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Sample records for age prospective memory

  1. Transparent Meta-Analysis of Prospective Memory and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Prospective memory (ProM) refers to our ability to become aware of a previously formed plan at the right time and place. After two decades of research on prospective memory and aging, narrative reviews and summaries have arrived at widely different conclusions. One view is that prospective memory shows large age declines, larger than age declines on retrospective memory (RetM). Another view is that prospective memory is an exception to age declines and remains invariant across the adult lifespan. The present meta-analysis of over twenty years of research settles this controversy. It shows that prospective memory declines with aging and that the magnitude of age decline varies by prospective memory subdomain (vigilance, prospective memory proper, habitual prospective memory) as well as test setting (laboratory, natural). Moreover, this meta-analysis demonstrates that previous claims of no age declines in prospective memory are artifacts of methodological and conceptual issues afflicting prior research including widespread ceiling effects, low statistical power, age confounds, and failure to distinguish between various subdomains of prospective memory (e.g., vigilance and prospective memory proper). PMID:18286167

  2. Prospective Memory across Adolescence: The Effects of Age and Cue Focality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Altgassen, Mareike; Liu, Wei; Xiong, Weirui; Akgun, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of controlled attention in age differences in event-based prospective memory performance across adolescence. The researchers tested whether presenting the prospective memory cue in or out of focal awareness of the ongoing task (resulting in low versus high demands for controlled attention, respectively) might…

  3. Age differences in brain systems supporting transient and sustained processes involved in prospective memory and working memory.

    PubMed

    Peira, Nathalie; Ziaei, Maryam; Persson, Jonas

    2016-01-15

    In prospective memory (PM), an intention to act in response to an external event is formed, retained, and at a later stage, when the event occurs, the relevant action is performed. PM typically shows a decline in late adulthood, which might affect functions of daily living. The neural correlates of this decline are not well understood. Here, 15 young (6 female; age range=23-30years) and 16 older adults (5 female; age range=64-74years) were scanned with fMRI to examine age-related differences in brain activation associated with event-based PM using a task that facilitated the separation of transient and sustained components of PM. We show that older adults had reduced performance in conditions with high demands on prospective and working memory, while no age-difference was observed in low-demanding tasks. Across age groups, PM task performance activated separate sets of brain regions for transient and sustained responses. Age-differences in transient activation were found in fronto-striatal and MTL regions, with young adults showing more activation than older adults. Increased activation in young, compared to older adults, was also found for sustained PM activation in the IFG. These results provide new evidence that PM relies on dissociable transient and sustained cognitive processes, and that age-related deficits in PM can be explained by an inability to recruit PM-related brain networks in old age.

  4. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  5. Prospective Memory Performance across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Lijuan; Kliegel, Matthias; Yang, Zhiliang; Liu, Wei

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explored age differences in event-based prospective memory (PM) across adolescence. The tasks consisted of an ongoing task (OT; i.e., personality questionnaire items, math problems) and an embedded prospective task that required participants to remember to make a special response whenever they encountered a PM cue…

  6. The Cognitive Processes Underlying Event-Based Prospective Memory In School Age Children and Young Adults: A Formal Model-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute Johanna; Martin, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    Fifty 7-year-olds (29 female), 53 10-year-olds (29 female), and 36 young adults (19 female), performed a computerized event-based prospective memory task. All three groups differed significantly in prospective memory performance with adults showing the best performance and 7-year-olds the poorest performance. We used a formal multinomial process tree model of event-based prospective memory to decompose age differences in cognitive processes that jointly contribute to prospective memory performance. The formal modeling results demonstrated that adults differed significantly from the 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds on both the prospective component and the retrospective component of the task. The 7-year-olds and 10-year-olds differed only in the ability to recognize prospective memory target events. The prospective memory task imposed a cost to ongoing activities in all three age groups. PMID:20053020

  7. What Was I Supposed to Do? Effects of Individual Differences in Age and Anxiety on Preschoolers' Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheie, Lavinia; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to perform a previously planned action at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in age and trait anxiety on PM performance in 3-5- and 5-7-year-olds. Two types of PM measures were used: an event-based task, requiring…

  8. Age-Related Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Prospective Memory Retrieval: A Lifespan Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattli, Florentina; Zollig, Jacqueline; West, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of prospective memory (PM) typically increases from childhood to young adulthood and then decreases in later adulthood. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the development of the neural correlates of processes associated with the detection of a PM cue, switching from the ongoing activity to the…

  9. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  10. Prospective memory across the lifespan: investigating the contribution of retrospective and prospective processes.

    PubMed

    Mattli, Florentina; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Studerus-Germann, Aline; Brehmer, Yvonne; Zöllig, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory performance follows an inverted U-shaped function across the lifespan. Findings on the relative contribution of purely prospective memory and retrospective memory processes within prospective memory to this trajectory are scarce and inconclusive. We analyzed age-related differences in prospective memory performance across the lifespan in a cross-sectional design including six age groups (N = 99, 7-83 years) and investigated possible mechanisms by experimentally disentangling the relative contributions of retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes. Results confirmed the inverted U-shaped function of prospective memory performance across the lifespan. A significant interaction between process type and age group was observed indicating differential relative contributions of retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes on the development of prospective memory performance. Our results showed that mainly the pure prospective memory processes within prospective memory lead to lower prospective memory performance in young children and old adults. Moreover, the relative contributions of the retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes are not uniform at both ends of the lifespan, i.e., in later adulthood the purely prospective memory processes seem to determine performance to an even greater extent than in childhood. Nevertheless, age effects were also observed in the retrospective component which thus contributed to the prospective memory performance differences between the age groups.

  11. Predictors of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Mantyla, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This study identified age differences in time-based prospective memory performance in school-aged children and explored possible cognitive correlates of age-related performance. A total of 56 7- to 12-year-olds performed a prospective memory task in which prospective memory accuracy, ongoing task performance, and time monitoring were assessed.…

  12. Prospective memory in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A. George; Crystal, Jonathon D.

    2011-01-01

    The content of prospective memory is comprised of representations of an action to perform in the future. When people form prospective memories, they temporarily put the memory representation in an inactive state while engaging in other activities, and then activate the representation in the future. Ultimately, successful activation of the memory representation yields an action at an appropriate, but temporally distant, time. A hallmark of prospective memory is that activation of the memory representation has a deleterious effect on current ongoing activity. Recent evidence suggests that scrub jays and non-human primates, but not other species, are capable of future planning. We hypothesized that prospective memory produces a selective deficit in performance at the time when rats access a memory representation but not when the memory representation is inactive. Rats were trained in a temporal bisection task (90 min/day). Immediately after the bisection task, half of the rats received an 8-g meal (meal group) and the other rats received no additional food (no-meal group). Sensitivity to time in the bisection task was reduced as the 90-min interval elapsed for the meal group but not for the no-meal group. This time-based prospective-memory effect was not based on response competition, an attentional limit, anticipatory contrast, or fatigue. Our results suggest that rats form prospective memories, which produces a negative side effect on ongoing activity. PMID:21922257

  13. Prospective memory in thalamic amnesia.

    PubMed

    Carlesimo, G A; Costa, A; Serra, L; Bozzali, M; Fadda, L; Caltagirone, C

    2011-07-01

    The contribution of the thalamus to the functioning of prospective memory (PM) is currently unknown. Here we report an experimental investigation of the performance of two patients with bilateral infarcts in the anterior-mesial regions of the thalami on an event-based PM paradigm. One patient, G.P., had a pervasive declarative memory impairment but no significant executive deficit. The other patient, R.F., had a memory deficit limited to verbal material with associated behavioral abnormalities (inertia and apathy); she performed poorly on tests of executive functions. Although both patients performed poorly on the PM task, a qualitative analysis of performance revealed different mechanisms at the base of their impaired PM. G.P. had reduced declarative memory for target words compared with normal controls; but, unforgotten words were normally able to elicit his recall of the prospective intention. Conversely, R.F.'s declarative memory for target words was as accurate as that of normal controls, but she presented a dramatically reduced ratio between the number of target words she recalled and the number of times she activated the prospective intention on the PM task, suggesting that her deficit consisted of difficulty in activating the intention despite normal declarative memory for the target events. In conclusion, results of the present study demonstrate that thalamic structures have an important role in PM processes. They also document that damage to the anterior-mesial regions of the thalami affects PM abilities by two different mechanisms, respectively based on the relative disruption of declarative memory or executive processes functioning, which, in turn, is related to the specific intrathalamic structures involved by the lesions. Indeed, while G.P.'s pervasive declarative memory deficit was underlain by bilateral involvement of the mammillo-thalamic tract, R.F.'s executive and behavioral abnormalities were likely related to bilateral damage of the midline

  14. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…

  15. Glucose, memory, and aging.

    PubMed

    Korol, D L; Gold, P E

    1998-04-01

    Circulating glucose concentrations regulate many brain functions, including learning and memory. Much of the evidence for this view comes from experiments assessing stress-related release of epinephrine with subsequent increases in blood glucose concentrations. One application of this work has been to investigate whether age-related memory impairments result from dysfunctions in the neuroendocrine regulation of the brain processes responsible for memory. Like humans, aged rodents exhibit some memory impairments that can be reversed by administration of epinephrine or glucose. In elderly humans, ingestion of glucose enhances some cognitive functions, with effects best documented thus far on tests of verbal contextual and noncontextual information. Glucose also effectively enhances cognition in persons with Alzheimer disease or Down syndrome. Although earlier evidence suggested that glucose does not enhance cognitive function in healthy young adults, more recent findings suggest that glucose is effective in this population, provided the tests are sufficiently difficult. In college students, glucose consumption significantly enhanced memory of material in a paragraph. Glucose also appeared to enhance attentional processes in these students. Neither face and word recognition nor working memory was influenced by treatment with glucose. The neurobiological mechanisms by which glucose acts are under current investigation. Initial evidence suggests that glucose or a metabolite may activate release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in rats when they are engaged in learning. Consequently, the issue of nutrition and cognition becomes increasingly important in light of evidence that circulating glucose concentrations have substantial effects on brain and cognitive functions.

  16. Longevity pathways and memory aging.

    PubMed

    Gkikas, Ilias; Petratou, Dionysia; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    The aging process has been associated with numerous pathologies at the cellular, tissue, and organ level. Decline or loss of brain functions, including learning and memory, is one of the most devastating and feared aspects of aging. Learning and memory are fundamental processes by which animals adjust to environmental changes, evaluate various sensory signals based on context and experience, and make decisions to generate adaptive behaviors. Age-related memory impairment is an important phenotype of brain aging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment is crucial for the development of therapeutic strategies that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. Studies in invertebrate animal models have taught us much about the physiology of aging and its effects on learning and memory. In this review we survey recent progress relevant to conserved molecular pathways implicated in both aging and memory formation and consolidation. PMID:24926313

  17. Prospective Memory Training: Outlining a New Approach.

    PubMed

    Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn L; McDaniel, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Prospective memory (PM) tasks are those that must be performed in the future (e.g., attend an appointment). While these everyday tasks can be especially relevant for older adults (i.e., medication adherence), and have been associated with age-related decline, PM has been virtually overlooked in the cognitive training domain. This article describes the first comprehensive PM training intervention. Older adults (age 55 to 75) who received training completed 8 weekly PM training sessions that consisted of variable PM training tasks, strategy-focused discussion, and homework assignments. Those assigned to a control group completed only the first and last training task. On both a real-world proxy PM transfer task and the training tasks detailed here, there was a positive impact of PM training, suggesting practical benefits of the current training package for older adults. Benefits may also extend to other special populations who experience PM impairments (e.g., traumatic brain injury [TBI], Parkinson's). PMID:25480795

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation on prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Grundgeiger, Tobias; Bayen, Ute J; Horn, Sebastian S

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation reduces cognitive performance; however, its effects on prospective memory (remembering to perform intended actions) are unknown. One view suggests that effects of sleep deprivation are limited to tasks associated with prefrontal functioning. An alternative view suggests a global, unspecific effect on human cognition, which should affect a variety of cognitive tasks. We investigated the impact of sleep deprivation (25 hours of sleep deprivation vs. no sleep deprivation) on prospective-memory performance in more resource-demanding and less resource-demanding prospective-memory tasks. Performance was lower after sleep deprivation and with a more resource-demanding prospective-memory task, but these factors did not interact. These results support the view that sleep deprivation affects cognition more globally and demonstrate that sleep deprivation increases failures to carry out intended actions, which may have severe consequences in safety-critical situations.

  19. Hypnosis Attenuates Executive Cost of Prospective Memory.

    PubMed

    Demeter, Gyula; Szendi, István; Juhász, Marianna; Kovács, Zoltán Ambrus; Boncz, István; Keresztes, Attila; Pajkossy, Péter; Racsmány, Mihály

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory is the ability to formulate and carry out actions at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. This study aimed to identify the effect of hypnosis on prospective memory performance and to analyze the involvement of executive control processes in intention realization in a hypnotically altered state of consciousness. In 1 experiment, manipulating hypnotic instruction in a within-subject fashion, the authors explored the event-based prospective memory performance of 23 volunteers in 3 conditions: baseline, expectation, and execution. The primary result was that executing prospective memory responses, at the same accuracy rate, produced a significantly lower cost of ongoing responses in terms of response latency in the hypnotic state than in wake condition. PMID:26894423

  20. Resource depletion does not influence prospective memory in college students

    PubMed Central

    Talley Shelton, Jill; Cahill, Michael J.; Mullet, Hillary G.; Scullin, Michael K.; Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment designed to investigate the potential influence of prior acts of self-control on subsequent prospective memory performance. College undergraduates (n = 146) performed either a cognitively depleting initial task (e.g., mostly incongruent Stroop task) or a less resource-consuming version of that task (e.g., all congruent Stroop task). Subsequently, participants completed a prospective memory task that required attentionally demanding monitoring processes. The results demonstrated that prior acts of self-control do not impair the ability to execute a future intention in college-aged adults. We conceptually replicated these results in three additional depletion and prospective memory experiments. This research extends a growing number of studies demonstrating the boundary conditions of the resource depletion effect in cognitive tasks. PMID:24021851

  1. The CyberCruiser: an investigation of development of prospective memory in children.

    PubMed

    Kerns, K A

    2000-01-01

    Prospective memory can be defined as the timely execution of a previously formed intention, and is critical in daily life because of its inherent involvement in goal-directed behavior. Cognitive systems involved in prospective memory have been hypothesized as involving the frontal cortex, and in adults, associated with working memory and executive functions. This study introduces a new computerized measure of prospective memory designed for children. In this study prospective memory is examined in a driving game task called the CyberCruiser. In a sample of 80 children ages 6-12 years, variables from this task demonstrated a significant age effect and were significantly correlated with other well known measures of executive function, even after controlling for chronological age. Performance on this task also demonstrated the anticipated pattern of strategic monitoring that has been demonstrated in other studies of prospective memory.

  2. Prospective Memory in Parkinson Disease During a Virtual Week: Effects of Both Prospective and Retrospective Demands

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Erin R.; Rose, Nathan S.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Rendell, Peter G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on event-based prospective memory tasks with varying demand on (1) the amount of strategic attentional monitoring required for intention retrieval (prospective component) and (2) the retrospective memory processes required to remember the contents of the intention or the entire constellation of prospective memory tasks. Method Twenty-four older adults with PD and 28 healthy older adults performed the computerized Virtual Week task, a multi-intention prospective memory paradigm that simulates everyday prospective memory tasks. The Virtual Week included regular (low retrospective memory demand) and irregular (high retrospective memory demand) prospective memory tasks with cues that were focal (low strategic monitoring demand) or less focal (high strategic monitoring demand) to the ongoing activity. Results For the regular prospective memory tasks, PD participants were impaired when the prospective memory cues were less focal. For the irregular prospective memory tasks, PD participants were impaired regardless of prospective memory cue type. PD participants also had impaired retrospective memory for irregular tasks, which was associated with worse prospective memory for these tasks during the Virtual Week. Conclusions When retrospective memory demands are minimized, prospective memory in PD can be supported by cues that reduce the executive control demands of intention retrieval. However, PD-related deficits in self-initiated encoding or planning processes have strong negative effects on the performance of prospective memory tasks with increased retrospective memory demand. PMID:23527645

  3. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Design: Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Settings: Laboratory. Participants: Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). Interventions: 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P < 0.001), objective vigilance (mean RT: P < 0.001; slowest 10% RT: P < 0.001; lapses: P < 0.005), and subjective vigilance (P < 0.0001). Performance on reasoning tasks and time monitoring behavior did not differ between groups. Conclusions: The results highlight the potential dangerous effects of total sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. Citation: Esposito MJ, Occhionero M, Cicogna P. Sleep deprivation and time-based prospective memory. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1823–1826. PMID:26085303

  4. Prospective Memory in Children and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Gonsiorowski, Anna; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something at a specific time in the future. Here we investigate the beginnings of this ability in young children (3-year-olds; Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using an analogous task. Subjects were given a choice between two toys (children) or two food items (chimpanzees). The selected item was delivered immediately, whereas the unselected item was hidden in an opaque container. After completing an ongoing quantity discrimination task, subjects could request the hidden item by asking for it (children) or by pointing to the container and identifying the item on a symbol board (chimpanzees). Children and chimpanzees showed evidence of prospective-like memory in this task, as evidenced by successful retrieval of the item at the end of the task, sometimes spontaneously with no prompting from the experimenter. These findings contribute to our understanding of prospective memory from an ontogenetic and comparative perspective. PMID:23884791

  5. Prospective Memory Training: Outlining a New Approach

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn L.; McDaniel, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) tasks are those that must be performed in the future (e.g., attend an appointment). While these everyday tasks can be especially relevant for older adults (i.e., medication adherence), and have been associated with age-related decline, PM has been virtually overlooked in the cognitive training domain. This article describes the first comprehensive PM training intervention. Older adults (age 55 to 75) who received training completed 8 weekly PM training sessions that consisted of variable PM training tasks, strategy-focused discussion, and homework assignments. Those assigned to a control group completed only the first and last training task. On both a real-world proxy PM transfer task and the training tasks detailed here, there was a positive impact of PM training, suggesting practical benefits of the current training package for older adults. Benefits may also extend to other special populations who experience PM impairments (e.g., traumatic brain injury [TBI], Parkinson’s). PMID:25480795

  6. Do Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compensate in Naturalistic Prospective Memory Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altgassen, Mareike; Koban, Nancy; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first to directly compare event- and time-based prospective memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a contextual task mirroring real life demands of prospective memory. Twenty-five individuals with ASD and 25 age- and ability-matched controls completed the Dresden Breakfast task which required participants to…

  7. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vain” to remember the first letters of the colors of the rainbow in order of their wave lengths: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet.) Don’t buy into ageist stereotypes about memory decline. Studies have shown that having positive beliefs ...

  8. A Multinomial Model of Event-Based Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2004-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to perform an action in the future. The authors introduce the 1st formal model of event-based prospective memory, namely, a multinomial model that includes 2 separate parameters related to prospective memory processes. The 1st measures preparatory attentional processes, and the 2nd measures retrospective memory…

  9. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  10. Aging, Source Memory, and Misrecollections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Chad S.; Bawa, Sameer; Slotnick, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose an illusory recollection account of why cognitive aging is associated with episodic memory deficits. After listening to statements presented by either a female or a male speaker, older adults were prone to misrecollecting past events. The authors' illusory recollection account is instantiated in a new illusory recollection…

  11. A fresh pair of eyes on prospective memory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Jill Talley; Christopher, Eddie A

    2016-08-01

    Remembering to complete one's future intentions is termed prospective memory. We employed a new eyetracking paradigm to concretely observe the impact of environmental cues on strategic monitoring within a visual prospective memory task. Participants worked on a continuous living-count task comprising images, while simultaneously being asked to respond to a prospective memory target when it appeared. Importantly, the prospective memory target appeared in a different area of the participant's visual field than did the continuous task, which is consistent with prospective memory in many real-world situations, and further allows for a clear index of strategic monitoring processes. Subtle cues in the form of semantically related images were embedded in the continuous task to prompt monitoring for the prospective memory target. Overt strategic monitoring was operationalized as the number of times participants fixated on the designated target area, and cue-driven monitoring was defined by the number of fixations on the prospective memory target region directly after fixating on a related cue. Overt strategic monitoring for the prospective memory target was directly observed for participants in the prospective memory condition, and cue-driven monitoring was also observed in these participants, since they were more likely to initiate monitoring immediately after fixating on a semantically related cue, relative to an unrelated cue. This psychophysiological approach afforded precise measurement of the strategic monitoring process and revealed how contextual cues in the environment interact with the cognitive mechanisms supporting prospective memory.

  12. The effects of HIV disease and older age on laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory: does retrieval cue type and delay interval matter?

    PubMed

    Avci, G; Loft, S; Sheppard, D P; Woods, S P

    2016-11-01

    There is a rising prevalence of older HIV+ adults who are at risk of deficits in higher order neurocognitive functions and associated problems in everyday functioning. The current study applied multiprocess theory to examine the effects of HIV and aging on measures of laboratory-based, naturalistic, and self-perceived symptoms of prospective memory (PM). Participants included 125 Younger (48 with HIV, age = 32 ± 4.6 years) and 189 Older (112 with HIV, age = 56 ± 4.9 years) adults. Controlling for global neurocognitive functioning, mood, and other demographics, older age and HIV had independent effects on long-delay time-based PM in the laboratory, whereas on a naturalistic PM task older HIV- adults performed better than older HIV+ adults and younger persons. In line with the naturalistic findings, older age, but not HIV, was associated with a relative sparing of self-perceived PM failures in daily life across longer delay self-cued intervals. Findings suggest that, even in relatively younger aging cohorts, the effects of HIV and older age on PM can vary across PM delay intervals by the strategic demands of the retrieval cue type, are expressed differently in the laboratory and in daily life, and are independent of other higher order neurocognitive functions (e.g., retrospective memory).

  13. Mood impairs time-based prospective memory in young but not older adults: the mediating role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Thorley, Craig; Phillips, Louise; Voigt, Babett; Threadgold, Emma; Hammond, Emily R; Mustafa, Besim; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined age-by-mood interactions in prospective memory and the potential role of attentional control. Positive, negative, or neutral mood was induced in young and older adults. Subsequent time-based prospective memory performance was tested, incorporating a measure of online attentional control shifts between the ongoing and the prospective memory task via time monitoring behavior. Mood impaired prospective memory in the young, but not older, adults. Moderated mediation analyses showed that mood effects in the young were mediated by changes in time monitoring. Results are discussed in relation to findings from the broader cognitive emotional aging literature.

  14. Mechanisms underlying the link between cannabis use and prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Carrie; McLaughlin, Ryan J; Graf, Peter

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study, 805 students completed an online survey designed to assess cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use indicative of a disorder, and frequency of experiencing prospective memory failures. The results showed small to moderate sized correlations between cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use, and prospective memory. However, a series of mediation analyses revealed that correlations between problems with cannabis use and prospective memory were driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory. For the second study, 48 non-users (who had never used cannabis), 48 experimenters (who had used cannabis five or fewer times in their lives), and 48 chronic users (who had used cannabis at least three times a week for one year) were administered three objective prospective memory tests and three self-report measures of prospective memory. The results revealed no objective deficits in prospective memory associated with chronic cannabis use. In contrast, chronic cannabis users reported experiencing more internally-cued prospective memory failures. Subsequent analyses revealed that this effect was driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory as well as by use of alcohol and other drugs. Although our samples were not fully characterized with respect to variables such as neurological disorders and family history of substance use disorders, leaving open the possibility that these variables may play a role in the detected relationships, the present findings indicate that cannabis use has a modest effect on self-reported problems with prospective memory, with a

  15. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics and 64 normal controls) participated in the study. Prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire, everyday attention questionnaire and meta-memory were administered on children. Analysis of variance was used to analyses the data. All the main effects were significant. Some interactions were also found to be significant. Results suggest that dyslexic's performance on memory (prospective and retrospective memory) was worse than normal control. Meta-memory influences both dyslexics and normal control on prospective and retrospective memory. However, meta-memory affected dyslexics much more than normal control group. Similarly, significant differential effects were observed for simple, difficult and mixed attentional condition among between dyslexics and normal control. Dyslexic's performance was deteriorated as compared to normal control group. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of the existing literature. PMID:25538638

  16. Prospective Memory, Personality, and Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A.; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors. PMID:23525147

  17. The temporal dynamics of prospective memory: a review of the ERP and prospective memory literature.

    PubMed

    West, Robert

    2011-07-01

    This review article examines the literature using event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal dynamics of the neurocognitive processes underpinning event-based prospective memory (PM). The successful encoding of delayed intentions is associated with slow wave activity over the frontal region in younger adults and this activity is attenuated in older adults. The realization of delayed intentions is associated with distinct components of the ERPs that are associated with the detection of a PM cue in the environment (N300), the retrieval of an intention from memory (recognition old-new effect), signaling the need to switch from the ongoing activity (frontal positivity), and configuration of the PM task set (parietal positivity). The development of prospective memory across the lifespan appears to reflect development of processes associated with retrieval of the cue-intention association from memory, and executive processes related to cue detection. The final section of the review examines the nature of executive processes that support PM within the context of a theory of the supervisory attentional system.

  18. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  19. Improving Memory in the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Linda M.; Pratt, Mary Alice

    This paper reports the results of an evaluation of a didactic-experiential program designed to improve memory functioning in healthy older adults with memory complaints, and to allay their concerns (in this case, largely unfounded) about the decline of their memory. The 7-week workshop met weekly for 2 hours, each session consisting of a lecture…

  20. Prospective memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment: an analytical review.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2011-12-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by the presence in an otherwise healthy elderly individual of cognitive deficits involving specific domains in the absence of significant functional impairments. Reports indicate that prospective memory (PM), that is, the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions, is impaired in individuals with MCI. The present review discusses the current debate in the literature on PM functioning in MCI by focusing on the relationship between prospective retrieval and retrospective memory functioning. Analysis of the reported evidence revealed that both the prospective component and the retrospective component of PM can be impaired in MCI. Declarative memory dysfunction may account for the retrospective memory impairment, while either reduced executive abilities or a deficit of reflexive mechanisms could explain the prospective component impairment.

  1. How important is importance for prospective memory? A review

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Stefan; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Forgetting to carry out an intention as planned can have serious consequences in everyday life. People sometimes even forget intentions that they consider as very important. Here, we review the literature on the impact of importance on prospective memory performance. We highlight different methods used to manipulate the importance of a prospective memory task such as providing rewards, importance relative to other ongoing activities, absolute importance, and providing social motives. Moreover, we address the relationship between importance and other factors known to affect prospective memory and ongoing task performance such as type of prospective memory task (time-, event-, or activity-based), cognitive loads, and processing overlaps. Finally, we provide a connection to motivation, we summarize the effects of task importance and we identify important venues for future research. PMID:25018743

  2. Prospective Memory in Young and Older Adults: The Effects of Ongoing-Task Load

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to perform intended actions in the future. Previous work with the multinomial model of event-based prospective memory indicated that adult age-related differences in prospective-memory performance were due to the prospective (not the retrospective) component of the task (Smith & Bayen, 2006). However, ongoing-task performance was also lower in older adults in that study. In the current study with young and older adults, the difficulty of the ongoing task was manipulated by varying the number of colors per trial to create easier and harder versions of the ongoing task for each age group. The easier version included 2 colors per trial for older adults and 4 colors for young adults. The harder version included 4 colors for older adults and 6 colors for young adults. By adjusting the ongoing-task difficulty, older adults were able to perform the ongoing task as well or better than the young adults. Analyses with the multinomial model revealed that making the ongoing task easier for older adults (or more difficult for young adults) did not eliminate age-related differences in prospective-memory performance and the underlying prospective component. PMID:22182306

  3. Retrieval experience in prospective memory: strategic monitoring and spontaneous retrieval.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Zimmermann, Thomas D; Perrig, Walter J

    2006-10-01

    According to the multi-process model of prospective memory (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000), performance in a prospective memory task may be due to spontaneous retrieval processes or due to strategic monitoring. Spontaneous retrieval is typically accompanied by a pop up experience and strategic monitoring by a search experience. In this study we report two experiments with young adults in which we systematically investigated whether retrieval experience differed across experimental conditions. In Experiment 1 some prospective memory targets were preceded by associated primes. We expected that presenting primes would enhance performance by an automatic activation of the intention and hence lead to an increase in pop up experiences. In Experiment 2 half of the participants received instructions containing information about the specific context in which the prospective memory task would occur, whereas the other half of the participants received no such information. We expected that specific context instructions would enhance performance by legitimate anticipation of the prospective memory task and hence would lead to an increase in search experiences. The results confirmed these expectations. They indicate that the assessment of retrieval experience can provide valuable insights into the processes underlying prospective memory performance. They also suggest that retrieval experience can vary systematically across experimental situations as predicted by the multi-process model.

  4. Effect of Delay on Children's Delay-Execute Prospective Memory Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendell, Peter G.; Vella, Melissa J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Terrett, Gill

    2009-01-01

    To date, little work has been done investigating prospective memory in children, particularly using a delay-execute paradigm. Two experiments were conducted to investigate this issue with children aged 5-11 years. While playing a computer driving game, children's ability to carry out a delayed intention either immediately a target cue appeared or…

  5. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  6. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  7. The Role of Extrinsic Rewards and Cue-Intention Association in Prospective Memory in Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Daniel Patrick; Kretschmer, Anett; Knispel, Elisa; Vollert, Bianka; Altgassen, Mareike

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association) for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children’s everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed. PMID:26489046

  8. The Role of Extrinsic Rewards and Cue-Intention Association in Prospective Memory in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Daniel Patrick; Kretschmer, Anett; Knispel, Elisa; Vollert, Bianka; Altgassen, Mareike

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association) for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children's everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed. PMID:26489046

  9. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  10. Disentangling the effect of event-based cues on children's time-based prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Jonathan; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous time-based prospective memory research, both with children and with other groups, has measured the ability to perform an action with the arrival of a time-dependent yet still event-based cue (e.g., the occurrence of a specific clock pattern) while also engaged in an ongoing activity. Here we introduce a novel means of operationalizing time-based prospective memory and assess children's growing capacities when the availability of an event-based cue is varied. Preschoolers aged 3, 4, and 5years (N=72) were required to ring a bell when a familiar 1-min sand timer had completed a cycle under four conditions. In a 2×2 within-participants design, the timer was either visible or hidden and was either presented in the context of a single task or embedded within a dual picture-naming task. Children were more likely to ring the bell before 2min had elapsed in the visible-timer and single-task conditions, with performance improving with age across all conditions. These results suggest a divergence in the development of time-based prospective memory in the presence versus absence of event-based cues, and they also suggest that performance on typical time-based tasks may be partly driven by event-based prospective memory. PMID:27295204

  11. Disentangling the effect of event-based cues on children's time-based prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Jonathan; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Previous time-based prospective memory research, both with children and with other groups, has measured the ability to perform an action with the arrival of a time-dependent yet still event-based cue (e.g., the occurrence of a specific clock pattern) while also engaged in an ongoing activity. Here we introduce a novel means of operationalizing time-based prospective memory and assess children's growing capacities when the availability of an event-based cue is varied. Preschoolers aged 3, 4, and 5years (N=72) were required to ring a bell when a familiar 1-min sand timer had completed a cycle under four conditions. In a 2×2 within-participants design, the timer was either visible or hidden and was either presented in the context of a single task or embedded within a dual picture-naming task. Children were more likely to ring the bell before 2min had elapsed in the visible-timer and single-task conditions, with performance improving with age across all conditions. These results suggest a divergence in the development of time-based prospective memory in the presence versus absence of event-based cues, and they also suggest that performance on typical time-based tasks may be partly driven by event-based prospective memory.

  12. Executive Functioning and Prospective Memory in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the role of executive functioning (EF) in children's prospective memory (PM) by assessing the effect of delay and number of intentions to-be-remembered on PM, as well as relations between PM and EF. Ninety-six 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds completed a PM task and two executive function tasks. The PM task required children to…

  13. Modeling Criterion Shifts and Target Checking in Prospective Memory Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2015-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the…

  14. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate geometric forms called lexigrams with real-world referents, was given a prospective memory test. Panzee selected between two foods the one she wanted to receive more immediately. That food was scattered in an outdoor yard where she could forage for it. Also outdoors were lexigram tokens, one of which represented the food item that remained indoors throughout a 30 minute period, and that could be obtained if Panzee brought in the token that matched that food item. After foraging for the selected food item, Panzee consistently remembered to retrieve and return the correct token when food was available indoors, whereas on control trials involving no indoor food she rarely returned a token. This indicated that Panzee encoded information relevant to the future action of token retrieval after extended delays for one type of food, even when a more immediately preferred food was available. PMID:23139433

  15. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Bramlett, Jessica L; Menzel, Charles R; Evans, Theodore A

    2012-11-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate geometric forms called lexigrams with real-world referents, was given a prospective memory test. Panzee selected between two foods the one she wanted to receive more immediately. That food was scattered in an outdoor yard where she could forage for it. Also outdoors were lexigram tokens, one of which represented the food item that remained indoors throughout a 30 minute period, and that could be obtained if Panzee brought in the token that matched that food item. After foraging for the selected food item, Panzee consistently remembered to retrieve and return the correct token when food was available indoors, whereas on control trials involving no indoor food she rarely returned a token. This indicated that Panzee encoded information relevant to the future action of token retrieval after extended delays for one type of food, even when a more immediately preferred food was available. PMID:23139433

  16. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  17. Target Context Specification Can Reduce Costs in Nonfocal Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Joana S.; White, Katherine; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a nonfocal prospective memory (PM) task results in a cost to ongoing task processing, but the precise nature of the monitoring processes involved remains unclear. We investigated whether target context specification (i.e., explicitly associating the PM target with a subset of ongoing stimuli) can trigger trial-by-trial changes in task…

  18. Coding of Stimuli by Animals: Retrospection, Prospection, Episodic Memory and Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    When animals code stimuli for later retrieval they can either code them in terms of the stimulus presented (as a retrospective memory) or in terms of the response or outcome anticipated (as a prospective memory). Although retrospective memory is typically assumed (as in the form of a memory trace), evidence of prospective coding has been found…

  19. Prospective memory and glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prospective memory is that memory which is required to carry out intended actions and is therefore essential in carrying out the daily activities required in the self-management of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). This study aimed to identify the relationships between prospective memory and diabetic control in children with T1DM. Method 94 children aged 6–18 years with T1DM completed an innovative prospective memory screen, PROMS, and a series of cognitive tests. Parents answered questionnaires about their children's diabetic histories and cognitive skills. Results No association between total PROMS score and glycemic control was found. Lower HbA1C was associated with higher (better) scores on the 20 minute event-based task on the PROMS. Parental concerns about working memory and metacognition in their children were mirrored by higher HbA1C. Conclusions This study suggests that there may be an association between glycemic control and prospective memory for event based tasks. Additional studies need to be done to determine reproducibility, causality, and if prospective memory based interventions can improve diabetic control. PMID:23198726

  20. The ageing brain: normal and abnormal memory.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M S

    1997-01-01

    With advancing age, the majority of individuals experience declines in their ability to learn and remember. An examination of brain structure and function in healthy older persons across the age range indicates that there are substantial changes in the brain that appear to be related to alterations in memory. The nature of the cognitive and neurobiological alterations associated with age-related change is substantially different from that seen in the early stages of a dementing illness, such as Alzheimer's disease. These differences have implications for potential intervention strategies. PMID:9415922

  1. Time-based prospective memory in young children-Exploring executive functions as a developmental mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Anett; Voigt, Babett; Friedrich, Sylva; Pfeiffer, Kathrin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated time-based prospective memory (PM) during the transition from kindergarten/preschool to school age and applied mediation models to test the impact of executive functions (working memory, inhibitory control) and time monitoring on time-based PM development. Twenty-five preschool (age: M = 5.75, SD = 0.28) and 22 primary school children (age: M = 7.83, SD = 0.39) participated. To examine time-based PM, children had to play a computer-based driving game requiring them to drive a car on a road without hitting others cars (ongoing task) and to refill the car regularly according to a fuel gauge, which serves as clock equivalent (PM task). The level of gas that was still left in the fuel gauge was not displayed on the screen and children had to monitor it via a button press (time monitoring). Results revealed a developmental increase in time-based PM performance from preschool to school age. Applying the mediation models, only working memory was revealed to influence PM development. Neither inhibitory control alone nor the mediation paths leading from both executive functions to time monitoring could explain the link between age and time-based PM. Thus, results of the present study suggest that working memory may be one key cognitive process driving the developmental growth of time-based PM during the transition from preschool to school age.

  2. Time-based and event-based prospective memory in autism spectrum disorder: the roles of executive function and theory of mind, and time-estimation.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Boucher, Jill; Lind, Sophie; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21 intellectually high-functioning children with ASD, and 21 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison children. We found impaired time-based, but undiminished event-based, prospective memory among children with ASD. In the ASD group, time-based prospective memory performance was associated significantly with diminished theory of mind, but not with diminished cognitive flexibility. There was no evidence that time-estimation ability contributed to time-based prospective memory impairment in ASD.

  3. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski, Zelinski,…

  4. [False memories and aging: age effects on predictive inferences].

    PubMed

    Gras, Doriane; Tardieu, Hubert; Nicolas, Serge

    2008-12-01

    To study false memories in older adults, a lot of experiments used the DRM paradigm (Deese, Roediger et McDermott). Most of the time, the results showed that older adults make more false memories than young adults. To test this hypothesis with a more ecological material, we used a situation of text reading. When we read a text, we activate predictive inferences, which are anticipations of what will happen next. We constructed short texts inducing predictive inferences (represented by a target word not presented) to study false memories in young and older adults. For example, in the text , the target word "sting" is not presented but represents the predictive inference. After the reading of the texts, we propose to the subjects a restitution task consisting in recalling texts with the first sentence as clue. Then, they made a recognition task composed of target words and lures; they had to say if they remembered having read these words in the texts. In these two tasks, the subjects tended to remember not presented target words, creating false memories. This effect was the same for the two age groups showing that, in an ecological situation like text reading, older persons make as many false memories as young adults. PMID:19087911

  5. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  6. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  7. Theory of mind and switching predict prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Vetter, Nora C; Phillips, Louise H; Akgün, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates ongoing development of prospective memory as well as theory of mind and executive functions across late childhood and adolescence. However, so far the interplay of these processes has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether theory of mind and executive control processes (specifically updating, switching, and inhibition) predict prospective memory development across adolescence. In total, 42 adolescents and 41 young adults participated in this study. Young adults outperformed adolescents on tasks of prospective memory, theory of mind, and executive functions. Switching and theory of mind predicted prospective memory performance in adolescents.

  8. Seymour Sarason in Memorial: Prospects for Community and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maton, Kenneth I.

    2012-01-01

    Seymour Sarason passed away on January 10, 2010 at the age of 91. He was the author of more than 40 books, including The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change (1971), The Creation of Settings and the Future Societies (1972), and The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology (1974). His groundbreaking ideas…

  9. Impaired strategic monitoring as the locus of a focal prospective memory deficit.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; McNerney, M Windy; Krauss, Iseli

    2007-04-01

    In this study we examine the locus of a prospective memory deficit in an individual with multiple sclerosis. Extensive psychometric and neuropsychological testing revealed above average to superior general intelligence, retrospective and autobiographical memory, short-term/working memory and executive functions. In contrast, the individual demonstrated poor prospective memory on a variety of measures incorporating naturalistic, self-report, and laboratory methods. This deficit appeared to arise from a disruption of processes underlying strategic monitoring. These data clearly demonstrate that impaired prospective memory can exist in the presence of an otherwise intact neuropsychological profile.

  10. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Chi, Susan Y.; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J.; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), non-amestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:24875614

  11. The influence of strategic monitoring on the neural correlates of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    West, Robert

    2007-07-01

    The influence of strategic monitoring on the neural correlates of prospective memory was examined in two experiments. Strategic monitoring was manipulated by varying the context in which prospective cues occurred, with the cues requiring a prospective response in one task context and not the other. The N300, associated with cue detection, and the prospective positivity, associated with postretrieval processes, were elicited by prospective hits and were not elicited by prospective misses or ignore prospective cues. A parietal old-new effect was elicited by prospective misses and ignore prospective cues. Together these findings indicate that strategic monitoring may be necessary for cue detection and the recruitment of postretrieval processes, but not the recognition of a prospective cue as an old item. These findings serve to refine strategic monitoring and automatic associative accounts of prospective memory.

  12. Everyday prospective memory and executive function deficits associated with exposure to second-hand smoke.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Thomas M; O'Neill, Terence S

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group) and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group) were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities) and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making). The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ) assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered.

  13. Everyday Prospective Memory and Executive Function Deficits Associated with Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Thomas M.; O'Neill, Terence S.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) has a detrimental impact upon everyday memory in two groups of non-smokers; one which reported regular exposure to SHS and one that reported never having been exposed to SHS. Thirty-four non-smokers who reported having been regularly exposed to SHS (SHS group) and 34 non-smokers who reported never having been exposed to SHS (non-SHS group) were compared on self-reports of prospective memory (PM: remembering future intentions and/or activities) and executive function (EF: those processes involved in attention, multitasking and decision-making). The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) assessed everyday PM lapses; the Executive Function Questionnaire (EFQ) assessed self-reported problems in EF; a drug-use questionnaire and a mood questionnaire were also administered. Two univariate ANCOVAs were applied to the PM and EF data, controlling for between-group differences in age, weekly alcohol use, anxiety and depression scores, and self-reported retrospective memory scores. The SHS group reported significantly more lapses on the PRMQ and more deficits on the EFQ than the non-SHS group. These findings provide new insights into PM and EF deficits associated with prolonged exposure to SHS in a group of non-smokers. Possible explanations and suggestions for future research are also considered. PMID:24804137

  14. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  15. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  16. [Prospective memory - concepts, methods of assessment, neuroanatomical bases and its deficits in mental disorders].

