and healthy aging show moderate heritability (20–50%). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from nine studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium for two outcomes: a) all-cause mortality and b) survival free of major disease or death. No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a genome-wide significant predictor of either outcome (p < 5 × 10−8). We found fourteen independent SNPs that predicted risk of death, and eight SNPs that predicted event-free survival (p < 10−5). These SNPs are in or near genes that are highly expressed in the brain (HECW2, HIP1, BIN2, GRIA1), genes involved in neural development and function (KCNQ4, LMO4, GRIA1, NETO1) and autophagy (ATG4C), and genes that are associated with risk of various diseases including cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to considerable overlap between the traits, pathway and network analysis corroborated these findings. These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity. PMID:21782286

  14. A genome-wide association study of aging.

    PubMed

    Walter, Stefan; Atzmon, Gil; Demerath, Ellen W; Garcia, Melissa E; Kaplan, Robert C; Kumari, Meena; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Milaneschi, Yuri; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tranah, Gregory J; Völker, Uwe; Yu, Lei; Arnold, Alice; Benjamin, Emelia J; Biffar, Reiner; Buchman, Aron S; Boerwinkle, Eric; Couper, David; De Jager, Philip L; Evans, Denis A; Harris, Tamara B; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Kocher, Thomas; Kuningas, Maris; Launer, Lenore J; Lohman, Kurt K; Lutsey, Pamela L; Mackenbach, Johan; Marciante, Kristin; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiman, Eric M; Rotter, Jerome I; Seshadri, Sudha; Shardell, Michelle D; Smith, Albert V; van Duijn, Cornelia; Walston, Jeremy; Zillikens, M Carola; Bandinelli, Stefania; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Bennett, David A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kivimaki, Mika; Liu, Yongmei; Murabito, Joanne M; Newman, Anne B; Tiemeier, Henning; Franceschini, Nora

    2011-11-01

    Human longevity and healthy aging show moderate heritability (20%-50%). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies from 9 studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium for 2 outcomes: (1) all-cause mortality, and (2) survival free of major disease or death. No single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was a genome-wide significant predictor of either outcome (p < 5 × 10(-8)). We found 14 independent SNPs that predicted risk of death, and 8 SNPs that predicted event-free survival (p < 10(-5)). These SNPs are in or near genes that are highly expressed in the brain (HECW2, HIP1, BIN2, GRIA1), genes involved in neural development and function (KCNQ4, LMO4, GRIA1, NETO1) and autophagy (ATG4C), and genes that are associated with risk of various diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to considerable overlap between the traits, pathway and network analysis corroborated these findings. These findings indicate that variation in genes involved in neurological processes may be an important factor in regulating aging free of major disease and achieving longevity.

  15. A twin study on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, S M

    1994-01-01

    A prospective twin study on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) recruited 83 monozygotic pairs, 28 dizygotic pairs, and one triplet set from 1986 through 1993. Zygosity was determined by genetic testing of red cell markers, HLA antigens, or specific DNA loci. There were no twin pairs in which I collected data on only one twin. To decrease ascertainment bias, after 1991 the recruitment notice did not mention AMD, and I did not ask about a history of eye disease before the eye examination. Because of this, twin pairs recruited from 1986 through 1991 were statistically analyzed separately from those after January 1, 1992. From 1986 through 1991, 23 twin pairs were recruited; 11 monozygotic and 2 dizygotic pairs had nonAMD retinal changes or no retinal abnormalities, 9 monozygotic pairs with AMD were all concordant, and 1 dizygotic pair was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The concordance rate of AMD did not differ significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (P = .10) for 1986 through 1991. In 1992 and 1993, 88 twin pairs and one triplet set were recruited; 49 monozygotic and 19 dizygotic pairs had nonAMD retinal changes or no retinal abnormalities, 14 monozygotic pairs with AMD were all concordant, and 2 of 7 dizygotic pairs were concordant for AMD. The nonidentical triplets (1 with and 2 without AMD) were categorized as one of the discordant dizygotic pairs in the statistical evaluation. In nontwin age-matched (within 2 or 5 years of age) or age- and sex-matched sibling pairs the concordance rate of AMD ranged from 16% to 25%. The concordance rate of AMD was significantly higher in monozygotic than in dizygotic twins (P = .001) for 1992 and 1993. The concordance rate was higher for monozygotic twin pairs recruited in 1992 and 1993 than in any of the four subsets of nontwin age-method or age- and sex-matched sibling pairs (P < .0001). Overall, from 1986 through 1993, 23 of 23 monozygotic and 2 of 8 dizygotic twin pairs were concordant for AMD

  16. Looking Beyond Chronological Age: Current Knowledge and Future Directions in the Study of Subjective Age.

    PubMed

    Kotter-Grühn, Dana; Kornadt, Anna E; Stephan, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the heterogeneity of aging goes along with the awareness that every person experiences aging differently. Over the past years, scholars have emphasized that the assessment of these subjective experiences of aging contributes to our understanding of a range of psychological and physiological processes and outcomes among older adults. One construct frequently used in this context is subjective age, that is, how old or young a person feels. Subjective age has been shown to be an important correlate as well as a predictor of markers of successful aging such as well-being, health, and longevity. However, less is known about the antecedents of subjective age and the mechanisms underlying the relationship between feeling younger and positive developmental outcomes. This article briefly summarizes and critically evaluates the empirical evidence on this topic and makes suggestions on how to address and potentially overcome currently existing theoretical, methodological, and psychometric challenges. Based on the discussion of these challenges, the paper provides directions for future research by outlining underexplored topics such as intraindividual variability and determinants of subjective age, the match between objective age indicators and subjective age, and how subjective age maps on behavior and functioning.

  17. [Stuttering in preschool age: a survey of studies].

    PubMed

    Tarkowski, Zbigniew; Humeniuk, Ewa; Dunaj, Jolanta

    2010-01-01

    Most often stuttering is identified with a speech disorder or speech disfluency. However, it resembles a disorder consisting of linguistic, biological, psychological and social factors, as well as relations between them. The onset of stuttering usually occurs in the preschool age or even earlier, though relatively little concern has been devoted to this period. The article presents a review of the latest research on stuttering in preschool age. A distinct disproportion between particular elements of stuttering structure have been observed. Research concerns mainly the linguistic factor and is focused on speech disfluency, while studies on the biological, psychological and social factors are insufficient. Research on relations between them is rare. Despite efforts of a number of researchers, differential diagnosis of preschool stuttering and natural speech disfluency is still controversial, as is early therapeutic intervention. In research it is usually omitted that the essence of speech disfluency is its changeability. It continually appears and disappears. The causes of this mysterious phenomenon are still unknown.

  18. Ferrocyanide Safety Project: Subtask 3. 4, Aging Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A.; Lumetta, M.R.; Riemath, W.F.; Romine, R.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.

    1992-11-01

    The Hanford Ferrocyanide Task Team is addressing issues involving ferrocyanide precipitates in single-shell waste storage tanks (SSTs), in particular the storage of waste in a safe manner. This Task Team, composed of researchers from Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and outside consultants, was formed in response to the need for an updated analysis of safety questions about the Hanford ferrocyanide tanks. This annual report gives the results of the work conducted by PNL in FY 1992 on Subtask 3.4, Aging Studies, which is part of Task 3, Chemical Nature of Feffocyanide in Wastes. Subtask 3.4 deals with the aging behavior and solubilization of ferrocyanide tank waste sludges in a basic aqueous environment. Investigated were the effects of pH variation, ionic strength, salts present in SSTS, and gamma radiation on solubilization of vendor-prepared Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6].

  19. A systemic-wholistic approach to differential aging: longitudinal findings from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui; Baltes, Paul B

    2006-12-01

    Wholistic perspectives on differential change focus on multiple-indicator information at a person level. They supplement the modeling of average trajectories at a variable level. The authors extended cross-sectional work in the Berlin Aging Study (J. Smith & P. B. Baltes, 1997) to 6-year longitudinal cluster analyses (n = 132). At baseline, 3 subgroups were identified with distinct within-person psychological profiles across cognitive, personality, and social integration constructs. Over time, highly similar subgroup profiles were found, and about two thirds of the participants could be classified as remaining in the same subgroups. Baseline subgroups differed in level and slope of change and in 2 outcomes, well-being and mortality. Independent of subgroup membership, subgroup-to-subgroup change was associated with greater decline and predicted poststudy mortality. These findings demonstrate the usefulness of a wholistic approach for long-term prediction of outcomes and within-person systemic variability.

  20. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  1. The fate of cognition in very old age: six-year longitudinal findings in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Singer, Tania; Verhaeghen, Paul; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    The authors report full-information longitudinal age gradients in 4 intellectual abilities on the basis of 6-year longitudinal changes in 132 individuals (mean age at T1 = 78.27, age range = 70-100) from the Berlin Aging Study. Relative to the cross-sectional parent sample (N = 516, mean age at T1 = 84.92 years), this sample was positively selected because of differential mortality and experimental attrition. Perceptual speed, memory, and fluency declined with age. In contrast, knowledge remained stable up to age 90, with evidence for decline thereafter. Age gradients were more negative in old old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 83.04) than in old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 73.77) participants. Rates of decline did not differ reliably between men and women or between participants with high versus low life-history status. They conclude that intellectual development after age 70 varies by distance to death, age, and intellectual ability domain.

  2. Phase II study of the effectiveness and safety of trastuzumab and paclitaxel for taxane‐ and trastuzumab‐naïve patients with HER2‐positive, previously treated, advanced, or recurrent gastric cancer (JFMC45‐1102)

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Miki, Akira; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Nishida, Yasunori; Iwasa, Satoru; Miwa, Hiroto; Masuishi, Toshiki; Boku, Narikazu; Yamada, Yasuhide; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard second‐line gastric cancer treatment in Japan. Trastuzumab could be active as second‐line chemotherapy for taxane/trastuzumab‐naïve patients with epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)‐positive advanced gastric cancer. Patients aged ≥20 years with HER2‐positive, previously treated (except for trastuzumab and taxane), unresectable or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma underwent combined trastuzumab (first and subsequent doses of 8 and 6 mg kg−1, respectively, every 3 weeks) and paclitaxel (days 1, 8, 15, every 4 weeks) treatment. Study endpoints were best overall response, progression‐free survival, overall survival, and safety. From September 2011 to March 2012, 47 Japanese patients were enrolled. Forty patients discontinued treatment after a median of 128.5 (range 4–486) days. Complete and partial responses were obtained in one and 16 patients (response rate of 37% [95% CI 23–52]), respectively. Median progression‐free survival and overall survival were 5.1 (95% CI 3.8–6.5) and 17.1 (95% CI 13.5–18.6) months, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (32.6%), leukopenia (17.4%), anemia (15.2%) and hypoalbuminemia (8.7%). There was no clinically significant cardiotoxicity or cumulative toxicity. Three (disturbed consciousness, pulmonary fibrosis, and rapid disease progression) grade 5 events occurred. In conclusion, trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel was well tolerated and was a promising regimen for patients with HER2‐positive, previously treated, advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. PMID:27521503

  3. CATCOM catalyst 5 atm 1000 hour aging study using No. 2 fuel oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgerby, I. T.; Olson, B. A.; Lee, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    The durability of the CATCOM catalyst for use in catalytically supported thermal combustion has been demonstrated at 5 atm, complementing a previous 1000 hour durability study at 1 atm. Both of these studies were conducted at about 640 K air preheat temperature at a reference velocity of about 14 m/s; the adiabatic flame temperature of the fuel/air mixture was about 1530 K. The catalyst proved to be capable of low emissions operations after 1000 hours of diesel fuel aging. However, more severe deactivation occurred in the 5 atm test; this was attributed to a loss in kinetic (ignition) activity.

  4. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  5. Multicentre phase II pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of OSI-7904L in previously untreated patients with advanced gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, S; Anthoney, A; Eatock, M; Van Cutsem, E; Chick, J; Glen, H; Valle, J W; Drolet, D W; Albert, D; Ferry, D; Ajani, J

    2006-08-21

    A two-stage Simon design was used to evaluate the response rate of OSI-7904L, a liposome encapsulated thymidylate synthase inhibitor, in advanced gastric and/or gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (A-G/GEJA), administered intravenously at 12 mg m(-2) over 30 min every 21 days. Fifty patients were treated. Median age was 64 years (range 35-82), 62% were male and 89% had ECOG PS of 0/1. A total of 252 cycles were administered; median of 4 per patient (range 1-21). Twelve patients required dose reductions, mainly for skin toxicity. Investigator assessed response rate was 17.4% (95% CI 7.8-31.4) with one complete and seven partial responses in 46 evaluable patients. Twenty-one patients (42%) had stable disease. Median time to progression and survival were 12.4 and 36.9 weeks, respectively. NCI CTCAE Grade 3/4 neutropenia (14%) and thrombocytopenia (4%) were uncommon. The main G3/4 nonhaematological toxicities were skin-related 22%, stomatitis 14%, fatigue/lethargy 10%, and diarrhea 8%. Pharmacokinetic data showed high interpatient variability. Patients with higher AUC were more likely to experience G3/4 toxicity during cycle 1 while baseline homocysteine did not predict toxicity. Response did not correlate with AUC. Elevations in 2'-dU were observed indicating target inhibition. Analysis of TS genotype, TS protein and expression did not reveal any correlation with outcome. OSI-7904L has activity in A-G/GEJA similar to other active agents and an acceptable safety profile.

  6. Extensive occupational finger use delays age effects in tactile perception-an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Winneke, Axel H; Godde, Ben

    2014-05-01

    Tactile expertise, resulting from extensive use of hands, has previously been shown to improve tactile perception in blind people and musicians and to be associated with changes in the central processing of tactile information. This study investigated whether expertise, due to precise and deliberate use of the fingers at work, relates to improved tactile perception and whether this expertise interacts with age. A tactile pattern and a frequency discrimination task were conducted while ERPs were measured in experts and nonexperts of two age groups within middle adulthood. Independently of age, accuracy was better in experts than in nonexperts in both tasks. Somatosensory N70 amplitudes were larger with increasing age and for experts than for nonexperts. P100 amplitudes were smaller in experts than in nonexperts in the frequency discrimination task. In the pattern discrimination task, P300 difference wave amplitude was reduced in experts and late middle-aged adults. In the frequency discrimination task, P300 was more equally distributed in late middle-aged adults. We conclude that extensive, dexterous manual work leads to acquisition of tactile expertise and that this expertise might delay, but not counteract, age effects on tactile perception. Comparable neurophysiological changes induced by age and expertise presumably have different underlying mechanisms. Enlarged somatosensory N70 amplitudes might result from reduced inhibition in older adults but from enhanced, specific excitability of the somatosensory cortex in experts. Regarding P300, smaller amplitudes might indicate fewer available resources in older adults and, by contrast, a reduced need to engage as much cognitive effort to the task in experts.

  7. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  8. Pressurized-water reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I study on the effects of aging degradations on pr internals. Primary stressers for internals an generated by the primary coolant flow in the they include unsteady hydrodynamic forces and pump-generated pressure pulsations. Other stressors are applied loads, manufacturing processes, impurities in the coolant and exposures to fast neutron fluxes. A survey of reported aging-related failure information indicates that fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and mechanical wear are the three major aging-related degradation mechanisms for PWR internals. Significant reported failures include thermal shield flow-induced vibration problems, SCC in guide tube support pins and core support structure bolts, fatigue-induced core baffle water-jet impingement problems and excess wear in flux thimbles. Many of the reported problems have been resolved by accepted engineering practices. Uncertainties remain in the assessment of long-term neutron irradiation effects and environmental factors in high-cycle fatigue failures. Reactor internals are examined by visual inspections and the technique is access limited. Improved inspection methods, especially one with an early failure detection capability, can enhance the safety and efficiency of reactor operations.

  9. Boiling-Water Reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of an aging assessment study for boiling water reactor (BWR) internals. Major stressors for BWR internals are related to unsteady hydrodynamic forces generated by the primary coolant flow in the reactor vessel. Welding and cold-working, dissolved oxygen and impurities in the coolant, applied loads and exposures to fast neutron fluxes are other important stressors. Based on results of a component failure information survey, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue are identified as the two major aging-related degradation mechanisms for BWR internals. Significant reported failures include SCC in jet-pump holddown beams, in-core neutron flux monitor dry tubes and core spray spargers. Fatigue failures were detected in feedwater spargers. The implementation of a plant Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) program is considered as a promising method for controlling SCC problems in BWR. More operating data are needed to evaluate its effectiveness for internal components. Long-term fast neutron irradiation effects and high-cycle fatigue in a corrosive environment are uncertainty factors in the aging assessment process. BWR internals are examined by visual inspections and the method is access limited. The presence of a large water gap and an absence of ex-core neutron flux monitors may handicap the use of advanced inspection methods, such as neutron noise vibration measurements, for BWR.

  10. Aging in mouse and human systems: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, Lloyd

    2006-05-01

    This article discusses the significance of mouse models as a basis for elucidating the aging process in humans. We identify certain parallels between mouse and human systems and review the theoretical and empirical support for the claim that the large divergence in the rate of aging between the two species resides in differences in the stability of their metabolic networks. We will show that these differences in metabolic stability have their origin in the different ecological constraints the species experience during their evolutionary history. We exploit these ideas to compare the effect of caloric restriction on murine and human systems. The studies predict that the large increases in mean life span and maximum life-span potential observed in laboratory rodents subject to caloric restriction will not obtain in human populations. We predict that, in view of the different metabolic stability of the two systems, caloric restriction will have no effect on the maximum life-span potential of humans, and a relatively minor effect on the mean life span of nonobese populations. This article thus points to certain intrinsic limitations in the use of mouse models in elucidating the aging process in humans. We furthermore contend the view that these limitations can be mitigated by considering the metabolic stability of the two species.

  11. 2012 ACCOMPLISHMENTS - TRITIUM AGING STUDIES ON STAINLESS STEELS

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, M.

    2013-01-31

    This report summarizes the research and development accomplishments during FY12 for the tritium effects on materials program. The tritium effects on materials program is designed to measure the long-term effects of tritium and its radioactive decay product, helium-3, on the structural properties of forged stainless steels which are used as the materials of construction for tritium reservoirs. The FY12 R&D accomplishments include: (1) Fabricated and Thermally-Charged 150 Forged Stainless Steel Samples with Tritium for Future Aging Studies; (2) Developed an Experimental Plan for Measuring Cracking Thresholds of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Steels in High Pressure Hydrogen Gas; (3) Calculated Sample Tritium Contents For Laboratory Inventory Requirements and Environmental Release Estimates; (4) Published report on “Cracking Thresholds and Fracture Toughness Properties of Tritium-Charged-and-Aged Stainless Steels”; and, (5) Published report on “The Effects of Hydrogen, Tritium, and Heat Treatment on the Deformation and Fracture Toughness Properties of Stainless Steels”. These accomplishments are highlighted here and references given to additional reports for more detailed information.

  12. A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…

  13. Aging and low back pain among exercise participants: a follow-up study with psychological adaptation factors.

    PubMed

    Wilks, Scott E; Kadivar, Zahra; Guillory, Stephen A; Isaza, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    This study is a follow-up to a study previously published in this journal that reported the moderating function of exercise exertion amid the relationship between age and low back pain (LBP) among consistent exercise participants. The current study analyzed factors of psychological adaptation as potential mediators within the age--LBP relationship. Measures of psychological adaptation included psychological vulnerability, avoidant coping, resilient coping, and perceived resilience. The sample reported slightly moderate psychological vulnerability; a moderate extent of avoidant coping and resilient coping; and high resilience. Age inversely correlated with psychological vulnerability and avoidance coping. LBP correlated inversely with avoidant coping. Avoidant coping positively mediated (enhanced) age's effect on LBP. Results from this follow-up analysis highlight the importance of understanding and testing psychological factors in models with age and a physical health outcome.

  14. Methylome-wide association study of whole blood DNA in the Norfolk Island isolate identifies robust loci associated with age.

    PubMed

    Benton, Miles C; Sutherland, Heidi G; Macartney-Coxson, Donia; Haupt, Larisa M; Lea, Rodney A; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2017-02-28

    Epigenetic regulation of various genomic functions, including gene expression, provide mechanisms whereby an organism can dynamically respond to changes in its environment and modify gene expression accordingly. One epigenetic mechanism implicated in human aging and age-related disorders is DNA methylation. Isolated populations such as Norfolk Island (NI) should be advantageous for the identification of epigenetic factors related to aging due to reduced genetic and environmental variation. Here we conducted a methylome-wide association study of age using whole blood DNA in 24 healthy female individuals from the NI genetic isolate (aged 24-47 years). We analysed 450K methylation array data using a machine learning approach (GLMnet) to identify age-associated CpGs. We identified 497 CpG sites, mapping to 422 genes, associated with age, with 11 sites previously associated with age. The strongest associations identified were for a single CpG site in MYOF and an extended region within the promoter of DDO. These hits were validated in curated public data from 2316 blood samples (MARMAL-AID). This study is the first to report robust age associations for MYOF and DDO, both of which have plausible functional roles in aging. This study also illustrates the value of genetic isolates to reveal new associations with epigenome-level data.

  15. Putting age-related task activation into large-scale brain networks: A meta-analysis of 114 fMRI studies on healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Jie; Hou, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Han-Hui; Yue, Chun-Lin; Lu, Guang-Ming; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    Normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and underlying brain dysfunction. Previous studies concentrated less on brain network changes at a systems level. Our goal was to examine these age-related changes of fMRI-derived activation with a common network parcellation of the human brain function, offering a systems-neuroscience perspective of healthy aging. We conducted a series of meta-analyses on a total of 114 studies that included 2035 older adults and 1845 young adults. Voxels showing significant age-related changes in activation were then overlaid onto seven commonly referenced neuronal networks. Older adults present moderate cognitive decline in behavioral performance during fMRI scanning, and hypo-activate the visual network and hyper-activate both the frontoparietal control and default mode networks. The degree of increased activation in frontoparietal network was associated with behavioral performance in older adults. Age-related changes in activation present different network patterns across cognitive domains. The systems neuroscience approach used here may be useful for elucidating the underlying network mechanisms of various brain plasticity processes during healthy aging.

  16. Age adjustment in ecological studies: using a study on arsenic ingestion and bladder cancer as an example

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite its limitations, ecological study design is widely applied in epidemiology. In most cases, adjustment for age is necessary, but different methods may lead to different conclusions. To compare three methods of age adjustment, a study on the associations between arsenic in drinking water and incidence of bladder cancer in 243 townships in Taiwan was used as an example. Methods A total of 3068 cases of bladder cancer, including 2276 men and 792 women, were identified during a ten-year study period in the study townships. Three methods were applied to analyze the same data set on the ten-year study period. The first (Direct Method) applied direct standardization to obtain standardized incidence rate and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis. The second (Indirect Method) applied indirect standardization to obtain standardized incidence ratio and then used it as the dependent variable in the regression analysis instead. The third (Variable Method) used proportions of residents in different age groups as a part of the independent variables in the multiple regression models. Results All three methods showed a statistically significant positive association between arsenic exposure above 0.64 mg/L and incidence of bladder cancer in men and women, but different results were observed for the other exposure categories. In addition, the risk estimates obtained by different methods for the same exposure category were all different. Conclusions Using an empirical example, the current study confirmed the argument made by other researchers previously that whereas the three different methods of age adjustment may lead to different conclusions, only the third approach can obtain unbiased estimates of the risks. The third method can also generate estimates of the risk associated with each age group, but the other two are unable to evaluate the effects of age directly. PMID:22014275

  17. Questions for future studies: social relationships in old age.

    PubMed

    Troll, L E

    1999-01-01

    It is impressive, not to mention refreshing, to see four careful, weighty studies on social relationships that are not primarily concerned with caregiving. The fact that they are both longitudinal and cross-cultural makes them even more impressive and highlights general issues in the area of social relationships as well as more specific issues of aging. Four issues seem to me to be notable: 1) kinds of relationships, 2) continuity of relationships, 3) functions of relationships, and 4) cultural differences. I will consider each in turn.

  18. Parabiosis for the study of age-related chronic disease

    PubMed Central

    Eggel, Alexander; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Summary Modern medicine wields the power to treat large numbers of diseases and injuries most of us would have died from just a hundred years ago. In view of this tremendous achievement, it can seem as if progress has slowed, and we have been unable to impact the most devastating diseases of our time. Chronic diseases of age such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, or Alzheimer’s disease turn out to be of a complexity that may require transformative ideas and paradigms to understand and treat them. Parabiosis, which mimics aspects of the naturally occurring shared blood supply in conjoined twins in humans and certain animals, may just have the power to be such a transformative experimental paradigm. Forgotten and now shunned in many countries, it has contributed to major breakthroughs in tumor biology, endocrinology, and transplantation research in the past century, and a set of new studies in the US and Britain report stunning advances in stem cell biology and tissue regeneration using parabiosis between young and old mice. We review here briefly the history of parabiosis and discuss its utility to study physiological and pathophysiological processes. We argue that parabiosis is a technique that should enjoy wider acceptance and application, and that policies should be revisited especially if one is to study complex age-related, chronic disorders. PMID:24496774

  19. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  20. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  1. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kaliner, Michael A; Baraniuk, James N; Benninger, Michael S; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli O; Naclerio, Robert M; Settipane, Russell A; Farrar, Judith R

    2009-08-15

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise.

  2. Teachers' and Pupils' Behavior in Large and Small Classes: A Systematic Observation Study of Pupils Aged 10 and 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined class size effects on teacher-pupil interactions, pupil engagement, and pupil-pupil interaction. They extended previous research by recognizing the hierarchical nature of observation data and the possible influence of other variables. The study used a time sampling method involving 257 children (aged 10-11 years) in 16 small…

  3. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  4. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Machín, Rubén P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case-control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action.

  5. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  6. Distinct age and self-rated health crossover mortality effects for African Americans: Evidence from a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Roth, David L; Skarupski, Kimberly A; Crews, Deidra C; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L

    2016-05-01

    The predictive effects of age and self-rated health (SRH) on all-cause mortality are known to differ across race and ethnic groups. African American adults have higher mortality rates than Whites at younger ages, but this mortality disparity diminishes with advancing age and may "crossover" at about 75-80 years of age, when African Americans may show lower mortality rates. This pattern of findings reflects a lower overall association between age and mortality for African Americans than for Whites, and health-related mechanisms are typically cited as the reason for this age-based crossover mortality effect. However, a lower association between poor SRH and mortality has also been found for African Americans than for Whites, and it is not known if the reduced age and SRH associations with mortality for African Americans reflect independent or overlapping mechanisms. This study examined these two mortality predictors simultaneously in a large epidemiological study of 12,181 African Americans and 17,436 Whites. Participants were 45 or more years of age when they enrolled in the national REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study between 2003 and 2007. Consistent with previous studies, African Americans had poorer SRH than Whites even after adjusting for demographic and health history covariates. Survival analysis models indicated statistically significant and independent race*age, race*SRH, and age*SRH interaction effects on all-cause mortality over an average 9-year follow-up period. Advanced age and poorer SRH were both weaker mortality risk factors for African Americans than for Whites. These two effects were distinct and presumably tapped different causal mechanisms. This calls into question the health-related explanation for the age-based mortality crossover effect and suggests that other mechanisms, including behavioral, social, and cultural factors, should be considered in efforts to better understand the age-based mortality

  7. The Effects of a Second-Grade Social Studies Curriculum Infused with Positive Aging Concepts on Children's Attitudes towards Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembacher, Diane; Cruise, Mary J.

    2006-01-01

    As the number of elderly people in our society increases, it becomes especially important for children to develop positive attitudes towards elders and towards their own aging. The American Association for Health Education has recommended the infusion of positive aging concepts in the K-12 curriculum. This qualitative study investigated the…

  8. The New World and the New Frontier: Studying the Age of Exploration and the Space Age with Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzer, Penelope; Ploger, Don

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a social studies classroom unit for use with elementary students. Focuses on comparing the age of exploration and space age exploration. Provides background information on both explorations and compares the similarities and differences between the two. Includes suggestions and questions for using this interdisciplinary approach. (CMK)

  9. Supercritical fractions as asphalt recycling agents and preliminary aging studies on recycled asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, J.M.; Liu, M.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Bullin, J.A.

    1997-03-01

    Several asphalts were fractionated using supercritical pentane. These fractions were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, and their viscosities were measured. The properties of these fractions vary not only among the fractions of a given asphalt but also for the same fraction produced from different asphalts. These widely varied fractions previously have been shown to have potential for reblending to produce superior asphalts. This study investigates the potential for using some of the fractions as asphalt recycling agents. A modified strategic highway research program (SHRP) pressure aging vessel (PAV) test and kinetics studies were conducted on nine recycled asphalts and the original asphalt. The aging indexes of eight of the recycled asphalts are superior to the aging index of the original asphalt. Two of the blends using industrial supercritical fractions and the three blends using laboratory supercritical fractions have lower aging indexes than blends using commercial recycling agents. The kinetics investigation also indicates that at road conditions the recycled asphalts will harden more slowly than the original asphalt. The degree of hardening for a given amount of oxidation in the recycled binders was found to be a strong function of the total saturate content in the recycled binder.

