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Sample records for age prospective memory

  1. Effects of aging and working memory demands on prospective memory.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Bowry, Ritvij

    2005-11-01

    The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of aging, increasing the working memory demands of the ongoing activity, and a prospective memory load on the neural correlates of prospective remembering and target recognition. The behavioral data revealed that the success of prospective memory was sensitive to working memory load in younger, but not older, adults and that a prospective memory load had a greater effect on the performance of older adults than that of younger adults. The ERP data revealed age-related differences in the neural correlates of the detection of prospective cues, post-retrieval processes that support prospective memory, and target recognition. Our results support the hypothesis that there are age-related differences in the ability to recruit preparatory attentional processes that underlie prospective memory, and demonstrate that younger and older adults may recruit somewhat different neural generators to support prospective memory and working memory.

  2. Regularity effect in prospective memory during aging

    PubMed Central

    Blondelle, Geoffrey; Hainselin, Mathieu; Gounden, Yannick; Heurley, Laurent; Voisin, Hélène; Megalakaki, Olga; Bressous, Estelle; Quaglino, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Background Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. Objective and design Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18–30), 16 intermediate adults (40–55), and 25 older adults (65–80). The task, adapted from the Virtual Week, was designed to manipulate the regularity of the various activities of daily life that were to be recalled (regular repeated activities vs. irregular non-repeated activities). We examine the role of several cognitive functions including certain dimensions of executive functions (planning, inhibition, shifting, and binding), short-term memory, and retrospective episodic memory to identify those involved in PM, according to regularity and age. Results A mixed-design ANOVA showed a main effect of task regularity and an interaction between age and regularity: an age-related difference in PM performances was found for irregular activities (older < young), but not for regular activities. All participants recalled more regular activities than irregular ones with no age effect. It appeared that recalling of regular activities only involved planning for both intermediate and older adults, while recalling of irregular ones were linked to planning, inhibition, short-term memory, binding, and retrospective episodic memory. Conclusion Taken together, our data suggest that planning capacities seem to play a major role in remembering to perform intended actions with advancing age. Furthermore, the age-PM-paradox may be attenuated when the experimental design is adapted by implementing a familiar context through the use of activities of daily living. The clinical implications of regularity

  3. Prospective memory, emotional valence and ageing.

    PubMed

    Rendell, Peter G; Phillips, Louise H; Henry, Julie D; Brumby-Rendell, Tristan; de la Piedad Garcia, Xochitl; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Emotional factors have been found to be an important influence on memory. The current study investigated the influence of emotional salience and age on a laboratory measure of prospective memory (PM); Virtual Week. Thirty young and 30 old adults completed Virtual Week, in which the emotional salience of the tasks at encoding was manipulated to be positive, negative or neutral in content. For event-based, but not time-based tasks, positivity enhancement in both age groups was seen, with a greater number of positive PM tasks being performed relative to neutral tasks. There was no negativity enhancement effect. Older adults showed generally poorer levels of PM, but they also demonstrated greater beneficial effects of positive valence compared to young. These effects of emotion on PM accuracy do not appear to reflect the retrospective component of the task as a different pattern of emotion effects was seen on the recall of PM content. Results indicate that older adults' difficulties in prospective remembering can be reduced where the tasks to be remembered are positive.

  4. The Age Prospective Memory Paradox: Young Adults May Not Give Their Best Outside of the Lab

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Ingo; Rendell, Peter G.; Rose, Nathan S.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has identified the age prospective memory paradox of age-related declines in laboratory settings in contrast to age benefits in naturalistic settings. Various factors are assumed to account for this paradox, yet empirical evidence on this issue is scarce. In 2 experiments, the present study examined the effect of task setting in a laboratory task and the effect of motivation in a naturalistic task on prospective memory performance in young and older adults. For the laboratory task (Experiment 1, n = 40), we used a board game to simulate a week of daily activities and varied features of the prospective memory task (e.g., task regularity). For the naturalistic task (Experiment 2, n = 80), we instructed participants to try to remember to contact the experimenter repeatedly over the course of 1 week. Results from the laboratory prospective memory tasks indicated significant age-related decline for irregular tasks (p = .006) but not for regular and focal tasks. In addition, in the naturalistic task, the age benefit was eliminated when young adults were motivated by incentives (F < 1). In conclusion, the present results indicate that the variability of age differences in laboratory prospective memory tasks may be due in part to differences in the features of the prospective memory task. Furthermore, increases in motivation to perform the prospective task seem to help remedy prospective memory deficits in young adults in the naturalistic setting. PMID:21058832

  5. Transparent Meta-Analysis: Does Aging Spare Prospective Memory with Focal vs. Non-Focal Cues?

    PubMed Central

    Uttl, Bob

    2011-01-01

    Background Prospective memory (ProM) is the ability to become aware of a previously-formed plan at the right time and place. For over twenty years, researchers have been debating whether prospective memory declines with aging or whether it is spared by aging and, most recently, whether aging spares prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues. Two recent meta-analyses examining these claims did not include all relevant studies and ignored prevalent ceiling effects, age confounds, and did not distinguish between prospective memory subdomains (e.g., ProM proper, vigilance, habitual ProM) (see Uttl, 2008, PLoS ONE). The present meta-analysis focuses on the following questions: Does prospective memory decline with aging? Does prospective memory with focal vs. non-focal cues decline with aging? Does the size of age-related declines with focal vs. non-focal cues vary across ProM subdomains? And are age-related declines in ProM smaller than age-related declines in retrospective memory? Methods and Findings A meta-analysis of event-cued ProM using data visualization and modeling, robust count methods, and conventional meta-analysis techniques revealed that first, the size of age-related declines in ProM with both focal and non-focal cues are large. Second, age-related declines in ProM with focal cues are larger in ProM proper and smaller in vigilance. Third, age-related declines in ProM proper with focal cues are as large as age-related declines in recall measures of retrospective memory. Conclusions The results are consistent with Craik's (1983) proposal that age-related declines on ProM tasks are generally large, support the distinction between ProM proper vs. vigilance, and directly contradict widespread claims that ProM, with or without focal cues, is spared by aging. PMID:21304905

  6. Age differences in multiple outcome measures of time-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Mäntylä, Timo; Missier, Fabio Del; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2009-11-01

    This study examined time-based prospective memory performance in relation to age, monitoring strategy, response accuracy, and dual-task demands. Young, middle-aged and older adults (N = 115) completed a prospective memory task, in which they indicated the passing of time every 5 min while listening to a short story (low task demands) or completing a series of cognitive tasks (high task demands). Young and older adults showed similar patterns of monitoring behavior, with low rates of clock checking during the early phase of each 5-min interval, followed by linearly accelerating monitoring functions. However, to obtain the same level of prospective memory performance older adults needed more frequent clock checks than young adults. Furthermore, older adults' compensatory monitoring strategy was associated with an additional cost in primary task performance. Finally, increased primary task demands shifted age differences in prospective memory from monitoring frequency to response accuracy. These findings suggest that goal-directed behavior requires efficient task coordination and resource allocation, and that age-related differences in time-based prospective memory should be evaluated by using multiple outcome measures.

  7. Age differences in brain systems supporting transient and sustained processes involved in prospective memory and working memory.

    PubMed

    Peira, Nathalie; Ziaei, Maryam; Persson, Jonas

    2016-01-15

    In prospective memory (PM), an intention to act in response to an external event is formed, retained, and at a later stage, when the event occurs, the relevant action is performed. PM typically shows a decline in late adulthood, which might affect functions of daily living. The neural correlates of this decline are not well understood. Here, 15 young (6 female; age range=23-30years) and 16 older adults (5 female; age range=64-74years) were scanned with fMRI to examine age-related differences in brain activation associated with event-based PM using a task that facilitated the separation of transient and sustained components of PM. We show that older adults had reduced performance in conditions with high demands on prospective and working memory, while no age-difference was observed in low-demanding tasks. Across age groups, PM task performance activated separate sets of brain regions for transient and sustained responses. Age-differences in transient activation were found in fronto-striatal and MTL regions, with young adults showing more activation than older adults. Increased activation in young, compared to older adults, was also found for sustained PM activation in the IFG. These results provide new evidence that PM relies on dissociable transient and sustained cognitive processes, and that age-related deficits in PM can be explained by an inability to recruit PM-related brain networks in old age.

  8. Psychophysiology of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the self-initiated retrieval of an intention upon an appropriate retrieval cue. Cue identification can be considered as an orienting reaction and may thus trigger a psychophysiological response. Here we present two experiments in which skin conductance responses (SCRs) elicited by prospective memory cues were compared to SCRs elicited by aversive stimuli to test whether a single prospective memory cue triggers a similar SCR as an aversive stimulus. In Experiment 2 we also assessed whether cue specificity had a differential influence on prospective memory performance and on SCRs. We found that detecting a single prospective memory cue is as likely to elicit a SCR as an aversive stimulus. Missed prospective memory cues also elicited SCRs. On a behavioural level, specific intentions led to better prospective memory performance. However, on a psychophysiological level specificity had no influence. More generally, the results indicate reliable SCRs for prospective memory cues and point to psychophysiological measures as valuable approach, which offers a new way to study one-off prospective memory tasks. Moreover, the findings are consistent with a theory that posits multiple prospective memory retrieval stages.

  9. Adult age differences in interference from a prospective-memory task: a diffusion model analysis.

    PubMed

    Horn, Sebastian S; Bayen, Ute J; Smith, Rebekah E

    2013-12-01

    People often slow down their ongoing activities when they must remember an intended action, known as the cost or interference effect of prospective memory (PM). Only a few studies have examined adult age differences in PM interference, and the specific reasons underlying such differences are not well understood. The authors used a model-based approach to reveal processes underlying PM interference and age differences in these processes. Older and younger adults first performed a block of an ongoing lexical decision task alone. An embedded event-based PM task was added in a second block. Simultaneously accounting for the changes in response time distributions and error rates induced by the PM task, Ratcliff's (Psychological Review 85:59-108, 1978) diffusion model was used to decompose the nonlinear combination of speed and accuracy into psychologically meaningful components. Remembering an intention not only reduced processing efficiency in both age groups, but also prolonged peripheral nondecision times and induced response cautiousness. Overall, the findings suggest that there are multiple, but qualitatively similar factors underlying PM task interference in both age groups.

  10. What Was I Supposed to Do? Effects of Individual Differences in Age and Anxiety on Preschoolers' Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheie, Lavinia; Miclea, Mircea; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) refers to remembering to perform a previously planned action at the appropriate time or in the appropriate context. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in age and trait anxiety on PM performance in 3-5- and 5-7-year-olds. Two types of PM measures were used: an event-based task, requiring…

  11. Aging, Prospective Memory, and Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie; Weber, Erica; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection and older age are each independently associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and deficits in prospective memory (PM), which is a distinct aspect of cognition involving the ability to “remember to remember” to do something at a future occasion. The present study investigated associations between PM and HRQoL in 72 older (≥ 50 years) and 41 younger (≤ 40 years) HIV-infected adults. Self-reported PM complaints predicted HRQoL across the entire sample, but there was a significant interaction between performance-based PM and age group on HRQoL, such that lower time-based PM was associated with lower HRQoL only in the younger cohort. Within the younger group, time-based and self-reported PM significantly predicted mental HRQoL independent of other risk factors (e.g., depression). These findings suggest that PM plays a unique role in HRQoL outcomes among younger persons living with HIV infection and support the examination of other age-related factors (e.g., effective use of compensatory strategies) that may regulate the adverse impact of PM on everyday functioning. PMID:22246512

  12. Aging, prospective memory, and health-related quality of life in HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie; Weber, Erica; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-11-01

    HIV infection and older age are each independently associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and deficits in prospective memory (PM), which is a distinct aspect of cognition involving the ability to "remember to remember" to do something at a future occasion. The present study investigated associations between PM and HRQoL in 72 older (≥ 50 years) and 41 younger (≤ 40 years) HIV-infected adults. Self-reported PM complaints predicted HRQoL across the entire sample, but there was a significant interaction between performance-based PM and age group on HRQoL, such that lower time-based PM was associated with lower HRQoL only in the younger cohort. Within the younger group, time-based and self-reported PM significantly predicted mental HRQoL independent of other risk factors (e.g. depression). These findings suggest that PM plays a unique role in HRQoL outcomes among younger persons living with HIV infection and support the examination of other age-related factors (e.g. effective use of compensatory strategies) that may regulate the adverse impact of PM on everyday functioning.

  13. Age-Related Differences in the Temporal Dynamics of Prospective Memory Retrieval: A Lifespan Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattli, Florentina; Zollig, Jacqueline; West, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The efficiency of prospective memory (PM) typically increases from childhood to young adulthood and then decreases in later adulthood. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the development of the neural correlates of processes associated with the detection of a PM cue, switching from the ongoing activity to the…

  14. Prospective memory: A comparative perspective

    PubMed Central

    Crystal, Jonathon D.; Wilson, A. George

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory consists of forming a representation of a future action, temporarily storing that representation in memory, and retrieving it at a future time point. Here we review the recent development of animal models of prospective memory. We review experiments using rats that focus on the development of time-based and event-based prospective memory. Next, we review a number of prospective-memory approaches that have been used with a variety of non-human primates. Finally, we review selected approaches from the human literature on prospective memory to identify targets for development of animal models of prospective memory. PMID:25101562

  15. Prospective memory across the lifespan: investigating the contribution of retrospective and prospective processes.

    PubMed

    Mattli, Florentina; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M; Studerus-Germann, Aline; Brehmer, Yvonne; Zöllig, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory performance follows an inverted U-shaped function across the lifespan. Findings on the relative contribution of purely prospective memory and retrospective memory processes within prospective memory to this trajectory are scarce and inconclusive. We analyzed age-related differences in prospective memory performance across the lifespan in a cross-sectional design including six age groups (N = 99, 7-83 years) and investigated possible mechanisms by experimentally disentangling the relative contributions of retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes. Results confirmed the inverted U-shaped function of prospective memory performance across the lifespan. A significant interaction between process type and age group was observed indicating differential relative contributions of retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes on the development of prospective memory performance. Our results showed that mainly the pure prospective memory processes within prospective memory lead to lower prospective memory performance in young children and old adults. Moreover, the relative contributions of the retrospective memory and purely prospective memory processes are not uniform at both ends of the lifespan, i.e., in later adulthood the purely prospective memory processes seem to determine performance to an even greater extent than in childhood. Nevertheless, age effects were also observed in the retrospective component which thus contributed to the prospective memory performance differences between the age groups.

  16. Predictors of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Rachael J.; Kliegel, Matthias; Mantyla, Timo

    2009-01-01

    This study identified age differences in time-based prospective memory performance in school-aged children and explored possible cognitive correlates of age-related performance. A total of 56 7- to 12-year-olds performed a prospective memory task in which prospective memory accuracy, ongoing task performance, and time monitoring were assessed.…

  17. Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event- and time-based prospective memory impairment in normal ageing

    PubMed Central

    Gonneaud, Julie; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Bon, Laetitia; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an action at a specific point in the future. Regarded as multidimensional, PM involves several cognitive functions that are known to be impaired in normal aging. In the present study, we set out to investigate the cognitive correlates of PM impairment in normal aging. Manipulating cognitive load, we assessed event- and time-based PM, as well as several cognitive functions, including executive functions, working memory and retrospective episodic memory, in healthy subjects covering the entire adulthood. We found that normal aging was characterized by PM decline in all conditions and that event-based PM was more sensitive to the effects of aging than time-based PM. Whatever the conditions, PM was linked to inhibition and processing speed. However, while event-based PM was mainly mediated by binding and retrospective memory processes, time-based PM was mainly related to inhibition. The only distinction between high- and low-load PM cognitive correlates lays in an additional, but marginal, correlation between updating and the high-load PM condition. The association of distinct cognitive functions, as well as shared mechanisms with event- and time-based PM confirms that each type of PM relies on a different set of processes. PMID:21678154

  18. A daily-life-oriented intervention to improve prospective memory and goal-directed behaviour in ageing: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Burkard, Christina; Rochat, Lucien; Blum, Anaëlle; Emmenegger, Joëlle; Juillerat Van der Linden, Anne-Claude; Van der Linden, Martial

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in the execution of goal-directed behaviours, and particularly their prospective memory component, can arise in ageing and have important consequences for autonomy. The first objective of this article is to present an intervention that trained older individuals who reported prospective memory or goal-directed behaviour problems to use "implementation intentions". This technique, which has been shown to improve different aspects of goal-directed behaviour enactment, consists of establishing a mental (verbal and/or visual) link between the action that must be performed and the situation in which it must be performed. Our programme proposes exercises of progressively increasing difficulty that are targeted at daily life situations. Our second objective was to test the programme in small groups of older adults. Preliminary data regarding the programme's feasibility and its initial efficacy show a significant improvement in the main outcome measure, a questionnaire assessing goal-directed behaviours in everyday life. The participants also reported being significantly less bothered by their difficulties, although there were no significant changes in quality of life, self-esteem, anxiety or depression. Two participants with different psychological profiles, who benefited differently from the intervention, are then presented in more detail.

  19. Age and individual differences in prospective memory during a "Virtual Week": the roles of working memory, vigilance, task regularity, and cue focality.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nathan S; Rendell, Peter G; McDaniel, Mark A; Aberle, Ingo; Kliegel, Matthias

    2010-09-01

    Young (ages 18-22 years) and older (ages 61-87 years) adults (N = 106) played the Virtual Week board game, which involves simulating common prospective memory (PM) tasks of everyday life (e.g., taking medication), and performed working memory (WM) and vigilance tasks. The Virtual Week game includes regular (repeated) and irregular (nonrepeated) PM tasks with cues that are either more or less focal to other ongoing activities. Age differences in PM were reduced for repeated tasks, and performance improved over the course of the week, suggesting retrieval was more spontaneous or habitual. Correlations with WM within each age group were reduced for PM tasks that had more regular or focal cues. WM (but not vigilance) ability was a strong predictor of irregular PM tasks with less focal cues. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that habitual and focally cued PM tasks are less demanding of attentional resources (specifically, WM), whereas tasks that are more demanding of controlled attentional processes produce larger age differences, which may be attributable to individual differences in WM.

  20. Prospective memory in adults with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Nelson, Rebekah; Jewell, Derryn; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders have been observed to show accelerated cognitive aging or even dementia as early as 30 and 40 years of age. Memory deficits are an important component of age-related cognitive loss. Methods In this study, we investigated prospective memory, which is often impaired in aging, in a group of 32 adults with spina bifida meningomyelocele (SBM), including members of the oldest living cohort successfully treated with shunts to divert excess cerebrospinal fluid, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus, who are now around 50 years of age. Seventeen typically developing adults provided a comparison group. Results The SBM and comparison groups differed in the prospective memory total score as well as in both time-based and event-based subscores. Prospective memory was impaired in both older and younger individuals with SBM. However, the percentage of individuals with impaired or poor prospective memory was three times higher in the older SBM group than in the younger SBM group. The results are considered in relation to specific features of the complex brain reorganization in SBM. PMID:20393850

  1. Memory, language, and ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, D M; Mackay, D G

    1997-01-01

    This overview provides both theoretical and empirical reasons for emphasizing practice and familiar skills as a practical strategy for enhancing cognitive functioning in old age. Our review of empirical research on age-related changes in memory and language reveals a consistent pattern of spared and impaired abilities in normal old age. Relatively preserved in old age is memory performance involving highly practised skills and familiar information, including factual, semantic and autobiographical information. Relatively impaired in old age is memory performance that requires the formation of new connections, for example, recall of recent autobiographical experiences, new facts or the source of newly acquired facts. This pattern of impaired new learning versus preserved old learning cuts across distinctions between semantic memory, episodic memory, explicit memory and perhaps also implicit memory. However, familiar verbal information is not completely preserved when accessed on the output side rather than the input side: aspects of language production, namely word finding and spelling, exhibit significant age-related declines. This emerging pattern of preserved and impaired abilities presents a fundamental challenge for theories of cognitive ageing, which must explain why some aspects of language and memory are more vulnerable to the effects of ageing than others. Information-universal theories, involving mechanisms such as general slowing that are independent of the type or structure of the information being processed, require additional mechanisms to account for this pattern of cognitive aging. Information-specific theories, where the type or structure of the postulated memory units can influence the effects of cognitive ageing, are able to account for this emerging pattern, but in some cases require further development to account for comprehensive cognitive changes such as general slowing. PMID:9460069

  2. The Development of Time-Based Prospective Memory in Childhood: The Role of Working Memory Updating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E. V.; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was…

  3. Memory and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... or home environment and you’re not paying attention when your friend gives you directions to her new home, you will not be able to recall how to get there. Memory and Aging Memory Aids Keep “to do” lists Keep “to do” lists and ...

  4. Prospective Memory Training in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Iris W.; Berg, Ina J.; Deelman, Betto G.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty adults received training in prospective memory; 23 who received training in reducing worries about forgetfulness and 22 controls formed a comparison group. Results of a telephone task and a prospective categorization task revealed significant but small effects for the prospective memory group. After 3 months, the comparison group's…

  5. Episodic future thinking as a predictor of children's prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Nigro, Giovanna; Brandimonte, Maria A; Cicogna, PierCarla; Cosenza, Marina

    2014-11-01

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate the relationship among retrospective memory, episodic future thinking, and event-based prospective memory performance in preschool, first-grade, and second-grade children. A total of 160 children took part in the experiment. The study included participants from four age groups: 4-year-olds, 5-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and 7-year-olds. Participants were administered a recognition memory task, a task to test the ability to pre-experience future events, and an event-based prospective memory task. Data were submitted to correlational analyses, analyses of variance (ANOVAs), and logistic regression analyses. Results showed that, overall, all of these abilities improve with age and are significantly correlated with one another. However, when partialling out age and retrospective memory, episodic future thinking and prospective memory performance remained correlated. Logistic regression further showed that age and episodic future thinking abilities were significant predictors of prospective memory performance independent of retrospective memory abilities.

  6. Prospective memory and frontal lobe function.

    PubMed

    Neulinger, Kerryn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; O'Gorman, John; Shum, David H K

    2016-01-01

    The study sought to examine the role of frontal lobe functioning in focal prospective memory (PM) performance and its relation to PM deficit in older adults. PM and working memory (WM) differences were studied in younger aged (n = 21), older aged (n = 20), and frontal injury (n = 14) groups. An event-based focal PM task was employed and three measures of WM were administered. The younger aged group differed from the other two groups in showing significantly higher scores on PM and on one of the WM measures, but there were no differences at a statistically significant level between the older aged group and the frontal injury groups on any of the memory measures. There were, however, some differences in correlations with a WM measure between groups. It is concluded that there are similarities and differences in the deficits in PM between older adults and patients with frontal lobe injury on focal as well as nonfocal PM tasks.

  7. Structural correlates of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Brian A; Shelton, Jill T; Bugg, Julie M; McDaniel, Mark A; Head, Denise

    2011-12-01

    Prospective memory (PM) includes the encoding and maintenance of an intention, and the retrieval and execution of this intention at the proper moment in the future. The present study expands upon previous behavioral, electrophysiological, and functional work by examining the association between grey matter volume and PM. Estimates of grey matter volume in theoretically relevant regions of interest (prefrontal, parietal, and medial temporal) were obtained in conjunction with performance on two PM tasks in a sample of 39 cognitively normal and very mildly demented older adults. The first PM task, termed focal in the literature, is supported by spontaneous retrieval of the PM intention whereas the second, termed non-focal, relies on strategic monitoring processes for successful intention retrieval. A positive relationship was observed between medial temporal volume and accuracy on the focal PM task. An examination of medial temporal lobe subregions revealed that this relationship was strongest for the hippocampus, which is considered to support spontaneous memory retrieval. There were no significant structure-behavior associations for the non-focal PM task. These novel results confirm a relationship between behavior and underlying brain structure proposed by the multiprocess theory of PM, and extend findings on cognitive correlates of medial temporal lobe integrity.

  8. Aging and memory for dreams.

    PubMed

    Waterman, D

    1991-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of aging on memory for home drams and the extent to which cognitive variables such as visual memory, visuospatial IQ, and verbal IQ could account for possible differences herein. Subjects were 80 men and women of ages 45 to 75 years. Memory for dreams was measured by narrative length and frequency of recall. With respect to both measures no significant age differences were noted. Over-all differences in dream recall seemed best explained by visual memory scores. Partial correlational analyses, however, indicated that the small age differences memory or on any of the other cognitive variables. Dream contents were scored for aggression, friendliness, emotion, activities, and the number of characters and objects. The incidence of emotions among women appeared to be lower beyond the age of 60. Comparisons with previous data for young adults indicated that large reductions in aggression, friendliness, and emotion occur before the age of 45.

  9. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Design: Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Settings: Laboratory. Participants: Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). Interventions: 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P < 0.001), objective vigilance (mean RT: P < 0.001; slowest 10% RT: P < 0.001; lapses: P < 0.005), and subjective vigilance (P < 0.0001). Performance on reasoning tasks and time monitoring behavior did not differ between groups. Conclusions: The results highlight the potential dangerous effects of total sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. Citation: Esposito MJ, Occhionero M, Cicogna P. Sleep deprivation and time-based prospective memory. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1823–1826. PMID:26085303

  10. Prospective Memory in Children and Chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Perdue, Bonnie M.; Evans, Theodore A.; Williamson, Rebecca A.; Gonsiorowski, Anna; Beran, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory involves remembering to do something at a specific time in the future. Here we investigate the beginnings of this ability in young children (3-year-olds; Homo sapiens) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using an analogous task. Subjects were given a choice between two toys (children) or two food items (chimpanzees). The selected item was delivered immediately, whereas the unselected item was hidden in an opaque container. After completing an ongoing quantity discrimination task, subjects could request the hidden item by asking for it (children) or by pointing to the container and identifying the item on a symbol board (chimpanzees). Children and chimpanzees showed evidence of prospective-like memory in this task, as evidenced by successful retrieval of the item at the end of the task, sometimes spontaneously with no prompting from the experimenter. These findings contribute to our understanding of prospective memory from an ontogenetic and comparative perspective. PMID:23884791

  11. Dissociable Neural Routes to Successful Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; LaMontagne, Pamela; Beck, Stefanie M.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the processes by which people remember to execute an intention at an appropriate moment (prospective memory) remains a fundamental theoretical challenge. One account is that top-down attentional control is required to maintain activation of the intention, self-initiate intention retrieval, or support monitoring. A diverging account suggests bottom-up spontaneous retrieval can be triggered by cues that have been associated with the intention; sustained attentional processes are not required. We used a specialized experimental design and fMRI methods to selectively marshal and identify each process. Results revealed a clear dissociation. One prospective memory task recruited sustained activity in attentional control areas, such as anterior prefrontal cortex; the other engaged purely transient activity in parietal and ventral brain regions associated with attentional capture, target detection, and episodic retrieval. These patterns provide critical evidence that there are two neural routes to prospective memory, with each route emerging under different circumstances. PMID:23907544

  12. Prospective and Episodic Memory in Relation to Hippocampal Volume in Adults with Spina Bifida Myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Juranek, Jenifer; Stuebing, Karla K.; Cirino, Paul T.; Dennis, Maureen; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined prospective and episodic memory in relation to age, functional independence, and hippocampal volume in younger to middle-aged adults with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM) and typically developing (TD) adults. Prospective and episodic memory, as well as hippocampal volume, were reduced in adults with SBM relative to TD adults. Neither memory performance nor hippocampal volume showed greater decrements in older adults. Lower hippocampal volume was associated with reduced prospective memory in adults with SBM, and this relation was specific to the hippocampus and not to a contrast structure, the amygdala. Prospective memory mediated the relation between hippocampal volume and functional independence in adults with SBM. The results add to emerging evidence for reduced memory function in adults with SBM, and provide quantitative evidence for compromised hippocampal macrostructure as a neural correlate of reduced memory in this population. PMID:25068670

  13. Do Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders Compensate in Naturalistic Prospective Memory Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altgassen, Mareike; Koban, Nancy; Kliegel, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The present study is the first to directly compare event- and time-based prospective memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) using a contextual task mirroring real life demands of prospective memory. Twenty-five individuals with ASD and 25 age- and ability-matched controls completed the Dresden Breakfast task which required participants to…

  14. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  15. A Multinomial Model of Event-Based Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2004-01-01

    Prospective memory is remembering to perform an action in the future. The authors introduce the 1st formal model of event-based prospective memory, namely, a multinomial model that includes 2 separate parameters related to prospective memory processes. The 1st measures preparatory attentional processes, and the 2nd measures retrospective memory…

  16. Working memory plasticity and aging.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rebecca E; Katz, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    The present research explores how the trajectory of learning on a working memory task changes throughout the life span, and whether gains in working memory performance are exclusively a question of initial working memory capacity (WMC) or whether age exerts an independent effect. In a large, cross-sectional study of younger, middle-aged, and older adults, we examined learning on a widely used working memory task-the dual n-back task-over 20 sessions of practice. We found that, while all age groups improved on the task, older adults demonstrated less improvement on the task, and also reached a lower asymptotic maximum performance than younger adults. After controlling for initial WMC, we found that age exerted independent effects on training gains and asymptotic performance; older adults tended to improve less and reached lower levels of performance than younger adults. The difference between younger and older adults' rates of learning depended in part on initial WMC. These results suggest that age-related effects on working memory include not only effects on capacity, but also plasticity and the ability to improve on a task. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Prospective memory functioning in people with and without brain injury.

    PubMed

    Groot, Yvonne C T; Wilson, Barbara A; Evans, Jonathan; Watson, Peter

    2002-07-01

    Prospective remembering has been relatively underinvestigated in neurological patients. This paper describes a group study in which the prospective memory performance of 36 people with brain injury and 28 control participants is compared. We used a new instrument, the Cambridge Behaviour Prospective Memory Test (CBPMT) to assess prospective memory. This comprises 4 time-based and 4 event-based tasks. Participants were allowed to take notes to help them remember the tasks. The relationships between CBPMT scores, scores on formal tests and subjective reports on memory, attention and executive functioning were analyzed. The key findings were that (1) note-taking significantly benefited prospective memory performance, (2) significant relationships were found between scores on the prospective memory test and scores on tests of memory and executive functions, and (3) participants had more difficulty with the time-based than with the event-based prospective memory tasks. The results suggest that compensatory strategies improve prospective memory functioning; memory for content as well as attention and executive functioning processes are involved in prospective memory; and that time-based tasks are more difficult than event-based tasks because they place higher demands on inhibitory control mechanisms. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation.

  18. Prospective Memory in Context: Moving through a Familiar Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; Murray, Amy E.

    2017-01-01

    Successful completion of delayed intentions is a common but important aspect of daily behavior. Such behavior requires not only memory for the intended action but also recognition of the opportunity to perform that action, known collectively as prospective memory. The fact that prospective memory tasks occur in the midst of other activities is…

  19. Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence

    PubMed Central

    Insel, Kathie C.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Morrow, Daniel G.; Koerner, Kari M.; Hepworth, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Older adults do not take medication as prescribed, diminishing the benefits of treatment and increasing costs to individuals and society. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention for improving adherence to antihypertensive medication was tested and assessed if executive function/working memory processes moderated intervention effects. Design A two group longitudinal randomized control trial was used. Setting and Participants and Measurements The sample consisted of community-based older adults (≥ 65 years of age) without signs of dementia or symptoms of severe depression who were self-managing prescribed medication. Following four weeks of initial adherence monitoring using a medication event monitoring system (MEMS®), individuals with 90% or less adherence were randomly assigned to groups. Intervention The prospective memory intervention was designed to provide strategies that switch older adults from relying on executive function/working memory processes (that show effects of cognitive aging) to mostly automatic associative processes (that are relatively spared with normal aging) for remembering to take one’s medications. Strategies included establishing a routine, establishing cues strongly associated with medication taking actions, performing the action immediately upon thinking about it, using a medication organizer, and imagining medication taking to enhance encoding and improve cuing. Results There was significant improvement in adherence for the intervention group (57% at baseline to 78% post intervention), but most of these gains were lost after 5 months. The control condition started at 68%, was stable during the intervention, but dropped to 62%. Executive function/working memory moderated the intervention effect, with the intervention producing greater benefit for those with lower executive function/working memory. Conclusion The intervention improved adherence, but the benefits were not sustained. Further research is

  20. Knowledge Of Memory Aging In Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Karri S.; Cherry, Katie E.; Su, L. Joseph; Chiu, Yu-Wen; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2006-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of memory changes in adulthood for research or educational purposes. Half of the questions pertain to normal memory aging and the other half cover pathological memory deficits due to non-normative factors, such as adult dementia. In this study, we compared memory…

  1. Occupational Memory Practice and Memory Beliefs with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huet, Nathalie; Marquie, Jean-Claude; Bacon, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study examined effects of intensive memory use during one's profession on metamemory beliefs. Fifty-one actors and 60 controls aged from 20 to 73 years were compared with the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood. Both intensive job-related memory practice and younger age were associated with stronger memory self-efficacy beliefs. Irrespective of…

  2. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5–10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics and 64 normal controls) participated in the study. Prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire, everyday attention questionnaire and meta-memory were administered on children. Analysis of variance was used to analyses the data. All the main effects were significant. Some interactions were also found to be significant. Results suggest that dyslexic's performance on memory (prospective and retrospective memory) was worse than normal control. Meta-memory influences both dyslexics and normal control on prospective and retrospective memory. However, meta-memory affected dyslexics much more than normal control group. Similarly, significant differential effects were observed for simple, difficult and mixed attentional condition among between dyslexics and normal control. Dyslexic's performance was deteriorated as compared to normal control group. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of the existing literature. PMID:25538638

  3. An investigation into prospective memory in children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azizuddin

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia hinders reading and writing acquisition of around 5-10% of the children all over the world. However, little is known about role of prospective memory among dyslexics. Prospective memory is realization of delayed intention. Realization of delayed intention requires self initiated process. The present study explored the role of memory (prospective and retrospective memory), meta-memory and attention among dyslexic's children. One hundred and fifteen children (51 dyslexics and 64 normal controls) participated in the study. Prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire, everyday attention questionnaire and meta-memory were administered on children. Analysis of variance was used to analyses the data. All the main effects were significant. Some interactions were also found to be significant. Results suggest that dyslexic's performance on memory (prospective and retrospective memory) was worse than normal control. Meta-memory influences both dyslexics and normal control on prospective and retrospective memory. However, meta-memory affected dyslexics much more than normal control group. Similarly, significant differential effects were observed for simple, difficult and mixed attentional condition among between dyslexics and normal control. Dyslexic's performance was deteriorated as compared to normal control group. The findings of the study are discussed in the light of the existing literature.