    PubMed

    Wiłkość, Monika; Izdebski, Paweł; Zajac-Lamparska, Ludmiła

    2013-01-01

    In the last two decades of the last century there has been a shift in the studies on memory. In psychology of memory the criticism of the laboratory approach resulted in development of the ecological approach. One of the effects of this change was to initiate researches on memory that includes plans for the future, which has resulted in the distinction of the concept of prospective memory. Prospective memory is used in many aspects of everyday life. It deals with remembering intentions and plans, it is connected with remembering about specific task or activity in the future. There are three types of PM: event-based prospective memory, time-based prospective memory and activity-based prospective memory. Current research in this field have already established its own paradigm and tools measuring PM and there is still increasing scientific interest in this issue. Prospective memory assessment may be carried out in various ways. Among them, the most frequently used are: a) questionnaires, b) psychological tests, c) experimental procedures. Within the latter, the additional distinction can be introduced for: the experiments conducted under natural conditions and the laboratory procedures. In Polish literature, there are only a few articles on PM. The aim of this work is to review studies on assessment methods of PM. Its neuroanatomical bases and its functioning in different mental disorders are analyzed. The work is aimed to focus clinicians attention on prospective memory as an area which is important for complex diagnosis of cognitive processes.

  17. Toward an understanding of anticipatory pleasure deficits in schizophrenia: Memory, prospection, and emotion experience.

    PubMed

    Painter, Janelle M; Kring, Ann M

    2016-04-01

    Anticipatory pleasure deficits have been observed in people with schizophrenia. Less is known about the extent to which interrelated processes that comprise anticipatory pleasure, including memory, prospection, and emotion experience are disrupted. We asked people with (n = 32) and without (n = 29) schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder to provide memory and prospection narratives in response to specific cues. Half of the prospections followed a memory task, and half followed a control task. People with schizophrenia generated memories similar in content and experience as controls even as they described them less clearly. However, people with schizophrenia were less likely to explicitly reference the past in their prospections, and their prospections were less detailed and richly experienced than controls, regardless of the task completed before prospection. People with schizophrenia reported similar levels of positive emotion (current and predicted) in positive prospections that followed the memory task, but less positive emotion than controls in positive prospections that followed the control task. Taken together, these results suggest that people with schizophrenia experience difficulties drawing from past experiences and generating detailed prospections. However, asking people with schizophrenia to recall and describe memories prior to prospection may increase the likelihood of drawing from the past in prospections, and may help boost current and predicted pleasure.

  18. Differential effects of age on involuntary and voluntary autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Schlagman, Simone; Kliegel, Matthias; Schulz, Jörg; Kvavilashvili, Lia

    2009-06-01

    Research on aging and autobiographical memory has focused almost exclusively on voluntary autobiographical memory. However, in everyday life, autobiographical memories often come to mind spontaneously without deliberate attempt to retrieve anything. In the present study, diary and word-cue methods were used to compare the involuntary and voluntary memories of 44 young and 38 older adults. The results showed that older adults reported fewer involuntary and voluntary memories than did younger adults. Additionally, the life span distribution of involuntary and voluntary memories did not differ in young adults (a clear recency effect) or in older adults (a recency effect and a reminiscence bump). Despite these similarities between involuntary and voluntary memories, there were also important differences in terms of the effects of age on some memory characteristics. Thus, older adults' voluntary memories were less specific and were recalled more slowly than those of young adults, but there were no reliable age differences in the specificity of involuntary memories. Moreover, older adults rated their involuntary memories as more positive than did young adults, but this positivity effect was not found for voluntary memories. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on autobiographical memory and cognitive aging are discussed. PMID:19485657

  19. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  20. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Scott M; Alosco, Michael L; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E; Sperling, Reisa A; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2015-11-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n=29, age 18-31 years) and older adults (n=31, ages 55-82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults.

  1. Multiple Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval: Factors Determining Monitoring Versus Spontaneous Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einstein, Gilles O.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Thomas, Ruthann; Mayfield, Sara; Shank, Hilary; Morrisette, Nova; Breneiser, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Theoretically, prospective memory retrieval can be accomplished either by controlled monitoring of the environment for a target event or by a more reflexive process that spontaneously responds to the presence of a target event. These views were evaluated in Experiments 1-4 by examining whether performing a prospective memory task produced costs on…

  2. Implicit Memory, Age, and Time of Day

    PubMed Central

    May, Cynthia P.; Hasher, Lynn; Foong, Natalie

    2006-01-01

    Memory retrieval can occur by at least two routes: a deliberate one, as when one attempts to retrieve an event or fact, and an unintentional one, as when one’s behavior is triggered by the past without one’s knowledge or awareness. We assessed the efficacy of these retrieval systems as a function of circadian arousal and time of day. Evening-type younger adults and morning-type older adults were tested at either peak (morning for old; evening for young) or off-peak times on implicit and explicit stem completion (Experiment 1) or on implicit category generation (Experiment 2). Results for explicit stem-cued recall replicated better performance for each age group at its peak time. In stark contrast, implicit performance was better at off-peak than at peak times of day, raising the possibility that the processes that serve explicit and implicit retrieval are on different circadian schedules, and highlighting the need to consider individual differences in circadian arousal when assessing either memory system. PMID:15686574

  3. Aging-related episodic memory decline: are emotions the key?

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21-45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48-62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71-83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group.

  4. Aging-related episodic memory decline: are emotions the key?

    PubMed Central

    Kinugawa, Kiyoka; Schumm, Sophie; Pollina, Monica; Depre, Marion; Jungbluth, Carolin; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Sebban, Claude; Zlomuzica, Armin; Pietrowsky, Reinhard; Pause, Bettina; Mariani, Jean; Dere, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory refers to the recollection of personal experiences that contain information on what has happened and also where and when these events took place. Episodic memory function is extremely sensitive to cerebral aging and neurodegerative diseases. We examined episodic memory performance with a novel test in young (N = 17, age: 21–45), middle-aged (N = 16, age: 48–62) and aged but otherwise healthy participants (N = 8, age: 71–83) along with measurements of trait and state anxiety. As expected we found significantly impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group as compared to the young group. The aged group also showed impaired working memory performance as well as significantly decreased levels of trait anxiety. No significant correlation between the total episodic memory and trait or state anxiety scores was found. The present results show an age-dependent episodic memory decline along with lower trait anxiety in the aged group. Yet, it still remains to be determined whether this difference in anxiety is related to the impaired episodic memory performance in the aged group. PMID:23378831

  5. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  6. Nonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older people.

    PubMed

    Brédart, Serge; Bouffier, Marion

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that young participants typically date events that they remember, but no longer believe they experienced, to the period of childhood. The present study investigated whether participants aged between 40 and 79years dated events related to relinquished memories to the period of childhood, as do younger people, or whether they dated such events to a period later in life. The study also compared believed and nonbelieved memories with respect to memory perspective (1st vs 3rd person perspective). Results indicated that the majority of middle-aged and older people dated nonbelieved memories to the period of childhood (median age=8years). No correlation was found between the participants' current age and their age at the time the nonbelieved event occurred. In addition, results showed that believed memories were more likely to be retrieved from a 1st person perspective than were nonbelieved memories.

  7. Minimizing the Disruptive Effects of Prospective Memory in Simulated Air Traffic Control

    PubMed Central

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Remington, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory refers to remembering to perform an intended action in the future. Failures of prospective memory can occur in air traffic control. In two experiments, we examined the utility of external aids for facilitating air traffic management in a simulated air traffic control task with prospective memory requirements. Participants accepted and handed-off aircraft and detected aircraft conflicts. The prospective memory task involved remembering to deviate from a routine operating procedure when accepting target aircraft. External aids that contained details of the prospective memory task appeared and flashed when target aircraft needed acceptance. In Experiment 1, external aids presented either adjacent or non-adjacent to each of the 20 target aircraft presented over the 40min test phase reduced prospective memory error by 11% compared to a condition without external aids. In Experiment 2, only a single target aircraft was presented a significant time (39min–42min) after presentation of the prospective memory instruction, and the external aids reduced prospective memory error by 34%. In both experiments, costs to the efficiency of non-prospective memory air traffic management (non-target aircraft acceptance response time, conflict detection response time) were reduced by non-adjacent aids compared to no aids or adjacent aids. In contrast, in both experiments, the efficiency of the prospective memory air traffic management (target aircraft acceptance response time) was facilitated by adjacent aids compared to non-adjacent aids. Together, these findings have potential implications for the design of automated alerting systems to maximize multi-task performance in work settings where operators monitor and control demanding perceptual displays. PMID:24059825

  8. Relations among prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure.

    PubMed

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-11-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory) and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample consisted of 105 (55 female and 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age=15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families. Approximately 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but the adolescents were similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status.

  9. What can the diffusion model tell us about prospective memory?

    PubMed

    Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Smith, Rebekah E

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive process models, such as Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model, are useful tools for examining cost or interference effects in event-based prospective memory (PM). The diffusion model includes several parameters that provide insight into how and why ongoing-task performance may be affected by a PM task and is ideally suited to analyse performance because both reaction time and accuracy are taken into account. Separate analyses of these measures can easily yield misleading interpretations in cases of speed-accuracy trade-offs. The diffusion model allows us to measure possible criterion shifts and is thus an important methodological improvement over standard analyses. Performance in an ongoing lexical-decision task was analysed with the diffusion model. The results suggest that criterion shifts play an important role when a PM task is added, but do not fully explain the cost effect on reaction time. PMID:21443332

  10. Time's up! Involvement of metamemory knowledge, executive functions, and time monitoring in children's prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Geurten, Marie; Lejeune, Caroline; Meulemans, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory (PM) in children and explored the possible involvement of metamemory knowledge and executive functions in the use of an appropriate time-monitoring strategy depending on the ongoing task's difficulty. Specifically, a sample of 72 typically developing children aged 4, 6, and 9 years old were given an original PM paradigm composed of both an ongoing procedural activity and a PM task. Half of the participants (expert group) were trained in the ongoing activity before the prospective test. As expected, results show that time monitoring had a positive effect on children's PM performance. Furthermore, mediation analyses reveal that strategic time monitoring was predicted by metamemory knowledge in the expert group but only by executive functions in the novice group. Overall, these findings provide interesting avenues to explain how metamemory knowledge, strategy use, and executive functions interact to improve PM performance during childhood.

  11. Age-related differences in updating working memory.

    PubMed

    Van der Linden, M; Brédart, S; Beerten, A

    1994-02-01

    Age-related differences in updating working memory were investigated in two experiments using a running memory task. In the first experiment, the task of the young and elderly subjects was to watch strings of four to 10 consonants and then to recall serially the four most recent items. Results revealed no age effect. A second experiment was then carried out using a memory load that was close to memory span: lists of six to 12 consonants were presented and subjects had to recall the last six items. Age interacted with list length but not with serial position. This dissociation is discussed in terms of Baddeley's (1986) model.

  12. The effect of semantic context on prospective memory performance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brandon J; McBride, Dawn M

    2016-01-01

    The current study provides evidence for spontaneous processing in prospective memory (PM) or memory for intentions. Discrepancy-plus-search is the spontaneous processing of PM cues via disruptions in processing fluency of ongoing task items. We tested whether this mechanism can be demonstrated in an ongoing rating task with a dominant semantic context. Ongoing task items were manipulated such that the PM cues were members of a semantic category (i.e., Body Parts) that was congruent or discrepant with the dominant semantic category in the ongoing task. Results showed that participants correctly responded to more PM cues when there was a category discrepancy between the PM cues and ongoing task items. Moreover, participants' identification of PM cues was accompanied by faster ongoing task reaction times when PM cues were discrepant with ongoing task items than when they were congruent. These results suggest that a discrepancy-plus-search process supports PM retrieval in certain contexts, and that some discrepancy-plus-search mechanisms may result from the violation of processing expectations within a semantic context.

  13. Prospective Memory Function in Late Adulthood: Affect at Encoding and Resource Allocation Costs

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Julie D.; Joeffry, Sebastian; Terrett, Gill; Ballhausen, Nicola; Kliegel, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have found that prospective memory (PM) cues which are emotionally valenced influence age effects in prospective remembering, but it remains unclear whether this effect reflects the operation of processes implemented at encoding or retrieval. In addition, none of the prior ageing studies of valence on PM function have examined potential costs of engaging in different valence conditions, or resource allocation trade-offs between the PM and the ongoing task. In the present study, younger, young-old and old-old adults completed a PM task in which the valence of the cues varied systematically (positive, negative or neutral) at encoding, but was kept constant (neutral) at retrieval. The results indicated that PM accuracy did not vary as a function of affect at encoding, and that this effect did not interact with age group. There was also no main or interaction effect of valence on PM reaction time in PM cue trials, indicating that valence costs across the three encoding conditions were equivalent. Old-old adults’ PM accuracy was reduced relative to both young-old and younger adults. Prospective remembering incurred dual-task costs for all three groups. Analyses of reaction time data suggested that for both young-old and old-old, these costs were greater, implying differential resource allocation cost trade-offs. However, when reaction time data were expressed as a proportional change that adjusted for the general slowing of the older adults, costs did not differ as a function of group. PMID:25893540

  14. Sensitivity of negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects to age and associative memory performance.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2015-07-01

    The present fMRI experiment employed associative recognition to investigate the relationships between age and encoding-related negative subsequent memory effects and task-negative effects. Young, middle-aged and older adults (total n=136) were scanned while they made relational judgments on visually presented word pairs. In a later memory test, the participants made associative recognition judgments on studied, rearranged (items studied on different trials) and new pairs. Several regions, mostly localized to the default mode network, demonstrated negative subsequent memory effects in an across age-group analysis. All but one of these regions also demonstrated task-negative effects, although there was no correlation between the size of the respective effects. Whereas negative subsequent memory effects demonstrated a graded attenuation with age, task-negative effects declined markedly between the young and the middle-aged group, but showed no further reduction in the older group. Negative subsequent memory effects did not correlate with memory performance within any age group. By contrast, in the older group only, task-negative effects predicted later memory performance. The findings demonstrate that negative subsequent memory and task-negative effects depend on dissociable neural mechanisms and likely reflect distinct cognitive processes. The relationship between task-negative effects and memory performance in the older group might reflect the sensitivity of these effects to variations in amount of age-related neuropathology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory. PMID:25264353

  15. Memory for Sequences of Events Impaired in Typical Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to…

  16. Normal aging modulates prefrontoparietal networks underlying multiple memory processes

    PubMed Central

    Sambataro, Fabio; Safrin, Martin; Lemaitre, Herve S.; Steele, Sonya U.; Das, Saumitra B.; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Mattay, Venkata S.

    2012-01-01

    Functional decline of brain regions underlying memory processing represents a hallmark of cognitive aging. Although a rich literature documents age-related differences in several memory domains, the effect of aging on networks that underlie multiple memory processes has been relatively unexplored. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging during working memory and incidental episodic encoding memory to investigate patterns of age-related differences in activity and functional covariance patterns common across multiple memory domains. Relative to younger subjects, older subjects showed increased activation in left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex along with decreased deactivation in the posterior cingulate. Older subjects showed greater functional covariance during both memory tasks in a set of regions that included a positive prefronto-parietal-occipital networkas well as a negative network that spanned the default mode regions. These findings suggest that the memory process-invariant recruitment of brain regions within prefronto-parietal-occipital network increases with aging.Our results are in line with the dedifferentiation hypothesis of neurocognitive aging, thereby suggesting a decreased specialization of the brain networks supporting different memory networks. PMID:22909094

  17. The Role of Prospective Memory in Medication Adherence: A Review of an Emerging Literature

    PubMed Central

    Zogg, Jennifer B.; Woods, Steven Paul; Sauceda, John A.; Wiebe, John S.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Although neurocognitive impairment is an established risk factor for medication non-adherence, standard neurocognitive tests developed for clinical purposes may not fully capture the complexities of non-adherence behavior or effectively inform theory-driven interventions. Prospective memory, an innovative cognitive construct describing one’s ability to remember to do something at a later time, is an understudied factor in the detection and remediation of medication non-adherence. This review orients researchers to the construct of prospective memory, summarizes empirical evidence for prospective memory as a risk factor for non-adherence, discusses the relative merits of current measurement techniques, and highlights potential prospective memory-focused intervention strategies. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of published empirical studies investigating prospective memory and medication adherence. Overall, reviewed studies suggest that prospective memory is an important component of medication adherence, providing incremental ecological validity over established predictors. Findings indicate that prospective memory-based interventions might be an effective means of improving adherence. PMID:21487722

  18. An investigation into the resource requirements of event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Yeo, Gillian

    2007-03-01

    The multiprocess view proposes that both strategic and automatic processes can support prospective memory. In three experiments, we embedded a prospective memory task in a lexical decision task; cues were either highly associated with response words or had no relation. Analyses of RTs on ongoing task trials indicated that (1) prospective memory was more dependent on the allocation of resources immediately prior to cue presentation under conditions of low association in comparison with high association and (2) processes engaged on cue trials were more resource demanding under conditions of low association in comparison with high association. These data support the claim of the multiprocess view that prospective memory can be more resource demanding under some task conditions in comparison with others. However, the prospective memory performance data were less supportive, with declines in prospective memory due to task-importance and cue-frequency manipulations comparable across the low- and high-association conditions. Taken together, these results have implications for two prominent theories of prospective memory.

  19. Usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Petro, S J; Herrmann, D; Burrows, D; Moore, C M

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has produced disagreement about the usage and usefulness of external memory aids across age groups. The present study examined the use and perceived usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of the ages of users and potential users. Three age groups (ages 20, 45 and 65 years) were asked to indicate whether they owned each of thirty different commercial aids and regardless of ownership, to rate the degree of usefulness of each of the aids. Each age group used certain aids or perceived certain aids as more useful, than did other age groups. The pattern of results suggest that memory aid usage differs with age partly because the memory tasks required of a person change with life stage. PMID:1761318

  20. Aging and emotional memory: cognitive mechanisms underlying the positivity effect.

    PubMed

    Spaniol, Julia; Voss, Andreas; Grady, Cheryl L

    2008-12-01

    Younger adults tend to remember negative information better than positive or neutral information (negativity bias). The negativity bias is reduced in aging, with older adults occasionally exhibiting superior memory for positive, as opposed to negative or neutral, information (positivity bias). Two experiments with younger (N=24 in Experiment 1, N=25 in Experiment 2; age range: 18-35 years) and older adults (N=24 in both experiments; age range: 60-85 years) investigated the cognitive mechanisms responsible for age-related differences in recognition memory for emotional information. Results from diffusion model analyses (R. Ratcliff, 1978) indicated that the effects of valence on response bias were similar in both age groups but that Age x Valence interactions emerged in memory retrieval. Specifically, older adults experienced greater overall familiarity for positive items than younger adults. We interpret this finding in terms of an age-related increase in the accessibility of positive information in long-term memory. PMID:19140656

  1. Event-based prospective memory and everyday forgetting in healthy older adults and individuals with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Tam, Joyce W; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    An event-based nonfocal task was used to evaluate prospective memory (PM) and the relationship between PM, neuropsychological testing data, and everyday forgetting. Twenty-four participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 24 age- and education-matched cognitively healthy adults responded to a nonfocal PM cue, while completing an ongoing working memory task. Neuropsychological testing data and self- and informant-report of frequency of forgetting were also gathered. Compared to healthy adults, the MCI participants exhibited significantly poorer prospective remembering and ongoing task performance, despite similar self-reported effort directed to the PM task. Both self- and informant-report indicated that the MCI group was experiencing a higher frequency of everyday forgetting than the healthy adult group. Self-report of everyday forgetting was correlated with PM task performance for the healthy adults, but not for the MCI participants. For the healthy adults, correlational analyses also showed significant relationships between PM accuracy and tests of memory and executive functioning, suggesting that both spontaneous retrieval processes and effortful, strategic monitoring may be important in supporting prospective remembering for this nonfocal PM task. The stronger relationships between PM accuracy and memory and language tests for the MCI group suggest that their poorer event-based prospective remembering might be linked to impaired spontaneous retrieval processes, which are thought to be supported by medial temporal structures. PMID:23419059

  2. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain

    PubMed Central

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise. PMID:24550824

  3. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  4. Prospective memory in dynamic environments: effects of load, delay, and phonological rehearsal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Dismukes, K.; Remington, R.

    2001-01-01

    A new paradigm was developed to examine prospective memory performance in a visual-spatial task that resembles some aspects of the work of air traffic controllers. Two experiments examined the role of workload (number of aeroplanes that participants directed), delay (between receipt of prospective instructions and execution), and phonological rehearsal. High workload increased prospective memory errors but increasing delay from 1-3 or 5 minutes had no effect. Shadowing aurally presented text reduced prospective memory performance, presumably because it prevented verbal rehearsal of the prospective instructions. However, performance on the foreground task of directing aeroplanes to routine destinations was affected only by workload and not by opportunity for rehearsal. Our results suggest that ability to maintain performance on a routine foreground task while performing a secondary task--perhaps analogous to conversation--does not predict ability to retrieve a prospective intention to deviate from the routine.

  5. Outsourcing Memory in Response to an Aging Population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael; Schryer, Emily

    2015-11-01

    With baby boomers entering old age and longevity increasing, policymakers have focused on the physical, social, and health needs of older persons. We urge policymakers to consider cognitive aging as well, particularly normal, age-related memory decline. Psychological scientists attribute memory decline mainly to cognitive overload stemming from age-related reductions in sensory capacities, speed of cognitive processing, and the ability to filter out irrelevant information. Even in the absence of decline, however, memory is imperfect and forgetting can be especially consequential for older adults. For example, forgetting to take prescription medicines is an age-related problem largely because older adults tend to ingest many more prescription drugs. We propose that policymakers focus on increasing environmental support for memory that can reduce the burden on cognitive resources and thus improve recall. In providing environmental support, policymakers need to pay careful attention to potential age-related changes in physical and cognitive capacity, as well as behavior.

  6. The relationship between event-based prospective memory and ongoing task performance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Perdue, Bonnie; Beran, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task) or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates. PMID:25372809

  7. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  8. Is prospective memory enhanced by cue-action semantic relatedness and enactment at encoding?

    PubMed

    Pereira, Antonina; Ellis, Judi; Freeman, Jayne

    2012-09-01

    Benefits and costs on prospective memory performance, of enactment at encoding and a semantic association between a cue-action word pair, were investigated in two experiments. Findings revealed superior performance for both younger and older adults following enactment, in contrast to verbal encoding, and when cue-action semantic relatedness was high. Although younger adults outperformed older adults, age did not moderate benefits of cue-action relatedness or enactment. Findings from a second experiment revealed that the inclusion of an instruction to perform a prospective memory task led to increments in response latency to items from the ongoing activity in which that task was embedded, relative to latencies when the ongoing task only was performed. However, this task interference 'cost' did not differ as a function of either cue-action relatedness or enactment. We argue that the high number of cue-action pairs employed here influenced meta-cognitive consciousness, hence determining attention allocation, in all experimental conditions. PMID:22632757

  9. Prospective memory in Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramanan, Siddharth; Kumar, Devvarta

    2013-11-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the ability to remember to carry out an intended action in the future and it is pervasive in our daily living. A failure to execute an intended action (e.g., take medication) at the appropriate juncture in future (e.g., after dinner) can negatively affect our daily functioning and at times, may have devastating effects (e.g., forgetting to turn off the gas stove before leaving the house). Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit widespread cognitive deficits including deficits in PM. The present study provides a meta-analytic review of PM in PD. Results across nine studies indicated time and event-based PM to be similarly impaired in PD, with time-based PM compromised to a slightly larger extent (Hedges' g = -0.71) as compared to event-based PM (Hedges' g = -0.55). The impairment in PM is more likely due to failure in self-initiated retrieval of intention to be executed, rather than forgetting the content of the intention itself. Furthermore, factors such as intervening task complexity and the mediating role of other executive functions have also been proposed to be responsible for impaired PM in PD.

  10. The role of rostral prefrontal cortex in prospective memory: a voxel-based lesion study.

    PubMed

    Volle, Emmanuelle; Gonen-Yaacovi, Gil; Costello, Angela de Lacy; Gilbert, Sam J; Burgess, Paul W

    2011-07-01

    Patients with lesions in rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) often experience problems in everyday-life situations requiring multitasking. A key cognitive component that is critical in multitasking situations is prospective memory, defined as the ability to carry out an intended action after a delay period filled with unrelated activity. The few functional imaging studies investigating prospective memory have shown consistent activation in both medial and lateral rostral PFC but also in more posterior prefrontal regions and non-frontal regions. The aim of this study was to determine regions that are necessary for prospective memory performance, using the human lesion approach. We designed an experimental paradigm allowing us to assess time-based (remembering to do something at a particular time) and event-based (remembering to do something in a particular situation) prospective memory, using two types of material, words and pictures. Time estimation tasks and tasks controlling for basic attention, inhibition and multiple instructions processing were also administered. We examined brain-behaviour relationships with a voxelwise lesion method in 45 patients with focal brain lesions and 107 control subjects using this paradigm. The results showed that lesions in the right polar prefrontal region (in Brodmann area 10) were specifically associated with a deficit in time-based prospective memory tasks for both words and pictures. This deficit could not be explained by impairments in basic attention, detection, inhibition or multiple instruction processing, and there was also no deficit in event-based prospective memory conditions. In addition to their prospective memory difficulties, these polar prefrontal patients were significantly impaired in time estimation ability compared to other patients. The same region was found to be involved using both words and pictures, suggesting that right rostral PFC plays a material nonspecific role in prospective memory. This is the first

  11. Memory Engram Cells Have Come of Age.

    PubMed

    Tonegawa, Susumu; Liu, Xu; Ramirez, Steve; Redondo, Roger

    2015-09-01

    The idea that memory is stored in the brain as physical alterations goes back at least as far as Plato, but further conceptualization of this idea had to wait until the 20(th) century when two guiding theories were presented: the "engram theory" of Richard Semon and Donald Hebb's "synaptic plasticity theory." While a large number of studies have been conducted since, each supporting some aspect of each of these theories, until recently integrative evidence for the existence of engram cells and circuits as defined by the theories was lacking. In the past few years, the combination of transgenics, optogenetics, and other technologies has allowed neuroscientists to begin identifying memory engram cells by detecting specific populations of cells activated during specific learning epochs and by engineering them not only to evoke recall of the original memory, but also to alter the content of the memory. PMID:26335640

  12. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  13. Accuracy and Speed of Memory in Depressed and Organic Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Nancy M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Subjects (N=43) aged 50 and more were tested on a Sternberg recognition-memory task to explore the relative effects of depression and altered brain function on short-term memory in later life. Many performance differnces were best accounted for by the additive effects of depression and educational background, rather than by either variable…

  14. Aging Effect on Visual and Spatial Components of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigneux, Katia; Plaie, Thierry; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging on the storage of visual and spatial working memory according to Logie's model of working memory (1995). In a first experiment young, elderly, and very old subjects carried out two tasks usually used to measure visual span (Visual Patterns Test) and spatial span (Corsi Block Tapping test).…

  15. Prospective memory in an air traffic control simulation: external aids that signal when to act.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-03-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental literature to test the effectiveness of external aids in reducing prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks in an air traffic control simulation. Participants were trained to accept and hand-off aircraft and to detect aircraft conflicts. For the prospective memory task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting target aircraft. Across two experiments, external display aids were provided that presented the details of target aircraft and associated intended actions. We predicted that aids would only be effective if they provided information that was diagnostic of target occurrence, and in this study, we examined the utility of aids that directly cued participants when to allocate attention to the prospective memory task. When aids were set to flash when the prospective memory target aircraft needed to be accepted, prospective memory error and costs to ongoing tasks of aircraft acceptance and conflict detection were reduced. In contrast, aids that did not alert participants specifically when the target aircraft were present provided no advantage compared to when no aids were used. These findings have practical implications for the potential relative utility of automated external aids for occupations where individuals monitor multi-item dynamic displays. PMID:21443381

  16. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27121331

  18. Little evidence for links between memory complaints and memory performance in very old age: longitudinal analyses from the Berlin Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Pearman, Ann; Hertzog, Christopher; Gerstorf, Denis

    2014-12-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between memory complaint and memory performance were examined in a sample of old-old participants from the Berlin Aging Study (BASE; N = 504, ages 70 to 100, age M = 84.7 at study onset). Participants were measured 4 times over the course of 6 years. Similar to many previous studies, initial cross-sectional memory complaints were predicted by depression and neuroticism, but not memory performance. Subjective age also predicted memory complaint independent of other variables. Latent growth curve models based on age and time in the study revealed that memory complaints did not change in level with age or time, and manifested no reliable random effects (individual differences in change). These models also detected no significant relationship between changes in memory and either initial memory complaint or changes in memory complaint over age or over time. None of the covariates that predicted initial memory complaints were related to changes in memory complaints over time. An autoregressive latent variable model for memory complaints, consistent with a conceptualization of complaints as judgments constructed from beliefs and other influences in the moment, did detect a concurrent effect of memory on memory complaints at the third occasion, controlling on initial complaints. These results suggest that for the oldest-old, changes in memory complaints may not primarily reflect monitoring of actual age-related memory changes, but rather are affected by other variables, including age-based memory stereotypes, neuroticism, depression, and concerns about aging.

  19. Editorial: subjective perceptions of memory functioning in old age - nature, correlates, and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Gerstorf, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Subjective memory complaints are often used as diagnostic criteria for several neurocognitive disorders. Although a number of studies have examined subjective memory and its associations with memory functioning in adulthood and old age, it is still an open question whether subjective perceptions of one's memory indicate actual memory functioning or whether they are rather derived from factors other than memory, such as depressive symptoms. The studies in this special section examine subjective perceptions of memory functioning and their associations with objectively measured memory performance in general and in clinical populations. The four articles adopt cross-sectional and longitudinal methodologies and offer key insights into the nature, correlates, and developmental trajectories of subjective memory. To begin with, the studies compiled in this special section demonstrate that changes in subjective memory perceptions are indeed associated with changes in memory performance [Zimprich and Kurtz, this issue, pp. 223-231], but the size of associations between levels of and changes in subjective memory and memory performance is in part modulated by personality characteristics and depressive symptoms [Hülür et al., this issue, pp. 232-240]. Second, the studies compiled here show that factors other than memory are also closely associated with memory perceptions, including functional health as well as domain-general and health-specific control beliefs [Luszcz et al., this issue, pp. 241-250]. Third, the study by Thompson et al. [this issue, pp. 251-257] shows that self- and informant-reports of retrospective and prospective memory difficulties are not associated with performance-based measures and does not sufficiently differentiate between healthy controls and patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. In our editorial, we put these findings in perspective and discuss implications for research and practice. To extend our knowledge, we conclude by

  20. Control of Cost in Prospective Memory: Evidence for Spontaneous Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the processes that support prospective remembering, previous research has often examined whether the presence of a prospective memory task slows overall responding on an ongoing task. Although slowed task performance suggests that monitoring is present, this method does not clearly establish whether monitoring is functionally related to…

  1. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  2. Aging, Eye Movements, and Object-Location Memory

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Shui-I; Meadmore, Katie L.; Liversedge, Simon P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether “intentional” instructions could improve older adults' object memory and object-location memory about a scene by promoting object-oriented viewing. Eye movements of younger and older adults were recorded while they viewed a photograph depicting 12 household objects in a cubicle with or without the knowledge that memory about these objects and their locations would be tested (intentional vs. incidental encoding). After viewing, participants completed recognition and relocation tasks. Both instructions and age affected viewing behaviors and memory. Relative to incidental instructions, intentional instructions resulted in more accurate memory about object identity and object-location binding, but did not affect memory accuracy about overall positional configuration. More importantly, older adults exhibited more object-oriented viewing in the intentional than incidental condition, supporting the environmental support hypothesis. PMID:22428060

  3. A Virtual Week study of prospective memory function in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Henry, Julie D; Terrett, Gill; Altgassen, Mareike; Raponi-Saunders, Sandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Rendell, Peter G

    2014-11-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to the implementation of delayed intentions, a cognitive ability that plays a critical role in daily life because of its involvement in goal-directed behavior and consequently the development and maintenance of independence. Emerging evidence indicates that PM may be disrupted in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), potentially contributing to the functional difficulties that characterize this group. However, the degree, nature, and specificity of ASD-related impairment remains poorly understood. In the current study, children between 8 and 12 years of age who were diagnosed with ASDs (n=30) were compared with typically developing children (n=30) on a child-appropriate version of the Virtual Week board game. This measure provides an opportunity to investigate the different sorts of PM failures that occur. The ASD group showed significant PM impairment on measures of time-based (but not event-based) prospective remembering. However, only a subtle difference emerged between regular and irregular PM tasks, and group differences were consistent across these tasks. Because regular and irregular tasks differentially load retrospective memory, these data imply that the PM difficulties seen in ASDs may primarily reflect a monitoring deficit and not an encoding and memory storage deficit. PM performance was poorer under conditions of high ongoing task absorption, but the magnitude of this effect did not vary as a function of group. In both groups, time-based (but not event-based) PM difficulties were associated with functional outcomes in daily life, but only an inconsistent association with executive control emerged.

  4. Age, memory type, and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory: findings from an Italian sample.

    PubMed

    Montebarocci, Ornella; Luchetti, Martina; Sutin, Angelina R

    2014-01-01

    The present research explored differences in phenomenology between two types of memories, a general self-defining memory and an earliest childhood memory. A sample of 76 Italian participants were selected and categorised into two age groups: 20-30 years and 31-40 years. The Memory Experiences Questionnaire (MEQ) was administered, taking note of latency and duration times of the narratives. Consistent with the literature, the self-defining memory differed significantly from the earliest childhood memory in terms of phenomenology, with the recency of the memory associated with more intense phenomenological experience. The self-defining memory took longer to retrieve and narrate than the earliest childhood memory. Meaningful differences also emerged between the two age groups: Participants in their 30s rated their self-defining memory as more vivid, coherent, and accessible than participants in their 20s. According to latency findings, these differences suggest an expanded period of identity consolidation for younger adults. Further applications of the MEQ should be carried out to replicate these results with other samples of young adults.

  5. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  6. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  7. Aging in Lebanon: perils and prospects.

    PubMed

    Mehio Sibai, Abla; Rizk, Anthony; Kronfol, Nabil M

    2015-01-01

    Lebanon is currently experiencing unique and dynamic demographic shifts towards an aging population: past and present fertility are among the lowest in the Arab region and crude mortality rates have decreased in the past few decades from 9.1 to 7.1 per thousand. Increased waves of emigration of youthful adults seeking better work opportunities elsewhere, as well as counter-waves of 'return migration' of older Lebanese workers from neighboring host countries contribute further to the 'rectangularization' of the population pyramid. These trends are accompanied by an epidemiological transition towards non-communicable diseases, mental disorders and degenerative diseases as the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in lieu of communicable diseases. We examine in this paper the implications of these transformations on the health profile of older persons and on the social and health care available to them. Findings are discussed within the prevailing conflicts and political strife in the country, family transformations and structural settings including pension systems, health coverage, family support channels and social fabric, and nursing home-care. The paper ends with recommendations and options for.reforms. PMID:25906507

  8. Effects of Episodic Future Thinking and Self-Projection on Children's Prospective Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Anett; Ellis, Judith A; Altgassen, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children's self-projection abilities. Forty-one preschoolers and 39 school-aged children were recruited. Half of the participants in each age group were instructed to use EFT as a strategy to encode the PM task, while the others received standard PM instructions. Results revealed a significant age effect, with school-aged children significantly outperforming preschoolers and a significant effect of encoding condition with overall better performance when receiving EFT instructions compared to the standard encoding condition. Even though the interaction between age group and encoding condition was not significant, planned comparisons revealed first evidence that compared to the younger age group, older children's PM benefitted more from EFT instructions during intention encoding. Moreover, results showed that although self-projection had a significant impact on PM performance, it did not influence the effects of EFT instructions. Overall, results indicate that children can use EFT encoding strategies to improve their PM performance once EFT abilities are sufficiently developed. Further, they provide first evidence that in addition to executive functions, which have already been shown to influence the development of PM across childhood, self-projection seems to be another key mechanism underlying this development. PMID:27355645

  9. Effects of Episodic Future Thinking and Self-Projection on Children’s Prospective Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Anett; Ellis, Judith A.; Altgassen, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children’s self-projection abilities. Forty-one preschoolers and 39 school-aged children were recruited. Half of the participants in each age group were instructed to use EFT as a strategy to encode the PM task, while the others received standard PM instructions. Results revealed a significant age effect, with school-aged children significantly outperforming preschoolers and a significant effect of encoding condition with overall better performance when receiving EFT instructions compared to the standard encoding condition. Even though the interaction between age group and encoding condition was not significant, planned comparisons revealed first evidence that compared to the younger age group, older children’s PM benefitted more from EFT instructions during intention encoding. Moreover, results showed that although self-projection had a significant impact on PM performance, it did not influence the effects of EFT instructions. Overall, results indicate that children can use EFT encoding strategies to improve their PM performance once EFT abilities are sufficiently developed. Further, they provide first evidence that in addition to executive functions, which have already been shown to influence the development of PM across childhood, self-projection seems to be another key mechanism underlying this development. PMID:27355645

  10. Later developments: molecular keys to age-related memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Barad, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment, a cognitive decline not clearly related to any gross pathology, is progressive and widespread in the population, although not universal. While the mechanisms of learning and memory remain incompletely understood, the study of their molecular mechanisms is already yielding promising approaches toward therapy for such "normal" declines in the efficiency of learning. This review presents the rationale and results for two such approaches. One approach, partial inhibition of the type IV cAMP specific phosphodiesterase, appears to act indirectly. Although little evidence supports an age-related decline in this system, considerable evidence indicates that this approach can facilitate the transition from short-term to long-term memory and thus counterbalance defects in long-term memory, which may be due to other causes. A second approach, inhibition of l-type voltage gated calcium channels (LVGCCs) may be a specific corrective for a molecular pathology of aging, as substantial evidence indicates that an ongoing increase occurs throughout the lifespan in the density of these channels in hippocampal pyramidal cells, with a concomitant reduction in cellular excitability. Because LVGCCs are also crucial to extinction, a paradigm of inhibitory learning, age-related memory impairment may be an unfortunate side effect of a developmental process necessary to the maturation of the ability to suppress inappropriate behavior, an interpretation consistent with the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging.

  11. Coccomyxa Gloeobotrydiformis Improves Learning and Memory in Intrinsic Aging Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Luning; Jin, Ying; Dong, Liming; Sui, Hai-juan; Sumi, Ryo; Jahan, Rabita; Hu, Dahai; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Declining in learning and memory is one of the most common and prominent problems during the aging process. Neurotransmitter changes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal signal transduction were considered to participate in this process. In the present study, we examined the effects of Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD) on learning and memory ability of intrinsic aging rats. As a result, CGD treated (50 mg/kg·d or 100 mg/kg ·d for a duration of 8 weeks) 22-month-old male rats, which have shown significant improvement on learning and spatial memory ability compared with control, which was evidently revealed in both the hidden platform tasks and probe trials. The following immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments suggested that CGD could increase the content of Ach and thereby improve the function of the cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus, and therefore also improving learning and memory ability of the aged rats by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. The effects of CGD on learning and memory might also have an association with the ERK/CREB signalling. The results above suggest that the naturally made drug CGD may have several great benefit as a multi-target drug in the process of prevention and/or treatment of age-dependent cognitive decline and aging process. PMID:26078724

  12. Event- and time-triggered remembering: the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on prospective memory performance in children.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Karley-Dale S; Kerns, Kimberly A

    2014-11-01

    The current study examined prospective memory (PM, both time-based and event-based) and time estimation (TR, a time reproduction task) in children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study also investigated the influence of task performance and TR on time-based PM in children with ADHD relative to controls. A sample of 69 children, aged 8 to 13 years, completed the CyberCruiser-II time-based PM task, a TR task, and the Super Little Fisherman event-based PM task. PM performance was compared with children's TR abilities, parental reports of daily prospective memory disturbances (Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire for Children, PRMQC), and ADHD symptomatology (Conner's rating scales). Children with ADHD scored more poorly on event-based PM, time-based PM, and TR; interestingly, TR did not appear related to performance on time-based PM. In addition, it was found that PRMQC scores and ADHD symptom severity were related to performance on the time-based PM task but not to performance on the event-based PM task. These results provide some limited support for theories that propose a distinction between event-based PM and time-based PM.

  13. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the autobiographical memory test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P

    2013-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the over-reliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N=55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  14. The relationships between age, associative memory performance, and the neural correlates of successful associative memory encoding.