  10. Phase II and Coagulation Cascade Biomarker Study of Bevacizumab with or without Docetaxel in Patients with Previously Treated Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Astsaturov, Igor A.; Meropol, Neal J.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Burtness, Barbara A.; Cheng, Jonathan D.; McLaughlin, Sue; Rogatko, André; Xu, Zhiheng; Watson, James C.; Weiner, Louis M.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Treatment options are limited for advanced pancreatic cancer progressive after gemcitabine therapy. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is biologically important in pancreatic cancer, and docetaxel has modest anti-tumor activity. We evaluated the role of the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab as second-line treatment for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Design Patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who had progressive disease on a gemcitabine-containing regimen were randomized to receive bevacizumab alone or bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled; 16 to bevacizumab alone (Arm A) and 16 to bevacizumab plus docetaxel (Arm B). Toxicities were greater in Arm B with the most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities including fatigue, diarrhea, dehydration and anorexia. No confirmed objective responses were observed. At 4 months, 2/16 patients in Arm A and 3/16 in Arm B were free from progression. The study was stopped according to the early stopping rule for futility. Median PFS and OS were 43 days and 165 days in Arm A and 48 days and 125 days in Arm B. Elevated D-dimer levels and thrombin-antithrombin complexes were associated with decreased survival and increased toxicity. Conclusion Bevacizumab with or without docetaxel does not have antitumor activity in gemcitabine-refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer. Baseline and on-treatment D-dimer and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels are associated with increased toxicity and decreased survival. PMID:20458210

  11. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  12. Aging gracefully: a comparative study of Japanese and Malaysian women aged 65-75.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jin Kuan; Yap, Yuet Ngor

    2014-12-01

    Longer lives and extended retirement have created a 'young old age' stage of life. How people spend their "young old age" has become increasingly important. This research aims to investigate the different ageing experiences of Japanese and Malaysian women and the activities they engaged in their "young old age". In-depth interviews were conducted to collect data and an adapted grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Findings reveal many common characteristics for both groups of research participants. The emerging themes show that Japanese and Malaysian Chinese have different life missions evident in their daily activities, one passing on culture and the other passing on family values and life experience. They also differ in their choice of living arrangement (independent versus dependent/interdependent), attitudes to life (fighting versus accepting) and activities in which to engage (aesthetic pursuits versus family oriented activities).

  13. A Phase II study of trabectedin single agent in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer previously treated with platinum-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    Krasner, C N; McMeekin, D S; Chan, S; Braly, P S; Renshaw, F G; Kaye, S; Provencher, D M; Campos, S; Gore, M E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the objective response rate in patients with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer to treatment with trabectedin (Yondelis®) administered as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. We carried out a multicentre Phase II trial of trabectedin in patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer. Trabectedin (0.58 mg m−2) was administered via a central line, after premedication with dexamethasone, to 147 patients as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1-week rest. Major eligibility criteria included measurable relapsed advanced ovarian cancer and not more than two prior platinum-containing regimens. Patients were stratified according to the treatment-free interval (TFI) between having either platinum-sensitive (⩾6 months TFI) or platinum-resistant disease (<6 months TFI)/platinum-refractory disease (progression during first line therapy). In the platinum-sensitive cohort, 62 evaluable patients with measurable disease had an overall response rate (ORR) of 29.0% (95% CI: 18.2–41.9%) and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–6.2). Four patients with measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. In the platinum-resistant/refractory cohort, 79 patients were evaluable with an ORR of 6.3% (95% CI: 2.1–14.2%). Median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.7–3.5 months). Two patients with measurable disease per RECIST criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. The most frequent (⩾2% of patients) drug-related treatment-emergent grade 3/4 adverse events were reversible liver alanine transferase elevation (10%), neutropaenia (8%), nausea, vomiting, and fatigue (5% each). Trabectedin is an active treatment, with documented responses in patients with platinum sensitive advanced relapsed ovarian cancer, and has a manageable toxicity profile. PMID

  14. Previous blood pressure measurement and associated factors in student adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Marina Gabriella Pereira de Andrada; Farah, Breno Quintella; de Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify prevalence of previous blood pressure measurement and analyze some associated factors in adolescents. Methods This cross-sectional study included 6,077 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years. Demographic characteristics included (sex, age, period of study, region of residence, work, skin color, and economic) status, history of blood pressure measurement within last 12 months, local of blood pressure measurement, and reading obtained. To assess associations between previous blood pressure measurement with demographic characteristics and high blood pressure we used descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results Out of the adolescents, 56.8% reported no blood pressure measurement within the last 12 months. The health centers and the physician’s office were most mentioned places for blood pressure measurement (28.3% and 36.9%, respectively). Boys (odds ratio of 1.64 95%CI: 1.46-1.84) aged 14 to 16 years (odds ratio of 1.12; 95%CI: 1.01-1.25), whose economic status was unfavorable (odds ratio of 1.48; 95%CI: 1.32-1.67) were significantly associated with no blood pressure measurement. Working was a protective factor for was not blood pressure measurement (odds ratio of 0.84; 95%CI: 0.73-0.97). Conclusion Most of adolescents did not have their blood pressure measured within the last 12 months. Boys aged 14 to 16 years and those with unfavorable economic status had higher chance of not having their blood pressure measured. PMID:26466061

  15. Preclinical cognitive decline in late middle-aged asymptomatic apolipoprotein E-e4/4 homozygotes: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Caselli, R J; Osborne, D; Reiman, E M; Hentz, J G; Barbieri, C J; Saunders, A M; Hardy, J; Graff-Radford, N R; Hall, G R; Alexander, G E

    2001-08-15

    In a previous cross-sectional study of 100 asymptomatic individuals aged 49-69, we reported age-related decline in immediate and delayed memory that was steeper in apolipoprotein E (apoE)-e4/4 homozygotes than in members of other genetic subgroups. These findings were preliminarily based upon the statistical problem of multiple comparisons. We therefore sought to replicate these findings in a new cohort. From 1998 to 2000, 80 asymptomatic residents of Maricopa County, AZ were recruited through newspaper ads. 20 apoE-e4/4 homozygotes, 20 e3/4 heterozygotes, and 40 e4 noncarriers were matched (1:1:2) by age, gender, and years of education. All had normal neurologic and psychiatric examinations, including Folstein minimental status exam (MMSE) and Hamilton depression scale, and underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests identical to those in our previous study. The groups were well-matched for age (55.9+/-5.9 years), gender (60% women), and education (15.9+/-2.2 years), and were demographically similar to our previous cohort. Complex figure test recall was lower in e3/4 heterozygotes than noncarriers, but there was no significant difference between e4/4 homozygotes and noncarriers. There were no other significant differences in mean test scores between groups, but Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R) digit span showed a significant negative correlation with age in the e4/4 homozygote group relative to e4 noncarriers (p=0.008) as we had found in our previous study. In conclusion, we found a significant negative correlation of WAIS-R digit span with age in apoE-e4/4 homozygotes relative to e4 noncarriers in two separate cohorts, possibly reflecting an age-related effect on frontal lobe function in this genetic subgroup.

  16. Experimental Approaches to the Study of Epigenomic Dysregulation in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Reid F.; Fazzari, Melissa J.; Greally, John M.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we describe how normal ageing may involve the acquisition of epigenetic errors over time, akin to the accumulation of genetic mutations with ageing. We describe how such experiments are currently performed, their limitations technically and analytically and their application to ageing research. PMID:20060885

  17. Early Neurodevelopmental Findings Predict School Age Cognitive Abilities in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Chieffo, Daniela; Brogna, Claudia; Berardinelli, Angela; D’Angelo, Grazia; Mallardi, Maria; D’Amico, Adele; Alfieri, Paolo; Mercuri, Eugenio; Pane, Marika

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental and cognitive difficulties are known to occur frequently in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy but so far none of the published studies have reported both early neurodevelopmental assessments and cognitive tests in the same cohort. The aim of the present longitudinal study was to establish the correlation between early neurodevelopmental assessments performed in preschool boys and the cognitive scales performed at school age or later. Methods We performed cognitive tests at school age (mean age 5.7 year ±1.7 SD) (69 months+19 SD) in a cohort of Duchenne boys, previously assessed using the Griffiths scales before the age of 4 years (mean age when the Griffiths scales were performed 30 months ±8.9 SD). Results The range of total Developmental quotients on the Griffiths ranged between 56 and 116 (mean 89 ± 15.6 SD). The total Intelligence Quotients on the Wechsler scales ranged between 35 and 119 (mean 87 ± 17.2 SD). There was a significant correlation between the findings on the two scales. P = <0.0001. When we subdivided the cohort according to site of mutations, there was a difference between boys with mutations upstream exon 44 and those with mutations in exon 44–45 affecting Dp140 on both Developmental and Intelligence Quotient (p 0.01 and p 0,003 respectively). Conclusions Our results confirm that Duchenne boys tend to slightly underperform on both neurodevelopmental and cognitive assessments. Early neurodevelopmental findings correlated with the cognitive results obtained at school age with a clear concordance between subscales exploring similar domains on the two scales. PMID:26275215

  18. Health-related behaviour in relation to transition into age retirement: An observational study based on HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Øverland, Simon; Knudsen, Ann K

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In western countries, more years are being spent in age retirement. The transition phase into age retirement may be important for physical and mental health in the years following retirement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether age retirement is associated with changes in the level of physical activity, smoking habits and alcohol habits. Design Using data on self-reported health-related behaviour from a population-based study (The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3)) linked to registry data on age retirement, participants who retired within two years prior to and two years after participating in the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (N = 2,197) were compared. Participants A total of 2,197 participants were included. Setting Population-based study in Norway. Main outcome measures Registry data on age retirement. Results No systematic differences in alcohol consumption, smoking or physical activity over the strata defined by time before or after age retirement were identified. Conclusion The current and previous findings do not suggest that transition into age retirement changes health-related behaviours. However, there is probably merit in investigating complicating factors related to the retirement process, such as degree of voluntariness, as these factors may influence the impact of age retirement on health behaviours. PMID:28050257

  19. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E.; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Context  Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. Objective  To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Preparticipation physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Results  Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Conclusions  Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the

  20. Critical study of Jara (aging) and its management.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Nisha; Vyas, Mahesh; Vyas, Hitesh

    2012-04-01

    Jara Avastha (stage of old age) is the later phase of life in which maximum decline of bodily elements is observed. Paramanuvibhaga (cell division) takes place at every moment; particularly in old age, it will be fast in comparison with other phases of life. Some organ related changes also take place during this period, which are the decades of Balya, Vridhhi, Chhavi, Medha, Twak, etc., In this study, applied aspects of Medha Hani, Twak Hani, and Drishti Hani were evaluated subjectively as well as objectively. Patients were selected from the OPD of Department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, irrespective of their sex, caste, religion, etc., and randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group A were treated with Panchagavya Ghrita and Group B with plain Go Ghrita for 90 days and the dose of drug was 10 g/day at Nirannakala (early morning with empty stomach). Both groups showed significant results, the difference in between the groups is statistically insignificant.

  1. Critical study of Jara (aging) and its management

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Nisha; Vyas, Mahesh; Vyas, Hitesh

    2012-01-01

    Jara Avastha (stage of old age) is the later phase of life in which maximum decline of bodily elements is observed. Paramanuvibhaga (cell division) takes place at every moment; particularly in old age, it will be fast in comparison with other phases of life. Some organ related changes also take place during this period, which are the decades of Balya, Vridhhi, Chhavi, Medha, Twak, etc., In this study, applied aspects of Medha Hani, Twak Hani, and Drishti Hani were evaluated subjectively as well as objectively. Patients were selected from the OPD of Department of Basic Principles, I.P.G.T. and R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, irrespective of their sex, caste, religion, etc., and randomly divided into two groups. Patients in Group A were treated with Panchagavya Ghrita and Group B with plain Go Ghrita for 90 days and the dose of drug was 10 g/day at Nirannakala (early morning with empty stomach). Both groups showed significant results, the difference in between the groups is statistically insignificant. PMID:23559801

  2. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.

  3. Is body mass index in old age related to cognitive abilities? The Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study.

    PubMed

    Corley, Janie; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2010-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the previously reported association between a higher body mass index (BMI) and poorer cognition in later adulthood is an artifact of confounding by previous cognitive ability and socioeconomic status. Participants were 1,079 adults aged about 70 years in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study, on whom there are IQ data from age 11. Cognitive outcome measures included: IQ at age 70 using the same test that was administered at age 11; composite measures of general cognitive ability (g factor), speed of information processing, and memory; and two tests of verbal ability. People classified as overweight or obese in later adulthood had significantly lower scores on tests of childhood IQ, age 70 IQ, g factor, and verbal ability. There was no significant association with processing speed or memory performance. After adjusting for childhood IQ and social class in general linear models, associations with age 70 IQ and g factor were nonsignificant or attenuated. However, throughout the models, there was a persistent (inverse) relationship between BMI and performance on the National Adult Reading Test (NART) and Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), which remained significant after full adjustment for all sociodemographic and health covariates (for the NART, p = .025; for the WTAR, p = .011). The findings suggest that the previously reported BMI-cognition associations in later adulthood could be largely accounted for by prior ability and socioeconomic status, and by the possible influence of these factors on the adoption of health behaviors in adulthood.

  4. Apolipoprotein E gene associations in age-related macular degeneration: the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Madeleine K M; Simpson, Julie A; Richardson, Andrea J; English, Dallas R; Aung, Khin Zaw; Makeyeva, Galina A; Guymer, Robyn H; Giles, Graham G; Hopper, John; Robman, Liubov D; Baird, Paul N

    2012-03-15

    The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) has been found to be associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Reported associations have been questioned, as they are opposite those for Alzheimer's disease and cardiovascular disease. The authors examined associations between APOE genotype and AMD using a case-control study (2,287 cases and 2,287 controls individually matched on age, sex, and country of origin) nested within Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study participants aged 48-86 years at AMD detection. The odds ratio for early AMD among participants with ε2-containing genotypes (ε2ε2/ε2ε3/ε2ε4) was 1.32 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.58; P = 0.002) versus persons with genotype ε3ε3. Associations with early AMD varied by smoking status; ε2-containing genotypes were positively associated with early AMD for never and previous smokers (never smokers: odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.76 (P = 0.003); previous smokers: OR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.93 (P = 0.05)) but not for current smokers (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.34, 1.30 (P = 0.2; interaction P = 0.05). The ε4-containing genotype group (ε3ε4/ε4ε4) had an inverse association with early AMD among current smokers only (OR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.77 (P = 0.005)). These results highlight the importance of stratifying by smoking status in elderly populations. Smokers who survive to old age may be more likely to possess unknown genotypes which modify exposure-disease associations.

  5. Adopted cognitive tests for gerbils: validation by studying ageing and ischemia.

    PubMed

    Wappler, Edina A; Szilágyi, Géza; Gál, Anikó; Skopál, Judit; Nyakas, Csaba; Nagy, Zoltán; Felszeghy, Klára

    2009-04-20

    Transient occlusion of common carotid arteries in gerbils is a simple and widely used model for assessing histological and functional consequences of transient forebrain ischemia and neuroprotective action of pharmaceuticals. In the present study we aimed to introduce additional behavioural tests as novel object recognition and food-motivated hole-board learning in order to measure attention and learning capacity in gerbils. For validating these cognitive tests the effects of ageing (4, 9 and 18 months) and those of transient forebrain ischemia induced by bilateral carotid occlusion at 9 months of age were investigated. Neuronal cell death was estimated in the hippocampus using TUNEL and caspase-3 double fluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy. Ageing within the selected range although influenced ambulatory activity, did not considerably change attention and memory functions of gerbils. As a result of transient ischemia a selective neuronal damage in CA1 and CA2 regions of the hippocampus has been observed and tested 4 days after the insult. Ischemic gerbils became hyperactive, but showed decreased attention and impaired spatial memory functions as compared to sham-operated controls. According to our results the novel object recognition paradigm and the hole-board spatial learning test could reliably be added to the battery of conventional behavioural tests applied previously in this species. The novel tests can be performed within a wide interval of adult age and provide useful additional methods for assessing ischemia-induced cognitive impairment in gerbils.

  6. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  7. Age and sexually dimorphic changes in costal cartilages. A preliminary microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Rejtarová, Olga; Hejna, Petr; Soukup, Tomás; Kuchar, Michal

    2009-12-15

    This study reports changes in costal cartilages that appear at the microscopic level throughout life, especially during the ossification process. The work builds on the results of our previous X-ray study, which confirmed the presence of two sexually dimorphic ossification patterns. This led to questions about the existence of additional sex-specific patterns that relate to the ossification process in costal cartilages. Samples of costal cartilages and adjacent parts of the bones were obtained from the autopsies of 17 corpses. The age range among the cadavers varied greatly, from a newborn baby to 91 years of age. Sections of costal cartilage were routinely processed and stained. Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected using histochemical methods. Collagens type II and X were detected immunohistochemically by monoclonal antibodies. The results of our study show that ossification of costal cartilages can take place in the form of two individual processes, localization and time-separate. Endochondral ossifications in the region of the costochondral zone appear in the first decade, and they correspond to ossifications detected by X-ray in the second decade. The location of sex-specific ossifications is determined by the penetration of cartilage canals into the metaphysial part of the rib. Endochondral intramembranous ossifications in the reserve zone appear after the third decade. These types of ossifications correspond to central globular ossifications detected by X-ray, and they are not sexually dimorphic. They can serve for accurate estimation of age.

  8. Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen M; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Takebayashi, Toru; Koyasu, Shigeo; Suematsu, Makoto; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99 years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe haematopoiesis, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, renal function, and cellular senescence domains. In Cox proportional hazard models, inflammation predicted all-cause mortality with hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.89 (1.21 to 2.95) and 1.36 (1.05 to 1.78) in the very old and (semi-)supercentenarians, respectively. In linear forward stepwise models, inflammation predicted capability (10.8% variance explained) and cognition (8(.)6% variance explained) in (semi-)supercentenarians better than chronologic age or gender. The inflammation score was also lower in centenarian offspring compared to age-matched controls with Δ (95% CI) = - 0.795 (- 1.436 to - 0.154). Centenarians and their offspring were able to maintain long telomeres, but telomere length was not a predictor of successful ageing in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians. We conclude that inflammation is an important malleable driver of ageing up to extreme old age in humans.

  9. Active Ageing and Active Citizenship in Liguria: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palumbo, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Liguria has the oldest age structure in Europe because of a low birth rate and long lifespans and therefore is a very interesting laboratory region in which to experiment with active ageing policies. The generations that are now approaching retirement hold a high level of personal and professional resources; so the "new" elderly people…

  10. Childhood bullying behaviors at age eight and substance use at age 18 among males. A nationwide prospective study.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, S; Brunstein-Klomek, A; Sillanmäki, L; Helenius, H; Piha, J; Kumpulainen, K; Moilanen, I; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F; Sourander, A

    2011-03-01

    Childhood bullying behaviors (bullying and victimization) were studied as risk factors for substance use among Finnish males. The study design was a nationwide prospective general population study, where information was collected in 1989 and 1999. Bullying behaviors and childhood psychopathology at age eight were collected from teachers, parents and boys themselves. At age 18, self-reports of frequent drunkenness (once a week or more often), daily heavy smoking (10 cigarettes or more per day), and illicit drug use during the past six months were obtained from 78% of the boys attending the study at age eight (n=2946). Being frequently victimized at age eight predicted daily heavy smoking, and this was evident even after adjusting for childhood family background, psychopathology at age eight and at age 18, and other forms of substance use. In multivariate analysis, bullying others frequently predicted illicit drug use, while being a victim of bullying associated with a lower occurrence of illicit drug use. Bullying behaviors had no association with frequent drunkenness independent of other factors. Accordingly, being a victim of bullying predisposes in particular to subsequent smoking. Bullying others in childhood can be regarded as an early indicator to illicit drug use later in life. The screening and intervention possibilities in order to recognize the risk group for later health compromising behaviors are emphasized.

  11. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  12. Age 60 Study, Part 2: Airline Pilot Age and Performance - A Review of the Scientific Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    accomplish the research objectives of Tasks 4 and 5 of the Age 60 Project, two preliminary steps must be taken. Step 1 is to develop a high -level...investigate an information processing model of pilot decision making that takes into account pilot experience and stress. They found that low and high ...the third of a year (grouping months 1, 4 , 7 and 10; months 2, 5, 8, and 11; and months 3, 6, 9, and 12) before computing accident rates. Then three

  13. Compatability and accelerated aging study for Li(Si)FeS2 thermally activated batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, R. L.; Mead, J. W.; Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. A.

    1982-04-01

    Thermally activated batteries using the Li(Si)/FeS2 system are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories. These components ae used in systems which require a storage life of 25 years and high reliability. A previous aging study was completed on this system, but no organic materials other than those in the electrical match and heat paper fuse strips were included. The present study incorporates all of the materials in the system, both organic and inorganic, except for the electric match and heat paper. There are two main parts in this study: (1) a compatibility study in which the four organic materials under investigation are placed in a hermetically sealed stainless steel container with battery components; (2) an aging study of pairs of material and individual materials in which one organic material is placed in a hermetically sealed stainless steel container with battery components. The compatibility study examines effects of some materials upon others (outgassing, etc.) which would cause degradation and/or functional failure.

  14. A large-scale candidate-gene association study of age at menarche and age at natural menopause

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Peter; Chasman, Daniel I.; Buring, Julie E.; Chen, Constance; Hankinson, Susan E.; Paré, Guillaume; Chanock, Stephen; Ridker, Paul M.; Hunter, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. However, the stringent significance threshold used in GWA studies potentially lead to false negatives and true associations may have been overlooked. Incorporating biologically relevant information, we examined whether common genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes of 9 groups of biologically plausible pathways and related phenotypes are associated with age at menarche and age at natural menopause. A total of 18,862 genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 278 genes were assessed for their associations with these two traits among a total of 24,341 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS, N=2,287) and the Women’s Genome Health Study (WGHS, N=22,054). Linear regression was used to assess the marginal association of each SNP with each phenotype. We adjusted for multiple testing within each gene to identify statistically significant SNP associations at the gene level. To evaluate the overall evidence for an excess of statistically significant gene associations over the proportion expected by chance, we applied a one-sample test of proportion to each group of candidate genes. The steroid-hormone metabolism and biosynthesis pathway was found significantly associated with both age at menarche and age at natural menopause (p=0.040 and 0.011, respectively). Additionally, the group of genes associated with precocious or delayed puberty was found significantly associated with age at menarche (p=0.013), and the group of genes involved in premature ovarian failure with age at menopause (p=0.025). PMID:20734064

  15. Muscle biopsy as a tool in the study of aging.

    PubMed

    Coggan, A R

    1995-11-01

    The needle biopsy procedure provides a minimally invasive means of obtaining small samples of skeletal muscle from human volunteers. Such samples can be used to examine a variety of structural and functional characteristics of muscle, including fiber type and size, capillarization, enzymatic capacities, energy substrate or protein/mRNA concentrations, metabolic responses, and contractile properties. In conjunction with other methods, biopsy sampling can also be used to estimate total muscle mass and fiber number, and to determine rates of protein synthesis and degradation. Optimal handling and storage conditions vary widely, but in general, most of the above measurements can be made using frozen tissue, so that samples can be stored almost indefinitely. The procedure is also safe and generally well-tolerated, making it possible to perform longitudinal studies of the same person. The biopsy technique is therefore well suited for examining the underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for muscle wasting in the elderly, as well as for assessing the effects of nutritional, hormonal, and/or lifestyle (e.g., exercise) interventions intended to combat this problem. Although sample size limitations have been largely overcome by the development of microtechniques, more information is needed on how to minimize the variability introduced by studying only a small fraction of the whole muscle. Studies are also required to determine whether it is sufficient to biopsy only one muscle (and if so, which is optimal), or whether there are differential effects of aging in various muscle groups that would preclude extrapolating from one muscle to all muscles in the body.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Drosophila geotaxis as a tool for the study of aging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnebel, Edgar M.; Hoffmann, R. Nicholas; Grossfield, Joe

    1988-01-01

    Age dependent changes in geotaxis profiles were examined in 27 wild-type populations of Drosophila, representing a diversity of species, semispecies and strains. In addition, four strains of D. melanogaster were tested. Tests were carried out at a minimum of three test ages, and involve the use of a calibrated, adjustable inclined plane that can be set at any angle between 0 and 85 deg. Among selected lines, decline in geotactic response occurs later in the long lived flies than in the controls. Longer lived flies continue to show an increase in negative geotactic response through age 14 days. These results suggest that common processes may be influencing the rate of decline in geotactic response and longevity. Further analysis of the mechanisms underlying age dependent changes in geotaxis may reveal factors which influence the aging process itself. The use of geotaxis aging markers in a broad range of Drosophila species reflecting varying degrees of genetic relatedness is proposed to test the universality vs. specificity of aging processes.

  17. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture—A phenomenographic study based on older persons’ lived experiences

    PubMed Central

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons’ quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons’ experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons’ qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: “being independent in dependence,” “being at peace,” and “being a valuable person.” This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people. PMID:26960686

  18. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year`s findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to {gamma} rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate.

  19. Color vision deficiency in a middle-aged population: the Shahroud Eye Study.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Hashemi, Hassan; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Mehravaran, Shiva; Shariati, Mohammad; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of color vision defects in the middle-age population of Shahroud, Iran. We selected 6,311 people from the 40- to 64-year-old population through random cluster sampling. Color vision testing was performed with the Farnsworth D-15. Cases with similar and symmetric results in both eyes were classified as hereditary, and those with asymmetric results were considered acquired. Cases that did not conform to standard patterns were classified as unknown category. Of 5,190 respondents (response rate 82.2 %), 5,102 participants underwent the color vision test. Of these, 14.7 % (95 % confidence interval 13.7-15.6) had some type of color vision deficiency. Of the 2,157 male participants, 6.2 % were hereditary and 10.2 % were acquired and of the 2,945 female participants, 3.1 % were hereditary and 10 % were acquired. Hereditary color deficiencies were mostly of the deutan form (63.8 %), and acquired deficiencies were mostly tritan (66.1 %). The prevalence of hereditary and acquired color vision deficiency, as well as different types of red-green and blue-yellow color vision defects significantly increased with age (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the pattern of color vision defects among the middle-aged population of Shahroud was significantly different from that seen in the younger population. This could be due to changes associated with age, gender, medical and ocular conditions, and differences in race and environment. Thus, results of previous examinations and the overall health status should be considered before making any judgment about the status of color vision in middle-aged people.

  20. Randomized Phase II Study of Cabazitaxel Versus Methotrexate in Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Previously Treated With Platinum-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Maanen, Aline; Vandenbulcke, Jean-Marie; Filleul, Bertrand; Seront, Emmanuel; D’Hondt, Lionel; Lonchay, Christophe; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Boegner, Petra; Brohee, Dany; Dequanter, Didier; Louviaux, Ingrid; Sautois, Brieuc; Whenham, Nicolas; Berchem, Guy; Vanderschueren, Brigitte; Fontaine, Christel; Schmitz, Sandra; Gillain, Aline; Schoonjans, Joelle; Rottey, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. For the first time, cabazitaxel was investigated in incurable patients with recurrent SCCHN. Patients were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks or weekly methotrexate. This phase II study did not meet its primary endpoint. Cabazitaxel has low activity in SCCHN. The toxicity profile in this population also was not favorable owing to the high rate of febrile neutropenia observed (17%). Background. Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane that improves the survival of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer following docetaxel therapy. Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. In this randomized phase II trial, we investigated cabazitaxel in patients with recurrent SCCHN. Methods. Patients with incurable SCCHN with progression after platinum-based therapy were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks (cycle 1, 20 mg/m2, increased to 25 mg/m2 for subsequent cycles in the absence of nonhematological adverse events [AEs] greater than grade 2 and hematological AEs greater than grade 3) or methotrexate (40 mg/m2/week). The patients were stratified according to their performance status and previous platinum-based chemotherapy for palliation versus curative intent. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate (PFSR) at 18 weeks. Results. Of the 101 patients, 53 and 48, with a median age of 58.0 years (range, 41–80), were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel or methotrexate, respectively. The PFSR at 18 weeks was 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%–25%) for cabazitaxel and 8.3% (95% CI, 2%–20%) for methotrexate. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months in both arms. The median overall survival was 5.0 and 3.6 months for cabazitaxel and methotrexate, respectively. More patients experienced serious adverse

  1. Survey data for the study of aging in Latin America and the Caribbean: selected studies.

    PubMed

    Wong, Rebeca; Peláez, Martha; Palloni, Alberto; Markides, Kyriakos

    2006-04-01

    The article summarizes three of the data collection studies that can assist researchers in examining population aging processes in the Latin America and Caribbean region with an emphasis on cross-national comparisons, including the population of Mexican immigrants in the United States. These are the Survey on Health and Wellbeing of Elders conducted in seven urban centers of the region, the national Mexican Health and Aging Study, and the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly in the United States. The article describes the studies and marks them as informative, comprehensive, and still underanalyzed in particular for the purpose of cross-national analyses of aging among Latin American and Caribbean populations.