  4. Does Active Memory Capacity Change with Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.; And Others

    A series of experiments, which used the primary memory paradigm of Wickens et al. (1981, 1985) with university students, adults, and 8- and 9-year-old children, found an increase in primary memory capacity with age. Primary memory differs from secondary memory in that the latter is susceptible to proactive interference, whereas the former is not.…

  5. Prospective memory: effects of divided attention on spontaneous retrieval.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tyler L; Mullet, Hillary G; Whiffen, Katie N; Ousterhout, Hunter; Einstein, Gilles O

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of divided attention on the spontaneous retrieval of a prospective memory intention. Participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task with an embedded prospective memory demand, and also performed a divided-attention task during some segments of lexical decision trials. In all experiments, monitoring was highly discouraged, and we observed no evidence that participants engaged monitoring processes. In Experiment 1, performing a moderately demanding divided-attention task (a digit detection task) did not affect prospective memory performance. In Experiment 2, performing a more challenging divided-attention task (random number generation) impaired prospective memory. Experiment 3 showed that this impairment was eliminated when the prospective memory cue was perceptually salient. Taken together, the results indicate that spontaneous retrieval is not automatic and that challenging divided-attention tasks interfere with spontaneous retrieval and not with the execution of a retrieved intention.

  6. The development of time-based prospective memory in childhood: the role of working memory updating.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Babett; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Ellis, Judi; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Krause, Ivonne; Altgassen, Mareike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    This large-scale study examined the development of time-based prospective memory (PM) across childhood and the roles that working memory updating and time monitoring play in driving age effects in PM performance. One hundred and ninety-seven children aged 5 to 14 years completed a time-based PM task where working memory updating load was manipulated within individuals using a dual task design. Results revealed age-related increases in PM performance across childhood. Working memory updating load had a negative impact on PM performance and monitoring behavior in older children, but this effect was smaller in younger children. Moreover, the frequency as well as the pattern of time monitoring predicted children's PM performance. Our interpretation of these results is that processes involved in children's PM may show a qualitative shift over development from simple, nonstrategic monitoring behavior to more strategic monitoring based on internal temporal models that rely specifically on working memory updating resources. We discuss this interpretation with regard to possible trade-off effects in younger children as well as alternative accounts.

  7. Prospective memory, personality, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Uttl, Bob; White, Carmela A; Wong Gonzalez, Daniela; McDouall, Joanna; Leonard, Carrie A

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies investigating the relationship between personality and prospective memory (ProM) have appeared during the last decade. However, a review of these studies reveals little consistency in their findings and conclusions. To clarify the relationship between ProM and personality, we conducted two studies: a meta-analysis of prior research investigating the relationships between ProM and personality, and a study with 378 participants examining the relationships between ProM, personality, verbal intelligence, and retrospective memory. Our review of prior research revealed great variability in the measures used to assess ProM, and in the methodological quality of prior research; these two factors may partially explain inconsistent findings in the literature. Overall, the meta-analysis revealed very weak correlations (rs ranging from 0.09 to 0.10) between ProM and three of the Big Five factors: Openness, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Our experimental study showed that ProM performance was related to individual differences such as verbal intelligence as well as to personality factors and that the relationship between ProM and personality factors depends on the ProM subdomain. In combination, the two studies suggest that ProM performance is relatively weakly related to personality factors and more strongly related to individual differences in cognitive factors.

  8. The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire: a population-based random sampling study.

    PubMed

    Piauilino, D C; Bueno, O F A; Tufik, S; Bittencourt, L R; Santos-Silva, R; Hachul, H; Gorenstein, C; Pompéia, S

    2010-05-01

    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ) has been shown to have acceptable reliability and factorial, predictive, and concurrent validity. However, the PRMQ has never been administered to a probability sample survey representative of all ages in adulthood, nor have previous studies controlled for factors that are known to influence metamemory, such as affective status. Here, the PRMQ was applied in a survey adopting a probabilistic three-stage cluster sample representative of the population of Sao Paulo, Brazil, according to gender, age (20-80 years), and economic status (n=1042). After excluding participants who had conditions that impair memory (depression, anxiety, used psychotropics, and/or had neurological/psychiatric disorders), in the remaining 664 individuals we (a) used confirmatory factor analyses to test competing models of the latent structure of the PRMQ, and (b) studied effects of gender, age, schooling, and economic status on prospective and retrospective memory complaints. The model with the best fit confirmed the same tripartite structure (general memory factor and two orthogonal prospective and retrospective memory factors) previously reported. Women complained more of general memory slips, especially those in the first 5 years after menopause, and there were more complaints of prospective than retrospective memory, except in participants with lower family income.

  9. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  10. Metacognitive awareness of event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Thadeus Meeks, J; Hicks, Jason L; Marsh, Richard L

    2007-12-01

    This study examined people's ability to predict and postdict their performance on an event-based prospective memory task. Using nonfocal cues, one group of participants predicted their success at finding animal words and a different group predicted their ability to find words with a particular syllable in it. The authors also administered a self-report questionnaire on everyday prospective and retrospective memory failures. Based on the different strategies adopted by the two groups and correlations among the dependent variables, the authors concluded that people do have a basic awareness of their prospective memory abilities, but that this awareness is far from accurate. The importance of metamemory concerning one's prospective memory is discussed in terms of how it influences the strategies that people might choose for actually completing their various everyday intentions.

  11. Habitual Prospective Memory in HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E.; Loft, Shayne; Cushman, Clint; Villalobos, Javier; Johnston, Elaine; Woods, Steven Paul

    2015-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are associated with deficits in prospective memory (PM). However, most PM research in HIV has used single-event tasks as opposed to habitual PM paradigms, which may be more relevant to clinical populations for whom many healthcare behaviors must be performed both frequently and routinely. The current study examined habitual PM and its associations with real-world functioning outcomes in 36 HIV+ individuals with HAND (HAND+), 70 HIV+ individuals without HAND (HAND-), and 115 HIV- individuals. The ongoing task consisted of 24 one-minute Stroop trial blocks in which the emotive and cognitive load was manipulated. The habitual PM task required participants to press the spacebar once per block, but only after twenty seconds had elapsed. A series of MANOVAs covarying for relevant clinicodemographic factors revealed a main effect of study group on habitual PM, such that the HAND+ cohort made significantly more repetition errors compared to the HIV- and HAND- groups, particularly during early trial blocks. There was no main effect of ongoing task demands. There was no interaction between HAND group and task demands. Within the entire HIV+ sample, poorer habitual PM was associated with deficits in learning and dysfunction in real-world outcomes, including medication nonadherence and failures on a naturalistic healthcare task. Findings indicate that HAND may be associated with deficient internal source monitoring or temporal discrimination for habitual PM output that may play a critical role in real-world functioning, including HIV disease management. PMID:25730731

  12. Initial feasibility and validity of a prospective memory training program in a substance use treatment population.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Mary M; Rass, Olga; Johnson, Patrick S; Strain, Eric C; Berry, Meredith S; Vo, Hoa T; Fishman, Marc J; Munro, Cynthia A; Rebok, George W; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders have shown deficits in the ability to implement future intentions, called prospective memory. Deficits in prospective memory and working memory, a critical underlying component of prospective memory, likely contribute to substance use treatment failures. Thus, improvement of prospective memory and working memory in substance use patients is an innovative target for intervention. We sought to develop a feasible and valid prospective memory training program that incorporates working memory training and may serve as a useful adjunct to substance use disorder treatment. We administered a single session of the novel prospective memory and working memory training program to participants (n = 22; 13 men, 9 women) enrolled in outpatient substance use disorder treatment and correlated performance to existing measures of prospective memory and working memory. Generally accurate prospective memory performance in a single session suggests feasibility in a substance use treatment population. However, training difficulty should be increased to avoid ceiling effects across repeated sessions. Consistent with existing literature, we observed superior performance on event-based relative to time-based prospective memory tasks. Performance on the prospective memory and working memory training components correlated with validated assessments of prospective memory and working memory, respectively. Correlations between novel memory training program performance and established measures suggest that our training engages appropriate cognitive processes. Further, differential event- and time-based prospective memory task performance suggests internal validity of our training. These data support the development of this intervention as an adjunctive therapy for substance use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. The development of prospective memory in young schoolchildren: the impact of ongoing task absorption, cue salience, and cue centrality.

    PubMed

    Kliegel, Matthias; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Voigt, Babett; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Aberle, Ingo

    2013-12-01

    This study presents evidence that 9- and 10-year-old children outperform 6- and 7-year-old children on a measure of event-based prospective memory and that retrieval-based factors systematically influence performance and age differences. All experiments revealed significant age effects in prospective memory even after controlling for ongoing task performance. In addition, the provision of a less absorbing ongoing task (Experiment 1), higher cue salience (Experiment 2), and cues appearing in the center of attention (Experiment 3) were each associated with better performance. Of particular developmental importance was an age by cue centrality (in or outside of the center of attention) interaction that emerged in Experiment 3. Thus, age effects were restricted to prospective memory cues appearing outside of the center of attention, suggesting that the development of prospective memory across early school years may be modulated by whether a cue requires overt monitoring beyond the immediate attentional context. Because whether a cue is in or outside of the center of attention might determine the amount of executive control needed in a prospective memory task, findings suggest that developing executive control resources may drive prospective memory development across primary school age.

  14. The Role of Shifting, Updating, and Inhibition in Prospective Memory Performance in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnitzspahn, Katharina M.; Stahl, Christoph; Zeintl, Melanie; Kaller, Christoph P.; Kliegel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory performance shows a decline in late adulthood. The present article examines the role of 3 main executive function facets (i.e., shifting, updating, and inhibition) as possible developmental mechanisms associated with these age effects. One hundred seventy-five young and 110 older adults performed a battery of cognitive tests…

  15. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  16. The Role of Extrinsic Rewards and Cue-Intention Association in Prospective Memory in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Daniel Patrick; Kretschmer, Anett; Knispel, Elisa; Vollert, Bianka; Altgassen, Mareike

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined, for the first time, the effect of cue-intention association, as well as the effects of promised extrinsic rewards, on prospective memory in young children, aged 5-years-old (n = 39) and 7-years-old (n = 40). Children were asked to name pictures for a toy mole, whilst also having to remember to respond differently to certain target pictures (prospective memory task). The level to which the target picture was associated with the intention was manipulated across two conditions (low- or high-association) for all participants, whilst half of the participants were promised a reward for good prospective memory performance. Results showed a main effect of age, with the 7-year-olds outperforming the 5-year-olds. Furthermore, there was a main effect of reward, with those promised a reward performing better than those who were not. No effect was found for cue-association, with the participants of both age groups performing equally well in both association conditions. No significant interactions were found between any of the variables. The potentially important role of reward in young children's everyday prospective memory tasks, and possible reasons for the lack of a reflexive-associative effect, are discussed.

  17. Time-based prospective memory in adults with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. Despite its importance to everyday life, the few studies on PM function in adults with dyslexia which exist have relied on self-report measures. To determine whether self-reported PM deficits can be measured objectively, laboratory-based PM tasks were administered to 24 adults with dyslexia and 25 age- and IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Self-report data indicated that people with dyslexia felt that time-based PM (TBPM; requiring responses at certain times in the future) was most problematic for them and so this form of PM was the focus of investigation. Whilst performing the ongoing task from which they were required to break out every 3 min to make a PM-related response, the participants were allowed to make clock checks whenever they wished. The cognitive demands made on ongoing behaviour were manipulated to determine whether loading executive resources had a mediating role in dyslexia-related deficits in PM, resulting in three tasks with varying working memory load. A semi-naturalistic TBPM task was also administered, in which the participants were asked to remind the experimenter to save a data file 40 min after being given this instruction. Dyslexia-related differences were found across all three computerized tasks, regardless of cognitive load. The adults with dyslexia made fewer correct PM responses and also fewer clock checks. On the semi-naturalistic task, the participants with dyslexia were less likely to remember to remind the experimenter to save the file. This is the first study to document PM deficits in dyslexia using objective measures of performance. Since TBPM impairments were found under more naturalistic conditions as well as on computerized tasks, the results have implications for workplace support for adults with dyslexia.

  18. Maternal Reminiscing Style during Early Childhood Predicts the Age of Adolescents' Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; MacDonald, Shelley; Reese, Elaine; Hayne, Harlene

    2009-01-01

    Individual differences in parental reminiscing style are hypothesized to have long-lasting effects on children's autobiographical memory development, including the age of their earliest memories. This study represents the first prospective test of this hypothesis. Conversations about past events between 17 mother-child dyads were recorded on…

  19. Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age.

    PubMed

    Degerman, Sofie; Josefsson, Maria; Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie; Wennstedt, Sigrid; Landfors, Mattias; Haider, Zahra; Pudas, Sara; Hultdin, Magnus; Nyberg, Lars; Adolfsson, Rolf

    2017-02-20

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  20. Association between child maltreatment and prospective and retrospective memory in adolescents: The mediatory effect of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ping-Zhen; Bai, Hua-Yu; Sun, Ji-Wei; Guo, Wei; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Cao, Feng-Lin

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and prospective and retrospective memory in children/adolescents by investigating the mediating role of neuroticism. In total, 662 children/adolescents aged 10-16 years were recruited from a middle school in China, and they completed questionnaires comprising the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, and the Neuroticism subscale of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. The severity of maltreatment was positively associated with the severity of impairment of memory (prospective and retrospective considered together) in children/adolescents. Children/adolescents exposed to maltreatment tended to display higher levels of neuroticism. Neuroticism partially mediated the association between child maltreatment and memory in all the subjects. The results of multigroup analyses showed neuroticism fully mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and memory for boys, in which the effect size of indirect effect was 0.52, and partially mediated the association for girls with 0.44 effect size of indirect effect. Early intervention aimed to reduce neuroticism might contribute to a better prognosis in children/adolescences with poor memory function.

  1. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  2. Modeling Criterion Shifts and Target Checking in Prospective Memory Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Sebastian S.; Bayen, Ute J.

    2015-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) involves remembering to perform intended actions after a delay. An important theoretical issue is whether and how people monitor the environment to execute an intended action when a target event occurs. Performing a PM task often increases the latencies in ongoing tasks. However, little is known about the…

  3. Target Context Specification Can Reduce Costs in Nonfocal Prospective Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourenço, Joana S.; White, Katherine; Maylor, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a nonfocal prospective memory (PM) task results in a cost to ongoing task processing, but the precise nature of the monitoring processes involved remains unclear. We investigated whether target context specification (i.e., explicitly associating the PM target with a subset of ongoing stimuli) can trigger trial-by-trial changes in task…

  4. Pain is Associated with Prospective Memory Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ashley K.; Basso, Michael R.; Candilis, Philip J.; Combs, Dennis R.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) pertains to the execution of a future goal or behavior. Initial research implies that people with multiple sclerosis (MS) are apt to show impaired prospective memory for activities of daily living (Rendell, Jensen, & Henry, 2007; Rendell et al., 2012). Yet, PM impairment does not occur in all people with MS. Thus, some other variable besides disease status alone may contribute to PM dysfunction in people with MS. Chronic pain may be such a variable. Approximately 50-70% of people with MS experience significant pain, and such pain has been thought to diminish memory function (Moore, Keogh, and Eccleston, 2009). To investigate this possibility, 96 patients with MS and 29 healthy subjects were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) (Raskin, Buckheit, & Sherrod, 2010), a well-validated measure of prospective memory, and the Medical Outcomes Study Pain Effects Scale (PES) (Fischer, Rudick, Cutter, & Reingold, 1999) to assess chronic pain. After controlling for demographic variables and disability severity, subjective pain accounted for significant variance in PM, particularly for time-based intentions over sustained delay periods. These data accord well with assertions that pain may degrade ability to remember new intentions, and suggests that pain is associated with PM dysfunction in people with MS. PMID:25338929

  5. Cue-Focused and Reflexive-Associative Processes in Prospective Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Guynn, Melissa J.; Einstein, Gilles O.; Breneiser, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    Several theories of event-based prospective memory were evaluated in 3 experiments. The results depended on the association between the target event and the intended action. For associated target-action pairs (a) preexposure of nontargets did not reduce prospective memory, (b) divided attention did not reduce prospective memory, (c) prospective…

  6. Coding of Stimuli by Animals: Retrospection, Prospection, Episodic Memory and Future Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    When animals code stimuli for later retrieval they can either code them in terms of the stimulus presented (as a retrospective memory) or in terms of the response or outcome anticipated (as a prospective memory). Although retrospective memory is typically assumed (as in the form of a memory trace), evidence of prospective coding has been found…

  7. Prospective study of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change: the Cache County Study on Memory, Health and Aging123

    PubMed Central

    Munger, Ronald G; Cutler, Adele; Quach, Anna; Bowles, Austin; Corcoran, Christopher; Tschanz, JoAnn T; Norton, Maria C; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Healthy dietary patterns may protect against age-related cognitive decline, but results of studies have been inconsistent. Objective: We examined associations between Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)– and Mediterranean-style dietary patterns and age-related cognitive change in a prospective, population-based study. Design: Participants included 3831 men and women ≥65 y of age who were residents of Cache County, UT, in 1995. Cognitive function was assessed by using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) ≤4 times over 11 y. Diet-adherence scores were computed by summing across the energy-adjusted rank-order of individual food and nutrient components and categorizing participants into quintiles of the distribution of the diet accordance score. Mixed-effects repeated-measures models were used to examine 3MS scores over time across increasing quintiles of dietary accordance scores and individual food components that comprised each score. Results: The range of rank-order DASH and Mediterranean diet scores was 1661–25,596 and 2407–26,947, respectively. Higher DASH and Mediterranean diet scores were associated with higher average 3MS scores. People in quintile 5 of DASH averaged 0.97 points higher than those in quintile 1 (P = 0.001). The corresponding difference for Mediterranean quintiles was 0.94 (P = 0.001). These differences were consistent over 11 y. Higher intakes of whole grains and nuts and legumes were also associated with higher average 3MS scores [mean quintile 5 compared with 1 differences: 1.19 (P < 0.001), 1.22 (P < 0.001), respectively]. Conclusions: Higher levels of accordance with both the DASH and Mediterranean dietary patterns were associated with consistently higher levels of cognitive function in elderly men and women over an 11-y period. Whole grains and nuts and legumes were positively associated with higher cognitive functions and may be core neuroprotective foods common to various healthy plant

  8. Altered resting-state hippocampal functional networks associated with chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huaidong; Li, Wen; Gong, Liang; Xuan, Han; Huang, Zhonglian; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Long Sheng; Wang, Kai

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) network and its relationship with prospective memory in patients with breast cancer suffering from chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI). Thirty-four breast cancer patients before and after adjuvant chemotherapy (CB and CC, respectively) and 31 age- and education-matched cognitively normal (CN) women were recruited and subjected to a prospective memory task and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was used to compare the hippocampal FC networks between CC and CN groups. Partial correction analysis was used to examine the association between the hippocampal FC network and prospective memory in the CC group. The cancer group that underwent chemotherapy obtained significantly poorer scores than the CN group on mini-mental state examination, verbal fluency test, digit span, and prospective memory examination. Compared to the CN group, CC group showed increased hippocampal connectivity in the frontal and parietal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and the cerebellum. In addition, the increasing hippocampal FC networks were negatively correlated with prospective memory performance in the CC group. These findings suggest maladaptive hippocampal functioning as a mechanism underlying the impairment of prospective memory in patients experiencing CICI. PMID:28327626

  9. Altered resting-state hippocampal functional networks associated with chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huaidong; Li, Wen; Gong, Liang; Xuan, Han; Huang, Zhonglian; Zhao, Hong; Wang, Long Sheng; Wang, Kai

    2017-03-22

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the intrinsic hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) network and its relationship with prospective memory in patients with breast cancer suffering from chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI). Thirty-four breast cancer patients before and after adjuvant chemotherapy (CB and CC, respectively) and 31 age- and education-matched cognitively normal (CN) women were recruited and subjected to a prospective memory task and a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was used to compare the hippocampal FC networks between CC and CN groups. Partial correction analysis was used to examine the association between the hippocampal FC network and prospective memory in the CC group. The cancer group that underwent chemotherapy obtained significantly poorer scores than the CN group on mini-mental state examination, verbal fluency test, digit span, and prospective memory examination. Compared to the CN group, CC group showed increased hippocampal connectivity in the frontal and parietal cortex, precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, and the cerebellum. In addition, the increasing hippocampal FC networks were negatively correlated with prospective memory performance in the CC group. These findings suggest maladaptive hippocampal functioning as a mechanism underlying the impairment of prospective memory in patients experiencing CICI.

  10. Initial planning benefits complex prospective memory at a cost.

    PubMed

    Settle, Jill R; Clawson, Deborah M; Sebrechts, Marc M

    2017-08-01

    The effect of initial planning on complex prospective memory was investigated using a virtual environment and a sample of healthy young adults (N = 34). Participants were assigned to either an initial planning or a control condition and were asked to complete a series of time- and event-based prospective memory tasks. The planning group completed the tasks more quickly and accurately than the control group. However, the total time spent, including both planning and task execution, was comparable for the two groups. Within the planning group, tasks that were planned were more likely to be completed than unplanned tasks, but inclusion of overly detailed information in the plans resulted in poorer performance. These results suggest that although initial planning can be beneficial to task completion, the complexity of a plan may contribute to decrements in performance.

  11. Google Calendar: a new memory aid to compensate for prospective memory deficits following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Haslam, C; Yates, P; Gurr, B; Leeder, G; Sayers, A

    2011-12-01

    Prospective memory impairment is common following acquired brain injury (ABI) and intervention has proved challenging. The current treatment of choice involves using external memory aids as a method of compensation, with those incorporating active reminders proving most successful. In this paper we report findings of an investigation into the effectiveness of a novel external memory aid, Google Calendar. This aid incorporates active reminders and overcomes some of the limitations associated with existing aids. Twelve participants with ABI took part in the study incorporating a randomised control crossover within-subjects design, consisting of a 5-week baseline phase, followed by two 5-week intervention phases where either Google Calendar or a standard diary were used. Participants identified activities to target during the study and a family member monitored their success. Google Calendar was more effective than the diary in enhancing prospective memory performance. It also proved more popular, on account of its active reminders which helped trigger the retrieval of intentions, whilst reducing the need for monitoring. While further research is required to substantiate these initial findings, it is recommended that clinicians familiarise themselves with using Google Calendar, as it appears to offer additional potential in the management of prospective memory deficits following ABI.

  12. Time-based prospective memory in young children-Exploring executive functions as a developmental mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Anett; Voigt, Babett; Friedrich, Sylva; Pfeiffer, Kathrin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated time-based prospective memory (PM) during the transition from kindergarten/preschool to school age and applied mediation models to test the impact of executive functions (working memory, inhibitory control) and time monitoring on time-based PM development. Twenty-five preschool (age: M = 5.75, SD = 0.28) and 22 primary school children (age: M = 7.83, SD = 0.39) participated. To examine time-based PM, children had to play a computer-based driving game requiring them to drive a car on a road without hitting others cars (ongoing task) and to refill the car regularly according to a fuel gauge, which serves as clock equivalent (PM task). The level of gas that was still left in the fuel gauge was not displayed on the screen and children had to monitor it via a button press (time monitoring). Results revealed a developmental increase in time-based PM performance from preschool to school age. Applying the mediation models, only working memory was revealed to influence PM development. Neither inhibitory control alone nor the mediation paths leading from both executive functions to time monitoring could explain the link between age and time-based PM. Thus, results of the present study suggest that working memory may be one key cognitive process driving the developmental growth of time-based PM during the transition from preschool to school age.

  13. Time-based and event-based prospective memory in autism spectrum disorder: the roles of executive function and theory of mind, and time-estimation.

    PubMed

    Williams, David; Boucher, Jill; Lind, Sophie; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-07-01

    Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21 intellectually high-functioning children with ASD, and 21 age- and IQ-matched neurotypical comparison children. We found impaired time-based, but undiminished event-based, prospective memory among children with ASD. In the ASD group, time-based prospective memory performance was associated significantly with diminished theory of mind, but not with diminished cognitive flexibility. There was no evidence that time-estimation ability contributed to time-based prospective memory impairment in ASD.

  14. Memory Aging Knowledge and Memory Self-Appraisal in Younger and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brigman, Susan; Reese-Melancon, Celinda; Burton-Chase, Allison; Holland, Kayla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among memory aging knowledge and memory self-appraisal in college students and community-dwelling older adults. Participants completed the Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire ([KMAQ] Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) and the Memory Functioning Questionnaire ([MFQ] Gilewski,…

  15. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  16. Aging Memories: Differential Decay of Episodic Memory Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talamini, Lucia M.; Gorree, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Some memories about events can persist for decades, even a lifetime. However, recent memories incorporate rich sensory information, including knowledge on the spatial and temporal ordering of event features, while old memories typically lack this "filmic" quality. We suggest that this apparent change in the nature of memories may reflect a…

  17. Prospective memory mediated by interoceptive accuracy: a psychophysiological approach

    PubMed Central

    Tochizawa, Saiko; Shibata, Midori; Terasawa, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on prospective memory (PM), defined as memory for future intentions, suggest that psychological stress enhances successful PM retrieval. However, the mechanisms underlying this notion remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that PM retrieval is achieved through interaction with autonomic nervous activity, which is mediated by the individual accuracy of interoceptive awareness, as measured by the heartbeat detection task. In this study, the relationship between cardiac reactivity and retrieval of delayed intentions was evaluated using the event-based PM task. Participants were required to detect PM target letters while engaged in an ongoing 2-back working memory task. The results demonstrated that individuals with higher PM task performance had a greater increase in heart rate on PM target presentation. Also, higher interoceptive perceivers showed better PM task performance. This pattern was not observed for working memory task performance. These findings suggest that cardiac afferent signals enhance PM retrieval, which is mediated by individual levels of interoceptive accuracy. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Interoception beyond homeostasis: affect, cognition and mental health’. PMID:28080964

  18. The role of metacognition in prospective memory: anticipated task demands influence attention allocation strategies.

    PubMed

    Rummel, Jan; Meiser, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates how individuals distribute their attentional resources between a prospective memory task and an ongoing task. Therefore, metacognitive expectations about the attentional demands of the prospective-memory task were manipulated while the factual demands were held constant. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we found attentional costs from a prospective-memory task with low factual demands to be significantly reduced when information about the low to-be-expected demands were provided, while prospective-memory performance remained largely unaffected. In Experiment 2, attentional monitoring in a more demanding prospective-memory task also varied with information about the to-be-expected demands (high vs. low) and again there were no equivalent changes in prospective-memory performance. These findings suggest that attention-allocation strategies of prospective memory rely on metacognitive expectations about prospective-memory task demands. Furthermore, the results suggest that attentional monitoring is only functional for prospective memory to the extent to which anticipated task demands reflect objective task demands.

  19. Theory of mind and switching predict prospective memory performance in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Vetter, Nora C; Phillips, Louise H; Akgün, Canan; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates ongoing development of prospective memory as well as theory of mind and executive functions across late childhood and adolescence. However, so far the interplay of these processes has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate whether theory of mind and executive control processes (specifically updating, switching, and inhibition) predict prospective memory development across adolescence. In total, 42 adolescents and 41 young adults participated in this study. Young adults outperformed adolescents on tasks of prospective memory, theory of mind, and executive functions. Switching and theory of mind predicted prospective memory performance in adolescents.

  20. Seymour Sarason in Memorial: Prospects for Community and Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maton, Kenneth I.

    2012-01-01

    Seymour Sarason passed away on January 10, 2010 at the age of 91. He was the author of more than 40 books, including The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change (1971), The Creation of Settings and the Future Societies (1972), and The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology (1974). His groundbreaking ideas…

  1. Impaired strategic monitoring as the locus of a focal prospective memory deficit.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; McNerney, M Windy; Krauss, Iseli

    2007-04-01

    In this study we examine the locus of a prospective memory deficit in an individual with multiple sclerosis. Extensive psychometric and neuropsychological testing revealed above average to superior general intelligence, retrospective and autobiographical memory, short-term/working memory and executive functions. In contrast, the individual demonstrated poor prospective memory on a variety of measures incorporating naturalistic, self-report, and laboratory methods. This deficit appeared to arise from a disruption of processes underlying strategic monitoring. These data clearly demonstrate that impaired prospective memory can exist in the presence of an otherwise intact neuropsychological profile.

  2. Development of the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM) for use with traumatic brain injury populations.

    PubMed

    Man, David W K; Fleming, Jennifer; Hohaus, Lydia; Shum, David

    2011-12-01

    Impairment of prospective memory (PM) is a common problem following traumatic brain injury (TBI) which can affect functional outcomes. PM failures in everyday life can be assessed using self-report questionnaires; however, existing measures tend to be lengthy, which may be problematic for individuals with fatigue and other cognitive impairments. This study aimed to develop a short form of the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) and examine its psychometric properties. Using theoretical and statistical considerations, the number of items on the CAPM was reduced to 16 including equal numbers representing the basic activities of daily living (BADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) subscales. The psychometric properties of the new measure, named the Brief Assessment of Prospective Memory (BAPM), were examined by secondary analysis of data from two samples of community dwelling adults (aged 17 to 91 years, n = 527, and 15 to 60 years, n = 95) with no history of brain injury, and a sample of rehabilitation patients with moderate to severe TBI (n = 45). Results indicate that the BAPM has a robust factor structure, strong agreement with the original CAPM, acceptable internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and evidence of criterion-related validity with psychosocial integration as the point of reference for people with TBI.

  3. Prospective memory on a novel clinical task in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and subjective cognitive decline

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, Laura A.; Chi, Susan Y.; Wang, Cuiling; Fogel, Joshua; Kann, Sarah J.; Aronov, Avner

    2014-01-01

    Despite the relevance of prospective memory to everyday functioning and the ability to live independently, prospective memory tasks are rarely incorporated into clinical evaluations of older adults. We investigated the validity and clinical utility of a recently developed measure, the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test (RPA-ProMem), in a demographically diverse, non-demented, community-dwelling sample of 257 older adults (mean age = 80.78 years, 67.7% female) with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 18), non-amestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI, n = 38), subjective cognitive decline (SCD, n = 83) despite intact performance on traditional episodic memory tests, and healthy controls (HC, n = 118). Those with aMCI and naMCI performed significantly worse than controls on the RPA-ProMem and its subtasks (time-based, event-based, short-term, long-term). Also, those with SCD scored significantly lower than controls on long-term, more naturalistic subtasks. Additional results supported the validity and inter-rater reliability of the RPA-ProMem and demonstrated a relation between test scores and informant reports of real-world functioning. The RPA-ProMem may help detect subtle cognitive changes manifested by individuals in the earliest stages of dementia, which may be difficult to capture with traditional episodic memory tests. Also, assessment of prospective memory can help guide the development of cognitive interventions for older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:24875614

  4. Errorless learning of prospective memory tasks: An experimental investigation in people with memory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fish, Jessica E.; Manly, Tom; Kopelman, Michael D.; Morris, Robin G.

    2015-01-01

    The term prospective memory (PM) refers to memory for future intentions. PM problems are frequent in people with cognitive impairment and, because they are central to the realisation of many everyday goals, are important in rehabilitation. Event-based PM tasks (EBPM) are environmentally-cued and have primarily mnemonic demands, whereas time-based PM tasks (TBPM) require self-initiated retrieval, and have greater executive demands. Errorless learning (EL) is an encoding method that results in superior retrospective memory compared with “errorful” learning (EF). As this EL advantage (ELA) likely stems from its reduced explicit memory demands, and there is no such advantage for executive tasks, a greater ELA for EBPM than TBPM was predicted. Fourteen adults with neurological memory impairment completed PM tasks under four counterbalanced conditions: EL of EBPM, EL of TBPM, EF of EBPM, and EF of TBPM. A significant ELA was observed for EBPM (d = .63), but not TBPM (d = –.01). These results extend the evidence for EL within cognitive rehabilitation, by showing for the first time that the method can benefit future action in addition to retrospective memory. The clinical implications are also clear: errorless learning techniques may be usefully employed to support completion of day-to-day EBPM tasks. PMID:24894460

  5. Errorless learning of prospective memory tasks: An experimental investigation in people with memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Fish, Jessica E; Manly, Tom; Kopelman, Michael D; Morris, Robin G

    2015-01-01

    The term prospective memory (PM) refers to memory for future intentions. PM problems are frequent in people with cognitive impairment and, because they are central to the realisation of many everyday goals, are important in rehabilitation. Event-based PM tasks (EBPM) are environmentally-cued and have primarily mnemonic demands, whereas time-based PM tasks (TBPM) require self-initiated retrieval, and have greater executive demands. Errorless learning (EL) is an encoding method that results in superior retrospective memory compared with "errorful" learning (EF). As this EL advantage (ELA) likely stems from its reduced explicit memory demands, and there is no such advantage for executive tasks, a greater ELA for EBPM than TBPM was predicted. Fourteen adults with neurological memory impairment completed PM tasks under four counterbalanced conditions: EL of EBPM, EL of TBPM, EF of EBPM, and EF of TBPM. A significant ELA was observed for EBPM (d = .63), but not TBPM (d = -.01). These results extend the evidence for EL within cognitive rehabilitation, by showing for the first time that the method can benefit future action in addition to retrospective memory. The clinical implications are also clear: errorless learning techniques may be usefully employed to support completion of day-to-day EBPM tasks.

  6. Memory B cell subpopulations in the aged.

    PubMed

    Colonna-Romano, Giuseppina; Aquino, Alessandra; Bulati, Matteo; Di Lorenzo, Gabriele; Listì, Florinda; Vitello, Salvatore; Lio, Domenico; Candore, Giuseppina; Clesi, Gioacchino; Caruso, Calogero

    2006-01-01

    The literature on immunosenescence has focused mainly on T cell impairment. With the aim of gaining insight into B cell immunosenescence, the authors investigated the serum IgD levels in 24 young and 21 old people and analyzed their relationship with the number of CD19+CD27+ memory cells. Serum IgD were quantified by the use of radial immunodiffusion and the lymphocyte population CD19+CD27+ was identified by a FACScan flow cytometer. Serum IgD levels were significantly lower (p < 0.0001) in old subjects, and the percentage of CD19+CD27+ lymphocytes were significantly increased (p = 0.01) in old subjects. Finally, a significant negative correlation was found (p = 0.01) between serum concentrations of IgD and CD19+CD27+. The present results show that the levels of IgD are negatively age-related to the amount of B memory cells. This suggests that the B repertoire available to respond to new antigenic challenges is decreased in the elderly. In fact, many memory IgD- B cells fill immunologic space, and the number of naïve IgD+ B cells is dramatically decreased. Therefore, these preliminary results suggest that a decrease of naïve IgD+CD27- B cells and a concomitant increase of memory IgD-CD27+ B cells could represent hallmarks of B immunosenescence, might provide biomarkers related to the lifespan of humans, and could be useful for the evaluation of antiaging treatments.