    PubMed

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Mattson, Julia T; Wang, Tracy H; Donley, Brian E; Rugg, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, subsequent memory effects (greater activity for later remembered than later forgotten study items) predictive of associative encoding were compared across samples of young, middle-aged, and older adults (total N = 136). During scanning, participants studied visually presented word pairs. In a later test phase, they discriminated between studied pairs, "rearranged" pairs (items studied on different trials), and new pairs. Subsequent memory effects were identified by contrasting activity elicited by study pairs that went on to be correctly judged intact or incorrectly judged rearranged. Effects in the hippocampus were age-invariant and positively correlated across participants with associative memory performance. Subsequent memory effects in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were greater in the older than the young group. In older participants only, both left and, in contrast to prior reports, right IFG subsequent memory effects correlated positively with memory performance. We suggest that the IFG is especially vulnerable to age-related decline in functional integrity and that the relationship between encoding-related activity in right IFG and memory performance depends on the experimental context. PMID:27143433

  15. Preserved Intention Maintenance and Impaired Execution of Prospective Memory Responses in Schizophrenia: Evidence from an Event-based Prospective Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Gyula; Szendi, István; Domján, Nóra; Juhász, Marianna; Greminger, Nóra; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Racsmány, Mihály

    2016-01-01

    Executive system dysfunction and impaired prospective memory (PM) are widely documented in schizophrenia. However, it is not yet clarified which components of PM function are impaired in this disorder. Two plausible target components are the maintenance of delayed intentions and the execution of PM responses. Furthermore, it is debated whether the impaired performance on frequently used executive tasks is associated with deficit in PM functions. The aim of our study was twofold. First, we aimed to investigate the specific processes involved in event-based PM function, mainly focusing on difference between maintenance of intention and execution of PM responses. Second, we aimed to unfold the possible connections between executive functions, clinical symptoms, and PM performance. An event-based PM paradigm was applied with three main conditions: baseline (with no expectation of PM stimuli, and without PM stimuli), expectation condition (participants were told that PM stimuli might occur, though none actually did), and execution condition (participants were told that PM stimuli might occur, and PM stimuli did occur). This procedure allowed us to separately investigate performances associated with intention maintenance and execution of PM responses. We assessed working memory and set-shifting executive functions by memory span tasks and by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), respectively. Twenty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 healthy control subjects (matched according to age and education) took part in the study. It was hypothesized that patients would manifest different levels of performance in the expectation and execution conditions of the PM task. Our results confirmed that the difference between baseline performance and performance in the execution condition (execution cost) was significantly larger for participants diagnosed with schizophrenia in comparison with matched healthy control group. However, this difference was not observed in the

  16. Characterizing cognitive aging of associative memory in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Engle, James R.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is provided of the simple single-cue delay and trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms as techniques to assess associative learning and memory in the aged. We highlight and focus this review on the optimization of the parameter space of eyeblink conditioning designs in the aged to avoid and control for potential confounds that may arise when studying aged mammals. The need to examine the contribution of non-associative factors that can contribute to performance outcomes is emphasized, and how age-related changes in the central nervous system as well as peripheral sensory factors can potentially bias the interpretation of the data in the aged is discussed. The way in which slight alterations of the parameter space in the delay and trace eyeblink conditioning paradigms can lead to delayed but intact conditioning, rather than impaired performance in aged animals is also discussed. Overall, the eyeblink conditioning paradigm, when optimized for the age of the animal in the study, is an elegantly simple technique for assessment of associative learning and memory. When design caveats described above are taken into account, this important type of memory, with its well-defined neural substrates, should definitely be included in cognitive assessment batteries for the aged. PMID:22988435

  17. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  18. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  19. Memory for past public events depends on retrieval frequency but not memory age in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Saur, Ralf; Leyhe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by retrograde memory deficits primarily caused by dysfunction of the hippocampal complex. Unresolved questions exist concerning the time course of hippocampal involvement in conscious recollection of declarative knowledge, as reports of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia is mediated by retrieval frequency or, in contrast, whether it depends on the age of the memory according to the assumptions of the main current theories of memory formation. We compared recall of past public events in patients with AD and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Historic Events Test (HET). The HET assesses knowledge about famous public events of the past 60 years divided into four time segments and consists of subjective memory rating, dating accuracy, and contextual memory tasks. Although memory for public events was impaired in AD patients, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency across all time segments and both groups. As AD and HC groups derived similar benefits from greater retrieval frequency, cortical structures other than the hippocampal complex may mediate memory retrieval. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved events and facts become more independent of the hippocampal complex and thus better protected against early damage of AD. This could explain why cognitive activity may delay the onset of memory decline in persons who develop AD.

  20. Memory for past public events depends on retrieval frequency but not memory age in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Stephan; Mychajliw, Christian; Hautzinger, Martin; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Saur, Ralf; Leyhe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by retrograde memory deficits primarily caused by dysfunction of the hippocampal complex. Unresolved questions exist concerning the time course of hippocampal involvement in conscious recollection of declarative knowledge, as reports of temporal gradients of retrograde amnesia have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine whether the extent and severity of retrograde amnesia is mediated by retrieval frequency or, in contrast, whether it depends on the age of the memory according to the assumptions of the main current theories of memory formation. We compared recall of past public events in patients with AD and healthy control (HC) individuals using the Historic Events Test (HET). The HET assesses knowledge about famous public events of the past 60 years divided into four time segments and consists of subjective memory rating, dating accuracy, and contextual memory tasks. Although memory for public events was impaired in AD patients, there was a strong effect of retrieval frequency across all time segments and both groups. As AD and HC groups derived similar benefits from greater retrieval frequency, cortical structures other than the hippocampal complex may mediate memory retrieval. These findings suggest that more frequently retrieved events and facts become more independent of the hippocampal complex and thus better protected against early damage of AD. This could explain why cognitive activity may delay the onset of memory decline in persons who develop AD. PMID:23969995

  1. Influence of memory strategies on memory test performance: a study in healthy and pathological aging.

    PubMed

    Yubero, R; Gil, P; Paul, N; Maestú, F

    2011-09-01

    The ability to generate memory strategies is a key factor in the performance of episodic memory tasks. Whether the ability to generate memory strategies exerts an influence in the performance of memory tests in the elderly population is still a matter of debate. Here we present results from an experimental memory task (Test of Memory Strategies, TMS), comprised of five lists of words starting from an incidental learning task, and four more lists which progressively gain in their external organization of the material, reducing the necessity of mobilizing complex memory strategies. TMS has been applied to four groups of elderly patients (amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment - aMCI, multidomain (mMCI), and Vascular Cognitive Impairment - VCI and Depression) and a healthy aging group. In conditions with low organization of the material, the mMCI and VCI groups (both showing a greater executive function impairment) have shown lower performance. However, as the material was progressively organized, they improved their performance. The aMCI group showed similar performance to the control group at the lower level of external organization but did not improve performance in conditions with a high level of external organization. The mMCI and VCI groups showed lower performance on all TMS conditions compared with controls. Discriminant analysis revealed 90% sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between groups based on TMS conditions. These results indicate how executive functions influence performance on memory tasks in elderly subjects with different neuropsychological profiles.

  2. Destination memory and cognitive theory of mind in normal ageing.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.

  3. Changes With Age in Learning and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenberg, David

    Recent publications of longitudinal and sequential analyses of psychometric data have been cited as evidence for "the myth of intellectual decline" with age. This term "myth" has been interpreted by many gerontologists to mean that intellectual functioning does not decline even late in life (except shortly before death). Furthermore, this…

  4. From memory to prospection: what are the overlapping and the distinct components between remembering and imagining?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huimin; Luo, Jiayi; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on past events and reflecting on future events are two fundamentally different processes, each traveling in the opposite direction of the other through conceptual time. But what we are able to imagine seems to be constrained by what we have previously experienced, suggesting a close link between memory and prospection. Recent theories suggest that recalling the past lies at the core of imagining and planning for the future. The existence of this link is supported by evidence gathered from neuroimaging, lesion, and developmental studies. Yet it is not clear exactly how the novel episodes people construct in their sense of the future develop out of their historical memories. There must be intermediary processes that utilize memory as a basis on which to generate future oriented thinking. Here, we review studies on goal-directed processing, associative learning, cognitive control, and creativity and link them with research on prospection. We suggest that memory cooperates with additional functions like goal-directed learning to construct and simulate novel events, especially self-referential events. The coupling between memory-related hippocampus and other brain regions may underlie such memory-based prospection. Abnormalities in this constructive process may contribute to mental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:25147532

  5. Effects of Age on Long Term Memory for Degraded Speech

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Christiane M.; Özyurt, Jale; Nogueira, Waldo; Puschmann, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that acoustical degradation impacts encoding of items into memory, especially in elderly subjects. We here aimed to investigate whether acoustically degraded items that are initially encoded into memory are more prone to forgetting as a function of age. Young and old participants were tested with a vocoded and unvocoded serial list learning task involving immediate and delayed free recall. We found that degraded auditory input increased forgetting of previously encoded items, especially in older participants. We further found that working memory capacity predicted forgetting of degraded information in young participants. In old participants, verbal IQ was the most important predictor for forgetting acoustically degraded information. Our data provide evidence that acoustically degraded information, even if encoded, is especially vulnerable to forgetting in old age. PMID:27708570

  6. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  7. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  8. Effects of cue frequency and repetition on prospective memory: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jennifer; Cutmore, Tim R H; Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2013-11-01

    Prospective memory involves the formation and completion of delayed intentions and is essential for independent living. In this study (n = 33), event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to systematically evaluate the effects of PM cue frequency (10% versus 30%) and PM cue repetition (high versus low) on ERP modulations. PM cues elicited prospective positivity and frontal positivity but not N300, perhaps due to the semantic nature of the task. Results of this study revealed an interesting interaction between PM cue frequency and PM cue repetition for prospective positivity and frontal positivity, highlighting the importance of taking both factors into account when designing future studies.

  9. Modeling Active Aging and Explicit Memory: An Empirical Study.

    PubMed

    Ponce de León, Laura Ponce; Lévy, Jean Pierre; Fernández, Tomás; Ballesteros, Soledad

    2015-08-01

    The rapid growth of the population of older adults and their concomitant psychological status and health needs have captured the attention of researchers and health professionals. To help fill the void of literature available to social workers interested in mental health promotion and aging, the authors provide a model for active aging that uses psychosocial variables. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships among the latent variables of the state of explicit memory, the perception of social resources, depression, and the perception of quality of life in a sample of 184 older adults. The results suggest that explicit memory is not a direct indicator of the perception of quality of life, but it could be considered an indirect indicator as it is positively correlated with perception of social resources and negatively correlated with depression. These last two variables influenced the perception of quality of life directly, the former positively and the latter negatively. The main outcome suggests that the perception of social support improves explicit memory and quality of life and reduces depression in active older adults. The findings also suggest that gerontological professionals should design memory training programs, improve available social resources, and offer environments with opportunities to exercise memory.

  10. How Age and Linguistic Competence Affect Memory for Heard Information

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bruce A.; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed. PMID:27242569

  11. Effects of perceptual and semantic cues on ERP modulations associated with prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Cousens, Ross; Cutmore, Timothy; Wang, Ya; Wilson, Jennifer; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2015-10-01

    Prospective memory involves the formation and execution of intended actions and is essential for autonomous living. In this study (N=32), the effect of the nature of PM cues (semantic versus perceptual) on established event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited in PM tasks (N300 and prospective positivity) was investigated. PM cues defined by their perceptual features clearly elicited the N300 and prospective positivity whereas PM cues defined by semantic relatedness elicited prospective positivity. This calls into question the view that the N300 is a marker of general processes underlying detection of PM cues, but supports existing research showing that prospective positivity represents general post-retrieval processes that follow detection of PM cues. Continued refinement of ERP paradigms for understanding the neural correlates of PM is needed. PMID:26220219

  12. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life. PMID:25191929

  13. The Failure of Deactivating Intentions: Aftereffects of Completed Intentions in the Repeated Prospective Memory Cue Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Moritz; Fischer, Rico; Goschke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We used a newly developed experimental paradigm to investigate aftereffects of completed intentions on subsequent performance that required the maintenance and execution of new intentions. Participants performed an ongoing number categorization task and an additional prospective memory (PM) task, which required them to respond to PM cues that…

  14. Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from Spontaneous Retrieval and Impaired Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; control group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of…

  15. Effects of Aversive Stimuli on Prospective Memory. An Event-Related fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Rea, Massimiliano; Kullmann, Stephanie; Veit, Ralf; Casile, Antonino; Braun, Christoph; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Birbaumer, Niels; Caria, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) describes the ability to execute a previously planned action at the appropriate point in time. Although behavioral studies clearly showed that prospective memory performance is affected by the emotional significance attributed to the intended action, no study so far investigated the brain mechanisms subserving the modulatory effect of emotional salience on PM performance. The general aim of the present study was to explore brain regions involved in prospective memory processes when PM cues are associated with emotional stimuli. In particular, based on the hypothesised critical role of the prefrontal cortex in prospective memory in the presence of emotionally salient stimuli, we expected a stronger involvement of aPFC when the retrieval and execution of the intended action is cued by an aversive stimulus. To this aim BOLD responses of PM trials cued by aversive facial expressions were compared to PM trials cued by neutral facial expressions. Whole brain analysis showed that PM task cued by aversive stimuli is differentially associated with activity in the right lateral prefrontal area (BA 10) and in the left caudate nucleus. Moreover a temporal shift between the response of the caudate nucleus that preceded that of aPFC was observed. These findings suggest that the caudate nucleus might provide an early analysis of the affective properties of the stimuli, whereas the anterior lateral prefrontal cortex (BA10) would be involved in a slower and more deliberative analysis to guide goal-directed behaviour. PMID:22022589

  16. Focal/Nonfocal Cue Effects in Prospective Memory: Monitoring Difficulty or Different Retrieval Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill T.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether focal/nonfocal effects (e.g., Einstein et al., 2005) in prospective memory (PM) are explained by cue differences in monitoring difficulty. In Experiment 1, we show that syllable cues (used in Einstein et al., 2005) are more difficult to monitor for than are word cues; however, initial-letter cues (in words) are similar in…

  17. Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

  18. Prospective Memory and Task Interference in a Continuous Monitoring Dynamic Display Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Remington, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Theories and methods from the prospective memory literature were used to anticipate how individuals would maintain and retrieve intentions in a continuous monitoring dynamic display task. Participants accepted aircraft into sectors and detected aircraft conflicts during an air traffic control simulation. They were sometimes required to substitute…

  19. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  20. Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Aging on Long-Term and Remote Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a…

  1. Instructional manipulations and age differences in memory: now you see them, now you don't.

    PubMed

    Rahhal, T A; Colcombe, S J; Hasher, L

    2001-12-01

    The instructions for most explicit memory tests use language that emphasizes the memorial component of the task. This language may put older adults at a disadvantage relative to younger adults because older adults believe that their memories have deteriorated. Consequently, typical explicit memory tests may overestimate age-related decline in cognitive performance. In 2 experiments, older and younger adults performed a memory test on newly learned trivia. In both experiments, age differences were obtained when the instructions emphasized the memory component of the task (memory emphasis) but not when the instructions did not emphasize memory (memory neutral). These findings suggest that aspects of the testing situation. such as experimental instructions, may exaggerate age differences in memory performance and need to be considered when designing studies investigating age differences in memory.

  2. The Future Orientation of Past Memory: The Role of BA 10 in Prospective and Retrospective Retrieval Modes

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam G.; Guynn, Melissa J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Klein made the provocative suggestion that the purpose of human episodic memory is to enable individuals to plan and prepare for the future. In other words, although episodic (retrospective) memory is about the past, it is not actually for the past; it is for the future. Within this focus, a natural subject for investigation is prospective memory, or memory to do things in the future. An important theoretical construct in the fields of both retrospective memory and prospective memory is that of a retrieval mode, or a neurocognitive set or readiness to treat environmental stimuli as potential retrieval cues. This construct was originally introduced in a theory of episodic (retrospective) memory and has more recently been invoked in a theory of how some prospective memory tasks are accomplished. To our knowledge, this construct has not been explicitly compared between the two literatures, and thus this is the purpose of the present article. Although we address the behavioral evidence for each construct, our primary goal is to assess the extent to which each retrieval mode appears to rely on a common neural region. Our review highlights the fact that a particular area of prefrontal cortex (BA 10) appears to play an important role in both retrospective and prospective retrieval modes. We suggest, based on this evidence and these ideas, that prospective memory research could profit from more active exploration of the relevance of theoretical constructs from the retrospective memory literature. PMID:26733844

  3. The Scientific Quest for Lasting Youth: Prospects for Curing Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract People have always sought eternal life and everlasting youth. Recent technological breakthroughs and our growing understanding of aging have given strength to the idea that a cure for human aging can eventually be developed. As such, it is crucial to debate the long-term goals and potential impact of the field. Here, I discuss the scientific prospect of eradicating human aging. I argue that curing aging is scientifically possible and not even the most challenging enterprise in the biosciences. Developing the means to abolish aging is also an ethical endeavor because the goal of biomedical research is to allow people to be as healthy as possible for as long as possible. There is no evidence, however, that we are near to developing the technologies permitting radical life extension. One major difficulty in aging research is the time and costs it takes to do experiments and test interventions. I argue that unraveling the functioning of the genome and developing predictive computer models of human biology and disease are essential to increase the accuracy of medical interventions, including in the context of life extension, and exponential growth in informatics and genomics capacity might lead to rapid progress. Nonetheless, developing the tools for significantly modifying human biology is crucial to intervening in a complex process like aging. Yet in spite of advances in areas like regenerative medicine and gene therapy, the development of clinical applications has been slow and this remains a key hurdle for achieving radical life extension in the foreseeable future. PMID:25132068

  4. The scientific quest for lasting youth: prospects for curing aging.

    PubMed

    de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2014-10-01

    People have always sought eternal life and everlasting youth. Recent technological breakthroughs and our growing understanding of aging have given strength to the idea that a cure for human aging can eventually be developed. As such, it is crucial to debate the long-term goals and potential impact of the field. Here, I discuss the scientific prospect of eradicating human aging. I argue that curing aging is scientifically possible and not even the most challenging enterprise in the biosciences. Developing the means to abolish aging is also an ethical endeavor because the goal of biomedical research is to allow people to be as healthy as possible for as long as possible. There is no evidence, however, that we are near to developing the technologies permitting radical life extension. One major difficulty in aging research is the time and costs it takes to do experiments and test interventions. I argue that unraveling the functioning of the genome and developing predictive computer models of human biology and disease are essential to increase the accuracy of medical interventions, including in the context of life extension, and exponential growth in informatics and genomics capacity might lead to rapid progress. Nonetheless, developing the tools for significantly modifying human biology is crucial to intervening in a complex process like aging. Yet in spite of advances in areas like regenerative medicine and gene therapy, the development of clinical applications has been slow and this remains a key hurdle for achieving radical life extension in the foreseeable future.

  5. [GLIATILIN CORRECTION OF WORKING AND REFERENCE SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN AGED RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the influence of gliatilin administration on the spatial memory in aged rats. Cognitive function and spatial memory in animals was evaluated using radial (8-beam) maze test. Errors of working spatial memory and reference memory were used as indicators of impaired cognitive function. It was found that aged (24-month) rats compared with younger (6-months) age group exhibited cognitive impairment, as manifested by deterioration of short- and long-term memory processes. Course administration of gliatilin in rats of the older age group at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement of the working and reference spatial memory in aged rats.

  6. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y.; Kann, Sarah J.; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E.

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults’ use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test – RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

  7. Memory one month after acute carbon monoxide intoxication: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, D; Geraud, C; Julien, H; Baud, F; Dally, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Serious delayed neuropsychological sequelae may complicate carbon monoxide intoxication. The existence of minor manifestations, especially memory disturbances, is not well documented. Aims: To study several memory functions after carbon monoxide intoxication. Methods: In a prospective study, 32 poisoned patients without risk factors for cognitive disturbances were compared to 32 paired control subjects one month after acute carbon monoxide intoxication (blood carbon monoxide concentration at least 1.0 mmol/l), who had been treated with standard conventional therapy. Psychometric tests included Buschke's verbal memory testing, verbal digit span, Corsi's visuospatial span, reaction times, Stroop's colours decoding test, and verbal fluency test. Results: (1) Memory functions in poisoned subjects were not worse than in the control group and were even better in some areas: learning, word recall, and quality of learning by Buschke's verbal memory testing. Attention was also better in the patients, in whom visual reaction time was shorter than in controls. (2) Results of several memory functions—quality of learning and immediate visual memory—were positively correlated with the initial carbon monoxide level. Conclusions: In a highly selected subset of patients devoid of risk factors for memory impairment, memory, objectively evaluated by psychometric testing, was not worse one month after carbon monoxide intoxication in patients undergoing standard treatment than in paired control subjects. PMID:12598670

  8. Validation of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (Hong Kong Chinese version) for people with stroke.

    PubMed

    Man, David W K; Chan, M K L; Yip, C C K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and evaluate a Hong Kong Chinese version of the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT-HKCV). Thirty-three subjects at least one year post-stroke participated in the study. They were simultaneously rated on version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV by two testers to establish its internal consistency and inter-rater reliability. Raters used the parallel versions of the test (A and B), in rating 10 patients within 2 weeks to establish the parallel form reliability. Another 10 were also assessed on the same day using both version A of the CAMPROMPT-HKCV and the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test-Chinese version (RBMT-CV) to establish concurrent validity. A new group of 40 stroke patients and 44 healthy controls was recruited to establish its sensitivity and specificity. Results indicated that test-retest reliability on time-based, event-based and total scores, and inter-rater reliability for versions A and B of the test were high. Cronbach's alpha of the event-based score was higher than that of the time-based score. The reliability and concurrent validity of the parallel forms were established. There was a significant difference in performance on CAMPROMPT-HKCV (version A) between the stroke group and the healthy control group. ROC analysis showed that the ability of the cut-off CAMPROMPT-HKCV (total score) to differentiate PM problems was 20.5 (out of 36) with sensitivity at 95.5% and specificity at 55.9%. Further study in developing stratified norms across different age groups in Chinese-speaking stroke patients is recommended.

  9. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27284790

  10. Primate cognition: attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, self-control, and metacognition as examples of cognitive control in nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J; Menzel, Charles R; Parrish, Audrey E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Sayers, Ken; Smith, J David; Washburn, David A

    2016-09-01

    Primate Cognition is the study of cognitive processes, which represent internal mental processes involved in discriminations, decisions, and behaviors of humans and other primate species. Cognitive control involves executive and regulatory processes that allocate attention, manipulate and evaluate available information (and, when necessary, seek additional information), remember past experiences to plan future behaviors, and deal with distraction and impulsivity when they are threats to goal achievement. Areas of research that relate to cognitive control as it is assessed across species include executive attention, episodic memory, prospective memory, metacognition, and self-control. Executive attention refers to the ability to control what sensory stimuli one attends to and how one regulates responses to those stimuli, especially in cases of conflict. Episodic memory refers to memory for personally experienced, autobiographical events. Prospective memory refers to the formation and implementation of future-intended actions, such as remembering what needs to be done later. Metacognition consists of control and monitoring processes that allow individuals to assess what information they have and what information they still need, and then if necessary to seek information. Self-control is a regulatory process whereby individuals forego more immediate or easier to obtain rewards for more delayed or harder to obtain rewards that are objectively more valuable. The behavioral complexity shown by nonhuman primates when given tests to assess these capacities indicates psychological continuities with human cognitive control capacities. However, more research is needed to clarify the proper interpretation of these behaviors with regard to possible cognitive constructs that may underlie such behaviors. WIREs Cogn Sci 2016, 7:294-316. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1397 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  11. Peptides and aging: Their role in anorexia and memory.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E

    2015-10-01

    The rapid aging of the world's population has led to a need to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the factors leading to frailty and cognitive decline. Peptides have been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of frailty and cognitive decline. Weight loss is a major component of frailty. In this review, we demonstrate a central role for both peripheral peptides (e.g., cholecystokinin and ghrelin) and neuropeptides (e.g., dynorphin and alpha-MSH) in the pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging. Similarly, peripheral peptides (e.g., ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and cholecystokinin) are modulators of memory. A number of centrally acting neuropeptides have also been shown to modulate cognitive processes. Amyloid-beta peptide in physiological levels is a memory enhancer, while in high (pathological) levels, it plays a key role in the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  12. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  13. The best of both worlds: emotional cues improve prospective memory execution and reduce repetition errors.

    PubMed

    May, Cynthia P; Manning, Michelle; Einstein, Gilles O; Becker, Lauren; Owens, Max

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) errors are commonly investigated as failures to execute an intended task (e.g., taking medication), and some studies suggest that emotional PM cues significantly reduce such failures. In Experiment 1, we extended these findings and additionally explored whether improved PM performance with emotional cues comes at the expense of performance on the ongoing task. Our results indicated that both younger and older adults are more likely to respond to emotional than to neutral PM cues, but the emotional cues did not differentially disrupt the performance on the ongoing task for either age group. Because older adults are also prone to mistakenly repeating a completed PM task, in Experiment 2 we further examined whether emotional PM cues increased repetition errors for older adults. Despite equivalent opportunity for repetition errors across cue type, older adults committed significantly fewer repetition errors with emotional than with neutral cues. Thus, these experiments demonstrated that older adults can effectively use emotional cues to help them initiate actions and to minimize repetition errors.

  14. Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

  15. Autobiographical Memory and Depression in the Later Age: The Bump Is a Turning Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidron, Yori; Alon, Shirly

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study integrated previous findings of the distribution of autobiographical memories in the later age according to their age of occurrence, with the overgeneral memory bias predictive of depression. Twenty-five non-demented, Israeli participants between 65-89 years of age provided autobiographical memories to 4 groups of word cues…

  16. Age-Related Differences in Learning Disabled and Skilled Readers' Working Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether age-related working memory deficits in learning disabled (LD) readers across four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 20) reflected retrieval efficiency or storage capacity problems. Found that LD readers' working memory performance was inferior to skilled readers' on verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks across all ages.…

  17. Electrophysiology of Memory-Updating Differs with Age

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.; De Blasio, Frances M.; Barry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, the P3 component of the event-related potential systematically varies with the time between target stimuli—the target-to-target interval (TTI). Longer TTIs result in larger P3 amplitudes and shorter latencies, and this pattern of results has been linked with working memory-updating processes. Given that working memory and the P3 have both been shown to diminish with age, the current study aimed to determine whether the linear relationship between P3 and TTI is compromised in healthy aging by comparing TTI effects on P3 amplitudes and latencies, and reaction time (RT), in young and older adults. Older adults were found to have an overall reduction in P3 amplitudes, longer latencies, an anterior shift in topography, a trend toward slower RTs, and a flatter linear relationship between P3 and TTI than young adults. Results suggest that the ability to maintain templates in working memory required for stimulus categorization decreases with age, and that as a result, neural compensatory mechanisms are employed. PMID:27378908

  18. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline.

  19. Reducing prospective memory error and costs in simulated air traffic control: External aids, extending practice, and removing perceived memory requirements.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Chapman, Melissa; Smith, Rebekah E

    2016-09-01

    In air traffic control (ATC), forgetting to perform deferred actions-prospective memory (PM) errors-can have severe consequences. PM demands can also interfere with ongoing tasks (costs). We examined the extent to which PM errors and costs were reduced in simulated ATC by providing extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with extended practice, or by providing external aids combined with instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. Participants accepted/handed-off aircraft and detected conflicts. For the PM task, participants were required to substitute alternative actions for routine actions when accepting aircraft. In Experiment 1, when no aids were provided, PM errors and costs were not reduced by practice. When aids were provided, costs observed early in practice were eliminated with practice, but residual PM errors remained. Experiment 2 provided more limited practice with aids, but instructions that did not frame the PM task as a "memory" task led to high PM accuracy without costs. Attention-allocation policies that participants set based on expected PM demands were modified as individuals were increasingly exposed to reliable aids, or were given instructions that removed perceived memory requirements. These findings have implications for the design of aids for individuals who monitor multi-item dynamic displays. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27608067

  20. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  1. Concurrent and prospective associations of habitual overgeneral memory and prospection with symptoms of depression, general anxiety, obsessive compulsiveness, and post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2014-01-01

    Reduced memory specificity is associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and some other forms of psychopathology. Reduced memory specificity is also associated with reduced specificity of envisioned future events. Research in this area has mostly relied on cue-word methods that include explicit instructions to develop specific memories of future events. These methods are limited in their ability to assess how participants habitually remember the past and imagine the future when the specificity constraints inherent in the cue-word task are removed. Sentence completions tasks have been developed that can be used to assess habitual patterns of memory and prospection. Little is known about the association of habitual memory and prospection with concurrently and prospectively assessed psychopathology. In the current study 142 participants completed sentence completion tasks tapping habitual memory and prospection at baseline and completed measures tapping psychological symptoms at baseline and 1 year later. Among other things, it was found that reduced memory specificity (but not reduced future specificity) was associated with concurrent and later depression, as well as with symptom levels of PTSD tapped 1 year beyond baseline.

  2. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices.

    PubMed

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-12-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges. PMID:27541816

  3. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  4. Effects of sleep deprivation and aging on long-term and remote memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a month after training, sleep-deprived and control aged animals performed similarly, primarily due to remote memory decay in the control aged animals. Gene expression analysis supported the finding that SD has similar effects on the hippocampus in young and aged mice. PMID:25776037

  5. Age differences in adults' scene memory: knowledge and strategy interactions.

    PubMed

    Azmitia, M; Perlmutter, M

    1988-08-01

    Three studies explored young and old adults' use of knowledge to support memory performance. Subjects viewed slides of familiar scenes containing high expectancy and low expectancy items and received free recall (Experiments 1, 2, and 3), cued recall (Experiments 1 and 2), and recognition (Experiments 1 and 2) tests. In Experiment 1 encoding intentionality was varied between subjects. Young adults performed better than old adults on all tests, but on all tests, both age groups produced a similar pattern of better memory of high expectancy than low expectancy items and showed an encoding intentionality effect for low expectancy items. In Experiments 2 and 3 all subjects were told to intentionally encode only one item from each scene; the remaining items could be encoded incidentally. Young adults performed better than old adults, although again, the pattern of performance of the two age groups was similar. High expectancy and low expectancy intentional items were recalled equally well, but high expectancy incidental items were recalled better than low expectancy incidental items. Low expectancy intentional items were recognized better than high expectancy intentional items, but incidental high expectancy items were recognized better than incidental low expectancy items. It was concluded that young and old adults use their knowledge in similar ways to guide scene memory. The effects of item expectancy and item intentionality were interpreted within Hasher & Zacks' (2) model of automatic and effortful processes. PMID:3228800

  6. Age and subcultural differences on personal and general beliefs about memory.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Elena; Bottiroli, Sara; Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age and cultural differences on both personal and general beliefs about memory by comparing three age groups within two subcultures belonging to the same country: Milanese and Sardinian. Two innovative instruments on general and personal beliefs with graphic-rating-scale format (General Beliefs about Memory Instrument and Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument) and a memory task (recall of 40 words) were administrated to participants. Sardinians held more positive attitudes about the effects of aging on memory reporting a later onset of declining memory ability and control over memory across the life span. They were also more optimistic in rating their global memory efficacy, control, and retrospective change. The two subcultural groups differed in terms of memory performance, with Sardinian individuals outperforming the Milanese. Findings are discussed in relation to the view of aging in different subcultural contexts.

  7. Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

  8. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  9. Adolescent self-organization predicts midlife memory in a prospective birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Man K; Jones, Peter B; Barnett, Jennifer H; Gaysina, Darya; Kuh, Diana; Croudace, Tim J; Richards, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60-64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

  10. Aging and long-term memory for emotionally valenced events.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Carolyn W; Safer, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    In 2008, 1103 ardent Boston Red Sox fans answered questions about their team's 2003 loss and 2004 win in baseball championship games with archrival New York Yankees. Contrary to predictions based on socioemotional selectivity theory, there were no significant interactions of age and event valence for accuracy in remembering event details, or for self-reported subjective vividness and rehearsal of the memories. Fans 65 years and older tended to remember feeling only sad about the 2003 loss, whereas fans 25 years and under tended to remember feeling both sad and angry. Individuals may remember emotional feelings based on remembered goals about an event.

  11. The Effect of Retention Interval Task Difficulty on Young Children's Prospective Memory: Testing the Intention Monitoring Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Moses, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of retention interval task difficulty on 4- and 5-year-olds' prospective memory (PM) to test the hypothesis that children periodically monitor their intentions during the retention interval and that disrupting this monitoring may result in poorer PM performance. In addition, relations among PM, working memory,…

  12. A Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence: Design of a Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Kathie C.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Hepworth, Joseph T.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as it relates to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  13. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group. PMID:23010608

  14. Spontaneous prospective-memory processing: Unexpected fluency experiences trigger erroneous intention executions.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Jan; Meiser, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory is the ability to remember to execute an intention when an environmental cue occurs. It has been argued that, due to their special meaning, these cues are discrepant from their environment and therefore are sometimes spontaneously noticed. In line with this assumption, the likelihood that an intention will be executed increases with increased cue-discrepancy. It is not yet clear, however, whether these improvements are due to facilitated spontaneous noticing rather than to an increase in the efficiency of controlled cue-processing. To further investigate the spontaneous nature of cue-discrepancy benefits, we presented participants with stimuli that were unrelated to the intention but discrepant from other stimuli. Therefore, we experimentally increased the processing fluency of some stimuli for participants currently holding an intention by using different priming procedures. We found that stimuli whose fluency was increased via spaced repeated stimulus presentation (Experiment 1) or via short pre-exposure (Experiment 2a to 3) elicited a tendency to fulfill the intention despite its actual inappropriateness. Findings were inconsistent as to whether cue-memory uncertainty fosters the reliance on cue discrepancy for intention retrieval (Experiments 2a and 3). Taken together, the present findings provide converging evidence for a spontaneous discrepancy-based prospective-memory process which works independent of controlled processes. PMID:26304843

  15. Effects of aging and IQ on item and associative memory.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-08-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ (ranging from 85 to 140) and age (college age, 60-74 years old, and 75-90 years old). IQ had large effects on drift rate in recognition and recall performance, except for the oldest participants with some measures near floor. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in recall, and IQ all correlated strongly. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and cued recall accuracy (70%). In contrast, there were large effects of age on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks) but small effects of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual-process models of item recognition are discussed, and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than are models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for modeling. PMID:21707207

  16. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  17. Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

  18. Exposure to an enriched environment up to middle age allows preservation of spatial memory capabilities in old age.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Fanny; Cosquer, Brigitte; Penazzi, Lorène; Mathis, Chantal; Kelche, Christian; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra

    2016-02-15

    In rats, some cognitive capabilities, like spatial learning and memory, are preserved from age-related decline by whole adult life enriched environment (EE) exposure. However, to which extent late EE contributes to such maintenance remains to be investigated. Here we assessed the impact of late housing condition (e.g., from the age of 18 months) on spatial learning and memory of aged rats (24 months) previously exposed or unexposed to EE from young adulthood. The results showed that late EE was not required for spatial memory maintenance in aged rats previously housed in EE. In contrast, late EE mitigates spatial memory deficit in aged rats previously unexposed to EE. These outcomes suggest that EE exposure up to middle age provides a "reserve"-like advantage which supports an enduring preservation of spatial capabilities in old age.

  19. Memorial consequences of testing school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Fazio, Lisa K.; Goswick, Anna E.

    2013-01-01

    A large literature shows that retrieval practice is a powerful tool for enhancing learning and memory in undergraduates (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006a). Much less work has examined the memorial consequences of testing school-aged children. Our focus is on multiple-choice tests, which are potentially problematic since they minimise retrieval practice and also expose students to errors (the multiple-choice lures). To examine this issue, second graders took a multiple-choice general knowledge test (e.g., What country did the Pilgrims come from: England, Germany, Ireland, or Spain?) and later answered a series of short answer questions, some of which corresponded to questions on the earlier multiple-choice test. Without feedback, the benefits of prior testing outweighed the costs for easy questions. However, for hard questions, the large increase in multiple-choice lure answers on the final test meant that the cost of prior testing outweighed the benefits when no feedback was provided. This negative testing effect was eliminated when children received immediate feedback (consisting of the correct answer) after each multiple-choice selection. Implications for educational practice are discussed. PMID:22891857

  20. How Japanese adults perceive memory change with age: middle-aged adults with memory performance as high as young adults evaluate their memory abilities as low as older adults.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs. PMID:24669510

  1. Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongyang; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Xinmin; Chang, Qi; Guo, Zhi; Liao, Yonghong; Pan, Ruile; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE.

  2. Late enrichment maintains accurate recent and remote spatial memory only in aged rats that were unimpaired when middle aged.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Fanny; Herbeaux, Karine; Aufrere, Noémie; Kelche, Christian; Mathis, Chantal; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Majchrzak, Monique

    2016-06-01

    Exposure of rodents to a stimulating environment has beneficial effects on some cognitive functions that are impaired during physiological aging, and especially spatial reference memory. The present study investigated whether environmental enrichment rescues these functions in already declining subjects and/or protects them from subsequent decline. Subgroups of 17-mo-old female rats with unimpaired versus impaired performance in a spatial reference memory task (Morris water maze) were housed until the age of 24 mo in standard or enriched environment. They were then trained in a second reference memory task, conducted in a different room than the first, and recent (1 d) and remote (10 d) memory were assessed. In unimpaired subgroups, spatial memory declined from 17 to 24 mo in rats housed in standard conditions; an enriched environment during this period allowed maintenance of accurate recent and remote spatial memory. At 24 mo, rats impaired at the age of 17 mo housed in enriched environment learned the task and displayed substantial recent memory, but their performance remained lower than that of unimpaired rats, showing that enrichment failed to rescue spatial memory in already cognitively declining rats. Controls indicated carryover effects of the first water maze training, especially in aged rats housed in standard condition, and confirmed the beneficial effect of enrichment on remote memory of aged rats even if they performed poorly than young adults housed for the same duration in standard or enriched condition.

  3. Mechanisms underlying the production of false memories for famous people's names in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plancher, Gaën; Guyard, Anne; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that the occurrence of false memories increases with aging, but the results remain inconsistent concerning Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the production of false memories are still unclear. Using an experimental episodic memory test with material based on the names of famous people in a procedure derived from the DRM paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 803-814], we examined correct and false recall and recognition in 30 young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 30 patients with AD. Moreover, we evaluated the relationships between false memory performance, correct episodic memory performance, and a set of neuropsychological assessments evaluating the semantic memory and executive functions. The results clearly indicated that correct recall and recognition performance decreased with the subjects' age, but it decreased even more with AD. In addition, semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with age but not with dementia. On the contrary, non-semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with AD. Finally, the regression analyses showed that executive functions mediated related false memories and episodic memory mediated related and unrelated false memories in aging. Moreover, executive functions predicted related and unrelated false memories in AD, and episodic and semantic memory predicted semantically related and unrelated false memories in AD. In conclusion, the results obtained are consistent with the current constructive models of memory suggesting that false memory creation depends on different cognitive functions and, consequently, that the impairments of these functions influence the production of false memories.

  4. Effect of cognitive load on working memory forgetting in aging.

    PubMed

    Baumans, Christine; Adam, Stephane; Seron, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Functional approaches to working memory (WM) have been proposed recently to better investigate "maintenance" and "processing" mechanisms. The cognitive load (CL) hypothesis presented in the "Time-Based Resource-Sharing" model (Barrouillet & Camos, 2007) suggests that forgetting from WM (maintenance) can be investigated by varying the presentation rate and processing speed (processing). In this study, young and elderly participants were compared on WM tasks in which the difference in processing speed was controlled by CL manipulations. Two main results were found. First, when time constraints (CL) were matched for the two groups, no aging effect was observed. Second, whereas a large variation in CL affected WM performance, a small CL manipulation had no effect on the elderly. This suggests that WM forgetting cannot be completely accounted for by the CL hypothesis. Rather, it highlights the need to explore restoration times in particular, and the nature of the refreshment mechanisms within maintenance. PMID:22617311

  5. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  6. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  7. Knowledge of Memory Aging in Students, Caregivers, and Senior Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Robichaux, Mary L.; Hawley, Karri S.

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) (Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes in late life and pathological deficits due to nonnormative factors such as adult dementia. In this study, we examined memory knowledge in community college and university students, caregivers, and…

  8. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  9. Age-Related Deficits in Reality Monitoring of Action Memories

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Lyle, Keith B.; Butler, Karin M.; Dornburg, Courtney C.

    2008-01-01

    We describe three theoretical accounts of age-related increases in falsely remembering that imagined actions were performed (Thomas & Bulevich, 2006). To investigate these accounts and further explore age-related changes in reality monitoring of action memories, we used a new paradigm in which actions were (a) imagined-only (b) actually performed, or (c) both imagined and performed. Older adults were more likely than younger adults to misremember the source of imagined-only actions, with older adults’ more often specifying that the action was imagined and also that it was performed. For both age groups, as repetitions of the imagined-only events increased, illusions that the actions were only performed decreased. These patterns suggest that both older and younger adults utilize qualitative characteristics when making reality-monitoring judgments and that repeated imagination produces richer records of both sensory details and cognitive operations. However, sensory information derived from imagination appears to be more similar to that derived from performance for older than younger adults. PMID:18808253

  10. Midlife memory improvement predicts preservation of hippocampal volume in old age.

    PubMed

    Borghesani, Paul R; Weaver, Kurt E; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Richards, Anne L; Madhyastha, Tara M; Kahn, Ali R; Liang, Olivia; Ellenbogen, Rachel L; Beg, M Faisal; Schaie, K Warner; Willis, Sherry L

    2012-07-01

    This study examines whether midlife change in episodic memory predicts hippocampal volume in old age. From the Seattle Longitudinal Study we retrospectively identified 84 healthy, cognitively normal individuals, age 52 to 87, whose episodic memory had reliably declined (n = 33), improved (n = 28) or remained stable (n = 23) over a 14-year period in midlife (age 43-63). Midlife memory improvement was associated with 13% larger hippocampal volume (p < 0.01) in old age (age 66-87), compared with old age individuals whose midlife episodic memory had either declined or remained stable during midlife. Midlife memory change did not predict total hippocampal volume for those currently in late middle age (age 52-65). The pattern of findings was not modified by gender, apolipoprotein ε4 status, education or current memory performance. Change in midlife memory scores over 14 years, but not any single assessment, predicted hippocampal volumes in old age, emphasizing the importance of longitudinal data in examining brain-cognition relationships. These findings suggest that improvement in memory in midlife is associated with sparing of hippocampal volume in later life.