  2. [Studies of the biological age in adult taiga ticks Ixodes persulcatus (Ixodinae)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'eva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The history of studies of the biological age in ixodid ticks is discussed. A method of estimation of the biological age in adult ticks of the genus Ixodes by the degree of fat inclusions in midgut cells and in the fat body is developed. An "age scale" for the determination of the calendar age was assumed.

  3. Economic Promises and Challenges of Productive Resources: A Study of Man's Use of Productive Resources over the Ages (From the Stone Age to the Space Age).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourbonnais, Mary Kathryn

    Research and study of economic discoveries, inventions, improvements, and man's use of natural and human resources and capital goods from the Stone Age to the present helped fifth graders understand and appreciate the foundation and structure of the U.S. economic system and today's standards of living. The year-long study, which was integrated…

  4. Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanji, Z. A.; Welti, A.; Chou, C.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-04-01

    Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulphate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 < T < 263 K that will represent ageing but not internal mixing with in(organic) compounds. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of untreated kaolinite (Ka) and Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles is compared to corresponding aged particles that are subjected to ozone exposures of 0.4-4.3 ppmv in a stainless steel aerosol tank. The portable ice nucleation counter (PINC) and immersion chamber combined with the Zurich ice nucleation chamber (IMCA - ZINC) are used to conduct deposition and immersion mode measurements respectively. Ice active fractions as well as ice active surface site densities (ns) are reported and observed to increase as a function of temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. Additionally, these are also the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation without the condensation of a coating of (in)organic material. In immersion mode, low exposure Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka whereas high exposure ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder

  5. Genetic Evidence for Role of Carotenoids in Age-Related Macular Degeneration in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS)

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Kristin J.; Mares, Julie A.; Igo, Robert P.; Truitt, Barbara; Liu, Zhe; Millen, Amy E.; Klein, Michael; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Engelman, Corinne D.; Karki, Chitra K.; Blodi, Barbara; Gehrs, Karen; Tinker, Lesley; Wallace, Robert; Robinson, Jennifer; LeBlanc, Erin S.; Sarto, Gloria; Bernstein, Paul S.; SanGiovanni, John Paul; Iyengar, Sudha K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We tested variants in genes related to lutein and zeaxanthin status for association with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS). Methods. Of 2005 CAREDS participants, 1663 were graded for AMD from fundus photography and genotyped for 424 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 24 candidate genes for carotenoid status. Of 337 AMD cases 91% had early or intermediate AMD. The SNPs were tested individually for association with AMD using logistic regression. A carotenoid-related genetic risk model was built using backward selection and compared to existing AMD risk factors using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results. A total of 24 variants from five genes (BCMO1, BCO2, NPCL1L1, ABCG8, and FADS2) not previously related to AMD and four genes related to AMD in previous studies (SCARB1, ABCA1, APOE, and ALDH3A2) were associated independently with AMD, after adjusting for age and ancestry. Variants in all genes (not always the identical SNPs) were associated with lutein and zeaxanthin in serum and/or macula, in this or other samples, except for BCO2 and FADS2. A genetic risk score including nine variants significantly (P = 0.002) discriminated between AMD cases and controls beyond age, smoking, CFH Y402H, and ARMS2 A69S. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for AMD among women in the highest versus lowest quintile for the risk score was 3.1 (2.0–4.9). Conclusions. Variants in genes related to lutein and zeaxanthin status were associated with AMD in CAREDS, adding to the body of evidence supporting a protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in risk of AMD. PMID:24346170

  6. Recognition of Psychiatric Disorders, and Self-Perceived Problems. A Follow-up Study from Age 8 to Age 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sourander, Andre; Haavisto, Antti; Ronning, John A.; Multimaki, Petteri; Parkkola, Kai; Santalahti, Paivi; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Helenius, Hans; Moilanen, Irma; Tamminen, Tuula; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the rate of, and factors associated with, recognition of psychiatric disorders and self-perceived problems among 18-year-old adolescent boys. Method: The study population consisted of 2347 Finnish boys born during 1981 attending military call-up (79.7% of the original sample). At age 8, the boys were evaluated by parental and…

  7. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment. PMID:28056595

  8. High hand joint mobility is associated with radiological CMC1 osteoarthritis: the AGES-Reykjavik study

    PubMed Central

    Jónsson, H.; Elíasson, G. J.; Jónsson, Á.; Eiríksdóttir, G.; Sigurđsson, S.; Aspelund, T.; Harris, T. B.; Guđnason, V.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objective Previous studies have indicated that joint hypermobility may affect the development of clinical and radiological hand osteoarthritis (OA), but this question has not been addressed in epidemiological studies. Our objective was to investigate this relationship in a population-based study. Patients and methods The study group consisted of 384 unselected older participants in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study (161 males, median age 76, range 69–90, and 223 females median age 75, range 69–92). The criterion used for joint mobility was the single maximal degree of hyperextension of digits 2 and 5 on both hands (HYP°). Results HYP° was more prevalent in females and on the left hand in both men and women. Both genders had a positive association between the degree of mobility measured by HYP° and radiological scores for the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) OA. Thus, those with HYP° ≥70 had an odds ratio of 3.05 (1.69–5.5, P < 0.001) of having a Kellgren–Lawrence score of ≥3 in a CMC1 joint. There was also a trend towards a negative association between HYP° and proximal interphalangeal joint scores. Conclusion Hand joint mobility, defined as hyperextension in the metacarpophalangeal joints (HYP°) is more prevalent in females and on the left side. It was associated with more severe radiographic OA in the CMC1 joints in this population. The reasons for this relationship are not known, but likely explanations involve ligament laxity and CMC1 joint stability. These findings may relate to the left-sided predominance of radiographic OA in the CMC1 joints observed in many prevalence studies. PMID:19010064

  9. Rat interscapular brown adipose tissue at different ages: a morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Sbarbati, A; Morroni, M; Zancanaro, C; Cinti, S

    1991-09-01

    Interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) was studied in newborn and 1, 3, 5, 7, 13, 26, 52, 78 and 104-week-old rats maintained under standard laboratory conditions in order to define its morphological modifications and assess previous statements on an involution phase of IBAT after the first weeks of extrauterine life. Serial sections were analysed morphometrically to quantify the multilocular, the monolocular and the connective-vascular components of IBAT. Morphometry shows that the IBAT weight and volume progressively increase up to the twenty-sixth week of age, these figures remaining almost constant thereafter. The volume of the unilocular and connective components increased with age. The volume of the multilocular component increases up to the sixth month of age, and slightly reduces thereafter. The number of the multilocular adipocytes is almost constant from the third week up to the second year of life. Our results suggest that, in IBAT of adult animals, despite a slight prevalence of unilocular adipocytes, the number of multilocular cells is not reduced with respect to younger animals.

  10. A Validated Phenotyping Algorithm for Genetic Association Studies in Age-related Macular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Simonett, Joseph M; Sohrab, Mahsa A; Pacheco, Jennifer; Armstrong, Loren L; Rzhetskaya, Margarita; Smith, Maureen; Geoffrey Hayes, M; Fawzi, Amani A

    2015-08-10

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a multifactorial, neurodegenerative disease, is a leading cause of vision loss. With the rapid advancement of DNA sequencing technologies, many AMD-associated genetic polymorphisms have been identified. Currently, the most time consuming steps of these studies are patient recruitment and phenotyping. In this study, we describe the development of an automated algorithm to identify neovascular (wet) AMD, non-neovascular (dry) AMD and control subjects using electronic medical record (EMR)-based criteria. Positive predictive value (91.7%) and negative predictive value (97.5%) were calculated using expert chart review as the gold standard to assess algorithm performance. We applied the algorithm to an EMR-linked DNA bio-repository to study previously identified AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using case/control status determined by the algorithm. Risk alleles of three SNPs, rs1061170 (CFH), rs1410996 (CFH), and rs10490924 (ARMS2) were found to be significantly associated with the AMD case/control status as defined by the algorithm. With the rapid growth of EMR-linked DNA biorepositories, patient selection algorithms can greatly increase the efficiency of genetic association study. We have found that stepwise validation of such an algorithm can result in reliable cohort selection and, when coupled within an EMR-linked DNA biorepository, replicates previously published AMD-associated SNPs.

  11. Dermatological disease in the older age group: a cross-sectional study in aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Maneka S; Vandal, Alain C; Jarrett, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of dermatological disease in aged care facilities, and the relationship between cognitive or physical disability and significant disease. Setting 2 large aged care facilities in Auckland, New Zealand, each providing low and high level care. Participants All 161 residents of the facilities were invited to participate. The only exclusion criterion was inability to obtain consent from the individual or designated guardian. 88 participants were recruited—66 females (75%), 22 males (25%) with average age 87.1 years (SD 5.5 years). Primary and secondary outcome measures Primary—presence of significant skin disease (defined as that which in the opinion of the investigators needed treatment or was identified as a patient concern) diagnosed clinically on full dermatological examination by a dermatologist or dermatology trainee. Secondary—functional and cognitive status (Rehabilitation Complexity Scale and Abbreviated Mental Test Score). Results 81.8% were found to have at least one significant condition. The most common disorders were onychomycosis 42 (47.7%), basal cell carcinoma 13 (14.8%), asteototic eczema 11 (12.5%) and squamous cell carcinoma in situ 9 (10.2%). Other findings were invasive squamous cell carcinoma 7 (8%), bullous pemphigoid 2 (2.3%), melanoma 2 (2.3%), lichen sclerosus 2 (2.3%) and carcinoma of the breast 1 (1.1%). Inflammatory disease was more common in those with little physical disability compared with those with serious physical disability (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.6, p=0.04). No significant association was found between skin disease and cognitive impairment. Conclusions A high rate of dermatological disease was found. Findings ranged from frequent but not life-threatening conditions (eg, onychomycosis), to those associated with a significant morbidity (eg, eczema, lichen sclerosus and bullous pemphigoid), to potentially life-threatening (eg, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and breast cancer

  12. Field studies of the leachability of aged brown coal ash.

    PubMed

    Mudd, G M; Kodikara, J

    2000-09-15

    The environmental management of ash produced from the brown coal power stations of the Latrobe Valley region of Australia has been studied. Current practice consists of slurrying fly and bottom ash, a short distance to an ash disposal pond. However, storage facilities are approaching capacity and alternative ash management strategies are required in the near future. Initially, the ash produced within the power stations is known to possess a large soluble mass, which can leach rapidly to generate a saline leachate with minor trace metal content. After slurrying and deposition within the ash pond, it has been demonstrated that the soluble mass is significantly lower and the ash can be considered as aged or "leached" ash - a more benign waste that meets the criteria for fill material. In order to assess the long-term behaviour of the leached ash and its suitability for co-disposal in engineered sites within overburden dumps, two field cells were constructed and monitored over a period of 1 year. Each cell was 5 x 5 m in area, 3-m deep and HDPE lined with a coarse drainage layer and leachate collection pipe. The first cell only collected natural rainfall and was known as the Dry Cell. The second cell had an external tank of 5000 l installed (200-mm rainfall equivalent) and water was spray-irrigated regularly to simulate higher rainfall and accelerate the leaching process. The cumulative inflow and outflow for each cell has been calculated using a linear relationship and the leachate quality was monitored over time. The results demonstrate that the ash behaves as an unsaturated porous material, with the effect of evaporation through the profile being dominant and controlling the production of leachate. The leachate quality was initially moderately saline in both cells, with the concentration dropping by nearly 95% in the Wet Cell by the end of the field study. The leachate chemistry has been analysed using the PHREEQC geochemical model. The log activity plots of various

  13. Aging and Phase Stability Studies of Alloy 22 FY08 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, S G

    2008-04-03

    This report is a compilation of work done over the past ten years in support of phase stability studies of Alloy 22 for the Yucca Mountain Project and contains information previously published, reported, and referenced. Most sections are paraphrased here for the convenience of readers. Evaluation of the fabrication processes involved in the manufacture of waste containers is important as these processes can have an effect on the metallurgical structure of an alloy. Because material properties such as strength, toughness, aging kinetics and corrosion resistance are all dependent on the microstructure, it is important that prototypes be built and evaluated for processing effects on the performance of the material. Of particular importance are welds, which have an as-cast microstructure with chemical segregation and precipitation of complex phases resulting from the welding process. The work summarized in this report contains information on the effects of fabrication processes such as solution annealing, stress mitigation, heat-to-heat variability, and welding on the kinetics of precipitation, mechanical, and corrosion properties. For a waste package lifetime of thousands of years, it is impossible to test directly in the laboratory the behavior of Alloy 22 under expected repository conditions. The changes that may occur in these materials must be accelerated. For phase stability studies, this is achieved by accelerating the phase transformations by increasing test temperatures above those anticipated in the proposed repository. For these reasons, Alloy 22 characterization specimens were aged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Aging Facilities for times from 1 hour up to 8 years at temperatures ranging from 200-750 C. These data as well as the data from specimens aged at 260 C, 343 C, and 427 C for 100,028 hours at Haynes International will be used for performance confirmation and model validation.

  14. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  15. A descriptive survey study on the effect of age on quality of life following stoma surgery.

    PubMed

    Wong, Selina K; Young, Pang Y; Widder, Sandy; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2013-12-01

    The number of operative procedures involving the creation of an intestinal stoma is likely to increase as the population ages. Understanding the role of age on postoperative outcomes such as quality of life (QoL) and self-efficacy is critical to developing appropriate supportive strategies. A descriptive survey study was conducted among 18 patients (11 men seven women, age range 47 to 90 years) who had an intestinal ostomy created during a 3-year period at the University of Alberta Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. The Stoma Quality of Life Survey and a self-efficacy survey examining self-care, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living were administered. Patient records were obtained through a retrospective chart review; of the 57 patients identified, 18 were still alive, had not undergone stoma reversal, were cognitively competent, and agreed to participate. Seven patients were <65 years old and 11 were ≥65 years old. Of those, four patients had their stoma since 2009, four patients since 2010, and 10 patients since 2011. Although older patients had more comorbidities and higher mortality following the surgery (46.1% for patients >65 versus 26.1%, for patients <65 years old), no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups for stoma-associated QoL and self-efficacy scores. In patients who had stoma surgery in 2011, older patients on average had higher QoL scores (65.21 versus 61.87, maximum score 100, P = 0.56), but lower self-efficacy scores (32.50 versus 35.25, maximum score 40, P = 0.50). These findings are similar to previously reported study results. However, the small study sample size limits analysis of the variables that may affect QoL in stoma patients. This study supports the need for additional prospective studies to help clinicians develop effective support strategies.

  16. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  17. Relationship Between Wealth and Age Trajectories of Walking Speed Among Older Adults: Evidence From the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background. Slow walking speed is associated with higher risk of accidents, disability, and mortality in older adults, with people in more disadvantaged socioeconomic positions being at higher risk. We explore the relationship between wealth and age trajectories of walking speed among older adults. Methods. Data come from three waves (2002–2003 to 2006–2007) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We use latent growth curve models and aging-vector graphs to explore individual changes and average population age trajectories of walking speed by wealth among 7,225 individuals aged 60 and older. Results. For someone aged 71 in the poorest wealth quintile, the baseline mean walking speed was 0.75 m/s, which decreased to 0.71 m/s 4 years later, whereas that of a person in the richest wealth quintile was 0.91 m/s, which decreased to 0.82 m/s. Although the decline in walking speed was faster among people in the richest wealth (net of covariates), the gaps in walking speed between richest and poorest did not close. Even after accounting for covariates, people in the richest wealth only reached critical values (0.60 m/s) of walking speed at the age of 90, whereas people in the poorest wealth reached that level 6 years earlier. Conclusions. Our findings showed continuing gaps in physical functioning by wealth, even among people with the same health, psychosocial, and demographic conditions. As wealth reflects both past and current socioeconomic status, the implications of our findings are that reducing socioeconomic inequalities at all stages of the life course may have a positive impact on functioning in old age. PMID:23682157

  18. “IDEAL” Aging is Associated with Lower Resting Metabolic Rate: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Schrack, Jennifer A.; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the associations among age, health status, and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a large population of older adults. Design Cross-Sectional Analysis Setting Community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) Participants Four hundred twenty persons aged 40 – 96 (mean 68.2 ± 11.0) who underwent a comprehensive physical examination, cognitive assessment, resting metabolic rate testing, body composition assessment, and physical function testing during a three-day clinic visit. Measurements Participants were assigned to “IDEAL” (Insight into the Determination of Exceptional Aging and Longevity) or “non-IDEAL” categories based on health status. IDEAL participants were defined by the absence of: physical and cognitive impairments, chronic conditions/comorbidities and blood profile alterations. A three-stage linear regression model was used to assess the relationship between RMR and age, using IDEAL classification as a predictor, adjusting for sex and body composition. Results RMR averaged 1512.4 (± 442.9) kcal/day and was lower with advancing age (β = −8.55, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, and body composition RMR was 109.6 kcals/day lower in IDEAL than non-IDEAL participants (p < 0.005). Conclusions Individuals who are fully functional and free of major medical conditions have lower RMR than those affected by disease and functional impairments. These findings suggest that health status plays a role in energy utilization and regulation independent of age and body composition and that elevated RMR may be a global biomarker of poor health in older persons. PMID:24635835

  19. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies.

  20. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Background Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP. Methods A questionnaire survey among 5696 newly qualified health care workers who completed a baseline questionnaire shortly before completing their education and a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. Participants were selected on the following criteria: (a) being female, (b) working in the health care sector (n = 2677). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs on the severity of LBP. Results For those with previous LBP, physical work load has an importance, but not among those without previous LBP. In relation to fear-avoidance beliefs, there is a positive relation between it and LBP of than 30 days in both groups, i.e. those without and with previous LBP. No moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP was found among cases with and without LBP. Conclusion Both physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those with previous LBP. Only fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those without previous LBP. The study did not find a moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP. PMID:19778413

  1. Pathological video-game use among youth ages 8 to 18: a national study.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Douglas

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have studied whether some youth are "addicted" to video games, but previous studies have been based on regional convenience samples. Using a national sample, this study gathered information about video-gaming habits and parental involvement in gaming, to determine the percentage of youth who meet clinical-style criteria for pathological gaming. A Harris poll surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1,178 American youth ages 8 to 18. About 8% of video-game players in this sample exhibited pathological patterns of play. Several indicators documented convergent and divergent validity of the results: Pathological gamers spent twice as much time playing as nonpathological gamers and received poorer grades in school; pathological gaming also showed comorbidity with attention problems. Pathological status significantly predicted poorer school performance even after controlling for sex, age, and weekly amount of video-game play. These results confirm that pathological gaming can be measured reliably, that the construct demonstrates validity, and that it is not simply isomorphic with a high amount of play.

  2. Drosophila as a novel animal model for studying the genetics of age-related memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Saitoe, Minoru; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Tamura, Takuya; Ito, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment (AMI) is important not only from a scientific viewpoint but also for the development of therapeutics that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. AMI has been generally considered to be an overall or nonspecific decay of memory processes that results from dysfunction of neural networks. However, behavioral genetics to test this hypothesis have not been performed previously, due, in part, to the long lifespan of animal models. Using Drosophila, the first extensive behavioral-genetic characterization of AMI has been carried out. In Drosophila, memory acquired after a single olfactory conditioning paradigm has three distinct phases: short-term memory (STM), middle-term memory (MTM), and longer-lasting anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). Significantly, AMI results from the specific decay of only one memory component, amnesiac-dependent MTM, and not other components. Since amnesiac encodes peptides that enhance adenylyl cyclase activity, these studies suggest the importance of the cAMP signaling pathway in AMI in Drosophila, a finding consistent with several models of AMI in mammals. Although many advances have been made in the study of pathways involved in aging, much remains to be elucidated on how these pathways affect memory formation to cause AMI. Due to its short lifespan, powerful genetics, and well-characterized and conserved pathways involved in memory and lifespan, Drosophila will be a useful model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying this process.

  3. Age 60 Study, Part 4: Experimental Evaluation of Pilot Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-10-01

    and aging. Computerized cognitive test batteries, COGSREEN and WOMBAT , were selected as the domain-independent measures. Flitescript and whole task...were assessed. COGSCREEN total composite scores were significantly correlated with evaluator ratings on emergency/abnormal maneuvers. Neither WOMBAT ...B-3 WOMBAT Questionnaire .......................................... B-4 Sim ulator Post-flight Questionnaire

  4. The MRC National Survey of Health and Development reaches age 70: maintaining participation at older ages in a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Shah, Imran; Moore, Adam; Popham, Maria; Curran, Philip; Davis, Daniel; Sharma, Nikhil; Richards, Marcus; Stafford, Mai; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel

    2016-11-01

    A life course approach to ageing relies on maintaining participation rates in national birth cohorts and other long-term longitudinal studies. This reduces the risk of selective attrition biasing associations between lifetime risk factors and health outcomes in later life and ensures the studies remain as representative as possible of the original population. We report the participation patterns for a postal questionnaire and home visit at 68-69 years of study members in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, the oldest and longest-running British birth cohort study. We investigated how participation varied by lifetime and recent contact, health status, previous clinical feedback and study engagement, taking account of prior socioeconomic and cognitive characteristics. Overall participation and home visit participation remained high (94 and 80%, respectively) and there were no gender differences. Participation was higher in those with higher levels of prior contact and lower in those with the poorest health status. Having previously received clinical feedback on actionable blood results was associated with reduced home visit participation but other forms of clinical feedback were not associated with subsequent participation. Activities that fostered study engagement were associated with increased home visit participation. These findings inform strategies to maintain participation in life course studies.

  5. Budding yeast as a model organism to study the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Denoth Lippuner, Annina; Julou, Thomas; Barral, Yves

    2014-03-01

    Although a budding yeast culture can be propagated eternally, individual yeast cells age and eventually die. The detailed knowledge of this unicellular eukaryotic species as well as the powerful tools developed to study its physiology makes budding yeast an ideal model organism to study the mechanisms involved in aging. Considering both detrimental and positive aspects of age, we review changes occurring during aging both at the whole-cell level and at the intracellular level. The possible mechanisms allowing old cells to produce rejuvenated progeny are described in terms of accumulation and inheritance of aging factors. Based on the dynamic changes associated with age, we distinguish different stages of age: early age, during which changes do not impair cell growth; intermediate age, during which aging factors start to accumulate; and late age, which corresponds to the last divisions before death. For each aging factor, we examine its asymmetric segregation and whether it plays a causal role in aging. Using the example of caloric restriction, we describe how the aging process can be modulated at different levels and how changes in different organelles might interplay with each other. Finally, we discuss the beneficial aspects that might be associated with age.

  6. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  7. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease.

  8. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Demerath, Ellen W.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T.L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Wei; Chen, Zhao; Deming, Sandra L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Evans, Michelle K.; Gajdos, Zofia; Henderson, Brian E.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue; John, Esther M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lu, Xiaoning; Millikan, Robert C.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nock, Nora L.; North, Kari; Nyante, Sarah; Press, Michael F.; Rodriquez-Gil, Jorge L.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Woods, Nancy F.; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zonderman, Alan; Heiss, Gerardo; Gwen Windham, B.; Wellons, Melissa; Murray, Sarah S.; Nalls, Michael; Pastinen, Tomi; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Hirschhorn, Joel; Adrienne Cupples, L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Murabito, Joanne M.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide association of self-reported age at menarche with common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of 18 089 AA women in 15 studies using an additive genetic linear regression model, adjusting for year of birth and population stratification, followed by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis (Stage 1). Top meta-analysis results were then tested in an independent sample of 2850 women (Stage 2). First, while no SNP passed the pre-specified P < 5 × 10−8 threshold for significance in Stage 1, suggestive associations were found for variants near FLRT2 and PIK3R1, and conditional analysis identified two independent SNPs (rs339978 and rs980000) in or near RORA, strengthening the support for this suggestive locus identified in EA women. Secondly, an investigation of SNPs in 42 previously identified menarche loci in EA women demonstrated that 25 (60%) of them contained variants significantly associated with menarche in AA women. The findings provide the first evidence of cross-ethnic generalization of menarche loci identified to date, and suggest a number of novel biological links to menarche timing in AA women. PMID:23599027

  9. Prevalence of Frailty and Aging-Related Health Conditions in Older Koreans in Rural Communities: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Aging Study of Pyeongchang Rural Area.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hee-Won; Jang, Il-Young; Lee, Young Soo; Lee, Chang Ki; Cho, Eun-Il; Kang, Woo Young; Chae, Jeoung Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Dae Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Frailty has been previously studied in Western countries and the urban Korean population; however, the burden of frailty and geriatric conditions in the aging populations of rural Korean communities had not yet been determined. Thus, we established a population-based prospective study of adults aged ≥ 65 years residing in rural communities of Korea between October 2014 and December 2014. All participants underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment that encompassed the assessment of cognitive and physical function, depression, nutrition, and body composition using bioimpedance analysis. We determined the prevalence of frailty based on the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and Korean version of FRAIL (K-FRAIL) criteria, as well as geriatric conditions. We recruited 382 adults (98% of eligible adults; mean age: 74 years; 56% women). Generally, sociodemographic characteristics were similar to those of the general rural Korean population. Common geriatric conditions included instrumental activity of daily living disability (39%), malnutrition risk (38%), cognitive dysfunction (33%), multimorbidity (32%), and sarcopenia (28%), while dismobility (8%), incontinence (8%), and polypharmacy (3%) were less common conditions. While more individuals were classified as frail according to the K-FRAIL criteria (27%) than the CHS criteria (17%), the CHS criteria were more strongly associated with prevalent geriatric conditions. Older Koreans living in rural communities have a significant burden of frailty and geriatric conditions that increase the risk of functional decline, poor quality of life, and mortality. The current study provides a basis to guide public health professionals and policy-makers in prioritizing certain areas of care and designing effective public health interventions to promote healthy aging of this vulnerable population.

  10. Genetic variants influencing human aging from late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) genome-wide association studies (GWAS)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Hui; Belbin, Olivia; Medway, Christopher; Brown, Kristelle; Kalsheker, Noor; Carrasquillo, Minerva; Proitsi, Petroula; Powell, John; Lovestone, Simon; Goate, Alison; Younkin, Steven; Passmore, Peter; Morgan, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Genetics plays a crucial role in human aging with up to 30% of those living to the mid-80s being determined by genetic variation. Survival to older ages likely entails an even greater genetic contribution. There is increasing evidence that genes implicated in age-related diseases, such as cancer and neuronal disease, play a role in affecting human life span. We have selected the 10 most promising late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) susceptibility genes identified through several recent large genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These 10 LOAD genes (APOE, CLU, PICALM, CR1, BIN1, ABCA7, MS4A6A, CD33, CD2AP, and EPHA1) have been tested for association with human aging in our dataset (1385 samples with documented age at death [AAD], age range: 58–108 years; mean age at death: 80.2) using the most significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) found in the previous studies. Apart from the APOE locus (rs2075650) which showed compelling evidence of association with risk on human life span (p = 5.27 × 10−4), none of the other LOAD gene loci demonstrated significant evidence of association. In addition to examining the known LOAD genes, we carried out analyses using age at death as a quantitative trait. No genome-wide significant SNPs were discovered. Increasing sample size and statistical power will be imperative to detect genuine aging-associated variants in the future. In this report, we also discuss issues relating to the analysis of genome-wide association studies data from different centers and the bioinformatic approach required to distinguish spurious genome-wide significant signals from real SNP associations. PMID:22445811

  11. A study of remote spatial memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Sekeres, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The effect of aging on remote spatial memory was tested in a group of 2-year-old rats (VR-O) that, as young adults, were reared for 3 months in a complex 'village' environment. The VR-O rats exhibited significant savings in finding the locations of specific reward compartments within the village, relative to a group of old rats (VNR-O) experiencing the village for the first time. The VNR-O rats were also impaired, relative to naive young rats, in learning the reward locations. Probe tests indicated that the VR-O rats retained allocentric spatial memory for the environment and were not using sensory or other non-spatial cues to guide behaviour. Overall, the results indicate that the aged rats experienced a decline in the ability to learn and remember detailed spatial relationships and that the VR-O group's successful performance on the remote spatial memory test was guided by a form of schematic memory that captured the essential features of the village environment. The potential contribution of the hippocampus to the pattern of lost and spared learning and memory observed in the aged rats was discussed.

  12. Age, growth rates, and paleoclimate studies of deep sea corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, Nancy G; Roark, E. Brendan; Andrews, Allen; Robinson, Laura; Hill, Tessa; Sherwood, Owen; Williams, Branwen; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Fallon, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Deep-water corals are some of the slowest growing, longest-lived skeletal accreting marine organisms. These habitat-forming species support diverse faunal assemblages that include commercially and ecologically important organisms. Therefore, effective management and conservation strategies for deep-sea corals can be informed by precise and accurate age, growth rate, and lifespan characteristics for proper assessment of vulnerability and recovery from perturbations. This is especially true for the small number of commercially valuable, and potentially endangered, species that are part of the black and precious coral fisheries (Tsounis et al. 2010). In addition to evaluating time scales of recovery from disturbance or exploitation, accurate age and growth estimates are essential for understanding the life history and ecology of these habitat-forming corals. Given that longevity is a key factor for population maintenance and fishery sustainability, partly due to limited and complex genetic flow among coral populations separated by great distances, accurate age structure for these deep-sea coral communities is essential for proper, long-term resource management.