  7. Prospection and emotional memory: how expectation affects emotional memory formation following sleep and wake.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Tony J; Chambers, Alexis M; Payne, Jessica D

    2014-01-01

    Successful prospective memory is necessarily driven by an expectation that encoded information will be relevant in the future, leading to its preferential placement in memory storage. Like expectation, emotional salience is another type of cue that benefits human memory formation. Although separate lines of research suggest that both emotional information and information explicitly expected to be important in the future benefit memory consolidation, it is unknown how expectation affects the processing of emotional information and whether sleep, which is known to maximize memory consolidation, plays a critical role. The purpose of this study was to investigate how expectation would impact the consolidation of emotionally salient content, and whether this impact would differ across delays of sleep and wake. Participants encoded scenes containing an emotionally charged negative or neutral foreground object placed on a plausible neutral background. After encoding, half of the participants were informed they would later be tested on the scenes (expected condition), while the other half received no information about the test (unexpected condition). At recognition, following a 12-h delay of sleep or wakefulness, the scene components (objects and backgrounds) were presented separately and one at a time, and participants were asked to determine if each component was old or new. Results revealed a greater disparity for memory of negative objects over their paired neutral backgrounds for both the sleep and wake groups when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while neutral memory remained unchanged. Analyzing each group separately, the wake group showed a threefold increase in the magnitude of this object/background trade-off for emotional scenes when the memory test was expected compared to when it was unexpected, while those who slept performed similarly across conditions. These results suggest that emotional salience and expectation cues

  8. False memories with age: Neural and cognitive underpinnings.

    PubMed

    Devitt, Aleea L; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-10-01

    As we age we become increasingly susceptible to memory distortions and inaccuracies. Over the past decade numerous neuroimaging studies have attempted to illuminate the neural underpinnings of aging and false memory. Here we review these studies, and link their findings with those concerning the cognitive properties of age-related changes in memory accuracy. Collectively this evidence points towards a prominent role for age-related declines in medial temporal and prefrontal brain areas, and corresponding impairments in associative binding and strategic monitoring. A resulting cascade of cognitive changes contributes to the heightened vulnerability to false memories with age, including reduced recollective ability, a reliance on gist information and familiarity-based monitoring mechanisms, as well as a reduced ability to inhibit irrelevant information and erroneous binding of features between memory traces. We consider both theoretical and applied implications of research on aging and false memories, as well as questions remaining to be addressed in future research.

  9. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  10. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  11. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  12. Differential Age Effects on Spatial and Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cleo; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young…

  13. Your Earliest Memory May Be Earlier than You Think: Prospective Studies of Children's Dating of Earliest Childhood Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Peterson, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Theories of childhood amnesia and autobiographical memory development have been based on the assumption that the age estimates of earliest childhood memories are generally accurate, with an average age of 3.5 years among adults. It is also commonly believed that early memories will by default become inaccessible later on and this eventually…

  14. Thinking about threats: Memory and prospection in human threat management.

    PubMed

    Bulley, Adam; Henry, Julie D; Suddendorf, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Humans have evolved mechanisms for the detection and management of possible threats in order to abate their negative consequences for fitness. Internally generated ('detached') cognition may have evolved in part because of its contributions to this broad function, but important questions remain about its role in threat management. In this article, we therefore present a taxonomy of threat-related internally generated cognition comprising episodic and semantic formats of memory and prospection. We address the proximate mechanisms of each of the capacities in this taxonomy, and discuss their respective contributions to adaptive threat management in humans. For instance, mental time travel empowers people to contemplate and learn from threats experienced long ago, as well as to plan for dangers that might arise in the distant future. However, despite their functional benefits, these thought processes are also central to contemporary anxiety disorders and may be a potent source of distress.

  15. Relations between prospective memory, cognitive abilities, and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Alison; Buckingham-Howes, Stacy; Salmeron, Betty Jo; Black, Maureen M.; Riggins, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined how prospective memory (PM) relates to cognitive abilities (i.e., executive function, attention, working memory, and retrospective memory), and brain structure in adolescents who vary in prenatal drug exposure (PDE). The sample included 105 (55 female, 50 male) urban, primarily African American adolescents (mean age 15.5 years) from low socioeconomic status (SES) families; 56% (n=59) were prenatally exposed to drugs (heroin and/or cocaine) and 44% (n=46) were not prenatally exposed, but similar in age, gender, race, and SES. Executive functioning, attentional control, working memory, retrospective memory, and overall cognitive ability were assessed by validated performance measures. Executive functioning was also measured by caregiver report. A subset of 52 adolescents completed MRI scans, which provided measures of subcortical gray matter volumes and thickness of prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices. Results revealed no differences in PM performance by PDE status, even after adjusting for age and IQ. Executive function, retrospective memory, cortical thickness in frontal and parietal regions, and volume of subcortical regions (i.e., putamen and hippocampus) were related to PM performance in the sample overall, even after adjusting for age, IQ, and total gray matter volume. Findings suggest that variations in PM ability during adolescence are robustly related to individual differences in cognitive abilities, in particular executive function and retrospective memory, and brain structure, but do not vary by PDE status. PMID:24630759

  16. Neurocognitive Systems Related to Real-World Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Eriksson, Johan; Sjölie, Daniel; Molin, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective memory (PM) denotes the ability to remember to perform actions in the future. It has been argued that standard laboratory paradigms fail to capture core aspects of PM. Methodology/Principal Findings We combined functional MRI, virtual reality, eye-tracking and verbal reports to explore the dynamic allocation of neurocognitive processes during a naturalistic PM task where individuals performed errands in a realistic model of their residential town. Based on eye movement data and verbal reports, we modeled PM as an iterative loop of five sustained and transient phases: intention maintenance before target detection (TD), TD, intention maintenance after TD, action, and switching, the latter representing the activation of a new intention in mind. The fMRI analyses revealed continuous engagement of a top-down fronto-parietal network throughout the entire task, likely subserving goal maintenance in mind. In addition, a shift was observed from a perceptual (occipital) system while searching for places to go, to a mnemonic (temporo-parietal, fronto-hippocampal) system for remembering what actions to perform after TD. Updating of the top-down fronto-parietal network occurred at both TD and switching, the latter likely also being characterized by frontopolar activity. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, these findings show how brain systems complementary interact during real-world PM, and support a more complete model of PM that can be applied to naturalistic PM tasks and that we named PROspective MEmory DYnamic (PROMEDY) model because of its dynamics on both multi-phase iteration and the interactions of distinct neurocognitive networks. PMID:20949046

  17. TaOx-based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are attractive for replacement of conventional flash in the future. Although different switching materials have been reported; however, low-current operated devices (<100 μA) are necessary for productive RRAM applications. Therefore, TaOx is one of the prospective switching materials because of two stable phases of TaO2 and Ta2O5, which can also control the stable low- and high-resistance states. Long program/erase endurance and data retention at high temperature under low-current operation are also reported in published literature. So far, bilayered TaOx with inert electrodes (Pt and/or Ir) or single layer TaOx with semi-reactive electrodes (W and Ti/W or Ta/Pt) is proposed for real RRAM applications. It is found that the memory characteristics at current compliance (CC) of 80 μA is acceptable for real application; however, data are becoming worst at CC of 10 μA. Therefore, it is very challenging to reduce the operation current (few microampere) of the RRAM devices. This study investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performance of low-current operated TaOx-based devices as compared to other RRAM devices. This topical review will not only help for application of TaOx-based nanoscale RRAM devices but also encourage researcher to overcome the challenges in the future production. PMID:24107610

  18. Effects of aging and education on false memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the recall and recognition of the studied word and nonstudied lures. A low education level had a negative effect on memory performance for both young and middle-aged adults. Older adults with a high level of education had a higher level of false memory than those with a lower education level. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of education on false memory and mechanisms that create false memory of words in older adults.

  19. Memory for Sequences of Events Impaired in Typical Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Timothy A.; Morris, Andrea M.; Stark, Shauna M.; Fortin, Norbert J.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Typical aging is associated with diminished episodic memory performance. To improve our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this age-related memory deficit, we previously developed an integrated, cross-species approach to link converging evidence from human and animal research. This novel approach focuses on the ability to…

  20. Working Memory, Age, Crew Downsizing, System Design and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP010568 TITLE: Working Memory, Age, Crew Downsizing , System Design and...comprise the compilation report: ADP010557 thru ADP010582 UNCLASSIFIED 15-1 Working Memory, Age, Crew Downsizing , System Design and Training Dr Malcolm J

  1. An investigation into the resource requirements of event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Loft, Shayne; Yeo, Gillian

    2007-03-01

    The multiprocess view proposes that both strategic and automatic processes can support prospective memory. In three experiments, we embedded a prospective memory task in a lexical decision task; cues were either highly associated with response words or had no relation. Analyses of RTs on ongoing task trials indicated that (1) prospective memory was more dependent on the allocation of resources immediately prior to cue presentation under conditions of low association in comparison with high association and (2) processes engaged on cue trials were more resource demanding under conditions of low association in comparison with high association. These data support the claim of the multiprocess view that prospective memory can be more resource demanding under some task conditions in comparison with others. However, the prospective memory performance data were less supportive, with declines in prospective memory due to task-importance and cue-frequency manipulations comparable across the low- and high-association conditions. Taken together, these results have implications for two prominent theories of prospective memory.

  2. COMT polymorphism and memory dedifferentiation in old age.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Bäckman, Lars; Nagel, Irene E; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Schröder, Julia; Bertram, Lars; Heekeren, Hauke R; Lindenberger, Ulman; Li, Shu-Chen

    2014-06-01

    According to a neurocomputational theory of cognitive aging, senescent changes in dopaminergic modulation lead to noisier and less differentiated processing. The authors tested a corollary hypothesis of this theory, according to which genetic predispositions of individual differences in prefrontal dopamine (DA) signaling may affect associations between memory functions, particularly in old age. Latent correlations between factors of verbal episodic memory and spatial working memory were compared between individuals carrying different allelic variants of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism, which influences DA availability in prefrontal cortex. In younger adults (n = 973), correlations between memory functions did not differ significantly among the 3 COMT genotypes (r = .35); in older adults (n = 1333), however, the correlation was significantly higher in Val homozygotes (r = .70), whose prefrontal DA availability is supposedly the lowest of all groups examined, than in heterozygotes and Met homozygotes (both rs = .29). Latent means of the episodic memory and working memory factors did not differ by COMT status within age groups. However, when restricting the analysis to the low-performing tertile of older adults (n = 443), we found that Val homozygotes showed lower levels of performance in both episodic memory and working memory than heterozygotes and Met homozygotes. In line with the neurocomputational theory, the observed dedifferentiation of memory functions in older Val homozygotes suggests that suboptimal dopaminergic modulation may underlie multiple facets of memory declines during aging. Future longitudinal work needs to test this conjecture more directly.

  3. Prospective memory in dynamic environments: effects of load, delay, and phonological rehearsal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, M.; Dismukes, K.; Remington, R.

    2001-01-01

    A new paradigm was developed to examine prospective memory performance in a visual-spatial task that resembles some aspects of the work of air traffic controllers. Two experiments examined the role of workload (number of aeroplanes that participants directed), delay (between receipt of prospective instructions and execution), and phonological rehearsal. High workload increased prospective memory errors but increasing delay from 1-3 or 5 minutes had no effect. Shadowing aurally presented text reduced prospective memory performance, presumably because it prevented verbal rehearsal of the prospective instructions. However, performance on the foreground task of directing aeroplanes to routine destinations was affected only by workload and not by opportunity for rehearsal. Our results suggest that ability to maintain performance on a routine foreground task while performing a secondary task--perhaps analogous to conversation--does not predict ability to retrieve a prospective intention to deviate from the routine.

  4. Exercise enhances memory consolidation in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; de Rivera, Christina; Milgram, Norton W; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has been shown to reduce age-related losses in cognitive function including learning and memory, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain poorly understood. Memory formation occurs in stages that include an initial acquisition phase, an intermediate labile phase, and then a process of consolidation which leads to long-term memory formation. An effective way to examine the mechanism by which exercise improves memory is to introduce the intervention (exercise), post-acquisition, making it possible to selectively examine memory storage and consolidation. Accordingly we evaluated the effects of post-trial exercise (10 min on a treadmill) on memory consolidation in aged canines both right after, an hour after, and 24 h after acute exercise training in concurrent discrimination, object location memory (OLM), and novel object recognition tasks. Our study shows that post-trial exercise facilitates memory function by improving memory consolidation in aged animals in a time-dependent manner. The improvements were significant at 24 h post-exercise and not right after or 1 h after exercise. Aged animals were also tested following chronic exercise (10 min/day for 14 consecutive days) on OLM or till criterion were reached (for reversal learning task). We found improvements from a chronic exercise design in both the object location and reversal learning tasks. Our studies suggest that mechanisms to improve overall consolidation and cognitive function remain accessible even with progressing age and can be re-engaged by both acute and chronic exercise.

  5. Age effects on associative memory for novel picture pairings.

    PubMed

    Bridger, Emma K; Kursawe, Anna-Lena; Bader, Regine; Tibon, Roni; Gronau, Nurit; Levy, Daniel A; Mecklinger, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Normal aging is usually accompanied by greater memory decline for associations than for single items. Though associative memory is generally supported by recollection, it has been suggested that familiarity can also contribute to associative memory when stimuli can be unitized and encoded as a single entity. Given that familiarity remains intact during healthy aging, this may be one route to reducing age-related associative deficits. The current study investigated age-related differences in associative memory under conditions that were expected to differentially promote unitization, in this case by manipulating the spatial arrangement of two semantically unrelated objects positioned relative to each other in either spatially implausible or plausible orientations. Event-related potential (ERP) correlates of item and associative memory were recorded whilst younger and older adults were required to discriminate between old, recombined and new pairs of objects. These ERP correlates of item and associative memory did not vary with plausibility, whereas behavioral measures revealed that both associative and item memory were greater for spatially plausible than implausible pair arrangements. Contrary to predictions, older adults were less able to take advantage of this memory benefit than younger participants. Potential reasons for this are considered, and these are informed by those lines of evidence which indicate older participants were less sensitive to the bottom-up spatial manipulation employed here. It is recommended that future strategies for redressing age-related associative deficits should take account of the aging brain's increasing reliance on pre-existing semantic associations.

  6. Plasticity of prospective memory through a familiarization intervention in old adults.

    PubMed

    Zöllig, Jacqueline; Mattli, Florentina; Sutter, Christine; Aurelio, Andrea; Martin, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Younger adults consistently outperform older adults in laboratory prospective memory tasks. This study examines the effectiveness of an intervention that familiarizes older adults with the sequence of ongoing events to compensate their reduced prospective memory performance. We compared performance and electrophysiological measures of an intervention group (N = 20, 69-83 years) receiving a familiarization intervention to an individually matched control group (N = 20). As ongoing activity a 2-back working memory task was administered. Neural correlates were studied using event related potentials (ERPs) and source localization (standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography). Behavioural data showed faster reaction times in correct prospective trials and fewer prospective false alarms in the familiarization intervention group. ERP analyses displayed differential patterns for the two groups and source localization measures distinctively presented group differences in prospective memory trials with the control group recruiting more resources for a successful prospective memory performance. Together our data support the hypothesis that the familiarity with the sequence of ongoing events increases prospective memory performance and that this might be based on a higher efficiency of attentional monitoring resources and evaluation processes in the intervention group.

  7. Effects of context expectation on prospective memory performance among older and younger adults.

    PubMed

    Kominsky, Terrence K; Reese-Melancon, Celinda

    2017-01-01

    This experiment examined the impact of context expectation on prospective memory (PM) performance among older and younger adults. Participants responded to PM target words embedded in an ongoing lexical decision task (LDT). Older and younger adults performed similarly on the PM task. Regardless of age, PM was significantly better for participants in the correct context expectation condition and significantly worse in the incorrect context expectation condition relative to participants who held no expectations about the context in which targets would appear. Participants' LDT response latencies were used to assess cost of the PM task to the ongoing task. Latencies were discernibly longer in the LDT block where the PM targets were expected compared to the block where they were not expected. The findings provide new information about how context can be used to support PM aging and suggest that contextual information can be equally beneficial for older and younger adults.

  8. Physical Activity Is Positively Associated with Episodic Memory in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Scott M.; Alosco, Michael L.; Hayes, Jasmeet P.; Cadden, Margaret; Peterson, Kristina M.; Allsup, Kelly; Forman, Daniel E.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with performance reductions in executive function and episodic memory, although there is substantial individual variability in cognition among older adults. One factor that may be positively associated with cognition in aging is physical activity. To date, few studies have objectively assessed physical activity in young and older adults, and examined whether physical activity is differentially associated with cognition in aging. Young (n = 29, age 18–31 years) and older adults (n = 31, ages 55–82 years) completed standardized neuropsychological testing to assess executive function and episodic memory capacities. An experimental face-name relational memory task was administered to augment assessment of episodic memory. Physical activity (total step count and step rate) was objectively assessed using an accelerometer, and hierarchical regressions were used to evaluate relationships between cognition and physical activity. Older adults performed more poorly on tasks of executive function and episodic memory. Physical activity was positively associated with a composite measure of visual episodic memory and face-name memory accuracy in older adults. Physical activity associations with cognition were independent of sedentary behavior, which was negatively correlated with memory performance. Physical activity was not associated with cognitive performance in younger adults. Physical activity is positively associated with episodic memory performance in aging. The relationship appears to be strongest for face-name relational memory and visual episodic memory, likely attributable to the fact that these tasks make strong demands on the hippocampus. The results suggest that physical activity relates to cognition in older, but not younger adults. PMID:26581790

  9. Google Calendar Enhances Prospective Memory in Alzheimer's Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Gallouj, Karim; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    We investigated whether an external memory aid (i.e., Google Calendar) would alleviate prospective memory compromise in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease. The patient was asked in the baseline phase to perform three prospective targeted events (e.g., attending her weekly bridge game at the community club) and three prospective control events (e.g., buying her weekly magazine). The same six prospective events were assessed in the intervention phase but the targeted-events were cued by Google Calendar while the control-events were not. Results showed less omission of the targeted events in the training phase than in the baseline phase, suggesting a positive effect of Google Calendar. This case report offers a unique view into how smartphone calendars may alleviate prospective memory compromise in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Long-term visual object recognition memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Platano, Daniela; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Balietti, Marta; Bertoni-Freddari, Carlo; Aicardi, Giorgio

    2008-04-01

    Aging is associated with memory impairments, but the neural bases of this process need to be clarified. To this end, behavioral protocols for memory testing may be applied to aged animals to compare memory performances with functional and structural characteristics of specific brain regions. Visual object recognition memory can be investigated in the rat using a behavioral task based on its spontaneous preference for exploring novel rather than familiar objects. We found that a behavioral task able to elicit long-term visual object recognition memory in adult Long-Evans rats failed in aged (25-27 months old) Wistar rats. Since no tasks effective in aged rats are reported in the literature, we changed the experimental conditions to improve consolidation processes to assess whether this form of memory can still be maintained for long term at this age: the learning trials were performed in a smaller box, identical to the home cage, and the inter-trial delays were shortened. We observed a reduction in anxiety in this box (as indicated by the lower number of fecal boli produced during habituation), and we developed a learning protocol able to elicit a visual object recognition memory that was maintained after 24 h in these aged rats. When we applied the same protocol to adult rats, we obtained similar results. This experimental approach can be useful to study functional and structural changes associated with age-related memory impairments, and may help to identify new behavioral strategies and molecular targets that can be addressed to ameliorate memory performances during aging.

  11. Aging Memory Is "Not" a Limiting Factor for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalovic, Dejan; Gvozdenovic, Vasilije

    2015-01-01

    Efficient memory is one of the necessary cognitive potentials required for virtually every form of lifelong learning. In this contribution we first briefly review and summarize state of the art of knowledge on memory and related cognitive functions in normal aging. Then we critically discuss a relatively short inventory of clinical, psychometric,…

  12. Aging Effect on Visual and Spatial Components of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigneux, Katia; Plaie, Thierry; Isingrini, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aging on the storage of visual and spatial working memory according to Logie's model of working memory (1995). In a first experiment young, elderly, and very old subjects carried out two tasks usually used to measure visual span (Visual Patterns Test) and spatial span (Corsi Block Tapping test).…

  13. Accuracy and Speed of Memory in Depressed and Organic Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Nancy M.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Subjects (N=43) aged 50 and more were tested on a Sternberg recognition-memory task to explore the relative effects of depression and altered brain function on short-term memory in later life. Many performance differnces were best accounted for by the additive effects of depression and educational background, rather than by either variable…

  14. Self-Reports of Increased Prospective and Retrospective Memory Problems in Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Smith-Spark, James H; Zięcik, Adam P; Sterling, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Short-term and working memory problems in dyslexia are well-documented, but other memory domains have received little empirical scrutiny, despite some evidence to suggest that they might be impaired. Prospective memory is memory for delayed intentions, whilst retrospective memory relates to memory for personally experienced past events. To gain an understanding of subjective everyday memory experience, a self-report measure designed to tap prospective and retrospective memory was administered to 28 adults with dyslexia and 26 IQ-matched adults without dyslexia. Adults with dyslexia reported experiencing significantly more frequent problems with memory than the adults without dyslexia. Group differences were found across seven out of the eight questionnaire scales. Further to these analyses, the participants' own ratings were compared with proxy ratings provided by close associates. The perception of poorer memory abilities in the participants did not differ between respondent types. The self-reported difficulties are, thus, unlikely to be the result of lowered self-esteem or metacognitive awareness. More frequent difficulties with both types of memory would seem, therefore, to be experienced by adults with dyslexia in everyday life. Further laboratory-based research is recommended to explore both memory domains in dyslexia and to identify the cognitive mechanisms by which these problems occur. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Income prospects and age-at-marriage.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, T; Schoeni, R F

    1996-05-01

    "This paper provides an empirical investigation of a theoretical model of the marriage market. In the model, women are valued more for their ability to bear children and men are valued more for the ability to make money. Men cannot reveal their labor market ability to potential spouses until they enter the labor force. At the same time, the relevant information for evaluating females as spouses is revealed at a younger age. The model predicts that the income of males will be positively associated with age-at-first-marriage. We find empirical support for the model [based on U.S. data]. However, we also find the association between male earnings and age-at-first-marriage becomes negative for those who married after age 30, which was not predicted by the model. Consistent with the model, we do not find a strong relationship between earnings and age-at-first-marriage among females."

  16. Peptide bioregulation of aging: results and prospects.

    PubMed

    Anisimov, Vladimir N; Khavinson, Vladimir Kh

    2010-04-01

    The review comprises the results of author's long-term investigation in the mechanisms of aging and a role of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology. A number of small peptides have been isolated from different organs and tissues and their analogues (di-, tri-, tetrapeptides) were synthesized from the amino acids. It was shown that long-term treatment with some peptide preparations increased mean life span by 20-40%, slow down the age-related changes in the biomarkers of aging and suppressed development of spontaneous and induced by chemical or radiation carcinogens tumorigenesis in rodents. Possible mechanisms of the biological effects of small peptides are discussed in the paper. The results of clinical applications of peptide preparation during the period of 6-12 years are presented as well.

  17. Control of Cost in Prospective Memory: Evidence for Spontaneous Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Einstein, Gilles O.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the processes that support prospective remembering, previous research has often examined whether the presence of a prospective memory task slows overall responding on an ongoing task. Although slowed task performance suggests that monitoring is present, this method does not clearly establish whether monitoring is functionally related to…

  18. Internalizing versus Externalizing Control: Different Ways to Perform a Time-Based Prospective Memory Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tracy; Loft, Shayne; Humphreys, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    "Time-based prospective memory" (PM) refers to performing intended actions at a future time. Participants with time-based PM tasks can be slower to perform ongoing tasks (costs) than participants without PM tasks because internal control is required to maintain the PM intention or to make prospective-timing estimates. However, external…

  19. Consolidation of Prospective Memory: Effects of Sleep on Completed and Reinstated Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Christine; Seibold, Mitja; Born, Jan; Diekelmann, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Sleep has been shown to facilitate the consolidation of prospective memory, which is the ability to execute intended actions at the appropriate time in the future. In a previous study, the sleep benefit for prospective memory was mainly expressed as a preservation of prospective memory performance under divided attention as compared to full attention. Based on evidence that intentions are only remembered as long as they have not been executed yet (cf. ‘Zeigarnik effect’), here we asked whether the enhancement of prospective memory by sleep vanishes if the intention is completed before sleep and whether completed intentions can be reinstated to benefit from sleep again. In Experiment 1, subjects learned cue-associate word pairs in the evening and were prospectively instructed to detect the cue words and to type in the associates in a lexical decision task (serving as ongoing task) 2 h later before a night of sleep or wakefulness. At a second surprise test 2 days later, sleep and wake subjects did not differ in prospective memory performance. Specifically, both sleep and wake groups detected fewer cue words under divided compared to full attention, indicating that sleep does not facilitate the consolidation of completed intentions. Unexpectedly, in Experiment 2, reinstating the intention, by instructing subjects about the second test after completion of the first test, was not sufficient to restore the sleep benefit. However, in Experiment 3, where subjects were instructed about both test sessions immediately after learning, sleep facilitated prospective memory performance at the second test after 2 days, evidenced by comparable cue word detection under divided attention and full attention in sleep participants, whereas wake participants detected fewer cue words under divided relative to full attention. Together, these findings show that for prospective memory to benefit from sleep, (i) the intention has to be active across the sleep period, and (ii) the

  20. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary. PMID:26649914

  1. Preserved memory-based orienting of attention with impaired explicit memory in healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Gerardo; Patai, Eva Z; Nobre, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    It is increasingly recognised that spatial contextual long-term memory (LTM) prepares neural activity for guiding visuo-spatial attention in a proactive manner. In the current study, we investigated whether the decline in explicit memory observed in healthy ageing would compromise this mechanism. We compared the behavioural performance of younger and older participants on learning new contextual memories, on orienting visual attention based on these learnt contextual associations, and on explicit recall of contextual memories. We found a striking dissociation between older versus younger participants in the relationship between the ability to retrieve contextual memories versus the ability to use these to guide attention to enhance performance on a target-detection task. Older participants showed significant deficits in the explicit retrieval task, but their behavioural benefits from memory-based orienting of attention were equivalent to those in young participants. Furthermore, memory-based orienting correlated significantly with explicit contextual LTM in younger adults but not in older adults. These results suggest that explicit memory deficits in ageing might not compromise initial perception and encoding of events. Importantly, the results also shed light on the mechanisms of memory-guided attention, suggesting that explicit contextual memories are not necessary.

  2. Dopamine Receptor Genes Modulate Associative Memory in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Papenberg, Goran; Becker, Nina; Ferencz, Beata; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Laukka, Erika J; Bäckman, Lars; Brehmer, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Previous research shows that associative memory declines more than item memory in aging. Although the underlying mechanisms of this selective impairment remain poorly understood, animal and human data suggest that dopaminergic modulation may be particularly relevant for associative binding. We investigated the influence of dopamine (DA) receptor genes on item and associative memory in a population-based sample of older adults (n = 525, aged 60 years), assessed with a face-scene item associative memory task. The effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms of DA D1 (DRD1; rs4532), D2 (DRD2/ANKK1/Taq1A; rs1800497), and D3 (DRD3/Ser9Gly; rs6280) receptor genes were examined and combined into a single genetic score. Individuals carrying more beneficial alleles, presumably associated with higher DA receptor efficacy (DRD1 C allele; DRD2 A2 allele; DRD3 T allele), performed better on associative memory than persons with less beneficial genotypes. There were no effects of these genes on item memory or other cognitive measures, such as working memory, executive functioning, fluency, and perceptual speed, indicating a selective association between DA genes and associative memory. By contrast, genetic risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) was associated with worse item and associative memory, indicating adverse effects of APOE ε4 and a genetic risk score for AD (PICALM, BIN1, CLU) on episodic memory in general. Taken together, our results suggest that DA may be particularly important for associative memory, whereas AD-related genetic variations may influence overall episodic memory in older adults without dementia.

  3. Age at implantation and auditory memory in cochlear implanted children.

    PubMed

    Mikic, B; Miric, D; Nikolic-Mikic, M; Ostojic, S; Asanovic, M

    2014-05-01

    Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, provides the best outcome regarding listening, speech, cognition an memory due to maximal central nervous system plasticity. Intensive postoperative training improves not only auditory performance and language, but affects auditory memory as well. The aim of this study was to discover if the age at implantation affects auditory memory function in cochlear implanted children. A total of 50 cochlear implanted children aged 4 to 8 years were enrolled in this study: early implanted (1-3y) n = 27 and late implanted (4-6y) n = 23. Two types of memory tests were used: Immediate Verbal Memory Test and Forward and Backward Digit Span Test. Early implanted children performed better on both verbal and numeric tasks of auditory memory. The difference was statistically significant, especially on the complex tasks. Early cochlear implantation, before the age of 3 years, significantly improve auditory memory and contribute to better cognitive and education outcomes.

  4. Examining theories of cognitive ageing using the false memory paradigm.

    PubMed

    Askey, Charlotte; Playfoot, David

    2017-03-15

    Changes in memory performance with advancing age have been well-documented, even in the absence of brain injury or dementia. The mechanisms underlying cognitive ageing are still a matter of debate. The current paper describes a comparison between young (18-25 year old) and older (60+ years) adults using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory paradigm and manipulating the number of words included in the memory lists. Two key theories of cognitive ageing (the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis and the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis) predict opposing patterns on this task. Results showed that longer lists increase the likelihood that a lure is retrieved and that older adults are more susceptible to false memories than are younger adults. We argue that these findings are supportive of the Inhibitory Deficit Hypothesis and cannot easily be reconciled with the Transmission Deficit Hypothesis account.

  5. Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment.

    PubMed

    Bubenik, G A; Konturek, S J

    2011-02-01

    Human life span, with or without modern medicine is around 85-95 years. All living creatures have their inner clock that measures their daily (circadian) and their seasonal (circannual) time. These time changes are mediated by the alteration of levels of melatonin, an evolutionary ancient hormone, which is produced in many body tissues, including the pineal gland, retina and the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Light is blocking the production of melatonin in the pineal gland, darkness is stimulating it. So, the diurnal changes of light intensity of melatonin, provide a "daily clock" and the seasonal changes provide a "seasonal clock". Finally, the reduction of melatonin observed with aging, may indicate the presence of an "age clock". Melatonin is a strong antioxidant (often it is called scavenger of free radicals), which protects the body from the effects of noxious compounds. Therefore it was hypothesized that the reduction of melatonin levels with age contributes to the aging process. So far, the only remedy to extend the life span was a 40% reduction in caloric intake, which prolonged the life in mice, rats, dogs and monkeys by 30-50%. A large group of people imitate these experiments performed on animals, but the results of these experiments will not be known for several decades. How is being hungry prolonging the life span? There is a connection between caloric reduction and melatonin levels in GIT. Several experiments indicate that fasting in animals substantially increased their production of GIT melatonin. Therefore, instead of being permanently hungry, a prolongation of human life could be achieved by a replacement melatonin therapy. A daily intake of melatonin before bed time might achieve the same effect as fasting e.g. an increase of body melatonin levels, which will protect the individual from the ravages of old age. That includes Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. There is a large group of people taking melatonin daily who believe that

  6. Changing Behavior by Memory Aids: A Social Psychological Model of Prospective Memory and Habit Development Tested with Dynamic Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a social psychological model of prospective memory and habit development. The model is based on relevant research literature, and its dynamics were investigated by computer simulations. Time-series data from a behavior-change campaign in Cuba were used for calibration and validation of the model. The model scored well in…

  7. Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six?

    PubMed

    Gutteling, Barbara M; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50 boys, 62 girls, Age: M=6.7 years, SD=8.4 months), with the Test of Memory and Learning (TOMAL). Maternal stress levels were determined three times during pregnancy by self-report questionnaires. Furthermore, maternal saliva cortisol samples were used as a measure of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Results of hierarchical multivariate regression analyses showed that maternal life events measured during the first part of pregnancy were negatively associated with the child's attention/concentration index, while controlling for overall IQ, gender, and postnatal stress. No associations were found between prenatal maternal cortisol and the offspring's learning and memory.

  8. Glial dysfunction causes age-related memory impairment in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Daisuke; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Ueno, Kohei; Ueno, Taro; Saeki, Shinjiro; Matsuno, Motomi; Naganos, Shintaro; Miyashita, Tomoyuki; Hirano, Yukinori; Nishikawa, Hiroyuki; Taoka, Masato; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Isobe, Toshiaki; Honda, Yoshiko; Kodama, Tohru; Masuda, Tomoko; Saitoe, Minoru

    2014-11-19

    Several aging phenotypes, including age-related memory impairment (AMI), are thought to be caused by cumulative oxidative damage. In Drosophila, age-related impairments in 1 hr memory can be suppressed by reducing activity of protein kinase A (PKA). However, the mechanism for this effect has been unclear. Here we show that decreasing PKA suppresses AMI by reducing activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), a glial metabolic enzyme whose amounts increase upon aging. Increased PC activity causes AMI through a mechanism independent of oxidative damage. Instead, increased PC activity is associated with decreases in D-serine, a glia-derived neuromodulator that regulates NMDA receptor activity. D-serine feeding suppresses both AMI and memory impairment caused by glial overexpression of dPC, indicating that an oxidative stress-independent dysregulation of glial modulation of neuronal activity contributes to AMI in Drosophila.

  9. Tart cherries improve working memory in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various dark-colored berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and...

  10. Effects of Episodic Future Thinking and Self-Projection on Children's Prospective Memory Performance.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Anett; Ellis, Judith A; Altgassen, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children's self-projection abilities. Forty-one preschoolers and 39 school-aged children were recruited. Half of the participants in each age group were instructed to use EFT as a strategy to encode the PM task, while the others received standard PM instructions. Results revealed a significant age effect, with school-aged children significantly outperforming preschoolers and a significant effect of encoding condition with overall better performance when receiving EFT instructions compared to the standard encoding condition. Even though the interaction between age group and encoding condition was not significant, planned comparisons revealed first evidence that compared to the younger age group, older children's PM benefitted more from EFT instructions during intention encoding. Moreover, results showed that although self-projection had a significant impact on PM performance, it did not influence the effects of EFT instructions. Overall, results indicate that children can use EFT encoding strategies to improve their PM performance once EFT abilities are sufficiently developed. Further, they provide first evidence that in addition to executive functions, which have already been shown to influence the development of PM across childhood, self-projection seems to be another key mechanism underlying this development.