  11. Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T.; Stey, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    "Overgeneral memory" refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in…

  12. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Intra-Item Associative Recognition Memory in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Marshall Axel; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John Russel; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory function. This is accompanied by degradation of and functional changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) which subserves mnemonic processing. To date no study has investigated age-related functional change in MTL substructures during specific episodic memory processes such as intra-item associative memory. The aim of this study was to characterize age-related change in the neural correlates of intra-item associative memory processing. Sixteen young and 10 older subjects participated in a compound word intra-item associative memory task comprising a measure of associative recognition memory and a measure of recognition memory. There was no difference in performance between groups on the associative memory measure but each group recruited different MTL regions while performing the task. The young group recruited the left anterior hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal gyrus whereas the older participants recruited the hippocampus bilaterally. In contrast, recognition memory was significantly worse in the older subjects. The left anterior hippocampus was recruited in the young group during successful recognition memory whereas the older group recruited a more posterior region of the left hippocampus and showed a more bilateral activation of frontal brain regions than was observed in the young group. Our results suggest a reorganization of the neural correlates of intra-item associative memory in the aging brain. PMID:24427127

  13. Remembrance of Things Future: Prospective Memory in Laboratory, Workplace, and Everyday Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    2010-01-01

    In this review, oriented to the human factors community, I will summarize and provide a perspective on recent research and theory on prospective memory. This will not be an exhaustive review of literature, which is already available in two excellent recent books that provide a wealth of detail on the current state of experimental research (Kliegel, McCaniel, & Einstein, 2008; McDaniel & Einstein, 2007; also see Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996, for a still relevant overview of the field as it was emerging). Rather, I will explore the limits of existing experimental paradigms and theory, Vvilich, in my opinion, fail to capture some critical aspects of performance outside the laboratory. I will also review the relatively few studies in workplace and everyday settings and will discuss several studies that attempt to bridge between the bulk of experimental studies and these few naturalistic studies. Finally, I will describe countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to forgetting to perform intended tasks, and I will propose a research agenda that would extend existing experimental and theoretical approaches and would support human factors practitioners by generating information on a wide range of issues relevant to prospective memory performance in natural settings.

  14. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task.

  15. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task. PMID:25674061

  16. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  17. Sex-Based Memory Advantages and Cognitive Aging: A Challenge to the Cognitive Reserve Construct?

    PubMed Central

    Caselli, Richard J.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Locke, Dona E.C.; Baxter, Leslie C.; Woodruff, Bryan K.; Geda, Yonas E.

    2016-01-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ε4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ε4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p = .03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p = .006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ε4 carriers or non-carriers. PMID:25665170

  18. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive…

  19. Age-related decline of precision and binding in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peich, Muy-Cheng; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Working memory declines with normal aging, but the nature of this impairment is debated. Studies based on detecting changes to arrays of visual objects have identified two possible components to age-related decline: a reduction in the number of items that can be stored, or a deficit in maintaining the associations (bindings) between individual object features. However, some investigations have reported intact binding with aging, and specific deficits arising only in Alzheimer's disease. Here, using a recently developed continuous measure of recall fidelity, we tested the precision with which adults of different ages could reproduce from memory the orientation and color of a probed array item. The results reveal a further component of cognitive decline: an age-related decrease in the resolution with which visual information can be maintained in working memory. This increase in recall variability with age was strongest under conditions of greater memory load. Moreover, analysis of the distribution of errors revealed that older participants were more likely to incorrectly report one of the unprobed items in memory, consistent with an age-related increase in misbinding. These results indicate a systematic decline with age in working memory resources that can be recruited to store visual information. The paradigm presented here provides a sensitive index of both memory resolution and feature binding, with the potential for assessing their modulation by interventions. The findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms underpinning working memory deficits in both health and disease. PMID:23978008

  20. Age Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Not Based on Encoding Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Ricker, Timothy J.; Saults, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Why does visual working memory performance increase with age in childhood? One recent study (Cowan et al., 2010b) ruled out the possibility that the basic cause is a tendency in young children to clutter working memory with less-relevant items (within a concurrent array, colored items presented in one of two shapes). The age differences in memory…

  1. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  2. Prospective Memory Deficits in Ecstasy Users: Effects of Longer Ongoing Task Delay Interval

    PubMed Central

    WEINBORN, MICHAEL; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; NULSEN, CLAIRE; PARK, KATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy use has been associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment in a variety of domains, including prospective memory (ProM), which involves the delayed execution of a previously encoded intention in response to a specific cue. The present study adopted the multiprocess theory of ProM to evaluate the hypothesis that ecstasy users would evidence differentially impaired ProM on longer versus shorter ongoing task delays. Ecstasy (n = 31) users, high-risk alcohol users (n = 21) and healthy nonusers (n = 31) completed the short (2-min) and long (15-min) delay ProM scales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test. Results showed a significant group by ProM delay interaction, such that ecstasy users performed comparably to the comparison groups on short-delay trials, but were impaired on long-delay ProM, particularly for time-based cues. Among the ecstasy users, long-delay ProM was positively associated with risky decision-making, but not with retrospective memory or other aspects of executive functions. These findings suggest that ecstasy users may be particularly susceptible to deficits in strategic target monitoring and maintenance of cue-intention pairings over longer ProM delays. Findings are discussed in the context of their potential everyday functioning (e.g., academic, vocational) and treatment implications for ecstasy users. PMID:22047194

  3. Prospective Memory in HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND): The Neuropsychological Dynamics of Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E.; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time monitoring (clock checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND monitored checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM’s reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND related TB PM deficits. PMID:23465043

  4. Prospective memory in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND): the neuropsychological dynamics of time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time-monitoring (clock-checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM's reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time-monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication nonadherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND-related TB PM deficits.

  5. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  6. Resting-state fMRI evidence for early episodic memory consolidation: effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kukolja, Juraj; Göreci, D Yasemin; Onur, Özgür A; Riedl, Valentin; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-09-01

    Aging-related episodic memory decline is often attributed to insufficient encoding of new information, although the underlying neural processes remain elusive. We here tested the hypothesis that impaired memory consolidation contributes to aging-related memory decline. To this end, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and older adults and investigated neural network connectivity underlying episodic memory consolidation and the effects of aging thereon. During postencoding rest, connectivity increased in subregions of temporobasal and temporo-occipital networks but decreased in a precuneal network. These connectivity changes predicted subsequent memory performance thereby constituting functional correlates of early memory consolidation. Furthermore, these consolidation-related regional connectivity changes partially overlapped with encoding-related neural activity changes, suggesting a close relationship between encoding- and consolidation-related activity. Older when compared to young participants failed to increase connectivity in the right lingual gyrus as part of an extended default mode network during consolidation, thereby providing a functional correlate for spatial contextual memory deficits. In conclusion, results are consistent with previous reports of persistent activity in regions mediating memory encoding as a core mechanism underlying episodic memory consolidation. Our data extend previous findings suggesting that aging-related memory decline results from a reduction of consolidation processes. PMID:27459940

  7. Changes in Brain Network Efficiency and Working Memory Performance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Simpson, Sean L.; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory. PMID:25875001

  8. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  9. Time-Based and Event-Based Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Roles of Executive Function and Theory of Mind, and Time-Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David; Boucher, Jill; Lind, Sophie; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21…

  10. An age-related deficit in spatial-feature reference memory in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Flaim, Mary E; Carney, Samantha N; Bingman, Verner P

    2015-03-01

    Age-related memory decline in mammals has been well documented. By contrast, very little is known about memory decline in birds as they age. In the current study we trained younger and older homing pigeons on a reference memory task in which a goal location could be encoded by spatial and feature cues. Consistent with a previous working memory study, the results revealed impaired acquisition of combined spatial-feature reference memory in older compared to younger pigeons. Following memory acquisition, we used cue-conflict probe trials to provide an initial assessment of possible age-related differences in cue preference. Both younger and older pigeons displayed a similarly modest preference for feature over spatial cues.

  11. Default Mode Network Activity Predicts Early Memory Decline in Healthy Young Adults Aged 18-31.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Steven M; Savalia, Neil K; Fishell, Andrew K; Gilmore, Adrian W; Zou, Fan; Balota, David A; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2016-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research conducted in healthy young adults is typically done with the assumption that this sample is largely homogeneous. However, studies from cognitive psychology suggest that long-term memory and attentional control begin to diminish in the third decade of life. Here, 100 participants between the ages of 18 and 31 learned Lithuanian translations of English words in an individual differences study using fMRI. Long-term memory ability was operationalized for each participant by deriving a memory score from 3 convergent measures. Age of participant predicted memory score in this cohort. In addition, degree of deactivation during initial encoding in a set of regions occurring largely in the default mode network (DMN) predicted both age and memory score. The current study demonstrates that early memory decline may partially be accounted for by failure to modulate activity in the DMN.

  12. Do Baseline Executive Functions Mediate Prospective Memory Performance under a Moderate Dose of Alcohol?

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Spark, James H.; Moss, Antony C.; Dyer, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs). To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin et al., 2010), and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. PM is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programs and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness.

  13. Do Baseline Executive Functions Mediate Prospective Memory Performance under a Moderate Dose of Alcohol?

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Spark, James H.; Moss, Antony C.; Dyer, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs). To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin et al., 2010), and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. PM is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programs and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness. PMID:27630600

  14. Age-related differences in associative memory: the role of sensory decline.

    PubMed

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Kilb, Angela

    2014-09-01

    Numerous studies show age-related decline in episodic memory. One of the explanations for this decline points to older adults' deficit in associative memory, reflecting the difficulties they have in binding features of episodes into cohesive entities and retrieving these bindings. Here, we evaluate the degree to which this deficit may be mediated by sensory loss associated with increased age. In 2 experiments, young adults studied word pairs that were degraded at encoding either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2). We then tested their memory for both the component words and the associations with recognition tests. For both experiments, young adults under nondegraded conditions showed an advantage in associative over item memory, relative to a group of older adults. In contrast, under perceptually degraded conditions younger adults performed similarly to the older adults who were tested under nondegraded conditions. More specifically, under perceptual degradation, young adults' associative memory declined and their component memory improved somewhat, resulting in an associative deficit, similar to that shown by older adults. This evidence is consistent with a sensory acuity decline in old age being one mediator in the associative deficit of older adults. These results broaden our understanding of age-related memory changes and how sensory and cognitive processes interact to shape these changes. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed with respect to mechanisms underlying age-related changes in episodic memory and resource tradeoffs in the encoding of component and associative memory.

  15. Pomegranate Juice Augments Memory and fMRI Activity in Middle-Aged and Older Adults with Mild Memory Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Bookheimer, Susan Y.; Renner, Brian A.; Ekstrom, Arne; Henning, Susanne M.; Brown, Jesse A.; Jones, Mike; Moody, Teena; Small, Gary W.

    2013-01-01

    Despite increasing emphasis on the potential of dietary antioxidants in preventing memory loss and on diet as a precursor of neurological health, rigorous studies investigating the cognitive effects of foods and their components are rare. Recent animal studies have reported memory and other cognitive benefits of polyphenols, found abundantly in pomegranate juice. We performed a preliminary, placebo-controlled randomized trial of pomegranate juice in older subjects with age-associated memory complaints using memory testing and functional brain activation (fMRI) as outcome measures. Thirty-two subjects (28 completers) were randomly assigned to drink 8 ounces of either pomegranate juice or a flavor-matched placebo drink for 4 weeks. Subjects received memory testing, fMRI scans during cognitive tasks, and blood draws for peripheral biomarkers before and after the intervention. Investigators and subjects were all blind to group membership. After 4 weeks, only the pomegranate group showed a significant improvement in the Buschke selective reminding test of verbal memory and a significant increase in plasma trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and urolithin A-glucuronide. Furthermore, compared to the placebo group, the pomegranate group had increased fMRI activity during verbal and visual memory tasks. While preliminary, these results suggest a role for pomegranate juice in augmenting memory function through task-related increases in functional brain activity. PMID:23970941

  16. Olfactory memory: a bridge between humans and animals in models of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Robitsek, R Jonathan

    2009-07-01

    Odor-recognition memory in rodents may provide a valuable model of cognitive aging. In a recent study we used signal detection analyses to distinguish odor recognition based on recollection versus that based on familiarity. Aged rats were selectively impaired in recollection, with relative sparing of familiarity, and the deficits in recollection were correlated with spatial memory impairments. These results complement electrophysiological findings indicating age-associated deficits in the ability of hippocampal neurons to differentiate contextual information, and this information-processing impairment may underlie the common age-associated decline in olfactory and spatial memory.

  17. "Don't forget to take the cupcakes out of the oven": prospective memory, strategic time-monitoring, and context.

    PubMed

    Ceci, S J; Bronfenbrenner, U

    1985-02-01

    Strategies employed by children in tasks requiring prospective memory (i.e., remembering to do something in the future) were investigated to illuminate the nature of the processes involved, and their developmental and contextual determinants. Efficient strategy use was expected to increase with age but to decrease in an unfamiliar setting or on a task associated with higher sex-role expectations. Children were instructed to perform future activities after waiting 30 min. Children's clock-checking during the waiting period was assessed in their own homes or a university psychophysics laboratory. As predicted, strategic time-monitoring occurred less frequently in the laboratory than in the home. The anticipated differences associated with higher sex-role expectations and age were most salient for older boys in the laboratory setting. The findings indicate that, when observed in a familiar setting, children can be shown to employ sophisticated cognitive strategies. Emphasis is placed on the scientific power of the laboratory as a contrasting context for illuminating developmental processes.

  18. Cross-cultural differences in memory: the role of culture-based stereotypes about aging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, C; Hasher, L; Feinberg, F; Rahhal, T A; Winocur, G

    2000-12-01

    The extent to which cultural stereotypes about aging contribute to age differences in memory performance is investigated by comparing younger and older Anglophone Canadians to demographically matched Chinese Canadians, who tend to hold more positive views of aging. Four memory tests were administered. In contrast to B. Levy and E. Langer's (1994) findings, younger adults in both cultural groups outperformed their older comparison group on all memory tests. For 2 tests, which made use of visual stimuli resembling ideographic characters in written Chinese, the older Chinese Canadians approached, but did not reach, the performance achieved by their younger counterparts, as well as outperformed the older Anglophone Canadians. However, on the other two tests, which assess memory for complex figures and abstract designs, no differences were observed between the older Chinese and Anglophone Canadians. Path analysis results suggest that this pattern of findings is not easily attributed to a wholly culturally based account of age differences in memory performance.

  19. The reminiscence bump in autobiographical memory: effects of age, gender, education, and culture.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Steve M J; Chessa, Antonio G; Murre, Jaap M J

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the age distribution of autobiographical memories with the Galton-Crovitz method through the Internet. Almost 2000 participants in the United States and the Netherlands aged between 11 and 70 years participated. They were presented with 10 cue words, and were asked to recall and date autobiographical memories. We found strong evidence for a "reminiscence bump" in all participant groups at all ages, with peaks at ages 15--18 for men and 13--14 for women. This peak could be localised more precisely than in previous studies due to our large sample size. We were able to remove the forgetting effect from the empirical age distribution with a method that allows separate estimation of memory encoding and forgetting. American participants showed a tendency to report older memories than the Dutch. Age group and level of education did not influence the lifetime encoding function.

  20. Age differences in brain activity related to unsuccessful declarative memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Grady, Cheryl L; St-Laurent, Marie; Burianová, Hana

    2015-07-01

    Although memory recall is known to be reduced with normal aging, little is known about the patterns of brain activity that accompany these recall failures. By assessing faulty memory, we can identify the brain regions engaged during retrieval attempts in the absence of successful memory and determine the impact of aging on this functional activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine age differences in brain activity associated with memory failure in three memory retrieval tasks: autobiographical (AM), episodic (EM) and semantic (SM). Compared to successful memory retrieval, both age groups showed more activity when they failed to recall a memory in regions consistent with the salience network (SLN), a brain network also associated with non-memory errors. Both groups also showed strong functional coupling among SLN regions during incorrect trials and in intrinsic patterns of functional connectivity. In comparison to young adults, older adults demonstrated (1) less activity within the SLN during unsuccessful AM trials; (2) weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between SLN nodes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (3) less differentiation of SLN functional connectivity during incorrect trials across memory conditions. These results suggest that the SLN is engaged during recall failures, as it is for non-memory errors, which may be because errors in general have particular salience for adapting behavior. In older adults, the dedifferentiation of functional connectivity within the SLN across memory conditions and the reduction of functional coupling between it and prefrontal cortex may indicate poorer inter-network communication and less flexible use of cognitive control processes, either while retrieval is attempted or when monitoring takes place after retrieval has failed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Memory & Aging.

  1. A synopsis on aging-Theories, mechanisms and future prospects.

    PubMed

    da Costa, João Pinto; Vitorino, Rui; Silva, Gustavo M; Vogel, Christine; Duarte, Armando C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    Answering the question as to why we age is tantamount to answering the question of what is life itself. There are countless theories as to why and how we age, but, until recently, the very definition of aging - senescence - was still uncertain. Here, we summarize the main views of the different models of senescence, with a special emphasis on the biochemical processes that accompany aging. Though inherently complex, aging is characterized by numerous changes that take place at different levels of the biological hierarchy. We therefore explore some of the most relevant changes that take place during aging and, finally, we overview the current status of emergent aging therapies and what the future holds for this field of research. From this multi-dimensional approach, it becomes clear that an integrative approach that couples aging research with systems biology, capable of providing novel insights into how and why we age, is necessary. PMID:27353257

  2. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  3. Age Differences in Depth of Retrieval: Memory for Foils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, L.L.; Shimizu, Y.; Velanova, K.; Rhodes, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Control over memory can be achieved in two ways: by constraining retrieval such that only sought after information comes to mind or, alternatively, by means of post-access monitoring. We used a memory-for-foils paradigm to gain evidence of differences in retrieval constraints. In this paradigm, participants studied words under deep or shallow…

  4. Modulation of a Fronto-Parietal Network in Event-Based Prospective Memory: An rTMS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiacchi, P. S.; Cona, G.; Schiff, S.; Basso, D.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) is a multi-component process that requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue, while being actively engaged in an ongoing task. Some neuroimaging studies have suggested that both prefrontal and parietal areas are involved in the maintenance and…

  5. Investigating the Cost to Ongoing Tasks Not Associated with Prospective Memory Task Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between prospective memory (PM) and consciousness by examining cost to ongoing activities, with cost assumed to reflect a direction of conscious resources away from the ongoing task in service of the PM task. Ongoing task blocks in which the PM task was relevant or irrelevant were alternated to achieve three aims: determine if cost would persist in irrelevant blocks when relevant and irrelevant blocks were clearly demarcated and irrelevant stimuli were incompatible with the PM task; investigate if costs would be greatest at the start of irrelevant blocks; and determine whether costs would occur when the irrelevant block preceded any relevant blocks. Costs were found in irrelevant blocks and greater cost at the start of the irrelevant blocks suggest the cost may be due in part to participants making decisions about the engagement of conscious resources at transition points. PMID:24780347

  6. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  7. Genetic Complexity of Episodic Memory: A Twin Approach to Studies of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kremen, William S.; Spoon, Kelly M.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Franz, Carol E.; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Xian, Hong; Rana, Brinda K.; Toomey, Rosemary; McKenzie, Ruth; Lyons, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Episodic memory change is a central issue in cognitive aging, and understanding that process will require elucidation of its genetic underpinnings. A key limiting factor in genetically informed research on memory has been lack of attention to genetic and phenotypic complexity, as if “memory is memory” and all well-validated assessments are essentially equivalent. Here we applied multivariate twin models to data from late-middle-aged participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging to examine the genetic architecture of 6 measures from 3 standard neuropsychological tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-2, and Wechsler Memory Scale-III Logical Memory (LM) and Visual Reproductions (VR). An advantage of the twin method is that it can estimate the extent to which latent genetic influences are shared or independent across different measures before knowing which specific genes are involved. The best-fitting model was a higher order common pathways model with a heritable higher order general episodic memory factor and three test-specific subfactors. More importantly, substantial genetic variance was accounted for by genetic influences that were specific to the latent LM and VR subfactors (28% and 30%, respectively) and independent of the general factor. Such unique genetic influences could partially account for replication failures. Moreover, if different genes influence different memory phenotypes, they could well have different age-related trajectories. This approach represents an important step toward providing critical information for all types of genetically informative studies of aging and memory. PMID:24956007

  8. Prefrontal Cortical GABAergic Dysfunction Contributes to Age-Related Working Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Cristina; Beas, B. Sofia; McQuail, Joseph A.; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Frazier, Charles J.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Working memory functions supported by the prefrontal cortex decline in normal aging. Disruption of corticolimbic GABAergic inhibitory circuits can impair working memory in young subjects; however, relatively little is known regarding how aging impacts prefrontal cortical GABAergic signaling and whether such changes contribute to cognitive deficits. The current study used a rat model to evaluate the effects of aging on expression of prefrontal GABAergic synaptic proteins in relation to working memory decline, and to test whether pharmacological manipulations of prefrontal GABAergic signaling can improve working memory abilities in aged subjects. Results indicate that in aged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), expression of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT was unchanged; however, there was a significant increase in expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67, and a significant decrease in the primary neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1 and in both subunits of the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Expression of VGAT, GAD67, and GAT-1 was not associated with working memory ability. In contrast, among aged rats, GABA(B)R expression was significantly and negatively associated with working memory performance, such that lower GABA(B)R expression predicted better working memory. Subsequent experiments showed that systemic administration of a GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP55845, dose-dependently enhanced working memory in aged rats. This enhancing effect of systemic CGP55845 was reproduced by direct intra-mPFC administration. Together, these data suggest that age-related dysregulation of GABAergic signaling in prefrontal cortex may play a causal role in impaired working memory and that targeting GABA(B)Rs may provide therapeutic benefit for age-related impairments in executive functions. PMID:24599447

  9. Adults’ reports of their earliest memories: Consistency in events, ages, and narrative characteristics over time

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Larkina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Earliest memories have been of interest since the late 1800s, when it was first noted that most adults do not have memories from the first years of life (so-called childhood amnesia). Several characteristics of adults’ earliest memories have been investigated, including emotional content, the perspective from which they are recalled, and vividness. The focus of the present research was a feature of early memories heretofore relatively neglected in the literature, namely, their consistency. Adults reported their earliest memories 2 to 4 times over a 4-year period. Reports of earliest memories were highly consistent in the events identified as the bases for earliest memories, the reported age at the time of the event, and in terms of qualities of the narrative descriptions. These findings imply stability in the boundary that marks the offset of childhood amnesia, as well as in the beginning of a continuous sense of self over time. PMID:24836979

  10. Toward an understanding of motivational influences on prospective memory using value-added intentions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gabriel I.; Rummel, Jan; Dummel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory (PM) cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased PM performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2) and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2) conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in PM was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention-induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing-task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational PM showed mixed results regarding whether PM improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, PM improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of PM. PMID:26042017

  11. Toward an understanding of motivational influences on prospective memory using value-added intentions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Gabriel I; Rummel, Jan; Dummel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory (PM) cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased PM performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2) and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2) conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in PM was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention-induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing-task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational PM showed mixed results regarding whether PM improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, PM improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of PM. PMID:26042017

  12. Effects of aging on the characteristics of TiNiPd shape memory alloy thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Congchun

    2008-07-15

    TiNiPd thin films have been deposited on glass substrate using R.F. magnetron sputtering. Effects of annealing and aging on the microstructure, phase transformation behaviors and shape memory effects of these thin films have been studied by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimeter, tensile tests and internal friction characteristics. The TiNiPd thin films annealed at 750 deg. C exhibit uniform martensite/austenite transformations and shape memory effect. Aging at 450 deg. C for 1 h improved the uniformity of transformations and shape memory effect. Long time aging decreased transformation temperatures and increased the brittleness of TiNiPd thin films.

  13. Neural Mechanisms of Time-Based Prospective Memory: Evidence for Transient Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Oksanen, Kevin M.; Waldum, Emily R.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Braver, Todd S.

    2014-01-01

    In daily life, we often need to remember to perform an action after, or at, a specific period of time (e.g., take pizza out of oven in 15 minutes). Surprisingly, little is known about the neural mechanisms that support this form of memory, termed time-based prospective memory (PM). Here we pioneer an fMRI paradigm that enables examination of both sustained and transient processes engaged during time-based PM. Participants were scanned while performing a demanding on-going task (n-back working memory), with and without an additional time-based PM demand. During the PM condition participants could access a hidden clock with a specific button-press response, while in the control condition, pseudo-clocks randomly appeared and were removed via the same response. Analyses tested for sustained activation associated with the PM condition, and also transient activation associated with clock-checks and the PM target response. Contrary to prior findings with event-based PM (i.e., remembering to perform a future action when a specific event occurs), no sustained PM-related activity was observed in anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) or elsewhere in the brain; instead, transient clock-related activity was observed in this region. Critically, the activation was anticipatory, increasing before clock-check responses. Anticipatory activity prior to the PM target response was weaker in aPFC, but strong in pre-Supplementary Motor Area (pre-SMA; relative to clock-check responses), suggesting a functional double dissociation related to volitional decision-making. Together, the results suggest that aPFC-activity dynamics during time-based PM reflect a distinct transient monitoring process, enabling integration of the PM intention with current temporal information to facilitate scheduling of upcoming PM-related actions. PMID:24643226

  14. Neural mechanisms of time-based prospective memory: evidence for transient monitoring.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Kevin M; Waldum, Emily R; McDaniel, Mark A; Braver, Todd S

    2014-01-01

    In daily life, we often need to remember to perform an action after, or at, a specific period of time (e.g., take pizza out of oven in 15 minutes). Surprisingly, little is known about the neural mechanisms that support this form of memory, termed time-based prospective memory (PM). Here we pioneer an fMRI paradigm that enables examination of both sustained and transient processes engaged during time-based PM. Participants were scanned while performing a demanding on-going task (n-back working memory), with and without an additional time-based PM demand. During the PM condition participants could access a hidden clock with a specific button-press response, while in the control condition, pseudo-clocks randomly appeared and were removed via the same response. Analyses tested for sustained activation associated with the PM condition, and also transient activation associated with clock-checks and the PM target response. Contrary to prior findings with event-based PM (i.e., remembering to perform a future action when a specific event occurs), no sustained PM-related activity was observed in anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) or elsewhere in the brain; instead, transient clock-related activity was observed in this region. Critically, the activation was anticipatory, increasing before clock-check responses. Anticipatory activity prior to the PM target response was weaker in aPFC, but strong in pre-Supplementary Motor Area (pre-SMA; relative to clock-check responses), suggesting a functional double dissociation related to volitional decision-making. Together, the results suggest that aPFC-activity dynamics during time-based PM reflect a distinct transient monitoring process, enabling integration of the PM intention with current temporal information to facilitate scheduling of upcoming PM-related actions. PMID:24643226

  15. Age at earliest reported memory: associations with personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.

    PubMed

    Spirrison, C L; McCarley, N G

    2001-09-01

    The present study examined relationships between the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of 107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving) were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates, physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression. PMID:11575624

  16. Do Age-Related Increases in Tip-of-the-Tongue Experiences Signify Episodic Memory Impairments?

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Mandell, Arielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue experiences (TOTs), in which a name is known but cannot be immediately retrieved from memory, can be a cause of concern if these experiences are viewed as a sign of memory decline. The current study was conducted to investigate the relation between age and TOT frequency, and the influence of episodic memory, which is the type of memory most often assessed to detect memory problems, on that relation. In a sample of adults, increased age was found to be associated with more TOTs across different types of materials, and additional analyses suggested that these relations between age and TOT frequency were not attributable to the use of different response criteria or to different amounts of knowledge. Because statistical control of a measure of episodic memory had little effect on the relation between age and TOT frequency, age-related increases in TOTs and age-related decreases in episodic memory appear to be at least partially independent phenomena. PMID:24104505

  17. Differential Trajectories of Age-Related Changes in Components of Executive and Memory Processes

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Joshua O.; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated age-related declines in general executive function and memory. In this study, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal age effects in more specific cognitive processes that constitute executive function and memory. We postulated that, whereas some components of executive and memory functions would show age differences and longitudinal declines, other specific abilities would be maintained or even improve with repeated testing. In a sample of individuals ≥55 years old from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, we found longitudinal declines in inhibition, manipulation, semantic retrieval, phonological retrieval, switching, and long-term memory over a maximum of 14 years follow-up. In contrast, abstraction, capacity, chunking, discrimination, and short-term memory were maintained or even improved longitudinally, probably due in part to repeated testing. Moreover, whereas several different abilities were correlated across participants’ cross-sectional performance, longitudinal changes in performance showed more heterogeneous trajectories. Finally, compared with cross-sectional performance, longitudinal trajectories showed better distinction between participants with and those without later cognitive impairment. These results show that longitudinal cognitive aging of executive and memory functions is not a uniform process but a heterogeneous one and suggest that certain executive and memory functions remain stable despite age-related declines in other component processes. PMID:22201331

  18. Attention and memory evaluation across the life span: heterogeneous effects of age and education.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Esther; Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy

    2006-05-01

    The developmental sequences of attention and memory were studied by utilizing normative data derived from the neuropsychological battery named NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY. A sample of 521 Spanish-speaking individuals, aged 6 to 85 years, participated in this study. In the adult sample, educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. Data from subtests measuring orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory were included. The factor structure of the analyzed battery is presented. The effects of age and education on this structure were analyzed. Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another. During childhood, the development of selective and sustained attention, attentional-working memory, and executive functions showed a fast improvement in performance. Development of verbal memory and place and person orientation showed a slower increment in scores. In the adult sample it was found that factors related to memory are sensitive to age, whereas those related to attention and executive functions are sensitive to education. The consideration of both the developmental sequence, as well as differential effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs. PMID:16624779

  19. Attention and memory evaluation across the life span: heterogeneous effects of age and education.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Esther; Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy

    2006-05-01

    The developmental sequences of attention and memory were studied by utilizing normative data derived from the neuropsychological battery named NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY. A sample of 521 Spanish-speaking individuals, aged 6 to 85 years, participated in this study. In the adult sample, educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. Data from subtests measuring orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory were included. The factor structure of the analyzed battery is presented. The effects of age and education on this structure were analyzed. Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another. During childhood, the development of selective and sustained attention, attentional-working memory, and executive functions showed a fast improvement in performance. Development of verbal memory and place and person orientation showed a slower increment in scores. In the adult sample it was found that factors related to memory are sensitive to age, whereas those related to attention and executive functions are sensitive to education. The consideration of both the developmental sequence, as well as differential effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs.

  20. Cognitive aging: a common decline of episodic recollection and spatial memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, R Jonathan; Fortin, Norbert J; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2008-09-01

    In humans, recognition memory declines with aging, and this impairment is characterized by a selective loss in recollection of previously studied items contrasted with relative sparing of familiarity for items in the study list. Rodent models of cognitive aging have focused on water maze learning and have demonstrated an age-associated loss in spatial, but not cued memory. The current study examined odor recognition memory in young and aged rats and compared performance in recognition with that in water maze learning. In the recognition task, young rats used both recollection and familiarity. In contrast, the aged rats showed a selective loss of recollection and relative sparing of familiarity, similar to the effects of hippocampal damage. Furthermore, performance on the recall component, but not the familiarity component, of recognition was correlated with spatial memory and recollection was poorer in aged rats that were also impaired in spatial memory. These results extend the pattern of impairment in recollection and relative sparing of familiarity observed in human cognitive aging to rats, and suggest a common age-related impairment in both spatial learning and the recollective component of nonspatial recognition memory.

  1. Mechanisms of Age-Related Decline in Memory Search across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis).…

  2. Working Memory Tasks Differ in Factor Structure across Age Cohorts: Implications for Dedifferentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Logie, Robert H.; Brockmole, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers interested in working memory have debated whether it should be considered a single latent cognitive ability or a set of essentially independent latent abilities distinguished by domain-specific memory and/or processing resources. Simultaneously, researchers interested in cognitive aging have established that there are substantial…

  3. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  4. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  5. Subjective and Objective Memory Changes in Old Age across Five Years.

    PubMed

    Zimprich, Daniel; Kurtz, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Typically, subjective memory assessments (be it in form of single items or questionnaires) in old age only weakly correlate with the performance in objective memory tests at cross-section. It thus appears as if individual differences in subjective memory assessments hardly reflect individual differences in memory in old age. A shortcoming of cross-sectional studies, however, is that subjective assessments may rely on different individual standards, which are not taken into account. One solution to this problem has been to investigate subjective and objective memory longitudinally, thereby focusing on individual differences in intraindividual changes. Results from studies using this approach have been mixed, with some studies showing a significantly stronger relation between changes than between levels, and other studies showing no such significant difference. Using data from the Zurich Longitudinal Study on Cognitive Aging (n=236), we find that 5-year changes in subjective assessments of memory capacity and memory changes correlate with objective memory changes of 0.54 and -0.44, respectively. These correlations are significantly stronger than at cross-section. After controlling for age, depressive affect, and subjective health at the first measurement occasion, correlations are slightly attenuated, but the basic findings remain the same. PMID:25791780

  6. Effects of Aging on True and False Memory Formation: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Compared to young, older adults are more likely to forget events that occurred in the past as well as remember events that never happened. Previous studies examining false memories and aging have shown that these memories are more likely to occur when new items share perceptual or semantic similarities with those presented during encoding. It is…

  7. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  8. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  9. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Adèle; Bhoopathy, Raja Meenakshi; Read, Jenny C. A.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance) and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems. In this study, we test the performance of young people (18–25 years) and older people (60+-year-olds) on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW) memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any WWW combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task. These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies. PMID:26042030

  10. Age Differences in Brain Activity Related to Unsuccessful Declarative Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; St-Laurent, Marie; Burianová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Although memory recall is known to be reduced with normal aging, little is known about the patterns of brain activity that accompany these recall failures. By assessing faulty memory, we can identify the brain regions engaged during retrieval attempts in the absence of successful memory and determine the impact of aging on this functional activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine age differences in brain activity associated with memory failure in three memory retrieval tasks: autobiographical (AM), episodic (EM) and semantic (SM). Compared to successful memory retrieval, both age groups showed more activity when they failed to recall a memory in regions consistent with the salience network (SLN), a brain network also associated with non-memory errors. Both groups also showed strong functional coupling among SLN regions during incorrect trials and in intrinsic patterns of functional connectivity. In comparison to young adults, older adults demonstrated (1) less activity within the SLN during unsuccessful AM trials; (2) weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between SLN nodes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (3) less differentiation of SLN functional connectivity during incorrect trials across memory conditions. These results suggest that the SLN is engaged during recall failures, as it is for non-memory errors, which may be because errors in general have particular salience for adapting behavior. In older adults, the dedifferentiation of functional connectivity within the SLN across memory conditions and the reduction of functional coupling between it and prefrontal cortex may indicate poorer internetwork communication and less flexible use of cognitive control processes, either while retrieval is attempted or when monitoring takes place after retrieval has failed. PMID:25541365

  11. The Memory Fitness Program: Cognitive Effects of a Healthy Aging Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Karen J.; Siddarth, Prabha; Gaines, Jean M.; Parrish, John M.; Ercoli, Linda M.; Marx, Katherine; Ronch, Judah; Pilgram, Barbara; Burke, Kasey; Barczak, Nancy; Babcock, Bridget; Small, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    Context Age-related memory decline affects a large proportion of older adults. Cognitive training, physical exercise, and other lifestyle habits may help to minimize self-perception of memory loss and a decline in objective memory performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 6-week educational program on memory training, physical activity, stress reduction, and healthy diet led to improved memory performance in older adults. Design A convenience sample of 115 participants (mean age: 80.9 [SD: 6.0 years]) was recruited from two continuing care retirement communities. The intervention consisted of 60-minute classes held twice weekly with 15–20 participants per class. Testing of both objective and subjective cognitive performance occurred at baseline, preintervention, and postintervention. Objective cognitive measures evaluated changes in five domains: immediate verbal memory, delayed verbal memory, retention of verbal information, memory recognition, and verbal fluency. A standardized metamemory instrument assessed four domains of memory self-awareness: frequency and severity of forgetting, retrospective functioning, and mnemonics use. Results The intervention program resulted in significant improvements on objective measures of memory, including recognition of word pairs (t[114] = 3.62, p < 0.001) and retention of verbal information from list learning (t[114] = 2.98, p < 0.01). No improvement was found for verbal fluency. Regarding subjective memory measures, the retrospective functioning score increased significantly following the intervention (t[114] = 4.54, p < 0.0001), indicating perception of a better memory. Conclusions These findings indicate that a 6-week healthy lifestyle program can improve both encoding and recalling of new verbal information, as well as self-perception of memory ability in older adults residing in continuing care retirement communities. PMID:21765343

  12. Cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults' prospective memory following training with the Virtual Week computer game.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nathan S; Rendell, Peter G; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M; Craik, Fergus I M

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) - the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities - is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood.

  13. The impact of cognitive control on children's goal monitoring in a time-based prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Voigt, Babett; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Ellis, Judi; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether developmental changes in cognitive control may underlie improvements of time-based prospective memory. Five-, 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds (N = 166) completed a driving simulation task (ongoing task) in which they had to refuel their vehicle at specific points in time (PM task). The availability of cognitive control resources was experimentally manipulated by imposing a secondary task that required divided attention. Children completed the driving simulation task both in a full-attention condition and a divided-attention condition where they had to carry out a secondary task. Results revealed that older children performed better than younger children on the ongoing task and PM task. Children performed worse on the ongoing and PM tasks in the divided-attention condition compared to the full-attention condition. With respect to time monitoring in the final interval prior to the PM target, divided attention interacted with age such that older children's time monitoring was more negatively affected by the secondary task compared to younger children. Results are discussed in terms of developmental shifts from reactive to proactive monitoring strategies.

  14. Cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults’ prospective memory following training with the Virtual Week computer game

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nathan S.; Rendell, Peter G.; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) – the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities – is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood. PMID:26578936

  15. Autobiographical Memory from a Life Span Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroots, Johannes J. F.; van Dijkum, Cor; Assink, Marian H. J.

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study (i.e., three age groups, three measures) explores the distribution of retrospective and prospective autobiographical memory data across the lifespan, in particular the bump pattern of disproportionally higher recall of memories from the ages 10 to 30, as generally observed in older age groups, in conjunction with the…

  16. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Leventon, Jacqueline S; Stevens, Jennifer S; Bauer, Patricia J

    2014-10-01

    In the adult literature, emotional arousal is regarded as a source of the enhancing effect of emotion on subsequent memory. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and psychophysiological methods to examine the role of emotional arousal on subsequent memory in school-age children. Five- to 8-year-olds, divided into younger and older groups, viewed emotional scenes as EEG, heart rate, and respiration was recorded, and participated in a memory task 24 hours later where EEG and behavioral responses were recorded; participants provided subjective ratings of the scenes after the memory task. All measures indicated emotion responses in both groups, and in ERP measures the effects were stronger for older children. Emotion responses were more consistent across measures for negative than positive stimuli. Behavioral memory performance was strong but did not differ by emotion condition. Emotion influenced the ERP index of recognition memory in the older group only (enhanced recognition of negative scenes). The findings an increasing interaction of emotion and memory during the school years. Further, the findings impress the value of combining multiple methods to assess emotion and memory in development. Development in the neurophysiology of emotion processing and memory in school-age children.

  17. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed.

  18. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  19. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases. PMID:26529217

  20. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  1. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  2. Music causes deterioration of source memory: evidence from normal ageing.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Omigie, Diana; Clément, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that music exposure can impair a wide variety of cognitive and behavioural performance. We investigated whether this is the case for source memory. Forty-one younger adults and 35 healthy elderly were required to retain the location in which pictures of coloured objects were displayed. On a subsequent recognition test they were required to decide whether the objects were displayed in the same location as before or not. Encoding took place (a) in silence, (b) while listening to street noise, or (c) while listening to Vivaldi's "Four Seasons". Recognition always took place during silence. A significant reduction in source memory was observed following music exposure, a reduction that was more pronounced for older adults than for younger adults. This pattern was significantly correlated with performance on an executive binding task. The exposure to music appeared to interfere with binding in working memory, worsening source recall.

  3. NGF improves spatial memory in aged rodents as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, W; Björklund, A; Chen, K; Gage, F H

    1991-07-01

    Aged rats were tested for place navigation in a circular water maze for spatial memory ability at 18 and 30 months of age; 45% of the 18-month-old rats displayed impaired place navigation performance relative to young control rats, while essentially all of the 30-month-old rats were impaired. The aged impaired rats were retested twice during NGF or vehicle infusion in the right lateral ventricle. In the 18-month-old group, NGF-infused rats showed improved retention of previously acquired place navigation performance and improved spatial acuity over the former platform site when the invisible platform was removed. NGF infusion also had a significant effect in the much more severely impaired 30-month-old rats: while the vehicle-infused aged rats showed a progressive decline in the performance between the first and second test weeks, the performance of the NGF-infused rats remained stable throughout the infusion period. The interpretation of these effects in the oldest animals, however, was confounded by a progressive decline in swim speed seen in the vehicle-infused animals. The 30-month-old vehicle-infused control rats showed a significant cell loss and cell shrinkage relative to the young control rats in the septal/diagonal band area, the striatum, and the nucleus basalis as assessed by NGF-receptor (NGFr) and ChAT double-label immunocytochemistry. A significant increase in the size but not in the number of cells was observed on the side of the NGF infusion in the 30-month-old NGF-infused rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The aging of memory: A method for the assessment of qualitative changes.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, M; Agazzani, D; Di Cesare, F; Buckley, A E

    1994-01-01

    Age associated memory changes are traditionally described in terms of quantity of recall. Evidence of qualitative changes associated with aging could lead to a modification of this approach. The primacy and recency effects in serial learning provide a good model to evaluate these qualitative modifications. Our study was designed to investigate modifications of the serial effects in serial learning related to age and modality. We have comparatively investigated, with 120 normal subjects of both sexes, the influence of age and a latent semantic structure, consisting on four taxonomic categories, on the occurrence of primacy and recency effects in a list of verbal stimuli. The presence of a latent structure in the list of stimuli interacted with age in a relearning trial causing the recency effect to disappear more evidently in younger subjects. The same structure did not affect the primacy effect which, on the contrary, was influenced by age only. These results suggest a differential role across age of the automatic processing of working memory versus the role of the semantic-lexical processing of the central processing unit within working memory. They also, demonstrate the importance of age in influencing memory resources which change the quality and quantity of working memory proficiency.