  13. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60–84 years) and eighteen younger (19–24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity. PMID:24137141

  14. Age-related differences in affective responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vieillard, Sandrine; Gilet, Anne-Laure

    2013-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that aging is associated with the maintenance of positive affect and the decrease of negative affect to ensure emotion regulation goals. Previous empirical studies have primarily focused on a visual or autobiographical form of emotion communication. To date, little investigation has been done on musical emotions. The few studies that have addressed aging and emotions in music were mainly interested in emotion recognition, thus leaving unexplored the question of how aging may influence emotional responses to and memory for emotions conveyed by music. In the present study, eighteen older (60-84 years) and eighteen younger (19-24 years) listeners were asked to evaluate the strength of their experienced emotion on happy, peaceful, sad, and scary musical excerpts (Vieillard et al., 2008) while facial muscle activity was recorded. Participants then performed an incidental recognition task followed by a task in which they judged to what extent they experienced happiness, peacefulness, sadness, and fear when listening to music. Compared to younger adults, older adults (a) reported a stronger emotional reactivity for happiness than other emotion categories, (b) showed an increased zygomatic activity for scary stimuli, (c) were more likely to falsely recognize happy music, and (d) showed a decrease in their responsiveness to sad and scary music. These results are in line with previous findings and extend them to emotion experience and memory recognition, corroborating the view of age-related changes in emotional responses to music in a positive direction away from negativity.

  15. Association Between Previous Meniscal Surgery and the Incidence of Chondral Lesions at Revision Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Robert H.; Wright, Rick W.; David, Tal S.; McCormack, Robert G.; Sekiya, Jon K.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Huston, Laura J.; Haas, Amanda K.; Steger-May, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Knees undergoing revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction typically have more intra-articular injuries than do knees undergoing primary reconstruction. Hypothesis Previous partial meniscectomy (PM) is associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, whereas previous meniscal repair (MR) is not associated with a higher rate of chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction, compared with knees undergoing revision ACL with no previous meniscal surgery. Study design Cohort study (Prevalence); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Data from a multicenter cohort was reviewed to determine the history of prior meniscal surgery (PM/MR) and the presence of grade II/III/IV chondral lesions at revision ACL reconstruction. The association between previous meniscal surgery and the incidence of chondral lesions was examined. Patient age was included as a covariate to determine if surgery type contributes predictive information independent of patient age. Results The cohort included 725 ACL revision surgeries. Chondrosis was associated with patient age (P < .0001) and previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001). After adjusting for patient age, knees with previous PM were more likely to have chondrosis than knees with previous MR (P = .003) or no previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001). There was no difference between knees without previous meniscal surgery and knees with previous MR (P = .7). Previous partial meniscectomy was associated with a higher rate of chondrosis in the same compartment compared with knees without previous meniscal surgery (P < .0001) and knees with previous MR (P ≤ .03). Conclusion The status of articular cartilage at the time of revision ACL reconstruction relates to previous meniscal surgery independent of the effect of patient age. Previous partial meniscectomy is associated with a higher incidence of articular cartilage lesions, whereas previous meniscal repair is not. Although this association may

  16. Well-Being and Chronic Disease Incidence: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Okely, Judith A.; Gale, Catharine R.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Previous research suggests that greater well-being may protect against onset of chronic disease. However, it is unclear whether this association is similar across different types of disease. Method We used Cox proportional hazards regression to examine the prospective relationship between well-being (measured using the CASP-19 quality of life questionnaire) and incidence of arthritis, cancer, stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease over 8 years. The sample consisted of 8182 participants 50 years or older from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Results After adjustments for established risk factors, a standard deviation increase in CASP-19 score was associated with a decrease in arthritis risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.83–0.96) and, in those younger than 65 years, a decrease in diabetes risk (HR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70–0.95) and chronic lung disease risk (HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.66–0.97). Higher CASP-19 scores were associated with reduced risk for stroke and myocardial infarction; however, these associations were no longer significant after adjustments for established risk factors. No association was observed for cancer incidence. An age interaction was observed for diabetes, myocardial infarction, and chronic lung disease, with a stronger association between CASP-19 score and disease incidence at younger ages. Conclusions The extent of association between well-being and incident disease risk is not consistent across different chronic diseases. Future studies should examine the cause of this variation. PMID:26569542

  17. ‘Keeping your body and mind active’: an ethnographic study of aspirations for healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Shefer, Guy; Griffin, Simon; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and explore perceptions, practices and motivations for active living in later life. Design Qualitative study with semistructured interviews and ‘semistructured’ participant observations of participant-selected activities, such as exercise classes, private or organised walks, shopping and gardening. Participants 27 participants (65–80 years) from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer Norfolk study, purposefully selected by gender, age, occupational class, living status and residential location; 19 of the participants agreed to be accompanied for observed activities. Setting Participants’ homes, neighbourhoods, places of leisure activities and workplaces in Norfolk, England. Results All participants regarded a positive attitude as important for healthy ageing; this included staying active, both physically and mentally through sedentary activities such as reading and crosswords. ‘Getting out of the house’, being busy, or following a variety of interests were regarded as both important motivators and descriptions of their ‘activeness’. Purposeful activities formed an important part of this, for example, still being engaged in paid or voluntary work, having caring responsibilities, or smaller incidental activities such as helping neighbours or walking for transport. Many also reported adapting previous, often lifelong, activity preferences and habits to their ageing body, or replacing them altogether with lower impact activities such as walking. This included adapting to the physical limitations of partners and friends which dictated the intensity and frequency of shared activities. The social context of activities could thus form a barrier to active living, but could also encourage it through companionship, social responsibilities and social pressures. Conclusions Promoting and maintaining physical activity among older people may require more attention to activeness as an attitude and way of life as well as to its

  18. Dental arch dimensions in the mixed dentition: a study of Brazilian children from 9 to 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    LOULY, Fabiane; NOUER, Paulo Roberto Aranha; JANSON, Guilherme; PINZAN, Arnaldo

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated dental arch dimensional changes of Brazilian children. Material and methods Dental casts were taken from 66 children (29 males; 37 females) with normal occlusion selected among 1,687 students from public and private schools aged 9, 10, 11 and 12 years, according to the following criteria: Class I canine and molar relationships; well-aligned upper and lower dental arches; mixed dentition; good facial symmetry; no previous orthodontic treatment. Dental arch dimensions were taken by one examiner using the Korkhaus’ compass and a digital pachymeter. ANOVA test was applied to compare the arch dimensions at the different ages and the t-test was used to compare the arch dimensions of male and female subjects. Arch forms were compared by means of chi-square tests. Results Only the maxillary anterior segment length showed a statistically significant increase from 10 to 12 years of age. Males had a significantly larger maxillary depth than females at the age range evaluated. The predominant dental arch form found was elliptical. Conclusion In the studied age range, anterior maxillary length increased from 10 to 12 years of age, males had larger maxillary depth than females and the predominant arch form was elliptical. PMID:21552719

  19. A genome-wide association study for age-related hearing impairment in the Saami.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Hannula, Samuli; Van Eyken, Els; Stephan, Dietrich A; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Fransen, Erik; Lysholm-Bernacchi, Alana; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2010-06-01

    This study aimed at contributing to the elucidation of the genetic basis of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), a common multifactorial disease with an important genetic contribution as demonstrated by heritability studies. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Finnish Saami, a small, ancient, genetically isolated population without evidence of demographic expansion. The choice of this study population was motivated by its anticipated higher extent of LD, potentially offering a substantial power advantage for association mapping. DNA samples and audiometric measurements were collected from 352 Finnish Saami individuals, aged between 50 and 75 years. To reduce the burden of multiple testing, we applied principal component (PC) analysis to the multivariate audiometric phenotype. The first three PCs captured 80% of the variation in hearing thresholds, while maintaining biologically important audiometric features. All subjects were genotyped with the Affymetrix 100 K chip. To account for multiple levels of relatedness among subjects, as well as for population stratification, association testing was performed using a mixed model. We summarised the top-ranking association signals for the three traits under study. The top-ranked SNP, rs457717 (P-value 3.55 x 10(-7)), was associated with PC3 and was localised in an intron of the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP2). Intriguingly, the SNP rs161927 (P-value 0.000149), seventh-ranked for PC1, was positioned immediately downstream from the metabotropic glutamate receptor-7 gene (GRM7). As a previous GWAS of a European and Finnish sample set already suggested a role for GRM7 in ARHI, this study provides further evidence for the involvement of this gene.

  20. A genome-wide association study for age-related hearing impairment in the Saami

    PubMed Central

    Van Laer, Lut; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Hannula, Samuli; Van Eyken, Els; Stephan, Dietrich A; Mäki-Torkko, Elina; Aikio, Pekka; Fransen, Erik; Lysholm-Bernacchi, Alana; Sorri, Martti; Huentelman, Matthew J; Van Camp, Guy

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed at contributing to the elucidation of the genetic basis of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI), a common multifactorial disease with an important genetic contribution as demonstrated by heritability studies. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in the Finnish Saami, a small, ancient, genetically isolated population without evidence of demographic expansion. The choice of this study population was motivated by its anticipated higher extent of LD, potentially offering a substantial power advantage for association mapping. DNA samples and audiometric measurements were collected from 352 Finnish Saami individuals, aged between 50 and 75 years. To reduce the burden of multiple testing, we applied principal component (PC) analysis to the multivariate audiometric phenotype. The first three PCs captured 80% of the variation in hearing thresholds, while maintaining biologically important audiometric features. All subjects were genotyped with the Affymetrix 100 K chip. To account for multiple levels of relatedness among subjects, as well as for population stratification, association testing was performed using a mixed model. We summarised the top-ranking association signals for the three traits under study. The top-ranked SNP, rs457717 (P-value 3.55 × 10−7), was associated with PC3 and was localised in an intron of the IQ motif-containing GTPase-activating-like protein (IQGAP2). Intriguingly, the SNP rs161927 (P-value 0.000149), seventh-ranked for PC1, was positioned immediately downstream from the metabotropic glutamate receptor-7 gene (GRM7). As a previous GWAS of a European and Finnish sample set already suggested a role for GRM7 in ARHI, this study provides further evidence for the involvement of this gene. PMID:20068591

  1. An Aging Interventions Testing Program: study design and interim report.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard A; Harrison, David E; Astle, Clinton M; Floyd, Robert A; Flurkey, Kevin; Hensley, Kenneth L; Javors, Martin A; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Nelson, James F; Ongini, Ennio; Nadon, Nancy L; Warner, Huber R; Strong, Randy

    2007-08-01

    The National Institute on Aging's Interventions Testing Program (ITP) has developed a plan to evaluate agents that are considered plausible candidates for delaying rates of aging. Key features include: (i) use of genetically heterogeneous mice (a standardized four-way cross), (ii) replication at three test sites (the Jackson Laboratory, TJL; University of Michigan, UM; and University of Texas, UT), (iii) sufficient statistical power to detect 10% changes in lifespan, (iv) tests for age-dependent changes in T cell subsets and physical activity, and (v) an annual solicitation for collaborators who wish to suggest new interventions for evaluation. Mice in the first cohort were exposed to one of four agents: aspirin, nitroflurbiprofen (NFP), 4-OH-alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone (4-OH-PBN), or nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA). An interim analysis was conducted using survival data available on the date at which at least 50% of the male control mice had died at each test site. Survival of control males was significantly higher, at the interim time-point, at UM than at UT or TJL; all three sites had similar survival of control females. Males in the NDGA group had significantly improved survival (P = 0.0004), with significant effects noted at TJL (P < 0.01) and UT (P < 0.04). None of the other agents altered survival, although there was a suggestion (P = 0.07) of a beneficial effect of aspirin in males. More data will be needed to determine if any of these compounds can extend maximal lifespan, but the current data show that NDGA reduces early life mortality risks in genetically heterogeneous mice at multiple test sites.

  2. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinas, Naibi; Lada, Elizabeth; Ybarra, Jason; Fleming, Scott

    2010-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 5 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  3. Constraining the Star Forming History in Monoceros: A Study of Embedded Cluster Ages and Spatial Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lada, Elizabeth A.; Marinas, Naibi; Levine, Joanna L.; Ferreira, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We propose to use FLAMINGOS multi-object spectrometer on the KPNO 4 meter telescope to complete a spectroscopic survey of 7 clusters in the Monoceros GMC. The data will be combined with existing FLAMINGOS photometry to determine the ages and masses of the stars in the clusters using the HR Diagram and PMS evolutionary models. This information, combined with the spatial distribution of clusters in the cloud, determined from previous observations, will allow us to investigate the ages and age spreads of the embedded clusters and the star forming histories of the clusters and the molecular cloud.

  4. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  5. A Study of the Relationship Between Gesell's Developmental Age and Piaget's Concept of Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civretta, Adeline E.

    A study was conducted to determine whether a significant correlation exists between developmental age and the concept of conservation. The hypothesis was that if developmental age and the concept of conservation are related, then stages of understanding conservation will increase as developmental age increases. Ss consisted of 30 primary children…

  6. Social Studies Classroom Activities for Secondary Schools. Schools in an Aging Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goranson, Donald G., Ed.

    Designed for secondary students, the 20 lessons in this volume promote education for, with, and about older adults and prepare students to participate in the changing world. Lessons 1-3 explore attitudes about aging through word association, confront the aging process, and examine values regarding time. Lessons 4-6 study aging in different times…

  7. Chronological Age, Cognitions, and Practices in European American Mothers: A Multivariate Study of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.

    2007-01-01

    The authors studied multiple parenting cognitions and practices in European American mothers (N=262) who ranged from 15 to 47 years of age. All were 1st-time parents of 20-month-old children. Some age effects were 0; others were linear or nonlinear. Nonlinear age effects determined by spline regression showed significant associations to a "knot"…

  8. Canadian study of health and aging: study methods and prevalence of dementia.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of dementia and its subtypes by sex and age group for five regions of Canada. DESIGN: Prevalence survey. SETTING: Community and institutional settings in Canada, excluding those in the two territories, Indian reserves and military units. PARTICIPANTS: Representative sample of people aged 65 and over interviewed between February 1991 and May 1992. Those in the community (9008 subjects) were chosen randomly from medicare lists in nine provinces or from the Enumeration Composite Record in Ontario. People in institutions (1255) were randomly selected from residents in stratified random samples of institutions in each region. INTERVENTIONS: Screening with the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination to identify cognitive impairment. Clinical examination of all those in institutions, those in the community with a 3MS score of less than 78 and a sample of those in the community with a 3MS score of 78 or more to diagnose dementia. Dementia and Alzheimer's disease were defined according to established criteria. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of dementia of all types, by region, sex and age group, the estimated number of cases in the population by type of dementia and the age-standardized rate per 1000 population. RESULTS: The prevalence estimates suggested that 252,600 (8.0%) of all Canadians aged 65 and over met the criteria for dementia (95% confidence interval [CI] 236,800 to 268,400). These were divided roughly equally between the community and institutional samples; the female:male ratio was 2:1. The age-standardized rate ranged from 2.4%, among those aged 65 to 74 years, to 34.5%, among those aged 85 and over. The corresponding figures for Alzheimer's disease were 5.1% overall (161,000 cases; 95% CI 148,100 to 173,900), ranging from 1.0% to 26.0%; for vascular dementia it was 1.5% overall, ranging from 0.6% to 4.8%. If the prevalence estimates remain constant, the number of Canadians with dementia will rise to 592,000 by

  9. A phase I pilot study of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor pathway modulator AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergström, Stefan; Harmenberg, Johan; Ringbom, Magnus; Klockare, Maria; Jerling, Markus; Ekman, Simon; Lundström, Kristina Lamberg; Koyi, Hirsh; Brandén, Eva; Larsson, Olle; Bergqvist, Michael

    2015-04-01

    AXL1717 is an orally bioavailable IGF-1R pathway modulator that has been shown to have anti-tumoral effects. The objectives of the present study were to define maximum tolerated dose and the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) of AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic NSCLC (squamous cell cancer or adenocarcinoma) in good performance status and with preserved major organ functions were enrolled in the study. The study was an open-label phase I study with planned cohorts of three patients per dose level of AXL1717 (215, 290, and 390 mg BID). In total, 12 patients were enrolled in the study, and of these, two were prematurely excluded. AXL1717 was administered at one dose level, 215 mg BID. A total number of 81 unique adverse events were reported. Bone marrow toxicity was reported in 10 out of 12 patients, and this organ class showed the largest number of related events. AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin is a possible treatment approach in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, due to the bone marrow toxicity profile shown in the present study, further dose increases of AXL1717 above 215 mg BID will probably not be feasible. Therefore, 215 mg BID constitutes maximum tolerated dose and RPTD.

  10. A study of the age attribute in a query tool for a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Scheufele, Elisabeth L; Scheufele, Elisabeth Lee; Dubey, Anil; Dubey, Anil Kumar; Murphy, Shawn N

    2008-11-06

    The RPDR, a clinical data warehouse with a user-friendly Querytool, allows researchers to perform studies on patient data. Currently, the RPDR represents age as the patient's age at the present time, which is problematic in situations where age at the time of the event is more appropriate. We will modify the Querytool to consider this by assessing the perception of age via survey, testing backend query solutions, and developing modifications based on these results.

  11. Using FLIM in the study of permeability barrier function of aged and young skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, P.; Choi, E. H.; Man, M. Q.; Crumrine, D.; Mauro, T.; Elias, P.

    2006-02-01

    Aged skin commonly is afflicted by inflammatory skin diseases or xerosis/eczema that can be triggered or exacerbated by impaired epidermal permeability barrier homeostasis. It has been previously described a permeability barrier defect in humans of advanced age (> 75 years), which in a murine analog >18 mos, could be attributed to reduced lipid synthesis synthesis. However, the functional abnormality in moderately aged mice is due not to decreased lipid synthesis, but rather to a specific defect in stratum corneum (SC) acidification causing impaired lipid processing processing. Endogenous Na +/H + antiporter (NHE1) level was found declined in moderately aged mouse epidermis. This acidification defect leads to perturbed permeability barrier homeostasis through more than one pathways, we addressed suboptimal activation of the essential, lipid-processing enzyme, β-glucocerebrosidase (BGC) is linked to elevated SC pH. Finally, the importance of the epidermis acidity is shown by the normalization of barrier function after exogenous acidification of moderately aged skin.

  12. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2016-12-08

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  14. A validation of the first genome-wide association study of calcaneus ultrasound parameters in the European Male Ageing Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and speed of sound (SOS) as measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) at the calcaneus in the Framingham 100K genome-wide association study (GWAS) but have not been validated in independent studies. The aim of this analysis was to determine if these SNPs are associated with QUS measurements assessed in a large independent population of European middle-aged and elderly men. The association between these SNPs and bone mineral density (BMD) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was also tested. Methods Men aged 40-79 years (N = 2960) were recruited from population registers in seven European centres for participation in an observational study of male ageing, the European Male Ageing Study (EMAS). QUS at the calcaneus was measured in all subjects and blood was taken for genetic analysis. Lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) BMD were measured by DXA in a subsample of 620 men in two centres. SNPs associated with BUA or SOS in the Framingham study with p < 10-4 were selected and genotyped using SEQUENOM technology. Linear regression was used to test for the association between SNPs and standardised (SD) bone outcomes under an additive genetic model adjusting for centre. The same direction of effect and p < 0.05 indicated replication. Results Thirty-four of 38 selected SNPs were successfully genotyped in 2377 men. Suggestive evidence of replication was observed for a single SNP, rs3754032, which was associated with a higher SOS (β(SD) = 0.07, p = 0.032) but not BUA (β(SD) = 0.02, p = 0.505) and is located in the 3'UTR of WDR77 (WD repeat domain 77) also known as androgen receptor cofactor p44. A single SNP, rs238358, was associated with BMD at the LS (β(SD) = -0.22, p = 0.014), FN (β(SD) = -0.31,p = 0.001) and TH (β(SD) = -0.36, p = 0.002) in a locus previously associated with LS BMD in large-scale GWAS

  15. The Association of Statin Use with Age-Related Macular Degeneration Progression The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 Report Number 9

    PubMed Central

    Al-Holou, Shaza N.; Tucker, William R.; Agrón, Elvira; Clemons, Traci E.; Cukras, Catherine; Ferris, Frederick L.; Chew, Emily Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objective/purpose To evaluate the association of statin use with progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Preplanned, prospective cohort study within a controlled clinical trial of oral supplementation for age-related eye diseases. Subjects Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 participants, aged 50 to 85 years. Methods Factors, including age, gender, smoking status, aspirin use, and history of diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, angina, and stroke, all known to be associated with statin use, were included in a logistic regression model to estimate propensity scores for each participant. Age-adjusted proportional hazards regression models, with and without propensity score matching, were performed to evaluate the association of statin use with progression to late AMD. Analyses were also performed adjusting for the competing risk of death. Main Outcome Measures Baseline and annual stereoscopic fundus photographs were assessed centrally by masked graders for the development of late AMD, either neovascular AMD or geographic atrophy (GA). Results Of the 3791 participants (2462 with bilateral large drusen and 1329 with unilateral late AMD at baseline), 1659 (43.8%) were statin users. The overall analysis, with no matching of propensity scores and no adjustment for death as a competing risk, showed that statin use was not associated with progression to late AMD (hazard ratios [HR] of 1.08, 95% confidence intervals [CI] of 0.83–1.41, P=0.56). When matched for propensity scores and adjusted for death as a competing risk, the result was not statistically significant with HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.55–1.20, P=0.29. Further subgroup analyses of persons with or without late AMD at baseline to the various components of late AMD (neovascular, central geographic atrophy, or any geographic atrophy) also showed no statistically significant association of statin use with progression to AMD. Conclusions Statin use was not statistically significantly associated with the

  16. Geographic Region, Weather, Pilot Age and Air Carrier Crashes: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C.; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G.; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis and commuter air carriers. Methods A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (n=373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus, recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (n=746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration’s aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 – 7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 – 4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 – 0.87). Neither pilot age nor total flight time was significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. Conclusions The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety. PMID:19378910

  17. Adiposity, obesity, and arterial aging: longitudinal study of aortic stiffness in the Whitehall II cohort.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Eric J; Shipley, Martin J; Ahmadi-Abhari, Sara; Tabak, Adam G; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Marmot, Michael G; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Kivimaki, Mika

    2015-08-01

    We sought to determine whether adiposity in later midlife is an independent predictor of accelerated stiffening of the aorta. Whitehall II study participants (3789 men; 1383 women) underwent carotid-femoral applanation tonometry at the mean age of 66 and again 4 years later. General adiposity by body mass index, central adiposity by waist circumference and waist:hip ratio, and fat mass percent by body impedance were assessed 5 years before and at baseline. In linear mixed models adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and mean arterial pressure, all adiposity measures were associated with aortic stiffening measured as increase in pulse wave velocity (PWV) between baseline and follow-up. The associations were similar in the metabolically healthy and unhealthy, according to Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria excluding waist circumference. C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 levels accounted for part of the longitudinal association between adiposity and PWV change. Adjusting for chronic disease, antihypertensive medication and risk factors, standardized effects of general and central adiposity and fat mass percent on PWV increase (m/s) were similar (0.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.24, P=0.003; 0.17, 0.08-0.27, P<0.001; 0.14, 0.05-0.22, P=0.002, respectively). Previous adiposity was associated with aortic stiffening independent of change in adiposity, glycaemia, and lipid levels across PWV assessments. We estimated that the body mass index-linked PWV increase will account for 12% of the projected increase in cardiovascular risk because of high body mass index. General and central adiposity in later midlife were strong independent predictors of aortic stiffening. Our findings suggest that adiposity is an important and potentially modifiable determinant of arterial aging.

  18. Room Temperature Aging Study of Butyl O-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Wilson

    2009-08-07

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Tests showed that sealing force values for these suspect o-rings were much lower than expected and their physical properties were very sensitive to further post curing at elevated temperatures. Further testing confirmed that these o-rings were approximately 50% cured versus the typical industry standard of > 90% cured. Despite this condition, all suspect o-rings fully conformed to their QC acceptance requirements, including their individual product drawing requirements.

  19. Using CForest to Analyze Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Study of White Matter Integrity in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    McWhinney, Sean R; Tremblay, Antoine; Chevalier, Thérèse M; Lim, Vanessa K; Newman, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    Healthy aging has been associated with a global reduction in white matter integrity, which is thought to reflect cognitive decline. The present study aimed to investigate this reduction over a broad range of the life span, using diffusion tensor imaging analyzed with conditional inference random forest modeling (CForest). This approach is sensitive to subtle and potentially nonlinear effects over the age continuum and was used to characterize the progression of decline in greater detail than has been possible in the past. Data were collected from 45 healthy individuals ranging in age from 19 to 67 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was estimated using probabilistic tractography for a number of major tracts across the brain. Age coincided with a nonlinear decrease in FA, with onset beginning at ∼30 years of age and the steepest declines occurring later in life. However, several tracts showed a transient increase before this decline. The progression of decline varied by tract, with steeper but later decline occurring in more anterior tracts. Finally, strongly right-handed individuals demonstrated relatively preserved FA until more than a decade following the onset of decline of others. These results demonstrate that using a novel, nonparametric analysis approach, previously reported reductions in FA with healthy aging were confirmed, while at the same time, new insight was provided into the onset and progression of decline, with evidence suggesting increases in integrity continuing into adulthood.

  20. Age-Related Weakness of Proximal Muscle Studied with Motor Cortical Mapping: A TMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Plow, Ela B.; Varnerin, Nicole; Cunningham, David A.; Janini, Daniel; Bonnett, Corin; Wyant, Alexandria; Hou, Juliet; Siemionow, Vlodek; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Machado, Andre G.; Yue, Guang H.

    2014-01-01

    Aging-related weakness is due in part to degeneration within the central nervous system. However, it is unknown how changes to the representation of corticospinal output in the primary motor cortex (M1) relate to such weakness. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method of cortical stimulation that can map representation of corticospinal output devoted to a muscle. Using TMS, we examined age-related alterations in maps devoted to biceps brachii muscle to determine whether they predicted its age-induced weakness. Forty-seven right-handed subjects participated: 20 young (22.6±0.90 years) and 27 old (74.96±1.35 years). We measured strength as force of elbow flexion and electromyographic activation of biceps brachii during maximum voluntary contraction. Mapping variables included: 1) center of gravity or weighted mean location of corticospinal output, 2) size of map, 3) volume or excitation of corticospinal output, and 4) response density or corticospinal excitation per unit area. Center of gravity was more anterior in old than in young (p<0.001), though there was no significant difference in strength between the age groups. Map size, volume, and response density showed no significant difference between groups. Regardless of age, center of gravity significantly predicted strength (β = −0.34, p = 0.005), while volume adjacent to the core of map predicted voluntary activation of biceps (β = 0.32, p = 0.008). Overall, the anterior shift of the map in older adults may reflect an adaptive change that allowed for the maintenance of strength. Laterally located center of gravity and higher excitation in the region adjacent to the core in weaker individuals could reflect compensatory recruitment of synergistic muscles. Thus, our study substantiates the role of M1 in adapting to aging-related weakness and subtending strength and muscle activation across age groups. Mapping from M1 may offer foundation for an examination of mechanisms

  1. Syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers in China: a three-site cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjie; Dumenci, Levent; Morisky, Donald E; Xu, Yongfang; Li, Xiaojing; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study addresses the lack of empirical studies about the epidemic of syphilis among middle-aged female sex workers (FSWs). The objectives of this study were to investigate prevalence of syphilis, and its potential risk factors among middle-aged FSWs in China. Design A cross-sectional study with respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Setting A multisite study conducted at three Chinese cites (Nanning, Hefei, and Qingdao) with different levels of sexually transmitted diseases in 2014. Participants 1245 middle-aged female sex workers who were over 35 years old (about 400 per study site). Main outcome measures Unprotected commercial sex, and syphilis and HIV infection were biologically tested and measured. Results The RDS-adjusted prevalence of active syphilis was 17.3% in Hefei, 9.9% in Qingdao, and 5.4% in Nanning. The RDS-adjusted prevalence of prevalent syphilis was between 6.8% and 33.6% in the three cities. The proportion of unprotected sex in the past 48 h verified by the prostate-specific antigen test (PSA) was between 27.8% and 42.4%. Multiple log-binomial regression analyses indicate that middle-aged FSWs who had 5 or more clients in the past week prior to interviews and engaged in unprotected sex were more likely to be active syphilitic cases. Middle-aged FSWs who had rural residency were less likely to be active syphilitic cases. Conclusions In contrast with previous studies that reported low prevalence of syphilis and high prevalence of protected sex among FSWs in China, both the prevalence of syphilis and unprotected sex were high among middle-aged FSWs. Evidence-based intervention programmes should be developed and evaluated among this vulnerable population in China and other countries with similar settings. PMID:27165644

  2. The Rush Memory and Aging Project: study design and baseline characteristics of the study cohort.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Mendes de Leon, Carlos; Bienias, Julia L; Wilson, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    The long-term objective of the Rush Memory and Aging Project is to identify the postmortem indices linking genetic and environmental risk factors to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The overall study design involves a detailed assessment of risk factors for AD in older persons without known dementia who agree to annual clinical evaluation and organ donation at the time of death. In contrast to other clinical-pathologic studies which are conducted on special populations, the Rush Memory and Aging Project enrolled a cohort with much greater diversity in terms of educational attainment, in addition to gender, race, and ethnicity. From September of 1997 through April of 2005, more than 1,000 older persons without known dementia from more than 30 residential facilities across the Chicago metropolitan area agreed to participate. Their mean age was 81 years, about a third had 12 or fewer years of education, a third were men, and about 10% were members of a racial or ethnic minority group. More than 950 already have completed their baseline clinical evaluation.