  11. Effects of Episodic Future Thinking and Self-Projection on Children’s Prospective Memory Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer-Trendowicz, Anett; Ellis, Judith A.; Altgassen, Mareike

    2016-01-01

    The present study is the first to investigate the benefits of episodic future thinking (EFT) at encoding on prospective memory (PM) in preschool (age: M = 66.34 months, SD = 3.28) and primary school children (age: M = 88.36 months, SD = 3.12). A second aim was to examine if self-projection influences the possible effects of EFT instructions. PM was assessed using a standard PM paradigm in children with a picture-naming task as the ongoing activity in which the PM task was embedded. Further, two first- and two second-order ToM tasks were administered as indicator of children’s self-projection abilities. Forty-one preschoolers and 39 school-aged children were recruited. Half of the participants in each age group were instructed to use EFT as a strategy to encode the PM task, while the others received standard PM instructions. Results revealed a significant age effect, with school-aged children significantly outperforming preschoolers and a significant effect of encoding condition with overall better performance when receiving EFT instructions compared to the standard encoding condition. Even though the interaction between age group and encoding condition was not significant, planned comparisons revealed first evidence that compared to the younger age group, older children’s PM benefitted more from EFT instructions during intention encoding. Moreover, results showed that although self-projection had a significant impact on PM performance, it did not influence the effects of EFT instructions. Overall, results indicate that children can use EFT encoding strategies to improve their PM performance once EFT abilities are sufficiently developed. Further, they provide first evidence that in addition to executive functions, which have already been shown to influence the development of PM across childhood, self-projection seems to be another key mechanism underlying this development. PMID:27355645

  12. Chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment in breast cancer patients with different hormone receptor expression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen; Gan, Chen; Lv, Yue; Wang, Shanghu; Cheng, Huaidong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate prospective memory impairment in patients with breast cancer with different expression of hormone receptors, including the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR). A total of 120 patients with breast cancer who underwent chemotherapy following surgery were divided into 2 groups. The A group included 60 patients with ER−/PR− status, and the B group included 60 patients with ER+/PR+ status. After 6 cycles of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy, all patients were administered neuropsychological and prospective memory tests, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), verbal fluency test (VFT), and digit span test (DST), as well as examination of event-based prospective memory (EBPM) and time-based prospective memory (TBPM). As the neuropsychological background test results showed, there were no significant differences in MMSE, DST, and TBPM scores (∗:P > 0.05) between patients with breast cancer in the ER−/PR− and ER+/PR+ groups, while the VFT and EBPM scores were significantly greater in patients with breast cancer with ER+/PR+ status than in those with ER−/PR− status (∗∗: P < 0.01), indicating that patients with ER−/PR− status have significant impairment in EBPM, although not in TBPM. The results of the present study indicate that different hormone receptor expression in patients with breast cancer may be associated with heterogeneity of chemotherapy-induced prospective memory impairment. PMID:28353608

  13. Specificity in autobiographical memory narratives correlates with performance on the autobiographical memory test and prospectively predicts depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Jennifer A; Mineka, Susan; McAdams, Dan P

    2013-01-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (AMS) is an important cognitive marker in depression that is typically measured with the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986). The AMT is widely used, but the over-reliance on a single methodology for assessing AMS is a limitation in the field. The current study investigated memory narratives as an alternative measure of AMS in an undergraduate student sample selected for being high or low on a measure of depressive symptoms (N=55). We employed a multi-method design to compare narrative- and AMT-based measures of AMS. Participants generated personally significant self-defining memory narratives, and also completed two versions of the AMT (with and without instructions to retrieve specific memories). Greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives correlated with greater AMS in performance on both versions of the AMT in the full sample, and the patterns of relationships between the different AMS measures were generally similar in low and high dysphoric participants. Furthermore, AMS in self-defining memory narratives was prospectively associated with depressive symptom levels. Specifically, greater AMS in self-defining memory narratives predicted fewer depressive symptoms at a 10-week follow-up over and above baseline symptom levels. Implications for future research and clinical applications are discussed.

  14. An expectation-based memory deficit in aging.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Jacob; Rubens, Michael T; Masangkay, Edrick; Kalkstein, Jonathan; Gazzaley, Adam

    2011-05-01

    Memory performance can be enhanced by expectations regarding the appearance of ensuing stimuli. Here, we investigated the influence of stimulus-category expectation on memory performance in aging, and used fMRI to explore age-related alterations in associated neural mechanisms. Unlike younger adults, who demonstrated both working memory (WM) and long-term memory (LTM) performance benefits for face stimuli when this stimulus category was expected, older adults did not exhibit these memory benefits. Concordantly, older adults did not exhibit expectation-period activity modulation in visual association cortex (i.e., fusiform face area (FFA)), unlike younger adults. However, within the older population, individuals who demonstrated face-expectation memory benefits also exhibited expectation-period FFA activity modulation equivalent to younger adults. The older cohort also displayed diminished expectation-related functional connectivity between regions of the prefrontal cortex and the FFA, relative to younger adults, suggesting that network alterations underlie the absence of expectation-mediated cortical modulation and memory benefits. This deficit may have broader consequences for the effective utilization of predictive cues to guide attention and engender optimal cognitive performance in older individuals.

  15. Coccomyxa Gloeobotrydiformis Improves Learning and Memory in Intrinsic Aging Rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Luning; Jin, Ying; Dong, Liming; Sui, Hai-Juan; Sumi, Ryo; Jahan, Rabita; Hu, Dahai; Li, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Declining in learning and memory is one of the most common and prominent problems during the aging process. Neurotransmitter changes, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and abnormal signal transduction were considered to participate in this process. In the present study, we examined the effects of Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformis (CGD) on learning and memory ability of intrinsic aging rats. As a result, CGD treated (50 mg/kg·d or 100 mg/kg ·d for a duration of 8 weeks) 22-month-old male rats, which have shown significant improvement on learning and spatial memory ability compared with control, which was evidently revealed in both the hidden platform tasks and probe trials. The following immunohistochemistry and Western blot experiments suggested that CGD could increase the content of Ach and thereby improve the function of the cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus, and therefore also improving learning and memory ability of the aged rats by acting as an anti-inflammatory agent. The effects of CGD on learning and memory might also have an association with the ERK/CREB signalling. The results above suggest that the naturally made drug CGD may have several great benefit as a multi-target drug in the process of prevention and/or treatment of age-dependent cognitive decline and aging process.

  16. Preserved Intention Maintenance and Impaired Execution of Prospective Memory Responses in Schizophrenia: Evidence from an Event-based Prospective Memory Study

    PubMed Central

    Demeter, Gyula; Szendi, István; Domján, Nóra; Juhász, Marianna; Greminger, Nóra; Szőllősi, Ágnes; Racsmány, Mihály

    2016-01-01

    Executive system dysfunction and impaired prospective memory (PM) are widely documented in schizophrenia. However, it is not yet clarified which components of PM function are impaired in this disorder. Two plausible target components are the maintenance of delayed intentions and the execution of PM responses. Furthermore, it is debated whether the impaired performance on frequently used executive tasks is associated with deficit in PM functions. The aim of our study was twofold. First, we aimed to investigate the specific processes involved in event-based PM function, mainly focusing on difference between maintenance of intention and execution of PM responses. Second, we aimed to unfold the possible connections between executive functions, clinical symptoms, and PM performance. An event-based PM paradigm was applied with three main conditions: baseline (with no expectation of PM stimuli, and without PM stimuli), expectation condition (participants were told that PM stimuli might occur, though none actually did), and execution condition (participants were told that PM stimuli might occur, and PM stimuli did occur). This procedure allowed us to separately investigate performances associated with intention maintenance and execution of PM responses. We assessed working memory and set-shifting executive functions by memory span tasks and by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), respectively. Twenty patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 20 healthy control subjects (matched according to age and education) took part in the study. It was hypothesized that patients would manifest different levels of performance in the expectation and execution conditions of the PM task. Our results confirmed that the difference between baseline performance and performance in the execution condition (execution cost) was significantly larger for participants diagnosed with schizophrenia in comparison with matched healthy control group. However, this difference was not observed in the

  17. The relationship between prospective memory and episodic future thinking in younger and older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Terrett, Gill; Rose, Nathan S; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Altgassen, Mareike; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias; Rendell, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Episodic future thinking (EFT), the ability to project into the future to "preexperience" an event, and prospective memory (PM), remembering to perform an intended action, are both examples of future-oriented cognition. Recently it has been suggested that EFT might contribute to PM performance but to date few studies have examined the relationship between these two capacities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the nature and specificity of this relationship, as well as whether it varies with age. Participants were 125 younger and 125 older adults who completed measures of EFT and PM. Significant, positive correlations between EFT and PM were identified in both age groups. Furthermore, EFT ability accounted for significant unique variance in the young adults, suggesting that it may make a specific contribution to PM function. Within the older adult group, EFT did not uniquely contribute to PM, possibly indicating a reduced capacity to utilize EFT, or the use of compensatory strategies. This study is the first to provide systematic evidence for an association between variation in EFT and PM abilities in both younger and older adulthood and shows that the nature of this association varies as a function of age.

  18. Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging.

  19. Predicting remembering and forgetting of autobiographical memories in children and adults: a 4-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Patricia J; Larkina, Marina

    2016-11-01

    Preservation and loss to forgetting of autobiographical memories is a focus in both the adult and developmental literatures. In both, there are comparative arguments regarding rates of forgetting. Children are assumed to forget autobiographical memories more rapidly than adults, and younger children are assumed to forget more rapidly than older children. Yet few studies can directly inform these comparisons: few feature children and adults, and few prospectively track the survival of specific autobiographical memories over time. In a 4-year prospective study, we obtained autobiographical memories from children 4, 6, and 8 years, and adults. We tested recall of different subsets of the events after 1, 2, and 3 years. Accelerated rates of forgetting were apparent among all child groups relative to adults; within the child groups, 4- and 6-year-olds had accelerated forgetting relative to 8-year-olds. The differences were especially pronounced in open-ended recall. The thematic coherence of initial memory reports also was a significant predictor of the survival of specific memories. The pattern of findings is consistent with suggestions that the adult distribution of autobiographical memories is achieved as the quality of memory traces increases (here measured by thematic coherence) and the rate of forgetting decreases.

  20. False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

  1. From memory to prospection: what are the overlapping and the distinct components between remembering and imagining?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huimin; Luo, Jiayi; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Reflecting on past events and reflecting on future events are two fundamentally different processes, each traveling in the opposite direction of the other through conceptual time. But what we are able to imagine seems to be constrained by what we have previously experienced, suggesting a close link between memory and prospection. Recent theories suggest that recalling the past lies at the core of imagining and planning for the future. The existence of this link is supported by evidence gathered from neuroimaging, lesion, and developmental studies. Yet it is not clear exactly how the novel episodes people construct in their sense of the future develop out of their historical memories. There must be intermediary processes that utilize memory as a basis on which to generate future oriented thinking. Here, we review studies on goal-directed processing, associative learning, cognitive control, and creativity and link them with research on prospection. We suggest that memory cooperates with additional functions like goal-directed learning to construct and simulate novel events, especially self-referential events. The coupling between memory-related hippocampus and other brain regions may underlie such memory-based prospection. Abnormalities in this constructive process may contribute to mental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:25147532

  2. Destination memory and cognitive theory of mind in normal ageing.

    PubMed

    El Haj, Mohamad; Raffard, Stéphane; Gély-Nargeot, Marie-Christine

    2016-01-01

    Destination memory is the ability to remember the destination to which a piece of information has been addressed (e.g., "Did I tell you about the promotion?"). This ability is found to be impaired in normal ageing. Our work aimed to link this deterioration to the decline in theory of mind. Forty younger adults (M age = 23.13 years, SD = 4.00) and 36 older adults (M age = 69.53 years, SD = 8.93) performed a destination memory task. They also performed the False-belief test addressing cognitive theory of mind and the Reading the mind in the eyes test addressing affective theory of mind. Results showed significant deterioration in destination memory, cognitive theory of mind and affective theory of mind in the older adults. The older adults' performance on destination memory was significantly correlated with and predicted by their performance on cognitive theory of mind. Difficulties in the ability to interpret and predict others' mental states are related to destination memory decline in older adults.

  3. Differential age effects on spatial and visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Morel, Sascha; Meijer, Lisette; Buvens, Cléo; Kessels, Roy P C; Postma, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present study was intended to compare age effects on visual and spatial working memory by using two versions of the same task that differed only in presentation mode. The working memory task contained both a simultaneous and a sequential presentation mode condition, reflecting, respectively, visual and spatial working memory processes. Young and older participants had to remember the locations of five equal objects under three different conditions: a baseline (immediate recall), a maintenance (including a delay of 5 seconds), and a manipulation (e.g., relocate all objects one column to the right) condition. Only older adults performed worse on the sequential compared to the simultaneous baseline condition and only this group revealed lower performance on the sequential delay compared to the simultaneous delay condition. However, in both groups the manipulation condition affected performance on the simultaneous and sequential presentation modes to the same extent. The findings of this study therefore partially support an age-related differentiation between visual and spatial working memory, with a stronger age effect on spatial than on visual working memory.

  4. A study of remote spatial memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; Sekeres, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    The effect of aging on remote spatial memory was tested in a group of 2-year-old rats (VR-O) that, as young adults, were reared for 3 months in a complex 'village' environment. The VR-O rats exhibited significant savings in finding the locations of specific reward compartments within the village, relative to a group of old rats (VNR-O) experiencing the village for the first time. The VNR-O rats were also impaired, relative to naive young rats, in learning the reward locations. Probe tests indicated that the VR-O rats retained allocentric spatial memory for the environment and were not using sensory or other non-spatial cues to guide behaviour. Overall, the results indicate that the aged rats experienced a decline in the ability to learn and remember detailed spatial relationships and that the VR-O group's successful performance on the remote spatial memory test was guided by a form of schematic memory that captured the essential features of the village environment. The potential contribution of the hippocampus to the pattern of lost and spared learning and memory observed in the aged rats was discussed.

  5. Changes With Age in Learning and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arenberg, David

    Recent publications of longitudinal and sequential analyses of psychometric data have been cited as evidence for "the myth of intellectual decline" with age. This term "myth" has been interpreted by many gerontologists to mean that intellectual functioning does not decline even late in life (except shortly before death). Furthermore, this…

  6. Effects of Age on Long Term Memory for Degraded Speech

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Christiane M.; Özyurt, Jale; Nogueira, Waldo; Puschmann, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Prior research suggests that acoustical degradation impacts encoding of items into memory, especially in elderly subjects. We here aimed to investigate whether acoustically degraded items that are initially encoded into memory are more prone to forgetting as a function of age. Young and old participants were tested with a vocoded and unvocoded serial list learning task involving immediate and delayed free recall. We found that degraded auditory input increased forgetting of previously encoded items, especially in older participants. We further found that working memory capacity predicted forgetting of degraded information in young participants. In old participants, verbal IQ was the most important predictor for forgetting acoustically degraded information. Our data provide evidence that acoustically degraded information, even if encoded, is especially vulnerable to forgetting in old age. PMID:27708570

  7. Effects of cue frequency and repetition on prospective memory: an ERP investigation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jennifer; Cutmore, Tim R H; Wang, Ya; Chan, Raymond C K; Shum, David H K

    2013-11-01

    Prospective memory involves the formation and completion of delayed intentions and is essential for independent living. In this study (n = 33), event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to systematically evaluate the effects of PM cue frequency (10% versus 30%) and PM cue repetition (high versus low) on ERP modulations. PM cues elicited prospective positivity and frontal positivity but not N300, perhaps due to the semantic nature of the task. Results of this study revealed an interesting interaction between PM cue frequency and PM cue repetition for prospective positivity and frontal positivity, highlighting the importance of taking both factors into account when designing future studies.

  8. Effects of Aging and IQ on Item and Associative Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The effects of aging and IQ on performance were examined in 4 memory tasks: item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, and free recall. For item and associative recognition, accuracy and the response time (RT) distributions for correct and error responses were explained by Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model at the level of individual…

  9. Spontaneous Object Recognition Memory in Aged Rats: Complexity versus Similarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    Previous work on the effect of aging on spontaneous object recognition (SOR) memory tasks in rats has yielded controversial results. Although the results at long-retention intervals are consistent, conflicting results have been reported at shorter delays. We have assessed the potential relevance of the type of object used in the performance of…

  10. Aging and memory for numerical information: the role of specificity and expertise in associative memory.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D

    2007-05-01

    In order to examine the nature of associative memory deficits in old age, the present study examined how younger and older adults link numerical and object information to other items. The hypothesis was that there would be large age differences for numerical information caused by the arbitrariness and specificity of this type of information, but that this could be reduced by expertise. Participants studied sentences that contained numeric quantity, object, and location information (e.g., 26 cherries in the bowl); they were later cued with the location and had to recall the object and quantity. In general, there were significant age differences for quantity recall but negligible age differences for recall of related objects but not unrelated objects. However, a group of older retired accountants and bookkeepers showed exceptional memory for quantity information. The findings suggest that the associative deficit in old age is based on the linking of specific arbitrary information.

  11. How Age and Linguistic Competence Affect Memory for Heard Information.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Bruce A; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed.

  12. How Age and Linguistic Competence Affect Memory for Heard Information

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Bruce A.; Avivi-Reich, Meital; Leung, Caterina; Heinrich, Antje

    2016-01-01

    The short-term memory performance of a group of younger adults, for whom English was a second language (young EL2 listeners), was compared to that of younger and older adults for whom English was their first language (EL1 listeners). To-be-remembered words were presented in noise and in quiet. When presented in noise, the listening situation was adjusted to ensure that the likelihood of recognizing the individual words was comparable for all groups. Previous studies which used the same paradigm found memory performance of older EL1 adults on this paired-associate task to be poorer than that of their younger EL1 counterparts both in quiet and in a background of babble. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the less well-established semantic and linguistic skills of EL2 listeners would also lead to memory deficits even after equating for word recognition as was done for the younger and older EL1 listeners. No significant differences in memory performance were found between young EL1 and EL2 listeners after equating for word recognition, indicating that the EL2 listeners' poorer semantic and linguistic skills had little effect on their ability to memorize and recall paired associates. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related declines in memory are primarily due to age-related declines in higher-order processes supporting stream segregation and episodic memory. Such declines are likely to increase the load on higher-order (possibly limited) cognitive processes supporting memory. The problems that these results pose for the comprehension of spoken language in these three groups are discussed. PMID:27242569

  13. Focal/Nonfocal Cue Effects in Prospective Memory: Monitoring Difficulty or Different Retrieval Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Shelton, Jill T.; Lee, Ji Hae

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether focal/nonfocal effects (e.g., Einstein et al., 2005) in prospective memory (PM) are explained by cue differences in monitoring difficulty. In Experiment 1, we show that syllable cues (used in Einstein et al., 2005) are more difficult to monitor for than are word cues; however, initial-letter cues (in words) are similar in…

  14. Complex Prospective Memory: Development across the Lifespan and the Role of Task Interruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliegel, Matthias; Mackinlay, Rachael; Jager, Theodor

    2008-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) reflects the product of cognitive processes associated with the formation, retention, delayed initiation, and execution of intentions. It has been proposed that developmental changes in PM across the lifespan are heavily dependent upon the developmental trajectory of executive control functions. This study is the first to…

  15. Future thinking improves prospective memory performance and plan enactment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Altgassen, Mareike; Rendell, Peter G; Bernhard, Anka; Henry, Julie D; Bailey, Phoebe E; Phillips, Louise H; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Efficient intention formation might improve prospective memory by reducing the need for resource-demanding strategic processes during the delayed performance interval. The present study set out to test this assumption and provides the first empirical assessment of whether imagining a future action improves prospective memory performance equivalently at different stages of the adult lifespan. Thus, younger (n = 40) and older (n = 40) adults were asked to complete the Dresden Breakfast Task, which required them to prepare breakfast in accordance with a set of rules and time restrictions. All participants began by generating a plan for later enactment; however, after making this plan, half of the participants were required to imagine themselves completing the task in the future (future thinking condition), while the other half received standard instructions (control condition). As expected, overall younger adults outperformed older adults. Moreover, both older and younger adults benefited equally from future thinking instructions, as reflected in a higher proportion of prospective memory responses and more accurate plan execution. Thus, for both younger and older adults, imagining the specific visual-spatial context in which an intention will later be executed may serve as an easy-to-implement strategy that enhances prospective memory function in everyday life.

  16. Prospective Memory and Task Interference in a Continuous Monitoring Dynamic Display Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Remington, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Theories and methods from the prospective memory literature were used to anticipate how individuals would maintain and retrieve intentions in a continuous monitoring dynamic display task. Participants accepted aircraft into sectors and detected aircraft conflicts during an air traffic control simulation. They were sometimes required to substitute…

  17. Prospective Memory in an Air Traffic Control Simulation: External Aids that Signal when to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loft, Shayne; Smith, Rebekah E.; Bhaskara, Adella

    2011-01-01

    At work and in our personal life we often need to remember to perform intended actions at some point in the future, referred to as Prospective Memory. Individuals sometimes forget to perform intentions in safety-critical work contexts. Holding intentions can also interfere with ongoing tasks. We applied theories and methods from the experimental…

  18. The Cost of Event-Based Prospective Memory: Salient Target Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Hunt, R. Reed; McVay, Jennifer C.; McConnell, Melissa D.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence has begun to accumulate showing that successful performance of event-based prospective memory (PM) comes at a cost to other ongoing activities. The current study builds on previous work by examining the cost associated with PM when the target event is salient. Target salience is among the criteria for automatic retrieval of intentions…

  19. Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from Spontaneous Retrieval and Impaired Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; control group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of…

  20. Relations between Working Memory and Emergent Writing among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskyn, Maureen; Tzoneva, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the nature of the working memory system that underlies age differences of young, preschool-aged children. Measures of working memory, short-term memory, articulation speed, general intelligence, and writing were administered to 166 Canadian preschool-aged children aged 3 to 5 years. Findings generally support the hypothesis…

  1. The Future Orientation of Past Memory: The Role of BA 10 in Prospective and Retrospective Retrieval Modes

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Adam G.; Guynn, Melissa J.; Cohen, Anna-Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Klein made the provocative suggestion that the purpose of human episodic memory is to enable individuals to plan and prepare for the future. In other words, although episodic (retrospective) memory is about the past, it is not actually for the past; it is for the future. Within this focus, a natural subject for investigation is prospective memory, or memory to do things in the future. An important theoretical construct in the fields of both retrospective memory and prospective memory is that of a retrieval mode, or a neurocognitive set or readiness to treat environmental stimuli as potential retrieval cues. This construct was originally introduced in a theory of episodic (retrospective) memory and has more recently been invoked in a theory of how some prospective memory tasks are accomplished. To our knowledge, this construct has not been explicitly compared between the two literatures, and thus this is the purpose of the present article. Although we address the behavioral evidence for each construct, our primary goal is to assess the extent to which each retrieval mode appears to rely on a common neural region. Our review highlights the fact that a particular area of prefrontal cortex (BA 10) appears to play an important role in both retrospective and prospective retrieval modes. We suggest, based on this evidence and these ideas, that prospective memory research could profit from more active exploration of the relevance of theoretical constructs from the retrospective memory literature. PMID:26733844

  2. Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Aging on Long-Term and Remote Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a…

  3. Verbal Working Memory and Story Retelling in School-Age Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabig, Cheryl Smith

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined verbal working memory and language ability in 15 school-age children with autism using 3 verbal working memory tasks and 1 story recall task. Method: Three measures of verbal working memory--nonword repetition, memory for digits span, and sentence imitation--were given to children with autism and age-matched controls.…

  4. Memorial Consequences of Forced Confabulation: Age Differences in Susceptibility to False Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackil, Jennifer K.; Zaragoza, Maria S.

    1998-01-01

    First graders, fourth and fifth graders, and college students watched a video and then answered questions about events in the video and about events that never happened. One week later, subjects were again questioned about the video. Participants in all age groups, though children more so than adults, exhibited false memories for the events that…

  5. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment.

    PubMed

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y; Kann, Sarah J; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults' use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test - RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia.

  6. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y.; Kann, Sarah J.; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E.

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults’ use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test – RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

  7. [GLIATILIN CORRECTION OF WORKING AND REFERENCE SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT IN AGED RATS].

    PubMed

    Tyurenkov, I N; Volotova, E V; Kurkin, D V

    2015-01-01

    This work was aimed at evaluating the influence of gliatilin administration on the spatial memory in aged rats. Cognitive function and spatial memory in animals was evaluated using radial (8-beam) maze test. Errors of working spatial memory and reference memory were used as indicators of impaired cognitive function. It was found that aged (24-month) rats compared with younger (6-months) age group exhibited cognitive impairment, as manifested by deterioration of short- and long-term memory processes. Course administration of gliatilin in rats of the older age group at a dose of 100 mg/kg resulted in significant improvement of the working and reference spatial memory in aged rats.

  8. The Scientific Quest for Lasting Youth: Prospects for Curing Aging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract People have always sought eternal life and everlasting youth. Recent technological breakthroughs and our growing understanding of aging have given strength to the idea that a cure for human aging can eventually be developed. As such, it is crucial to debate the long-term goals and potential impact of the field. Here, I discuss the scientific prospect of eradicating human aging. I argue that curing aging is scientifically possible and not even the most challenging enterprise in the biosciences. Developing the means to abolish aging is also an ethical endeavor because the goal of biomedical research is to allow people to be as healthy as possible for as long as possible. There is no evidence, however, that we are near to developing the technologies permitting radical life extension. One major difficulty in aging research is the time and costs it takes to do experiments and test interventions. I argue that unraveling the functioning of the genome and developing predictive computer models of human biology and disease are essential to increase the accuracy of medical interventions, including in the context of life extension, and exponential growth in informatics and genomics capacity might lead to rapid progress. Nonetheless, developing the tools for significantly modifying human biology is crucial to intervening in a complex process like aging. Yet in spite of advances in areas like regenerative medicine and gene therapy, the development of clinical applications has been slow and this remains a key hurdle for achieving radical life extension in the foreseeable future. PMID:25132068

  9. Tocotrienol improves learning and memory deficit of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaneai, Nozomi; Sumitani, Kazumi; Fukui, Koji; Koike, Taisuke; Takatsu, Hirokatsu; Urano, Shiro

    2016-01-01

    To define whether tocotrienol (T-3) improves cognitive deficit during aging, effect of T-3 on learning and memory functions of aged rats was assessed. It was found that T-3 markedly counteracts the decline in learning and memory function in aged rats. Quantitative analysis of T-3 content in the rat brain showed that the aged rats fed T-3 mixture-supplemented diet revealed the transport of α- and γ-T-3 to the brain. In contrast, normal young rats fed the same diet did not exhibit brain localization. Furthermore, the T-3 inhibited age-related decreases in the expression of certain blood brain barrier (BBB) proteins, including caludin-5, occludin and junctional adhesion molecule (JAM). It was found that the activation of the cellular proto-oncogene c-Src and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell signaling pathway for neuronal cell death, was markedly inhibited by T-3. These results may reveal that aging induces partial BBB disruption caused by oxidative stress, thereby enabling the transport of T-3 through the BBB to the central nervous system, whereupon neuronal protection may be mediated by inhibition of c-Src and/or ERK activation, resulting in an improvement in age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27013777

  10. Representational Account of Memory: Insights from Aging and Synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Gaby; Ward, Jamie; Chan, Dennis; Sigala, Natasha

    2016-12-01

    The representational account of memory envisages perception and memory to be on a continuum rather than in discretely divided brain systems [Bussey, T. J., & Saksida, L. M. Memory, perception, and the ventral visual-perirhinal-hippocampal stream: Thinking outside of the boxes. Hippocampus, 17, 898-908, 2007]. We tested this account using a novel between-group design with young grapheme-color synesthetes, older adults, and young controls. We investigated how the disparate sensory-perceptual abilities between these groups translated into associative memory performance for visual stimuli that do not induce synesthesia. ROI analyses of the entire ventral visual stream showed that associative retrieval (a pair-associate retrieved in the absence of a visual stimulus) yielded enhanced activity in young and older adults' visual regions relative to synesthetes, whereas associative recognition (deciding whether a visual stimulus was the correct pair-associate) was characterized by enhanced activity in synesthetes' visual regions relative to older adults. Whole-brain analyses at associative retrieval revealed an effect of age in early visual cortex, with older adults showing enhanced activity relative to synesthetes and young adults. At associative recognition, the group effect was reversed: Synesthetes showed significantly enhanced activity relative to young and older adults in early visual regions. The inverted group effects observed between retrieval and recognition indicate that reduced sensitivity in visual cortex (as in aging) comes with increased activity during top-down retrieval and decreased activity during bottom-up recognition, whereas enhanced sensitivity (as in synesthesia) shows the opposite pattern. Our results provide novel evidence for the direct contribution of perceptual mechanisms to visual associative memory based on the examples of synesthesia and aging.

  11. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  12. Age-related differences in recognition memory for items and associations: contribution of individual differences in working memory and metamemory.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Raz, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    Ability to form new associations between unrelated items is particularly sensitive to aging, but the reasons for such differential vulnerability are unclear. In this study, we examined the role of objective and subjective factors (working memory and beliefs about memory strategies) on differential relations of age with recognition of items and associations. Healthy adults (N = 100, age 21 to 79) studied word pairs, completed item and association recognition tests, and rated the effectiveness of shallow (e.g., repetition) and deep (e.g., imagery or sentence generation) encoding strategies. Advanced age was associated with reduced working memory (WM) capacity and poorer associative recognition. In addition, reduced WM capacity, beliefs in the utility of ineffective encoding strategies, and lack of endorsement of effective ones were independently associated with impaired associative memory. Thus, maladaptive beliefs about memory in conjunction with reduced cognitive resources account in part for differences in associative memory commonly attributed to aging.

  13. Peptides and aging: Their role in anorexia and memory.

    PubMed

    Morley, John E

    2015-10-01

    The rapid aging of the world's population has led to a need to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of the factors leading to frailty and cognitive decline. Peptides have been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of frailty and cognitive decline. Weight loss is a major component of frailty. In this review, we demonstrate a central role for both peripheral peptides (e.g., cholecystokinin and ghrelin) and neuropeptides (e.g., dynorphin and alpha-MSH) in the pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging. Similarly, peripheral peptides (e.g., ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide 1, and cholecystokinin) are modulators of memory. A number of centrally acting neuropeptides have also been shown to modulate cognitive processes. Amyloid-beta peptide in physiological levels is a memory enhancer, while in high (pathological) levels, it plays a key role in the development of Alzheimer's disease.

  14. Nonmonotonic Aging and Memory Retention in Disordered Mechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahini, Yoav; Gottesman, Omer; Amir, Ariel; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2017-02-01

    We observe nonmonotonic aging and memory effects, two hallmarks of glassy dynamics, in two disordered mechanical systems: crumpled thin sheets and elastic foams. Under fixed compression, both systems exhibit monotonic nonexponential relaxation. However, when after a certain waiting time the compression is partially reduced, both systems exhibit a nonmonotonic response: the normal force first increases over many minutes or even hours until reaching a peak value, and only then is relaxation resumed. The peak time scales linearly with the waiting time, indicating that these systems retain long-lasting memory of previous conditions. Our results and the measured scaling relations are in good agreement with a theoretical model recently used to describe observations of monotonic aging in several glassy systems, suggesting that the nonmonotonic behavior may be generic and that athermal systems can show genuine glassy behavior.

  15. Age-Related Differences in Learning Disabled and Skilled Readers' Working Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether age-related working memory deficits in learning disabled (LD) readers across four age groups (7, 10, 13, and 20) reflected retrieval efficiency or storage capacity problems. Found that LD readers' working memory performance was inferior to skilled readers' on verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks across all ages.…

  16. Autobiographical Memory and Depression in the Later Age: The Bump Is a Turning Point

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gidron, Yori; Alon, Shirly

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study integrated previous findings of the distribution of autobiographical memories in the later age according to their age of occurrence, with the overgeneral memory bias predictive of depression. Twenty-five non-demented, Israeli participants between 65-89 years of age provided autobiographical memories to 4 groups of word cues…

  17. Electrophysiology of Memory-Updating Differs with Age

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Genevieve Z.; Gonsalvez, Craig J.; De Blasio, Frances M.; Barry, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, the P3 component of the event-related potential systematically varies with the time between target stimuli—the target-to-target interval (TTI). Longer TTIs result in larger P3 amplitudes and shorter latencies, and this pattern of results has been linked with working memory-updating processes. Given that working memory and the P3 have both been shown to diminish with age, the current study aimed to determine whether the linear relationship between P3 and TTI is compromised in healthy aging by comparing TTI effects on P3 amplitudes and latencies, and reaction time (RT), in young and older adults. Older adults were found to have an overall reduction in P3 amplitudes, longer latencies, an anterior shift in topography, a trend toward slower RTs, and a flatter linear relationship between P3 and TTI than young adults. Results suggest that the ability to maintain templates in working memory required for stimulus categorization decreases with age, and that as a result, neural compensatory mechanisms are employed. PMID:27378908

  18. Electrophysiology of Memory-Updating Differs with Age.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Genevieve Z; Gonsalvez, Craig J; De Blasio, Frances M; Barry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    In oddball tasks, the P3 component of the event-related potential systematically varies with the time between target stimuli-the target-to-target interval (TTI). Longer TTIs result in larger P3 amplitudes and shorter latencies, and this pattern of results has been linked with working memory-updating processes. Given that working memory and the P3 have both been shown to diminish with age, the current study aimed to determine whether the linear relationship between P3 and TTI is compromised in healthy aging by comparing TTI effects on P3 amplitudes and latencies, and reaction time (RT), in young and older adults. Older adults were found to have an overall reduction in P3 amplitudes, longer latencies, an anterior shift in topography, a trend toward slower RTs, and a flatter linear relationship between P3 and TTI than young adults. Results suggest that the ability to maintain templates in working memory required for stimulus categorization decreases with age, and that as a result, neural compensatory mechanisms are employed.

  19. Characteristics of prospective memory deficits in HIV-seropositive substance-dependent individuals: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eileen M; Nixon, Heather; Pitrak, David L; Weddington, William; Rains, Niles A; Nunnally, Gerald; Grbesic, Silvana; Gonzalez, Raul; Jacobus, Joanna; Bechara, Antoine

    2007-07-01

    The construct of "prospective memory" (PM) refers to a type of episodic memory for a future intention or "remembering what one must do." This function has been proposed as a candidate mechanism underlying behaviors of critical importance in HIV disease, including adherence with medication regimens and continued engagement in risk behavior. We administered tasks of time-based and event-based prospective memory and control tasks of retrospective and working memory to 31 HIV-seropositive and 35 HIV-seronegative substance-dependent individuals (SDIs). We found that compared with HIV- controls HIV+ participants showed deficits in time-based but not event-based PM. Retrospective, but not working, memory performance correlated significantly with time-based PM performance. In addition, performance on the time-based PM task was a significant predictor of scores on a self-report measure of risky sexual and injection practices. These preliminary data provide new and unique findings regarding the components of executive function mediated by prefrontal cortical systems that are impaired among HIV+ SDIs and their relevance to "real-world" behaviors.