  5. Modifying Memory for a Museum Tour in Older Adults: Reactivation-Related Updating that Enhances and Distorts Memory is Reduced in Aging

    PubMed Central

    St Jacques, Peggy L.; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Young and older adults reactivated memories for museum stops immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that aging alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information-consequently reducing memory distortions in older compared to young adults. PMID:24993055

  6. Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults.

  7. Caffeine and diphenyl diselenide improve long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Leite, Marlon R; Marcondes Sari, Marcel Henrique; de Freitas, Mayara L; Oliveira, Lia P; Dalmolin, Laíza; Brandão, Ricardo; Zeni, Gilson

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 supplemented diet (10ppm) associated to the administration of caffeine (15mg/kg; i.g.) for 30days on the novel object recognition memory in middle-aged rats. The present findings showed that (PhSe)2-supplemented diet enhanced short-term memory, but not long-term memory, of middle-aged rats in the novel object recognition task. The (PhSe)2 supplemented diet associated with caffeine administration improved long-term memory, but did not alter short-term memory, impaired in middle-aged rats. Daily caffeine administration to middle-aged rats had no effect on the memory tasks. Diet supplemented with (PhSe)2 plus caffeine administration increased the number of crossings and rearings reduced in middle-aged rats. Caffeine administration plus (PhSe)2 diets were effective in increasing the number of rearings and crossings, respectively, in middle-aged rats, [(3)H] glutamate uptake was reduced in hippocampal slices of rats from (PhSe)2 and caffeine plus (PhSe)2 groups. In addition, animals supplemented with (PhSe)2 showed an increase in the pCREB/CREB ratio whereas pAkt/Akt ratio was not modified. These results suggest that the effects of (PhSe)2 on the short-term memory may be related to its ability to decrease the uptake of glutamate, influencing the increase of CREB phosphorylation. (PhSe)2-supplemented diet associated to the administration of caffeine improved long-term memory impaired in middle-aged rats, an effect independent of CREB and Akt phosphorylation.

  8. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  9. Electrophysiological correlates of strategic monitoring in event-based and time-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Arcara, Giorgio; Tarantino, Vincenza; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to accomplish an action when a particular event occurs (i.e., event-based PM), or at a specific time (i.e., time-based PM) while performing an ongoing activity. Strategic Monitoring is one of the basic cognitive functions supporting PM tasks, and involves two mechanisms: a retrieval mode, which consists of maintaining active the intention in memory; and target checking, engaged for verifying the presence of the PM cue in the environment. The present study is aimed at providing the first evidence of event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with time-based PM, and at examining differences and commonalities in the ERPs related to Strategic Monitoring mechanisms between event- and time-based PM tasks.The addition of an event-based or a time-based PM task to an ongoing activity led to a similar sustained positive modulation of the ERPs in the ongoing trials, mainly expressed over prefrontal and frontal regions. This modulation might index the retrieval mode mechanism, similarly engaged in the two PM tasks. On the other hand, two further ERP modulations were shown specifically in an event-based PM task. An increased positivity was shown at 400-600 ms post-stimulus over occipital and parietal regions, and might be related to target checking. Moreover, an early modulation at 130-180 ms post-stimulus seems to reflect the recruitment of attentional resources for being ready to respond to the event-based PM cue. This latter modulation suggests the existence of a third mechanism specific for the event-based PM; that is, the "readiness mode".

  10. Future Selves and Aging: Older Adults' Memory Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dark-Freudeman, Alissa; West, Robin L.; Viverito, Kristen M.

    2006-01-01

    Thoughts about the self in the future, called possible selves, are an important component of the current identity of individuals. This study specifically focused on possible selves in the domain of memory and cognition. Both older and younger groups spontaneously reported possible selves in the cognitive domain, e.g., "learning a new skill," but…

  11. American Memory--History Meets the Age of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenbruch, Harriet

    1994-01-01

    Describes American Memory, a multimedia computer system that incorporates CD-ROM and videodisk to provide access in electronic format to some of the Library of Congress archival materials on American history. Highlights include participating libraries; contents of the collections; searching; evaluation; and examples of the system's use at Barnard…

  12. Stochastic cortical neurodynamics underlying the memory and cognitive changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-02-01

    The relatively random spiking times of individual neurons provide a source of noise in the brain. We show how this noise interacting with altered depth in the basins of attraction of networks involved in short-term memory, attention, and episodic memory provide an approach to understanding some of the cognitive changes in normal aging. The effects of the neurobiological changes in aging that are considered include reduced synaptic modification and maintenance during learning produced in part through reduced acetylcholine in normal aging, reduced dopamine which reduces NMDA-receptor mediated effects, reduced noradrenaline which increases cAMP and thus shunts excitatory synaptic inputs, and the effects of a reduction in acetylcholine in increasing spike frequency adaptation. Using integrate-and-fire simulations of an attractor network implementing memory recall and short-term memory, it is shown that all these changes associated with aging reduce the firing rates of the excitatory neurons, which in turn reduce the depth of the basins of attraction, resulting in a much decreased probability in maintaining in short-term memory what has been recalled from the attractor network. This stochastic dynamics approach opens up new ways to understand and potentially treat the effects of normal aging on memory and cognitive functions. PMID:25536108

  13. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging.

  14. Memory for Names Test Provides a Useful Confrontational Naming Task for Aging and Continuum of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Robert M.; Martin, Corby K.; Correa, John B.; Davis, Allison B.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Foil, Heather C.; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1–2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21304184

  15. Age-related spatial working memory deficits in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.

  16. The Associative Memory Deficit in Aging Is Related to Reduced Selectivity of Brain Activity during Encoding.

    PubMed

    Saverino, Cristina; Fatima, Zainab; Sarraf, Saman; Oder, Anita; Strother, Stephen C; Grady, Cheryl L

    2016-09-01

    Human aging is characterized by reductions in the ability to remember associations between items, despite intact memory for single items. Older adults also show less selectivity in task-related brain activity, such that patterns of activation become less distinct across multiple experimental tasks. This reduced selectivity or dedifferentiation has been found for episodic memory, which is often reduced in older adults, but not for semantic memory, which is maintained with age. We used fMRI to investigate whether there is a specific reduction in selectivity of brain activity during associative encoding in older adults, but not during item encoding, and whether this reduction predicts associative memory performance. Healthy young and older adults were scanned while performing an incidental encoding task for pictures of objects and houses under item or associative instructions. An old/new recognition test was administered outside the scanner. We used agnostic canonical variates analysis and split-half resampling to detect whole-brain patterns of activation that predicted item versus associative encoding for stimuli that were later correctly recognized. Older adults had poorer memory for associations than did younger adults, whereas item memory was comparable across groups. Associative encoding trials, but not item encoding trials, were predicted less successfully in older compared with young adults, indicating less distinct patterns of associative-related activity in the older group. Importantly, higher probability of predicting associative encoding trials was related to better associative memory after accounting for age and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. These results provide evidence that neural distinctiveness at encoding supports associative memory and that a specific reduction of selectivity in neural recruitment underlies age differences in associative memory. PMID:27082043

  17. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Incentive Effects in Prospective Memory after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Bigler, Erin D.; Chu, Zili; Yallampalli, Ragini; Oni, Margaret B.; Wu, Trevor C.; Ramos, Marco A.; Pedroza, Claudia; Vásquez, Ana C.; Hunter, Jill V.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Few studies exist investigating the brain-behavior relations of event-based prospective memory (EB-PM) impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI). To address this, children with moderate-to-severe TBI performed an EB-PM test with two motivational enhancement conditions and underwent concurrent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 months post-injury. Children with orthopedic injuries (OI; n = 37) or moderate-to-severe TBI (n = 40) were contrasted. Significant group differences were found for fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient for orbitofrontal white matter (WM), cingulum bundles, and uncinate fasciculi. The FA of these WM structures in children with TBI significantly correlated with EB-PM performance in the high, but not the low motivation condition. Regression analyses within the TBI group indicated that the FA of the left cingulum bundle (p = 0.003), left orbitofrontal WM (p < 0.02), and left (p < 0.02) and right (p < 0.008) uncinate fasciculi significantly predicted EB-PM performance in the high motivation condition. We infer that the cingulum bundles, orbitofrontal WM, and uncinate fasciculi are important WM structures mediating motivation-based EB-PM responses following moderate-to-severe TBI in children. PMID:21250917

  18. Prospective memory performance of patients with Parkinson's disease depends on shifting aptitude: evidence from cognitive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of cognitive training aimed at improving shifting ability on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' performance of prospective memory (PM) tasks. Using a double-blind protocol, 17 PD patients were randomly assigned to two experimental arms. In the first arm (n=9) shifting training was administered, and in the second (placebo) arm (n=8), language and respiratory exercises. Both treatments consisted of 12 sessions executed over 4 weeks. PM and shifting measures (i.e., Trail Making Test and Alternate Fluency Test) were administered at T0 (before treatment) and T1 (immediately after treatment). A mixed analysis of variance was applied to the data. To evaluate the effects of treatment, the key effect was the interaction between Group (experimental vs. placebo) and Time of Assessment (T0 vs. T1). This interaction was significant for the accuracy indices of the PM procedure (p<.05) and for the performance parameters of the shifting tasks (p ≤.05). Tukey's HSD tests showed that in all cases passing from T0 to T1 performance significantly improved in the experimental group (in all cases p ≤.02) but remained unchanged in the placebo group (all p consistently>.10). The performance change passing from T0 to T1 on the Alternate Fluency test and the PM procedure was significantly correlated (p<.05). Results show that the cognitive training significantly improved PD patients' event-based PM performance and suggest that their poor PM functioning might be related to reduced shifting abilities.

  19. Too easy? The influence of task demands conveyed tacitly on prospective memory

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Joana S.; Hill, Johnathan H.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that when intentions are encoded, participants establish an attention allocation policy based on their metacognitive beliefs about how demanding it will be to fulfill the prospective memory (PM) task. We investigated whether tacit PM demands can influence judgments about the cognitive effort required for success, and, as a result, affect ongoing task interference and PM performance. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which a PM task of responding to animal words was embedded. PM demands were tacitly manipulated by presenting participants with either typical or atypical animal exemplars at both instructions and practice (low vs. high tacit demands, respectively). Crucially, objective PM task demands were the same for all participants as PM targets were always atypical animals. Tacit demands affected participants’ attention allocation policies such that task interference was greater for the high than low demands condition. Also, PM performance was reduced in the low relative to the high demands condition. Participants in the low demands condition who succeeded to the first target showed a subsequent increase in task interference, suggesting adjustment to the higher than expected demands. This study demonstrates that tacit information regarding the PM task can affect ongoing task processing as well as harm PM performance when actual demands are higher than expected. Furthermore, in line with the proposal that attention allocation is a dynamic and flexible process, we found evidence that PM task experience can trigger changes in ongoing task interference. PMID:25983687

  20. Prospective memory deficits are associated with poorer everyday functioning in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pirogovsky, Eva; Woods, Steven Paul; Vincent Filoteo, J; Gilbert, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) evidence moderate deficits in prospective memory (PM), it is not known whether PM deficits confer an increased risk of poorer everyday functioning. In the current study, 33 individuals with PD and 26 demographically similar normal controls (NC) were administered performance-based and self-report measures of PM and everyday functioning, including medication and financial management. As compared to NC, PD participants demonstrated significantly lower scores on performance-based measures of PM and financial capacity, worse performance at a trend level on performance-based medication management and endorsed significantly greater self-reported declines in PM and instrumental activities of daily living (iADLs). In the PD sample, the laboratory measure of PM significantly correlated with performance-based measures of financial capacity and medication management and a self-report measure of medication management. Self-reported PM failures significantly correlated with perceived declines in iADLs, worse medication management, and poorer health-related quality of life. Although future studies are needed to examine the incremental ecological validity of PM in PD, findings from this study extend prior research by providing preliminary evidence that PM impairment may play a significant role in a range of critical everyday functions in PD.

  1. Prospective memory in preschool children: influences of agency, incentive, and underlying cognitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Causey, Kayla B; Bjorklund, David F

    2014-11-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is remembering to perform an action in the future and is crucial to achieving goal-directed activities in everyday life. Doing so requires that an intention is encoded, retained during a delay interval, and retrieved at the appropriate time of execution. We examined PM ability in preschool children by manipulating factors related to agency and incentive. We further explored how metacognition, executive functioning, and theory of mind-factors known to account for individual differences in PM-influenced performance on these PM tasks. A sample of 31 preschool children were asked to carry out a delayed intention or to remind an adult to carry out an intention that was of high or low incentive to the children. Findings indicated that individual differences in theory of mind were related to individual differences in preschoolers' performance on low-incentive PM tasks, independent of executive functioning contributions, whereas individual differences in executive functioning were related to performance on the high-incentive tasks. These findings suggest that changes in theory of mind and executive functioning are important to consider in models of PM and that different PM tasks (e.g., high vs. low incentive) may involve different cognitive requirements for young children.

  2. Too easy? The influence of task demands conveyed tacitly on prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Joana S; Hill, Johnathan H; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that when intentions are encoded, participants establish an attention allocation policy based on their metacognitive beliefs about how demanding it will be to fulfill the prospective memory (PM) task. We investigated whether tacit PM demands can influence judgments about the cognitive effort required for success, and, as a result, affect ongoing task interference and PM performance. Participants performed a lexical decision task in which a PM task of responding to animal words was embedded. PM demands were tacitly manipulated by presenting participants with either typical or atypical animal exemplars at both instructions and practice (low vs. high tacit demands, respectively). Crucially, objective PM task demands were the same for all participants as PM targets were always atypical animals. Tacit demands affected participants' attention allocation policies such that task interference was greater for the high than low demands condition. Also, PM performance was reduced in the low relative to the high demands condition. Participants in the low demands condition who succeeded to the first target showed a subsequent increase in task interference, suggesting adjustment to the higher than expected demands. This study demonstrates that tacit information regarding the PM task can affect ongoing task processing as well as harm PM performance when actual demands are higher than expected. Furthermore, in line with the proposal that attention allocation is a dynamic and flexible process, we found evidence that PM task experience can trigger changes in ongoing task interference. PMID:25983687

  3. Rostral Prefrontal Cortex and the Focus of Attention in Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Frith, Chris D.; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) denotes the function to realize intentions after a delay while being immersed in distracting ongoing (OG) activity. Here, we scrutinize the often-reported involvement of rostral prefrontal cortex (rPFC; approximating Brodmann area 10) in such situations: This region might mediate attention between external stimuli and the internally maintained intention, that is, between stimulus-oriented (SO) and stimulus-independent (SI) processing. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we orthogonally crossed 1) PM versus OG activity only, with 2) SO versus SI attention. In support of the hypothesis, common regions of medial rPFC exhibited greater blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) signal for the contrasts of both OG task only versus PM and SO versus SI attending. However, activation related to the former contrast extended more superiorly, suggesting a functional gradient along a dorsal–ventral axis within this region. Moreover, region-of-interest analyses revealed that PM versus OG task only was associated with greater BOLD signal in left lateral rPFC, reflecting the requirement to maintain delayed intentions. Distinct aspects of this region were also transiently engaged at transitions between SO and SI conditions. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that some of the rostral prefrontal signal changes associated with PM performance reflect relative differences in SO versus SI processing. PMID:21976356

  4. Does predictability matter? Effects of cue predictability on neurocognitive mechanisms underlying prospective memory

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Arcara, Giorgio; Tarantino, Vincenza; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) represents the ability to successfully realize intentions when the appropriate moment or cue occurs. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to explore the impact of cue predictability on the cognitive and neural mechanisms supporting PM. Participants performed an ongoing task and, simultaneously, had to remember to execute a pre-specified action when they encountered the PM cues. The occurrence of the PM cues was predictable (being signaled by a warning cue) for some participants and was completely unpredictable for others. In the predictable cue condition, the behavioral and ERP correlates of strategic monitoring were observed mainly in the ongoing trials wherein the PM cue was expected. In the unpredictable cue condition they were instead shown throughout the whole PM block. This pattern of results suggests that, in the predictable cue condition, participants engaged monitoring only when subjected to a context wherein the PM cue was expected, and disengaged monitoring when the PM cue was not expected. Conversely, participants in the unpredictable cue condition distributed their resources for strategic monitoring in more continuous manner. The findings of this study support the most recent views—the “Dynamic Multiprocess Framework” and the “Attention to Delayed Intention” (AtoDI) model—confirming that strategic monitoring is a flexible mechanism that is recruited mainly when a PM cue is expected and that may interact with bottom-up spontaneous processes. PMID:25918503

  5. Short-Term Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Functioning in Preschoolers: Longitudinal Predictors of Mathematical Achievement at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. PMID:18473197

  6. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J.; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes. PMID:27698141

  7. The aging memory: Modulating epigenetic modifications to improve cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-09-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a major concern in society. Here, I discuss recent evidence that shows an age-related modulation of gene transcription by epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation, is unbalanced in aging, with an increase in histone deacetylation, that limits the expression of plasticity-related genes. By modifying the balance towards histone acetylation, histone deacetylase inhibitors present a new pharmacological approach to ameliorate age-related cognitive deficits.

  8. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2015-04-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals.

  9. Age-related changes to the neural correlates of working memory which emerge after midlife

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Helen N.; White, David J.; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Silberstein, Richard; Pipingas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the neural processes which underlie working memory change with age. Both age-related increases and decreases to cortical activity have been reported. This study investigated which stages of working memory are most vulnerable to age-related changes after midlife. To do this we examined age-differences in the 13 Hz steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) associated with a spatial working memory delayed response task. Participants were 130 healthy adults separated into a midlife (40–60 years) and an older group (61–82 years). Relative to the midlife group, older adults demonstrated greater bilateral frontal activity during encoding and this pattern of activity was related to better working memory performance. In contrast, evidence of age-related under activation was identified over left frontal regions during retrieval. Findings from this study suggest that after midlife, under-activation of frontal regions during retrieval contributes to age-related decline in working memory performance. PMID:24795625

  10. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    PubMed

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills.

  11. Intrahippocampal glucocorticoids generated by 11β-HSD1 affect memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, Joyce L W; Wheelan, Nicola; Noble, June; Walker, Brian R; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Ludwig, Mike; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) locally amplifies active glucocorticoids within specific tissues including in brain. In the hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 messenger RNA increases with aging. Here, we report significantly greater increases in intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in aged wild-type (WT) mice during the acquisition and retrieval trials in a Y-maze than age-matched 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice, corresponding to impaired and intact spatial memory, respectively. Acute stress applied to young WT mice led to increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels similar to the effects of aging and impaired retrieval of spatial memory. 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice resisted the stress-induced memory impairment. Pharmacologic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 abolished increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels during the Y-maze trials and prevented spatial memory impairments in aged WT mice. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that dynamic increases in hippocampal 11β-HSD1 regenerated CORT levels during learning and retrieval play a key role in age- and stress-associated impairments of spatial memory.

  12. Mechanisms of age-related decline in memory search across the adult life span.

    PubMed

    Hills, Thomas T; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R

    2013-12-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis). We investigated these 3 hypotheses by formally modeling the semantic recall patterns of 185 adults between 27 to 99 years of age in the animal fluency task (Thurstone, 1938). The results indicate that people switch between global frequency-based retrieval cues and local item-based retrieval cues to navigate their semantic memory. Contrary to the global slowing hypothesis that predicts no qualitative differences in dynamic search processes and the cluster-switching hypothesis that predicts reduced switching between retrieval cues, the results indicate that as people age, they tend to switch more often between local and global cues per item recalled, supporting the cue-maintenance hypothesis. Additional support for the cue-maintenance hypothesis is provided by a negative correlation between switching and digit span scores and between switching and total items recalled, which suggests that cognitive control may be involved in cue maintenance and the effective search of memory. Overall, the results are consistent with age-related decline in memory search being a consequence of reduced cognitive control, consistent with models suggesting that working memory is related to goal perseveration and the ability to inhibit distracting information.

  13. Comparison of adult age differences in verbal and visuo-spatial memory: the importance of 'pure', parallel and validated measures.

    PubMed

    Kemps, Eva; Newson, Rachel

    2006-04-01

    The study compared age-related decrements in verbal and visuo-spatial memory across a broad elderly adult age range. Twenty-four young (18-25 years), 24 young-old (65-74 years), 24 middle-old (75-84 years) and 24 old-old (85-93 years) adults completed parallel recall and recognition measures of verbal and visuo-spatial memory from the Doors and People Test (Baddeley, Emslie & Nimmo-Smith, 1994). These constituted 'pure' and validated indices of either verbal or visuo-spatial memory. Verbal and visuo-spatial memory declined similarly with age, with a steeper decline in recall than recognition. Unlike recognition memory, recall performance also showed a heightened decline after the age of 85. Age-associated memory loss in both modalities was largely due to working memory and executive function. Processing speed and sensory functioning (vision, hearing) made minor contributions to memory performance and age differences in it. Together, these findings demonstrate common, rather than differential, age-related effects on verbal and visuo-spatial memory. They also emphasize the importance of using 'pure', parallel and validated measures of verbal and visuo-spatial memory in memory ageing research.

  14. Trajectories of memory decline in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: results from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of ageing.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Harrington, Karra; Restrepo, Carolina; Martins, Ralph N; Rembach, Alan; Laws, Simon M; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Memory changes in preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) are often characterized by heterogenous trajectories. However, data regarding the nature and determinants of predominant trajectories of memory changes in preclinical AD are lacking. We analyzed data from 333 cognitively healthy older adults who participated in a multicenter prospective cohort study with baseline and 18-, 36-, and 54-month follow-up assessments. Latent growth mixture modeling revealed 3 predominant trajectories of memory change: a below average, subtly declining memory trajectory (30.9%); a below average, rapidly declining memory trajectory (3.6%); and an above average, stable memory trajectory (65.5%). Compared with the stable memory trajectory, high Αβ (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.1), and lower Mini-Mental State Examination (RRR = 0.6) and full-scale IQ (RRR = 0.9) scores were independently associated with the subtly declining memory trajectory; and high Αβ (RRR = 8.3), APOE ε4 carriage (RRR = 6.1), and greater subjective memory impairment (RRR = 1.2) were independently associated with the rapidly declining memory trajectory. Compared with the subtly declining memory trajectory group, APOE ε4 carriage (RRR = 8.4), and subjective memory complaints (RRR = 1.2) were associated with a rapidly declining memory trajectory. These results suggest that the preclinical phase of AD may be characterized by 2 predominant trajectories of memory decline that have common (e.g., high Αβ) and unique (e.g., APOE ε4 genotype) determinants. PMID:25585532

  15. Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, J Cobb; Neumeister, Alexander; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Szoeke, Cassandra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.

  16. Autobiographical memory and well-being in aging: The central role of semantic self-images.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Clare J; Holmes, Emily A; Murphy, Susannah E; Ellis, Judi A

    2015-05-01

    Higher levels of well-being are associated with longer life expectancies and better physical health. Previous studies suggest that processes involving the self and autobiographical memory are related to well-being, yet these relationships are poorly understood. The present study tested 32 older and 32 younger adults using scales measuring well-being and the affective valence of two types of autobiographical memory: episodic autobiographical memories and semantic self-images. Results showed that valence of semantic self-images, but not episodic autobiographical memories, was highly correlated with well-being, particularly in older adults. In contrast, well-being in older adults was unrelated to performance across a range of standardised memory tasks. These results highlight the role of semantic self-images in well-being, and have implications for the development of therapeutic interventions for well-being in aging.

  17. Elicited Imitation Performance at 20 Months Predicts Memory Abilities in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Riggins, Tracy; Cheatham, Carol L.; Stark, Emily; Bauer, Patricia J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the first decade of life there are marked improvements in mnemonic abilities. An important question from both a theoretical and applied perspective is the extent of continuity in the nature of memory over this period. The present longitudinal investigation examined declarative memory during the transition from toddlerhood to school-age using both experimental and standardized assessments. Results indicate significant associations between immediate nonverbal recall at 20 months (measured by elicited imitation) and immediate verbal and nonverbal memory (measured by standardized and laboratory-based tasks) at 6 years in typically developing children. Regression models revealed this association was specific, as measures of language abilities and temperament were not predictive of later memory performance. These findings suggest both continuity and specificity within the declarative memory system over the first years of life. Theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24436638

  18. The effects of age and experience on memory for visually presented music.

    PubMed

    Meinz, E J; Salthouse, T A

    1998-01-01

    Increased age is often associated with lower levels of performance in tests of memory for spatial information. The primary question in the current study was whether this relationship could be moderated as a function of one's relevant experience and/or knowledge. Stimulus materials consisted of short (7-11 note), visually presented musical melodies and structurally equivalent nonmusical stimuli. Participants (N = 128) were recruited from a wide range of age and experience levels. Although there were strong main effects of age and experience on memory for music, there was no evidence that the age-related differences in memory for these stimuli were smaller for individuals with moderate to large amounts of experience with music. PMID:9469173

  19. Mood, motivation, and misinformation: aging and affective state influences on memory.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Emery, Lisa; Elliott, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Normative age differences in memory have typically been attributed to declines in basic cognitive and cortical mechanisms. The present study examined the degree to which dominant everyday affect might also be associated with age-related memory errors using the misinformation paradigm. Younger and older adults viewed a positive and a negative event, and then were exposed to misinformation about each event. Older adults exhibited a higher likelihood than young adults of falsely identifying misinformation as having occurred in the events. Consistent with expectations, strength of the misinformation effect was positively associated with dominant mood, and controlling for mood eliminated any age effects. Also, motivation to engage in complex cognitive activity was negatively associated with susceptibility to misinformation, and susceptibility was stronger for negative than for positive events. We argue that motivational processes underlie all of the observed effects, and that such processes are useful in understanding age differences in memory performance.

  20. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  1. Age-Related Differences on Cognitive Overload in an Audio-Visual Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Jennifer; Thomson, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide evidence outlining whether the type of stimuli used in teaching would provoke differing levels of recall across three different academic age groups. One hundred and twenty-one participants, aged 11-25 years, were given a language-based memory task in the form of a wordlist consisting of 15 concrete and 15…

  2. Attention to Global Gist Processing Eliminates Age Effects in False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2008-01-01

    Counterintuitive age increases have been reported for the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory illusion. The current theoretical explanation of this effect assumes that it is due to age increases in spontaneous interconnection of DRM list words' meanings. To test this explanation, 11-year-olds and young adults studied DRM lists under…

  3. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  4. A Diffusion Model Analysis of the Effects of Aging on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aging on response time were examined in a recognition memory experiment with young, college age subjects and older, 60-75 year old subjects. The older subjects were slower than the young subjects but almost as accurate. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model was fit to the data and it provided a good account of response times, their…

  5. Age-dependent and age-independent human memory persistence is enhanced by delayed posttraining methylphenidate administration.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Rossato, Janine I; Lima, Ramón H; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-01

    Healthy human volunteers 16-82 years of age with at least 10 years of schooling were exposed to two different memory tasks. The first task involved incidental memory. The subjects were asked, as casually as possible: "Did you watch any movie on TV 2 days ago? And 7 days ago? If so, do you remember the title of the movie(s) and the name of the first two actors (actresses)?" Retention scores (maximum = 3: title, actor 1, and actor 2) were equally high (overall mean = 2.6, n = 61) in all age groups (16-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-60, and 61-82 years) for the day 2 scores. Scores for the movie seen 7 days before decreased significantly and progressively in the three older groups in relation to age, which indicates reduced persistence of this type of memory beginning at the age of 41-50 years and becoming more extensive over the years. The other task was a formal memory procedure. Subjects were asked to study a brief text with factual information on the 1954 World Soccer Cup for 10 min. They were then exposed to 10 questions on the text 2 days and, again, 7 days later. Retention scores declined between the two tests, but in this task, the decline of persistence occurred to a similar extent in all age groups, and thus was not dependent on age. Methylphenidate (10 mg p.o.) given 12 hours after acquisition markedly enhanced persistence of the two memory types. This suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in persistence in the late posttraining period.

  6. Aging modulates the oscillatory dynamics underlying successful working memory encoding and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Proskovec, Amy L; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W

    2016-06-01

    Working memory is central to the execution of many daily functions and is typically divided into three phases: encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. While working memory performance has been repeatedly shown to decline with age, less is known regarding the underlying neural processes. We examined age-related differences in the neural dynamics that serve working memory by recording high-density magnetoencephalography (MEG) in younger and older adults while they performed a modified, high-load Sternberg working memory task with letters as stimuli. MEG data were evaluated in the time-frequency domain and significant oscillatory responses were imaged using a beamformer. A hierarchical regression was performed to investigate whether age moderated the relationship between oscillatory activity and accuracy on the working memory task. Our results indicated that the spatiotemporal dynamics of oscillatory activity in language-related areas of the left fronto-temporal cortices were similar across groups. Age-related differences emerged during early encoding in the right-hemispheric homologue of Wernicke's area. Slightly later, group differences emerged in the homologue of Broca's area and these persisted throughout memory maintenance. Additionally, occipital alpha activity during maintenance was stronger, occurred earlier, and involved more cortical tissue in older adults. Finally, age significantly moderated the relationship between accuracy and neural activity in the prefrontal cortices. In younger adults, as prefrontal activity decreased, accuracy tended to increase. Our results are consistent with predictions of the compensation-related utilization of neural circuits hypothesis (CRUNCH). Such differences in the oscillatory dynamics could reflect compensatory mechanisms, which would aid working memory performance in older age. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2348-2361, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26991358

  7. School-aged children can benefit from audiovisual semantic congruency during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Jenni; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2016-05-01

    Although we live in a multisensory world, children's memory has been usually studied concentrating on only one sensory modality at a time. In this study, we investigated how audiovisual encoding affects recognition memory. Children (n = 114) from three age groups (8, 10 and 12 years) memorized auditory or visual stimuli presented with a semantically congruent, incongruent or non-semantic stimulus in the other modality during encoding. Subsequent recognition memory performance was better for auditory or visual stimuli initially presented together with a semantically congruent stimulus in the other modality than for stimuli accompanied by a non-semantic stimulus in the other modality. This congruency effect was observed for pictures presented with sounds, for sounds presented with pictures, for spoken words presented with pictures and for written words presented with spoken words. The present results show that semantically congruent multisensory experiences during encoding can improve memory performance in school-aged children. PMID:26048162

  8. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages.

    PubMed

    Druzian, Alessandra Fernandes; Melo, José Aparecido de Oliveira; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027), but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  9. Late Enrichment Maintains Accurate Recent and Remote Spatial Memory Only in Aged Rats That Were Unimpaired When Middle Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Fanny; Herbeaux, Karine; Aufrere, Noémie; Kelche, Christian; Mathis, Chantal; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Majchrzak, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of rodents to a stimulating environment has beneficial effects on some cognitive functions that are impaired during physiological aging, and especially spatial reference memory. The present study investigated whether environmental enrichment rescues these functions in already declining subjects and/or protects them from subsequent…

  10. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  11. Executive and Theory-of-Mind Contributions to Event-Based Prospective Memory in Children: Exploring the Self-Projection Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Ruth M.; Driscoll, Timothy; Shum, David; Macaulay, Catrin E.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to name pictures of animals for the benefit of a watching hand puppet (the ongoing task) but to refrain from naming and to remove from view any pictures of dogs (the prospective memory [PM] task). Children also completed assessments of verbal ability, cognitive inhibition, working memory, and…

  12. Age-related Changes in the Sleep-dependent Reorganization of Declarative Memories.

    PubMed

    Baran, Bengi; Mantua, Janna; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2016-06-01

    Consolidation of declarative memories has been associated with slow wave sleep in young adults. Previous work suggests that, in spite of changes in sleep, sleep-dependent consolidation of declarative memories may be preserved with aging, although reduced relative to young adults. Previous work on young adults shows that, with consolidation, retrieval of declarative memories gradually becomes independent of the hippocampus. To investigate whether memories are similarly reorganized over sleep at the neural level, we compared functional brain activation associated with word pair recall following a nap and equivalent wake in young and older adults. SWS during the nap predicted better subsequent memory recall and was negatively associated with retrieval-related hippocampal activation in young adults. In contrast, in older adults there was no relationship between sleep and memory performance or with retrieval-related hippocampal activation. Furthermore, compared with young adults, postnap memory retrieval in older adults required strong functional connectivity of the hippocampus with the PFC, whereas there were no differences between young and older adults in the functional connectivity of the hippocampus following wakefulness. These results suggest that, although neural reorganization takes place over sleep in older adults, the shift is unique from that seen in young adults, perhaps reflecting memories at an earlier stage of stabilization.

  13. Do negative views of aging influence memory and auditory performance through self-perceived abilities?

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit

    2015-12-01

    Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.

  14. Tualang Honey Attenuates Noise Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system. PMID:27119005

  15. The influence of age and mild cognitive impairment on associative memory performance and underlying brain networks.

    PubMed

    Oedekoven, Christiane S H; Jansen, Andreas; Keidel, James L; Kircher, Tilo; Leube, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Associative memory is essential to everyday activities, such as the binding of faces and corresponding names to form single bits of information. However, this ability often becomes impaired with increasing age. The most important neural substrate of associative memory is the hippocampus, a structure crucially implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main aim of this study was to compare neural correlates of associative memory in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an at-risk state for AD. We used fMRI to investigate differences in brain activation and connectivity between young controls (n = 20), elderly controls (n = 32) and MCI patients (n = 21) during associative memory retrieval. We observed lower hippocampal activation in MCI patients than control groups during a face-name recognition task, and the magnitude of this decrement was correlated with lower associative memory performance. Further, increased activation in precentral regions in all older adults indicated a stronger involvement of the task positive network (TPN) with age. Finally, functional connectivity analysis revealed a stronger link of hippocampal and striatal components in older adults in comparison to young controls, regardless of memory impairment. In elderly controls, this went hand-in-hand with a stronger activation of striatal areas. Increased TPN activation may be linked to greater reliance on cognitive control in both older groups, while increased functional connectivity between the hippocampus and the striatum may suggest dedifferentiation, especially in elderly controls.

  16. The influence of soy-derived phosphatidylserine on cognition in age-associated memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Jorissen, B L; Brouns, F; Van Boxtel, M P; Ponds, R W; Verhey, F R; Jolles, J; Riedel, W J

    2001-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid widely sold as a nutritional supplement. PS has been claimed to enhance neuronal membrane function and hence cognitive function, especially in the elderly. We report the results of a clinical trial of soybean-derived PS (S-PS) in aging subjects with memory complaints. Subjects were 120 elderly (> 57 years) of both sexes who fulfilled the more stringent criteria for age-associated memory impairment (AAMI); some also fulfilled the criteria for age-associated cognitive decline. Subjects were allocated at random to one of the three treatment groups: placebo, 300mg S-PS daily, or 600mg S-PS daily. Assessments were carried out at baseline, after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment, and after a wash-out period of 3 weeks. Tests of learning and memory, choice reaction time, planning and attentional functions were administered at each assessment. Delayed recall and recognition of a previously learned word list comprised the primary outcome measures. No significant differences were found in any of the outcome variables between the treatment groups. There were also no significant interactions between treatment and 'severity of memory complaints'. In conclusion, a daily supplement of S-PS does not affect memory or other cognitive functions in older individuals with memory complaints. PMID:11842880

  17. Age-Specific Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Memory and the Older Brain

    PubMed Central

    Siette, Joyce; Westbrook, R. Frederick; Cotman, Carl; Sidhu, Kuldip; Zhu, Wanlin; Sachdev, Perminder; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical exercise in early adulthood and mid-life improves cognitive function and enhances brain plasticity, but the effects of commencing exercise in late adulthood are not well-understood. Method We investigated the effects of voluntary exercise in the restoration of place recognition memory in aged rats and examined hippocampal changes of synaptic density and neurogenesis. Results We found a highly selective age-related deficit in place recognition memory that is stable across retest sessions and correlates strongly with loss of hippocampal synapses. Additionally, 12 weeks of voluntary running at 20 months of age removed the deficit in the hippocampally dependent place recognition memory. Voluntary running restored presynaptic density in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregions in aged rats to levels beyond those observed in younger animals, in which exercise had no functional or synaptic effects. By contrast, hippocampal neurogenesis, a possible memory-related mechanism, increased in both young and aged rats after physical exercise but was not linked with performance in the place recognition task. We used graph-based network analysis based on synaptic covariance patterns to characterize efficient intrahippocampal connectivity. This analysis revealed that voluntary running completely reverses the profound degradation of hippocampal network efficiency that accompanies sedentary aging. Furthermore, at an individual animal level, both overall hippocampal presynaptic density and subregional connectivity independently contribute to prediction of successful place recognition memory performance. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the unique synaptic effects of exercise on the aged brain and their specific relevance to a hippocampally based memory system for place recognition. PMID:22795967

  18. Genetic Variance in Processing Speed Drives Variation in Aging of Spatial and Memory Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Finkel, Deborah; McArdle, John J.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Hamagami, Fumiaki; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous analyses have identified a genetic contribution to the correlation between declines with age in processing speed and higher cognitive abilities. The goal of the current analysis was to apply the biometric dual change score model to consider the possibility of temporal dynamics underlying the genetic covariance between aging trajectories for processing speed and cognitive abilities. Longitudinal twin data from the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging, including up to 5 measurement occasions covering a 16-year period, were available from 806 participants ranging in age from 50 to 88 years at the 1st measurement wave. Factors were generated to tap 4 cognitive domains: verbal ability, spatial ability, memory, and processing speed. Model-fitting indicated that genetic variance for processing speed was a leading indicator of variation in age changes for spatial and memory ability, providing additional support for processing speed theories of cognitive aging. PMID:19413434

  19. Episodic Memory and Event Construction in Aging and Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Kristoffer; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-01-01

    Construction of imaginative or fictitious events requires the flexible recombination of stored information into novel representations. How this process is accomplished is not understood fully. To address this problem, older adults (mean age = 74.2; Experiment 1) and younger patients with MTL lesions (mean age = 54.2; Experiment 2), both of whom…

  20. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  1. Differential Focal and Nonfocal Prospective Memory Accuracy in a Demographically Diverse Group of Nondemented Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Susan Y.; Rabin, Laura A.; Aronov, Avner; Fogel, Joshua; Kapoor, Ashu; Wang, Cuiling

    2015-01-01

    Although prospective memory (PM) is compromised in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), it is unclear which specific cognitive processes underlie these PM difficulties. We investigated older adults’ performance on a computerized event-based focal versus nonfocal PM task that made varying demands on the amount of attentional control required to support intention retrieval. Participants were nondemented individuals (mean age = 81.8 years; female = 66.1%) enrolled in a community-based longitudinal study, including those with amnestic MCI (aMCI), nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), subjective cognitive decline (SCD), and healthy controls (HC). Participants included in the primary analysis (n = 189) completed the PM task and recalled and/or recognized both focal and nonfocal PM cues presented in the task. Participants and their informants also completed a questionnaire assessing everyday PM failures. Relative to HC, those with aMCI and naMCI were significantly impaired in focal PM accuracy (p < .05). In a follow-up analysis that included 13 additional participants who successfully recalled and/or recognized at least one of the two PM cues, the naMCI group showed deficits in nonfocal PM accuracy (p < .05). There was a significant negative correlation between informant reports of PM difficulties and nonfocal PM accuracy (p < .01). PM failures in aMCI may be primarily related to impairment of spontaneous retrieval processes associated with the medial temporal lobe system, while PM failures in naMCI potentially indicate additional deficits in executive control functions and prefrontal systems. The observed focal versus nonfocal PM performance profiles in aMCI and naMCI may constitute specific behavioral markers of PM decline that result from compromise of separate neurocognitive systems. PMID:25401793

  2. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  3. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  4. Passwords Usage and Human Memory Limitations: A Survey across Age and Educational Background

    PubMed Central

    Pilar, Denise Ranghetti; Jaeger, Antonio; Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

    2012-01-01

    The present article reports a survey conducted to identify the practices on passwords usage, focusing particularly on memory limitations and the use of passwords across individuals with different age and education backgrounds. A total of 263 participants were interviewed, with ages ranging from 18 to 93 years, and education level ranging from grade school to graduate degree. Contrary to our expectations, effects of cognitive decline due to aging were not observed on memory performance for passwords. The results suggested instead, that the number of password uses was the most influential factor on memory performance. That is, as the number of circumstances in which individuals utilized passwords increased, the incidence of forgotten and mixed-up passwords also increased. The theoretical significance of these findings and their implications for good practices on password usage are discussed. PMID:23227232

  5. Memories of an emotional and a nonemotional event: effects of aging and delay interval.

    PubMed

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Krendl, Anne C; Corkin, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The present study compared the memory of young and older adults for details pertaining to two public events of close temporal proximity but varying emotional import-the Columbia shuttle explosion and the 2003 Super Bowl. Participants responded to surveys sent within 2 weeks of these events and then again 7 months later, providing information about event-related details (i.e., of the events themselves) and personal details (i.e., of the reception event). Both age groups rated the shuttle tragedy as significantly more emotional than the Super Bowl, and although older adults often had poorer memory overall, both age groups remembered more about the shuttle than they did about the Super Bowl. Further, the age discrepancy (young adults remembering more than older adults) was less pronounced for the shuttle than for the Super Bowl. Thus, older adults' memories appear to benefit from the emotional salience of real-life events.