  3. A lifecourse study of bone resorption in men ages 49-51years: the Newcastle Thousand Families cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Relton, C L; Groom, A; Peaston, R T; Francis, R M

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that bone health in adulthood is programmed by development in utero. Most previous investigations addressing this topic have focussed on bone mineral density or content, rather than other indicators of bone health, such as biochemical markers of bone turnover. This study investigated whether potential predictors, from different stages of life, influence bone resorption in men aged 49-51years in the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort. The cohort originally consisted of all 1142 births in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK in May and June 1947. Detailed information was collected prospectively during childhood, including birth weight and socio-economic circumstances. At 49-51years of age, 574 study members completed a detailed 'Health and Lifestyle' questionnaire, including the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire and 412 study members attended for clinical examination, including 172 men in whom bone resorption was assessed by measurement of serum beta C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX). A significant trend was seen between increasingly disadvantaged socio-economic status at birth and increased bone resorption (p=0.04, r-squared 2.6%). However, birth weight, standardised for sex and gestational age, was not associated with serum CTX (p=0.77, r-squared 0.05%). Significant trends were also seen between increasing total energy intake (p=0.03, r-squared 2.9%), dietary intake of saturated fat (p=0.02, r-squared 2.6%), protein (p=0.04, r-squared 2.5%) and carbohydrates (p=0.04, r-squared 2.6%) and higher serum CTX. However, on adjustment for total energy intake, none of the other dietary variables was significant at the univariate level maintained significance. Our findings suggest that early socio-economic disadvantage and later dietary factors may be associated with increased bone resorption in middle aged men. However, as little of the variance in serum CTX was explained by the variables

  4. Longitudinal selectivity in aging populations: separating mortality-associated versus experimental components in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, Ulman; Singer, Tania; Baltes, Paul B

    2002-11-01

    The authors examined 3.7-year selectivity in the Berlin Aging Study by comparing the T1 parent sample (N = 516) with the T3 sample (N = 206). Selectivity was partitioned into a mortality-associated component, reflecting the degree to which individuals still alive at T3 (T3 survivors, N = 313) differ from the T1 parent sample (N = 516) from which they originated, and an experimental component, reflecting the degree to which the T3 sample (N = 206) differed from T3 survivors (N = 313). Across 48 variables representing medical, sensorimotor, cognitive, personality-related, and socioeconomic domains, the mortality-associated component accounted for 64% of total selectivity, and the experimental component for 36% (0.18 vs 0.10 SD units; t = 7.20, p <.01). Except for age and intelligence, experimental selectivity effects regarding means and prevalence rates were generally small. Partitioning selectivity into mortality-associated and experimental components is a useful tool in the longitudinal study of aging populations.

  5. Aging Studies of 2nd Generation BaBar RPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Band, H.R.; /SLAC

    2007-09-25

    The BaBar detector, operating at the PEPII B factory of the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), installed over 200 2nd generation Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) in 2002. The streamer rates produced by backgrounds and signals from normal BaBar running vary considerably (0.1- >20 Hz/cm2) depending on the layer and position of the chambers, thus providing a broad spectrum test of RPC performance and aging. The lowest rate chambers have performed very well with stable efficiencies averaging 95%. Other chambers had rate-dependant inefficiencies due to Bakelite drying which were reversed by the introduction of humidified gases. RPC inefficiencies in the highest rate regions of the higher rate chambers have been observed and also found to be rate dependant. The inefficient regions grow with time and have not yet been reduced by operation with humidified input gas. Three of these chambers were converted to avalanche mode operation and display significantly improved efficiencies. The rate of production of HF in the RPC exhaust gases was measured in avalanche and streamer mode RPCs and found to be comparable despite the lower current of the avalanche mode RPCs.

  6. Laboratory studies of immersion and deposition mode ice nucleation of ozone aged mineral dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanji, Z. A.; Welti, A.; Chou, C.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-09-01

    Ice nucleation in the atmosphere is central to the understanding the microphysical properties of mixed-phase and cirrus clouds. Ambient conditions such as temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), as well as aerosol properties such as chemical composition and mixing state play an important role in predicting ice formation in the troposphere. Previous field studies have reported the absence of sulfate and organic compounds on mineral dust ice crystal residuals sampled at mountain top stations or aircraft based measurements despite the long-range transport mineral dust is subjected to. We present laboratory studies of ice nucleation for immersion and deposition mode on ozone aged mineral dust particles for 233 < T < 263 K. Heterogeneous ice nucleation of untreated kaolinite (Ka) and Arizona Test Dust (ATD) particles is compared to corresponding aged particles that are subjected to ozone concentrations of 0.4-4.3 ppmv in a stainless steel aerosol tank. The portable ice nucleation counter (PINC) and immersion chamber combined with the Zurich ice nucleation chamber (IMCA-ZINC) are used to conduct deposition and immersion mode measurements, respectively. Ice active fractions as well as ice active surface site densities (ns) are reported and observed to increase as a function of decreasing temperature. We present first results that demonstrate enhancement of the ice nucleation ability of aged mineral dust particles in both the deposition and immersion mode due to ageing. We also present the first results to show a suppression of heterogeneous ice nucleation activity without the condensation of a coating of (in)organic material. In immersion mode, low ozone exposed Ka particles showed enhanced ice activity requiring a median freezing temperature of 1.5 K warmer than that of untreated Ka, whereas high ozone exposed ATD particles showed suppressed ice nucleation requiring a median freezing temperature of 3 K colder than that of untreated ATD. In deposition mode, low

  7. A controlled study of suicide in middle-aged and older people: personality traits, age, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Draper, Brian; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego; Snowdon, John

    2014-04-01

    Personality traits were examined using the NEO Five-Factor Inventory-Revised in an Australian psychological autopsy study involving 259 suicide deaths and 181 sudden death controls aged 35 years and over. Interviews included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to determine the presence of psychiatric disorder. Personality traits of suicide deaths differed significantly from those of controls, scoring higher in the Neuroticism and Openness to Experience domains and lower on the Agreeableness and Extraversion domains. These findings varied with the presence of psychiatric disorder and by age. High Neuroticism scores were the most consistent finding in people who died by suicide, although these scores decreased in older suicides.

  8. Childhood predictors of military fitness: a prospective, community-based, follow-up study from age 8 to age 18.

    PubMed

    Multimäki, Petteri; Sourander, Andre; Nikolakaros, Georgios; Helenius, Hans; Aronen, Eeva; Tamminen, Tuula; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Piha, Jorma; Almqvist, Fredrik; Parkkola, Kai

    2008-02-01

    Knowledge of the impact of childhood psychosocial problems on success in military service is scarce. The purpose of the study was to assess whether childhood psychosocial problems are associated with suitability for military service. The subjects were 2,622 Finnish boys born in 1981. They were first assessed with the Rutter parent and teacher questionnaires and self-reports (Children's Depression Inventory) at age 8. Their suitability for military service was assessed at age 18. A wide range of childhood problems, especially internalizing disorders, predicted release from military service. All informants had predictive association with later suitability for military service. The majority of children with psychiatric problems were later estimated to be fit for military service. The results show a predictive association between childhood psychiatric problems and early adult psychosocial impairment, as estimated by the ability to serve in the military forces.

  9. The Walnuts and Healthy Aging Study (WAHA): Protocol for a Nutritional Intervention Trial with Walnuts on Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Sujatha; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Cofán, Montserrat; Sabaté, Joan; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Pérez-Heras, Ana M; Arechiga, Adam; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Alforja, Socorro; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Doménech, Mónica; Roth, Irene; Freitas-Simoes, Tania M; Calvo, Carlos; López-Illamola, Anna; Haddad, Ella; Bitok, Edward; Kazzi, Natalie; Huey, Lynnley; Fan, Joseph; Ros, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: An unwanted consequence of population aging is the growing number of elderly at risk of neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia and macular degeneration. As nutritional and behavioral changes can delay disease progression, we designed the Walnuts and Healthy Aging (WAHA) study, a two-center, randomized, 2-year clinical trial conducted in free-living, cognitively healthy elderly men and women. Our interest in exploring the role of walnuts in maintaining cognitive and retinal health is based on extensive evidence supporting their cardio-protective and vascular health effects, which are linked to bioactive components, such as n-3 fatty acids and polyphenols. Methods: The primary aim of WAHA is to examine the effects of ingesting walnuts daily for 2 years on cognitive function and retinal health, assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests and optical coherence tomography, respectively. All participants followed their habitual diet, adding walnuts at 15% of energy (≈30-60 g/day) (walnut group) or abstaining from walnuts (control group). Secondary outcomes include changes in adiposity, blood pressure, and serum and urinary biomarkers in all participants and brain magnetic resonance imaging in a subset. Results: From May 2012 to May 2014, 708 participants (mean age 69 years, 68% women) were randomized. The study ended in May 2016 with a 90% retention rate. Discussion: The results of WAHA might provide high-level evidence of the benefit of regular walnut consumption in delaying the onset of age-related cognitive impairment and retinal pathology. The findings should translate into public health policy and sound recommendations to the general population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01634841).

  10. The Walnuts and Healthy Aging Study (WAHA): Protocol for a Nutritional Intervention Trial with Walnuts on Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Rajaram, Sujatha; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Cofán, Montserrat; Sabaté, Joan; Serra-Mir, Mercè; Pérez-Heras, Ana M.; Arechiga, Adam; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P.; Alforja, Socorro; Sala-Vila, Aleix; Doménech, Mónica; Roth, Irene; Freitas-Simoes, Tania M.; Calvo, Carlos; López-Illamola, Anna; Haddad, Ella; Bitok, Edward; Kazzi, Natalie; Huey, Lynnley; Fan, Joseph; Ros, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: An unwanted consequence of population aging is the growing number of elderly at risk of neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia and macular degeneration. As nutritional and behavioral changes can delay disease progression, we designed the Walnuts and Healthy Aging (WAHA) study, a two-center, randomized, 2-year clinical trial conducted in free-living, cognitively healthy elderly men and women. Our interest in exploring the role of walnuts in maintaining cognitive and retinal health is based on extensive evidence supporting their cardio-protective and vascular health effects, which are linked to bioactive components, such as n-3 fatty acids and polyphenols. Methods: The primary aim of WAHA is to examine the effects of ingesting walnuts daily for 2 years on cognitive function and retinal health, assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests and optical coherence tomography, respectively. All participants followed their habitual diet, adding walnuts at 15% of energy (≈30–60 g/day) (walnut group) or abstaining from walnuts (control group). Secondary outcomes include changes in adiposity, blood pressure, and serum and urinary biomarkers in all participants and brain magnetic resonance imaging in a subset. Results: From May 2012 to May 2014, 708 participants (mean age 69 years, 68% women) were randomized. The study ended in May 2016 with a 90% retention rate. Discussion: The results of WAHA might provide high-level evidence of the benefit of regular walnut consumption in delaying the onset of age-related cognitive impairment and retinal pathology. The findings should translate into public health policy and sound recommendations to the general population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01634841). PMID:28119602

  11. A longitudinal study on emotional dysregulation and obesity risk: From pregnancy to 3 years of age of the baby.

    PubMed

    de Campora, Gaia; Larciprete, Giovanni; Delogu, Anna Maria; Meldolesi, Cristina; Giromini, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Some recent findings indicate that maternal sensitivity and emotional regulation may play a key role in predicting the risk for obesity of the child in early ages. The current article describes a longitudinal study encompassing more than 50 women, across a time-span that currently goes from pregnancy (n = 65) to three years of age of the baby (n = 53). In a previous report on our ongoing research project, we showed that emotional regulation during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted the quality of the early, dyadic feeding interactions, at 7 months of age of the baby. The current study confirmed and extended those findings, by showing that maternal emotional dysregulation (r = .355, p = .009) and pre-pregnancy BMI (r = .389, p = .004) predicted the BMI of the child at three years of age too, with a medium to large effect size. However, neither maternal emotional regulation nor pre-pregnancy BMI significantly predicted infant attachment at one year of age.

  12. A longitudinal study of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in dairy cows from birth to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Trout, James M; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-05-26

    Fecal specimens were collected from 30 calves from birth to 24 months of age at a dairy farm in Maryland to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis genotypes in cattle of different ages. Fecal samples were subjected to density gradient centrifugation to remove debris and concentrate cysts. Specimens were analyzed by immunofluorescence microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All PCR positive specimens were sequenced using the SSU-rRNA gene of Giardia. All 30 calves shed G. duodenalis cysts at some time during the study. Of 990 specimens, 312 were positive for G. duodenalis (31.5%). The highest prevalence of infection occurred at weeks 4 and 5 of age with 25 out of 30 calves shedding cysts at those sampling times. Overall, pre-weaned calves (<8 weeks of age) exhibited the highest prevalence (60.8%), followed by post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age) (32.1%) and heifers (12-24 months of age) (11.4%). Sequence analysis of the 312 PCR-positive samples revealed the presence of both Assemblages A and E, G. duodenalis, with cumulative prevalences of 70% and 100%, respectively. Assemblage A was not detected in pre-weaned calves, but was detected in 6.9% and 4.7% of post-weaned calves and heifers, respectively. These data indicate not only that calves are infected with both Assemblages A and E simultaneously, but also that infections with zoonotic Assemblage A, G. duodenalis are more common than previously reported. Thus, calves appear to be a more significant reservoir of human infectious G. duodenalis than previous data have suggested.

  13. Bem Sex Role Inventory Validation in the International Mobility in Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the measurement structure of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with different factor analysis methods. Most previous studies on validity applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to examine the BSRI. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of the 12-item short-form BSRI in a sample administered to 1,995 older adults from wave 1 of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess psychometric properties. EFA revealed a three-factor model, further confirmed by CFA and compared with the original two-factor structure model. Results revealed that a two-factor solution (instrumentality-expressiveness) has satisfactory construct validity and superior fit to data compared to the three-factor solution. The two-factor solution confirms expected gender differences in older adults. The 12-item BSRI provides a brief, psychometrically sound, and reliable instrument in international samples of older adults.

  14. Hearing Loss as a Function of Aging and Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon; Kim, MyungGu; Chung, Ji Hyun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2014-01-01

    Background Although hearing loss may be caused by various factors, it is also a natural phenomenon associated with the aging process. This study was designed to assess the contributions of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, both chronic diseases associated with aging, as well as aging itself, to hearing loss in health screening examinees. Methods This study included 37,773 individuals who underwent health screening examinations from 2009 to 2012. The relationships between hearing threshold and subject age, hearing threshold at each frequency based on age group, the degree of hearing loss and the presence or absence of hypertension and DM were evaluated. Results The prevalence of hearing loss increased with age, being 1.6%, 1.8%, 4.6%, 14.0%, 30.8%, and 49.2% in subjects in their twenties, thirties, forties, fifties, sixties, and seventies, respectively (p<0.05). Hearing value per frequency showed aging-based changes, in the order of 6000, 4000, 2000, 1000 and 500 Hz, indicating greater hearing losses at high frequencies. The degree of hearing loss ranged from mild to severe. Aging and DM were correlated with the prevalence of hearing loss (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant association between hearing loss and hypertension after adjusting for age and DM. Conclusions The prevalence of hearing loss increases with age and the presence of DM. Hearing loss was greatest at high frequencies. In all age groups, mild hearing loss was the most common form of hearing loss. PMID:25549095

  15. When Anti-Aging Studies Meet Cancer Chemoprevention: Can Anti-Aging Agent Kill Two Birds with One Blow?

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Noriko N; Denmon, Andria; Uchio, Edward M; Jordan, Mark; Mercola, Dan; Zi, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence has strongly supported that the rate of aging is controlled, at least to some extent, by evolutionarily conserved nutrient sensing pathways (e.g. the insulin/IGF-1-signaling, mTOR, AMPK, and sirtuins) from worms to humans. These pathways are also commonly involved in carcinogenesis and cancer metabolism. Agents (e.g. metformin, resveratrol, and Rhodiola) that target these nutrient sensing pathways often have both anti-aging and anti-cancer efficacy. These agents not only reprogram energy metabolism of malignant cells, but also target normal postmitotic cells by suppressing their conversion into senescent cells, which confers systematic metabolism benefits. These agents are fundamentally different from chemotherapy (e.g. paclitaxel and doxorubicin) or radiation therapy that causes molecular damage (e.g. DNA and protein damages) and thereby no selection resistance may be expected. By reviewing molecular mechanisms of action, epidemiological evidence, experimental data in tumor models, and early clinical study results, this review provides information supporting the promising use of agents with both anti-aging and anti-cancer efficacy for cancer chemoprevention.

  16. Doctoral Curriculum Studies in an Age of Shifting Boundaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansaldo, Jim; Goodman, Jesse

    2002-01-01

    Describes faculty and student experiences involving efforts to restructure the curriculum-studies doctoral program at Indiana University in light of shifting and ambiguous field boundaries. (Contains 26 references.) ((PKP)

  17. Dental cementum in age estimation: a polarized light and stereomicroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kasetty, Sowmya; Rammanohar, M; Raju Ragavendra, T

    2010-05-01

    Dental hard tissues are good candidates for age estimation as they are less destructive and procedures to determine age can be easily performed. Although cementum annulations and cementum thickness are important parameters in this regard, they are seldom used. This study was undertaken to review the methods, difficulties in execution of techniques, and accuracy of cementum thickness and annulations in estimating the age. Unstained and stained ground sections of tooth were used to measure cemental thickness and count cemental annulations based on which age was estimated and was compared with known age. Although there was positive relation between cemental thickness and annulations with age, only in 1-1.5% of cases, age could be predicted with accuracy.

  18. DIETARY CARBOHYDRATE AND PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION, A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM THE AGE-RELATED EYE DISEASE STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cross-sectional studies indicate that diets that provide a higher dietary glycemic index (dGI) are associated with increased risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). No prospective studies have addressed this issue. Methods dGI was calculated as the weighted average of GIs from foo...

  19. Reddening and age of six poorly studied star clusters of the Large Magellanic Cloud derived from integrated spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minniti, J. H.; Ahumada, A. V.; Clariá, J. J.; Benítez-Llambay, A.

    2014-05-01

    Aims: To increase the number of studied star clusters (SCs) of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), we present flux-calibrated integrated spectra in the optical range (λ = 3700-6800 Å) for six poorly studied LMC SCs of IVA type. This type corresponds to the age range between 200 and 400 Myr. We also aim at creating a new template spectrum representative of this age range at the metallicity level of the LMC. Methods: Foreground reddening E(B - V) values and ages are derived by applying the template matching method that consists of comparing the line strengths and continuum distribution of the cluster spectra with those of template cluster spectra with known properties. The equivalent width (EW) of the Balmer lines and the diagnostic diagrams involving the sum of EWs of selected spectral lines were also employed as age indicators. Results: For the first time, we provide estimates of the clusters' reddenings and ages. As expected, all the clusters appear to be of nearly the same age, their mean value being (400 ± 100) Myr, while the resulting mean E(B - V) values range between 0.00 and 0.10 mag. Conclusions: The present cluster sample complements previous ones in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. By averaging the reddening-corrected integrated spectra, weighted by their signal-to-noise ratios (S/N), a new high S/N template spectrum of 400 Myr has been created. Integrated spectra for each star cluster are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/565/A49

  20. Cancer and frailty in older adults: a nested case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cárdenas-Cárdenas, Eduardo; Cesari, Matteo; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Understanding how the convergence between chronic and complex diseases—such as cancer—and emerging conditions of older adults—such as frailty—takes place would help in halting the path that leads to disability in this age group. The objective of this manuscript is to describe the association between a past medical history of cancer and frailty in Mexican older adults. Methods This is a nested in cohort case-control study of the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Frailty was categorized by developing a 55-item frailty index that was also used to define cases in two ways: incident frailty (incident >0.25 frailty index score) and worsening frailty (negative residuals from a regression between 2001 and 2012 frailty index scores). Exposition was defined as self-report of cancer between 2001 and 2012. Older adults with a cancer history were further divided into recently diagnosed (<10 years) and remotely diagnosed (>10 years from the initial diagnosis). Odds ratios were estimated by fitting a logistic regression adjusted for confounding variables. Results Out of a total of 8022 older adults with a mean age of 70.6 years, the prevalence of a past medical history of cancer was 3.6 % (n = 288). Among these participants, 45.1 % had been diagnosed with cancer more than 10 years previously. A higher risk of incident frailty compared to controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.53 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04–2.26, p = 0.03); adjusted model OR 1.74 (95 % CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.008)] was found in the group with a recent cancer diagnosis. Also, an inverse association between a remote cancer diagnosis and worsening frailty was found [OR = 0.56 (95 % CI 0.39–0.8), p = 0.002; adjusted model OR 0.61 (95 % CI 0.38–0.99, p = 0.046)]. Conclusions Cancer is associated with a higher frailty index, with a potential relevant role of the time that has elapsed since the cancer diagnosis. Implications for cancer survivors Cancer survivors may be more likely to develop frailty or

  1. Influence of social support on cognitive change and mortality in old age: results from the prospective multicentre cohort study AgeCoDe

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Social support has been suggested to positively influence cognition and mortality in old age. However, this suggestion has been questioned due to inconsistent operationalisations of social support among studies and the small number of longitudinal studies available. This study aims to investigate the influence of perceived social support, understood as the emotional component of social support, on cognition and mortality in old age as part of a prospective longitudinal multicentre study in Germany. Methods A national subsample of 2,367 primary care patients was assessed twice over an observation period of 18 months regarding the influence of social support on cognitive function and mortality. Perceived social support was assessed using the 14-item version of the FSozU, which is a standardised and validated questionnaire of social support. Cognition was tested by the neuropsychological test battery of the Structured Interview for the Diagnosis of Dementia (SIDAM). The influence of perceived support on cognitive change was analysed by multivariate ANCOVA; mortality was analysed by multivariate logistic and cox regression. Results Sample cognitive change (N = 1,869): Mean age was 82.4 years (SD 3.3) at the beginning of the observation period, 65.9% were female, mean cognition was 49 (SD 4.4) in the SIDAM. Over the observation period cognitive function declined in 47.2% by a mean of 3.4 points. Sample mortality (N = 2,367): Mean age was 82.5 years (SD 3.4), 65.7% were female and 185 patients died during the observation period. Perceived social support showed no longitudinal association with cognitive change (F = 2.235; p = 0.135) and mortality (p = 0.332; CI 0.829-1.743). Conclusions Perceived social support did not influence cognition and mortality over an 18 months observation period. However, previous studies using different operationalisations of social support and longer observation periods indicate that such an influence may exist. This influence is

  2. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  3. Executed and Imagined Bimanual Movements: A Study across Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedimonte, Alessandro; Garbarini, Francesca; Rabuffetti, Marco; Pia, Lorenzo; Berti, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Movements with both hands are essential to our everyday life, and it has been shown that performing asymmetric bimanual movements produces an interference effect between hands. There have been many studies--using varying methods--investigating the development of bimanual movements that show that this skill continues to evolve during childhood and…

  4. Exploring Aging Attitudes through a Puppet Making Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteland, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    Intergenerational programs often reduce ageism and stereotypical thinking. This author uses a mixed methods case study to investigate how attitudes may change when older adults and children participate in an intergenerational art project. The research question, "Is there a positive correlation in children's attitudes toward older adults and…

  5. Heterochronic parabiosis for the study of the effects of aging on stem cells and their niches

    PubMed Central

    Conboy, Irina M.; Rando, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    Aging is unmistakable and undeniable in mammals. Interestingly, mice develop cataracts, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes and cognitive deficits after just 2–3 postnatal years, while it takes seven or more decades for the same age-specific phenotypes to develop in humans. Thus, chronological age corresponds differently with biological age in metazoan species and although many theories exist, we do not understand what controls the rate of mammalian aging. One interesting idea is that species-specific rate of aging represents a ratio of tissue attrition to tissue regeneration. Furthermore, current findings suggest that the age-imposed biochemical changes in the niches of tissue stem cells inhibit performance of this regenerative pool, which leads to the decline of tissue maintenance and repair. If true, slowing down stem cell and niche aging, thereby promoting tissue regeneration, could slow down the process of tissue and organismal aging. In this regard, recent studies of heterochronic parabiosis provide important clues as to the mechanisms of stem cell aging and suggest novel strategies for enhancing tissue repair in the old. Here we review current literature on the relationship between the vigor of tissue stem cells and the process of aging, with an emphasis on the rejuvenation of old tissues by the extrinsic modifications of stem cell niches. PMID:22617385

  6. A quantitative study on accumulation of age mass around stagnation points in nested flow systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Wan, Li; Ge, Shemin; Cao, Guo-Liang; Hou, Guang-Cai; Hu, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xu-Sheng; Li, Hailong; Liang, Si-Hai

    2012-12-01

    The stagnant zones in nested flow systems have been assumed to be critical to accumulation of transported matter, such as metallic ions and hydrocarbons in drainage basins. However, little quantitative research has been devoted to prove this assumption. In this paper, the transport of age mass is used as an example to demonstrate that transported matter could accumulate around stagnation points. The spatial distribution of model age is analyzed in a series of drainage basins of different depths. We found that groundwater age has a local or regional maximum value around each stagnation point, which proves the accumulation of age mass. In basins where local, intermediate and regional flow systems are all well developed, the regional maximum groundwater age occurs at the regional stagnation point below the basin valley. This can be attributed to the long travel distances of regional flow systems as well as stagnancy of the water. However, when local flow systems dominate, the maximum groundwater age in the basin can be located around the local stagnation points due to stagnancy, which are far away from the basin valley. A case study is presented to illustrate groundwater flow and age in the Ordos Plateau, northwestern China. The accumulation of age mass around stagnation points is confirmed by tracer age determined by 14C dating in two boreholes and simulated age near local stagnation points under different dispersivities. The results will help shed light on the relationship between groundwater flow and distributions of groundwater age, hydrochemistry, mineral resources, and hydrocarbons in drainage basins.

  7. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  8. Auxiliary feedwater system aging study. Volume 2, Phase 1: Follow-on study

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I follow-on study of the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) System that has been conducted for the US Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging research Program. The Phase I study found a number of significant AFW System functions that are not being adequately tested by conventional test methods and some that are actually being degraded by conventional testing. Thus, it was decided that this follow-on study would focus on these testing omissions nd equipment degradation. The deficiencies in current monitoring and operating practice are categorized and evaluated. Areas of component degradation caused by current practice are discussed. Recommendations are made for improved diagnostic methods and test procedures.

  9. Study of cnidarian-algal symbiosis in the "omics" age.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eli; Weis, Virginia M

    2012-08-01

    The symbiotic associations between cnidarians and dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) support productive and diverse ecosystems in coral reefs. Many aspects of this association, including the mechanistic basis of host-symbiont recognition and metabolic interaction, remain poorly understood. The first completed genome sequence for a symbiotic anthozoan is now available (the coral Acropora digitifera), and extensive expressed sequence tag resources are available for a variety of other symbiotic corals and anemones. These resources make it possible to profile gene expression, protein abundance, and protein localization associated with the symbiotic state. Here we review the history of "omics" studies of cnidarian-algal symbiosis and the current availability of sequence resources for corals and anemones, identifying genes putatively involved in symbiosis across 10 anthozoan species. The public availability of candidate symbiosis-associated genes leaves the field of cnidarian-algal symbiosis poised for in-depth comparative studies of sequence diversity and gene expression and for targeted functional studies of genes associated with symbiosis. Reviewing the progress to date suggests directions for future investigations of cnidarian-algal symbiosis that include (i) sequencing of Symbiodinium, (ii) proteomic analysis of the symbiosome membrane complex, (iii) glycomic analysis of Symbiodinium cell surfaces, and (iv) expression profiling of the gastrodermal cells hosting Symbiodinium.