  20. Aging-associated formaldehyde-induced norepinephrine deficiency contributes to age-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yufei; Jiang, Chun; Wan, You; Lv, Jihui; Jia, Jianping; Wang, Xiaomin; Yang, Xu; Tong, Zhiqian

    2015-08-01

    A norepinephrine (NE) deficiency has been observed in aged rats and in patients with Alzheimer's disease and is thought to cause cognitive disorder. Which endogenous factor induces NE depletion, however, is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of aging-associated formaldehyde (FA) on the inactivation of NE in vitro and in vivo, and on memory behaviors in rodents. The results showed that age-related DNA demethylation led to hippocampal FA accumulation, and when this occurred, the hippocampal NE content was reduced in healthy male rats of different ages. Furthermore, biochemical analysis revealed that FA rapidly inactivated NE in vitro and that an intrahippocampal injection of FA markedly reduced hippocampal NE levels in healthy adult rats. Unexpectedly, an injection of FA (at a pathological level) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, a NE depletor) can mimic age-related NE deficiency, long-term potentiation (LTP) impairments, and spatial memory deficits in healthy adult rats. Conversely, an injection of NE reversed age-related deficits in both LTP and memory in aged rats. In agreement with the above results, the senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice also exhibited a severe deficit in LTP and memory associated with a more severe NE deficiency and FA accumulation, when compared with the age-matched, senescence-resistant 1 (SAMR1) mice. Injection of resveratrol (a natural FA scavenger) or NE into SAMP8 mice reversed FA accumulation and NE deficiency and restored the magnitude of LTP and memory. Collectively, these findings suggest that accumulated FA is a critical endogenous factor for aging-associated NE depletion and cognitive decline.

  1. Overview and findings from the rush Memory and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A; Buchman, Aron S; Barnes, Lisa L; Boyle, Patricia A; Wilson, Robert S

    2012-07-01

    The Memory and Aging Project is a longitudinal, epidemiologic clinical-pathologic cohort study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on decline in cognitive and motor function and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this manuscript, we first summarize the study design and methods. Then, we present data on: (1) the relation of motor function to cognition, disability, and death; (2) the relation of risk factors to cognitive and motor outcomes, disability and death; (3) the relation of neuropathologic indices to cognitive outcomes; (4) the relation of risk factors to neuropathologic indices; and (5) additional study findings. The findings are discussed and contextualized.

  2. Event-Based Prospective Memory Is Independently Associated with Self-Report of Medication Management in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Maxwell, Brenton R.; Gummery, Alice; Mo, Kevin; Ng, Amanda R. J.; Bucks, Romola S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors for medication non-adherence in older adults is important in order to enhance screening and intervention efforts designed to improve medication-taking behavior and health outcomes. The current study sought to determine the unique contribution of prospective memory (i.e., “remembering to remember”) to successful self-reported medication management in older adults. Methods Sixty-five older adults with current medication prescriptions completed a comprehensive research evaluation of sociodemographic, psychiatric, and neurocognitive functioning, which included the Memory for Adherence to Medication Scale (MAMS), Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), and a performance-based measure of prospective memory that measured both semantically-related and semantically-unrelated cue-intention (i.e., when-what) pairings. Results A series of hierarchical regressions controlling for biopsychosocial, other neurocognitive, and medication-related factors showed that elevated complaints on the PM scale of the PRMQ and worse performance on an objective semantically-unrelated event-based prospective memory task were independent predictors of poorer medication adherence as measured by the MAMS. Conclusions Prospective memory plays an important role in self-report of successful medication management among older adults. Findings may have implications for screening for older individuals “at risk” of non-adherence, as well as the development of prospective memory-based interventions to improve medication adherence and, ultimately, long-term health outcomes in older adults. PMID:24410357

  3. Concurrent and prospective associations of habitual overgeneral memory and prospection with symptoms of depression, general anxiety, obsessive compulsiveness, and post-traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Huntjens, Rafaele J C; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2014-01-01

    Reduced memory specificity is associated with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and some other forms of psychopathology. Reduced memory specificity is also associated with reduced specificity of envisioned future events. Research in this area has mostly relied on cue-word methods that include explicit instructions to develop specific memories of future events. These methods are limited in their ability to assess how participants habitually remember the past and imagine the future when the specificity constraints inherent in the cue-word task are removed. Sentence completions tasks have been developed that can be used to assess habitual patterns of memory and prospection. Little is known about the association of habitual memory and prospection with concurrently and prospectively assessed psychopathology. In the current study 142 participants completed sentence completion tasks tapping habitual memory and prospection at baseline and completed measures tapping psychological symptoms at baseline and 1 year later. Among other things, it was found that reduced memory specificity (but not reduced future specificity) was associated with concurrent and later depression, as well as with symptom levels of PTSD tapped 1 year beyond baseline.

  4. Brain network changes and memory decline in aging.

    PubMed

    Beason-Held, Lori L; Hohman, Timothy J; Venkatraman, Vijay; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M

    2016-06-18

    One theory of age-related cognitive decline proposes that changes within the default mode network (DMN) of the brain impact the ability to successfully perform cognitive operations. To investigate this theory, we examined functional covariance within brain networks using regional cerebral blood flow data, measured by (15)O-water PET, from 99 participants (mean baseline age 68.6 ± 7.5) in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging collected over a 7.4 year period. The sample was divided in tertiles based on longitudinal performance on a verbal recognition memory task administered during scanning, and functional covariance was compared between the upper (improvers) and lower (decliners) tertile groups. The DMN and verbal memory networks (VMN) were then examined during the verbal memory scan condition. For each network, group differences in node-to-network coherence and individual node-to-node covariance relationships were assessed at baseline and in change over time. Compared with improvers, decliners showed differences in node-to-network coherence and in node-to-node relationships in the DMN but not the VMN during verbal memory. These DMN differences reflected greater covariance with better task performance at baseline and both increasing and declining covariance with declining task performance over time for decliners. When examined during the resting state alone, the direction of change in DMN covariance was similar to that seen during task performance, but node-to-node relationships differed from those observed during the task condition. These results suggest that disengagement of DMN components during task performance is not essential for successful cognitive performance as previously proposed. Instead, a proper balance in network processes may be needed to support optimal task performance.

  5. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices.

    PubMed

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-12-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  6. Status and Prospects of ZnO-Based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanjuntak, Firman Mangasa; Panda, Debashis; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen

    2016-08-01

    In the advancement of the semiconductor device technology, ZnO could be a prospective alternative than the other metal oxides for its versatility and huge applications in different aspects. In this review, a thorough overview on ZnO for the application of resistive switching memory (RRAM) devices has been conducted. Various efforts that have been made to investigate and modulate the switching characteristics of ZnO-based switching memory devices are discussed. The use of ZnO layer in different structure, the different types of filament formation, and the different types of switching including complementary switching are reported. By considering the huge interest of transparent devices, this review gives the concrete overview of the present status and prospects of transparent RRAM devices based on ZnO. ZnO-based RRAM can be used for flexible memory devices, which is also covered here. Another challenge in ZnO-based RRAM is that the realization of ultra-thin and low power devices. Nevertheless, ZnO not only offers decent memory properties but also has a unique potential to be used as multifunctional nonvolatile memory devices. The impact of electrode materials, metal doping, stack structures, transparency, and flexibility on resistive switching properties and switching parameters of ZnO-based resistive switching memory devices are briefly compared. This review also covers the different nanostructured-based emerging resistive switching memory devices for low power scalable devices. It may give a valuable insight on developing ZnO-based RRAM and also should encourage researchers to overcome the challenges.

  7. Loss of perforated synapses in the dentate gyrus: morphological substrate of memory deficit in aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Geinisman, Y; de Toledo-Morrell, L; Morrell, F

    1986-01-01

    Most, but not all, aged rats exhibit a profound deficit in spatial memory when tested in a radial maze--a task known to depend on the integrity of the hippocampal formation. In this study, animals were divided into three groups based on their spatial memory capacity: young adult rats with good memory, aged rats with impaired memory, and aged rats with good memory. Memory-impaired aged animals showed a loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation in comparison with either young adults or aged rats with good memory. This finding suggests that the loss of perforated axospinous synapses in the hippocampal formation underlies the age-related deficit in spatial memory. Images PMID:3458260

  8. Effects of sleep deprivation and aging on long-term and remote memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a month after training, sleep-deprived and control aged animals performed similarly, primarily due to remote memory decay in the control aged animals. Gene expression analysis supported the finding that SD has similar effects on the hippocampus in young and aged mice. PMID:25776037

  9. Cumulative Estrogen Exposure and Prospective Memory in Older Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesson, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This study looked at cumulative lifetime estrogen exposure, as estimated with a mathematical index (Index of Cumulative Estrogen Exposure (ICEE)) that included variables (length of time on estrogen therapy, age at menarche and menopause, postmenopausal body mass index, time since menopause, nulliparity and duration of breastfeeding) known to…

  10. Divergent Trajectories in the Aging Mind: Changes in Working Memory for Affective Versus Visual Information With Age

    PubMed Central

    Mikels, Joseph A.; Larkin, Gregory R.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    Working memory mediates the short-term maintenance of information. Virtually all empirical research on working memory involves investigations of working memory for verbal and visual information. Whereas aging is typically associated with a deficit in working memory for these types of information, recent findings suggestive of relatively well-preserved long-term memory for emotional information in older adults raise questions about working memory for emotional material. This study examined age differences in working memory for emotional versus visual information. Findings demonstrate that, despite an age-related deficit for the latter, working memory for emotion was unimpaired. Further, older adults exhibited superior performance on positive relative to negative emotion trials, whereas their younger counterparts exhibited the opposite pattern. PMID:16420130

  11. Tocotrienol rich fraction reverses age-related deficits in spatial learning and memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Taridi, Nursiati Mohamad; Abd Rani, Nazirah; Abd Latiff, Azian; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Mazlan, Musalmah

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the effect of vitamin E on brain function. Therefore, in this study we evaluated the effect of tocotrienol rich fraction (TRF) on behavioral impairment and oxidative stress in aged rats. Thirty-six male Wistar rats (young: 3-months-old; aged: 21-months-old) were treated with either the control (olive oil) or TRF (200 mg/kg) for 3 months. Behavioral studies were performed using the open field test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. Blood was taken for assessment of DNA damage, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and vitamin E, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity. Brains were also collected to measure vitamin E levels. Results showed that aged rats exhibited reduced exploratory activity, enhanced anxiety and decreased spatial learning and memory compared with young rats. DNA damage and plasma MDA were increased, and vitamin E levels in plasma and brain were reduced in aged rats. Aged rats supplemented with TRF showed a markedly reduced level of anxiety, improved spatial learning and memory, reduced amount and severity of DNA damage, a reduced level of MDA, and increased levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and plasma/brain vitamin E compared with age-matched controls. In conclusion, TRF supplementation reverses spatial learning and memory decline and decreases oxidative stress in aged rats.

  12. Christodoulou Memory of GW150914 - Prospects of Detection in LIGO and Future Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Aaron; Kapadia, Shasvath; Kennefick, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The event GW150914 produced strains of the order 10-21 in the two instruments comprising the Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). The event has been interpreted as originating in a coalescing black hole binary, with individual components of about 30 solar masses each. A striking aspect of the coalescence deduced from the signal is the emission of 3 solar masses of energy in the oscillating gravitational wave. Theory predicts a DC component of the gravitational signal associated with the emission of such large amounts of gravitational wave energy known as the Christodoulou memory. The memory, as a non-linear component of the signal, is expected to be an order of magnitude smaller than the amplitude of the primary AC component of the gravitational waves. We discuss the prospects of detecting the Christodoulou memory in similar future signals, both with LIGO and with other detectors, including future space-based instruments.

  13. Frequency and predictors of self-reported prospective memory complaints in individuals infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Woods, Steven Paul; Carey, Catherine L; Moran, Lisa M; Dawson, Matthew S; Letendre, Scott L; Grant, Igor

    2007-02-01

    Failures of episodic retrospective memory (RetM) are among the most frequently reported cognitive complaints endorsed by individuals living with HIV infection. The present study sought to examine the nature, frequency, and determinants of self-reported complaints of prospective memory (ProM) in HIV, which is a singly dissociable and ecologically relevant aspect of episodic memory involving the execution of future intentions. Seventy-five HIV seropositive individuals and 60 seronegative volunteers were administered the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PMRQ) as part of extensive neuropsychological, psychiatric, and medical research assessments. The HIV sample endorsed more frequent ProM complaints in daily life than the seronegative group, particularly on items requiring self-initiated cue detection and retrieval. Within both study groups, ProM complaints were significantly more frequent than RetM complaints. Although the HIV sample was impaired relative to the seronegative group on an objective, performance-based ProM test, self-reported ProM complaints did not correspond to actual ProM abilities. However, greater frequency of self-reported ProM complaints was moderately associated with increased fatigue, as well as with symptoms of anxiety and depression. Consistent with prior research on RetM in HIV, results indicate that affective distress contributes to a metamemory deficit for HIV-associated ProM impairment, which highlights the potential importance of assessing both self-reported and performance-based ProM in clinical and research neuroAIDS evaluations.

  14. Ageing-related stereotypes in memory: When the beliefs come true.

    PubMed

    Bouazzaoui, Badiâa; Follenfant, Alice; Ric, François; Fay, Séverine; Croizet, Jean-Claude; Atzeni, Thierry; Taconnat, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Age-related stereotype concerns culturally shared beliefs about the inevitable decline of memory with age. In this study, stereotype priming and stereotype threat manipulations were used to explore the impact of age-related stereotype on metamemory beliefs and episodic memory performance. Ninety-two older participants who reported the same perceived memory functioning were divided into two groups: a threatened group and a non-threatened group (control). First, the threatened group was primed with an ageing stereotype questionnaire. Then, both groups were administered memory complaints and memory self-efficacy questionnaires to measure metamemory beliefs. Finally, both groups were administered the Logical Memory task to measure episodic memory, for the threatened group the instructions were manipulated to enhance the stereotype threat. Results indicated that the threatened individuals reported more memory complaints and less memory efficacy, and had lower scores than the control group on the logical memory task. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that the stereotype threat effect on the episodic memory performance was mediated by both memory complaints and memory self-efficacy. This study revealed that stereotype threat impacts belief in one's own memory functioning, which in turn impairs episodic memory performance.

  15. Enhancement of memory consolidation by the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium butyrate in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Blank, Martina; Werenicz, Aline; Velho, Luciana Azevedo; Pinto, Diana F; Fedi, Ana Cláudia; Lopes, Mark William; Peres, Tanara Vieira; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Dornelles, Arethuza S; Roesler, Rafael

    2015-05-06

    Here we show that a systemic injection of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate (NaB) immediately after training in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task produced an enhancement of memory consolidation that persisted across consecutive retention tests during 14 days in aged rats, while it did not significantly affect memory in young adults. Control aged and young adult rats showed comparable basal levels of memory retention. Our results suggest that HDACis can display memory-enhancing effects specific for aged animals, even in the absence of age-related memory impairment.

  16. Aging and long-term memory for emotionally valenced events.

    PubMed

    Breslin, Carolyn W; Safer, Martin A

    2013-06-01

    In 2008, 1103 ardent Boston Red Sox fans answered questions about their team's 2003 loss and 2004 win in baseball championship games with archrival New York Yankees. Contrary to predictions based on socioemotional selectivity theory, there were no significant interactions of age and event valence for accuracy in remembering event details, or for self-reported subjective vividness and rehearsal of the memories. Fans 65 years and older tended to remember feeling only sad about the 2003 loss, whereas fans 25 years and under tended to remember feeling both sad and angry. Individuals may remember emotional feelings based on remembered goals about an event.

  17. Age-related differences in working memory updating components.

    PubMed

    Linares, Rocío; Bajo, M Teresa; Pelegrina, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible age-related changes throughout childhood and adolescence in different component processes of working memory updating (WMU): retrieval, transformation, and substitution. A set of numerical WMU tasks was administered to four age groups (8-, 11-, 14-, and 21-year-olds). To isolate the effect of each of the WMU components, participants performed different versions of a task that included different combinations of the WMU components. The results showed an expected overall decrease in response times and an increase in accuracy performance with age. Most important, specific age-related changes in the retrieval component were found, demonstrating that the effect of retrieval on accuracy was larger in children than in adolescents or young adults. These findings indicate that the availability of representations from outside the focus of attention may change with age. Thus, the retrieval component of updating could contribute to the age-related changes observed in the performance of many updating tasks.

  18. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging.

  19. Differential Age Effects for Implicit and Explicit Conceptual Associative Memory

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Older adults show disproportionate declines in explicit memory for associative relative to item information. However, the source of these declines is still uncertain. One explanation is a generalized impairment in the processing of associative information. A second explanation is a more specialized impairment in the strategic, effortful recollection of associative information, leaving less effortful forms of associative retrieval preserved. Assessing implicit memory of new associations is a way to distinguish between these viewpoints. To date, mixed findings have emerged from studies of associative priming in aging. One factor that may account for the variability is whether the manipulations inadvertently involve strategic, explicit processes. In 2 experiments we present a novel paradigm of conceptual associative priming in which subjects make speeded associative judgments about unrelated objects. Using a size classification task, Experiment 1 showed equivalent associative priming between young and older adults. Experiment 2 generalized the results of Experiment 1 to an inside/outside classification task, while replicating the typical age-related impairment in associative but not item recognition. Taken together, the findings support the viewpoint that older adults can incidentally encode and retrieve new meaningful associations despite difficulty with the intentional recollection of the same information. PMID:21077717

  20. The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource

    PubMed Central

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on >500,000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives. PMID:25538617

  1. The effect of functional hearing loss and age on long- and short-term visuospatial memory: evidence from the UK biobank resource.

    PubMed

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Hygge, Staffan; Keidser, Gitte; Rudner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The UK Biobank offers cross-sectional epidemiological data collected on >500,000 individuals in the UK between 40 and 70 years of age. Using the UK Biobank data, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of functional hearing loss and hearing aid usage on visuospatial memory function. This selection of variables resulted in a sub-sample of 138,098 participants after discarding extreme values. A digit triplets functional hearing test was used to divide the participants into three groups: poor, insufficient and normal hearers. We found negative relationships between functional hearing loss and both visuospatial working memory (i.e., a card pair matching task) and visuospatial, episodic long-term memory (i.e., a prospective memory task), with the strongest association for episodic long-term memory. The use of hearing aids showed a small positive effect for working memory performance for the poor hearers, but did not have any influence on episodic long-term memory. Age also showed strong main effects for both memory tasks and interacted with gender and education for the long-term memory task. Broader theoretical implications based on a memory systems approach will be discussed and compared to theoretical alternatives.

  2. Age-related differences in sleep-based memory consolidation: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gui, Wen-Jun; Li, Hui-Jie; Guo, Yu-Hua; Peng, Peng; Lei, Xu; Yu, Jing

    2017-02-02

    A period of post-learning sleep benefits memory consolidation compared with an equal-length wake interval. However, whether this sleep-based memory consolidation changes as a function of age remains controversial. Here we report a meta-analysis that investigates the age differences in the sleep-based memory consolidation in two types of memory: declarative memory and procedural memory. The meta-analysis included 22 comparisons of the performance between young adults (N =640) and older adults (N =529) on behavioral tasks measuring sleep-based memory consolidation. Our results showed a significant overall sleep-based beneficial effect in young adults but not in older adults. However, further analyses suggested that the age differences were mainly manifested in sleep-based declarative memory consolidation but not in procedural memory consolidation. We discussed the possible underlying mechanisms for the age-related degradation in sleep-based memory consolidation. Further research is needed to determine the crucial components for sleep-related memory consolidation in older adults such as age-related changes in neurobiological and cardiovascular functions, which may play an important role in this context and have the potential to delineate the interrelationships between age-related changes in sleep and memory.

  3. Aging 5 years in 5 minutes: the effect of taking a memory test on older adults' subjective age.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Matthew L; Geraci, Lisa; De Forrest, Ross L

    2013-12-01

    How old one feels-one's subjective age-has been shown to predict important psychological and health outcomes. The current studies examined the effect of taking a standard memory test on older adults' subjective age. Study 1 showed that older adults felt older after taking a standard neuropsychological screening test and participating in a free-recall experiment than they felt at baseline. Study 2 showed that the effect was selective to older adults: Younger adults' subjective age was not affected by participating in the memory experiment. Study 3 showed that the subjective-aging effect was specific to memory, as taking a vocabulary test for a similar amount of time did not affect older adults' subjective age. Finally, Study 4 showed that simply expecting to take a memory test subjectively aged older adults. The results indicate that being in a memory-testing context affects older adults' self-perception by making them feel older.

  4. Prospective memory intervention using visual imagery in individuals with brain injury.

    PubMed

    Raskin, Sarah A; Smith, Michael P; Mills, Ginger; Pedro, Consuelo; Zamroziewicz, Marta

    2017-03-12

    Prospective memory deficits are common after brain injury and can create impediments to independent living. Most approaches to management of such deficits are compensatory, such as the use of notebooks or electronic devices. While these can be effective, a restorative approach, in theory, could lead to greater generalisation of treatment. In the current study a metacognitive technique, using visual imagery, was employed under conditions of rote repetition and spaced retrieval. Treatment was provided in an AB-BA crossover design with A as the active treatment and B as a no-treatment attention control to 20 individuals with brain injury. A group of 20 healthy participants served to control for effects of re-testing. Individuals with brain injury demonstrated improvement on the main outcome measure of prospective memory, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test, only after the active treatment condition. In addition, some generalisation of treatment was measured in daily life. Moreover, treatment gains were maintained for one year after treatment was completed.

  5. A multifaceted prospective memory intervention to improve medication adherence: design of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Insel, Kathleen C; Einstein, Gilles O; Morrow, Daniel G; Hepworth, Joseph T

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to prescribed antihypertensive agents is critical because control of elevated blood pressure is the single most important way to prevent stroke and other end organ damage. Unfortunately, nonadherence remains a significant problem. Previous interventions designed to improve adherence have demonstrated only small benefits of strategies that target single facets such as understanding medication directions. The intervention described here is informed by prospective memory theory and performance of older adults in laboratory-based paradigms and uses a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to improve adherence. It incorporates multiple strategies designed to support key components of prospective remembering involved in taking medication. The intervention is delivered by nurses in the home with an education control group for comparison. Differences between groups in overall adherence following the intervention and 6 months later will be tested. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels also will be examined between groups and as they relate to adherence. Intra-individual regression is planned to examine change in adherence over time and its predictors. Finally, we will examine the association between executive function/working memory and adherence, predicting that adherence will be related to executive/working memory in the control group but not in the intervention group.

  6. Too exhausted to remember: ego depletion undermines subsequent event-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Bin; Nie, Yan-Gang; Zeng, Min-Xia; Huntoon, Meghan; Smith, Jessi L

    2013-01-01

    Past research has consistently found that people are likely to do worse on high-level cognitive tasks after exerting self-control on previous actions. However, little has been unraveled about to what extent ego depletion affects subsequent prospective memory. Drawing upon the self-control strength model and the relationship between self-control resources and executive control, this study proposes that the initial actions of self-control may undermine subsequent event-based prospective memory (EBPM). Ego depletion was manipulated through watching a video requiring visual attention (Experiment 1) or completing an incongruent Stroop task (Experiment 2). Participants were then tested on EBPM embedded in an ongoing task. As predicted, the results showed that after ruling out possible intervening variables (e.g. mood, focal and nonfocal cues, and characteristics of ongoing task and ego depletion task), participants in the high-depletion condition performed significantly worse on EBPM than those in the low-depletion condition. The results suggested that the effect of ego depletion on EBPM was mainly due to an impaired prospective component rather than to a retrospective component.

  7. When goals collide: the interaction between prospective memory and task switching.

    PubMed

    West, Robert; Scolaro, Ashley J; Bailey, Kira

    2011-03-01

    The neural correlates of prospective retrieval mode, and the basis of the interaction between prospective memory (PM) and task switching, were examined using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). In two experiments individuals performed pure and mixed blocks of trials where they indicated whether or not a word was a noun or a verb or contained one or two vowels based upon a cue that was presented before the target stimulus. Experiment 1 revealed that prospective retrieval mode was associated with slow wave activity over the frontal and posterior regions of the scalp that differed in topography depending upon whether the PM cues were embedded in pure or mixed blocks of trials. This experiment also revealed that the neural correlates of task set configuration, but not cue encoding, were sensitive to PM load. These data indicate that PM load may effect task switching by influencing an individual's ability to maintain multiple task sets in working memory and to efficiently implement a given task set to guide task performance. Additionally, task switching may effect PM by influencing the degree to which individuals rely on stimulus-independent and stimulus-oriented processing to support the realization of delayed intentions.

  8. Age differences in short-term memory binding are related to working memory performance across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Fandakova, Yana; Sander, Myriam C; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Shing, Yee Lee

    2014-03-01

    Memory performance increases during childhood and adolescence, and decreases in old age. Among younger adults, better ability to bind items to the context in which they were experienced is associated with higher working memory performance (Oberauer, 2005). Here, we examined the extent to which age differences in binding contribute to life span age differences in short-term memory (STM). Younger children (N = 85; 10 to 12 years), teenagers (N = 41; 13 to 15 years), younger adults (N = 84; 20 to 25 years), and older adults (N = 86; 70 to 75 years) worked on global and local short-term recognition tasks that are assumed to measure item and item-context memory, respectively. Structural equation models showed that item-context bindings are functioning less well in children and older adults compared with younger adults and teenagers. This result suggests protracted development of the ability to form and recollect detailed short-term memories, and decline of this ability in aging. Across all age groups, better item-context binding was associated with higher working memory performance, indicating that developmental differences in binding mechanisms are closely related to working memory development in childhood and old age.

  9. Aging and associative recognition: A view from the DRYAD model of age-related memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2016-02-01

    How do we best characterize the memory deficits that accompany aging? A popular hypothesis, articulated originally by Naveh-Benjamin (2000) and reviewed in the accompanying article by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016), suggests that older adults are selectively deficient in establishing associations between to-be-learned memoranda and as a result have deficits in memory for sources or contexts. An alternative proposal, called density of representations yields age-related deficits (DRYAD) and outlined in recent articles by Benjamin (2010) and colleagues (Benjamin, Diaz, Matzen, & Johnson, 2012), attributes disproportionate deficits in memory to a global, rather than a selective, deficit of memory. In an attempt to adjudicate between these competing positions, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) discussed 2 sets of experimental data that they claim speak against the global deficit model. Here I review some general principles of how the global-deficit view is applied to experimental paradigms and demonstrate that even a simplified form of DRYAD can comfortably accommodate the critical findings cited by Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin. I also evaluate aspects of their results that may be problematic for DRYAD and describe ways in which DRYAD's account of associative recognition can be falsified. I end with a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the 2 approaches and consider ways in which the associative deficit hypothesis and DRYAD might work more profitably together than apart.

  10. Cross-Cultural Beliefs about Memory and Aging for Self and Others: South Korea and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Ellen Bouchard; Jin, Young-Sun; Anas, Ann P.

    2009-01-01

    Young adults in Canada (N = 161) and South Korea (N = 165) rated either themselves or typical others at target ages 25, 45, and 65 years. In both countries, poorer memory was anticipated with each increase in age on all 3 memory belief factors: capacity, change, and locus. Both groups demonstrated a self-protective bias about age-related decline,…

  11. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  12. Prospective Memory in Substance Abusers at Treatment Entry: Associations with Education, Neuropsychological Functioning, and Everyday Memory Lapses

    PubMed Central

    Weinborn, Michael; Woods, Steven Paul; O'Toole, Stephanie; Kellogg, Emily J.; Moyle, Jonson

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly report lapses in prospective memory (PM) in their daily lives; however, our understanding of the profile and predictors of laboratory-based PM deficits in SUDs and their associations with everyday PM failures is still very preliminary. The current study examined these important questions using well-validated measures of self-report and laboratory-based PM in a mixed cohort of 53 SUD individuals at treatment entry and 44 healthy adults. Consistent with prior research, the SUD group endorsed significantly more self-cued and environmentally based PM failures in their daily lives. Moreover, the SUD group demonstrated significantly lower time-based PM performance, driven largely by cue detection errors. The effect of SUDs on PM was particularly strong among participants with fewer years of education. Within the SUD cohort, time-based PM was correlated with clinical measures assessing executive functions, retrospective memory, and psychomotor speed. Importantly, time-based PM was uniquely associated with elevated PM failures in daily lives of the SUD participants, independent of current affective distress and other neurocognitive deficits. Findings suggest that individuals with SUD are vulnerable to deficits in PM, which may in turn increase their risk for poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., treatment non-compliance). PMID:21903701

  13. Midlife memory ability accounts for brain activity differences in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Pudas, Sara; Persson, Jonas; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that hippocampal and prefrontal cortex functions underlie individual differences in memory ability in older individuals, but it is unclear how individual differences in cognitive ability in youth contribute to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older age. Here, we investigated the relative influences of midlife memory ability and age-related memory change on memory-related BOLD-signal variability at one time point, using a sample from a longitudinal population-based aging study (N = 203, aged 55-80 years). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that midlife memory ability, assessed 15-20 years earlier, explained at least as much variance as memory change in clusters in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and the bilateral hippocampus, during memory encoding. Furthermore, memory change estimates demonstrated higher sensitivity than current memory levels in identifying distinct frontal regions where activity was selectively related to age-related memory change, as opposed to midlife memory. These findings highlight challenges in interpreting individual differences in neurocognitive measures as age-related changes in the absence of longitudinal data and also demonstrate the improved sensitivity of longitudinal measures.

  14. Exposure to an enriched environment up to middle age allows preservation of spatial memory capabilities in old age.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Fanny; Cosquer, Brigitte; Penazzi, Lorène; Mathis, Chantal; Kelche, Christian; Majchrzak, Monique; Barbelivien, Alexandra

    2016-02-15

    In rats, some cognitive capabilities, like spatial learning and memory, are preserved from age-related decline by whole adult life enriched environment (EE) exposure. However, to which extent late EE contributes to such maintenance remains to be investigated. Here we assessed the impact of late housing condition (e.g., from the age of 18 months) on spatial learning and memory of aged rats (24 months) previously exposed or unexposed to EE from young adulthood. The results showed that late EE was not required for spatial memory maintenance in aged rats previously housed in EE. In contrast, late EE mitigates spatial memory deficit in aged rats previously unexposed to EE. These outcomes suggest that EE exposure up to middle age provides a "reserve"-like advantage which supports an enduring preservation of spatial capabilities in old age.

  15. Mechanisms underlying the production of false memories for famous people's names in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Plancher, Gaën; Guyard, Anne; Nicolas, Serge; Piolino, Pascale

    2009-10-01

    It is well known that the occurrence of false memories increases with aging, but the results remain inconsistent concerning Alzheimer's disease (AD). Moreover, the mechanisms underlying the production of false memories are still unclear. Using an experimental episodic memory test with material based on the names of famous people in a procedure derived from the DRM paradigm [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 803-814], we examined correct and false recall and recognition in 30 young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 30 patients with AD. Moreover, we evaluated the relationships between false memory performance, correct episodic memory performance, and a set of neuropsychological assessments evaluating the semantic memory and executive functions. The results clearly indicated that correct recall and recognition performance decreased with the subjects' age, but it decreased even more with AD. In addition, semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with age but not with dementia. On the contrary, non-semantically related false recalls and false recognitions increased with AD. Finally, the regression analyses showed that executive functions mediated related false memories and episodic memory mediated related and unrelated false memories in aging. Moreover, executive functions predicted related and unrelated false memories in AD, and episodic and semantic memory predicted semantically related and unrelated false memories in AD. In conclusion, the results obtained are consistent with the current constructive models of memory suggesting that false memory creation depends on different cognitive functions and, consequently, that the impairments of these functions influence the production of false memories.

  16. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  17. False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false…

  18. Differences in Binding and Monitoring Mechanisms Contribute to Lifespan Age Differences in False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fandakova, Yana; Shing, Yee Lee; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2-component framework of episodic memory development across the lifespan (Shing & Lindenberger, 2011), we examined the contribution of memory-related binding and monitoring processes to false memory susceptibility in childhood and old age. We administered a repeated continuous recognition task to children (N = 20, 10-12 years),…

  19. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  20. Knowledge of Memory Aging in Students, Caregivers, and Senior Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Boudreaux, Emily O.; Robichaux, Mary L.; Hawley, Karri S.

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) (Cherry, Brigman, Hawley, & Reese, 2003) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes in late life and pathological deficits due to nonnormative factors such as adult dementia. In this study, we examined memory knowledge in community college and university students, caregivers, and…

  1. Effects of 45-day -6° head-down bed rest on the time-based prospective memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, SiYi; Zhou, RenLai; Xiu, LiChao; Chen, ShanGuang; Chen, XiaoPing; Tan, Cheng

    2013-03-01

    The research explored the effects of 45-day -6° head-down bed rest (HDBR) simulation of microgravity on the time-based prospective memory (PM) with 16 males. The time-based prospective memory task was performed on the 2nd day before HDBR, on the 11th, 20th, 32nd, and 40th days during HDBR, and on the 8th day after HDBR, and subjects' anxiety and depression feelings were recorded simultaneously using Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The results demonstrated that it showed decreased accuracy of PM responses and frequency of clock checks during and after bed rest; long term bed rest did not induce significant emotional changes. The deficit of prospective memory performance induced by long term HDBR may result from a lack of aerobic physical activity or changes in the prefrontal cortex, but it remains to be determined.

  2. Differential effects of emotional cues on components of prospective memory: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Cona, Giorgia; Kliegel, Matthias; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S.