  6. Why are you late? Investigating the role of time management in time-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Waldum, Emily R; McDaniel, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Time-based prospective memory tasks (TBPM) are those that are to be performed at a specific future time. Contrary to typical laboratory TBPM tasks (e.g., hit the Z key every 5 min), many real-world TBPM tasks require more complex time-management processes. For instance, to attend an appointment on time, one must estimate the duration of the drive to the appointment and then use this estimate to create and execute a secondary TBPM intention (e.g., "I need to start driving by 1:30 to make my 2:00 appointment on time"). Future under- and overestimates of drive time can lead to inefficient TBPM performance with the former lending to missed appointments and the latter to long stints in the waiting room. Despite the common occurrence of complex TBPM tasks in everyday life, to date, no studies have investigated how components of time management, including time estimation, affect behavior in such complex TBPM tasks. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate timing biases in both older and younger adults and, further, to determine how such biases along with additional time management components including planning and plan fidelity influence complex TBPM performance. Results suggest for the first time that younger and older adults do not always utilize similar timing strategies, and as a result, can produce differential timing biases under the exact same environmental conditions. These timing biases, in turn, play a vital role in how efficiently both younger and older adults perform a later TBPM task that requires them to utilize their earlier time estimate. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27336325

  7. The role of rehearsals in self-generated prospective memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Szarras, Kaja; Niedźwieńska, Agnieszka

    2011-10-01

    In order to inquire into the nature of retrieval in prospective memory in a naturalistic context, we investigated the number and circumstances of rehearsals of different kinds of intentions to be pursued during a single time period. Thirty-six students were given four minutes to generate a list of tasks they were planning to perform over the course of 10 days. During this retention interval, they were provided with pocket-size diaries in which they recorded the details of each occasion they thought about the tasks previously listed. As to the nature of any triggers or cues that prompted rehearsal, the participants were asked to choose one of three alternatives: (1) association with an internal or an external cue that accidently appeared in the surroundings (accidental rehearsals), (2) deliberate thinking, e.g. while planning (self-initiated rehearsals), (3) recollection that spontaneously popped into one's mind for no apparent reason (no-trigger rehearsals). The results showed that thoughts about intended actions appeared more often after accidental cues than for no apparent reason. However, the relative contribution of self-initiated triggers to the rehearsal process was substantial: Most importantly, it was the self-initiated rehearsal that differentiated between executed and unexecuted actions. In addition, the most activated intention resulted in a higher frequency of no-trigger and self-initiated rehearsals than the remaining intentions. Finally, perceived intention importance was positively related to both the number of rehearsals and the likelihood of successful task completion. The results are discussed with regard to which factors may be crucial for the successful performance of participants' own self-generated intentions in a natural setting. The role of deliberate rehearsal in specifying the details of the intended action and its designated retrieval context is highlighted. PMID:22044306

  8. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  9. Prefrontal atrophy, disrupted NREM slow waves and impaired hippocampal-dependent memory in aging.

    PubMed

    Mander, Bryce A; Rao, Vikram; Lu, Brandon; Saletin, Jared M; Lindquist, John R; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Jagust, William; Walker, Matthew P

    2013-03-01

    Aging has independently been associated with regional brain atrophy, reduced slow wave activity (SWA) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and impaired long-term retention of episodic memories. However, whether the interaction of these factors represents a neuropatholgical pathway associated with cognitive decline in later life remains unknown. We found that age-related medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) gray-matter atrophy was associated with reduced NREM SWA in older adults, the extent to which statistically mediated the impairment of overnight sleep-dependent memory retention. Moreover, this memory impairment was further associated with persistent hippocampal activation and reduced task-related hippocampal-prefrontal cortex functional connectivity, potentially representing impoverished hippocampal-neocortical memory transformation. Together, these data support a model in which age-related mPFC atrophy diminishes SWA, the functional consequence of which is impaired long-term memory. Such findings suggest that sleep disruption in the elderly, mediated by structural brain changes, represents a contributing factor to age-related cognitive decline in later life.

  10. Watching TV news as a memory task -- brain activation and age effects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging studies which investigate brain activity underlying declarative memory processes typically use artificial, unimodal laboratory stimuli. In contrast, we developed a paradigm which much more closely approximates real-life situations of information encoding. Methods In this study, we tested whether ecologically valid stimuli - clips of a TV news show - are apt to assess memory-related fMRI activation in healthy participants across a wide age range (22-70 years). We contrasted brain responses during natural stimulation (TV news video clips) with a control condition (scrambled versions of the same clips with reversed audio tracks). After scanning, free recall performance was assessed. Results The memory task evoked robust activation of a left-lateralized network, including primarily lateral temporal cortex, frontal cortex, as well as the left hippocampus. Further analyses revealed that - when controlling for performance effects - older age was associated with greater activation of left temporal and right frontal cortex. Conclusion We demonstrate the feasibility of assessing brain activity underlying declarative memory using a natural stimulation paradigm with high ecological validity. The preliminary result of greater brain activation with increasing age might reflect an attempt to compensate for decreasing episodic memory capacity associated with aging. PMID:20738888

  11. What does the WMS-III tell us about memory changes with normal aging?

    PubMed

    Haaland, Kathleen Y; Price, Larry; Larue, Asenath

    2003-01-01

    The standardization sample from the WMS-III (N = 1250), which varied in age from 16 to 89, was used to determine whether encoding, retrieval, or storage of verbal and spatial information was most affected by normal aging. Immediate and delayed recall and recognition of Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction were examined. Immediate verbal and spatial recall significantly deteriorated with increasing age, and the age-associated deterioration in delayed recall and recognition was largely explained by poorer immediate memory. These findings, in concert with the smaller aging effects for percent retention after a delay, suggest that the aging effect is due to deterioration in encoding more than retrieval or storage of new information. While Visual Reproduction deteriorated more rapidly with age than Logical Memory, the pattern of performance decrements as a function of age were comparable across both tests. Decreases in performance were first seen in the fifth decade with gradual deterioration until the eighth decade when there was another precipitous drop. These results suggest that functions that are more dependent on the frontal lobes are more vulnerable to aging than those that are more dependent on the temporal lobes.

  12. Age differences in medial prefrontal activity for subsequent memory of truth value

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Brittany S.; Hedden, Trey; Yoon, Carolyn; Gutchess, Angela H.

    2014-01-01

    Much research has demonstrated that aging is marked by decreased source memory relative to young adults, yet a smaller body of work has demonstrated that increasing the socioemotional content of source information may be one way to reduce age-related performance differences. Although dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) activity may support source memory among young and older adults, the extent to which one activates dorsal vs. ventral mPFC may reflect one's personal connection with incoming information. Because truth value may be one salient marker that impacts one's connection with information and allocation of attention toward incoming material, we investigated whether the perceived truth value of information differently impacts differences in mPFC activity associated with encoding source information, particularly with age. Twelve young (18–23 years) and 12 older adults (63–80 years) encoded true and false statements. Behavioral results showed similar memory performance between the age groups. With respect to neural activity associated with subsequent memory, young adults, relative to older adults, exhibited greater activity in dmPFC while older adults displayed enhanced ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and insula engagement relative to young. These results may potentially indicate that young adults focus on a general knowledge acquisition goal, while older adults focus on emotionally relevant aspects of the material. The findings demonstrate that age-related differences in recruitment of mPFC associated with encoding source information may in some circumstances underlie age-equivalent behavioral performance. PMID:24570672

  13. Tadalafil enhances working memory, and reduces hippocampal oxidative stress in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Hasan, S M Nageeb; Alam, Tanzir; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Hossain, Imran; Didar, Rohini Rowshan; Alam, Md Ashraful; Rahman, Md Mahbubur

    2014-12-15

    Tadalafil, a type-5 phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor with long half-life used to treat erectile dysfunction. Recently it has been reported that tadalafil improves cognitive function. Here, we aimed to investigate the age dependent effects of tadalafil on memory, locomotor, behavior, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Tadalafil was orally administered everyday (5 mg/kg) to young (2 months) and old (16 months) healthy mice for 4 weeks. Control mice from each group received equal volume of 0.9% normal saline for the same duration. Memory and locomotor activity were tested using radial arm maze and open field test respectively. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) was analyzed and catalase activity was determined from the isolated hippocampus. Treatment with tadalafil in aged mice improves working memory than the corresponding tadalafil treated young mice in radial arm maze test. Tadalafil treated mice traveled less distance in the center and the mean speed of tadalafil treated aged mice was significantly lower than the tadalafil treated young mice in open field test. Tadalafil treatment elicited a decrease of MDA level in the hippocampus of aged mice than that of young mice. APOP level was decreased only in aged mice treated with tadalafil. Treatment with tadalafil decreased NO and increased catalase activity in both young and aged mice. On the basis of previous and our findings, we conclude that tadalafil treatment reduces oxidative stress while increased cGMP level in the hippocampus might be responsible for memory enhancement.

  14. Activation of NO-cGMP Signaling Rescues Age-Related Memory Impairment in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro S.; Takahashi, Toshihumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail. In the present study, we trained male crickets of different ages by multiple-trial olfactory conditioning to determine whether AMI occurs in crickets. Crickets 3 weeks after the final molt (3-week-old crickets) exhibited levels of retention similar to those of 1-week-old crickets at 30 min or 2 h after training; however they showed significantly decreased levels of 1-day retention, indicating AMI in long-term memory (LTM) but not in anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) in olfactory learning of crickets. Furthermore, 3-week-old crickets injected with a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog or a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog into the hemolymph before conditioning exhibited a normal level of LTM, the same level as that in 1-week-old crickets. The rescue effect by NO donor or cGMP analog injection was absent when the crickets were injected after the conditioning. For the first time, an NO donor and a cGMP analog were found to antagonize the age-related impairment of LTM formation, suggesting that deterioration of NO synthase (NOS) or molecules upstream of NOS activation is involved in brain-aging processes. PMID:27616985

  15. Neurophysiological correlates of age-related changes in working memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Mattay, Venkata S; Fera, Francesco; Tessitore, Alessandro; Hariri, Ahmad R; Berman, Karen F; Das, Saumitra; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Goldberg, Terry E; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive abilities such as working memory (WM) capacity decrease with age. To determine the neurophysiological correlates of age-related reduction in working memory capacity, we studied 10 young subjects (<35 years of age; mean age=29) and twelve older subjects (>55 years of age; mean age=59) with whole brain blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI on a 1.5 T GE MR scanner using a SPIRAL FLASH pulse sequence (TE=24 ms, TR=56 ms, FA=60 degrees , voxel dimensions=3.75 mm(3)). Subjects performed a modified version of the "n" back working memory task at different levels of increasing working memory load (1-Back, 2-Back and 3-Back). Older subjects performed as well as the younger subjects at 1-Back (p=0.4), but performed worse than the younger subjects at 2-Back (p<0.01) and 3-Back (p=0.06). Older subjects had significantly longer reaction time (RT) than younger subjects (p<0.04) at all levels of task difficulty. Image analysis using SPM 99 revealed a similar distribution of cortical activity between younger and older subjects at all task levels. However, an analysis of variance revealed a significant group x task interaction in the prefrontal cortex bilaterally; within working memory capacity, as in 1-Back when the older subjects performed as well as the younger subjects, they showed greater prefrontal cortical (BA 9) activity bilaterally. At higher working memory loads, however, when they performed worse then the younger subjects, the older subjects showed relatively reduced activity in these prefrontal regions. These data suggest that, within capacity, compensatory mechanisms such as additional prefrontal cortical activity are called upon to maintain proficiency in task performance. As cognitive demand increases, however, they are pushed past a threshold beyond which physiological compensation cannot be made and, a decline in performance occurs. PMID:16213083

  16. Activation of NO-cGMP Signaling Rescues Age-Related Memory Impairment in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro S.; Takahashi, Toshihumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail. In the present study, we trained male crickets of different ages by multiple-trial olfactory conditioning to determine whether AMI occurs in crickets. Crickets 3 weeks after the final molt (3-week-old crickets) exhibited levels of retention similar to those of 1-week-old crickets at 30 min or 2 h after training; however they showed significantly decreased levels of 1-day retention, indicating AMI in long-term memory (LTM) but not in anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) in olfactory learning of crickets. Furthermore, 3-week-old crickets injected with a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog or a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog into the hemolymph before conditioning exhibited a normal level of LTM, the same level as that in 1-week-old crickets. The rescue effect by NO donor or cGMP analog injection was absent when the crickets were injected after the conditioning. For the first time, an NO donor and a cGMP analog were found to antagonize the age-related impairment of LTM formation, suggesting that deterioration of NO synthase (NOS) or molecules upstream of NOS activation is involved in brain-aging processes.

  17. Activation of NO-cGMP Signaling Rescues Age-Related Memory Impairment in Crickets.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro S; Takahashi, Toshihumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail. In the present study, we trained male crickets of different ages by multiple-trial olfactory conditioning to determine whether AMI occurs in crickets. Crickets 3 weeks after the final molt (3-week-old crickets) exhibited levels of retention similar to those of 1-week-old crickets at 30 min or 2 h after training; however they showed significantly decreased levels of 1-day retention, indicating AMI in long-term memory (LTM) but not in anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) in olfactory learning of crickets. Furthermore, 3-week-old crickets injected with a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog or a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog into the hemolymph before conditioning exhibited a normal level of LTM, the same level as that in 1-week-old crickets. The rescue effect by NO donor or cGMP analog injection was absent when the crickets were injected after the conditioning. For the first time, an NO donor and a cGMP analog were found to antagonize the age-related impairment of LTM formation, suggesting that deterioration of NO synthase (NOS) or molecules upstream of NOS activation is involved in brain-aging processes. PMID:27616985

  18. [Memory and aging: recall, recognition and positive bias].

    PubMed

    Simón, Teresa; Ruiz Gallego-Largo, Trinidad; Suengas, Aurora G

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the decay and maintenance of various aspects of the mnemic performance among the aged population and its potential relationship with a positive information processing bias. Thus, we compared recall and recognition performance in two groups of different ages (young, old). Results indicated that the free recall deficit found among the aged participants did not affect the serial position curve evenly, but took its toll in the absence of the primacy effect, whereas it left the recency effect intact. The data also showed that the ability to recognize information did not change with age, and revealed the presence of a positive recall bias even when the stimuli had no emotional content. A re-interpretation of Carstensen and colleagues' socio-emotional selectivity theory was used to account for the results.

  19. Neuroculture, active ageing and the 'older brain': problems, promises and prospects.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon J; Higgs, Paul; Katz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the characteristics of a newly emergent 'neuroculture' and its relationship to cultures of ageing; in particular, the social meanings associated with 'active ageing' and 'cognitive health' and the discourses and sciences around memory and the 'ageing brain'. The argument proposes a critical perspective on this relationship by looking at the shifting boundaries between standards of normality and abnormality, values of health and illness, practices of therapy and enhancement, and the lines demarcating Third Age (healthy, active and agentic) and Fourth Age (dependency, loss and decline) periods of ageing. Conclusions offer further reflections on the complex questions that arise regarding expectations, hopes and ethics in relation to the promises and perils of a neurocultural future.

  20. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  1. Memory for reputational trait information: is social-emotional information processing less flexible in old age?

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Mund, Iris; Buchner, Axel

    2013-12-01

    How do younger and older adults remember reputational trait information about other people? In the present study, trustworthy-looking and untrustworthy-looking faces were paired with cooperation or cheating in a cooperation game. In a surprise source-memory test, participants were asked to rate the likability of the faces, and were required to remember whether the faces were associated with negative or positive outcomes. The social expectations of younger and older adults were clearly affected by a priori facial trustworthiness. Facial trustworthiness was associated with high cooperation-game investments, high likability ratings, and a tendency toward guessing that a face belonged to a cooperator instead of a cheater in both age groups. Consistent with previous results showing that emotional memory is spared from age-related decline, memory for the association between faces and emotional reputational information was well preserved in older adults. However, younger adults used a flexible encoding strategy to remember the social interaction partners. Source-memory was best for information that violated their (positive) expectations. Older adults, in contrast, showed a uniform memory bias for negative social information; their memory performance was not modulated by their expectations. This finding suggests that older adults are less likely to adjust their encoding strategies to their social expectations than younger adults. This may be in line with older adults' motivational goals to avoid risks in social interactions. PMID:24364403

  2. Effects of estrogen and progesterone on spatial memory consolidation in aged females.

    PubMed

    Harburger, Lauren L; Bennett, Jennifer C; Frick, Karyn M

    2007-04-01

    Interpretation of data illustrating that estrogen, with or without progestin, is detrimental to memory in post-menopausal women is complicated by the fact that little is known about the effects of progestins on memory. The present study examined if estrogen, alone or with progesterone, affects spatial memory consolidation in ovariectomized aged female mice. Mice received eight training trials in a spatial Morris water maze followed immediately by injection of water-soluble 17beta-estradiol (E(2); 0.2 mg/kg) or vehicle. Mice were re-tested 24 h later. All mice learned to find the platform on Day 1. On Day 2, the performance of control, but not E(2) mice, deteriorated, suggesting that E(2) enhanced memory for the platform location. In a second experiment, mice were injected with E(2) and 10 or 20 mg/kg water-soluble progesterone. The 10 mg/kg dose of progesterone did not affect estrogen's ability to enhance spatial memory consolidation, but 20 mg/kg blocked this effect. These data indicate that estrogen can improve spatial memory consolidation in aged females and that this effect can be attenuated by progesterone.

  3. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  4. Aging effects on discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lisa J; Virányi, Zsófia; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-02-01

    In laboratory dogs, aging leads to a decline in various cognitive domains such as learning, memory and behavioural flexibility. However, much less is known about aging in pet dogs, i.e. dogs that are exposed to different home environments by their caregivers. We used tasks on a touchscreen apparatus to detect differences in various cognitive functions across pet Border Collies aged from 5 months to 13 years. Ninety-five dogs were divided into five age groups and tested in four tasks: (1) underwater photo versus drawing discrimination, (2) clip art picture discrimination, (3) inferential reasoning by exclusion and (4) a memory test with a retention interval of 6 months. The tasks were designed to test three cognitive abilities: visual discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory. The total number of sessions to reach criterion and the number of correction trials needed in the two discrimination tasks were compared across age groups. The results showed that both measures increased linearly with age, with dogs aged over 13 years displaying slower learning and reduced flexibility in comparison to younger dogs. Inferential reasoning ability increased with age, but less than 10 % of dogs showed patterns of choice consistent with inference by exclusion. No age effect was found in the long-term memory test. In conclusion, the discrimination learning tests used are suitable to detect cognitive aging in pet dogs, which can serve as a basis for comparison to help diagnose cognition-related problems and as a tool to assist with the development of treatments to delay cognitive decline.

  5. Early age-related changes in episodic memory retrieval as revealed by event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Cécile; Clochon, Patrice; Denise, Pierre; Rauchs, Géraldine; Guillery-Girard, Bérengère; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2009-01-28

    Familiarity is better preserved than recollection in ageing. The age at which changes first occur and the slope of the subsequent decline, however, remain unclear. In this study, we investigated changes in episodic memory, by using event-related potentials (ERPs) in young (m=24), middle-aged (m=58) and older (m=70) adults. Although behavioural performance did not change before the age of 65 years, changes in ERP correlates were already present in the middle-aged adults. The ERP correlates of recollection and monitoring processes were the first to be affected by ageing, with a linear decrease as age increased. Conversely, the ERP correlate of familiarity remained unchanged, at least up to the age of 65 years. These results suggest a differential time course for the age effects on episodic retrieval. PMID:19104457

  6. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  7. Discourse analysis of logical memory recall in normal aging and in dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David K; Storandt, Martha; Balota, David A

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the nature of errors in prose recall made in dementia compared with normal aging. Responses by 48 young adults, 47 nondemented older adults, and 70 people with very mild or mild Alzheimer's disease to the Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale were examined in a propositional analysis. Compared with young adults, healthy older adults showed good immediate recall but deficits in retention over a delay. Demented individuals made errors of omission, not commission, at immediate recall. These errors probably reflect difficulty with attentional control rather than memory per se. In terms of clinical implications, veridical scoring of the Logical Memory subtest provides more sensitive detection of very mild dementia of the Alzheimer type than the current standard criteria for scoring. PMID:12597076

  8. Relationships between default-mode network connectivity, medial temporal lobe structure, and age-related memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Ward, Andrew M; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Huijbers, Willem; Schultz, Aaron P; Hedden, Trey; Sperling, Reisa A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced aging negatively impacts memory performance. Brain aging has been associated with shrinkage in medial temporal lobe structures essential for memory--including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex--and with deficits in default-mode network connectivity. Yet, whether and how these imaging markers are relevant to age-related memory deficits remains a topic of debate. Using a sample of 182 older (age 74.6 ± 6.2 years) and 66 young (age 22.2 ± 3.6 years) participants, this study examined relationships among memory performance, hippocampus volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, and default-mode network connectivity across aging. All imaging markers and memory were significantly different between young and older groups. Each imaging marker significantly mediated the relationship between age and memory performance and collectively accounted for most of the variance in age-related memory performance. Within older participants, default-mode connectivity and hippocampus volume were independently associated with memory. Structural equation modeling of cross-sectional data within older participants suggest that entorhinal thinning may occur before reduced default-mode connectivity and hippocampal volume loss, which in turn lead to deficits in memory performance. PMID:25113793

  9. Facts and fiction about memory aging: a quantitative integration of research findings.

    PubMed

    Verhaeghen, P; Marcoen, A; Goossens, L

    1993-07-01

    A meta-analytic literature review on adult age differences in speed of search in short-term memory (12 studies), memory span (40 studies), list recall (68 studies), paired-associate recall (21 studies), and prose recall (39 studies) is presented. Results show that age differences are quite large (depending on the task, elderly people can be situated between the 3rd and the 38th percentile of the adult age memory performance distribution) and quasi-omnipresent, even under conditions of cued recall or semantic task orientation. Evidence for age sensitivity is found for the process of categorization of lists, but not for semantic processing, association strategies, imagery, nor for extracting main points from prose material. The elderly population benefits more than the young from the possibility of reviewing lists or texts. Differences between young adults and old-old adults are larger than between young adults and the young-old for speed of search in short-term memory and prose recall only. In two out of the five tasks, lower education is reliably associated with larger age differences.

  10. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nils C J; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel; Dresler, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience-in our case piano skills-increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  11. Age and individual differences in visual working memory deficit induced by overload.

    PubMed

    Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Many studies on working memory have assumed that one can determine an individual's fixed memory capacity. In the current study, we took an individual differences approach to investigate whether visual working memory (VWM) capacity was stable irrespective of the number of to-be-remembered objects and participant age. Younger and older adults performed a change detection task using several objects defined by color. Results showed wide variability in VWM capacity across memory set sizes, age, and individuals. A marked decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was observed in both younger and older adults with low memory capacity, but not among high-capacity individuals, when set size went well beyond the limits of VWM capacity. In addition, a decrease in the number of objects held in VWM was alleviated among low-capacity younger adults by increasing VWM encoding time; however, increasing encoding time did not benefit low-capacity older adults. These findings suggest that low-capacity individuals are likely to show decreases in VWM capacity induced by overload, and aging exacerbates this deficit such that it cannot be recovered by simply increasing encoding time. Overall, our findings challenge the prevailing assumption that VWM capacity is fixed and stable, encouraging a revision to the strict view that VWM capacity is constrained by a fixed number of distinct "slots" in which high-resolution object representations are stored. PMID:24847293

  12. Effect of Zhuang Jing Decoction on Learning and Memory Ability in Aging Rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao-Bin; Wu, Guang-Liang; Huang, Cen-Han; Huang, Zhong-Shi; Chen, Yun-Bo; Wang, Qi

    2016-08-01

    With the average life span of humans on the rise, aging in the world has drawn considerable attentions. The monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain areas are involved in learning and memory processes and are an essential part of normal synaptic neurotransmission and plasticity. In the present study, the effect of Zhuang Jing Decoction (ZJD) on the learning and memory ability in aging rats was examined in vivo using Morris water maze. Furthermore, the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. These data showed that oral administration with ZJD at the dose of 30 g·kg(-1) exerted an improved effect on learning and memory ability in aging rats. The results revealed that ZJD could effectively adjust the monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors, restore the balance of the level of monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain, and finally attenuate the degeneration of learning and memory ability. These findings suggested that ZJD might be a potential agent as cognitive-enhancing drug in improving learning and memory ability. It may exert through regulating the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and neurotrophic factors in brain, which demonstrated that ZJD had certain antiaging effects. PMID:26649780

  13. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nils C. J.; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N.; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience–in our case piano skills–increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  14. Discrimination performance in aging is vulnerable to interference and dissociable from spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Sacks, Patricia K; Turner, Sean M; Gaynor, Leslie S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Maurer, Andrew P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Burke, Sara N

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal model. In the present study, young and aged F344×BN F1 hybrid rats were cross-characterized on the Morris water maze test of spatial memory and a dentate gyrus-dependent match-to-position test of spatial discrimination ability. Aged rats showed overall impairments relative to young in spatial learning and memory on the water maze task. Although young and aged learned to apply a match-to-position response strategy in performing easy spatial discriminations within a similar number of trials, a majority of aged rats were impaired relative to young in performing difficult spatial discriminations on subsequent tests. Moreover, all aged rats were susceptible to cumulative interference during spatial discrimination tests, such that error rate increased on later trials of test sessions. These data suggest that when faced with difficult discriminations, the aged rats were less able to distinguish current goal locations from those of previous trials. Increasing acetylcholine levels with donepezil did not improve aged rats' abilities to accurately perform difficult spatial discriminations or reduce their susceptibility to interference. Interestingly, better spatial memory abilities were not significantly associated with higher performance on difficult spatial discriminations. This observation, along with the finding that aged rats made more errors under conditions in which interference was high, suggests that match-to-position spatial discrimination performance may rely on extra-hippocampal structures such as the prefrontal cortex, in addition to the dentate gyrus.

  15. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory. PMID:25786428

  16. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.

  17. Age-related differences in brain activity in the subsequent memory paradigm: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Rajah, M Natasha

    2014-09-01

    Healthy aging is associated with declines in episodic memory. This reduction is thought to be due in part to age-related differences in encoding-related processes. In the current study, we performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies assessing age-related differences in the neural correlates of episodic encoding. Only studies using the subsequent memory paradigm were included. We found age-related under-recruitment of occipital and fusiform cortex, but over-recruitment in a set of regions including bilateral middle/superior frontal gyri, anterior medial frontal gyrus, precuneus and left inferior parietal lobe. We demonstrate that all of the regions consistently over-recruited by older adults during successful encoding exhibit either direct overlap, or occur in close vicinity to regions consistently involved in unsuccessful encoding in young adults. We discuss the possibility that this overall pattern of age-related differences represents an age-related shift in focus: away from perceptual details, and toward evaluative and personal thoughts and feelings during memory tasks. We discuss whether these age-related differences in brain activation benefit performance in older adults, and additional considerations.

  18. Recognition Memory Measures Yield Disproportionate Effects of Aging on Learning Face-Name Associations

    PubMed Central

    James, Lori E.; Fogler, Kethera A.; Tauber, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: more face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies. PMID:18808254

  19. Spermidine Suppresses Age-Associated Memory Impairment by Preventing Adverse Increase of Presynaptic Active Zone Size and Release

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun K.; Pech, Ulrike; Fulterer, Andreas; Ender, Anatoli; Mauermann, Stephan F.; Andlauer, Till F. M.; Beuschel, Christine; Thriene, Kerstin; Quentin, Christine; Schwärzel, Martin; Mielke, Thorsten; Madeo, Frank; Dengjel, Joern; Fiala, André; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ), increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP) impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse. PMID:27684064

  20. A four-component model of age-related memory change.

    PubMed

    Healey, M Karl; Kahana, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We develop a novel, computationally explicit, theory of age-related memory change within the framework of the context maintenance and retrieval (CMR2) model of memory search. We introduce a set of benchmark findings from the free recall and recognition tasks that include aspects of memory performance that show both age-related stability and decline. We test aging theories by lesioning the corresponding mechanisms in a model fit to younger adult free recall data. When effects are considered in isolation, many theories provide an adequate account, but when all effects are considered simultaneously, the existing theories fail. We develop a novel theory by fitting the full model (i.e., allowing all parameters to vary) to individual participants and comparing the distributions of parameter values for older and younger adults. This theory implicates 4 components: (a) the ability to sustain attention across an encoding episode, (b) the ability to retrieve contextual representations for use as retrieval cues, (c) the ability to monitor retrievals and reject intrusions, and (d) the level of noise in retrieval competitions. We extend CMR2 to simulate a recognition memory task using the same mechanisms the free recall model uses to reject intrusions. Without fitting any additional parameters, the 4-component theory that accounts for age differences in free recall predicts the magnitude of age differences in recognition memory accuracy. Confirming a prediction of the model, free recall intrusion rates correlate positively with recognition false alarm rates. Thus, we provide a 4-component theory of a complex pattern of age differences across 2 key laboratory tasks.

  1. Brain aging, memory impairment and oxidative stress: a study in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Haddadi, Mohammad; Jahromi, Samaneh Reiszadeh; Sagar, B K Chandrasekhar; Patil, Rajashekhar K; Shivanandappa, T; Ramesh, S R

    2014-02-01

    Memory impairment during aging is believed to be a consequence of decline in neuronal function and increase in neurodegeneration. Accumulation of oxidative damage and reduction of antioxidant defense system play a key role in organismal aging and functional senescence. In our study, we examined the age-related memory impairment (AMI) in relation to oxidative stress using Drosophila model. We observed a decline in cognitive function in old flies with respect to both short-lived and consolidated forms of olfactory memory. Light and electron microscopy of mushroom bodies revealed a reduction in the number of synapses and discernible architectural defects in mitochondria. An increase in neuronal apoptosis in Kenyon cells was also evident in aged flies. Biochemical investigations revealed a comparable age-associated decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase as well as the GSH level, accompanied by an increase in the level of lipid peroxidation and generation of reactive oxygen species in the brain. There was no significant difference in the activity level of AChE and BChE enzymes between different age groups while immunohistochemical studies showed a significant decrease in the level of ChAT in 50-day-old flies. RNAi-mediated silencing of cat and sod1 genes caused severe memory impairment in 15-day-old flies, whereas, over-expression of cat gene could partially rescue the memory loss in the old flies. We demonstrated that a Drosophila long-lived strain, possessing enhanced activity of antioxidant enzymes and higher rate of resistance to oxidative stress, shows lower extent of AMI compared to normal lifespan strain. Present study provides evidence for involvement of oxidative stress in AMI in Drosophila. PMID:24183945

  2. Beneficial effects of glycine (bioglycin) on memory and attention in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    File, S E; Fluck, E; Fernandes, C

    1999-12-01

    The N-methyl D-aspartate receptor complex is involved in the mechanism of long-term potentiation, which is thought to be the biological basis of learning and memory. This complex can be manipulated in a number of ways, one of which is through the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor coagonist site. The effects of Bioglycin(Konapharma, Pratteln, Switzerland), a biologically active form of the amino acid glycine, were therefore studied in healthy students (mean age, 20.7 years) and middle-aged men (mean age, 58.9 years) with tests that measured attention, memory and mood, using a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Compared with the young group, the middle-aged group had significantly poorer verbal episodic memory, focused, divided, and sustained attention; they also differed in their subjective responses at the end of testing. Bioglycin significantly improved retrieval from episodic memory in both the young and the middle-aged groups, but it did not affect focused or divided attention. However, the middle-aged men significantly benefited from Bioglycin in the sustained-attention task. The effects of Bioglycin differed from those of other cognitive enhancers in that it was without stimulant properties or significant effects on mood, and it primarily improved memory rather than attention. It is likely to be of benefit in young or older people in situations where high retrieval of information is needed or when performance is impaired by jet lag, shift work, or disrupted sleep. It may also benefit the impaired retrieval shown in patients with schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.

  3. Event-based prospective memory in patients with Parkinson’s disease: the effect of emotional valence

    PubMed Central

    Mioni, G.; Meligrana, L.; Rendell, P. G.; Bartolomei, L.; Perini, F.; Stablum, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Parkinson’s disease (PD) on prospective memory (PM) tasks by varying the emotional content of the PM actions. Twenty-one older adults with PD and 25 healthy older adults took part in the present study. Participants performed three virtual days in the Virtual Week task. On each virtual day, participants performed actions with positive, negative or neutral content. Immediately following each virtual day, participants completed a recognition task to assess their retrospective memory for the various PM tasks. PD patients were less accurate than the control group at both PM accuracy and recognition task accuracy. The effect of emotional valence was also evident, indicating that all participants were more accurate on positive PM tasks than both negative and neutral. This study confirmed PM impairment in PD patients and extended previous research showing how positive emotional stimuli can influence PM performance. PMID:26257636

  4. Apolipoprotein ɛ4 breaks the association between declarative long-term memory and memory-based orienting of spatial attention in middle-aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; McCloud, Tayla; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-09-01

    Apolipoprotein (APOE) ɛ4 genotype has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). The memory system is mostly involved in AD, and memory deficits represent its key feature. A growing body of studies has focused on the earlier identification of cognitive dysfunctions in younger and older APOE ɛ4 carriers, but investigation on middle-aged individuals remains rare. Here we sought to investigate if the APOE ɛ4 genotype modulates declarative memory and its influences on perception in the middle of the life span. We tested 60 middle-aged individuals recruited according to their APOE allele variants (ɛ3/ɛ3, ɛ3/ɛ4, ɛ4/ɛ4) on a long-term memory-based orienting of attention task. Results showed that the APOE ɛ4 genotype impaired neither explicit memory nor memory-based orienting of spatial attention. Interestingly, however, we found that the possession of the ɛ4 allele broke the relationship between declarative long-term memory and memory-guided orienting of visuo-spatial attention, suggesting an earlier modulation exerted by pure genetic characteristics on cognition. These findings are discussed in light of possible accelerated brain ageing in middle-aged ɛ4-carriers, and earlier structural changes in the brain occurring at this stage of the lifespan. PMID:27395443

  5. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample

    PubMed Central

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E.; Hawley, Karri S.; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  6. Age-related slowing in the retrieval of information from long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Madden, D J

    1985-03-01

    The present experiment investigated adult age differences in the retrieval of information from long-term memory. Each trial required a decision regarding the synonymy of two visually presented words. On the yes-response trials, the two words were either identical, differed only in case, or were synonyms that differed in case. Age differences in absolute decision time were greater for the synonyms than for the other word pairs, but the proportional slowing of decision time exhibited by the older adults was constant across word-pair type. A generalized age-related slowing in the speed of information processing can currently account for age differences in the retrieval of letter-identity and semantic information from long-term memory.

  7. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example.

  8. The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Correlates in a Lifespan Sample.

    PubMed

    Calamia, Matthew; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Cherry, Katie E; Hawley, Karri S; Jazwinski, S Michal

    2016-03-01

    The authors examined the factor structure of the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) [1] using confirmatory factor analysis in a lifespan sample of 933 individuals who ranged in age from 18 to 101. Participants were college students at Louisiana State University and adults from the community enrolled in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). A two-factor solution was expected, consistent with the normal and pathological memory aging dimensions that comprise the KMAQ. A bi-factor solution with items loading on a general response bias factor and either a normal or pathological knowledge-specific factor showed good model fit. Knowledge scores were correlated with demographic and cognitive performance variables. Implications of these data for clinical settings and research are considered. PMID:27505021

  9. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase.

  10. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  11. Impact of Aging on the Dynamics of Memory Retrieval: A Time-Course Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztekin, Ilke; Gungor, Nur Zeynep; Badre, David

    2012-01-01

    The response-signal speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of aging on the dynamics of short-term memory retrieval. Young and older adults studied sequentially presented 3-item lists, immediately followed by a recognition probe. Analyses of composite list and serial position SAT…

  12. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  13. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  14. Two Hemispheres for Better Memory in Old Age: Role of Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This experiment explored the functional significance of age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction associated with episodic memory and the cognitive mechanisms that mediate this brain pattern. ERPs were recorded while young and older adults performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Results confirmed that the parietal old/new effect was of larger…

  15. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  16. Investigating the Effects of Veridicality on Age Differences in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shake, Matthew C.; Perschke, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…

  17. Discrimination Performance in Aging Is Vulnerable to Interference and Dissociable from Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Sacks, Patricia K.; Turner, Sean M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal…

  18. Analyzing False Memories in Children with Associative Lists Specific for Their Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Paula; Albuquerque, Pedro; Fernandez, Angel; Esteves, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments attempted to resolve previous contradictory findings concerning developmental trends in false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm by using an improved methodology--constructing age-appropriate associative lists. The research also extended the DRM paradigm to preschoolers. Experiment 1 (N = 320) included…

  19. Adenomatous polyposis coli heterozygous knockout mice display hypoactivity and age-dependent working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Fukui, Yasuyuki; Takao, Keizo; Ohira, Koji; Tanda, Koichi; Nakanishi, Kazuo; Toyama, Keiko; Oshima, Masanobu; Taketo, Makoto Mark; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    A tumor suppressor gene, Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), is expressed in the nervous system from embryonic to adulthood stages, and transmits the Wnt signaling pathway in which schizophrenia susceptibility genes, including T-cell factor 4 (TCF4) and calcineurin (CN), are involved. However, the functions of Apc in the nervous system are largely unknown. In this study, as the first evaluation of Apc function in the nervous system, we have investigated the behavioral significance of the Apc gene, applying a battery of behavioral tests to Apc heterozygous knockout (Apc+/−) mice. Apc+/− mice showed no significant impairment in neurological reflexes or sensory and motor abilities. In various tests, including light/dark transition, open-field, social interaction, eight-arm radial maze, and fear conditioning tests, Apc+/− mice exhibited hypoactivity. In the eight-arm radial maze, Apc+/− mice 6–7 weeks of age displayed almost normal performance, whereas those 11–12 weeks of age showed a severe performance deficit in working memory, suggesting that Apc is involved in working memory performance in an age-dependent manner. The possibility that anemia, which Apc+/− mice develop by 17 weeks of age, impairs working memory performance, however, cannot be excluded. Our results suggest that Apc plays a role in the regulation of locomotor activity and presumably working memory performance. PMID:22347851

  20. Exposure to radiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

  1. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

  2. Processing Efficiency in Preschoolers' Memory Span: Individual Differences Related to Age and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response…

  3. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding. PMID:25216357

  4. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding.

  5. Controlled processes account for age-related decrease in episodic memory.

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, Valérie; Adam, Stéphane; der Linden, Martial Van; Morais, José

    2007-05-01

    A decrease in controlled processes has been proposed to be responsible for age-related episodic memory decline. We used the Process Dissociation Procedure, a method that attempts to estimate the contribution of controlled and automatic processes to cognitive performance, and entered both estimates in regression analyses. Results indicate that only controlled processes explained a great part of the age-related variance in a word recall task, especially when little environmental support was offered. PMID:16860766

  6. The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  7. Sulindac improves memory and increases NMDA receptor subunits in aged Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Mesches, Michael H; Gemma, Carmelina; Veng, Lone M; Allgeier, Chrissy; Young, David A; Browning, Michael D; Bickford, Paula C

    2004-03-01

    Inflammatory processes in the central nervous system are thought to contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Chronic administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) decreases the incidence of Alzheimer's disease. There are very few studies, however, on the cognitive impact of chronic NSAID administration. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is implicated in learning and memory, and age-related decreases in the NMDA NR2B subunit correlate with memory deficits. Sulindac, an NSAID that is a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor was chronically administered to aged Fischer 344 rats for 2 months. Sulindac, but not its non-COX active metabolite, attenuated age-related deficits in learning and memory as assessed in the radial arm water maze and contextual fear conditioning tasks. Sulindac treatment also attenuated an age-related decrease in the NR1 and NR2B NMDA receptor subunits and prevented an age-related increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), in the hippocampus. These findings support the inflammation hypothesis of aging and have important implications for potential cognitive enhancing effects of NSAIDs in the elderly.

  8. Age-Related Visual and Kinesthetic Encoding Effects on Spatial Memory of a Maze-Like Floor Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    As part of an experimental research program on lifespan naturalistic and laboratory memory for spatial representation, investigators examined interactions between the effects of visual and kinesthetic encoding and age on memory for space using a modification of the Sinnott (1987) human maze paradigm. It was hypothesized that an age effect favoring…

  9. Electrophysiological evidence for strategically orienting retrieval toward the specific age of a memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; McGhee, Anna K

    2015-11-01

    For over a century, memory researchers have extensively studied the differences between retrieving memories that were encoded in the remote past as opposed to recently. Although this work has largely focused on the changes that these memory traces undergo over time, an unexplored issue is whether retrieval attempts and other strategic processes might be differentially oriented in order to effectively access memories of different ages. The current study addressed this issue by instructing participants to retrieve words that were encoded either one week (remote) or about 30 minutes earlier (recent). To maximize the possibility that participants adopted distinct retrieval orientations, separate blocks of the memory test employed exclusion task procedures in which the words from only one encoding period were targeted at a given time, in the face of distractors from the other period. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by correctly-rejected new items were contrasted to minimize confounding effects of retrieval success. The new-item ERPs revealed differences according to the targeted week, such that the ERPs over posterior scalp were more positive-going for the recent compared to remote blocks. Furthermore, using multiple methods, these ERP effects were dissociated from differences in difficulty across the two conditions. The findings provide novel evidence that knowledge about when a memory was initially encoded leads to differences in the adoption of retrieval processing strategies. PMID:26453976

  10. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions. PMID:25773638

  11. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions.