  10. Selective effects of aging on brain white matter microstructure: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    PubMed

    Michielse, Stijn; Coupland, Nick; Camicioli, Richard; Carter, Rawle; Seres, Peter; Sabino, Jennifer; Malykhin, Nikolai

    2010-10-01

    We examined age-related changes in the cerebral white matter. Structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and diffusion tensor images (DTIs) were acquired from 69 healthy subjects aged 22-84 years. Quantitative DTI tractography was performed for nine different white matter tracts to determine tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial, and radial diffusivities. We used automated and manual segmentation to determine volumes of gray matter (GM), white mater (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and intracranial space. The results showed significant effects of aging on WM, GM, CSF volumes, and selective effects of aging on structural integrity of different white matter tracts. WM of the prefrontal region was the most vulnerable to aging, while temporal lobe connections, cingulum, and parieto-occipital commissural connections showed relative preservation with age. This study was cross-sectional, and therefore, additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  11. Accuracy of age estimation methods from orthopantomograph in forensic odontology: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Khorate, Manisha M; Dinkar, A D; Ahmed, Junaid

    2014-01-01

    Changes related to chronological age are seen in both hard and soft tissue. A number of methods for age estimation have been proposed which can be classified in four categories, namely, clinical, radiological, histological and chemical analysis. In forensic odontology, age estimation based on tooth development is universally accepted method. The panoramic radiographs of 500 healthy Goan, Indian children (250 boys and 250 girls) aged between 4 and 22.1 years were selected. Modified Demirjian's method (1973/2004), Acharya AB formula (2011), Dr Ajit D. Dinkar (1984) regression equation, Foti and coworkers (2003) formula (clinical and radiological) were applied for estimation of age. The result of our study has shown that Dr Ajit D. Dinkar method is more accurate followed by Acharya Indian-specific formula. Furthermore, in this study by applying all these methods to one regional population, we have attempted to present dental age estimation methodology best suited for the Goan Indian population.

  12. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  13. Sexual dimorphism of facial appearance in ageing human adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, Miriama; Dupej, Ján; Koudelová, Jana; Velemínská, Jana

    2015-12-01

    In the forensic sciences, knowledge of facial ageing is very important in searching for both dead and living individuals. Ageing estimations typically model the biological profile, which can be compared to missing persons. The main goals of this current study were to construct ageing trajectories for adult human faces of both sexes and evaluate sexual dimorphism in relation to static allometry. Our study was based on the analysis of three-dimensional facial surface models of 194 individuals 20-80 years of age. The evaluation consisted of a dense correspondence analysis of facial scans and multivariate statistics. It was shown that both age and sex have a significant influence on facial form and shape. Male features included a longer face, with more protruded foreheads, eyebrow ridges and nose, including the region under the upper lip and mandible region, but more retruded cheeks compared to females. Ageing in both sexes shared common traits, such as more pronounced roundness of the face (rectangular in males), decreased facial convexity, increased visibility of skin folds and wrinkles connected with the loss of skin elasticity, and soft tissue stretching, especially in the orbital area and lower face; however, male faces exhibited more intense ageing changes. The above-mentioned sexual dimorphic traits tended to diminish in the elderly age category, though overall sexual dimorphism was heightened with age. The static allometric relationships between size and form or shape were similar in both sexes, except that the larger faces of elderly males displayed more intensive ageing changes.

  14. Dissecting mechanisms of brain aging by studying the intrinsic excitability of neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Valerio; Richman, Jeffrey; Puthanveettil, Sathyanarayanan V.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies using vertebrate and invertebrate animal models have shown aging associated changes in brain function. Importantly, changes in soma size, loss or regression of dendrites and dendritic spines and alterations in the expression of neurotransmitter receptors in specific neurons were described. Despite this understanding, how aging impacts intrinsic properties of individual neurons or circuits that govern a defined behavior is yet to be determined. Here we discuss current understanding of specific electrophysiological changes in individual neurons and circuits during aging. PMID:25610394

  15. Cumulative Lead Exposure and Tooth Loss in Men: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manish; Weuve, Jennifer; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Nie, Huiling; Garcia, Raul I.; Hu, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals previously exposed to lead remain at risk because of endogenous release of lead stored in their skeletal compartments. However, it is not known if long-term cumulative lead exposure is a risk factor for tooth loss. Objectives We examined the association of bone lead concentrations with loss of natural teeth. Methods We examined 333 men enrolled in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study. We used a validated K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) method to measure lead concentrations in the tibial midshaft and patella. A dentist recorded the number of teeth remaining, and tooth loss was categorized as 0, 1–8 or ≥ 9 missing teeth. We used proportional odds models to estimate the association of bone lead biomarkers with tooth loss, adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes, and other putative confounders. Results Participants with ≥ 9 missing teeth had significantly higher bone lead concentrations than those who had not experienced tooth loss. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, men in the highest tertile of tibia lead (> 23 μg/g) and patella lead (> 36 μg/g) had approximately three times the odds of having experienced an elevated degree of tooth loss (≥ 9 vs. 0–8 missing teeth or ≥ 1 vs. 0 missing teeth) as those in the lowest tertile [prevalence odds ratio (OR) = 3.03; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.60–5.76 and OR = 2.41; 95% CI, 1.30–4.49, respectively]. Associations between bone lead biomarkers and tooth loss were similar in magnitude to the increased odds observed in participants who were current smokers. Conclusion Long-term cumulative lead exposure is associated with increased odds of tooth loss. PMID:20019902

  16. Paleointensity study on obsidians of Pleistocene Age from Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Sandra; Ferk, Annika; Kirscher, Uwe; Leonhardt, Roman; Meliksetian, Khachatur; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Dingwell, Donald; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2014-05-01

    Volcanic glass is often considered an ideal recording material for paleointensities. Experiments to determine the ancient field intensity are time consuming and mostly have low success rates. Studies have shown that the usage of glassy samples can increase success rates very much as the remanence carriers are in or close to the single domain range. However, it was found that hydration and/or devitrification may falsify the results and maybe hard to identify. Here we investigate up to ~6 myr old subaerial obsidians of rhyolitic composition from Armenia to examine time dependencies in such processes and to obtain high quality field records. We present data from 60 subaerial obsidian samples from nine volcanic structures of Armenia. Almost all samples show a linear directional component which trends towards the origin of projection in both thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments. The 1.75 and ~6myr old glasses are inversely magnetized while all other samples show normal polarity. Titanomagnetites with varying titanium content and Curie temperatures at 190 to 270°C and 530° to 570°C, respectively, were revealed to be the remanence carriers. Almost all thermomagnetic curves are reversible underlining the thermal stability of the material. Thellier-type experiments with alteration and tail checks were used to determine paleointensities. Virtual axial dipole moments of 4.6*1022 Am2 (0.5Ma), 8.6*1022 Am2 (0.65Ma), 9.4*1022 Am2 (1.5Ma), 6.9*1022 Am2 and 7.3*1022 Am2 (~6 Ma) were found which agrees well with published reference data (Channell et al., 2009). The thermal stability, low alteration and good accordance with other data support the suitability of glassy materials for geomagnetic field studies and also shows the potential of subaerial obsidian to identify the source areas of prehistoric obsidian artefacts.

  17. M31AGES: Studying the intermediate-aged populations in the satellites, smooth halo, and substructure of Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamren, Katherine; Beaton, Rachael; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Majewski, Steven R.; M31AGES Survey Team

    2016-01-01

    Recent large-scale surveys of M31 have enabled the study of its satellites, smooth halo, and substructure in exquisite detail. In particular, the Spectroscopic Landscape of Andromeda's Stellar Halo (SPLASH) survey has obtained moderate resolution optical spectra with the DEIMOS spectrograph on the Keck II/10-m telescope, and optical photometry from various ground-based telescopes. These data have been used to map the kinematics and metallicity distributions in the dSphs and dEs, detect and characterize substructure, and study the large-scale radial surface brightness and metallicity profiles of the "smooth" halo. Notwithstanding this progress [or] In spite of these advances, there are a number of outstanding questions that cannot be answered with these data alone, including the fraction of the halo that was formed in situ vs by accretion, and the degeneracy between massive early accretion events and less massiverecent accretion events. The M31 Asymptotic Giant Extended Survey (M31AGES) aims to address these questions by using NIR photometry to identify intermediate-age AGB stars in the satellites, streams, and smoothhalo of M31. We present the details of the observations (now completed), the plan for public release of data products, and preliminary results.

  18. Longitudinal MR imaging study in the prediction of ischemic susceptibility after cerebral hypoperfusion in rats: Influence of aging and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lee, J-T; Liu, H-L; Yang, J-T; Yang, S-T; Lin, J-R; Lee, T-H

    2014-01-17

    Our previous study has shown that aging and hypertension may alter apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) and increase ischemic susceptibility in the non-ischemic rat brain. The present study wishes to further investigate whether aging and hypertension may influence cerebral diffusion/perfusion and increase ischemic susceptibility in the ischemic brain. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was examined 1day before and 1 and 7days after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Young and middle-aged normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats and young and middle-aged spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were studied. Infarction occurred mainly in the parietal cortex and was larger in middle-aged SHRs than the other three groups (P<0.05). In pre-operation, ADC was higher and CBF was lower in middle-aged/hypertensive rats than young/normotensive rats (P<0.05). The ADC was higher in the parietal cortex of the rats with infarction at 7days when compared to the rats without infarction [receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), P=0.001; binary logistic regression (BLR), P=0.006]. However, there was no difference in the hippocampus and thalamus. At day 1 post-operation, CBF reduced and ADC/CBF ratio elevated significantly in the parietal cortex of the rats with infarction when compared to the rats without infarction (CBF: ROC, P=0.002; BLR, P=0.017. ADC/CBF ratio: ROC, P=0.001; BLR, P=0.018). Our results demonstrated that pre-operation ADC and post-operation CBF and ADC/CBF ratio can be used as good MR markers in the prediction of ischemic susceptibility after cerebral hypoperfusion.

  19. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, T E; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, R M; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children's exposure to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare problem. In the first prospective-longitudinal study with repeated telomere measurements in children while they experienced stress, we tested the hypothesis that childhood violence exposure would accelerate telomere erosion from age 5 to age 10 years. Violence was assessed as exposure to maternal domestic violence, frequent bullying victimization and physical maltreatment by an adult. Participants were 236 children (49% females; 42% with one or more violence exposures) recruited from the Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort. Each child's mean relative telomere length was measured simultaneously in baseline and follow-up DNA samples, using the quantitative PCR method for T/S ratio (the ratio of telomere repeat copy numbers to single-copy gene numbers). Compared with their counterparts, the children who experienced two or more kinds of violence exposure showed significantly more telomere erosion between age-5 baseline and age-10 follow-up measurements, even after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (B=-0.052, s.e.=0.021, P=0.015). This finding provides support for a mechanism linking cumulative childhood stress to telomere maintenance, observed already at a young age, with potential impact for life-long health.

  20. The applicability of Willems' method for age estimation in southern Turkish children: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Onat Altan, Halenur; Altan, Ahmet; Bilgiç, Fundagül; Akıncı Sözer, Özlem; Damlar, İbrahim

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of Willems' method for assessing southern Turkish children and to analyze the practicability of this method in different age groups for both genders. Panoramic radiographs of 756 children (378 females, 378 males) aged between 5 and 14.99 years were examined by one observer. This retrospective study involved a contemporary southern Turkish population. The chronological ages of the subjects were divided into 10 groups. These 10 groups consisted of children of the following ages 5 and 14.99. Relationships between continuous variables were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. The paired t-test was used to compare all data according to gender and age groups. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered significant for all statistical data. According to the results, a very high correlation was found for both girls (r(2) = 0.946) and for boys (r(2) = 0.940). Dental age (DA) and chronological age (CA) were consistent for girls in the four age groups (5-5.99, 6-6.99, 12-12.99, and 14-14.99) and for boys in the three age groups (5-5.99,13-13.99, 14-14.99). The maturity score of Willems' Belgian samples of the DA was applicable to seven groups of the southern Turkish children. The present study reports that Willems' method is more accurate for girls than for boys.

  1. Aging and DNA damage in humans: a meta-analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Cortinhas, António; Bento, Teresa; Leitão, José Carlos; Collins, Andrew R.; Gaivã, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2014-01-01

    Age-related DNA damage is regarded as one of the possible explanations of aging. Although a generalized idea about the accumulation of DNA damage with age exists, results found in the literature are inconsistent. To better understand the question of age-related DNA damage in humans and to identify possible moderator variables, a meta-analysis was conducted. Electronic databases and bibliographies for studies published since 2004 were searched. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for age-related DNA damage were calculated in a random-effects model. A total of 76 correlations from 36 studies with 4676 participants were included. Based on our analysis, a correlation between age and DNA damage was found (r = 0.230, p = 0.000; 95% confidence interval = 0.111 - 0.342). The test for heterogeneity of variance indicates that the study´s results are significantly high (Q (75) = 1754.831, p = 0.000). Moderator variables such as smoking habits, technique used, and the tissue/sample analyzed, are shown to influence age-related DNA damage (p=0.026; p=0.000; p=0.000, respectively). Nevertheless, sex did not show any influence on this relation (p=0.114). In conclusion, this meta-analysis showed an association between age and DNA damage in humans. It was also found that smoking habits, the technique used, and tissue/sample analyzed, are important moderator variables in age-related DNA damage. PMID:25140379

  2. A serum miRNA profile of human longevity: findings from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA)

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Christine; Gorospe, Myriam; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gill, Thomas M.; Slack, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    In C. elegans, miRNAs are genetic biomarkers of aging. Similarly, multiple miRNAs are differentially expressed between younger and older persons, suggesting that miRNA-regulated biological mechanisms affecting aging are evolutionarily conserved. Previous human studies have not considered participants' lifespans, a key factor in identifying biomarkers of aging. Using PCR arrays, we measured miRNA levels from serum samples obtained longitudinally at ages 50, 55, and 60 from 16 non-Hispanic males who had documented lifespans from 58 to 92. Numerous miRNAs showed significant changes in expression levels. At age 50, 24 miRNAs were significantly upregulated, and 73 were significantly downregulated in the long-lived subgroup (76-92 years) as compared with the short-lived subgroup (58-75 years). In long-lived participants, the most upregulated was miR-373-5p, while the most downregulated was miR-15b-5p. Longitudinally, significant Pearson correlations were observed between lifespan and expression of nine miRNAs (p value<0.05). Six of these nine miRNAs (miR-211-5p, 374a-5p, 340-3p, 376c-3p, 5095, 1225-3p) were also significantly up- or downregulated when comparing long-lived and short-lived participants. Twenty-four validated targets of these miRNAs encoded aging-associated proteins, including PARP1, IGF1R, and IGF2R. We propose that the expression profiles of the six miRNAs (miR-211-5p, 374a-5p, 340-3p, 376c-3p, 5095, and 1225-3p) may be useful biomarkers of aging. PMID:27824314

  3. Age-Based Methods to Explore Time-Related Variables in Occupational Epidemiology Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Janice P. Watkins, Edward L. Frome, Donna L. Cragle

    2005-08-31

    Although age is recognized as the strongest predictor of mortality in chronic disease epidemiology, a calendar-based approach is often employed when evaluating time-related variables. An age-based analysis file, created by determining the value of each time-dependent variable for each age that a cohort member is followed, provides a clear definition of age at exposure and allows development of diverse analytic models. To demonstrate methods, the relationship between cancer mortality and external radiation was analyzed with Poisson regression for 14,095 Oak Ridge National Laboratory workers. Based on previous analysis of this cohort, a model with ten-year lagged cumulative radiation doses partitioned by receipt before (dose-young) or after (dose-old) age 45 was examined. Dose-response estimates were similar to calendar-year-based results with elevated risk for dose-old, but not when film badge readings were weekly before 1957. Complementary results showed increasing risk with older hire ages and earlier birth cohorts, since workers hired after age 45 were born before 1915, and dose-young and dose-old were distributed differently by birth cohorts. Risks were generally higher for smokingrelated than non-smoking-related cancers. It was difficult to single out specific variables associated with elevated cancer mortality because of: (1) birth cohort differences in hire age and mortality experience completeness, and (2) time-period differences in working conditions, dose potential, and exposure assessment. This research demonstrated the utility and versatility of the age-based approach.

  4. Polymer Filler Aging and Failure Studied by Lateral Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ratto, T; Saab, A P

    2009-05-27

    In the present work, we study, via force microscopy, the basic physical interactions of a single bead of silica filler with a PDMS matrix both before and after exposure to gamma radiation. Our goal was to confirm our results from last year, and to explore force microscopy as a means of obtaining particle-scale polymer/filler interactions suitable for use as empirical inputs to a computational model consisting of an ensemble of silica beads embedded in a PDMS matrix. Through careful calibration of a conventional atomic force microscope, we obtained both normal and lateral force data that was fitted to yield adhesion, surface shear modulus, and friction of a 1 {micro}m silica bead in contact with PDMS layers of various thickness. Comparison of these terms before and after gamma exposure indicated that initially, radiation exposure lead to softening of the PDMS, but eventually resulted in stiffening. Simultaneously, adhesion between the polymer and silica decreased. This could indicate a serious failure path for filled PDMS exposed to radiation, whereby stiffening of the bulk polymer leads to loss of compressive elastic behavior, while a decrease in polymer filler adhesion results in an increased likelihood of stress failure under load. In addition to further testing of radiation damaged polymers, we also performed FEA modeling of silica beads in a silicone matrix using the shear modulus and adhesion values isolated from the force microscopy experiments as model inputs. The resulting simulation indicated that as a polymer stiffens due to impinging radiation, it also undergoes weakening of adhesion to the filler. The implication is that radiation induces a compound failure mode in filled polymer systems.

  5. The Trouble with Isochrone Ages for Field Stars: A Cautionary Tale for Solar Neighbourhood Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pont, F.; Eyer, L.

    2005-01-01

    Computing ages from theoretical isochrones for large numbers of field dwarfs is becoming standard practice to study the history of the Galaxy from the solar neighbourhood record. Ages are usually read off the nearest model isochrone in parameter space. In the wake of the publication of the Geneva-Copenhagen Solar Neighbourhood Survey, we have reconsidered the isochrone age method. We find that isochrone ages for field dwarfs are subject to enormous systematic biases, and simple analysis methods e.g., scatter plots, are not appropriate. More evolved statistical treatments are essential for meaningful results (Bayesian estimates, inverse approach).

  6. Hippocampus age-related microstructural changes in schizophrenia: a case-control mean diffusivity study.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-08-01

    Macrostructural-volumetric abnormalities of the hippocampus have been described in schizophrenia. Here, we characterized age-related changes of hippocampal mean diffusivity as an index of microstructural damage by carrying out a neuroimaging study in 85 patients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of schizophrenia and 85 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We performed analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor, mean diffusivity as dependent variable and age as covariate. Patients showed an early increase in mean diffusivity in the right and left hippocampus that increased with age. Thus, microstructural hippocampal changes associated with schizophrenia cannot be confined to a specific time window.

  7. Gestational Age at Birth and 'Body-Mind' Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Frances M; Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Kelleher, Cecily C; Tremblay, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate's physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000-2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children's general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent's general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32-36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%-6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2-2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies.

  8. Gestational Age at Birth and ‘Body-Mind’ Health at 5 Years of Age: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Segurado, Ricardo; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Kelleher, Cecily C.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the effects of prematurity on the neonate’s physical health, however few studies have explored the effects of prematurity on both the physical and mental health of the child as they develop. Secondary analysis of data from the Millennium Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of infants (n = 18 818, born 2000–2002 in the United Kingdom) was performed. Effects of gestational age at birth on health outcomes at 5 years were measured using parental rating of their children’s general health and severity of behavior problems. The association between parent’s general health ratings and behavior problem ratings was low: 86% of those reporting serious behavior problems (5% of the sample, n = 764) rated their child as being in excellent, very good, or good health. Still, a gradient of increasing risk of poorer outcome with decreasing gestational age was observed for a composite health measure (poor/fair health and/or serious behavior problems), suggesting an association with prematurity for this composite assessment of health status. The greatest contribution to the childhood composite health measure at 5 years was for children born at 32–36 weeks gestation: population attributable fractions for having poor outcomes was 3.4% (Bonferroni-adjusted 95% confidence interval 1.1%–6.2%), compared to 1% (0.2–2.3) for birth at less than 32 weeks. Results suggest that preterm children, by school entry, are not only at high risk of physical health problems, but also of behavioral health problems. The recognition of, and response to comprehensive health and well-being outcomes related to prematurity are important in order to correctly plan and deliver adequate paediatric health services and policies. PMID:26975048

  9. Baseline Characteristics of the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Population: Predicting Recognition Acuity at 4.5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Lynn, Michael J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To identify patient baseline characteristics that predict recognition acuity at 4.5 years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study, a study of patients with monocular infantile cataracts. Methods. We analyzed baseline characteristics of the 114 infants enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study to determine which were most predictive of visual outcome at 4.5 years of age. All infants underwent cataract surgery between 1 and 7 months of age. Monocular acuity was assessed at 4.5 years of age by a traveling examiner using the Amblyopia Treatment Study HOTV protocol. Results. Age at cataract surgery was weakly associated with visual acuity (Spearman rank correlation coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.041) with median visual acuity better among the younger patients (28–48 days: 0.50 logMAR, 49–210 days: 1.10 logMAR, P = 0.046). Patients from families with private insurance had significantly better median visual acuity (0.60 vs. 1.40 logMAR, P = 0.0004). No other baseline characteristic revealed a significant bivariate relationship with visual acuity. A multiple linear regression relating visual acuity to all baseline characteristics demonstrated that only the availability of private insurance was statistically significant, accounting for 12% of the variance. Conclusions. This analysis concurs with previous studies that early surgery is important for good visual outcomes in patients with unilateral infantile cataracts. The fact that only one baseline variable (private insurance) contributed to the multivariate analysis, accounting for 12% of the variance, suggests that predicting visual outcome for these patients is complicated at best, and cannot be estimated from baseline characteristics alone. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00212134.) PMID:25503455

  10. A study of aged population and associated health risks in rural India.

    PubMed

    Yadava, K N; Yadava, S S; Vajpeyi, D K

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence of age-related diseases in different socioeconomic and demographic groups. The study is based on a sample of 267 aged persons (> 60 years) collected through a survey entitled "Aging and Health Conditions in Rural Area-A Sample Survey, 1990" conducted in the rural areas of the Varanasi district of Uttar Pradesh, a northern province of India. Various socio-behavioral factors are found to play a significant role in determining the health conditions of aged people. Also, illiteracy and poverty are found to have their own impact on health during aging. It is also noted that due to adverse familial relationships, many stress-related disorders occur which may result in the poor health of the elderly. Demands for old age pensions were made by most of the elderly people in the sample.

  11. Aging of nuclear station diesel generators: Evaluation of operating and expert experience: Phase 1, Study

    SciTech Connect

    Hoopingarner, K.R.; Vause, J.W.; Dingee, D.A.; Nesbitt, J.F.

    1987-08-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory evaluated operational and expert experience pertaining to the aging degradation of diesel generators in nuclear service. The research, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), identified and characterized the contribution of aging to emergency diesel generator failures. This report, Volume I, reviews diesel-generator experience to identify the systems and components most subject to aging degradation and isolates the major causes of failure that may affect future operational readiness. Evaluations show that as plants age, the percent of aging-related failures increases and failure modes change. A compilation is presented of recommended corrective actions for the failures identified. This study also includes a review of current, relevant industry programs, research, and standards. Volume II reports the results of an industry-wide workshop held on May 28 and 29, 1986 to discuss the technical issues associated with aging of nuclear service emergency diesel generators.

  12. Effect of locally delivered IGF-1 on nerve regeneration during aging: an experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Apel, Peter J; Ma, Jianjun; Callahan, Michael; Northam, Casey N; Alton, Timothy B; Sonntag, William E; Li, Zhongyu

    2010-03-01

    Age is an important predictor of neuromuscular recovery after peripheral nerve injury. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a potent neurotrophic factor that is known to decline with increasing age. The purpose of this study was to determine if locally delivered IGF-1 would improve nerve regeneration and neuromuscular recovery in aged animals. Young and aged rats underwent nerve transection and repair with either saline or IGF-1 continuously delivered to the site of the nerve repair. After 3 months, nerve regeneration and neuromuscular junction morphology were assessed. In both young and aged animals, IGF-1 significantly improved axon number, diameter, and density. IGF-1 also significantly increased myelination and Schwann cell activity and preserved the morphology of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ). These results show that aged regenerating nerve is sensitive to IGF-1 treatment.

  13. Contribution of NIRS to the Study of Prefrontal Cortex for Verbal Fluency in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlaoui, Karima; Di Sante, Gabriele; Barbeau, Joannie; Maheux, Manon; Lesage, Frederic; Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Healthy aging is characterized by a number of changes on brain structure and function. Several neuroimaging studies have shown an age-related reduction in hemispheric asymmetry on various cognitive tasks, a phenomenon captured by Cabeza (2002) in the Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Older Adults (HAROLD) model. Although this phenomenon is…

  14. A Twin-Study of Sleep Difficulties in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Alice M.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines frequency, overlap, and genetic and environmental influences on sleep difficulties, which are understudied in school-aged children. The Sleep Self Report and the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire were completed by 300 twin pairs (aged 8 years) and their parents. Child report suggested more frequent sleep problems than…

  15. A Pilot Study of Urinary Peptides as Biomarkers for Intelligence in Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Lorna M.; Mullen, William; Zurbig, Petra; Harris, Sarah E.; Gow, Alan J.; Starr, John M.; Porteous, David J.; Mischak, Harald; Deary, Ian J.

    2011-01-01

    Intelligence is an important indicator of physical, mental and social well-being. In old age, intelligence is also associated with a higher quality of life and better health. Heritability studies have shown that there are strong genetic influences, yet unknown, on intelligence, including in old age. Other approaches may be useful to investigate…

  16. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  17. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Navreet; Puri, Taruna; Gulati, Ritika; Kashyap, Rita

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth and a correlation, if any, among the three variables. Materials and methods: The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 80 subjects (40 males, 40 females; age range: 10 to 19 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman, frontal sinus width was measured by the method described by Ertürk and antegonial notch depth as described by Singer et al. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients were estimated to assess the relationship of chronological age with cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, frontal sinus width and antegonial notch depth. Results: The Pearson’s correlation coefficient were 0.855 (p < 0.001) between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and 0.333 (p < 0.001) between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Conclusion: A highly significant positive correlation was found between chronological age and cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and between chronological age and frontal sinus width. Nonsignificant correlation was found between chronological age and antegonial notch depth. How to cite this article: Singh S, Sandhu N, Puri T, Gulati R, Kashyap R. A Study of Correlation of Various Growth Indicators with Chronological Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 190-195. PMID:26628853

  18. Exercise induces age-dependent changes on epigenetic parameters in rat hippocampus: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Elsner, Viviane Rostirola; Lovatel, Gisele Agustini; Moysés, Felipe; Bertoldi, Karine; Spindler, Christiano; Cechinel, Laura Reck; Muotri, Alysson Renato; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2013-02-01

    Regular exercise improves learning and memory, including during aging process. Interestingly, the imbalance of epigenetic mechanisms has been linked to age-related cognitive deficits. However, studies about epigenetic alterations after exercise during the aging process are rare. In this preliminary study we investigated the effect of aging and exercise on DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) and H3-K9 methylation levels in hippocampus from 3 and 20-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two exercise protocols: single session or chronic treadmill protocol. DNMT1 and H3-K9 methylation levels were decreased in hippocampus from aged rats. The single exercise session decreased both DNMT3b and DNMT1 levels in young adult rats, without any effect in the aged group. Both exercise protocols reduced H3-K9 methylation levels in young adult rats, while the single session reversed the changes on H3-K9 methylation levels induced by aging. Together, these results suggest that an imbalance on DNMTs and H3-K9 methylation levels might be linked to the brain aging process and that the outcome to exercise seems to vary through lifespan.

  19. Cannabis use, gender and age of onset of schizophrenia: data from the ÆSOP study.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Kim; Doody, Gillian A; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Hart, Jozella; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Maccabe, James H

    2014-03-30

    An earlier age of onset of schizophrenia has been identified as a poor prognostic indicator. The current study examines the interaction effect of gender and cannabis use on age of onset of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This research forms part of a two-centre epidemiological study of first-episode psychosis and included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and an age of onset between age 16 and 45. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare the effects of cannabis use and gender on age of first symptom of schizophrenia. Akaike's information criteria were used to find the model with the best fit to the data. Cannabis users had an earlier age of first symptom than non-users. There was an interaction with gender; the gender difference in age of onset was diminished in cannabis smokers compared with non-cannabis smokers. The model including cannabis use interacting with gender was the most parsimonious model, followed by cannabis use alone. The addition of other illegal drug use did not improve the model. Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, and the gender difference in age of onset is reduced among cannabis smokers.