    2015-01-01

    So far, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms associated with emotion effects on prospective memory (PM) performance. Thus, this study aimed at disentangling possible mechanisms for the effects of emotional valence of PM cues on the distinct phases composing PM by investigating event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were engaged in an ongoing N-back task while being required to perform a PM task. The emotional valence of both the ongoing pictures and the PM cues was manipulated (pleasant, neutral, unpleasant). ERPs were recorded during the PM phases, such as encoding, maintenance, and retrieval of the intention. A recognition task including PM cues and ongoing stimuli was also performed at the end of the sessions. ERP results suggest that emotional PM cues not only trigger an automatic, bottom-up, capture of attention, but also boost a greater allocation of top-down processes. These processes seem to be recruited to hold attention toward the emotional stimuli and to retrieve the intention from memory, likely because of the motivational significance of the emotional stimuli. Moreover, pleasant PM cues seemed to modulate especially the prospective component, as revealed by changes in the amplitude of the ERP correlates of strategic monitoring as a function of the relevance of the valence for the PM task. Unpleasant pictures seemed to modulate especially the retrospective component, as revealed by the largest old/new effect being elicited by unpleasant PM pictures in the recognition task. PMID:25674061

  3. Remember to do: insomnia versus control groups in a prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Primary insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep and/or remaining asleep, by early morning awakening and/or nonrestorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction in the absence of specific physical, mental, or substance-related causes. However, the studies on daytime cognitive functioning of insomnia patients report inconclusive results. This retrospective study aimed to compare the performance of insomnia patients (N = 54) to that of controls (N = 113) in a naturalistic prospective memory task. Task performance was defined by the percentage of times the event-marker button of an actigraph was pressed, at lights-off time and at wake-up time. The performance pattern in the prospective memory task was similar in both groups. In addition, the task was performed better at lights-off time than at wake-up time regardless of group. Post-hoc subgroup analysis showed that there were more insomnia patients who performed the task perfectly (i.e., 100%) than controls. Performance at wake-up time was significantly correlated to objective sleep quality (i.e., sleep efficiency) only in insomnia patients.

  4. Remembrance of Things Future: Prospective Memory in Laboratory, Workplace, and Everyday Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dismukes, R. Key

    2010-01-01

    In this review, oriented to the human factors community, I will summarize and provide a perspective on recent research and theory on prospective memory. This will not be an exhaustive review of literature, which is already available in two excellent recent books that provide a wealth of detail on the current state of experimental research (Kliegel, McCaniel, & Einstein, 2008; McDaniel & Einstein, 2007; also see Brandimonte, Einstein, & McDaniel, 1996, for a still relevant overview of the field as it was emerging). Rather, I will explore the limits of existing experimental paradigms and theory, Vvilich, in my opinion, fail to capture some critical aspects of performance outside the laboratory. I will also review the relatively few studies in workplace and everyday settings and will discuss several studies that attempt to bridge between the bulk of experimental studies and these few naturalistic studies. Finally, I will describe countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to forgetting to perform intended tasks, and I will propose a research agenda that would extend existing experimental and theoretical approaches and would support human factors practitioners by generating information on a wide range of issues relevant to prospective memory performance in natural settings.

  5. Pupillary responses and memory-guided visual search reveal age-related and Alzheimer's-related memory decline.

    PubMed

    Dragan, Michelle C; Leonard, Timothy K; Lozano, Andres M; McAndrews, Mary Pat; Ng, Karen; Ryan, Jennifer D; Tang-Wai, David F; Wynn, Jordana S; Hoffman, Kari L

    2017-03-30

    Episodic memory - composed of memory for unique spatiotemporal experiences - is known to decline with aging, and even more severely in Alzheimer 's disease (AD). Memory for trial-unique objects in spatial scenes depends on the integrity of the hippocampus and interconnected structures that are among the first areas affected in AD. We reasoned that memory for objects-in-scenes would be impaired with aging, and that further impairments would be observed in AD. We asked younger adults, healthy older adults, older adults at-risk for developing cognitive impairments, and older adults with probable early AD to find changing items ('targets') within images of natural scenes, measuring repeated-trial changes in search efficiency and pupil diameter. Compared to younger adults, older adults took longer to detect target objects in repeated scenes, they required more fixations and those fixations were more dispersed. Whereas individuals with AD showed some benefit of memory in this task, they had substantially longer detection times, and more numerous, dispersed fixations on repeated scenes compared to age-matched older adults. Correspondingly, pupillary responses to novel and repeated scenes were diminished with aging and further in AD, and the memory-related changes were weaker with aging and absent in AD. Our results suggest that several nonverbal measures from memory-guided visual search tasks can index aging and Alzheimer's disease status, including pupillary dynamics. The task measurements are sensitive to the integrity of brain structures that are associated with Alzheimer's-related neurodegeneration, the task is well tolerated across a range of abilities, and thus, it may prove useful in early diagnostics and longitudinal tracking of memory decline.

  6. Autobiographical Memory Specificity among Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Amy K.; Valentino, Kristin; Comas, Michelle; McNeill, Anne T.; Stey, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    "Overgeneral memory" refers to difficulty retrieving specific autobiographical memories and is consistently associated with depression and/or trauma. The present study developed a downward extension of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986) given the need to document normative developmental changes in…

  7. Changes in Memory Prediction Accuracy: Age and Performance Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Ann; Trujillo, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Memory performance predictions are subjective estimates of possible memory task performance. The purpose of this study was to examine possible factors related to changes in word list performance predictions made by younger and older adults. Factors included memory self-efficacy, actual performance, and perceptions of performance. The current study…

  8. Age-related changes to the neural correlates of working memory which emerge after midlife.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Helen N; White, David J; Ellis, Kathryn A; Stough, Con; Camfield, David; Silberstein, Richard; Pipingas, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that the neural processes which underlie working memory change with age. Both age-related increases and decreases to cortical activity have been reported. This study investigated which stages of working memory are most vulnerable to age-related changes after midlife. To do this we examined age-differences in the 13 Hz steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) associated with a spatial working memory delayed response task. Participants were 130 healthy adults separated into a midlife (40-60 years) and an older group (61-82 years). Relative to the midlife group, older adults demonstrated greater bilateral frontal activity during encoding and this pattern of activity was related to better working memory performance. In contrast, evidence of age-related under activation was identified over left frontal regions during retrieval. Findings from this study suggest that after midlife, under-activation of frontal regions during retrieval contributes to age-related decline in working memory performance.

  9. Effects of ongoing task context and target typicality on prospective memory performance: the importance of associative cueing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowinski, Jessica Lang; Dismukes, Key R.

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether prospective memory performance is influenced by contextual cues. In our automatic activation model, any information available at encoding and retrieval should aid recall of the prospective task. The first experiment demonstrated an effect of the ongoing task context; performance was better when information about the ongoing task present at retrieval was available at encoding. Performance was also improved by a strong association between the prospective memory target as it was presented at retrieval and the intention as it was encoded. Experiment 2 demonstrated boundary conditions of the ongoing task context effect, which implicate the association between the ongoing and prospective tasks formed at encoding as the source of the context effect. The results of this study are consistent with predictions based on automatic activation of intentions.

  10. Are Time- and Event-based Prospective Memory Comparably Affected in HIV Infection?†

    PubMed Central

    Zogg, Jennifer B.; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Doyle, Katie; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hale, Braden R.; Ellis, Ronald J.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund; Schrier, Rachel; Heaton, Robert K.; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Jernigan, Terry; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah L.; Hesselink, John; Annese, Jacopo; Taylor, Michael J.; Masliah, Eliezer; Everall, Ian; Langford, T. Dianne; Richman, Douglas; Smith, David M.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Everall, Ian; Lipton, Stuart; McCutchan, J. Allen; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Atkinson, J. Hampton; von Jaeger, Rodney; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cushman, Clint; Masys, Daniel R.; Abramson, Ian; Ake, Christopher; Vaida, Florin

    2011-01-01

    According to the multi-process theory of prospective memory (ProM), time-based tasks rely more heavily on strategic processes dependent on prefrontal systems than do event-based tasks. Given the prominent frontostriatal pathophysiology of HIV infection, one would expect HIV-infected individuals to demonstrate greater deficits in time-based versus event-based ProM. However, the two prior studies examining this question have produced variable results. We evaluated this hypothesis in 143 individuals with HIV infection and 43 demographically similar seronegative adults (HIV−) who completed the research version of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test, which yields parallel subscales of time- and event-based ProM. Results showed main effects of HIV serostatus and cue type, but no interaction between serostatus and cue. Planned pair-wise comparisons showed a significant effect of HIV on time-based ProM and a trend-level effect on event-based ProM that was driven primarily by the subset of participants with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Nevertheless, time-based ProM was more strongly correlated with measures of executive functions, attention/working memory, and verbal fluency in HIV-infected persons. Although HIV-associated deficits in time- and event-based ProM appear to be of comparable severity, the cognitive architecture of time-based ProM may be more strongly influenced by strategic monitoring and retrieval processes. PMID:21459901

  11. Prospective Memory Deficits in Ecstasy Users: Effects of Longer Ongoing Task Delay Interval

    PubMed Central

    WEINBORN, MICHAEL; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; NULSEN, CLAIRE; PARK, KATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy use has been associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment in a variety of domains, including prospective memory (ProM), which involves the delayed execution of a previously encoded intention in response to a specific cue. The present study adopted the multiprocess theory of ProM to evaluate the hypothesis that ecstasy users would evidence differentially impaired ProM on longer versus shorter ongoing task delays. Ecstasy (n = 31) users, high-risk alcohol users (n = 21) and healthy nonusers (n = 31) completed the short (2-min) and long (15-min) delay ProM scales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test. Results showed a significant group by ProM delay interaction, such that ecstasy users performed comparably to the comparison groups on short-delay trials, but were impaired on long-delay ProM, particularly for time-based cues. Among the ecstasy users, long-delay ProM was positively associated with risky decision-making, but not with retrospective memory or other aspects of executive functions. These findings suggest that ecstasy users may be particularly susceptible to deficits in strategic target monitoring and maintenance of cue-intention pairings over longer ProM delays. Findings are discussed in the context of their potential everyday functioning (e.g., academic, vocational) and treatment implications for ecstasy users. PMID:22047194

  12. Neuropsychological substrates and everyday functioning implications of prospective memory impairment in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Twamley, Elizabeth W; Woods, Steven Paul; Zurhellen, Cynthia H; Vertinski, Mary; Narvaez, Jenille M; Mausbach, Brent T; Patterson, Thomas L; Jeste, Dilip V

    2008-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia demonstrate impairment in prospective memory (ProM), which describes the multifaceted ability to execute a future intention. Despite its clear implications for everyday functioning, the neuropsychological substrates and functional correlates of ProM impairment in schizophrenia remain poorly understood. In this study, the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), a standardized measure of ProM, was administered to 72 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychiatric research evaluation. Results showed that ProM was positively correlated with standard clinical tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, learning, and executive functioning, but not delayed recall. In the context of multiple neuropsychological predictors, learning ability was the only domain that independently contributed to ProM. Importantly, better ProM was predictive of higher functional capacity (as measured by the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief Version), above and beyond the variability explained by demographic and disease factors. Analysis of component processes revealed that event-based ProM, as well as no response (i.e., omission) and task substitution errors were the strongest predictors of everyday functioning. Overall, these findings suggest that ProM impairment in schizophrenia is associated with multiple cognitive substrates, particularly episodic learning deficits, and plays an important role in everyday living skills. Studies regarding the potential effectiveness of ProM-based remediation strategies to improve functional outcomes in schizophrenia are indicated.

  13. The impact of emotion on prospective memory and monitoring: no pain, big gain.

    PubMed

    May, Cynthia; Owens, Max; Einstein, Gilles O

    2012-12-01

    The emotionally enhanced memory effect is robust across studies of retrospective memory, with heightened recall for items with emotional content (e.g., words like "murder") relative to neutral items (e.g., words like "envelope"). Only a handful of studies have examined the influence of emotion on prospective memory (PM), with mixed results. In some cases emotion enhances PM, and in others it impairs PM. Interpretation of these findings is clouded by methodological differences across studies and by the fact that, to date, no study has examined the impact of emotion on PM monitoring. In our study, we assessed PM performance when PM targets were neutral, negative, and positive, and also investigated monitoring across these different PM target types. Participants showed heightened PM performance for positive and negative relative to neutral targets, yet there was no evidence of additional monitoring for emotional targets. In fact, measures of monitoring were significantly reduced when the PM targets were emotional rather than neutral. Our findings suggest that it is possible to boost PM performance in a focal task using emotional cues, and that the use of emotional cues reduces the need for monitoring.

  14. Prospective memory in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND): the neuropsychological dynamics of time monitoring.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time-monitoring (clock-checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM's reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time-monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication nonadherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND-related TB PM deficits.

  15. Prospective Memory in HIV-associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND): The Neuropsychological Dynamics of Time Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Loft, Shayne; Morgan, Erin E.; Weber, Erica; Cushman, Clint; Johnston, Elaine; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Strategic monitoring during a delay interval is theorized to be an essential feature of time-based prospective memory (TB PM), the cognitive architecture of which is thought to rely heavily on frontostriatal systems and executive functions. This hypothesis was examined in 55 individuals with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and 108 seronegative comparison participants who were administered the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST), during which time monitoring (clock checking) behavior was measured. Results revealed a significant interaction between HAND group and the frequency of clock checking, in which individuals with HAND monitored checked the clock significantly less often than the comparison group across the TB PM retention intervals of the MIST. Subsequent analyses in the HAND sample revealed that the frequency of clocking checking was positively related to overall TB performance, as well as to standard clinical measures of retrospective memory and verbal fluency. These findings add support to a growing body of research elucidating TB PM’s reliance on strategic monitoring processes dependent upon intact frontostriatal systems. HIV-associated TB strategic time monitoring deficits may manifest in poorer functioning outcomes, including medication non-adherence and dependence in activities of daily living. Future research is needed to further delineate the cognitive mechanisms underlying strategic time monitoring in order to advise rehabilitation strategies for reducing HAND related TB PM deficits. PMID:23465043

  16. Sex-based memory advantages and cognitive aging: a challenge to the cognitive reserve construct?

    PubMed

    Caselli, Richard J; Dueck, Amylou C; Locke, Dona E C; Baxter, Leslie C; Woodruff, Bryan K; Geda, Yonas E

    2015-02-01

    Education and related proxies for cognitive reserve (CR) are confounded by associations with environmental factors that correlate with cerebrovascular disease possibly explaining discrepancies between studies examining their relationships to cognitive aging and dementia. In contrast, sex-related memory differences may be a better proxy. Since they arise developmentally, they are less likely to reflect environmental confounds. Women outperform men on verbal and men generally outperform women on visuospatial memory tasks. Furthermore, memory declines during the preclinical stage of AD, when it is clinically indistinguishable from normal aging. To determine whether CR mitigates age-related memory decline, we examined the effects of gender and APOE genotype on longitudinal memory performances. Memory decline was assessed in a cohort of healthy men and women enriched for APOE ɛ4 who completed two verbal [Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Buschke Selective Reminding Test (SRT)] and two visuospatial [Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CFT), and Benton Visual Retention Test (VRT)] memory tests, as well as in a separate larger and older cohort [National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)] who completed a verbal memory test (Logical Memory). Age-related memory decline was accelerated in APOE ɛ4 carriers on all verbal memory measures (AVLT, p=.03; SRT p<.001; logical memory p<.001) and on the VRT p=.006. Baseline sex associated differences were retained over time, but no sex differences in rate of decline were found for any measure in either cohort. Sex-based memory advantage does not mitigate age-related memory decline in either APOE ɛ4 carriers or non-carriers.

  17. Age-related decline of precision and binding in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Peich, Muy-Cheng; Husain, Masud; Bays, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Working memory declines with normal aging, but the nature of this impairment is debated. Studies based on detecting changes to arrays of visual objects have identified two possible components to age-related decline: a reduction in the number of items that can be stored, or a deficit in maintaining the associations (bindings) between individual object features. However, some investigations have reported intact binding with aging, and specific deficits arising only in Alzheimer's disease. Here, using a recently developed continuous measure of recall fidelity, we tested the precision with which adults of different ages could reproduce from memory the orientation and color of a probed array item. The results reveal a further component of cognitive decline: an age-related decrease in the resolution with which visual information can be maintained in working memory. This increase in recall variability with age was strongest under conditions of greater memory load. Moreover, analysis of the distribution of errors revealed that older participants were more likely to incorrectly report one of the unprobed items in memory, consistent with an age-related increase in misbinding. These results indicate a systematic decline with age in working memory resources that can be recruited to store visual information. The paradigm presented here provides a sensitive index of both memory resolution and feature binding, with the potential for assessing their modulation by interventions. The findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms underpinning working memory deficits in both health and disease.

  18. Working Memory in Early-School-Age Children with Asperger's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-01-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks,…

  19. Age Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Not Based on Encoding Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Ricker, Timothy J.; Saults, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Why does visual working memory performance increase with age in childhood? One recent study (Cowan et al., 2010b) ruled out the possibility that the basic cause is a tendency in young children to clutter working memory with less-relevant items (within a concurrent array, colored items presented in one of two shapes). The age differences in memory…

  20. The Quality of Self, Social, and Directive Memories: Are There Adult Age Group Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alea, Nicole; Arneaud, Mary Jane; Ali, Sideeka

    2013-01-01

    The quality of functional autobiographical memories was examined in young, middle-aged, and older adult Trinidadians ("N" = 245). Participants wrote about an event that served a self, social, and directive function, and reported on the memory's quality (e.g., significance, vividness, valence, etc.). Across age groups, directive memories…

  1. Time-Based and Event-Based Prospective Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Roles of Executive Function and Theory of Mind, and Time-Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, David; Boucher, Jill; Lind, Sophie; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (remembering to carry out an action in the future) has been studied relatively little in ASD. We explored time-based (carry out an action at a pre-specified time) and event-based (carry out an action upon the occurrence of a pre-specified event) prospective memory, as well as possible cognitive correlates, among 21…

  2. Changes in brain network efficiency and working memory performance in aging.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Matthew L; Simpson, Sean L; Dagenbach, Dale; Lyday, Robert G; Burdette, Jonathan H; Laurienti, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is a complex psychological construct referring to the temporary storage and active processing of information. We used functional connectivity brain network metrics quantifying local and global efficiency of information transfer for predicting individual variability in working memory performance on an n-back task in both young (n = 14) and older (n = 15) adults. Individual differences in both local and global efficiency during the working memory task were significant predictors of working memory performance in addition to age (and an interaction between age and global efficiency). Decreases in local efficiency during the working memory task were associated with better working memory performance in both age cohorts. In contrast, increases in global efficiency were associated with much better working performance for young participants; however, increases in global efficiency were associated with a slight decrease in working memory performance for older participants. Individual differences in local and global efficiency during resting-state sessions were not significant predictors of working memory performance. Significant group whole-brain functional network decreases in local efficiency also were observed during the working memory task compared to rest, whereas no significant differences were observed in network global efficiency. These results are discussed in relation to recently developed models of age-related differences in working memory.

  3. Resting-state fMRI evidence for early episodic memory consolidation: effects of age.

    PubMed

    Kukolja, Juraj; Göreci, D Yasemin; Onur, Özgür A; Riedl, Valentin; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-09-01

    Aging-related episodic memory decline is often attributed to insufficient encoding of new information, although the underlying neural processes remain elusive. We here tested the hypothesis that impaired memory consolidation contributes to aging-related memory decline. To this end, we used resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy young and older adults and investigated neural network connectivity underlying episodic memory consolidation and the effects of aging thereon. During postencoding rest, connectivity increased in subregions of temporobasal and temporo-occipital networks but decreased in a precuneal network. These connectivity changes predicted subsequent memory performance thereby constituting functional correlates of early memory consolidation. Furthermore, these consolidation-related regional connectivity changes partially overlapped with encoding-related neural activity changes, suggesting a close relationship between encoding- and consolidation-related activity. Older when compared to young participants failed to increase connectivity in the right lingual gyrus as part of an extended default mode network during consolidation, thereby providing a functional correlate for spatial contextual memory deficits. In conclusion, results are consistent with previous reports of persistent activity in regions mediating memory encoding as a core mechanism underlying episodic memory consolidation. Our data extend previous findings suggesting that aging-related memory decline results from a reduction of consolidation processes.

  4. Do Baseline Executive Functions Mediate Prospective Memory Performance under a Moderate Dose of Alcohol?

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Spark, James H.; Moss, Antony C.; Dyer, Kyle R.

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs). To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin et al., 2010), and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. PM is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programs and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness. PMID:27630600

  5. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18-40 years) and older (64-85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale - Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  6. Spatial-Sequential Working Memory in Younger and Older Adults: Age Predicts Backward Recall Performance within Both Age Groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is vulnerable to age-related decline, but there is debate regarding the age-sensitivity of different forms of spatial-sequential working memory task, depending on their passive or active nature. The functional architecture of spatial working memory was therefore explored in younger (18–40 years) and older (64–85 years) adults, using passive and active recall tasks. Spatial working memory was assessed using a modified version of the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale – Third Edition (WMS-III; Wechsler, 1998). Across both age groups, the effects of interference (control, visual, or spatial), and recall type (forward and backward), were investigated. There was a clear effect of age group, with younger adults demonstrating a larger spatial working memory capacity than the older adults overall. There was also a specific effect of interference, with the spatial interference task (spatial tapping) reliably reducing performance relative to both the control and visual interference (dynamic visual noise) conditions in both age groups and both recall types. This suggests that younger and older adults have similar dependence upon active spatial rehearsal, and that both forward and backward recall require this processing capacity. Linear regression analyses were then carried out within each age group, to assess the predictors of performance in each recall format (forward and backward). Specifically the backward recall task was significantly predicted by age, within both the younger and older adult groups. This finding supports previous literature showing lifespan linear declines in spatial-sequential working memory, and in working memory tasks from other domains, but contrasts with previous evidence that backward spatial span is no more sensitive to aging than forward span. The study suggests that backward spatial span is indeed more processing-intensive than forward span, even when both tasks include a retention period, and that age predicts

  7. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Mürner-Lavanchy, I; Ritter, B C; Spencer-Smith, M M; Perrig, W J; Schroth, G; Steinlin, M; Everts, R

    2014-07-01

    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks, such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school-aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7-12 years) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological assessment. While preterm children and controls showed equal working memory performance, preterm children showed less involvement of the right middle frontal gyrus, but higher fMRI activation in superior frontal regions than controls. The younger and low-performing preterm children presented an atypical working memory network whereas the older high-performing preterm children recruited a working memory network similar to the controls. Results suggest that younger and low-performing preterm children show signs of less neural efficiency in frontal brain areas. With increasing age and performance, compensational mechanisms seem to occur, so that in preterm children, the typical visuospatial working memory network is established by the age of 12 years.

  8. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine.

    PubMed

    Morris, Ken A; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G; Gold, Paul E

    2010-12-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in 2-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and glucose were about equally effective in enhancing memory and in prolonging post-training release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus. However, glucose was more effective than epinephrine in enhancing both memory and acetylcholine release in aged rats. These results suggest that an uncoupling between circulating epinephrine and glucose levels in old rats may lead to an age-related reduction in the provision of glucose to the brain during training. This in turn may contribute to age-related changes in memory and neural plasticity.

  9. Modulation of a Fronto-Parietal Network in Event-Based Prospective Memory: An rTMS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiacchi, P. S.; Cona, G.; Schiff, S.; Basso, D.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) is a multi-component process that requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue, while being actively engaged in an ongoing task. Some neuroimaging studies have suggested that both prefrontal and parietal areas are involved in the maintenance and…

  10. Acute effects of nicotine administration during prospective memory, an event related fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Rusted, Jennifer; Ruest, Torsten; Gray, Marcus A

    2011-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that stimulating neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors modulates prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember and implement a prior intention. Here we used fMRI to explore the neuronal correlates of acute nicotinic (1mg) modulation during PM, employing a double blind, valence-matched placebo-controlled design, and a solely event-related analysis. Eight healthy adults completed on two occasions (1 week washout) a simple attentional task containing infrequent PM trials. PM activated bilateral parietal, prefrontal (BA10) and anterior cingulate, and deactivated genual cingulate and medial prefrontal regions. Further, acute nicotine administration decreased activity within a largely overlapping right parietal region. This data validates a purely event-related approach to exploring PM, and suggests procholinergic modulation of PM by parietal rather than BA10/frontal regions.

  11. Investigating the Cost to Ongoing Tasks Not Associated with Prospective Memory Task Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebekah E.; Loft, Shayne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between prospective memory (PM) and consciousness by examining cost to ongoing activities, with cost assumed to reflect a direction of conscious resources away from the ongoing task in service of the PM task. Ongoing task blocks in which the PM task was relevant or irrelevant were alternated to achieve three aims: determine if cost would persist in irrelevant blocks when relevant and irrelevant blocks were clearly demarcated and irrelevant stimuli were incompatible with the PM task; investigate if costs would be greatest at the start of irrelevant blocks; and determine whether costs would occur when the irrelevant block preceded any relevant blocks. Costs were found in irrelevant blocks and greater cost at the start of the irrelevant blocks suggest the cost may be due in part to participants making decisions about the engagement of conscious resources at transition points. PMID:24780347

  12. Age Differences in Depth of Retrieval: Memory for Foils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, L.L.; Shimizu, Y.; Velanova, K.; Rhodes, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Control over memory can be achieved in two ways: by constraining retrieval such that only sought after information comes to mind or, alternatively, by means of post-access monitoring. We used a memory-for-foils paradigm to gain evidence of differences in retrieval constraints. In this paradigm, participants studied words under deep or shallow…

  13. Modeling Age-Related Differences in Immediate Memory Using SIMPLE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Surprenant, Aimee M.; Neath, Ian; Brown, Gordon D. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the SIMPLE model (Scale Invariant Memory and Perceptual Learning), performance on memory tasks is determined by the locations of items in multidimensional space, and better performance is associated with having fewer close neighbors. Unlike most previous simulations with SIMPLE, the ones reported here used measured, rather than assumed,…

  14. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  15. Does Maternal Prenatal Stress Adversely Affect the Child's Learning and Memory at Age Six?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutteling, Barbara M.; de Weerth, Carolina; Zandbelt, Noortje; Mulder, Eduard J. H.; Visser, Gerard H. A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal maternal stress has been shown to affect postnatal development in animals and humans. In animals, the morphology and function of the offspring's hippocampus is negatively affected by prenatal maternal stress. The present study prospectively investigated the influence of prenatal maternal stress on learning and memory of 112 children (50…

  16. The Effect of Spatial Working Memory Deterioration on Strategic Visuomotor Learning across Aging

    PubMed Central

    Uresti-Cabrera, Luis A.; Diaz, Rosalinda; Vaca-Palomares, Israel; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of age-related cognitive changes in a visuomotor learning task that depends on strategic control and contrast it with the effect in a task principally depending on visuomotor recalibration. Methods. Participants performed a ball throwing task while donning either a reversing dove prism or a displacement wedge prism, which mainly depend on strategic control or visuomotor recalibration, respectively. Visuomotor performance was then analysed in relation to rule acquisition and reversal, recognition memory, visual memory, spatial planning, and spatial working memory with tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Results. The results confirmed previous works showing a detrimental effect of age on visuomotor learning. The analyses of the cognitive changes observed across age showed that both strategic control and visuomotor recalibration had significant negative correlations only with the number of errors in the spatial working memory task. However, when the effect of aging was controlled, the only significant correlation remaining was between the reversal adaptation magnitude and spatial working memory. Discussion. These results suggest that spatial working memory decline across aging could contribute to age-dependent deterioration in both visuomotor learning processes. However, spatial working memory integrity seems to affect strategic learning decline even after controlling for aging. PMID:26290623

  17. Toward an understanding of motivational influences on prospective memory using value-added intentions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gabriel I.; Rummel, Jan; Dummel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory (PM) cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased PM performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2) and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2) conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in PM was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention-induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing-task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational PM showed mixed results regarding whether PM improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, PM improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of PM. PMID:26042017

  18. Prospective memory performance in traumatic brain injury patients: a study of implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Mioni, Giovanna; Rendell, Peter G; Terrett, Gill; Stablum, Franca

    2015-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients often present with prospective memory (PM) dysfunction. Forgetting to complete tasks may result in a loss of independence, limited employment prospects and anxiety, therefore, it is important to develop programs to improve PM performance in TBI patients. A strategy which may improve PM performance is implementation intentions. It involves making explicit plans specifying when, where and how one will perform a task in the future. In the present study, a group of 36 TBI patients and a group of 34 controls performed Virtual Week using either implementation intentions or no strategy. The results showed that the PM performance of TBI patients was less accurate than controls, in particular when the PM cue was time-based. No effect of implementation intentions was observed for TBI patients, however, controls improved their PM performance when the task was time-based. The findings suggest that strategies to improve PM in this clinical group are likely to be more complex than those that benefit healthy adults and may involve targeting phases of the PM process other than, or in addition to, the intention formation phase.

  19. Adults’ reports of their earliest memories: Consistency in events, ages, and narrative characteristics over time

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Tasdemir-Ozdes, Aylin; Larkina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Earliest memories have been of interest since the late 1800s, when it was first noted that most adults do not have memories from the first years of life (so-called childhood amnesia). Several characteristics of adults’ earliest memories have been investigated, including emotional content, the perspective from which they are recalled, and vividness. The focus of the present research was a feature of early memories heretofore relatively neglected in the literature, namely, their consistency. Adults reported their earliest memories 2 to 4 times over a 4-year period. Reports of earliest memories were highly consistent in the events identified as the bases for earliest memories, the reported age at the time of the event, and in terms of qualities of the narrative descriptions. These findings imply stability in the boundary that marks the offset of childhood amnesia, as well as in the beginning of a continuous sense of self over time. PMID:24836979

  20. Prefrontal cortical GABAergic dysfunction contributes to age-related working memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, Cristina; Beas, B Sofia; McQuail, Joseph A; Gilbert, Ryan J; Frazier, Charles J; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L

    2014-03-05

    Working memory functions supported by the prefrontal cortex decline in normal aging. Disruption of corticolimbic GABAergic inhibitory circuits can impair working memory in young subjects; however, relatively little is known regarding how aging impacts prefrontal cortical GABAergic signaling and whether such changes contribute to cognitive deficits. The current study used a rat model to evaluate the effects of aging on expression of prefrontal GABAergic synaptic proteins in relation to working memory decline, and to test whether pharmacological manipulations of prefrontal GABAergic signaling can improve working memory abilities in aged subjects. Results indicate that in aged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), expression of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT was unchanged; however, there was a significant increase in expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67, and a significant decrease in the primary neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1 and in both subunits of the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Expression of VGAT, GAD67, and GAT-1 was not associated with working memory ability. In contrast, among aged rats, GABA(B)R expression was significantly and negatively associated with working memory performance, such that lower GABA(B)R expression predicted better working memory. Subsequent experiments showed that systemic administration of a GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP55845, dose-dependently enhanced working memory in aged rats. This enhancing effect of systemic CGP55845 was reproduced by direct intra-mPFC administration. Together, these data suggest that age-related dysregulation of GABAergic signaling in prefrontal cortex may play a causal role in impaired working memory and that targeting GABA(B)Rs may provide therapeutic benefit for age-related impairments in executive functions.

  1. Prefrontal Cortical GABAergic Dysfunction Contributes to Age-Related Working Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bañuelos, Cristina; Beas, B. Sofia; McQuail, Joseph A.; Gilbert, Ryan J.; Frazier, Charles J.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Working memory functions supported by the prefrontal cortex decline in normal aging. Disruption of corticolimbic GABAergic inhibitory circuits can impair working memory in young subjects; however, relatively little is known regarding how aging impacts prefrontal cortical GABAergic signaling and whether such changes contribute to cognitive deficits. The current study used a rat model to evaluate the effects of aging on expression of prefrontal GABAergic synaptic proteins in relation to working memory decline, and to test whether pharmacological manipulations of prefrontal GABAergic signaling can improve working memory abilities in aged subjects. Results indicate that in aged medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), expression of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT was unchanged; however, there was a significant increase in expression of the GABA synthesizing enzyme GAD67, and a significant decrease in the primary neuronal GABA transporter GAT-1 and in both subunits of the GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Expression of VGAT, GAD67, and GAT-1 was not associated with working memory ability. In contrast, among aged rats, GABA(B)R expression was significantly and negatively associated with working memory performance, such that lower GABA(B)R expression predicted better working memory. Subsequent experiments showed that systemic administration of a GABA(B)R antagonist, CGP55845, dose-dependently enhanced working memory in aged rats. This enhancing effect of systemic CGP55845 was reproduced by direct intra-mPFC administration. Together, these data suggest that age-related dysregulation of GABAergic signaling in prefrontal cortex may play a causal role in impaired working memory and that targeting GABA(B)Rs may provide therapeutic benefit for age-related impairments in executive functions. PMID:24599447

  2. Characterizing cognitive aging of spatial and contextual memory in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Thomas C.; DeFazio, R. A.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Episodic memory, especially memory for contextual or spatial information, is particularly vulnerable to age-related decline in humans and animal models of aging. The continuing improvement of virtual environment technology for testing humans signifies that widely used procedures employed in the animal literature for examining spatial memory could be developed for examining age-related cognitive decline in humans. The current review examines cross species considerations for implementing these tasks and translating findings across different levels of analysis. The specificity of brain systems as well as gaps in linking human and animal laboratory models is discussed. PMID:22988436

  3. The effect of aging on cognate function and development of immune memory

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Immunological memory is one of the central features of the immune system and can be described as the ability of the immune system to respond more efficiently to a second encounter with the same pathogen. The immune system is dramatically affected by age-related changes and it is becoming apparent that immune memory exhibits significant defects as a result of aging. Although immune memory generated during youth functions well into old age, that generated later in life functions poorly. Importantly, age-related defects in the cognate helper function of CD4+ T cells can potentially influence the development of both humoral and cell-mediated immune memory. These defects ultimately result in aged individuals who exhibit reduced responses to both infections and vaccinations. PMID:16054352

  4. Drosophila as a novel animal model for studying the genetics of age-related memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Saitoe, Minoru; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Tamura, Takuya; Ito, Naomi

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related memory impairment (AMI) is important not only from a scientific viewpoint but also for the development of therapeutics that may eventually lead to the development of drugs to combat memory loss. AMI has been generally considered to be an overall or nonspecific decay of memory processes that results from dysfunction of neural networks. However, behavioral genetics to test this hypothesis have not been performed previously, due, in part, to the long lifespan of animal models. Using Drosophila, the first extensive behavioral-genetic characterization of AMI has been carried out. In Drosophila, memory acquired after a single olfactory conditioning paradigm has three distinct phases: short-term memory (STM), middle-term memory (MTM), and longer-lasting anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM). Significantly, AMI results from the specific decay of only one memory component, amnesiac-dependent MTM, and not other components. Since amnesiac encodes peptides that enhance adenylyl cyclase activity, these studies suggest the importance of the cAMP signaling pathway in AMI in Drosophila, a finding consistent with several models of AMI in mammals. Although many advances have been made in the study of pathways involved in aging, much remains to be elucidated on how these pathways affect memory formation to cause AMI. Due to its short lifespan, powerful genetics, and well-characterized and conserved pathways involved in memory and lifespan, Drosophila will be a useful model system for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying this process.