  12. Age differences in collaborative memory: the role of retrieval manipulations.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; Roediger, Henry L

    2009-10-01

    In two experiments, we examined age differences in collaborative inhibition (reduced recall in pairs of people, relative to pooled individuals) across repeated retrieval attempts. Younger and older adults studied categorized word lists and were then given two consecutive recall tests and a recognition test. On the first recall test, the subjects were given free-report cued recall or forced-report cued recall instructions (Experiment 1) or free recall instructions (Experiment 2) and recalled the lists either alone or in collaboration with another subject of the same age group. Free-report cued recall and free recall instructions warned the subjects not to guess, whereas forced-report cued recall instructions required them to guess. Collaborative inhibition was obtained for both younger and older adults on initial tests of free-report cued recall, forced-report cued recall, and free recall, showing that the effect generalizes across several tests for both younger and older adults. Collaborative inhibition did not persist on subsequent individual recall or recognition tests for list items. Older adults consistently falsely recalled and recognized items more than did younger adults, as had been found in previous studies. In addition, prior collaboration may exaggerate older adults' tendency toward higher false alarms on a subsequent recognition test, but only after a free recall test. The results provide generality to the phenomenon of collaborative inhibition and can be explained by invoking concepts of strategy disruption and source monitoring. PMID:19744936

  13. Prospects for detecting the Christodoulou memory of gravitational waves from a coalescing compact binary and using it to measure neutron-star radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel

    1994-09-01

    A coalescing compact binary, during its last tenth of a second of life, emits a burst of gravitational waves consisting of a high-frequency ``chirp,'' with frequencies much greater than 100 Hz, superimposed on a gradually growing memory, known as the Christodoulou memory. Most of the memory's growth occurs over the last few hundredths of a second, so its signal has strong Fourier components at f~100 Hz. The planned LIGO and/or VIRGO broadband gravitational-wave detectors have optimal performance at frequencies around 100 Hz and should be well suited, in terms of frequencies, to detect the growth of the memory amidst the chirp. If one or both of the binary's components is a neutron star (the other being either a neutron star or a black hole), then the growth of the memory will be cut off by the star's tidal disruption. The larger the neutron star's radius the sooner the cutoff and correspondingly the weaker the total memory. Therefore, from a LIGO and/or VIRGO measurement of the memory's strength, one could hope to infer the neutron-star radius. The prospects for such measurements to succeed are evaluated quantitatively and found to be poor because of the weakness of the memory. Even under optimistic circumstances the memory is so weak that only for a black-hole-black-hole binary is there much chance of detecting it, and then the prospects are only marginal.

  14. The influence of emotional priming on the neural substrates of memory: a prospective fMRI study using portrait art stimuli.

    PubMed

    Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-07-16

    Events coupled with an emotional context seem to be better retained than non-emotional events. The aim of our study was to investigate whether an emotional context could influence the neural substrates of memory associations with novel portrait art stimuli. In the current prospective fMRI study, we have investigated for one specific visual art form (modern artistic portraits with a high degree of abstraction) whether memory is influenced by priming with emotional facial pictures. In total forty healthy female volunteers in the same age range were recruited for the study. Twenty of these women participated in a prospective brain imaging memory paradigm and were asked to memorize a series of similar looking, but different portraits. After randomization, for twelve participants (Group 1), a third of the portraits was emotionally primed with approach-related pictures (smiling baby faces), a third with withdrawal-related pictures (baby faces with severe dermatological conditions), and another third with neutral images. Group 2 consisted of eight participants and they were not primed. Then, during an fMRI session 2h later, these portraits were viewed in random order intermixed with a set of new (previously unseen) ones, and the participants had to decide for each portrait whether or not they had already been seen. In a separate experiment, a different sample of twenty healthy females (Group 3) rated their mood after being exposed to the same art stimuli, without priming. The portraits did not evoke significant mood changes by themselves, supporting their initial neutral emotional character (Group 3). The correct decision on whether the portraits were Familiar of Unfamiliar led to similar neuronal activations in brain areas implicated in visual and attention processing for both groups (Groups 1 and 2). In contrast, whereas primed participants showed significant higher neuronal activities in the left midline superior frontal cortex (Brodmann area (BA) 6), unprimed

  15. Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

    Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did

  16. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  17. Undesired Teacher Behaviours According to the Studentship Memories of Prospective Teachers in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the types of undesired behaviours observed by prospective primary school teachers during their studentship at primary school. 35 voluntary prospective teachers studying at the faculty of education in Adiyaman University participated into the study, which was conducted within qualitative research techniques.…

  18. Cognitive Ageing in Great Britain in the New Century: Cohort Differences in Episodic Memory

    PubMed Central

    Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-01-01

    Background Dementias in high income countries are set to be the third major burden of disease even as older people are increasingly required to think for themselves how to provide for their lives in retirement. Meanwhile the period of older age continues to extend with increase in life expectancy. This challenge demands an understanding of how cognition changes over an extended period in later life. But studying cognitive ageing in the population faces a difficulty from the fact that older respondents are liable to leave (attrite) before study completion. This study tested three hypotheses: trajectories of cognitive ageing in Britain show an improvement beyond the age of 50; and they are lifted by secular improvement in cognition across cohorts; lastly they are susceptible to distortion due to attrition. Methods and Findings Using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, this paper studied trajectories of episodic memory of Britons aged 50–89 from 2002 to 2013 (N = 5931). Using joint models the analysis found that levels of episodic memory follow a curvilinear shape, not a steady decline, in later life. The findings also revealed secular improvement in cognitive ageing such that as a cohort is being replaced episodic memory levels in the population improve. The analysis lastly demonstrated that failure to simultaneously model attrition can produce distorted pictures of cognitive ageing. Conclusion Old age in this century is not necessarily a period dominated by cognitive decline. In identifying behavioural factors associated with better cognitive ageing, such as social connections of traditional and online kinds, the paper raises possibilities of mustering an adequate response to the cognition challenge. PMID:26713627

  19. Working memory, age and hearing loss: susceptibility to hearing aid distortion

    PubMed Central

    Arehart, Kathryn H.; Souza, Pamela; Baca, Rosalinda; Kates, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Hearing aids use complex processing intended to improve speech recognition. While many listeners benefit from such processing, it can also introduce distortion that offsets or cancels intended benefits for some individuals. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of cognitive ability (working memory) on individual listeners’ responses to distortion caused by frequency compression applied to noisy speech. Design The present study analyzed a large dataset of intelligibility scores for frequency-compressed speech presented in quiet and at a range of signal-to-babble ratios. The intelligibility dataset was based on scores from 26 adults with hearing loss with ages ranging from 62 to 92 years. The listeners were grouped based on working memory ability. The amount of signal modification (distortion) due to frequency compression and noise was measured using a sound quality metric. Analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modeling were used to identify meaningful differences between subject groups as a function of signal distortion caused by frequency compression and noise. Results Working memory was a significant factor in listeners’ intelligibility of sentences presented in babble noise and processed with frequency compression based on sinusoidal modeling. At maximum signal modification (caused by both frequency compression and babble noise), the factor of working memory (when controlling for age and hearing loss) accounted for 29.3% of the variance in intelligibility scores. Combining working memory, age, and hearing loss accounted for a total of 47.5% of the variability in intelligibility scores. Furthermore, as the total amount of signal distortion increased, listeners with higher working memory performed better on the intelligibility task than listeners with lower working memory. Conclusions Working memory is a significant factor in listeners’ responses to total signal distortion caused by cumulative effects of babble noise

  20. Executive and theory-of-mind contributions to event-based prospective memory in children: exploring the self-projection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Ruth M; Driscoll, Timothy; Shum, David; Macaulay, Catrin E

    2012-03-01

    In two studies, 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to name pictures of animals for the benefit of a watching hand puppet (the ongoing task) but to refrain from naming and to remove from view any pictures of dogs (the prospective memory [PM] task). Children also completed assessments of verbal ability, cognitive inhibition, working memory, and false-belief understanding (both studies), empathy (Study 1 only), and performance on false-sign tests that matched the false-belief tests in narrative content and structure (Study 2 only). Both studies found that inhibition and false-belief performance made unique contributions to the variance in PM, although in Study 1 the influence of inhibition was evident only when children needed to withhold naming. Study 2 further demonstrated that false-belief performance was the only reliable predictor of whether children remembered to return to the researcher an object that had been loaned to them prior to the picture-naming game. Both experiments uncovered moderate relations between PM and chronological age, but such relations were rarely significant after taking account of cognitive ability. We consider the implications of the findings for (a) current views regarding frontal/executive contributions to PM development and (b) the suggestion that the same brain network underlies various forms of mental self-projection, including envisioning the future and understanding the minds of other people.

  1. Working memory in middle-aged males: age-related brain activation changes and cognitive fatigue effects.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; Evers, Elisabeth A T; de Groot, Renate H M; Backes, Walter H; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of aging and cognitive fatigue on working memory (WM) related brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Age-related differences were investigated in 13 young and 16 middle-aged male school teachers. Cognitive fatigue was induced by sustained performance on cognitively demanding tasks (compared to a control condition). Results showed a main effect of age on left dorsolateral prefrontal and superior parietal cortex activation during WM encoding; greater activation was evident in middle-aged than young adults regardless of WM load or fatigue condition. An interaction effect was found in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC); WM load-dependent activation was elevated in middle-aged compared to young in the control condition, but did not differ in the fatigue condition due to a reduction in activation in middle-aged in contrast to an increase in activation in the young group. These findings demonstrate age-related activation differences and differential effects of fatigue on activation in young and middle-aged adults.

  2. Aging effects in a Cu-12Al-5Ni-2Mn-1Ti shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Z.G.; Peng, H.Y.; Yang, D.Z.; Zou, W.H.

    1997-04-01

    The isothermal aging effects in an as-quenched Cu-11.88Al-5.06Ni-1.65Mn-0.96Ti (wt pct) shape memory alloy at temperatures in the range 250 C to 400 C were investigated. The changes in the state of atomic order and microstructural evolutions were traced by means of in situ X-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and optical observations. The kinetics of the aging process, i.e., the temperature and time dependence of the properties including hardness, resistivity, martensitic transformation temperatures, and shape memory capacity were characterized, and at least three temperature-dependent aging stages were distinguished: (1) D0{sub 3} or L2{sub 1} atomic reordering, which causes the martensic transformation temperatures to shift upward and leads the M18R martensite to tend to be a N18R type structure; (2) formation of solute-depleted bainite which results in a drastic depression in martensitic transformation temperatures and loss of the shape memory capacity, accompanied by the atomic disordering in both the remaining parent phase and bainite; and (3) precipitation of the equilibrium {alpha} and {gamma}{sub 2} phases and destruction of the shape memory capacity.

  3. Age influences the relation between subjective valence ratings and emotional word use during autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn H; DiGirolamo, Marissa A; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2016-09-01

    Recent research reveals an age-related increase in positive autobiographical memory retrieval using a number of positivity measures, including valence ratings and positive word use. It is currently unclear whether the positivity shift in each of these measures co-occurs, or if age uniquely influences multiple components of autobiographical memory retrieval. The current study examined the correspondence between valence ratings and emotional word use in young and older adults' autobiographical memories. Positive word use in narratives was associated with valence ratings only in young adults' narratives. Older adults' narratives contained a consistent level of positive word use regardless of valence rating, suggesting that positive words and concepts may be chronically accessible to older adults during memory retrieval, regardless of subjective valence. Although a relation between negative word use in narratives and negative valence ratings was apparent in both young and older adults, it was stronger in older adults' narratives. These findings confirm that older adults do vary their word use in accordance with subjective valence, but they do so in a way that is different from young adults. The results also point to a potential dissociation between age-related changes in subjective valence and in positive word use. PMID:26274398

  4. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and progesterone on spatial learning and memory in young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, Karin J; Stone, Ivan J; Ghiraldi, Loraina L

    2008-07-01

    Young (2-4 months) and aged (14-16 months) male Swiss-Webster albino mice (n = 7 per group) were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg/kg/day dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone (P), DHEAS + P, or vehicle control and trained over a 5-day period in a Morris water maze. The subjects were tested 48 hr after training for memory recall as measured by latencies to locate the hidden platform, and trunk blood was collected immediately thereafter. As expected, latency to platform decreased for all groups over the 6 testing days, with aged mice taking longer to reach platform than did young mice. However, results did not support the hypotheses that DHEAS-treated mice would exhibit shorter latencies and that P-treated mice would show longer latencies to platform in comparison with age-matched controls. These results raise doubts about the effectiveness of commercially available supplements claiming to promote enhanced memory in humans.

  5. Human memory T cells with a naive phenotype accumulate with aging and respond to persistent viruses.

    PubMed

    Pulko, Vesna; Davies, John S; Martinez, Carmine; Lanteri, Marion C; Busch, Michael P; Diamond, Michael S; Knox, Kenneth; Bush, Erin C; Sims, Peter A; Sinari, Shripad; Billheimer, Dean; Haddad, Elias K; Murray, Kristy O; Wertheimer, Anne M; Nikolich-Žugich, Janko

    2016-08-01

    The number of naive T cells decreases and susceptibility to new microbial infections increases with age. Here we describe a previously unknown subset of phenotypically naive human CD8(+) T cells that rapidly secreted multiple cytokines in response to persistent viral antigens but differed transcriptionally from memory and effector T cells. The frequency of these CD8(+) T cells, called 'memory T cells with a naive phenotype' (TMNP cells), increased with age and after severe acute infection and inversely correlated with the residual capacity of the immune system to respond to new infections with age. CD8(+) TMNP cells represent a potential new target for the immunotherapy of persistent infections and should be accounted for and subtracted from the naive pool if truly naive T cells are needed to respond to antigens. PMID:27270402

  6. Human Aging Magnifies Genetic Effects on Executive Functioning and Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Irene E.; Chicherio, Christian; Li, Shu-Chen; von Oertzen, Timo; Sander, Thomas; Villringer, Arno; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Bäckman, Lars; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. We assess two common Val/Met polymorphisms, one affecting the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme, which degrades dopamine (DA) in prefrontal cortex (PFC), and the other influencing the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein. In two tasks (Wisconsin Card Sorting and spatial working memory), we find that effects of COMT genotype on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and modulated by BDNF genotype. Older COMT Val homozygotes showed particularly low levels of performance if they were also BDNF Met carriers. The age-associated magnification of COMT gene effects provides novel information on the inverted U-shaped relation linking dopaminergic neuromodulation in PFC to cognitive performance. The modulation of COMT effects by BDNF extends recent evidence of close interactions between frontal and medial-temporal circuitries in executive functioning and working memory. PMID:18958202

  7. Oral administration of squid lecithin-transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bong-Jun; Han, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song; Lee, Yang-Seok; Lee, Hye-Jung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine (PS), which originates from marine life, has received much attention as a viable alternative to bovine cerebral cortex PS. In this study, the use of squid phosphatidylcholine-transphosphatidylated PS (SQ-PS) was evaluated through examination of its ameliorating effects on age-associated learning and memory deficits in rats. Aged rats were orally administered SQ-PS (10, 20, or 50 mg/kg per day) once a day for seven days 30 min prior to behavioral assessment in a Morris water maze. SQ-PS administration produced significant dose-dependent improvements in escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze in the aged rats even though Soy-PS administration also exhibited comparable improvements with SQ-PS. Biochemical alterations in the hippocampal cholinergic system, including changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity, were consistent with the behavioral results. In addition, SQ-PS treatment significantly restored age-associated decreases of choline transporter and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that orally administered SQ-PS dose-dependently aids in the improvement of memory deficits that occur during normal aging in rats. This suggests that SQ-PS may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of diminished memory function in elderly people.

  8. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25528066

  9. Effects of Healthy Ageing on Precision and Binding of Object Location in Visual Short Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19–83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD. PMID:25528066

  10. Age differences in working memory updating: the role of interference, focus switching and substituting information.

    PubMed

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Working memory updating (WMU) tasks require different elements in working memory (WM) to be maintained simultaneously, accessing one of these elements, and substituting its content. This study examined possible developmental changes from childhood to adulthood both in focus switching and substituting information in WM. In addition, possible age-related changes in interference due to representational overlap between the different elements simultaneously held in these tasks were examined. Children (8- and 11-year-olds), adolescents (14-year-olds) and younger adults (mean age=22 years) were administered a numerical updating memory task, in which updating and focus switching were manipulated. As expected, response times decreased and recall performance increased with age. More importantly, the time needed for focus switching was longer in children than in adolescents and younger adults. On the other hand, substitution of information and interference due to representational overlap were not affected by age. These results suggest that age-related changes in focus switching might mediate developmental changes in WMU performance.

  11. Prior parity positively regulates learning and memory in young and middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Zimberknopf, Erica; Xavier, Gilberto F; Kinsley, Craig H; Felicio, Luciano F

    2011-08-01

    Reproductive experience in female rats modifies acquired behaviors, induces long-lasting functional neuroadaptations and can also modify spatial learning and memory. The present study supports and expands this knowledge base by employing the Morris water maze, which measures spatial memory. Age-matched young adult (YNG) nulliparous (NULL; nonmated) and primiparous (PRIM; one pregnancy and lactation) female rats were tested 15 d after the litter's weaning. In addition, corresponding middle-aged (AGD) PRIM (mated in young adulthood so that pregnancy, parturition, and lactation occurred at the same age as in YNG PRIM) and NULL female rats were tested at 18 mo of age. Behavioral evaluation included: 1) acquisition of reference memory (platform location was fixed for 14 to 19 d of testing); 2) retrieval of this information associated with extinction of the acquired response (probe test involving removal of the platform 24 h after the last training session); and 3) performance in a working memory version of the task (platform presented in a novel location every day for 13 d, and maintained in a fixed location within each day). YNG PRIM outperformed NULL rats and showed different behavioral strategies. These results may be related to changes in locomotor, mnemonic, and cognitive processes. In addition, YNG PRIM exhibited less anxiety-like behavior. Compared with YNG rats, AGD rats showed less behavioral flexibility but stronger memory consolidation. These data, which were obtained by using a well-documented spatial task, demonstrate long lasting modifications of behavioral strategies in both YNG and AGD rats associated with a single reproductive experience.

  12. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  13. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Meador, Kimford J; Baker, Gus A; Browning, Nancy; Cohen, Morris J; Bromley, Rebecca L; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D; Pennell, Page B; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Many women of childbearing potential take antiepileptic drugs, but the cognitive effects of fetal exposure are uncertain. We aimed to assess effects of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive outcomes in children up to 6 years of age. Methods In this prospective, observational, assessor-masked, multicentre study, we enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug monotherapy (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, or valproate) between October, 1999, and February, 2004, at 25 epilepsy centres in the UK and the USA. Our primary outcome was intelligence quotient (IQ) at 6 years of age (age-6 IQ) in all children, assessed with linear regression adjusted for maternal IQ, antiepileptic drug type, standardised dose, gestational birth age, and use of periconceptional folate. We also assessed multiple cognitive domains and compared findings with outcomes at younger ages. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00021866. Findings We included 305 mothers and 311 children (six twin pairs) in the primary analysis. 224 children completed 6 years of follow-up (6-year-completer sample). Multivariate analysis of all children showed that age-6 IQ was lower after exposure to valproate (mean 97, 95% CI 94–101) than to carbamazepine (105, 102–108; p=0·0015), lamotrigine (108, 105–110; p=0·0003), or phenytoin (108, 104–112; p=0·0006). Children exposed to valproate did poorly on measures of verbal and memory abilities compared with those exposed to the other antiepileptic drugs and on non-verbal and executive functions compared with lamotrigine (but not carbamazepine or phenytoin). High doses of valproate were negatively associated with IQ (r=−0·56, p<0·0001), verbal ability (r=−0·40, p=0·0045), non-verbal ability (r=−0·42, p=0·0028), memory (r=−0·30, p=0·0434), and executive function (r=−0·42, p=0·0004), but other antiepileptic drugs were not. Age-6 IQ correlated with IQs at younger ages, and IQ

  14. The optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory in physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Manenti, Rosa; Sandrini, Marco; Brambilla, Michela; Cotelli, Maria

    2016-09-15

    Episodic memory displays the largest degree of age-related decline. A noninvasive brain stimulation technique that can be used to modulate memory in physiological aging is transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS). However, an aspect that has not been adequately investigated in previous studies is the optimal timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function. Our previous studies showed episodic memory enhancement in older adults when anodal tDCS was applied over the left lateral prefrontal cortex during encoding or after memory consolidation with or without a contextual reminder. Here we directly compared the two studies to explore which of the tDCS protocols would induce longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory function in older adults. In addition, we aimed to determine whether subjective memory complaints would be related to the changes in memory performance (forgetting) induced by tDCS, a relevant issue in aging research since individuals with subjective memory complaints seem to be at higher risk of later memory decline. The results showed that anodal tDCS applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder induced longer-lasting positive effects on episodic memory, conceivably through reconsolidation, than anodal tDCS during encoding. Furthermore, we reported, providing new data, a moderate negative correlation between subjective memory complaints and forgetting when anodal tDCS was applied after consolidation with a contextual reminder. This study sheds light on the best-suited timing of stimulation to induce long-lasting positive effects on memory function and might help the clinicians to select the most effective tDCS protocol to prevent memory decline. PMID:27185737

  15. Prospective memory rehabilitation using smartphones in patients with TBI: What do participants report?

    PubMed

    Evald, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Use of assistive devices has been shown to be beneficial as a compensatory memory strategy among brain injury survivors, but little is known about possible advantages and disadvantages of the technology. As part of an intervention study participants were interviewed about their experiences with the use of low-cost, off-the-shelf, unmodified smartphones combined with Internet calendars as a compensatory memory strategy. Thirteen community-dwelling patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) received a 6-week group-based instruction in the systematic use of a smartphone as a memory compensatory aid followed by a brief structured open-ended interview regarding satisfaction with and advantages and disadvantages of the compensatory strategy. Ten of 13 participants continued to use a smartphone as their primary compensatory strategy. Audible and visual reminders were the most frequently mentioned advantages of the smartphone, and, second, the capability as an all-in-one memory device. In contrast, battery life was the most often mentioned disadvantage, followed by concerns about loss or failure of the device. Use of a smartphone seems to be a satisfactory compensatory memory strategy to many patients with TBI and smartphones come with features that are advantageous to other compensatory strategies. However, some benefits come hand-in-hand with drawbacks, such as the feeling of dependency. These aspects should be taken into account when choosing assistive technology as a memory compensatory strategy.

  16. Prospective memory rehabilitation using smartphones in patients with TBI: What do participants report?

    PubMed

    Evald, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Use of assistive devices has been shown to be beneficial as a compensatory memory strategy among brain injury survivors, but little is known about possible advantages and disadvantages of the technology. As part of an intervention study participants were interviewed about their experiences with the use of low-cost, off-the-shelf, unmodified smartphones combined with Internet calendars as a compensatory memory strategy. Thirteen community-dwelling patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) received a 6-week group-based instruction in the systematic use of a smartphone as a memory compensatory aid followed by a brief structured open-ended interview regarding satisfaction with and advantages and disadvantages of the compensatory strategy. Ten of 13 participants continued to use a smartphone as their primary compensatory strategy. Audible and visual reminders were the most frequently mentioned advantages of the smartphone, and, second, the capability as an all-in-one memory device. In contrast, battery life was the most often mentioned disadvantage, followed by concerns about loss or failure of the device. Use of a smartphone seems to be a satisfactory compensatory memory strategy to many patients with TBI and smartphones come with features that are advantageous to other compensatory strategies. However, some benefits come hand-in-hand with drawbacks, such as the feeling of dependency. These aspects should be taken into account when choosing assistive technology as a memory compensatory strategy. PMID:25333304

  17. Changes in whole-brain functional networks and memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Sala-Llonch, Roser; Junqué, Carme; Arenaza-Urquijo, Eider M; Vidal-Piñeiro, Dídac; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Palacios, Eva M; Domènech, Sara; Salvà, Antoni; Bargalló, Nuria; Bartrés-Faz, David

    2014-10-01

    We used resting-functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 98 healthy older adults to analyze how local and global measures of functional brain connectivity are affected by age, and whether they are related to differences in memory performance. Whole-brain networks were created individually by parcellating the brain into 90 cerebral regions and obtaining pairwise connectivity. First, we studied age-associations in interregional connectivity and their relationship with the length of the connections. Aging was associated with less connectivity in the long-range connections of fronto-parietal and fronto-occipital systems and with higher connectivity of the short-range connections within frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. We also used the graph theory to measure functional integration and segregation. The pattern of the overall age-related correlations presented positive correlations of average minimum path length (r = 0.380, p = 0.008) and of global clustering coefficients (r = 0.454, p < 0.001), leading to less integrated and more segregated global networks. Main correlations in clustering coefficients were located in the frontal and parietal lobes. Higher clustering coefficients of some areas were related to lower performance in verbal and visual memory functions. In conclusion, we found that older participants showed lower connectivity of long-range connections together with higher functional segregation of these same connections, which appeared to indicate a more local clustering of information processing. Higher local clustering in older participants was negatively related to memory performance.

  18. The effects of aging on lifetime of auditory sensory memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Lin, Yung-Yang

    2012-02-01

    The amplitude change of cortical responses to repeated stimulation with respect to different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) is considered as an index of sensory memory. To determine the effect of aging on lifetime of auditory sensory memory, N100m responses were recorded in young, middle-aged, and elderly healthy volunteers (n=15 for each group). Trains of 5 successive tones were presented with an inter-train interval of 10 s. In separate sessions, the within-train ISIs were 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 s. The amplitude ratio between N100m responses to the first and fifth stimuli (S5/S1 N100m ratio) within each ISI condition was obtained to reflect the recovery cycle profile. The recovery function time constant (τ) was smaller in the elderly (1.06±0.26 s, p<0.001) and middle-aged (1.70±0.25 s, p=0.009) groups compared with the young group (2.77±0.25 s). In conclusion, the present study suggests an aging-related decrease in lifetime of auditory sensory memory.

  19. Role of F3/contactin expression profile in synaptic plasticity and memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Puzzo, Daniela; Bizzoca, Antonella; Loreto, Carla; Guida, Chiara A; Gulisano, Walter; Frasca, Giuseppina; Bellomo, Maria; Castorina, Sergio; Gennarini, Gianfranco; Palmeri, Agostino

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that overexpression of the F3/contactin adhesive glycoprotein (also known as Contactin-1) promotes neurogenesis in adult hippocampus, which correlates with improved synaptic plasticity and memory. Because F3/contactin levels physiologically decrease with age, here, we aim at investigating whether its overexpression might counteract the cognitive decline in aged animals. For this we use 20- to 24-month-old TAG/F3 transgenic mice in which F3/contactin overexpression is driven by regulatory sequences from the gene encoding the transient axonal glycoprotein TAG-1 throughout development. We show that aged TAG/F3 mice display improved hippocampal long-term potentiation and memory compared with wild-type littermates. The same mice undergo a decrease of neuronal apoptosis at the hippocampal level, which correlated to a decrease of active caspase-3; by contrast, procaspase-3 and Bax as well as the anti-apoptotic and plasticity-related pathway BDNF/CREB/Bcl-2 were rather increased. Interestingly, amyloid-precursor protein processing was shifted toward sAPPα generation, with a decrease of sAPPβ and amyloid-beta levels. Our data confirm that F3/contactin plays a role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory also in aged mice, suggesting that it acts on molecular pathways related to apoptosis and amyloid-beta production.

  20. DRYAD and ADH: Further comments on explaining age-related differences in memory.

    PubMed

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Smyth, Andrea C

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) questioned some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD (or density of representations yields age-related deficits), a global-deficit model of aging and memory judgments (Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin et al., 2012). Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) provided empirical evidence that seems incompatible with DRYAD, but that fits the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH; Naveh-Benjamin, 2000), 1 specific-deficit theoretical view. In response, Aaron Benjamin (2016) offered a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the DRYAD and the ADH, and the potential ways they might work together. We agree with many of his comments, but are not convinced that DRYAD is able to explain basic replicable empirical evidence of the type mentioned in Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016). We discuss the reasons why we are not fully convinced by the demonstration of DRYAD's simulation of results presented in Benjamin (2016) and then present an implementation of ADH in a computationally based age-related impaired neuromodulation approach that was shown to simulate the basic empirical results of age-related associative memory deficits. We also discuss the issues of parsimony of theories and the appropriate type of representation, in the context of global versus specific deficits theoretical views. Finally, we show that the ADH's take on the distinction between items and associations has been adopted by some global computational models of memory. We believe that considerations of the above issues and others raised by Benjamin (2016) can lead to fruitful discussions that will benefit both theory development and existing knowledge of aging and memory.

  1. Reassessing the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on hippocampal memory and cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Castellano, James F; Fletcher, Bonnie R; Patzke, Holger; Long, Jeffrey M; Sewal, Angila; Kim, David H; Kelley-Bell, Bennett; Rapp, Peter R

    2014-08-01

    Converging results link histone acetylation dynamics to hippocampus-dependent memory, including evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration enhances long-term memory. Previously, we demonstrated that aging disrupts the coordinated epigenetic response to recent experience observed in the young adult hippocampus. Here, we extended that work to test the cognitive effects of a novel, brain-penetrant HDACi (EVX001688; EVX) that we confirmed yields robust, relatively long lasting dose-dependent increases in histone acetylation in the hippocampus. In young rats, acute systemic EVX administration, scheduled to yield elevated histone acetylation levels during training in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task, had no effect on memory retention at 24 h at any dose examined (10, 30, or 60 mg/kg). Pretraining injection of another HDACi, sodium butyrate, also failed to affect fear memory, and CFC training itself had no influence on hippocampal histone acetylation at 1 hour in mice or two strains of rats. EVX administration before water maze training in young rats yielded a modest effect such that the middle dose produced marginally better 24-h retention than either the low or high dose, but only a small numerical benefit relative to vehicle. Guided by those findings, a final experiment tested the influence of pretraining EVX treatment on age-related spatial memory impairment. The results, revealing no effect on performance, are consistent with the idea that effective procognitive HDACi treatments in aging may require intervention aimed at restoring coordinated epigenetic regulation rather than bulk increases in hippocampal histone acetylation. PMID:24753063

  2. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  3. Reversal of aging-related emotional memory deficits by norepinephrine via regulating the stability of surface AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Zhou, Jun; Li, Ming-Xing; Wu, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Jin, You; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related emotional memory deficit is a well-known complication in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. To address this issue, we examined the role of norepinephrine (NE) and its relevant drug desipramine in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), surface expression of AMPA receptor, and associative fear memory in rats. We found that there was a defective regulation of NE content and AMPA receptor trafficking during fear conditioning, which were accompanied by impaired emotional memory and LTP in aged rats. Furthermore, we also found that the exogenous upregulation of NE ameliorated the impairment of LTP and emotional memory via enhancing AMPA receptor trafficking in aged rats, and the downregulation of NE impaired LTP in adult rats. Finally, acute treatment with NE or desipramine rescued the impaired emotional memory in aged rats. These results imply a pivotal role for NE in synaptic plasticity and associative fear memory in aging rats and suggest that desipramine is a potential candidate for treating aging-related emotional memory deficit.

  4. Beneficial effects of folic acid on enhancement of memory and antioxidant status in aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Kanwar, Shalinder S; Sood, Pooja K; Nehru, Bimla

    2011-01-01

    As our population ages, diseases affecting memory and daily functioning will affect an increasing number of individuals, their families and the healthcare system. Therefore, there is a need to study and evaluate effects of certain conditions for anti-aging of the brain. Nutrient supplementation can modify the brain function. The chemistry and function of both the developing and the mature brain are influenced by diet (Fernstrom, Am J Clinical Nutrition 71:1669S-1673S, 2000). Clinical, biochemical, and pathological aspects have shown a correlation between mental symptoms, especially depression and cognitive decline, with high incidence of folate deficiency (Bottiglieri et al., J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 69:562, 2000). In the present study, consequences of folic acid supplementation on brain dysfunction as a result of aging were studied in cerebral cortex, mid brain, and cerebellar regions of rat brain. This study was carried out on 6-, 11-, and 16-month-old rats, which received folic acid at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight/day for a period of 8 weeks. Respective control groups of the same age groups were also taken. At the end of the treatment duration, behavioral studies were performed and later the animals were killed for various biochemical and histological investigations. Results indicated significant improvement in memory as assessed by active avoidance, passive avoidance, and plus maze tests in the folic acid supplemented aged animals. Significant improvement was also seen in the cellular protective mechanisms where by the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes increased in folic acid supplemented group and so was the glutathione content. Increased lipid peroxidation content, a marker of aging, was also found to be decreased during folic acid supplementation in all the three regions of brain in our study. Thus, it can be concluded that folic acid helps in improving the memory status by reducing oxidative stress and maintaining the integrity of

  5. Implicit memory for novel associations between pictures: effects of stimulus unitization and aging

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Margaret M.; Martin, Elizabeth; Parks-Stamm, Elizabeth J.; Lewis, Lindsay; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    Studies of implicit memory for novel associations have focused primarily on verbal materials and have highlighted the contribution of conceptually unitized representations to such priming. Using pictorial stimuli in a perceptual identification task, we examined whether new association priming can occur at a purely perceptual level. By manipulating the spatial contiguity of stimuli, we also evaluated whether such priming requires the creation of perceptually unitized representations. Finally, we examined the status of such priming in aging. In Experiment 1, we found that spatial contiguity of stimuli is not necessary for novel pictorial association priming to emerge, although such contiguity does enhance the magnitude of associative priming. In Experiment 2, we found that new association priming is age invariant, regardless of spatial contiguity. In Experiment 3, we provide additional evidence that pictorial association priming is perceptually based. These findings expand the scope and delineate the conditions of novel association priming and inform theories about the nature of implicit memory for new associations. PMID:21286899

  6. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Angela; Dennis, Nancy A.; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In recent years bilingualism has been linked to both advantages in executive control and positive impacts on aging. Such positive cognitive effects of bilingualism have been attributed to the increased need for language control during bilingual processing and increased cognitive reserve, respectively. However, a mechanistic explanation of how bilingual experience contributes to cognitive reserve is still lacking. The current paper proposes a new focus on bilingual memory as an avenue to explore the relationship between executive control and cognitive reserve. We argue that this focus will enhance our understanding of the functional and structural neural mechanisms underlying bilingualism-induced cognitive effects. With this perspective we discuss and integrate recent cognitive and neuroimaging work on bilingual advantage, and suggest an account that links cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and brain reserve in bilingual aging and memory. PMID:25520695

  7. The Intersection of Aging, Longevity Pathways, and Learning and Memory in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Geneva M.; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the molecular and genetic regulation of aging and longevity has been greatly augmented through studies using the small model system, C. elegans. It is important to test whether mutations that result in a longer life span also extend the health span of the organism, rather than simply prolonging an aged state. C. elegans can learn and remember both associated and non-associated stimuli, and many of these learning and memory paradigms are subject to regulation by longevity pathways. One of the more distressing results of aging is cognitive decline, and while no gross physical defects in C. elegans sensory neurons have been identified, the organism does lose the ability to perform both simple and complex learned behaviors with age. Here we review what is known about the effects of longevity pathways and the decline of these complex learned behaviors with age, and we highlight outstanding questions in the field. PMID:23226155

  8. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history.

  9. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  10. Age and active navigation effects on episodic memory: A virtual reality study.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Taillade, Mathieu; Guitton, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the navigation-related age effects on learning, proactive interference semantic clustering, recognition hits, and false recognitions in a naturalistic situation using a virtual apartment-based task. We also examined the neuropsychological correlates (executive functioning [EF] and episodic memory) of navigation-related age effects on memory. Younger and older adults either actively navigated or passively followed the computer-guided tour of an apartment. The results indicated that active navigation increased recognition hits compared with passive navigation, but it did not influence other memory measures (learning, proactive interference, and semantic clustering) to a similar extent in either age group. Furthermore, active navigation helped to reduce false recognitions in younger adults but increased those made by older adults. This differential effect of active navigation for younger and older adults was accounted for by EF score. Like for the subject-performed task effects, the effects from the navigation manipulation were well accounted for by item-specific/relational processing distinction, and they were also consistent with a source monitoring deficit in older adults.

  11. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  12. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Studies of Memory, Aging, and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Febo, Marcelo; Foster, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides for non-invasive evaluation of brain structure and activity and has been employed to suggest possible mechanisms for cognitive aging in humans. However, these imaging procedures have limits in terms of defining cellular and molecular mechanisms. In contrast, investigations of cognitive aging in animal models have mostly utilized techniques that have offered insight on synaptic, cellular, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms affecting memory. Studies employing magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI and MRS, respectively) in animal models have emerged as an integrative set of techniques bridging localized cellular/molecular phenomenon and broader in vivo neural network alterations. MRI methods are remarkably suited to longitudinal tracking of cognitive function over extended periods permitting examination of the trajectory of structural or activity related changes. Combined with molecular and electrophysiological tools to selectively drive activity within specific brain regions, recent studies have begun to unlock the meaning of fMRI signals in terms of the role of neural plasticity and types of neural activity that generate the signals. The techniques provide a unique opportunity to causally determine how memory-relevant synaptic activity is processed and how memories may be distributed or reconsolidated over time. The present review summarizes research employing animal MRI and MRS in the study of brain function, structure, and biochemistry, with a particular focus on age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27468264

  13. Effects of Emotion and Age on Performance During a Think/No-Think Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Brendan D.; Muscatell, Keely A.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that young adults can voluntarily suppress information from memory when directed to. After learning novel word pairings to criterion, participants are shown individual words and instructed either to “think” about the associated word, or to put it out of mind entirely (“no-think”). When given a surprise cued recall test, participants typically show impaired recall for “no-think” words relative to “think” or “control” (un-manipulated) words. The present study investigated whether this controlled suppression effect persists in an aged population, and examined how the emotionality of the to-be-suppressed word affects suppression ability. Data from four experiments using the think/no-think task demonstrate that older and younger adults can suppress information when directed to (Experiment 1), and the age groups do not differ significantly in this ability. Experiments 2 through 4 demonstrate that both age groups can suppress words that are emotional (positive or negative valence) or neutral. The suppression effect also persists even if participants are tested using independent probe words that are semantically related to the target words but were not the studied cue words (Experiments 3 and 4). These data suggest that the cognitive functioning necessary to suppress information from memory is present in older adulthood, and that both emotional and neutral information can be successfully suppressed from memory. PMID:21517183

  14. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function. PMID:26475179

  15. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Studies of Memory, Aging, and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Febo, Marcelo; Foster, Thomas C

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides for non-invasive evaluation of brain structure and activity and has been employed to suggest possible mechanisms for cognitive aging in humans. However, these imaging procedures have limits in terms of defining cellular and molecular mechanisms. In contrast, investigations of cognitive aging in animal models have mostly utilized techniques that have offered insight on synaptic, cellular, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms affecting memory. Studies employing magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI and MRS, respectively) in animal models have emerged as an integrative set of techniques bridging localized cellular/molecular phenomenon and broader in vivo neural network alterations. MRI methods are remarkably suited to longitudinal tracking of cognitive function over extended periods permitting examination of the trajectory of structural or activity related changes. Combined with molecular and electrophysiological tools to selectively drive activity within specific brain regions, recent studies have begun to unlock the meaning of fMRI signals in terms of the role of neural plasticity and types of neural activity that generate the signals. The techniques provide a unique opportunity to causally determine how memory-relevant synaptic activity is processed and how memories may be distributed or reconsolidated over time. The present review summarizes research employing animal MRI and MRS in the study of brain function, structure, and biochemistry, with a particular focus on age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27468264

  16. False memories and normal aging: Links between inhibitory capacities and monitoring processes.

    PubMed

    Colombel, Fabienne; Tessoulin, Marine; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Corson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests an increased production of false memories with advancing age. The activation-monitoring theory proposes that strategic monitoring processes influence the probability of false recall in the DRM paradigm. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that a low level of inhibition may impair the efficient use of monitoring processes during information retrieval and thus increase the production of false memories in aging. Accordingly, we conducted a study in which older adults with low or high levels of inhibition performed a standard DRM task or an inclusion DRM task that disables monitoring processes. The results indicated that low inhibitory capacities were associated with fewer correct recalls and increased production of critical lures (false memories), suggesting difficulties in using monitoring processes at the time of retrieval. Our findings also showed that the relationship between Age and the production of critical lures in a standard DRM task is mediated by Inhibition. These results are interpreted as suggesting that inhibitory abilities may partly be linked to the impairment of monitoring processes in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Age and active navigation effects on episodic memory: A virtual reality study.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Taillade, Mathieu; Guitton, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the navigation-related age effects on learning, proactive interference semantic clustering, recognition hits, and false recognitions in a naturalistic situation using a virtual apartment-based task. We also examined the neuropsychological correlates (executive functioning [EF] and episodic memory) of navigation-related age effects on memory. Younger and older adults either actively navigated or passively followed the computer-guided tour of an apartment. The results indicated that active navigation increased recognition hits compared with passive navigation, but it did not influence other memory measures (learning, proactive interference, and semantic clustering) to a similar extent in either age group. Furthermore, active navigation helped to reduce false recognitions in younger adults but increased those made by older adults. This differential effect of active navigation for younger and older adults was accounted for by EF score. Like for the subject-performed task effects, the effects from the navigation manipulation were well accounted for by item-specific/relational processing distinction, and they were also consistent with a source monitoring deficit in older adults. PMID:26756717

  18. Short-term memory development: differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes.

    PubMed

    Koppenol-Gonzalez, Gabriela V; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K

    2014-10-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in cognitive performance within an age group is considered to be measurement error. However, if a part of this variance is systematic, it can provide very useful information about the cognitive processes used by some children of a certain age but not others. In the current study, we presented 210 children aged 5 to 12 years with serial order short-term memory tasks. First we analyze our data according to the approach using age groups, and then we apply latent class analysis to form latent classes of children based on their performance instead of their ages. We display the results of the age groups and the latent classes in terms of serial position curves, and we discuss the differences in results. Our findings show that there are considerable differences in performance between the age groups and the latent classes. We interpret our findings as indicating that the latent class analysis yielded a much more meaningful way of grouping children in terms of cognitive processes than the a priori grouping of children based on their ages.