  20. Aging and the Aged in the Third World: Part I. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutlive, Vinson H., Ed.; And Others

    Problems regarding the aged in developing nations are examined. The aging of populations is now a global phenomenon, with crucial implications for the developing as well as the developed nations. Six articles are presented: "Introduction, Perspectives on Aging in the Third World" (Jay Sokolovsky), "What Can the Industrial World…

  1. Species diversity can be overestimated by a fixed empirical threshold: insights from DNA barcoding of the genus Cletus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and the meta-analysis of COI data from previous phylogeographical studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guang; Lv, Min-Hua; Yi, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Wei-Bing; Bu, Wen-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The use of genetic distances to identify species within the framework of DNA barcoding has to some extent improved the development of biodiversity studies. However, using a fixed empirical threshold to delimit species may lead to overestimating species diversity. In this study, we use a new data set of COI sequences for 366 specimens within the genus of Cletus as well as conduct an analysis on the same genetic data for collected morphologically defined species from previous phylogeographical studies, to test whether high intraspecific genetic divergences are common with the premises of comprehensive sampling. The results indicate C. graminis Hsiao & Cheng , is the same species with C. punctiger (Dallas, 1852) and should be synonymized and that the distributional record of C. pugnator (Fabricius, 1787) in China is correct. High intraspecific genetic differentiations (0%-4.35%) were found in C. punctiger. Furthermore, as to the mined data, the maximum intraspecific K2P distances of 186 species (48.44% of 384) exceed 3%, and 101 species (26.30%) can be divided into two or more clusters with a threshold of 3% in cluster analysis. If genetic distance is used to delimit species boundaries, the minimum interspecific K2P distance of the congeneric species should be considered rather than only using the fixed empirical value; otherwise, the species richness may be overestimated in some cases.

  2. [Dementia in the focus of health research : A comparative analysis of current ageing studies].

    PubMed

    Illiger, Kristin; Walter, Ulla; Koppelin, Frauke

    2017-03-23

    Health research on an increasingly aging population calls for careful consideration of aging-associated phenomena, such as dementia. Accounting for such diseases is a necessary step for gaining a view of health in the elderly. It is moreover imperative to gather data on subjects' mental limitations in surveys to better evaluate the validity of answers disclosed by elderly participants. This article discusses the availability of data on individuals suffering from dementia in national studies on aging. It centers on the question of how surveys respond to the challenge of diagnosing dementia. The analysis is based on a literature review, which focuses on national studies on aging that were conducted no later than 2005, and that enforced an upper age limit of at least 79 years old for their subjects. By evaluating these published studies, and analyzing their data descriptively, it was determined how many subjects suffering from dementia were part of each sample, and which methods were applied to diagnose such illnesses. Overall, the availability of data on age and aging is satisfactory in Germany. The literature review discovered seven studies on aging, as well as five that lend themselves to a framework oriented toward research on aging. The number of subjects suffering from dementia in the samples is between 0 and 14% - over half of the studies reach less than 1.5% of those affected. These results thus point out problems in surveying individuals suffering from dementia. They highlight the limitations of studies on aging that do not account for dementia in their subjects. The following discussion aims to contribute to the debate on relevant research methodology, and to the development of methodological approaches that consider dementia as a crucial factor.

  3. Overweight and obesity in young and middle age and early retirement: the ARIC study.

    PubMed

    Houston, Denise K; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine associations between weight status in young and middle age and early retirement in African-American and white men and women. Data were from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Analyses were restricted to participants aged 45-55 years at baseline (n = 6,483). Associations between weight status at age 25 and ages 45-55 and age at early retirement (prior to age 65) over 9 years of follow-up were examined using proportional hazard regression analyses in models stratified by race and gender. Models were adjusted for education, household income, health insurance status, occupation, occupational physical activity, marital status, smoking, and field center. Between 18.7 and 21.6% of African-American and white men and women reported retiring prior to age 65. Although not always statistically significant, overweight and obesity were associated with early retirement in all but white women. Overweight (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) at age 25 was significantly associated with early retirement in African-American women (hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.62 (1.17-2.23)) and white men (1.32 (1.12-1.57)). There was also a trend between overweight at age 25 and early retirement in African-American men (1.43 (0.99-2.07)). Obesity (BMI >or= 30 kg/m(2)) in middle age was significantly associated with early retirement in white men only (1.32 (1.03-1.69)). Furthermore, overweight at age 25 and obesity at ages 45-55 were associated with early retirement for health reasons among African-American and white men and women. In conclusion, analyses of the economic impact of obesity may need to consider its effects on early retirement.

  4. High-definition optical coherence tomography intrinsic skin ageing assessment in women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Boone, M A L M; Suppa, M; Marneffe, A; Miyamoto, M; Jemec, G B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-10-01

    Several non-invasive two-dimensional techniques with different lateral resolution and measurable depth range have proved to be useful in assessing and quantifying morphological changes in skin ageing. Among these, only in vivo microscopy techniques permit histometric measurements in vivo. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related (IAR) morphological changes of epidermis, dermo-epidermal junction (DEJ), papillary dermis (PD), papillary-reticular dermis junction and reticular dermis (RD) have been performed by high-definition optical coherence tomography in real time 3-D. HD-OCT images were taken at the internal site of the right upper arm. Qualitative HD-OCT IAR descriptors were reported at skin surface, at epidermal layer, DEJ, PD and upper RD. Quantitative evaluation of age-related compaction and backscattered intensity or brightness of different skin layers was performed by using the plugin plot z-axis profile of ImageJ(®) software permitting intensity assessment of HD-OCT (DICOM) images (3-D images). Analysis was in blind from all clinical information. Sixty, fair-skinned (Fitzpatrick types I-III) healthy females were analysed retrospectively in this study. The subjects belonged to three age groups: twenty in group I aged 20-39, twenty in group II aged 40-59 and twenty in group III aged 60-79. Only intrinsic ageing in women has been studied. Significant age-related qualitative and quantitative differences could be noticed. IAR changes in dermal matrix fibers morphology/organisation and in microvasculature were observed. The brightness and compaction of the different skin layers increased significantly with intrinsic skin ageing. The depth of visibility of fibers in RD increased significantly in the older age group. In conclusion, HD-OCT allows 3-D in vivo and real time qualitative and quantitative assessment of chronological (intrinsic) age-related morphological skin changes at high resolution from skin surface to a depth

  5. Follow-up study of functional and morphological malocclusion trait changes from 3 to 12 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ovsenik, Maja; Farcnik, Franc Marjan; Korpar, Majda; Verdenik, Ivan

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate morphological and functional malocclusion trait changes in 3- to 12-year-old children and to determine whether such functional traits at the 3, 4, and 5 years of age correlated with malocclusion severity score at 12 years of age. Two hundred and sixty-seven children (132 boys, 135 girls) were randomly selected for a follow-up study from a previous cohort of 560 subjects. Functional and morphological traits were clinically assessed. Five functional malocclusion traits: mouth breathing, atypical swallowing, thumb, pacifier sucking, and bottle feeding were assessed and evaluated. Intra-arch assessment involved measurements of incisor crowding, rotation of incisors, and axial inclination of the teeth. For inter-arch measurements, overbite, anterior open bite, overjet, reverse overjet, anterior crossbite, and buccal segment relationships were recorded. The weighted sum of recorded occlusal traits thus represented the total malocclusion severity score. The median morphological malocclusion severity score was almost the same at 3 and 12 years of age, while functional malocclusion decreased. Sucking habits (finger- or dummy-sucking, bottle feeding) until 5 years of age were statistically significantly correlated with an atypical swallowing pattern from 6 to 9 years (Spearman r = 0.178, P = 0.017), which in turn was statistically significantly correlated with the morphological malocclusion severity score (Spearman r = 0.185, P = 0.042) at 12 years of age. At an early age, the morphological severity score is related to the stage of dental development, while at a later period, malocclusion severity score is also the result of incorrect orofacial functions at an early stage of dental development.

  6. Association Between Age at Menarche and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Schoenaker, Danielle A J M; Mishra, Gita D

    2017-03-05

    In this study, we aimed to examine the association between age at menarche and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Data were from 4,749 women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health between 2000 and 2012. Age at menarche was reported at baseline in 2000 when women were aged 22-27 years. During 12 years of follow-up, information on GDM diagnosis was obtained for each live birth. Log-binomial regression analysis was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Analyses adjusted for mother's highest completed educational qualification, nulliparity, polycystic ovary syndrome, physical activity, and body mass index. Mean age at menarche was 12.9 years (standard deviation, 1.4). A first diagnosis of GDM was reported by 357 women (7.5%). Compared with women with menarche at age 13 years, women who had their first menstruation at age ≤11 years had a 51% higher risk of developing GDM (95% confidence interval: 1.10, 2.07) after adjustment for GDM risk factors. Our findings indicate that a young age at menarche may identify women at higher risk of GDM. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings and to elucidate the role of early-life exposures in age at menarche and subsequent GDM risk.

  7. Compatibility and accelerated aging study for Li(Si)/FeS/sub 2 thermally activated batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, J. W.; Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. N.; Poole, R. L.

    1983-12-01

    Thermally activated batteries using the lithium (silicon) iron disulfide (Li(Si)/FeS2) electrochemical system are used in weapons having a required storage life of 25 years and high reliability. A review of known data revealed no information on the compatibility of Li(Si)/FeS2 with the organic materials used in the system. The compatibility question is studied. Accelerated-aging data on pairs of materials were produced. In addition, a group of production batteries was aged and tested. Three aging temperatures were used during the one-year study. Gas analyses, electrical tests and mechanical tests were compared for control and aged samples. Two results, the depletion of oxygen and an increase in hydrogen in the compatibility and accelerated-aging samples, stimulated additional studies. No unexpected or significant changes were observed in the electrical or mechanical properties of the organic materials. Calorific output and chloride ion content of heat pellets indicated no degradation with aging. Ignition sensitivity and burn rate measurements suggested no heat pellet degradation. Oxygen content in aged lithium (silicon) anodes remained within acceptable limits. Single-cell tests and battery test results showed no degradation with aging.

  8. A genome-wide association study implicates the APOE locus in nonpathological cognitive ageing.

    PubMed

    Davies, G; Harris, S E; Reynolds, C A; Payton, A; Knight, H M; Liewald, D C; Lopez, L M; Luciano, M; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Henderson, R; Murray, C; Pattie, A; Fox, H C; Redmond, P; Lutz, M W; Chiba-Falek, O; Linnertz, C; Saith, S; Haggarty, P; McNeill, G; Ke, X; Ollier, W; Horan, M; Roses, A D; Ponting, C P; Porteous, D J; Tenesa, A; Pickles, A; Starr, J M; Whalley, L J; Pedersen, N L; Pendleton, N; Visscher, P M; Deary, I J

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a feared aspect of growing old. It is a major contributor to lower quality of life and loss of independence in old age. We investigated the genetic contribution to individual differences in nonpathological cognitive ageing in five cohorts of older adults. We undertook a genome-wide association analysis using 549 692 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3511 unrelated adults in the Cognitive Ageing Genetics in England and Scotland (CAGES) project. These individuals have detailed longitudinal cognitive data from which phenotypes measuring each individual's cognitive changes were constructed. One SNP--rs2075650, located in TOMM40 (translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog)--had a genome-wide significant association with cognitive ageing (P=2.5 × 10(-8)). This result was replicated in a meta-analysis of three independent Swedish cohorts (P=2.41 × 10(-6)). An Apolipoprotein E (APOE) haplotype (adjacent to TOMM40), previously associated with cognitive ageing, had a significant effect on cognitive ageing in the CAGES sample (P=2.18 × 10(-8); females, P=1.66 × 10(-11); males, P=0.01). Fine SNP mapping of the TOMM40/APOE region identified both APOE (rs429358; P=3.66 × 10(-11)) and TOMM40 (rs11556505; P=2.45 × 10(-8)) as loci that were associated with cognitive ageing. Imputation and conditional analyses in the discovery and replication cohorts strongly suggest that this effect is due to APOE (rs429358). Functional genomic analysis indicated that SNPs in the TOMM40/APOE region have a functional, regulatory non-protein-coding effect. The APOE region is significantly associated with nonpathological cognitive ageing. The identity and mechanism of one or multiple causal variants remain unclear.

  9. Whether age of menarche is influenced by body mass index and lipoproteins profile? a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Farahmand, Maryam; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2012-01-01

    Background: Menarche, a milestone in the reproductive life span of a woman, is influenced by several genetics and environmental factors. There is no consensus regarding the impact of body mass index (BMI) and lipid profiles on the age of menarche, as the results of various studies demonstrate. Objective: To investigate the correlation between age of menarche and BMI/lipoprotein profile in a community sample of Iranian girls. Materials and Methods: In the study, 370 girls, aged 10-16 years, who began their menarche within six months prior to the study, were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) population. Information was documented regarding their body composition, including height, weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference were collected and their lipid profiles were assessed after a 12-hour fast. Results: In this study, the mean±SD of age of menarche and BMI were 12.6±1.1 years and 21.7±3.9 kg/m2, respectively. There were statistically significant relationships between age of menarche and height, BMI, waist circumference, and the maternal educational level. The relationship between age of menarche and the weight and lipid profiles of subjects was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Age at menarche is not influenced by lipid profiles but it is influenced by BMI. PMID:25246895

  10. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102-105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  11. In vitro 3-D model based on extending time of culture for studying chronological epidermis aging.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Morgan; Metral, Elodie; Boher, Aurélie; Rousselle, Patricia; Thepot, Amélie; Damour, Odile

    2015-09-01

    Skin aging is a complex phenomenon in which several mechanisms operate simultaneously. Among them, intrinsic aging is a time-dependent process, which leads to gradual skin changes affecting its structure and function such as thinning down of both epidermal and dermal compartments and a flattening and fragility of the dermo-epidermal junction. Today, several approaches have been proposed for the generation of aged skin in vitro, including skin explants from aged donors and three-dimensional skin equivalent treated by aging-inducing chemical compounds or engineered with human cells isolated from aged donors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new in vitro model of aging based on skin equivalent demonstrating the same phenotypic changes that were observed in chronological aging. By using prolonged culture as a proxy for cellular aging, we extended to 120 days the culture time of a skin equivalent model based on collagen-glycosaminoglycan-chitosan porous polymer and engineered with human skin cells from photo-protected sites of young donors. Morphological, immunohistological and ultrastructural analysis at different time points of the culture allowed characterizing the phenotypic changes observed in our model in comparison to samples of non photo-exposed normal human skin from different ages. We firstly confirmed that long-term cultured skin equivalents are still morphologically consistent and functionally active even after 120 days of culture. However, similar to in vivo chronological skin aging a significant decrease of the epidermis thickness as well as the number of keratinocyte expressing proliferation marker Ki67 are observed in extended culture time skin equivalent. Epidermal differentiation markers loricrin, filaggrin, involucrin and transglutaminase, also strongly decreased. Ultrastructural analysis of basement membrane showed typical features of aged skin such as duplication of lamina densa and alterations of hemidesmosomes. Moreover, the

  12. Mortality Measurement at Advanced Ages: A Study of the Social Security Administration Death Master File

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimates of mortality at advanced ages are essential to improving forecasts of mortality and the population size of the oldest old age group. However, estimation of hazard rates at extremely old ages poses serious challenges to researchers: (1) The observed mortality deceleration may be at least partially an artifact of mixing different birth cohorts with different mortality (heterogeneity effect); (2) standard assumptions of hazard rate estimates may be invalid when risk of death is extremely high at old ages and (3) ages of very old people may be exaggerated. One way of obtaining estimates of mortality at extreme ages is to pool together international records of persons surviving to extreme ages with subsequent efforts of strict age validation. This approach helps researchers to resolve the third of the above-mentioned problems but does not resolve the first two problems because of inevitable data heterogeneity when data for people belonging to different birth cohorts and countries are pooled together. In this paper we propose an alternative approach, which gives an opportunity to resolve the first two problems by compiling data for more homogeneous single-year birth cohorts with hazard rates measured at narrow (monthly) age intervals. Possible ways of resolving the third problem of hazard rate estimation are elaborated. This approach is based on data from the Social Security Administration Death Master File (DMF). Some birth cohorts covered by DMF could be studied by the method of extinct generations. Availability of month of birth and month of death information provides a unique opportunity to obtain hazard rate estimates for every month of age. Study of several single-year extinct birth cohorts shows that mortality trajectory at advanced ages follows the Gompertz law up to the ages 102–105 years without a noticeable deceleration. Earlier reports of mortality deceleration (deviation of mortality from the Gompertz law) at ages below 100 appear to be

  13. Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J; Cassidy, Aedín; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether habitual intake of dietary flavonoids, known for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, affects longitudinal change in lung function. Objective: We investigated whether different flavonoid subclasses present in the habitual diet were associated with beneficial changes in lung function over time in the elderly. Design: This longitudinal analysis included 839 participants from the VA (Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study whose lung function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] was measured at 2 and up to 5 visits between 1992 and 2008 (n = 2623 measurements). Yearly average intake of major flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanins, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaires at each visit. We estimated adjusted differences in annual change in lung function associated with each flavonoid subclass, categorized into quartiles, in linear mixed-effects regression models after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary confounders. Results: Strong inverse associations were found between anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function. Independent of dietary and nondietary risk factors, slower rates of FEV1 and FVC decline by 23.6 (95% CI: 16.6, 30.7) and 37.3 (95% CI: 27.8, 46.8) mL/y, respectively, were observed in participants in the fourth quartile of intake compared with participants in the first quartile (P-trend < 0.0001). The protective associations observed for anthocyanin intake were present in both current/former and never smokers. Compared with no or very low intakes, an intake of ≥2 servings of anthocyanin-rich blueberries/wk was associated with slower decline in FEV1 and FVC by 22.5 (95% CI: 10.8, 34.2) and 37.9 (95% CI: 22.1, 53.7) mL/y, respectively. To a lesser extent, higher flavan-3-ol intake was also associated with slower lung function decline. Conclusions: An attenuation of age-related lung function

  14. Health literacy in old age: results of a German cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Dominique; Schaeffer, Doris; Messer, Melanie; Berens, Eva-Maria; Hurrelmann, Klaus

    2017-03-22

    Health literacy is especially important for older people to maintain or enhance remaining health resources and self-management skills. The aim of the study was to determine the level of health literacy and the association between health literacy, demographic and socio-economic factors in German older adults aged 65 years and above stratified by age group. Health literacy was assessed via computer-assisted personal interviews using HLS-EU-Q47 on a representative sample of the German-speaking population. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses and logistic regression modelling stratified by age group were conducted to assess health literacy of 475 respondents aged 65 years and above. Overall, 66.3% of all respondents aged 65 years and above had limited health literacy. Limited health literacy was especially prevalent among respondents above 76 years of age (80.6%). Limited health literacy was associated with financial deprivation (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 1.99-4.67) and limited functional health literacy (OR: 2.16; 95% CI: 1.29-3.61). Financial deprivation was strongest predictor for limited health literacy in the total sample and stratified by age group. Limited health literacy is a frequent phenomenon in German adults aged 65 years and above. Research on health literacy in old age and the role in health disparities is urgently needed.

  15. Tobacco smoke aging in the presence of ozone: A room-sized chamber study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrick, Lauren M.; Sleiman, Mohamad; Dubowski, Yael; Gundel, Lara A.; Destaillats, Hugo

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to tobacco pollutants that linger indoors after smoking has taken place ( thirdhand smoke, THS) can occur over extended periods and is modulated by chemical processes involving atmospheric reactive species. This study investigates the role of ozone and indoor surfaces in chemical transformations of tobacco smoke residues. Gas and particle constituents of secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as sorbed SHS on chamber internal walls and model materials (cotton, paper, and gypsum wallboard) were characterized during aging. After smoldering 10 cigarettes in a 24-m 3 room size chamber, gas-phase nicotine was rapidly removed by sorption to chamber surfaces, and subsequently re-emitted during ventilation with clean air to a level of ˜10% that during the smoking phase. During chamber ventilation in the presence of ozone (180 ppb), ozone decayed at a rate of 5.6 h -1 and coincided with a factor of 5 less nicotine sorbed to wallboard. In the presence of ozone, no gas phase nicotine was detected as a result of re-emission, and higher concentrations of nicotine oxidation products were observed than when ventilation was performed with ozone-free air. Analysis of the model surfaces showed that heterogeneous nicotine-ozone reaction was faster on paper than cotton, and both were faster than on wallboard. However, wallboard played a dominant role in ozone-initiated reaction in the chamber due to its large total geometric surface area and sink potential compared to the other substrates. This study is the first to show in a room-sized environmental chamber that the heterogeneous ozone chemistry of sorbed nicotine generates THS constituents of concern, as observed previously in bench-top studies. In addition to the main oxidation products (cotinine, myosmine and N-methyl formamide), nicotine-1-oxide was detected for the first time.

  16. Heterogeneous Aging Effects on Functional Connectivity in Different Cortical Regions: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study Using Functional Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Yang, Ya-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Hsin-Long; Chang, Yu-Ling; Tseng, Wen-Yih I

    Brain aging is a complex and heterogeneous process characterized by the selective loss and preservation of brain functions. This study examines the normal aging effects on the cerebral cortex by characterizing changes in functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI data. Previous resting-state fMRI studies on normal aging have examined specific networks of the brain, whereas few studies have examined cortical-cortical connectivities across the entire brain. To characterize the effects of normal aging on the cerebral cortex, we proposed the Pearson functional product-moment correlation coefficient for measuring functional connectivity, which has advantages over the traditional correlation coefficient. The distinct patterns of changes in functional connectivity within and among the four cerebral lobes clarified the effects of normal aging on cortical function. Besides, the advantages of the proposed approach over other methods considered were demonstrated through simulation comparisons. The results showed heterogeneous changes in functional connectivity in normal aging. Specifically, the elderly group exhibited enhanced inter-lobe connectivity between the frontal lobe and the other lobes. Inter-lobe connectivity decreased between the temporal and parietal lobes. The results support the frontal aging hypothesis proposed in behavioral and structural MRI studies. In conclusion, functional correlation analysis enables differentiation of changes in functional connectivities and characterizes the heterogeneous aging effects in different cortical regions.

  17. Heterogeneous Aging Effects on Functional Connectivity in Different Cortical Regions: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study Using Functional Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Yu; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Yang, Ya-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Hsieh, Hsin-Long; Chang, Yu-Ling; Tseng, Wen-Yih I.

    2016-01-01

    Brain aging is a complex and heterogeneous process characterized by the selective loss and preservation of brain functions. This study examines the normal aging effects on the cerebral cortex by characterizing changes in functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI data. Previous resting-state fMRI studies on normal aging have examined specific networks of the brain, whereas few studies have examined cortical-cortical connectivities across the entire brain. To characterize the effects of normal aging on the cerebral cortex, we proposed the Pearson functional product-moment correlation coefficient for measuring functional connectivity, which has advantages over the traditional correlation coefficient. The distinct patterns of changes in functional connectivity within and among the four cerebral lobes clarified the effects of normal aging on cortical function. Besides, the advantages of the proposed approach over other methods considered were demonstrated through simulation comparisons. The results showed heterogeneous changes in functional connectivity in normal aging. Specifically, the elderly group exhibited enhanced inter-lobe connectivity between the frontal lobe and the other lobes. Inter-lobe connectivity decreased between the temporal and parietal lobes. The results support the frontal aging hypothesis proposed in behavioral and structural MRI studies. In conclusion, functional correlation analysis enables differentiation of changes in functional connectivities and characterizes the heterogeneous aging effects in different cortical regions. PMID:27658309

  18. A review of selected longitudinal studies on aging: past findings and future directions.

    PubMed

    Stanziano, Damian C; Whitehurst, Michael; Graham, Patricia; Roos, Bernard A

    2010-10-01

    A review of the 51 longitudinal aging studies currently in the National Institute on Aging Database of Longitudinal Studies was conducted to identify major information gaps and areas for future research. Database information, which included posted study summaries, study details from principal investigators or directors of these projects, and more than 300 recent publications based on the studies, were reviewed to identify significant findings of each study. This review summarizes the main findings and identifies the need for future work within six broad study topics: cognitive function, socioeconomic status, health and physical performance, morbidity and mortality predictors, healthcare costs, and genetics. The percentages of these 51 studies addressing the four most common topics are as follows: cognitive function (44%), health and physical performance (51%), socioeconomic factors (55%), and predictors of morbidity/mortality (63%). Important areas not addressed to any major degree were healthcare costs and genetics. Only two studies reported findings on genetics or epigenetics of human aging, and only a single study reported on associations between aging and financial costs, especially healthcare costs, which have been postulated to be important determinants of care and life quality. The results of this review, together with the specific directions proposed by other investigators with longitudinal study expertise, will inform the strategic planning of future long-term studies of aging.

  19. Age-dependent expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B in PBMCs from a large European population enrolled in the MARK-AGE study.

    PubMed

    Ciccarone, Fabio; Malavolta, Marco; Calabrese, Roberta; Guastafierro, Tiziana; Bacalini, Maria Giulia; Reale, Anna; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Koller, Bernhard; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Schӧn, Christiane; Slagboom, P Eline; Toussaint, Olivier; Sikora, Ewa; Gonos, Efstathios S; Breusing, Nicolle; Grune, Tilman; Jansen, Eugène; Dollé, Martijn; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Sindlinger, Thilo; Bürkle, Alexander; Zampieri, Michele; Caiafa, Paola

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the content and patterns of DNA methylation virtually throughout the entire human lifespan. Reasons for these variations are not well understood. However, several lines of evidence suggest that the epigenetic instability in aging may be traced back to the alteration of the expression of DNA methyltransferases. Here, the association of the expression of DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3B with age has been analysed in the context of the MARK-AGE study, a large-scale cross-sectional study of the European general population. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we assessed the variation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B gene expression in more than two thousand age-stratified women and men (35-75 years) recruited across eight European countries. Significant age-related changes were detected for both transcripts. The level of DNMT1 gradually dropped with aging but this was only observed up to the age of 64 years. By contrast, the expression of DNMT3B decreased linearly with increasing age and this association was particularly evident in females. We next attempted to trace the age-related changes of both transcripts to the influence of different variables that have an impact on changes of their expression in the population, including demographics, dietary and health habits, and clinical parameters. Our results indicate that age affects the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B as an almost independent variable in respect of all other variables evaluated.

  20. Early age at menarche and wheezing in adolescence. The 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Gary; Baptista Menezes, Ana Maria; Wehrmeister, Fernando C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of menarche before 11 years of age on the incidence of wheezing/asthma in girls 11 to 18 years of age. Methods The study sample comprised 1,350 girls from a birth cohort that started in 1993 in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil; this cohort was followed until 18 years of age. We assessed wheezing by the question, “Have you ever had wheezing in the chest at any time in the past?,” from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) questionnaire. Early menarche was defined as occurring before 11 years of age. We estimated the cumulative incidence of wheezing excluding from the analysis all those participants who reported wheezing before age of 11 years. We performed the chi-square test to assess the association between ever wheezing and independent variables. Poisson regression models with robust variance were used to estimate cumulative incidence ratios. Results The average age at menarche in the cohort girls was 12 years (95% CI: 11.1–12.1). The prevalence of early menarche before 11 years of age was 11% (95% CI: 9.7–12.3). The cumulative incidence of wheezing from 11 to 18 years of age was 33.5% (95% CI: 30.9– 36.0). The crude association between ever wheezing in adolescence and early menarche before age 11 was 1.19 (95% CI: 0.96–1.48). After adjusting for early childhood and contemporaneous variables, no significant association for early menarche before 11 years of age and wheezing during adolescence was found (CIR: 1.18; CI95%: 0.93-1.49). Conclusion Early menarche before 11 years of age is not associated with an increased risk of wheezing during adolescence. PMID:26870751

  1. The status of the precommissural and postcommissural fornix in normal ageing and mild cognitive impairment: An MRI tractography study

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Kat; Aggleton, John P.; Parker, Greg D.; O'Sullivan, Michael J.; Vann, Seralynne D.; Metzler-Baddeley, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The fornix connects the hippocampal formation with structures beyond the temporal lobe. Previous tractography studies have typically reconstructed the fornix as one unified bundle. However, the fornix contains two rostral divisions: the precommissural fornix and the postcommissural fornix. Each division has distinct anatomical connections and, hence, potentially distinct functions. Diffusion weighted MRI and spherical deconvolution based tractography were employed to reconstruct these separate fornix divisions and to examine their microstructural properties in both healthy ageing and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Reliable reconstructions of precommissural and postcommissural fibres were achieved in both groups, with their fibres retaining largely separate locations within the anterior body of the fornix. Ageing and MCI had comparable effects on the two segments. Ageing was associated with changes in mean, axial and radial diffusivity but not with alterations of fibre population-specific diffusion properties, estimated with the hindrance modulated orientational anisotropy (HMOA). Individual HMOA variation in postcommissural, but not precommissural, fibres correlated positively (and unrelated to age) with visual recall performance. This provides novel evidence for a role of postcommissural fibres, which connect structures of the extended hippocampal network, in episodic memory function. Separating the fornix into its two principal divisions brings new opportunities for distinguishing different hippocampal networks. PMID:26778129

  2. The Japanese quail: a model for studying reproductive aging of hypothalamic systems.

    PubMed

    Ottinger, Mary Ann; Abdelnabi, Mahmoud; Li, Qichang; Chen, Kehong; Thompson, Nicola; Harada, Nobuhiro; Viglietti-Panzica, Carla; Panzica, Gian Carlo

    2004-01-01

    During aging, the decline of neuroendocrine, endocrine, and behavioral components of reproduction ultimately leads to reproductive failure. These studies considered both neuroendocrine and behavioral aspects of reproductive aging in Japanese quail, using chronological age and reproductive status to separate animals into experimental groups. In Study I, age-related changes in the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH-I) system were investigated and a sharp decrease was observed in GnRH-I concentration in the median eminence of aging animals of both sexes, whereas preoptic-lateral septal region GnRH-I concentrations declined only in aging males. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings since aging females retained, whereas males lost GnRH-I cells. Functional changes were assessed by in vitro incubation of parasaggittal hypothalamic slices collected from young and old inactive males and females. Results showed reduced baseline GnRH-I release and diminished response to norepinephrine (NE). Deteriorating fertility also correlated with decreased male sexual behavior and loss of aromatase immunoreactive (AROM-ir) neurons in the medial, but not lateral preoptic nucleus (POA). Sexual behavior and AROM-ir were restored with exogenous testosterone, which was associated with increased cell size in the medial POA. Comparison of cell size and number of AROM-ir cells showed that aged sexually active males had fewer, larger AROM-ir cells when compared to young males, suggesting neuroplasticity of specific neural systems and a critical role of estradiol in maintaining reproductive function.