  5. Attention and memory evaluation across the life span: heterogeneous effects of age and education.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Esther; Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy

    2006-05-01

    The developmental sequences of attention and memory were studied by utilizing normative data derived from the neuropsychological battery named NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY. A sample of 521 Spanish-speaking individuals, aged 6 to 85 years, participated in this study. In the adult sample, educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. Data from subtests measuring orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory were included. The factor structure of the analyzed battery is presented. The effects of age and education on this structure were analyzed. Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another. During childhood, the development of selective and sustained attention, attentional-working memory, and executive functions showed a fast improvement in performance. Development of verbal memory and place and person orientation showed a slower increment in scores. In the adult sample it was found that factors related to memory are sensitive to age, whereas those related to attention and executive functions are sensitive to education. The consideration of both the developmental sequence, as well as differential effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs.

  6. Age at earliest reported memory: associations with personality traits, behavioral health, and repression.

    PubMed

    Spirrison, C L; McCarley, N G

    2001-09-01

    The present study examined relationships between the age at earliest memory and the personality traits and behavioral health of 107 undergraduates. Participants answered questions on their earliest memory and completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and a medical history form. Analyses indicated that continuous scores on two MBTI scales (Sensing-Intuition and Judging-Perceiving) were inversely related to age at earliest memory as were participant's self-reported drug and alcohol problems, emotional and psychological symptoms, accident rates, physical symptoms, and satisfaction with health. Respondents who reported first memories at or after 7 years of age (i.e., approximately 1 SD above the mean age at recalled memory) were classified as repressors. Repressors scored in the Sensing and Judging directions on the MBTI and reported significantly fewer emotional symptoms, accidents, psychological symptoms, and less health satisfaction than nonrepressors. Results are consistent with the age at earliest memory and repression literature and support the use of earliest memory age as an index of repression.

  7. Grammaticality Judgments in Children: The Role of Age, Working Memory and Phonological Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Janet L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the role of age, working memory span and phonological ability in the mastery of ten different grammatical constructions. Six- through eleven-year-old children (n = 68) and adults (n = 19) performed a grammaticality judgment task as well as tests of working memory capacity and receptive phonological ability. Children showed…

  8. Working Memory Tasks Differ in Factor Structure across Age Cohorts: Implications for Dedifferentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Logie, Robert H.; Brockmole, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers interested in working memory have debated whether it should be considered a single latent cognitive ability or a set of essentially independent latent abilities distinguished by domain-specific memory and/or processing resources. Simultaneously, researchers interested in cognitive aging have established that there are substantial…

  9. Attention to Item-Specific Processing Eliminates Age Effects in False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, A.K.; Sommers, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    One possible reason for age differences in false memory susceptibility is that older adults may not encode contextual information that allows them to distinguish between presented and non-presented but internally activated items. The present research examines whether older adults can reduce false memories when given external contextual support. In…

  10. Mechanisms of Age-Related Decline in Memory Search across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis).…

  11. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  12. Public Education about Memory and Aging: Objective Findings and Subjective Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Martine E. M.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Willems, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    Public education about memory was evaluated with a controlled intervention trial. Participants in group 1 (n = 273) attended a symposium covering memory-related topics and received a magazine with identical information. Group 2 (n = 141) only received the magazine. Participants were nonprofessionals and professionals aged between 29 and 88.…

  13. Effects of Aging on True and False Memory Formation: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Compared to young, older adults are more likely to forget events that occurred in the past as well as remember events that never happened. Previous studies examining false memories and aging have shown that these memories are more likely to occur when new items share perceptual or semantic similarities with those presented during encoding. It is…

  14. Aging and the Effects of Exploratory Behavior on Spatial Memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, Kaitlin M; Dopkins, Stephen; Philbeck, John W

    2016-03-01

    The present research examined the effect of encoding from multiple viewpoints on scene recall in a group of younger (18-22 years) and older (65-80 years) adults. Participants completed a visual search task, during which they were given the opportunity to examine a room using two sets of windows that partitioned the room differently. Their choice of window set was recorded, to determine whether an association between these choices and spatial memory performance existed. Subsequently, participants were tested for spatial memory of the domain in which the search task was completed. Relative to younger adults, older adults demonstrated an increased tendency to use a single set of windows as well as decreased spatial memory for the domain. Window-set usage was associated with spatial memory, such that older adults who relied more heavily on a single set of windows also had better performance on the spatial memory task. These findings suggest that, in older adults, moderation in exploratory behavior may have a positive effect on memory for the domain of exploration.

  15. Effects of age on a real-world What-Where-When memory task

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Adèle; Bhoopathy, Raja Meenakshi; Read, Jenny C. A.; Gallagher, Peter; Smulders, Tom V.

    2015-01-01

    Many cognitive abilities decline with aging, making it difficult to detect pathological changes against a background of natural changes in cognition. Most of the tests to assess cognitive decline are artificial tasks that have little resemblance to the problems faced by people in everyday life. This means both that people may have little practice doing such tasks (potentially contributing to the decline in performance) and that the tasks may not be good predictors of real-world cognitive problems. In this study, we test the performance of young people (18–25 years) and older people (60+-year-olds) on a novel, more ecologically valid test of episodic memory: the real-world What-Where-When (WWW) memory test. We also compare them on a battery of other cognitive tests, including working memory, psychomotor speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Older people show the expected age-related declines on the test battery. In the WWW memory task, older people were more likely to fail to remember any WWW combination than younger people were, although they did not significantly differ in their overall WWW score due to some older people performing as well as or better than most younger people. WWW memory performance was significantly predicted by other measures of episodic memory, such as the single-trial learning and long-term retention in the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning task and Combined Object Location Memory in the Object Relocation task. Self-reported memory complaints also predicted performance on the WWW task. These findings confirm that our real-world WWW memory task is a valid measure of episodic memory, with high ecological validity, which may be useful as a predictor of everyday memory abilities. The task will require a bit more development to improve its sensitivity to cognitive declines in aging and to potentially distinguish between mentally healthy older adults and those with early signs of cognitive pathologies. PMID:26042030

  16. Relative Age Effects in Dutch Adolescents: Concurrent and Prospective Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jeronimus, Bertus F.; Stavrakakis, Nikolaos; Veenstra, René; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2015-01-01

    The literature on relative age position effects is rather inconsistent. In this study we examined intra-classroom age position (or relative age) effects on Dutch adolescents’ school progress and performance (as rated by teachers), physical development, temperamental development (fear and frustration), and depressive symptoms, all adjusted for age at the time of measurement. Data were derived from three waves of Tracking Adolescents' Individuals Lives Survey (TRAILS) of 2230 Dutch adolescents (baseline mean age 11.1, SD = 0.6, 51% girls). Albeit relative age predicted school progress (grade retention ORs = 0.83 for each month, skipped grade OR = 1.47, both p<.001), our key observation is the absence of substantial developmental differences as a result of relative age position in Dutch adolescents with a normative school trajectory, in contrast to most literature. For adolescents who had repeated a grade inverse relative age effects were observed, in terms of physical development and school performance, as well as on depressive symptoms, favoring the relatively young. Cross-cultural differences in relative age effect may be partly explained by the decision threshold for grade retention. PMID:26076384

  17. The impact of cognitive control on children's goal monitoring in a time-based prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Mahy, Caitlin E V; Voigt, Babett; Ballhausen, Nicola; Schnitzspahn, Katharina; Ellis, Judi; Kliegel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether developmental changes in cognitive control may underlie improvements of time-based prospective memory. Five-, 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds (N = 166) completed a driving simulation task (ongoing task) in which they had to refuel their vehicle at specific points in time (PM task). The availability of cognitive control resources was experimentally manipulated by imposing a secondary task that required divided attention. Children completed the driving simulation task both in a full-attention condition and a divided-attention condition where they had to carry out a secondary task. Results revealed that older children performed better than younger children on the ongoing task and PM task. Children performed worse on the ongoing and PM tasks in the divided-attention condition compared to the full-attention condition. With respect to time monitoring in the final interval prior to the PM target, divided attention interacted with age such that older children's time monitoring was more negatively affected by the secondary task compared to younger children. Results are discussed in terms of developmental shifts from reactive to proactive monitoring strategies.

  18. Cognitive and neural plasticity in older adults’ prospective memory following training with the Virtual Week computer game

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nathan S.; Rendell, Peter G.; Hering, Alexandra; Kliegel, Matthias; Bidelman, Gavin M.; Craik, Fergus I. M.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) – the ability to remember and successfully execute our intentions and planned activities – is critical for functional independence and declines with age, yet few studies have attempted to train PM in older adults. We developed a PM training program using the Virtual Week computer game. Trained participants played the game in 12, 1-h sessions over 1 month. Measures of neuropsychological functions, lab-based PM, event-related potentials (ERPs) during performance on a lab-based PM task, instrumental activities of daily living, and real-world PM were assessed before and after training. Performance was compared to both no-contact and active (music training) control groups. PM on the Virtual Week game dramatically improved following training relative to controls, suggesting PM plasticity is preserved in older adults. Relative to control participants, training did not produce reliable transfer to laboratory-based tasks, but was associated with a reduction of an ERP component (sustained negativity over occipito-parietal cortex) associated with processing PM cues, indicative of more automatic PM retrieval. Most importantly, training produced far transfer to real-world outcomes including improvements in performance on real-world PM and activities of daily living. Real-world gains were not observed in either control group. Our findings demonstrate that short-term training with the Virtual Week game produces cognitive and neural plasticity that may result in real-world benefits to supporting functional independence in older adulthood. PMID:26578936

  19. Age Differences in Brain Activity Related to Unsuccessful Declarative Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Cheryl L.; St-Laurent, Marie; Burianová, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Although memory recall is known to be reduced with normal aging, little is known about the patterns of brain activity that accompany these recall failures. By assessing faulty memory, we can identify the brain regions engaged during retrieval attempts in the absence of successful memory and determine the impact of aging on this functional activity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine age differences in brain activity associated with memory failure in three memory retrieval tasks: autobiographical (AM), episodic (EM) and semantic (SM). Compared to successful memory retrieval, both age groups showed more activity when they failed to recall a memory in regions consistent with the salience network (SLN), a brain network also associated with non-memory errors. Both groups also showed strong functional coupling among SLN regions during incorrect trials and in intrinsic patterns of functional connectivity. In comparison to young adults, older adults demonstrated (1) less activity within the SLN during unsuccessful AM trials; (2) weaker intrinsic functional connectivity between SLN nodes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (3) less differentiation of SLN functional connectivity during incorrect trials across memory conditions. These results suggest that the SLN is engaged during recall failures, as it is for non-memory errors, which may be because errors in general have particular salience for adapting behavior. In older adults, the dedifferentiation of functional connectivity within the SLN across memory conditions and the reduction of functional coupling between it and prefrontal cortex may indicate poorer internetwork communication and less flexible use of cognitive control processes, either while retrieval is attempted or when monitoring takes place after retrieval has failed. PMID:25541365

  20. Episodic memory in normal aging and Alzheimer disease: Insights from imaging and behavioral studies.

    PubMed

    Tromp, D; Dufour, A; Lithfous, S; Pebayle, T; Després, O

    2015-11-01

    Age-related cognitive changes often include difficulties in retrieving memories, particularly those that rely on personal experiences within their temporal and spatial contexts (i.e., episodic memories). This decline may vary depending on the studied phase (i.e., encoding, storage or retrieval), according to inter-individual differences, and whether we are talking about normal or pathological (e.g., Alzheimer disease; AD) aging. Such cognitive changes are associated with different structural and functional alterations in the human neural network that underpins episodic memory. The prefrontal cortex is the first structure to be affected by age, followed by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), the parietal cortex and the cerebellum. In AD, however, the modifications occur mainly in the MTL (hippocampus and adjacent structures) before spreading to the neocortex. In this review, we will present results that attempt to characterize normal and pathological cognitive aging at multiple levels by integrating structural, behavioral, inter-individual and neuroimaging measures of episodic memory.

  1. Age and forgetfulness: confidence in ability and attribution for memory failures.

    PubMed

    Erber, J T; Prager, I G; Williams, M; Caiola, M A

    1996-06-01

    Perceivers read a script of a forgetful young, middle-aged, or older male or female target being interviewed for a volunteer position. Afterward perceivers rated their opinion of the target's memory, confidence in the target's capability of performing tasks, and attributions for the target's memory failures. Perceivers were more confident and attributed failures more to lack of effort and attention when targets experienced episodic than semantic memory failures. Perceivers' memory opinion was less negative for older than for young and middle-aged targets, but their confidence ratings were equivalent across target age groups. Perceivers used an age-based double standard in their attribution ratings. However, double-standard evidence was not as strong as in prior studies using less evaluative contexts.

  2. Theories of Memory and Aging: A Look at the Past and a Glimpse of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Festini, Sara B.

    2017-01-01

    The present article reviews theories of memory and aging over the past 50 years. Particularly notable is a progression from early single-mechanism perspectives to complex multifactorial models proposed to account for commonly observed age deficits in memory function. The seminal mechanistic theories of processing speed, limited resources, and inhibitory deficits are discussed and viewed as especially important theories for understanding age-related memory decline. Additionally, advances in multivariate techniques including structural equation modeling provided new tools that led to the development of more complex multifactorial theories than existed earlier. The important role of neuroimaging is considered, along with the current prevalence of intervention studies. We close with predictions about new directions that future research on memory and aging will take. PMID:27257229

  3. Mother-child reminiscing and autobiographical memory specificity among preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; McDonnell, Christina G; Piper, Brianna; Thomas, Taylor E; Fanuele, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM) refers to difficulty in retrieving specific autobiographical memories. The tendency to be overgeneral in autobiographical memory recall is more commonly observed among individuals with emotional disorders compared with those without. Despite significant advances in theory and identification of mechanisms that underlie the etiology of OGM, there has been little integration between normative research on the development of autobiographical memory and research on OGM. Informed by a developmental psychopathology perspective and drawing on normative developmental research on the social construction of autobiographical memory, the current investigation examined whether the elaborative quantity and elaborative quality of maternal reminiscing are predictive of preschool-age children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, this investigation tested whether children's positive self-representations may explain these hypothesized associations. Participants consisted of 95 mother-child dyads. Children's ages ranged between 3.5 and 6 years, and the sample was predominantly low income and of minority race/ethnicity. Dyads participated in a joint reminiscing task about 4 past events, and children participated in assessments of autobiographical memory specificity and self-representations. Results indicated that the elaborative quality, defined by maternal-sensitive guidance and emotional narrative coherence, but not the elaborative quantity, of maternal reminiscing style was significantly associated with children's autobiographical memory specificity. Additionally, there was support for an indirect pathway between maternal reminiscing quality and child memory specificity through children's positive self-representations. Directions for future research are discussed, and potential clinical implications are addressed.

  4. Spinal alignment evolution with age: A prospective gait analysis study

    PubMed Central

    Pesenti, Sébastien; Blondel, Benjamin; Peltier, Emilie; Viehweger, Elke; Pomero, Vincent; Authier, Guillaume; Fuentes, Stéphane; Jouve, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    AIM To describe, using gait analysis, the development of spinal motion in the growing child. METHODS Thirty-six healthy children aged from 3 to 16 years old were included in this study for a gait analysis (9 m-walk). Various kinematic parameters were recorded and analyzed such as thoracic angle (TA), lumbar angle (LA) and sagittal vertical axis (SVA). The kinetic parameters were the net reaction moments (N.m/kg) at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junctions. RESULTS TA and LA curves were not statistically correlated to the age (respectively, P = 0.32 and P = 0.41). SVA increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). Moments in sagittal plane at the lumbosacral junction were statistically correlated to the age (P = 0.003), underlining the fact that sagittal mechanical constraints at the lumbosacral junction increase with age. Moments in transversal plane at the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral junctions were statistically correlated to the age (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.0006), revealing that transversal mechanical constraints decrease with age. CONCLUSION The kinetic analysis showed that during growth, a decrease of torsional constraint occurs while an increase of sagittal constraint is observed. These changes in spine biomechanics are related to the crucial role of the trunk for bipedalism acquisition, allowing stabilization despite lower limbs immaturity. With the acquisition of mature gait, the spine will mainly undergo constraints in the sagittal plane. PMID:28361018

  5. [Will memory be lost with menopause--can an ageing woman be protected from memory disorder?].

    PubMed

    Remes, Anne; Tanila, Heikki; Hallikainen, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Approximately two out of three persons affected with Alzheimer's disease are women. Estrogen is known to have positive effects on the levels of brain-derived mediators and circulation. Along with menopause, decreasing female sex hormone levels have been assumed to promote the development of memory disorders. It is possible that timing of the start of hormone replacement therapy exactly to the menopause could provide the best benefit in respect of memory and information processing. Prevention and treatment of risk factors of cardiovascular diseases along with regular exercise and a healthy diet are more important than hormone therapy in the prevention of memory disorders.

  6. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease.

  7. Effects of age, dysphoria, and emotion-focusing on autobiographical memory specificity in children.

    PubMed

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Dalgleish, Tim; Drummond, Lyndsey E; Dritschel, Barbara; Astell, Arlene

    2006-04-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is strongly associated with depression in adults and appears to reflect a stable cognitive bias. However, it is not known whether this bias exists in children or what factors contribute to its development. We examined the roles of age, dysphoria, and a new variable, emotion-focusing (EF), on the production of specific autobiographical memory (AM) in children, using the standard Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams & Broadbent, 1986 ). Results show that older children are more specific than younger children, irrespective of cue valence. Dysphoria was linked to less specific retrieval of positive memories in children. A three-way interaction between age, valence, and dysphoria was also found, such that older dysphoric children demonstrated a difficulty in retrieving specific negative memories. In addition, emotion-focusing was associated with specific AM recall, especially to negative cues. Results are discussed with reference to the development of depressogenic biases.

  8. Effects of aging and divided attention on memory for items and their contexts.

    PubMed

    Craik, Fergus I M; Luo, Lin; Sakuta, Yuiko

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly found that memory for context declines disproportionately with aging, arguably due to a general age-related deficit in associative memory processes. One possible mechanism for such deficits is an age-related reduction in available processing resources. In two experiments we compared the effects of aging to the effects of division of attention in younger adults on memory for items and context. Using a technique proposed by Craik (1989), linear functions relating memory performance for items and their contexts were derived for a Young Full Attention group, a Young Divided Attention group, and an Older Adult group. Results suggested that the Old group showed an additional deficit in associative memory that was not mimicked by divided attention. It is speculated that both divided attention and aging are associated with a loss of available processing resources that may reflect inefficient frontal lobe functioning, whereas the additional age-related decrement in associative memory may reflect inefficient processing in medial-temporal regions.

  9. Functional Brain Activity within the Medial and Lateral Portion of BA10 during a Prospective Memory Task

    PubMed Central

    Barban, Francesco; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Macaluso, Emiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Costa, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this study we tested the gateway hypothesis of Broadmann area 10 (BA10). With a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol we manipulated the saliency–stimulus-oriented (SO) attending– and the memory load – stimulus-independent (SI) attending–during a prospective memory (PM) task. We found a significant main effect of the SO manipulation within the medial BA10 and a significant interaction between SI attending and PM task within the left lateral BA10. Our results give experimental support to the gateway hypothesis. PMID:22713428

  10. Modifying memory for a museum tour in older adults: Reactivation-related updating that enhances and distorts memory is reduced in ageing.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Montgomery, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-01-01

    Memory reactivation, the activation of a latent memory trace when we are reminded of a past experience, strengthens memory but can also contribute to distortions if new information present during reactivation is integrated with existing memory. In a previous study in young adults we found that the quality of memory reactivation, manipulated using the principle of encoding specificity and indexed by recollection ratings, modulated subsequent true and false memories for events experienced during a museum tour. Here in this study, we examined age-related changes in the quality of memory reactivation on subsequent memory. Memories of museum stops in young and older adults were reactivated and then immediately followed by the presentation of a novel lure photo from an alternate tour version (i.e., reactivation plus new information). There was an increase in subsequent true memories for reactivated targets and for subsequent false memories for lures that followed reactivated targets, when compared to baseline target and lure photos. However, the influence of reactivation on subsequent memories was reduced in older adults. These data reveal that ageing alters reactivation-related updating processes that allow memories to be strengthened and updated with new information, consequently reducing memory distortions in older adults compared to young adults.

  11. Effects of age and environmental support for rehearsal on visuospatial working memory.

    PubMed

    Lilienthal, Lindsey; Hale, Sandra; Myerson, Joel

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated whether older adults' visuospatial working memory shows effects of environmental support for rehearsal similar to those observed in young adults (Lilienthal, Hale, & Myerson, 2014). When the duration of interitem intervals was 4 s and participants had sufficient time to rehearse, location memory spans were larger in both age groups when environmental support was present than when support was absent. Critically, however, the age-related difference in memory was actually larger when support was provided, suggesting that young and older adults may differ in their rehearsal of to-be-remembered locations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  13. Event-based prospective memory deficits in individuals with high depressive symptomatology: problems controlling attentional resources?

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi Ryan; Loft, Shayne; Weinborn, Michael; Maybery, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    Depression has been found to be related to neurocognitive deficits in areas important to successful prospective memory (PM) performance, including executive function, attention, and retrospective memory. However, research specific to depression and PM has produced a mixed pattern of results. The current study further examined the task conditions in which event-based PM deficits may emerge in individuals with high depressive symptomatology (HDS) relative to individuals with low depressive symptomatology (LDS) and the capacity of HDS individuals to allocate attentional resources to event-based PM tasks. Sixty-four participants (32 HDS, 32 LDS) were required to make a PM response when target words were presented during an ongoing lexical decision task. When the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, response time costs to the ongoing task, and PM accuracy, did not differ between the HDS and LDS groups. This finding is consistent with previous research demonstrating that event-based PM task accuracy is not always impaired by depression, even when the PM task is resource demanding. When the importance of the PM task was emphasized, costs to the ongoing task further increased for both groups, indicating an increased allocation of attentional resources to the PM task. Crucially, while a corresponding improvement in PM accuracy was observed in the LDS group when the importance of the PM task was emphasized, this was not true for the HDS group. The lack of improved PM accuracy in the HDS group compared with the LDS group despite evidence of increased cognitive resources allocated to PM tasks may have been due to inefficiency in the application of the allocated attention, a dimension likely related to executive function difficulties in depression. Qualitatively different resource allocation patterns may underlie PM monitoring in HDS versus LDS individuals.

  14. Age, psychological skills, and golf performance: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Hayslip, Bert; Petrie, Trent A

    2014-03-01

    This study explored the influence of age in understanding mental skills utilization in the context of performance at a major national golf competition. Participants, who ranged in age and in skill level, included 1150 male and 170 female amateur golfers competing in the Dupont World Amateur Golf Championship in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina. Measures targeted general mental skills used in competitions, golf-specific skills, and competitive trait anxiety. Hierarchical linear regression was utilized to explore the potential moderating role that chronological age may play in influencing the impact of psychological skills and anxiety on competitive tournament performance across the adult life span. Findings suggested no significant age-moderating effects and instead pointed to the importance of developing golf-specific psychological skills to enhance or maintain performance, irrespective of age. Although automaticity (performance feels "automatic") predicted performance for all golfers, commitment to the game and confidence in one's putting did so only for the men. These findings reinforce the age-irrelevant role of such skills in fostering the experience of peak performance in a competitive sport context and underscore the importance of interventions targeting older players to help maintain or facilitate the use of psychological skills in helping them manage their games.

  15. NGF improves spatial memory in aged rodents as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, W; Björklund, A; Chen, K; Gage, F H

    1991-07-01

    Aged rats were tested for place navigation in a circular water maze for spatial memory ability at 18 and 30 months of age; 45% of the 18-month-old rats displayed impaired place navigation performance relative to young control rats, while essentially all of the 30-month-old rats were impaired. The aged impaired rats were retested twice during NGF or vehicle infusion in the right lateral ventricle. In the 18-month-old group, NGF-infused rats showed improved retention of previously acquired place navigation performance and improved spatial acuity over the former platform site when the invisible platform was removed. NGF infusion also had a significant effect in the much more severely impaired 30-month-old rats: while the vehicle-infused aged rats showed a progressive decline in the performance between the first and second test weeks, the performance of the NGF-infused rats remained stable throughout the infusion period. The interpretation of these effects in the oldest animals, however, was confounded by a progressive decline in swim speed seen in the vehicle-infused animals. The 30-month-old vehicle-infused control rats showed a significant cell loss and cell shrinkage relative to the young control rats in the septal/diagonal band area, the striatum, and the nucleus basalis as assessed by NGF-receptor (NGFr) and ChAT double-label immunocytochemistry. A significant increase in the size but not in the number of cells was observed on the side of the NGF infusion in the 30-month-old NGF-infused rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Antecedents of Intact Cognition and Dementia at Age 90: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.; Okereke, Olivia I; Mukamal, Kenneth; Waldinger, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the possible antecedents of both dementia and sustained intact cognition at age 90 among men who underwent a prospective, multidisciplinary assessment from age 19 to 90, with little attrition. Methods A prospective 20-year reassessment of the 196 (out of 268) former Harvard College sophomores who survived until age 70. Begun in 1939 the Study gathered measurements of childhood environment, dominant personality traits, and objective mental and physical health over time, smoking in pack years, alcohol abuse and depression. Questionnaires were obtained every two years and physical exams every five years. Cognitive status was assessed at ages 80, 85 and 90. Results Despite addressing a wide variety health, behavioral and social factors over the lifespan, we observed few predictors with strong association with either intact cognition at age 90 (n = 40) or dementia (n = 44). Univariate analysis revealed seven suggestive predictors of intact cognition at age 90 or of dementia: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, high maternal education, young age of mother at subject’s birth, low BMI, good physical health at 60, and late retirement. Only the first 3 variables: warm childhood relationship with mother, exercise at age 60, and high maternal education remained significant with logistic regression. Conclusions In this prospective study of long-lived, highly educated men several well-known putative predictors of AD did not distinguish those who over the next 20 years developed dementia from those with unimpaired cognition until age 90. PMID:24733646

  17. Working memory in the aged Ts65Dn mouse, a model for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Katharine N; Wenger, Galen R

    2012-06-15

    The Ts65Dn mouse displays several phenotypic abnormalities that parallel characteristics found in Down syndrome. One important characteristic associated with Down syndrome is an increased incidence of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Since Alzheimer's disease is characterized largely by progressive memory loss, it is of interest to study working memory in the Ts65Dn mouse. Previous research in our lab using a titrating, delayed matching-to-position schedule of reinforcement has demonstrated that young, adult male Ts65Dn mice do not display a working memory deficit when compared to age-matched littermate controls. However, there have been no studies examining the working memory of these mice as they age. Due to the correlation between Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, and as part of a larger effort to further characterize the phenotype of the Ts65Dn mouse, the purpose of this study was to determine whether aged Ts65Dn mice possess a working memory deficit when compared to age-matched littermate controls. In order to study working memory, two groups of mice were trained under a titrating, delayed matching-to-position schedule of reinforcement. The first group was trained beginning at 3 months of age, and the second group began training at 15 months of age. Both groups were studied to 24 months of age. Initially, both groups of Ts65Dn mice performed at a lower level of accuracy than the control mice; however, this difference disappeared with further practice. The results from these lifespan studies indicate that the aged Ts65Dn mouse does not possess a working memory deficit when compared to age-matched controls.

  18. Age-related changes in working memory and the ability to ignore distraction.

    PubMed

    McNab, Fiona; Zeidman, Peter; Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-05-19

    A weakened ability to effectively resist distraction is a potential basis for reduced working memory capacity (WMC) associated with healthy aging. Exploiting data from 29,631 users of a smartphone game, we show that, as age increases, working memory (WM) performance is compromised more by distractors presented during WM maintenance than distractors presented during encoding. However, with increasing age, the ability to exclude distraction at encoding is a better predictor of WMC in the absence of distraction. A significantly greater contribution of distractor filtering at encoding represents a potential compensation for reduced WMC in older age.

  19. Memory Inhibition, Aging, and the Executive Deficit Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Almudena; Gomez-Ariza, Carlos J.; Roman, Patricia; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Although memory inhibition seems to underlie retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF), there is some controversy about the precise nature of this effect. Because normal RIF is observed in people with deficits in executive control (i.e., older adults), some have proposed that an automatic-like inhibitory process is responsible for the effect. On the…

  20. The Role of Aging in Intra-Item and Item-Context Binding Processes in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Dwight J.; Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Aging is accompanied by declines in both working memory and long-term episodic memory processes. Specifically, important age-related memory deficits are characterized by performance impairments exhibited by older relative to younger adults when binding distinct components into a single integrated representation, despite relatively intact memory…

  1. Stochastic cortical neurodynamics underlying the memory and cognitive changes in aging.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Edmund T; Deco, Gustavo

    2015-02-01

    The relatively random spiking times of individual neurons provide a source of noise in the brain. We show how this noise interacting with altered depth in the basins of attraction of networks involved in short-term memory, attention, and episodic memory provide an approach to understanding some of the cognitive changes in normal aging. The effects of the neurobiological changes in aging that are considered include reduced synaptic modification and maintenance during learning produced in part through reduced acetylcholine in normal aging, reduced dopamine which reduces NMDA-receptor mediated effects, reduced noradrenaline which increases cAMP and thus shunts excitatory synaptic inputs, and the effects of a reduction in acetylcholine in increasing spike frequency adaptation. Using integrate-and-fire simulations of an attractor network implementing memory recall and short-term memory, it is shown that all these changes associated with aging reduce the firing rates of the excitatory neurons, which in turn reduce the depth of the basins of attraction, resulting in a much decreased probability in maintaining in short-term memory what has been recalled from the attractor network. This stochastic dynamics approach opens up new ways to understand and potentially treat the effects of normal aging on memory and cognitive functions.

  2. Aging affects the interaction between attentional control and source memory: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2014-12-01

    Age-related source memory impairments may be due, at least in part, to deficits in executive processes mediated by the PFC at both study and test. Behavioral work suggests that providing environmental support at encoding, such as directing attention toward item-source associations, may improve source memory and reduce age-related deficits in the recruitment of these executive processes. The present fMRI study investigated the effects of directed attention and aging on source memory encoding and retrieval. At study, participants were shown pictures of objects. They were either asked to attend to the objects and their color (source) or to their size. At test, participants determined if objects were seen before, and if so, whether they were the same color as previously. Behavioral results showed that direction of attention improved source memory for both groups; however, age-related deficits persisted. fMRI results revealed that, across groups, direction of attention facilitated medial temporal lobe-mediated contextual binding processes during study and attenuated right PFC postretrieval monitoring effects at test. However, persistent age-related source memory deficits may be related to increased recruitment of medial anterior PFC during encoding, indicative of self-referential processing, as well as underrecruitment of lateral anterior PFC-mediated relational processes. Taken together, this study suggests that, even when supported, older adults may fail to selectively encode goal-relevant contextual details supporting source memory performance.

  3. Memory for names test provides a useful confrontational naming task for aging and continuum of dementia.

    PubMed

    Brouillette, Robert M; Martin, Corby K; Correa, John B; Davis, Allison B; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Foil, Heather C; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1-2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia.

  4. Effects of green tea and physical exercise on memory impairments associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Flôres, Maíra F; Martins, Alexandre; Schimidt, Helen L; Santos, Francielli W; Izquierdo, Iván; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Carpes, Felipe P

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the effects of physical exercise and green tea supplementation (associated or not) on biochemical and behavioral parameters in the time course of normal aging. Male Wistar rats aged 9 months were divided into groups: control, physical exercise (treadmill running), and supplemented with green tea while either performing physical exercise or not. A young control group was also studied. Physical exercise and green tea supplementation lasted 3 months. Afterwards, behavioral and biochemical tests were performed. Biochemical measurements revealed differences in antioxidant and oxidant responses in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum. Behavioral testing showed age-related memory impairments reversed by physical exercise. The association of green tea supplementation and physical exercise did not provide aged rats with additional improvements in memory or brain oxidative markers. Green tea per se significantly decreased reactive oxygen species levels and improved antioxidant defenses although it did not reverse memory deficits associated with normal aging.

  5. Memory for Names Test Provides a Useful Confrontational Naming Task for Aging and Continuum of Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Brouillette, Robert M.; Martin, Corby K.; Correa, John B.; Davis, Allison B.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Foil, Heather C.; Hymel, Aimee; Keller, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need to develop new neuropsychometric tools sensitive enough to detect subtle declines in cognitive performance during normal aging, as well as to distinguish between normal aging and the earliest stages of dementia. In this study, we report our findings regarding a new confrontational naming test, the Memory for Names test. We conducted evaluations utilizing a cohort of 234 elderly participants who comprised a spectrum of cognitive function ranging from normal for age (Uniform Data Set Overall Appraisal = 2, Clinical Dementia Rating = 0) to demented (Clinical Dementia Rating = 1–2, Mini Mental Status Examination Total Score <25). The Memory for Names test was found to measure the same cognitive construct as the Boston Naming Test. In conclusion, the Memory for Names test is a reliable and valid measure of age-related cognitive function that can discriminate between normal aging and mild cognitive impairment, and between mild cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21304184

  6. Age-related spatial working memory deficits in homing pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Coppola, Vincent J; Hough, Gerald; Bingman, Verner P

    2014-12-01

    The hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related degeneration that, like hippocampal lesions, is thought to lead to age-related decline in spatial memory and navigation. Lesions to the avian hippocampal formation (HF) also result in impaired spatial memory and navigation, but the relationship between aging and HF-dependent spatial cognition is unknown. To investigate possible age-related decline in avian spatial cognition, the current study investigated spatial working memory performance in older homing pigeons (10+ years of age). Pigeons completed a behavioral procedure nearly identical to the delayed spatial, win-shift procedure in a modified radial arm maze that has been previously used to study spatial working memory in rats and pigeons. The results revealed that the older pigeons required a greater number of choices to task completion and were less accurate with their first 4 choices as compared to younger pigeons (1-2 years of age). In addition, older pigeons were more likely to adopt a stereotyped sampling strategy, which explained in part their impaired performance. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an age-related impairment of HF-dependent, spatial memory in birds. Implications and future directions of the findings are discussed.

  7. Memory function and supportive technology

    PubMed Central

    Charness, Neil; Best, Ryan; Souders, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Episodic and working memory processes show pronounced age-related decline, with other memory processes such as semantic, procedural, and metamemory less affected. Older adults tend to complain the most about prospective and retrospective memory failures. We introduce a framework for deciding how to mitigate memory decline using augmentation and substitution and discuss techniques that change the user, through mnemonics training, and change the tool or environment, by providing environmental support. We provide examples of low-tech and high-tech memory supports and discuss constraints on the utility of high-tech systems including effectiveness of devices, attitudes toward memory aids, and reliability of systems. PMID:24379752

  8. Aging, context memory and binding: a comparison of "what, where and when" in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Kessels, Roy P C; Hobbel, Debbie; Postma, Albert

    2007-06-01

    There is evidence that age-related memory decline does not effect all types of episodic information to an equal extent, but that especially contextual memory and the integration of multiple features in memory deteriorate. The current study investigates contextual memory in a group of healthy young (N = 40) and older (N = 40) adults without dementia. All participants performed a computerized memory task assessing target memory (objects only), contextual memory (positions only) and memory for the combinations of two features (object, space, temporal order), that is, binding of target-context or context-context features. The results showed age-related decline on all task conditions. Furthermore, the performance on conditions requiring the binding of target and context features was affected to a greater extent in older adults compared to younger adults. These findings support the notion that a decline in contextual memory and binding might underlie poorer episodic memory in older participants.