  19. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men.

  20. Normal aging affects movement execution but not visual motion working memory and decision-making delay during cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kikuro; Barnes, Graham R; Ito, Norie; Olley, Peter M; Warabi, Tateo

    2014-07-01

    Aging affects virtually all functions including sensory/motor and cognitive activities. While retinal image motion is the primary input for smooth-pursuit, its efficiency/accuracy depends on cognitive processes. Elderly subjects exhibit gain decrease during initial and steady-state pursuit, but reports on latencies are conflicting. Using a cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit task, we identified important extra-retinal mechanisms for initial pursuit in young adults including cue information priming and extra-retinal drive components (Ito et al. in Exp Brain Res 229:23-35, 2013). We examined aging effects on parameters for smooth-pursuit using the same tasks. Elderly subjects were tested during three task conditions as previously described: memory-based pursuit, simple ramp-pursuit just to follow motion of a single spot, and popping-out of the correct spot during memory-based pursuit to enhance retinal image motion. Simple ramp-pursuit was used as a task that did not require visual motion working memory. To clarify aging effects, we then compared the results with the previous young subject data. During memory-based pursuit, elderly subjects exhibited normal working memory of cue information. Most movement-parameters including pursuit latencies differed significantly between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit and also between young and elderly subjects. Popping-out of the correct spot motion was ineffective for enhancing initial pursuit in elderly subjects. However, the latency difference between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit in individual subjects, which includes decision-making delay in the memory task, was similar between the two groups. Our results suggest that smooth-pursuit latencies depend on task conditions and that, although the extra-retinal mechanisms were functional for initial pursuit in elderly subjects, they were less effective.

  1. Normal aging affects movement execution but not visual motion working memory and decision-making delay during cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kikuro; Barnes, Graham R; Ito, Norie; Olley, Peter M; Warabi, Tateo

    2014-07-01

    Aging affects virtually all functions including sensory/motor and cognitive activities. While retinal image motion is the primary input for smooth-pursuit, its efficiency/accuracy depends on cognitive processes. Elderly subjects exhibit gain decrease during initial and steady-state pursuit, but reports on latencies are conflicting. Using a cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit task, we identified important extra-retinal mechanisms for initial pursuit in young adults including cue information priming and extra-retinal drive components (Ito et al. in Exp Brain Res 229:23-35, 2013). We examined aging effects on parameters for smooth-pursuit using the same tasks. Elderly subjects were tested during three task conditions as previously described: memory-based pursuit, simple ramp-pursuit just to follow motion of a single spot, and popping-out of the correct spot during memory-based pursuit to enhance retinal image motion. Simple ramp-pursuit was used as a task that did not require visual motion working memory. To clarify aging effects, we then compared the results with the previous young subject data. During memory-based pursuit, elderly subjects exhibited normal working memory of cue information. Most movement-parameters including pursuit latencies differed significantly between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit and also between young and elderly subjects. Popping-out of the correct spot motion was ineffective for enhancing initial pursuit in elderly subjects. However, the latency difference between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit in individual subjects, which includes decision-making delay in the memory task, was similar between the two groups. Our results suggest that smooth-pursuit latencies depend on task conditions and that, although the extra-retinal mechanisms were functional for initial pursuit in elderly subjects, they were less effective. PMID:24736861

  2. Acute effects of 17 β-estradiol and genistein on insulin sensitivity and spatial memory in aged ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Ana; González-Pardo, Héctor; Garrido, Pablo; Conejo, Nélida M; Llaneza, Plácido; Díaz, Fernando; Del Rey, Carmen González; González, Celestino

    2010-12-01

    Aging is characterized by decline in metabolic function and insulin resistance, and both seem to be in the basis of neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive dysfunction. Estrogens prevent age-related changes, and phytoestrogens influence learning and memory. Our hypothesis was that estradiol and genistein, using rapid-action mechanisms, are able to modify insulin sensitivity, process of learning, and spatial memory. Young and aged ovariectomized rats received acute treatment with estradiol or genistein. Aged animals were more insulin-resistant than young. In each age, estradiol and genistein-treated animals were less insulin-resistant than the others, except in the case of young animals treated with high doses of genistein. In aged rats, no differences between groups were found in spatial memory test, showing a poor performance in the water maze task. However, young females treated with estradiol or high doses of genistein performed well in spatial memory task like the control group. Only rats treated with high doses of genistein showed an optimal spatial memory similar to the control group. Conversely, acute treatment with high doses of phytoestrogens improved spatial memory consolidation only in young rats, supporting the critical period hypothesis for the beneficial effects of estrogens on memory. Therefore, genistein treatment seems to be suitable treatment in aged rats in order to prevent insulin resistance but not memory decline associated with aging. Acute genistein treatment is not effective to restore insulin resistance associated to the early loss of ovarian function, although it can be useful to improve memory deficits in this condition. PMID:20467821

  3. Bilingualism interacts with domain in a working memory task: evidence from aging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I M; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Younger and older adults who were either monolingual or bilingual were tested with verbal and spatial working memory (WM) span tasks. Aging was associated with a greater decline in spatial WM than in verbal WM, but the age-related declines were equivalent in both language groups. The bilingual participants outperformed the monolinguals in spatial WM, but achieved lower levels of performance than monolinguals in verbal WM. This interaction between bilingualism and WM domain was also consistent across the adult life span. These results are discussed in terms of the interactions between a domain-general executive processing advantage for bilinguals and the domain-specific content of particular WM tasks.

  4. Role of Aging and Hippocampus in Time-Place Learning: Link to Episodic-Like Memory?

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, C. K.; Gerkema, M. P.; Van der Zee, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: With time-place learning (TPL), animals link an event with the spatial location and the time of day (TOD). The what–where–when TPL components make the task putatively episodic-like in nature. Animals use an internal sense of time to master TPL, which is circadian system based. Finding indications for a role of the hippocampus and (early) aging-sensitivity in TPL would strengthen the episodic-like memory nature of the paradigm. Methods: Previously, we used C57Bl/6 mice for our TPL research. Here, we used CD1 mice which are less hippocampal-driven and age faster compared to C57Bl/6 mice. To demonstrate the low degree of hippocampal-driven performance in CD1 mice, a cross maze was used. The spontaneous alternation test was used to score spatial working memory in CD1 mice at four different age categories (young (3–6 months), middle-aged (7–11 months), aged (12–18 months) and old (>19 months). TPL performance of middle-aged and aged CD1 mice was tested in a setup with either two or three time points per day (2-arm or 3-arm TPL task). Immunostainings were applied on brains of young and middle-aged C57Bl/6 mice that had successfully mastered the 3-arm TPL task. Results: In contrast to C57Bl/6 mice, middle-aged and aged CD1 mice were less hippocampus-driven and failed to master the 3-arm TPL task. They could, however, master the 2-arm TPL task primarily via an ordinal (non-circadian) timing system. c-Fos, CRY2, vasopressin (AVP), and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) were investigated. We found no differences at the level of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN; circadian master clock), whereas CRY2 expression was increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The most pronounced difference between TPL trained and control mice was found in c-Fos expression in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, a circadian system relay station. Conclusions: These results further indicate a key role of CRY proteins in TPL and confirm the

  5. Age Differences in the Rejection of False Memories: The Effects of Giving Warning Instructions and Slowing the Presentation Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Paula; Fernandez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine whether children of different ages differ in their ability to reject associative false memories with the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Two different types of manipulations that are thought to facilitate false memory rejection in adults--slowing the presentation rate and issuing explicit…

  6. Structural and Metabolic Correlates of Episodic Memory in Relation to the Depth of Encoding in Normal Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalpouzos, Gregoria; Chetelat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Clochon, Patrice; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Beatrice

    2009-01-01

    This study set out to establish the relationship between changes in episodic memory retrieval in normal aging on the one hand and gray matter volume and [superscript 18]FDG uptake on the other. Structural MRI, resting-state [superscript 18]FDG-PET, and an episodic memory task manipulating the depth of encoding and the retention interval were…

  7. Spatial reference memory in normal aging Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 hybrid rats.

    PubMed

    McQuail, Joseph A; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2015-01-01

    Fischer 344 × Brown Norway F1 (F344 × BN-F1) hybrid rats express greater longevity with improved health relative to aging rodents of other strains; however, few behavioral reports have thoroughly evaluated cognition across the F344 × BN-F1 lifespan. Consequently, this study evaluated spatial reference memory in F344 × BN-F1 rats at 6, 18, 24, or 28 months of age in the Morris water maze. Reference memory decrements were observed between 6 and 18 months and 18 and 24 months. At 28 months, spatial learning was not worse than 24 months, but swim speed was significantly slower. Reliable individual differences revealed that ∼50% of 24- to 28-month-old rats performed similarly to 6 months, whereas others were spatial learning impaired. Aged rats were impaired at learning within daily training sessions but not impaired at retaining information between days of training. Aged rats were also slower to learn to escape onto the platform, regardless of strategy. In summary, these data clarify the trajectory of cognitive decline in aging F344 × BN-F1 rats and elucidate relevant behavioral parameters.

  8. Memory impairment in aged primates is associated with region-specific network dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Thomé, Alexander; Gray, Daniel T.; Erickson, Cynthia A.; Lipa, Peter; Barnes, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Age-related deficits in episodic memory result, in part, from declines in the integrity of medial temporal lobe structures, such as the hippocampus, but are not thought to be due to widespread loss of principal neurons. Studies in rodents suggest, however, that inhibitory interneurons may be particularly vulnerable in advanced age. Optimal encoding and retrieval of information depend on a balance of excitatory and inhibitory transmission. It is not known whether a disruption of this balance is observed in aging nonhuman primates, and whether such changes affect network function and behavior. To examine this question we combine large scale electrophysiological recordings with cell type-specific imaging in the medial temporal lobe of cognitively-assessed, aged rhesus macaques. We found that neuron excitability in hippocampal region CA3 is negatively correlated with the density of the somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in the vicinity of the recording electrodes in stratum oriens. By contrast, no hyperexcitability or interneuron loss was observed in the perirhinal cortex of these aged, memory-impaired monkeys. These data provide a link, for the first time, between selective increases in principal cell excitability and declines in a molecularly-defined population of interneurons that regulate network inhibition. PMID:26503764

  9. Effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency on corticosterone, emotional memory and neuroinflammation in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Bouji, Marc; Lecomte, Anthony; Hode, Yannick; de Seze, René; Villégier, Anne-Sophie

    2012-06-01

    The widespread use of mobile phones raises the question of the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF, 900 MHz) on the brain. Previous studies reported increased levels of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the rat's brain after a single exposure to 900 MHz global system for mobile (GSM) signal, suggesting a potential inflammatory process. While this result was obtained in adult rats, no data is currently available in older animals. Since the transition from middle-age to senescence is highly dependent on environment and lifestyle, we studied the reactivity of middle-aged brains to EMF exposure. We assessed the effects of a single 15 min GSM exposure (900 MHz; specific absorption rate (SAR)=6 W/kg) on GFAP expression in young adults (6 week-old) and middle-aged rats (12 month-old). Brain interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, plasmatic levels of corticosterone (CORT), and emotional memory were also assessed. Our data indicated that, in contrast to previously published work, acute GSM exposure did not induce astrocyte activation. Our results showed an IL-1β increase in the olfactory bulb and enhanced contextual emotional memory in GSM-exposed middle-aged rats, and increased plasmatic levels of CORT in GSM-exposed young adults. Altogether, our data showed an age dependency of reactivity to GSM exposure in neuro-immunity, stress and behavioral parameters. Reproducing these effects and studying their mechanisms may allow a better understanding of mobile phone EMF effects on neurobiological parameters.

  10. Quantum dot based memory devices: Current status and future prospect by simulation perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Darma, Y. Rusydi, A.

    2014-02-24

    We discuss the simulation of floating gate MOSFET memory performance consists of Si/Ge/Si quantum dots for electronics storage nodes with higk-κ material as the tunnel oxide. Heterostructure quantum dot was proposed to maintain the good memory performance without losing the long retention characteristic. As the results, retention time could be increase significantly without deteriorating the writing/erasing speed. By selected the dot size of 9–15nm and the tunnel oxide thickness of 2nm, the retention characteristic can reach up to 10{sup 9}s while the writing and erasing time at the order of 10{sup −6}s. By replace the SiO{sub 2} tunnel oxide with high-κ material such as HfO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} the leakage current due to the shrinkage of tunnel oxide thickness can be suppressed by the factor of 10 for the EOT lower than ∼1nm. Moreover, the charge-trapping that generated by the defect at Si substrate and higk-κ material interface are fully considered. We found that, the charge-trapping affects the retention time and memory operation performance. By increasing the charge-trapping depth and width, the memory operation time decrease significantly while the retention characteristic slightly improved.

  11. Recall of Childhood Trauma: A Prospective Study of Women's Memories of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda Meyer

    1994-01-01

    Of the 129 women interviewed, a large portion (38%) did not recall abuse reported 17 years earlier. Those who were younger when abuse occurred or were molested by an acquaintance were more likely to have no recall. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Periods with no memory should not suggest abuse never occurred. (52 references)…

  12. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: Examining the stages of change detection

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old–new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old–new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central–parietal old–new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old–new effect. The younger adults’ early old–new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults’ behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults. PMID:24420648

  13. The effect and mechanisms of implementation intentions on prospective memory in individuals with and without schizotypal personality features.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xing-Jie; Wang, Ya; Liu, Lu-Lu; Shi, Hai-Song; Wang, Jing; Cui, Ji-Fang; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to do something at a future time. Studies have shown that implementation intention can improve PM performance. The present study aimed to examine the effect and mechanism of implementation intention on PM in individuals prone for schizotypal personality disorder (SPD proneness) in a laboratory condition. A total of 51 participants with SPD proneness and 51 controls were administered a PM task. They were further randomly assigned to an implementation intention condition and a typical instruction condition. All participants completed the PM task with low and high cognitive load conditions. The results showed that implementation intention improved PM performances in both SPD prone and control groups, indicating that implementation intention was an effective strategy for improving PM performance. However, the mechanisms were different for the two groups. For controls, implementation intention did not affect their cognitive resources allocation strategy. Participants with SPD proneness allocated significantly more cognitive resources to the PM task in the implementation intention condition.

  14. Abnormal differentiation of newborn granule cells in age-related working memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Nyffeler, Myriel; Yee, Benjamin K; Feldon, Joram; Knuesel, Irene

    2010-11-01

    Age-related declines in spatial memory have been linked to abnormal functional properties and connectivity of newborn granule cells. However, the relationship between adult neurogenesis, aging, and cognitive performance seems more complex than previously anticipated, likely due to the difficulty of disentangling alterations related to training as such and those associated with cognitive performance. Here, we investigated how different aspects of adult neurogenesis might be related to training, age and cognitive performance amongst aged subjects by comparing behaviourally naïve and tested rats of 3, 6, 24mo of age. We separated aged rats into learning-impaired and -unimpaired groups based on their performance in the Morris water maze to investigate neurogenesis-related morphological and neurochemical changes. We report an age-related decline in cell proliferation and maturation independent of cognitive performance and testing. We confirm an age-related altered differentiation of newborn neurons which was particularly prominent in learning-impaired rats. This was associated with an abnormally prolonged expression of the early progenitor marker Nestin, potentially also affecting maturation, survival/integration of newborn neurons into existing neuronal networks, which might underlie the individual differences in cognitive performance during aging.

  15. Ferulic acid ameliorates memory impairment in d-galactose-induced aging mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Honggai; Qu, Zhuo; Zhang, Jingze; Huo, Liqin; Gao, Jing; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-11-01

    Ferulic acid (FA) acts as a powerful antioxidant against various age-related diseases. To investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of FA against d-galactose(d-gal)-induced memory deficit, mice were injected with d-gal to induce memory impairment and simultaneously treated with FA and donepezil. The behavioral results revealed that chronic FA treatment reversed d-gal-induced memory impairment. Further, FA treatment inhibited d-gal-induced AChE activity and oxidative stress via increase of superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione content, as well as decrease of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. We also observed that FA significantly inhibits inflammation in the brain through reduction of NF-κB and IL-1β by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additionally, FA treatment significantly reduces the caspase-3 level in the hippocampus of d-gal-treated mice. Hematoxylin and eosin and Nissl staining showed that FA prevents neurodegeneration induced by d-gal. These findings showed that FA inhibits d-gal-induced AChE activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and consequently ameliorates memory impairment.

  16. Age-associated memory impairment. Assessing the role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R C; Spangler, E L; Kametani, H; Ingram, D K

    1998-11-20

    Several neurotransmitter systems have been investigated to assess hypothesized mechanisms underlying the decline in recent memory abilities in normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Examining the performance of F344 rats in a 14-unit T-maze (Stone maze), we have focused on the muscarinic cholinergic (mACh) and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate (Glu) systems and their interactions. Maze learning is impaired by antagonists to mACh or NMDA receptors. We have also shown that stimulation of mACh receptors can overcome a maze learning deficit induced by NMDA blockade, and stimulation of the NMDA receptor can overcome a similar blockade of mACh receptors. No consistent evidence in rats has been produced from our laboratory to reveal significant age-related declines in mACh or NMDA receptor binding in the hippocampus (HC), a brain region that is greatly involved in processing of recent memory. Thus, we have directed attention to the possibility of a common signal transduction pathway, the nitric oxide (NO) system. Activated by calcium influx through the NMDA receptor, NO is hypothesized to be a retrograde messenger that enhances presynaptic Glu release. Maze learning can be impaired by inhibiting the synthetic enzyme for NO, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or enhanced by stimulating NO release. However, we have found no age-related loss of NOS-containing HC neurons or fibers in rats. Additionally, other laboratories have reported no evidence of an age-related loss of HC NOS activity. In a microdialysis study we have found preliminary evidence of reduced NO production following NMDA stimulation. We are currently working to identify the parameters of this phenomenon as well as testing various strategies for safely stimulating the NO system to improve memory function in aged rats. PMID:9928439

  17. Delivery by caesarean section and risk of obesity in preschool age children: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Zera, Chloe A; Edwards, Janet W Rich; Oken, Emily; Weiss, Scott T; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine whether delivery by caesarean section is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Design Prospective pre-birth cohort study (Project Viva). Setting Eight outpatient multi-specialty practices based in the Boston, Massachusetts area. Participants We recruited women during early pregnancy between 1999 and 2002, and followed their children after birth. We included 1255 children with body composition measured at 3 years of age. Main outcome measures Body mass index (BMI) z-score, obesity (BMI for age and sex ≥ 95th percentile), and sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses, at 3 years of age. Results 284 children (22.6 percent) were delivered by caesarean section. At age 3, 15.7% of children delivered by caesarean section were obese, compared with 7.5% of children born vaginally. In multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusting for maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, birth weight, and other covariates, birth by caesarean section was associated with a higher odds of obesity at age 3 (OR 2.10, 95%CI 1.36 to 3.23), higher mean BMI z-score (0.20 units, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.33), and higher sum of triceps + subscapular skinfold thicknesses (0.94 mm, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.51). Conclusions Infants delivered by caesarean section may be at increased risk of childhood obesity. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings and to explore mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:22623615

  18. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.

  19. Epinephrine and glucose modulate training-related CREB phosphorylation in old rats: relationships to age-related memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ken A; Gold, Paul E

    2013-02-01

    Epinephrine enhances memory in young adult rats, in part, by increasing blood glucose levels needed to modulate memory. In old rats, epinephrine is deficient at raising blood glucose levels and thus is only moderately effective at enhancing memory. In contrast, systemic glucose injections improve memory in old rats, with resulting memory performance equal to that of young rats. The diminished response of glucose to training in old rats may blunt downstream neurochemical and molecular mechanisms needed to upregulate memory processes. In the first experiment, young adult and old rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance task with immediate post-training injections of aCSF or glucose into the dorsal hippocampus. Old rats had significant memory impairments compared to young rats 7 days after training. Intrahippocampal injections of glucose reversed age-related deficits, improving memory scores in old rats to values seen in young rats. A second experiment examined age-related changes in activation of the transcription factor CREB, which is widely implicated in memory formation and may act downstream of hormonal and metabolic signals. Activation was assessed in response to training with systemic injections of epinephrine and glucose at doses known to enhance memory. Young adult and old rats were trained on inhibitory avoidance with immediate post-training systemic injections of saline, epinephrine, or glucose. After training, old rats had significant impairments in CREB phosphorylation in area CA1 and the dentate gyrus region of the hippocampus, and in the basolateral and lateral amygdala. Epinephrine and glucose attenuated age-related deficits in CREB phosphorylation, but were more effective in the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Together, these results support the view that age-related changes in blood glucose responses to epinephrine contribute to memory impairments, which may be related to alterations in regional patterns of CREB phosphorylation.

  20. ESTROGENS AND AGE-RELATED MEMORY DECLINE IN RODENTS: WHAT HAVE WE LEARNED AND WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE?

    PubMed Central

    Frick, Karyn M.

    2009-01-01

    The question of whether ovarian hormone therapy can prevent or reduce age-related memory decline in menopausal women has been the subject of much recent debate. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a beneficial effect of estrogen and/or progestin therapy for certain types of memory in menopausal women, recent clinical trials suggest that such therapy actually increases the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. Because rodent models have been frequently used to examine the effects of age and/or ovarian hormone deficiency on mnemonic function, rodent models of age-related hormone and memory decline may be useful in helping to resolve this issue. This review will focus on evidence suggesting that estradiol modulates memory, particularly hippocampal-dependent memory, in young and aging female rats and mice. Various factors affecting the mnemonic response to estradiol in aging females will be highlighted to illustrate the complications inherent to studies of estrogen therapy in aging females. Avenues for future development of estradiol-based therapies will also be discussed, and it is argued that an approach to drug development based on identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying estrogenic modulation of memory may lead to promising future treatments for reducing age-related mnemonic decline. PMID:18835561

  1. Short forms of the "reference-" and "working-memory" Morris water maze for assessing age-related deficits.

    PubMed

    Lindner, M D; Balch, A H; VanderMaelen, C P

    1992-09-01

    Short forms of the reference- and working-memory versions of the Morris water maze, each limited to 10 trials, were examined for their reliability and sensitivity to age-related deficits in 16- and 24-month F-344 rats, relative to 2- to 2.5-month young controls. The reference-memory task used long intertrial intervals of 23 h, but required learning only one target location, while the working-memory task used shorter intertrial intervals of 60 min but required learning many different target locations. The reference-memory task was very reliable, revealed large age-related deficits, and correctly identified almost all aged rats as impaired relative to young controls. The working-memory task was less reliable, revealed smaller deficits than the reference memory task at 24 months, and did not discriminate as well between 2.5- and 24-month rats. Furthermore, in the working-memory task 16- and 24-month rats had longer swim paths than 2- to 2.5-month rats on the first trial of each trial pair, which is suggestive of a deficit in processing spatial information and raises questions about the validity of this test as a specific test of working memory. Although the working-memory procedures may be preferable under certain conditions, perhaps as a measure specific to hippocampal dysfunction, the reference-memory task seems more sensitive to age-related deficits and more accurately identifies older rats as impaired. These results are consistent with previous reports that age-related deficits in acquiring spatial learning tasks are common and that the magnitude of the deficit increases as the length of the retention interval increases.

  2. Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation.

    PubMed

    Kodali, Maheedhar; Parihar, Vipan K; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Mishra, Vikas; Shuai, Bing; Shetty, Ashok K

    2015-01-28

    Greatly waned neurogenesis, diminished microvasculature, astrocyte hypertrophy and activated microglia are among the most conspicuous structural changes in the aged hippocampus. Because these alterations can contribute to age-related memory and mood impairments, strategies efficacious for mitigating these changes may preserve cognitive and mood function in old age. Resveratrol, a phytoalexin found in the skin of red grapes having angiogenic and antiinflammatory properties, appears ideal for easing these age-related changes. Hence, we examined the efficacy of resveratrol for counteracting age-related memory and mood impairments and the associated detrimental changes in the hippocampus. Two groups of male F344 rats in late middle-age having similar learning and memory abilities were chosen and treated with resveratrol or vehicle for four weeks. Analyses at ~25 months of age uncovered improved learning, memory and mood function in resveratrol-treated animals but impairments in vehicle-treated animals. Resveratrol-treated animals also displayed increased net neurogenesis and microvasculature, and diminished astrocyte hypertrophy and microglial activation in the hippocampus. These results provide novel evidence that resveratrol treatment in late middle age is efficacious for improving memory and mood function in old age. Modulation of the hippocampus plasticity and suppression of chronic low-level inflammation appear to underlie the functional benefits mediated by resveratrol.

  3. Processing Speed, Inhibitory Control, and Working Memory: Three Important Factors to Account for Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Gonzalez, Maria Soledad Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    Processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory have been identified as the main possible culprits of age-related cognitive decline. This article describes a study of their interrelationships and dependence on age, including exploration of whether any of them mediates between age and the others. We carried out a LISREL analysis of the…

  4. Age-Related Effects of Study Time Allocation on Memory Performance in a Verbal and a Spatial Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krueger, Lacy E.

    2012-01-01

    Past studies have suggested that study time allocation partially mediates age relations on memory performance in a verbal task. To identify whether this applied to a different material modality, participants ages 20-87 completed a spatial task in addition to a traditional verbal task. In both the verbal and the spatial task, increased age was…

  5. Nonverbal Visual Short-Term Memory as a Function of Age and Dimensionality in Learning Disabled Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Lee

    Evaluated with two age groups (mean age 8.1 years or 10.6 years) totaling 22 learning disabled children was whether there is an age related increase in recognition for visual nonverbal short term memory (STM) and the effects on STM of stimulus dimensionality, primacy, recency, and second choice responses. A serial recognition task was used to…

  6. Caspase-6 activity predicts lower episodic memory ability in aged individuals.

    PubMed

    Ramcharitar, Jasmine; Afonso, Veronica M; Albrecht, Steffen; Bennett, David A; LeBlanc, Andrea C

    2013-07-01

    Caspase-6 (Casp6), a cysteinyl protease that induces axonal degeneration, is activated early in Alzheimer Disease (AD) brains. To determine whether Casp6 activation is responsible for early cognitive impairment, we investigated the abundance of Casp6 activity, paired helical filament-1 (PHF-1) phosphorylated Tau and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) pathology by immunohistochemistry in the hippocampal formation of aged non-cognitively impaired (NCI) individuals. Casp6 activity was restricted to the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and CA1 regions of the hippocampus. Pathology scores were then correlated with cognitive scores obtained within 1 year of death. Regression analyses revealed that ERC and CA1 Casp6 activity were the main contributor to lower episodic memory performance, whereas ERC PHF-1 pathology predicted lower semantic and working memory performance. Aβ did not correlate with any of the cognitive tests. Because Casp6 activity and PHF-1 pathology are intimately associated with AD pathology and memory decline is an early event in AD, we conclude that Casp6 activity and PHF-1 immunoreactivity in ERC identifies aged individuals at risk for developing AD.

  7. Moringa oleifera Mitigates Memory Impairment and Neurodegeneration in Animal Model of Age-Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180–220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  8. Moringa oleifera mitigates memory impairment and neurodegeneration in animal model of age-related dementia.

    PubMed

    Sutalangka, Chatchada; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Thukham-mee, Wipawee

    2013-01-01

    To date, the preventive strategy against dementia is still essential due to the rapid growth of its prevalence and the limited therapeutic efficacy. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress in age-related dementia and the antioxidant and nootropic activities of Moringa oleifera, the enhancement of spatial memory and neuroprotection of M. oleifera leaves extract in animal model of age-related dementia was determined. The possible underlying mechanism was also investigated. Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g, were orally given M. oleifera leaves extract at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg at a period of 7 days before and 7 days after the intracerebroventricular administration of AF64A bilaterally. Then, they were assessed memory, neuron density, MDA level, and the activities of SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, and AChE in hippocampus. The results showed that the extract improved spatial memory and neurodegeneration in CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus of hippocampus together with the decreased MDA level and AChE activity but increased SOD and CAT activities. Therefore, our data suggest that M. oleifera leaves extract is the potential cognitive enhancer and neuroprotectant. The possible mechanism might occur partly via the decreased oxidative stress and the enhanced cholinergic function. However, further explorations concerning active ingredient(s) are still required. PMID:24454988

  9. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Meagan; Black, Sheila; Gilpin, Ansley

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT). In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make “safe” rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter’s assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT), older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT. PMID:26761023

  10. Improving memory in Parkinson's disease: a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program.

    PubMed

    Naismith, Sharon L; Mowszowski, Loren; Diamond, Keri; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multifactorial 'healthy brain ageing cognitive training program' for Parkinson's disease. Using a single-blinded waitlist control design, 50 participants with Parkinson's disease were recruited from the Brain & Mind Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. The intervention encompassed both psychoeducation and cognitive training; each component lasted 1-hour. The 2-hour sessions were delivered in a group format, twice-weekly over a 7-week period. Multifactorial psychoeducation was delivered by a range of health professionals. In addition to delivering cognitive strategies, it targeted depression, anxiety, sleep, vascular risk factors, diet, and exercise. Cognitive training was computer-based and was conducted by clinical neuropsychologists. The primary outcome was memory. Secondary outcomes included other aspects of cognition and knowledge pertaining to the psychoeducation material. Results demonstrated that cognitive training was associated with significant improvements in learning and memory corresponding to medium to large effect sizes. Treatment was also associated with medium effect size improvements in knowledge. Although the study was limited by the lack of randomized allocation to treatment and control groups, these findings suggest that a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program may be a viable tool to improve memory and/or slow cognitive decline in people with Parkinson's disease. It also appeared successful for increasing awareness of adaptive and/or compensatory cognitive strategies, as well as modifiable risk factors to optimize brain functioning.

  11. Sensitivity to cholinergic drug treatments of aged rats with variable degrees of spatial memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Stemmelin, J; Cassel, J C; Will, B; Kelche, C

    1999-01-01

    As a first step, the present experiment aimed at characterizing learning and memory capabilities, as well as some motor and sensorimotor faculties, in aged (24-26.5 months) Long-Evans female rats. As a second step, a psychopharmacological approach was undertaken in order to examine the sensitivity of aged rats to muscarinic blockade and to cholinomimetic treatments. Young adult (3-5.5 months) and aged rats were tested for beam-walking performance, locomotor activity in the home cage and an open field, and spatial learning/memory performance in a water maze and a radial maze. Spontaneous alternation rates were assessed in a T-maze. Statistical analysis discriminated between aged rats showing moderate impairment (AMI) and those showing severe impairment (ASI) in the water maze test. Beside their different degrees of impairment in the water maze, AMI and ASI rats were similarly (no significant difference) impaired in beam-walking capabilities, home cage activity and radial maze performance. In the spontaneous alternation task aged rats were not impaired and, in the open-field test, AMI rats were hypoactive, but not as much as ASI rats. Neither of the cognitive deficits was correlated with a locomotor or a sensorimotor variable, or with the body weight. When tested in the radial maze, a low dose of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) produced memory impairments which were significant in AMI and ASI rats, but not in young rats. Combined injections of scopolamine and physostigmine (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) or tacrine (THA, 3 mg/kg) showed physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg) to compensate for the scopolamine-induced impairments only in AMI rats. whereas THA was efficient in both AMI and ASI rats. The results indicate: (i) that rats with different degrees of spatial memory impairment in the water maze are similarly hypersensitive to muscarinic blockade when tested in a radial maze test; and (ii) that under the influence of a dose of scopolamine which is subamnesic in young rats, aged rats

  12. Effects of cue focality on the neural mechanisms of prospective memory: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia; Sartori, Giuseppe; Scarpazza, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Remembering to execute pre-defined intentions at the appropriate time in the future is typically referred to as Prospective Memory (PM). Studies of PM showed that distinct cognitive processes underlie the execution of delayed intentions depending on whether the cue associated with such intentions is focal to ongoing activity processing or not (i.e., cue focality). The present activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis revealed several differences in brain activity as a function of focality of the PM cue. The retrieval of intention is supported mainly by left anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area, BA 10) in nonfocal tasks, and by cerebellum and ventral parietal regions in focal tasks. Furthermore, the precuneus showed increased activation during the maintenance phase of intentions compared to the retrieval phase in nonfocal tasks, whereas the inferior parietal lobule showed increased activation during the retrieval of intention compared to maintenance phase in the focal tasks. Finally, the retrieval of intention relies more on the activity in anterior cingulate cortex for nonfocal tasks, and on posterior cingulate cortex for focal tasks. Such focality-related pattern of activations suggests that prospective remembering is mediated mainly by top-down and stimulus-independent processes in nonfocal tasks, whereas by more automatic, bottom-up, processes in focal tasks. PMID:27185531

  13. Normal aging increases discriminal dispersion in visuospatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Noack, Hannes; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-09-01

    Computational models of cognitive aging propose that age-related decrements in cognitive performance, including short-term memory (STM), result from less distinct stimulus representations. When applied to visual STM, these models predict higher discriminal dispersion (L. L. Thurstone, 1927, Psychophysical analysis, The American Journal of Psychology, 38, 368-389.) in older adults than in younger adults. To test this prediction, we used a change-detection paradigm for visuospatial locations, with different levels of cognitive load (one, three, or five items) and retention interval (100 or 1,000 ms). Adult age differences were not reliable at Load 1, but were substantial at Loads 3 and 5. Effects of retention time did not differ across age groups, suggesting that age-related differences originated mainly from early processing stages. Applying a mixture model to the data revealed age-related increases in discriminal dispersion and decreases in asymptotic discrimination performance (indexing STM capacity). We concluded that age-related declines in discriminal dispersion, in addition to increasing capacity limitations, impair visual STM performance with advancing adult age. PMID:22563939

  14. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory. PMID:27329352

  15. An ERP study of recognition memory for concrete and abstract pictures in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Olivier; Chouinard-Leclaire, Christine; Muckle, Gina; Westerlund, Alissa; Burden, Matthew J; Jacobson, Sandra W; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2016-08-01

    Recognition memory for concrete, nameable pictures is typically faster and more accurate than for abstract pictures. A dual-coding account for these findings suggests that concrete pictures are processed into verbal and image codes, whereas abstract pictures are encoded in image codes only. Recognition memory relies on two successive and distinct processes, namely familiarity and recollection. Whether these two processes are similarly or differently affected by stimulus concreteness remains unknown. This study examined the effect of picture concreteness on visual recognition memory processes using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a sample of children involved in a longitudinal study, participants (N=96; mean age=11.3years) were assessed on a continuous visual recognition memory task in which half the pictures were easily nameable, everyday concrete objects, and the other half were three-dimensional abstract, sculpture-like objects. Behavioral performance and ERP correlates of familiarity and recollection (respectively, the FN400 and P600 repetition effects) were measured. Behavioral results indicated faster and more accurate identification of concrete pictures as "new" or "old" (i.e., previously displayed) compared to abstract pictures. ERPs were characterized by a larger repetition effect, on the P600 amplitude, for concrete than for abstract images, suggesting a graded recollection process dependent on the type of material to be recollected. Topographic differences were observed within the FN400 latency interval, especially over anterior-inferior electrodes, with the repetition effect more pronounced and localized over the left hemisphere for concrete stimuli, potentially reflecting different neural processes underlying early processing of verbal/semantic and visual material in memory.

  16. Age of acquisition's effect on memory for semantically associated word pairs.

    PubMed

    Gullick, Margaret M; Juhasz, Barbara J

    2008-08-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of age of acquisition (AoA) in memory for associated word pairs in a cued recall task. Participants studied a list of frequency-controlled early- and late-acquired words in semantically related pairs and then were asked to recall the second word of the pair when cued with the first. Reaction time effects were found, showing that a late-acquired cue for an early-acquired target word was responded to significantly faster than other combinations. Additionally, late-acquired target words resulted in significantly more accurate responses. As significant differences were found even when frequency was controlled, the effects must therefore stem from the manipulations ofAoA. Given this evidence, the implications for AoA's effects on the organization of semantic memory are explored. PMID:18609409

  17. The Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in four memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff’s (1978) diffusion model, at the level of individual participants. The values of the components of processing identified by the model for the recognition tasks, as well as accuracy for cued and free recall, were compared across levels of IQ ranging from 85 to 140 and age (college-age, 60-74 year olds, and 75-90 year olds). IQ had large effects on the quality of the evidence from memory on which decisions were based in the recognition tasks and accuracy in the recall tasks, except for the oldest participants for whom some of the measures were near floor values. Drift rates in the recognition tasks, accuracy in the recall tasks, and IQ all correlated strongly with each other. However, there was a small decline in drift rates for item recognition and a large decline for associative recognition and accuracy in cued recall (about 70 percent). In contrast, there were large age effects on boundary separation and nondecision time (which correlated across tasks), but little effect of IQ. The implications of these results for single- and dual- process models of item recognition are discussed and it is concluded that models that deal with both RTs and accuracy are subject to many more constraints than models that deal with only one of these measures. Overall, the results of the study show a complicated but interpretable pattern of interactions that present important targets for response time and memory models. PMID:21707207

  18. No age deficits in the ability to use attention to improve visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Souza, Alessandra S

    2016-08-01

    Maintenance of information in mind to the moment-to-moment cognition is accomplished by working memory (WM). WM capacity is reduced in old age, but the nature of this decline is yet not clear. The current study examined the hypothesis that the decline in visual WM performance with age is related to a reduced ability to use attention to control the contents of WM. Young (M = 26 years) and old (M = 71 years) adults performed a color reproduction task in which the precise color of a set of dots had to be maintained in mind over a brief interval and later reproduced using a continuous color wheel. Attention was manipulated by presenting a spatial cue before the onset of the memory array (a precue) or during the maintenance phase (retro-cue). The cue indicated with 100% certainty the item to be tested at the end of the trial. A precue allows the selective encoding of only the relevant item to WM, whereas a retro-cue allows WM contents to be updated by refreshing the relevant (cued) item and removing nonrelevant (noncued) items. Aging was associated with a lower capacity in the baseline (no-cue) condition. Precues and (to a smaller extent) retro-cues improved WM performance (in terms of probability of recall and memory precision). Critically, the benefits of cueing were of similar magnitude in young and older adults showing that the ability to use attention to selectively encode and update the contents of WM is preserved with aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253868

  19. Novel spintronics devices for memory and logic: prospects and challenges for room temperature all spin computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Ping

    An energy efficient memory and logic device for the post-CMOS era has been the goal of a variety of research fields. The limits of scaling, which we expect to reach by the year 2025, demand that future advances in computational power will not be realized from ever-shrinking device sizes, but rather by innovative designs and new materials and physics. Magnetoresistive based devices have been a promising candidate for future integrated magnetic computation because of its unique non-volatility and functionalities. The application of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy for potential STT-RAM application was demonstrated and later has been intensively investigated by both academia and industry groups, but there is no clear path way how scaling will eventually work for both memory and logic applications. One of main reasons is that there is no demonstrated material stack candidate that could lead to a scaling scheme down to sub 10 nm. Another challenge for the usage of magnetoresistive based devices for logic application is its available switching speed and writing energy. Although a good progress has been made to demonstrate the fast switching of a thermally stable magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) down to 165 ps, it is still several times slower than its CMOS counterpart. In this talk, I will review the recent progress by my research group and my C-SPIN colleagues, then discuss the opportunities, challenges and some potential path ways for magnetoresitive based devices for memory and logic applications and their integration for room temperature all spin computing system.

  20. Increased stress-induced intra-hippocampus corticosterone rise associated with memory impairments in middle-aged mice.

    PubMed

    Tronche, C; Piérard, C; Coutan, M; Chauveau, F; Liscia, P; Béracochéa, D

    2010-03-01

    The present study investigates the relationships between hippocampal corticosterone concentrations and memory retrieval performance in stress and non-stress conditions, in both young (6 month-old) and middle-aged (16 month-old) mice. For this purpose, the time-course evolution of stress-induced corticosterone rise in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) was investigated in both young and middle-aged mice. In parallel, the evolution of memory retrieval patterns was assessed using a contextual serial discrimination task (CSD). Finally, metyrapone (corticosterone synthesis inhibitor) was administered in order to evaluate the stress-induced impact of corticosterone rise on contextual memory retrieval in middle-aged animals. Results showed that: (i) non-stressed middle-aged mice exhibited a memory retrieval pattern opposite to that of non-stressed young animals, but similar to that of stressed young mice; (ii) the impact of stress on memory performance was transient (90 min) in young, as compared to middle-aged mice (120 min); (iii) dHPC basal (non-stress) corticosterone level was significantly increased by ageing; (iv) acute stress induced a rapid (15 min) and transient (90 min) dHPC corticosterone rise in young mice, while exhibiting greater magnitude and duration (120 min) in middle-aged animals; and (v) both the stress-induced endocrinal and memory effects were blocked by metyrapone in young and middle-aged mice. Finally, to our knowledge, the present work is the first study to directly measure the corticosterone rise in the hippocampus following exposure to stress and to directly correlate the corticosterone changes in the hippocampus with memory performance in both young and middle-aged mice.