  3. Is 27 really a dangerous age for famous musicians? Retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Wolkewitz, Martin; Allignol, Arthur; Graves, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the “27 club” hypothesis that famous musicians are at an increased risk of death at age 27. Design Cohort study using survival analysis with age as a time dependent exposure. Comparison was primarily made within musicians, and secondarily relative to the general UK population. Setting The popular music scene from a UK perspective. Participants Musicians (solo artists and band members) who had a number one album in the UK between 1956 and 2007 (n=1046 musicians, with 71 deaths, 7%). Main outcome measures Risk of death by age of musician, accounting for time dependent study entry and the number of musicians at risk. Risk was estimated using a flexible spline which would allow a bump at age 27 to appear. Results We identified three deaths at age 27 amongst 522 musicians at risk, giving a rate of 0.57 deaths per 100 musician years. Similar death rates were observed at ages 25 (rate=0.56) and 32 (0.54). There was no peak in risk around age 27, but the risk of death for famous musicians throughout their 20s and 30s was two to three times higher than the general UK population. Conclusions The 27 club is unlikely to be a real phenomenon. Fame may increase the risk of death among musicians, but this risk is not limited to age 27. PMID:22187325

  4. The Daily Movement Pattern and Fulfilment of Physical Activity Recommendations in Swedish Middle-Aged Adults: The SCAPIS Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Olsson, Gustav; Ekblom, Örjan; Ekblom, Björn; Bergström, Göran; Börjesson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Different aspects of the daily movement pattern--sitting, light intensity physical activity, and moderate- and vigorous intensity physical activity--have each independently been associated with health and longevity. Previous knowledge of the amount and distribution of these aspects in the general Swedish population, as well as the fulfilment rate of physical activity recommendations, mainly relies on self-reported data. More detailed data assessed with objective methods is needed. The aim of the study was to present descriptive data on the daily movement pattern in a middle-aged Swedish population assessed by hip-worn accelerometers. The cohort consisted of 948 participants (51% women), aged 50 to 64 years, from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage pilot Study. In the total sample, 60.5% of accelerometer wear time was spent sitting, 35.2% in light physical activity and 3.9% in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Men and participants with high educational level spent a larger proportion of time sitting, compared to women and participants with low educational level. Men and participants with a high educational level spent more time, and the oldest age-group spent less time, in moderate- and vigorous physical activity. Only 7.1% of the study population met the current national physical activity recommendations, with no gender, age or education level differences. Assessment of all three components of the daily movement pattern is of high clinical relevance and should be included in future research. As the fulfilment of national physical activity recommendations is very low and sitting time is very high in our middle-aged population, the great challenge remains to enhance the implementation of methods to increase the level of physical activity in this population.

  5. Clinicopathological and Prognostic Factors in 106 Prostate Cancer Patients Aged ≤55 Years: A Single-Center Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Yang, Xueling; Si, Tongguo; Yu, Haipeng; Zhang, Weihao; Li, Yong; Guo, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Background Early-onset prostate cancer patients (aged ≤55 years) from Western countries have been well characterized in previous studies. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic characteristics of early-onset Chinese prostate cancer patients have not yet been assessed. This study aimed to examine the clinicopathological and prognostic factors of prostate cancer patients aged ≤55 years in a single Chinese center. Material/Methods One hundred six prostate cancer patients aged ≤55 years with complete clinicopathological data who were treated at our hospital between January 2000 and June 2014 were selected for this study. Survival rate was investigated by Kaplan-Meier analysis, and prognostic factors were examined by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results The median time from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 3.5 months (range, 2–55 months). The median time after endocrine therapy to development of androgen-independent prostate cancer was 10.5 months. A total of 54 patients died (50.9%), of whom 96.2% died from prostate cancer. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survival rates were 88.7%, 66.2%, and 36.0%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that T staging, visceral metastasis, pathological pattern, and Gleason sum were independent prognostic factors in these patients. Conclusions Prostate cancer patients aged ≤55 years are often omitted or misdiagnosed in China. Furthermore, the pathology patterns in this age group were mostly complicated with a high degree of malignancy. Late staging, visceral metastasis, pathological pattern, and high Gleason score were independent prognostic factors in these patients. Comprehensive therapy combined with local therapy is an effective treatment strategy. PMID:27771734

  6. Understanding inter-individual variability in purpose: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Hill, Patrick L; Turiano, Nicholas A; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K

    2015-09-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of having a purpose in older adulthood; however, little is known about whether and how individuals vary on sense of purpose over time. The current study examined patterns of mean- and individual-level change in purpose among men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (n = 587, M(age) = 74 years) across a 3-year span. Findings demonstrate that while little mean-level change was present, there was interindividual variability in change. Further research is needed to understand why these changes occur, as age, health status, and personality failed to predict individual fluctuations in purpose.

  7. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  8. Efficacy of Zofenopril vs. Irbesartan in Combination with a Thiazide Diuretic in Hypertensive Patients with Multiple Risk Factors not Controlled by a Previous Monotherapy: A Review of the Double-Blind, Randomized "Z" Studies.

    PubMed

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Napoli, Claudio; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Manolis, Athanasios; Parati, Gianfranco; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Combinations between an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) are among the recommended treatments for hypertensive patients uncontrolled by monotherapy. Four randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, including 1469 hypertensive patients uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy and with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor, compared the efficacy of a combination of a sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor (zofenopril at 30 or 60 mg) or an ARB (irbesartan at 150 or 300 mg) plus HCTZ 12.5 mg. The extent of blood pressure (BP)-lowering was assessed in the office and over 24 h. Pleiotropic features of the treatments were evaluated by studying their effect on systemic inflammation, organ damage, arterial stiffness, and metabolic biochemical parameters. Both treatments similarly reduced office and ambulatory BPs after 18-24 weeks. In the ZODIAC study a larger reduction in high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) was observed under zofenopril (-0.52 vs. +0.97 mg/dL under irbesartan, p = 0.001), suggesting a potential protective effect against the development of atherosclerosis. In the ZENITH study the rate of carotid plaque regression was significantly larger under zofenopril (32% vs. 16%; p = 0.047). In the diabetic patients of the ZAMES study, no adverse effects of treatments on blood glucose and lipids as well as an improvement of renal function were observed. In patients with isolated systolic hypertension of the ZEUS study, a slight and similar improvement in renal function and small reductions in pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI), and central systolic BP were documented with both treatments. Thus, the fixed combination of zofenopril and HCTZ may have a relevant place in the treatment of high-risk or monotherapy-treated uncontrolled hypertensive patients requiring a more prompt, intensive, and sustained BP reduction, in line with the

  9. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  10. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  11. Language of the aging brain: Event-related potential studies of comprehension in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wlotko, Edward W.; Lee, Chia-Lin; Federmeier, Kara D.

    2010-01-01

    Normal aging brings increased richness in knowledge and experience as well as declines in cognitive abilities. Event-related brain potential (ERP) studies of language comprehension corroborate findings showing that the structure and organization of semantic knowledge remains relatively stable with age. Highlighting the advantages of the temporal and functional specificity of ERPs, this survey focuses on age-related changes in higher-level processes required for the successful comprehension of meaning representations built from multiple words. Older adults rely on different neural pathways and cognitive processes during normal, everyday comprehension, including a shift away from the predictive use of sentential context, differential recruitment of neural resources, and reduced engagement of controlled processing. Within age groups, however, there are important individual differences that, for example, differentiate a subset of older adults whose processing patterns more closely resemble that of young adults, providing a window into cognitive skills and abilities that may mediate or moderate age-related declines. PMID:20823949

  12. The OptiMUM-study: EMDR therapy in pregnant women with posttraumatic stress disorder after previous childbirth and pregnant women with fear of childbirth: design of a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Baas, M. A. M.; Stramrood, C. A. I.; Dijksman, L. M.; de Jongh, A.; van Pampus, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Approximately 3% of women develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after giving birth, and 7.5% of pregnant women show a pathological fear of childbirth (FoC). FoC or childbirth-related PTSD during (a subsequent) pregnancy can lead to a request for an elective caesarean section as well as adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. For PTSD in general, and several subtypes of specific phobia, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy has been proven effective, but little is known about the effects of applying EMDR during pregnancy. Objective: To describe the protocol of the OptiMUM-study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for pregnant women with childbirth-related PTSD or FoC. In addition, the cost-effectiveness of this approach will be analysed. Method: The single-blind OptiMUM-study consists of two two-armed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with overlapping design. In several hospitals and community midwifery practices in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, all eligible pregnant women with a gestational age between eight and 20 weeks will be administered the Wijma delivery expectations questionnaire (WDEQ) to asses FoC. Multiparous women will also receive the PTSD checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) to screen for possible PTSD. The clinician administered PTSD scale (CAPS-5) will be used for assessing PTSD according to DSM-5 in women scoring above the PCL-5 cut-off value. Fifty women with childbirth-related PTSD and 120 women with FoC will be randomly allocated to either EMDR therapy carried out by a psychologist or care-as-usual. Women currently undergoing psychological treatment or women younger than 18 years will not be included. Primary outcome measures are severity of childbirth-related PTSD or FoC symptoms. Secondary outcomes are percentage of PTSD diagnoses, percentage caesarean sections, subjective childbirth experience, obstetrical and neonatal complications

  13. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory.

  14. Sustained enjoyment of life and mortality at older ages: analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Wardle, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether the number of reports of enjoyment of life over a four year period is quantitatively associated with all cause mortality, and with death from cardiovascular disease and from other causes. Design and setting Longitudinal observational population study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a nationally representative sample of older men and women living in England. Participants 9365 men and women aged 50 years or older (mean 63, standard deviation 9.3) at recruitment. Main outcome measures Time to death, based on mortality between the third phase of data collection (wave 3 in 2006) and March 2013 (up to seven years). Results Subjective wellbeing with measures of enjoyment of life were assessed in 2002 (wave 1), 2004 (wave 2), and 2006 (wave 3). 2264 (24%) respondents reported no enjoyment of life on any assessment, with 1833 (20%) reporting high enjoyment on one report of high enjoyment of life, 2063 (22%) on two reports, and 3205 (34%) on all three occasions. 1310 deaths were recorded during follow-up. Mortality was inversely associated with the number of occasions on which participants reported high enjoyment of life. Compared with the no high enjoyment group, the hazard ratio for all cause mortality was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.99) for two reports of enjoyment of life, and 0.76 (0.64 to 0.89) for three reports, after adjustment for demographic factors, baseline health, mobility impairment, and depressive symptoms. The same association was observed after deaths occurring within two years of the third enjoyment measure were excluded (0.90 (0.85 to 0.95) for every additional report of enjoyment), and in the complete case analysis (0.90 (0.83 to 0.96)). Conclusions This is an observational study, so causal conclusions cannot be drawn. Nonetheless, the results add a new dimension to understanding the significance of subjective wellbeing for health outcomes by documenting the importance of sustained

  15. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in northeast Scotland: the PINE study.

    PubMed

    Caslake, Robert; Taylor, Kate; Scott, Neil; Gordon, Joanna; Harris, Clare; Wilde, Katie; Murray, Alison; Counsell, Carl

    2013-05-01

    There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies. Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy. Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed. Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7-31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5-20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55-2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration. The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.

  16. Identity Formation in Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study from Age 27 to 50

    PubMed Central

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Longitudinal patterns of identity formation were analyzed in a representative cohort group of Finnish men and women born in 1959 across ages 27, 36, 42, and 50. The data were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality. Identity status (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed, achieved) from all four ages was available for 172 participants (54% females). Marcia’s Identity Status Interview used in this research included five domains: religious beliefs, political identity, occupational career, intimate relationships, and lifestyle. The findings indicated great variability in identity status across domains at each age level, and the identity trajectories fluctuated from age 27 to 50. The developmental trend from age 27 to 50 was moderately progressive (toward achievement) for the five domains and for overall identity, with the exception of a slightly regressive trend in male religious identity. Remaining stable in the same status category across the four measurements was rare and emerged only for diffusion in the ideological domains. Women generally outnumbered men in identity achievement at earlier ages, but the gender differences diminished in most domains at age 50, except in religious identity. In women overall diffusion decreased over time, but in men it remained at about 20% at ages 42 and 50. PMID:27019650

  17. Structural hippocampal network alterations during healthy aging: a multi-modal MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Amandine; Periot, Olivier; Dilharreguy, Bixente; Hiba, Bassem; Bordessoules, Martine; Pérès, Karine; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François; Allard, Michèle; Catheline, Gwénaëlle

    2013-01-01

    While hippocampal atrophy has been described during healthy aging, few studies have examined its relationship with the integrity of White Matter (WM) connecting tracts of the limbic system. This investigation examined WM structural damage specifically related to hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging subjects (n = 129), using morphological MRI to assess hippocampal volume and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to assess WM integrity. Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) or dementia were excluded from the analysis. In our sample, increasing age was significantly associated with reduced hippocampal volume and reduced Fractional Anisotropy (FA) at the level of the fornix and the cingulum bundle. The findings also demonstrate that hippocampal atrophy was specifically associated with reduced FA of the fornix bundle, but it was not related to alteration of the cingulum bundle. Our results indicate that the relationship between hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values is not due to an independent effect of age on both structures. A recursive regression procedure was applied to evaluate sequential relationships between the alterations of these two brain structures. When both hippocampal atrophy and fornix FA values were included in the same model to predict age, fornix FA values remained significant whereas hippocampal atrophy was no longer significantly associated with age. According to this latter finding, hippocampal atrophy in healthy aging could be mediated by a loss of fornix connections. Structural alterations of this part of the limbic system, which have been associated with neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, result at least in part from the aging process. PMID:24367331

  18. Microstructural and Hardness Studies of Cu-10wt.%Sn Alloy Under Different Aging Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Farooq; Butt, Muhammad Zakria; Saleemi, Farhat

    2008-02-01

    Microstructure of Cu-10wt.%Sn alloy, prepared by powder metallurgy technique and sintered at 900 °C for 120 min in hydrogen atmosphere, was studied by optical microscopy and XRD technique as a function of aging time. Isothermal aging of the alloy specimens was performed at 250 °C for a period of 30, 60, 120, 300, and 1440 min after solution treatment at 500 °C for 60 min. Rockwell hardness of aged specimens was also measured at room temperature as a function of aging time. It was observed that microstructure of the as-sintered specimens consists of the grains of alpha Cu-Sn solid solution. Moreover, solution treatment of the alloy specimens followed by quenching in water increased the hardness of the as-sintered alloy specimens from 35.5 to 59.8 HRF due to the residual stresses generated by fast cooling. Aging at 250 °C for 30, 60, and 120 min was found to cause a decrease in hardness from 59.8 to 45.1 HRF, whereas the specimens aged for 300 and 1440 min show an increase in hardness from 45.1 to 75.7 HRF. The values of porosity calculated from XRD patterns of the alloy specimens referred to show that porosity varies with aging time in a manner opposite to that of hardness, e.g., porosity is maximum for 120 min aging time where hardness is minimum.

  19. Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    2011-01-01

    Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort differences in the rate of cognitive aging and if, at the very end of life, pervasive mortality-related processes overshadow and minimize cohort differences. We used data on 5 primary mental abilities from the Seattle Longitudinal Study (Schaie, 2005) to compare both age-related and mortality-related changes between earlier born cohorts (1886–1913) and later born cohorts (1914–1948). Our models covary for several individual and cohort differences in central indicators of life expectancy, education, health, and gender. Age-related growth models corroborate and extend earlier findings by documenting level differences at age 70 of up to 0.50 SD and less steep rates of cognitive aging on all abilities between 50 and 80 years of age favoring the later born cohort. In contrast, mortality-related models provide limited support for positive cohort differences. The later born cohort showed steeper mortality-related declines. We discuss possible reasons why often reported positive secular trends in age-related processes may not generalize to the vulnerable segment of the population that is close to death and suggest routes for further inquiry. PMID:21517155

  20. Identity Formation in Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study from Age 27 to 50.

    PubMed

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-02

    Longitudinal patterns of identity formation were analyzed in a representative cohort group of Finnish men and women born in 1959 across ages 27, 36, 42, and 50. The data were drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality. Identity status (diffused, moratorium, foreclosed, achieved) from all four ages was available for 172 participants (54% females). Marcia's Identity Status Interview used in this research included five domains: religious beliefs, political identity, occupational career, intimate relationships, and lifestyle. The findings indicated great variability in identity status across domains at each age level, and the identity trajectories fluctuated from age 27 to 50. The developmental trend from age 27 to 50 was moderately progressive (toward achievement) for the five domains and for overall identity, with the exception of a slightly regressive trend in male religious identity. Remaining stable in the same status category across the four measurements was rare and emerged only for diffusion in the ideological domains. Women generally outnumbered men in identity achievement at earlier ages, but the gender differences diminished in most domains at age 50, except in religious identity. In women overall diffusion decreased over time, but in men it remained at about 20% at ages 42 and 50.

  1. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  2. Predictors for Asthma at Age 7 Years for Low-Income Children Enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J.; Klinnert, Mary D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. Study design The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) enrolled 177 low-income children (9–24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Results Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (50%) despite comparable airflow measurements (p<0.0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) vs. −BHR (p<0.005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity and maternal psychological resources. Conclusions This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in determination of asthma status among low-income groups. PMID:23036483

  3. Sex-specific age associations of ankle proprioception test performance in older adults: results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Seung-Uk; Simonsick, Eleanor; Deshpande, Nandini; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: this study was aimed to test the hypothesis that ankle proprioception assessed by custom-designed proprioception testing equipment changes with ageing in men and women. Methods: ankle proprioception was assessed in 289 participants (131 women) of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA); the participants aged 51–95 years and were blinded during testing. Results: the average minimum perceived ankle rotation was 1.11° (SE = 0.07) in women and 1.00° (SE = 0.06) in men, and it increased with ageing in both sexes (P < 0.001, for both). Ankle tracking performance, which is the ability to closely follow with the left ankle, a rotational movement induced on the right ankle by a torque motor, declines with ageing in both men and women (P = 0.018 and P = 0.011, respectively). Conclusions: a simple, standardised method for assessing ankle proprioception was introduced in this study using a customized test instrument, software and test protocol. Age-associated reduction in ankle proprioception was confirmed from two subtests of threshold and tracking separately for women and men. Findings in this study prompt future studies to determine whether these age-associated differences in the threshold for passive motion detection and movement tracking are evident in longitudinal study and how these specific deficits in ankle proprioception are related to age-associated chronic conditions such as knee or hip osteoarthritis and type II diabetes and affect daily activities such as gait. PMID:25637144

  4. Implications of Extending the ADHD Age-of-Onset Criterion to Age 12: Results from a Prospectively Studied Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Kollins, Scott H.; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether including children with onset of symptoms between ages 7 and 12 years in the ADHD diagnostic category would: (a) increase the prevalence of the disorder at age 12, and (b) change the clinical and cognitive features, impairment profile, and risk factors for ADHD compared with findings in the literature based on the…

  5. Evidence for aging theories from the study of a hunter-gatherer people (Ache of Paraguay).

    PubMed

    Libertini, G

    2013-09-01

    In the late seventies, a small tribal population of Paraguay, the Ache, living under natural conditions, was studied. Data from this population turn out to be useful for considerations about evolutionary hypotheses on the aging phenomenon. 1) Ache show an age-related increasing mortality, which strongly limits the mean duration of life, as observed in other studies on mammal and bird species. 2) According to current theories on aging, in the wild very few or no individual reach old age and, so, aging cannot be directly influenced by natural selection. However, data from our population show that a significant proportion of the population reaches in the wild 60 and 70 years of age. 3) Data from Ache are also in agreement with the observation about an inverse correlation between extrinsic mortality and deaths due to the age-related increasing mortality. 4) For many gerontologists, the age-related decline of vital functions is a consequence of the gradual decline of cell turnover, genetically determined and regulated by the declining duplication capacities of stem cells. The current interpretation is that these restrictions are a general defense against the proliferation of any tumoral mass. However, among wild Ache cancer is virtually unknown in non-elderly subjects, and only among older individuals are there deaths attributable to oncological diseases. Moreover, fitness decline begins long before oncological diseases have fatal effects in significant numbers. This completely disproves the current hypothesis, because a supposed defense against a deadly disease cannot exterminate a population before the disease begins to kill. These data are consistent with similar data from other species studied under natural conditions, and they bring new arguments against the non-adaptive interpretation of aging and in support of the adaptive interpretation.

  6. The impact of male age on embryo quality: a retrospective study using time-lapse imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rosário, Guilherme R. F.; Vidal, Diana S.; Silva, Adriana V.; Franco, Antônio C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to correlate male age with embryo morphokinetic parameters on D3 considering the timing and the exact moment of embryo cleavage. Methods Time-lapse imaging was used to produce an ideal cleavage curve for the embryos analyzed. The percentage of embryos under the curve was analyzed and correlated with male age. Results 32.6% of the embryos from patients aged 28-33 years were under the curve; 36.2% of the embryos from patients aged 34-39 years were under the curve; 41.3% of the embryos from patients aged 40-45 years were under the curve; and 26.3% of the embryos fro patients aged 46-57 years were under the curve. Conclusions a statistically non-significant decrease was observed in the percentage of embryos under the optimal cleavage curve on D3 in the group of men aged between 40 and 45 years. Further studies looking into embryos in the blastocyst stage (D5 or D6) are required. PMID:28050955

  7. Need for recovery from work in relation to age: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, N. W. H.; Kant, IJ.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the impact of increasing age on the need for recovery (NFR) over time among day workers Methods The study is based on data from the first 2 years of follow-up of the Maastricht Cohort Study (n = 7,734). To investigate whether age predicted the onset of elevated NFR, multivariate survival analyses were conducted Results The highest levels of NFR were observed in the age group of 46–55 years. The relative risk for developing elevated NFR was highest in the age groups 36–45 years (RR 1.30; 1.07–1.58) and 46–55 years (RR 1.25; 1.03–1.52) in men and 46–55 years (RR 1.36; 1.04–1.77) in women when compared to the reference group Conclusions While NFR increased with age until the age of 55, this was followed by decreased levels of NFR among older employees. Explanations for the decreasing levels of NFR in the highest age group can be found in several domains such as the work environment, private situation and compensation strategies. PMID:19960222

  8. Magnetic ageing study of high and medium permeability nanocrystalline FeSiCuNbB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekdim, Atef; Morel, Laurent; Raulet, Marie-Ange

    2017-04-01

    increasing the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues in modern power electronic systems. In aircraft applications, the energy efficiency must be associated with a maximum reduction of mass and volume, so a high components compactness. A consequence from this compactness is the increase of operating temperature. Thus, the magnetic materials used in these applications, have to work at high temperature. It raises the question of the thermal ageing problem. The reliability of these components operating at this condition becomes a real problem which deserves serious interest. Our work takes part in this context by studying the magnetic material thermal ageing. The nanocrystalline materials are getting more and more used in power electronic applications. Main advantages of nanocrystalline materials compared to ferrite are: high saturation flux density of almost 1.25 T and low dynamic losses for low and medium frequencies. The nanocrystalline Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si15.5B7 alloys have been chosen in our aging study. This study is based on monitoring the magnetic characteristics for several continuous thermal ageing (100, 150, 200 and 240 °C). An important experimental work of magnetic characterization is being done following a specific monitoring protocol. Elsewhere, X-Ray Diffraction and magnetostriction measurements were carried out to support the study of the anisotropy energies evolution with ageing. This latter is discussed in this paper to explain and give hypothesis about the ageing phenomena.

  9. Compatibility and accelerated aging study for Li(Si)/FeS2 thermally activated batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, J. W.; Searcy, J. Q.; Neiswander, P. A.; Poole, R. L.

    Thermally activated batteries using Li(Si)/FeS2 for use in systems which require a storage life of 25 years and high reliability are examined. All of the materials in the system, both organic and inorganic are incorporated except the heat paper and electric match are studied. No compatibility or aging problems are indicated. The following results are reported: oxygen vanishes from the overgas in containers that were accelerated aged; hydrogen increases sharply in the overgas initially but generally decreases as aging progresses. No unexpected or significant changes were observed in the volume resistivity, glass transition temperature, or shear modulus or organic materials.

  10. A new study of shower age distribution in near vertical showers by EAS air shower array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhuri, N.; Basak, D. K.; Goswami, G. C.; Ghosh, B.

    1984-01-01

    The air shower array has been developed since it started operation in 1931. The array covering an area of 900 sq m now incorporates 21 particle density sampling detectors around two muon magnetic spectrographs. The air showers are detected in the size range 10 to the 4th power to 10 to the 6th power particles. A total of 11000 showers has so far been detected. Average values of shower age have been obtained in various shower size ranges to study the dependence of shower age on shower size. The core distance dependence of shower age parameter has also been analyzed for presentation.

  11. Predictors and Sequelae of Fractures in the Elderly: The Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostbye, Truls; Walton, Ruth E.; Steenhuis, Runa; Hodsman, Anthony B.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, type, risk factors, and sequelae of fractures experienced by community-dwelling elderly Canadians. Data are from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA), a longitudinal cohort study, collected in three waves: baseline (1991), wave 2 (1996), and wave 3 (2001). In CSHA-2 (1996),…

  12. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  13. Prevalence of Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in a Middle-Aged, Biracial Population: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph A; Prineas, Ronald; Daviglus, Martha L.; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Lewis, Cora E.; Sidney, Steven; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Iribarren, Carlos; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies to date have described the prevalence of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities in a biracial middle-aged cohort. Methods and Results Participants underwent measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECGs coded using both Minnesota Code (MC) and Novacode (NC) criteria. Among 2585 participants, of whom 57% were women and 44% were black (mean age 45 years), the prevalence of major and minor abnormalities were significantly higher (all P<0.001) among black men and women compared to whites. These differences were primarily due to higher QRS voltage and ST/T wave abnormalities among blacks. There was also a higher prevalence of Q waves (MC 1-1, 1-2, 1-3) than described by previous studies. These racial differences remained after multivariate adjustment for traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors. Conclusions Black men and women have a significantly higher prevalence of ECG abnormalities, independent of traditional CV risk factors, than whites in a contemporary cohort middle-aged participants. PMID:20374967

  14. Cerebral processing of pain in school-aged children with neonatal nociceptive input: an exploratory fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hohmeister, Johanna; Kroll, Alexander; Wollgarten-Hadamek, Iris; Zohsel, Katrin; Demirakça, Süha; Flor, Herta; Hermann, Christiane

    2010-08-01

    Due to maturation-related plasticity of the developing nociceptive system, neonatal nociceptive input, as induced by medical procedures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), may cause long-term alterations in pain processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study investigated the cerebral pain response in school-aged children and adolescents (11-16 yr) with experience in a NICU after preterm (age, N=9) or fullterm birth (>or=37 weeks gestational age, N=9) as compared to fullterm control children without early hospitalization (N=9). NICU children had been recruited retrospectively among former patients of the Children's University Hospital Mannheim. All children had participated in our previous studies [46,49] entailing psychophysical measurements. In response to tonic (30s) heat stimuli of individually adjusted moderate pain intensity, which were of comparable temperature across groups, the preterm but not the fullterm NICU children exhibited significant activations in a number of brain regions (thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and periaquaeductal gray) that were not significantly activated in controls. The preterms showed significantly higher activations than controls in primary somatosensory cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula. This exaggerated brain response was pain-specific and was not observed during non-painful warmth stimulation. Preterms' continuous pain ratings revealed a tendency for increased sensitization within and a lack of habituation across trials. In highly vulnerable children such as preterms, neonatal nociceptive input may, aside from other neurodevelopmental consequences, persistently increase the gain within pain pathways.

  15. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Part II: overview of the results at the CENICA supersite and comparison to previous studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2005-06-01

    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study from 31 March-4 May 2003. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. Measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer, and estimated soil concentrations from Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates are also presented and combined with the AMS in order to include refractory material and estimate the total PM2.5 mass concentration at CENICA during this campaign. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents 54.6% of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5; BC mass concentration is about 11%; while soil represents about 6.9%. The NR species and BC have diurnal cycles that can be qualitatively interpreted as the interplay of direct emissions, p