  9. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  11. Age-dependent effects of the 5-hydroxytryptamine-2a-receptor polymorphism (His452Tyr) on human memory.

    PubMed

    Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Henke, Katharina; Aerni, Amanda; Coluccia, Daniel; Garcia, Esmeralda; Wollmer, Marc A; Huynh, Kim-Dung; Monsch, Andreas U; Stähelin, Hannes B; Hock, Christoph; Nitsch, Roger M; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2005-05-31

    A polymorphism (His452Tyr) of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2a receptor is associated with episodic memory in healthy young humans. Because 5-HT2a-receptor density decreases with increasing age, we tested whether the 5-HT2a receptor genotype effect on memory is influenced by age. We investigated the association of the His452Tyr genotype with memory performance in 622 healthy study participants aged from 18 to 90 years. In young to middle-aged participants, age significantly influenced genotype effects on episodic memory: the His452Tyr genotype exerted a significant influence on memory only in young participants. In the group of elderly cognitively healthy participants, the His452Tyr genotype did not affect memory performance. We conclude that age strongly modulates the effect of the 5-HT2a receptor polymorphism at residue 452 on episodic memory.

  12. Influence of Ongoing Task Difficulty and Motivation Level on Children's Prospective Memory in a Chinese Sample.

    PubMed

    Han, Pi-Guo; Han, Lei; Bian, Yu-Long; Tian, Yu; Xu, Min-Xia; Gao, Feng-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the process associated with the task of realizing delayed intentions in the future. Researchers distinguish two types of PM, namely time-based PM (tbPM) and event-based PM (ebPM). Experiment 1 investigated the developmental trajectory of 3- to 5-year-old preschool children's PM ability, and the occurrence of delayed retrieval (children execute the PM task in a larger window of opportunity) in both tbPM and ebPM tasks. Results revealed that the 5-year-old children outperformed the 3- and 4-year-old children in PM. Moreover, delayed retrieval was more likely to occur in tbPM task than in ebPM task. In Experiment 2, the influence of ongoing task (OT) difficulty on PM performance was investigated with a sample of 5-year-old children. Results revealed no significant effect of OT difficulty on PM performance. In Experiment 3, we improved children's motivation level to complete the OT, then explored the influence of OT difficulty on children's PM performance. Results revealed that the effect of OT difficulty on PM performance became significant after increasing the children's motivation to complete the OT. These results provide insights into the mechanism of attentional resource allocation in PM tasks and have crucial educational and social implications.

  13. Cognitive control processes underlying time-based prospective memory impairment in individuals with high depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanqi Ryan; Weinborn, Michael; Loft, Shayne; Maybery, Murray

    2014-06-01

    The current study compared time-based prospective memory (PM) for individuals with high depressive symptomatology (HDS) and low depressive symptomatology (LDS). We examined PM accuracy rate, clock-checking frequency, and decrements in ongoing task performance (i.e., costs to ongoing tasks) associated with an embedded time-based PM task. HDS participants demonstrated numerically lower but statistically comparable clock-checking frequency to LDS participants. However, their PM performance was significantly poorer than that of LDS participants. The pattern of observed costs to ongoing tasks and correlational analyses between ongoing task performance and PM accuracy showed that, relative to LDS participants, HDS participants were restricted in their allocation of attentional resources to support PM. We concluded that although HDS and LDS participants externally controlled their time-based PM task performance (i.e., clock-checking) similarly, the HDS participants lacked the cognitive initiative to allocate attentional resources to internally control PM task performance. Such internal control might reflect time-estimation processes, the resources required to maintain the PM task response intention, and/or the ability to coordinate the PM task response with ongoing task demands. To our knowledge, this is the first paper to have examined time-based PM strategies used by HDS individuals beyond clock-checking. The data suggest that interventions that encourage intermittent strategic reviews of PM goals may be beneficial for individuals with high depressive symptomatology.

  14. Slow down and remember to remember! A delay theory of prospective memory costs.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew; Loft, Shayne; Remington, Roger W

    2015-04-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires a deferred action to be performed when a target event is encountered in the future. Individuals are often slower to perform a concurrent ongoing task when they have PM task requirements relative to performing the ongoing task in isolation. Theories differ in their detailed interpretations of this PM cost, but all assume that the PM task shares limited-capacity resources with the ongoing task. In what was interpreted as support of this core assumption, diffusion model fits reported by Boywitt and Rummel (2012) and Horn, Bayen, and Smith (2011) indicated that PM demands reduced the rate of accumulation of evidence about ongoing task choices. We revaluate this support by fitting both the diffusion and linear ballistic accumulator (Brown & Heathcote, 2008) models to these same data sets and 2 new data sets better suited to model fitting. There was little effect of PM demands on evidence accumulation rates, but PM demands consistently increased the evidence required for ongoing task response selection (response thresholds). A further analysis of data reported by Lourenço, White, and Maylor (2013) found that participants differentially adjusted their response thresholds to slow responses associated with stimuli potentially containing PM targets. These findings are consistent with a delay theory account of costs, which contends that individuals slow ongoing task responses to allow more time for PM response selection to occur. Our results call for a fundamental reevaluation of current capacity-sharing theories of PM cost that until now have dominated the PM literature.

  15. The effect of emotional facial expressions on children's working memory: associations with age and behavior.

    PubMed

    Augusti, Else-Marie; Torheim, Hanna Karoline; Melinder, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Studies on adults have revealed a disadvantageous effect of negative emotional stimuli on executive functions (EF), and it is suggested that this effect is amplified in children. The present study's aim was to assess how emotional facial expressions affected working memory in 9- to 12-year-olds, using a working memory task with emotional facial expressions as stimuli. Additionally, we explored how degree of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in typically developing children was related to performance on the same task. Before employing the working memory task with emotional facial expressions as stimuli, an independent sample of 9- to 12-year-olds was asked to recognize the facial expressions intended to serve as stimuli for the working memory task and to rate the facial expressions on the degree to which the emotion was expressed and for arousal to obtain a baseline for how children during this age recognize and react to facial expressions. The first study revealed that children rated the facial expressions with similar intensity and arousal across age. When employing the working memory task with facial expressions, results revealed that negatively valenced expressions impaired working memory more than neutral and positively valenced expressions. The ability to successfully complete the working memory task increased between 9 to 12 years of age. Children's total problems were associated with poorer performance on the working memory task with facial expressions. Results on the effect of emotion on working memory are discussed in light of recent models and empirical findings on how emotional information might interact and interfere with cognitive processes such as working memory.

  16. Discounting input from older adults: the role of age salience on partner age effects in the social contagion of memory.

    PubMed

    Meade, Michelle L; McNabb, Jaimie C; Lindeman, Meghan I H; Smith, Jessi L

    2017-05-01

    Three experiments examined the impact of partner age on the magnitude of socially suggested false memories. Young participants recalled household scenes in collaboration with an implied young or older adult partner who intentionally recalled false items. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with only the age of their partner (low age-salience context); in Experiment 2, participants were presented with the age of their partner along with a photograph and biographical information about their partner (high age-salience context); in Experiment 3, age salience was varied within the same experiment. Across experiments, participants in both the low age-salience and high age-salience contexts incorporated their partners' misleading suggestions into their own subsequent recall and recognition reports, thus demonstrating social contagion with implied partners. Importantly, the effect of partner age differed across conditions. Participants in the high age-salience context were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult partners than from young adult partners, but participants in the low age-salience context were equally likely to incorporate suggestions from young and older adult partners. Participants discount the memory of older adult partners only when age is highly salient.

  17. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam.

    PubMed

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-10-18

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes.

  18. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J.; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-01-01

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes. PMID:27698141

  19. Aging, memory, and nonhierarchical energy landscape of spin jam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Anjana; Sato, Taku J.; Chen, Tianran; Chern, Gai-Wei; Yang, Junjie; Klich, Israel; Sinclair, Ryan; Zhou, Haidong; Lee, Seung-Hun

    2016-10-01

    The notion of complex energy landscape underpins the intriguing dynamical behaviors in many complex systems ranging from polymers, to brain activity, to social networks and glass transitions. The spin glass state found in dilute magnetic alloys has been an exceptionally convenient laboratory frame for studying complex dynamics resulting from a hierarchical energy landscape with rugged funnels. Here, we show, by a bulk susceptibility and Monte Carlo simulation study, that densely populated frustrated magnets in a spin jam state exhibit much weaker memory effects than spin glasses, and the characteristic properties can be reproduced by a nonhierarchical landscape with a wide and nearly flat but rough bottom. Our results illustrate that the memory effects can be used to probe different slow dynamics of glassy materials, hence opening a window to explore their distinct energy landscapes.

  20. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yau, Joyce L.W.

    2015-01-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

  1. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2015-04-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals.

  2. Anxiety symptoms, cerebral amyloid burden and memory decline in healthy older adults without dementia: 3-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Scott, J Cobb; Neumeister, Alexander; Lim, Yen Ying; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Harrington, Karra; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Szoeke, Cassandra; Martins, Ralph N; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Rowe, Christopher C; Maruff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Although beta-amyloid, anxiety and depression have linked cross-sectionally to reduced memory function in healthy older adults without dementia, prospective data evaluating these associations are lacking. Using data an observational cohort study of 178 healthy older adults without dementia followed for 3 years, we found that anxiety symptoms significantly moderated the relationship between beta-amyloid level and decline in verbal (Cohen's d = 0.65) and episodic (Cohen's d = 0.38) memory. Anxiety symptoms were additionally linked to greater decline in executive function, irrespective of beta-amyloid and other risk factors. These findings suggest that interventions to mitigate anxiety symptoms may help delay memory decline in otherwise healthy older adults with elevated beta-amyloid.

  3. Intrahippocampal glucocorticoids generated by 11β-HSD1 affect memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Yau, Joyce L W; Wheelan, Nicola; Noble, June; Walker, Brian R; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Ludwig, Mike; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) locally amplifies active glucocorticoids within specific tissues including in brain. In the hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 messenger RNA increases with aging. Here, we report significantly greater increases in intrahippocampal corticosterone (CORT) levels in aged wild-type (WT) mice during the acquisition and retrieval trials in a Y-maze than age-matched 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice, corresponding to impaired and intact spatial memory, respectively. Acute stress applied to young WT mice led to increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels similar to the effects of aging and impaired retrieval of spatial memory. 11β-HSD1(-/-) mice resisted the stress-induced memory impairment. Pharmacologic inhibition of 11β-HSD1 abolished increases in intrahippocampal CORT levels during the Y-maze trials and prevented spatial memory impairments in aged WT mice. These data provide the first in vivo evidence that dynamic increases in hippocampal 11β-HSD1 regenerated CORT levels during learning and retrieval play a key role in age- and stress-associated impairments of spatial memory.

  4. The effects of aging on ERP correlates of source memory retrieval for self-referential information.

    PubMed

    Dulas, Michael R; Newsome, Rachel N; Duarte, Audrey

    2011-03-04

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that normal aging negatively affects source memory accuracy for various kinds of associations. Neuroimaging evidence suggests that less efficient retrieval processing (temporally delayed and attenuated) may contribute to these impairments. Previous aging studies have not compared source memory accuracy and corresponding neural activity for different kinds of source details; namely, those that have been encoded via a more or less effective strategy. Thus, it is not yet known whether encoding source details in a self-referential manner, a strategy suggested to promote successful memory in the young and old, may enhance source memory accuracy and reduce the commonly observed age-related changes in neural activity associated with source memory retrieval. Here, we investigated these issues by using event-related potentials (ERPs) to measure the effects of aging on the neural correlates of successful source memory retrieval ("old-new effects") for objects encoded either self-referentially or self-externally. Behavioral results showed that both young and older adults demonstrated better source memory accuracy for objects encoded self-referentially. ERP results showed that old-new effects onsetted earlier for self-referentially encoded items in both groups and that age-related differences in the onset latency of these effects were reduced for self-referentially, compared to self-externally, encoded items. These results suggest that the implementation of an effective encoding strategy, like self-referential processing, may lead to more efficient retrieval, which in turn may improve source memory accuracy in both young and older adults.

  5. Lack of DREAM protein enhances learning and memory and slows brain aging.

    PubMed

    Fontán-Lozano, Angela; Romero-Granados, Rocío; del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Suárez-Pereira, Irene; Delgado-García, José María; Penninger, Josef M; Carrión, Angel Manuel

    2009-01-13

    Memory deficits in aging affect millions of people and are often disturbing to those concerned. Dissection of the molecular control of learning and memory is paramount to understand and possibly enhance cognitive functions. Old-age memory loss also has been recently linked to altered Ca(2+) homeostasis. We have previously identified DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator), a member of the neuronal Ca(2+) sensor superfamily of EF-hand proteins, with specific roles in different cell compartments. In the nucleus, DREAM is a Ca(2+)-dependent transcriptional repressor, binding to specific DNA signatures, or interacting with nucleoproteins regulating their transcriptional properties. Also, we and others have shown that dream mutant (dream(-/-)) mice exhibit marked analgesia. Here we report that dream(-/-) mice exhibit markedly enhanced learning and synaptic plasticity related to improved cognition. Mechanistically, DREAM functions as a negative regulator of the key memory factor CREB in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, and loss of DREAM facilitates CREB-dependent transcription during learning. Intriguingly, 18-month-old dream(-/-) mice display learning and memory capacities similar to young mice. Moreover, loss of DREAM protects from brain degeneration in aging. These data identify the Ca(2+)-regulated "pain gene" DREAM as a novel key regulator of memory and brain aging.

  6. Mechanisms of Age-Related Decline in Memory Search Across the Adult Life Span

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Thomas T.; Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.

    2013-01-01

    Three alternative mechanisms for age-related decline in memory search have been proposed, which result from either reduced processing speed (global slowing hypothesis), overpersistence on categories (cluster-switching hypothesis), or the inability to maintain focus on local cues related to a decline in working memory (cue-maintenance hypothesis). We investigated these 3 hypotheses by formally modeling the semantic recall patterns of 185 adults between 27 to 99 years of age in the animal fluency task (Thurstone, 1938). The results indicate that people switch between global frequency-based retrieval cues and local item-based retrieval cues to navigate their semantic memory. Contrary to the global slowing hypothesis that predicts no qualitative differences in dynamic search processes and the cluster-switching hypothesis that predicts reduced switching between retrieval cues, the results indicate that as people age, they tend to switch more often between local and global cues per item recalled, supporting the cue-maintenance hypothesis. Additional support for the cue-maintenance hypothesis is provided by a negative correlation between switching and digit span scores and between switching and total items recalled, which suggests that cognitive control may be involved in cue maintenance and the effective search of memory. Overall, the results are consistent with age-related decline in memory search being a consequence of reduced cognitive control, consistent with models suggesting that working memory is related to goal perseveration and the ability to inhibit distracting information. PMID:23586941

  7. Luteolin Inhibits Microglia and Alters Hippocampal-Dependent Spatial Working Memory in Aged Mice123

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Saebyeol; Dilger, Ryan N.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2010-01-01

    A dysregulated overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia may facilitate cognitive aging and neurodegeneration. Considerable evidence suggests the flavonoid luteolin has antiinflammatory effects, but its ability to inhibit microglia, reduce inflammatory mediators, and improve hippocampal-dependent learning and memory in aged mice is unknown. In initial studies, pretreatment of BV-2 microglia with luteolin inhibited the induction of inflammatory genes and the release of inflammatory mediators after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Supernatants from LPS-stimulated microglia caused discernible death in Neuro.2a cells. However, treating microglia with luteolin prior to LPS reduced neuronal cell death caused by conditioned supernatants, indicating luteolin was neuroprotective. In subsequent studies, adult (3–6 mo) and aged (22–24 mo) mice were fed control or luteolin (20 mg/d)-supplemented diet for 4 wk and spatial working memory was assessed as were several inflammatory markers in the hippocampus. Aged mice fed control diet exhibited deficits in spatial working memory and expression of inflammatory markers in the hippocampus indicative of increased microglial cell activity. Luteolin consumption improved spatial working memory and restored expression of inflammatory markers in the hippocampus compared with that of young adults. Luteolin did not affect either spatial working memory or inflammatory markers in young adults. Taken together, the current findings suggest dietary luteolin enhanced spatial working memory by mitigating microglial-associated inflammation in the hippocampus. Therefore, luteolin consumption may be beneficial in preventing or treating conditions involving increased microglial cell activity and inflammation. PMID:20685893

  8. Mood, motivation, and misinformation: aging and affective state influences on memory.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Emery, Lisa; Elliott, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    Normative age differences in memory have typically been attributed to declines in basic cognitive and cortical mechanisms. The present study examined the degree to which dominant everyday affect might also be associated with age-related memory errors using the misinformation paradigm. Younger and older adults viewed a positive and a negative event, and then were exposed to misinformation about each event. Older adults exhibited a higher likelihood than young adults of falsely identifying misinformation as having occurred in the events. Consistent with expectations, strength of the misinformation effect was positively associated with dominant mood, and controlling for mood eliminated any age effects. Also, motivation to engage in complex cognitive activity was negatively associated with susceptibility to misinformation, and susceptibility was stronger for negative than for positive events. We argue that motivational processes underlie all of the observed effects, and that such processes are useful in understanding age differences in memory performance.

  9. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  10. Adult Age Differences in Accessing and Retrieving Information from Long-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petros, Thomas V.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated adult age differences in accessing and retrieving information from long-term memory. Results showed that older adults (N=26) were slower than younger adults (N=35) at feature extraction, lexical access, and accessing category information. The age deficit was proportionally greater when retrieval of category information was required.…

  11. Effects of Aging on the Neural Correlates of Successful Item and Source Memory Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Hayes, Scott M.; Prince, Steven E.; Madden, David J.; Huettel, Scott A.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the neural basis of age-related source memory (SM) deficits, young and older adults were scanned with fMRI while encoding faces, scenes, and face-scene pairs. Successful encoding activity was identified by comparing encoding activity for subsequently remembered versus forgotten items or pairs. Age deficits in successful encoding…

  12. Cross-age effect in recognition performance and memory monitoring for faces.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Margaret S; Dodson, Chad S

    2013-03-01

    The cross-age effect refers to the finding of better memory for own- than other-age faces. We examined 3 issues about this effect: (1) Does it extend to the ability to monitor the likely accuracy of memory judgments for young and old faces? (2) Does it apply to source information that is associated with young and old faces? And (3) what is a likely mechanism underlying the cross-age effect? In Experiment 1, young and older adults viewed young and old faces appearing in different contexts. Young adults exhibited a cross-age effect in their recognition of faces and in their memory-monitoring performance for these faces. Older adults, by contrast, showed no age-of-face effects. Experiment 2 examined whether young adults' cross-age effect depends on or is independent of encoding a mixture of young and old faces. Young adults encoded either a mixture of young and old faces, a set of all young faces, or a set of all old faces. In the mixed-list condition we replicated our finding of young adults' superior memory for own-age faces; in the pure-list conditions, however, there were absolutely no differences in performance between young and old faces. The fact that the pure-list design abolishes the cross-age effect supports social-cognitive theories of this phenomenon.

  13. Attention to Global Gist Processing Eliminates Age Effects in False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Holliday, Robyn E.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2008-01-01

    Counterintuitive age increases have been reported for the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory illusion. The current theoretical explanation of this effect assumes that it is due to age increases in spontaneous interconnection of DRM list words' meanings. To test this explanation, 11-year-olds and young adults studied DRM lists under…

  14. Working Memory Deficits in ADHD: The Contribution of Age, Learning/Language Difficulties, and Task Parameters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowerby, Paula; Seal, Simon; Tripp, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To further define the nature of working memory (WM) impairments in children with combined-type ADHD. Method: A total of 40 Children with ADHD and an age and gender-matched control group (n = 40) completed two measures of visuo-spatial WM and two measures of verbal WM. The effects of age and learning/language difficulties on performance…

  15. A Diffusion Model Analysis of the Effects of Aging on Recognition Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger; Thapar, Anjali; McKoon, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aging on response time were examined in a recognition memory experiment with young, college age subjects and older, 60-75 year old subjects. The older subjects were slower than the young subjects but almost as accurate. Ratcliff's (1978) diffusion model was fit to the data and it provided a good account of response times, their…

  16. Age-dependent and age-independent human memory persistence is enhanced by delayed posttraining methylphenidate administration

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R.; Rossato, Janine I.; Lima, Ramón H.; Medina, Jorge H.; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-01-01

    Healthy human volunteers 16–82 years of age with at least 10 years of schooling were exposed to two different memory tasks. The first task involved incidental memory. The subjects were asked, as casually as possible: “Did you watch any movie on TV 2 days ago? And 7 days ago? If so, do you remember the title of the movie(s) and the name of the first two actors (actresses)?” Retention scores (maximum = 3: title, actor 1, and actor 2) were equally high (overall mean = 2.6, n = 61) in all age groups (16–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–60, and 61–82 years) for the day 2 scores. Scores for the movie seen 7 days before decreased significantly and progressively in the three older groups in relation to age, which indicates reduced persistence of this type of memory beginning at the age of 41–50 years and becoming more extensive over the years. The other task was a formal memory procedure. Subjects were asked to study a brief text with factual information on the 1954 World Soccer Cup for 10 min. They were then exposed to 10 questions on the text 2 days and, again, 7 days later. Retention scores declined between the two tests, but in this task, the decline of persistence occurred to a similar extent in all age groups, and thus was not dependent on age. Methylphenidate (10 mg p.o.) given 12 hours after acquisition markedly enhanced persistence of the two memory types. This suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in persistence in the late posttraining period. PMID:19050076

  17. Age-dependent and age-independent human memory persistence is enhanced by delayed posttraining methylphenidate administration.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Rossato, Janine I; Lima, Ramón H; Medina, Jorge H; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-12-09

    Healthy human volunteers 16-82 years of age with at least 10 years of schooling were exposed to two different memory tasks. The first task involved incidental memory. The subjects were asked, as casually as possible: "Did you watch any movie on TV 2 days ago? And 7 days ago? If so, do you remember the title of the movie(s) and the name of the first two actors (actresses)?" Retention scores (maximum = 3: title, actor 1, and actor 2) were equally high (overall mean = 2.6, n = 61) in all age groups (16-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-60, and 61-82 years) for the day 2 scores. Scores for the movie seen 7 days before decreased significantly and progressively in the three older groups in relation to age, which indicates reduced persistence of this type of memory beginning at the age of 41-50 years and becoming more extensive over the years. The other task was a formal memory procedure. Subjects were asked to study a brief text with factual information on the 1954 World Soccer Cup for 10 min. They were then exposed to 10 questions on the text 2 days and, again, 7 days later. Retention scores declined between the two tests, but in this task, the decline of persistence occurred to a similar extent in all age groups, and thus was not dependent on age. Methylphenidate (10 mg p.o.) given 12 hours after acquisition markedly enhanced persistence of the two memory types. This suggests an involvement of dopaminergic processes in persistence in the late posttraining period.

  18. Chronic Oral Estrogen Affects Memory and Neurochemistry in Middle-Aged Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Stephanie M.; Frick, Karyn M.

    2006-01-01

    This study tested whether chronic oral estrogen could improve memory and alter neural plasticity in the hippocampus and neocortex of middle-aged female mice. Ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice were administered 1,000, 1,500, or 2,500 nM 17β-estradiol in drinking water for 5 weeks prior to and during spatial and object memory testing. Synaptophysin, nerve growth factor (NGF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were then measured in hippocampus and neocortex. The medium dose impaired spatial reference memory in the radial-arm maze, whereas all doses improved object recognition. The high dose increased hippocampal synaptophysin and NGF levels, whereas the medium dose decreased these neocortical levels. The high dose decreased neocortical BDNF levels. These data suggest that chronic oral estrogen selectively affects memory and neural function in middle-aged female mice. PMID:15598143

  19. Executive and Theory-of-Mind Contributions to Event-Based Prospective Memory in Children: Exploring the Self-Projection Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Ruth M.; Driscoll, Timothy; Shum, David; Macaulay, Catrin E.

    2012-01-01

    In two studies, 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to name pictures of animals for the benefit of a watching hand puppet (the ongoing task) but to refrain from naming and to remove from view any pictures of dogs (the prospective memory [PM] task). Children also completed assessments of verbal ability, cognitive inhibition, working memory, and…

  20. Late Enrichment Maintains Accurate Recent and Remote Spatial Memory Only in Aged Rats That Were Unimpaired When Middle Aged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Fanny; Herbeaux, Karine; Aufrere, Noémie; Kelche, Christian; Mathis, Chantal; Barbelivien, Alexandra; Majchrzak, Monique

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of rodents to a stimulating environment has beneficial effects on some cognitive functions that are impaired during physiological aging, and especially spatial reference memory. The present study investigated whether environmental enrichment rescues these functions in already declining subjects and/or protects them from subsequent…

  1. Memory

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has to decide what is worth remembering. Memory is the process of storing and then remembering this information. There are different types of memory. Short-term memory stores information for a few ...

  2. False memory in aging: effects of emotional valence on word recognition accuracy.

    PubMed

    Piguet, Olivier; Connally, Emily; Krendl, Anne C; Huot, Jessica R; Corkin, Suzanne

    2008-06-01

    Memory is susceptible to distortions. Valence and increasing age are variables known to affect memory accuracy and may increase false alarm production. Interaction between these variables and their impact on false memory was investigated in 36 young (18-28 years) and 36 older (61-83 years) healthy adults. At study, participants viewed lists of neutral words orthographically related to negative, neutral, or positive critical lures (not presented). Memory for these words was subsequently tested with a remember-know procedure. At test, items included the words seen at study and their associated critical lures, as well as sets of orthographically related neutral words not seen at study and their associated unstudied lures. Positive valence was shown to have two opposite effects on older adults' discrimination of the lures: It improved correct rejection of unstudied lures but increased false memory for critical lures (i.e., lures associated with words studied previously). Thus, increased salience triggered by positive valence may disrupt memory accuracy in older adults when discriminating among similar events. These findings likely reflect a source memory deficit due to decreased efficiency in cognitive control processes with aging.

  3. Eliminating Age Differences in Children's and Adults' Suggestibility and Memory Conformity Effects.

    PubMed

    Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Brackmann, Nathalie; van Helvoort, Daniël H J

    2017-03-30

    We examined whether typical developmental trends in suggestion-induced false memories (i.e., age-related decrease) could be changed. Using theoretical principles from the spontaneous false memory field, we adapted 2 often-used false memory procedures: misinformation (Experiment 1) and memory conformity (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, 7- to 9-year-old children (n = 33) and adults (n = 39) received stories containing associatively related details. They then listened to misinformation in the form of short narratives preserving the meaning of the story. Children and adults were equally susceptible to the misinformation effect. In Experiment 2, younger (7- to 8-year-olds, n = 30) and older (11- to 12-year-olds, n = 30) children and adults (n = 30) viewed pictures containing associatively related details. They viewed these pictures in pairs. Although the pictures differed, participants believed they had viewed the same pictures. Participants had to report what they could recollect during collaborative and individual recall tests. Children and adults were equally susceptible to memory conformity effects. When correcting for response bias, adults' false memory scores were even higher than children's. Our results show that age trends in suggestion-induced false memories are not developmentally invariant. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Age-related Differences in Brain Activity during True and False Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Nancy A.; Kim, Hongkeun; Cabeza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Compared to young adults, older adults show not only a reduction in true memories but also an increase in false memories. We investigated the neural bases of these age effects using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a false memory task that resembles the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Young and older participants were scanned during a word recognition task that included studied words and new words that were strongly associated with studied words (critical lures). During correct recognition of studied words (true memory), older adults showed weaker activity than young adults in the hippocampus but stronger activity than young adults in the retrosplenial cortex. The hippocampal reduction is consistent with age-related deficits in recollection, whereas the retrosplenial increase suggests compensatory recruitment of alternative recollection-related regions. During incorrect recognition of critical lures (false memory), older adults displayed stronger activity than young adults in the left lateral temporal cortex, a region involved in semantic processing and semantic gist. Taken together, the results suggest that older adults’ deficits in true memories reflect a decline in recollection processes mediated by the hippocampus, whereas their increased tendency to have false memories reflects their reliance on semantic gist mediated by the lateral temporal cortex. PMID:18303982

  5. Individual differences in memory and executive function abilities during normal aging.

    PubMed

    Mejia, S; Pineda, D; Alvarez, L M; Ardila, A

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of some individual variables on memory and executive function test performance in normal aging individuals. Sixty subjects (21 males and 39 females), with a mean age of 69.66 (SD = 7.09) were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were selected. The following neuropsychological tests were administered: Associative Learning and Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) (Wechsler, 1945), Associative Memory with Semantic Enhancement Test (AMSET) (Pineda, Galeano and Giraldo, 1991), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WSCT) (Heaton, 1981), and Verbal Fluency (phonologic and semantic). The effects of demographic (age, education, and sex) and some individual variables (academic history, working history, physical activity, and leisure activities) were measured. Age and education effects on test scores were observed, but no sex effect was found. Working history and leisure activities established significant differences in some test scores. A multiple regression analysis was performed. Not only demographic variables, but also individual variables were associated with memory, and albeit at a lesser extend, with executive function test scores. It was emphasized that not only demographic factors, but also individual variables have a significant effect on cognitive changes observed during normal aging.

  6. Effect of Major Royal Jelly Proteins on Spatial Memory in Aged Rats: Metabolomics Analysis in Urine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Liu, Fang; Wan, Jian-Bo; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Shen, Li-Rong

    2017-04-10

    Royal jelly (RJ) produced by worker honeybees is the sole food for the queen bee throughout her life as well as the larvae of worker bees for the first 3 days after hatching. Supplementation of RJ in the diet has been shown to increase spatial memory in rodents. However, the key constituents in RJ responsible for improvement of cognitive function are unknown. Our objective was to determine if the major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) extracted from RJ can improve the spatial memory of aged rats. The spatial memory assay using the Morris water maze test was administered once to rats after a 14-week feeding. Metabolomics analysis based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was conducted to examine the differences in compounds from urine. Aged male rats fed MRJPs showed improved spatial memory up to 48.5% when compared to the control male aged rats fed distilled water. The metabolite pattern of the MRJPs-fed aged rats was regressed to that of the young rats. Compounds altered by MRJPs were mapped to nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism, cysteine taurine metabolism, and energy metabolism pathways. In summary, MRJPs may improve spatial memory and possess the potential for prevention of cognitive impairment via the cysteine and taurine metabolism and energy metabolism pathways in aged rats.

  7. Effects of age, gender, and stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Kunimi, Mitsunobu

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on age-related changes in visual short-term memory using visual stimuli that did not allow verbal encoding. Experiment 1 examined the effects of age and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. Experiment 2 examined the effects of age, gender, and the length of the stimulus presentation period on visual short-term memory function. The worst memory performance and the largest performance difference between the age groups were observed in the shortest stimulus presentation period conditions. The performance difference between the age groups became smaller as the stimulus presentation period became longer; however, it did not completely disappear. Although gender did not have a significant effect on d' regardless of the presentation period in the young group, a significant gender-based difference was observed for stimulus presentation periods of 500 ms and 1,000 ms in the older group. This study indicates that the decline in visual short-term memory observed in the older group is due to the interaction of several factors.

  8. Development of allocentric spatial memory abilities in children from 18 months to 5 years of age.

    PubMed

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabès, Adeline; Banta Lavenex, Pamela; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a fundamental component of episodic memory, in two versions of a real-world memory task requiring 18 month- to 5-year-old children to search for rewards hidden beneath cups distributed in an open-field arena. Whereas children 25-42-months-old were not capable of discriminating three reward locations among 18 possible locations in absence of local cues marking these locations, children older than 43 months found the reward locations reliably. These results support previous findings suggesting that allocentric spatial memory, if present, is only rudimentary in children under 3.5 years of age. However, when tested with only one reward location among four possible locations, children 25-39-months-old found the reward reliably in absence of local cues, whereas 18-23-month-olds did not. Our findings thus show that the ability to form a basic allocentric representation of the environment is present by 2 years of age, and its emergence coincides temporally with the offset of infantile amnesia. However, the ability of children to distinguish and remember closely related spatial locations improves from 2 to 3.5 years of age, a developmental period marked by persistent deficits in long-term episodic memory known as childhood amnesia. These findings support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits contributes to the emergence of specific memory processes during early childhood.

  9. Do negative views of aging influence memory and auditory performance through self-perceived abilities?

    PubMed

    Chasteen, Alison L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Dupuis, Kate; Smith, Sherri; Singh, Gurjit

    2015-12-01

    Memory and hearing are critical domains that interact during older adults' daily communication and social encounters. To develop a more comprehensive picture of how aging influences performance in these domains, the roles of social variables such as views of aging and self-perceived abilities need greater examination. The present study investigates the linkages between views of aging, self-perceived abilities, and performance within and across the domains of memory and hearing, connections that have never been examined together within the same sample of older adults. For both domains, 301 older adults completed measures of their views of aging, their self-perceived abilities and behavioral tests. Using structural equation modeling, we tested a hypothesized model in which older adults' negative views of aging predicted their performance in the domains of memory and hearing through negatively affecting their self-perceived abilities in those domains. Although this model achieved adequate fit, an alternative model in which hearing performance predicted self-perceived hearing also was supported. Both models indicate that hearing influences memory with respect to both behavioral and self-perception measures and that negative views of aging influence self-perceptions in both domains. These results highlight the importance of views of aging and self-perceptions of abilities within and across these domains.

  10. Tualang Honey Attenuates Noise Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system. PMID:27119005

  11. Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities.

    PubMed

    Eberlein, Jens; Davenport, Bennett; Nguyen, Tom; Victorino, Francisco; Haist, Kelsey; Jhun, Kevin; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Hunter, Lawrence; Kedl, Ross; Clambey, Eric T; Homann, Dirk

    2016-10-03

    Protective T cell memory is an acquired trait that is contingent upon the preservation of its constituents and therefore vulnerable to the potentially deleterious effects of organismal aging. Here, however, we have found that long-term T cell memory in a natural murine host-pathogen system can substantially improve over time. Comprehensive molecular, phenotypic, and functional profiling of aging antiviral CD8+ memory T cells (CD8+ TM) revealed a pervasive remodeling process that promotes the gradual acquisition of distinct molecular signatures, of increasingly homogeneous phenotypes, and of diversified functionalities that combine to confer a CD8+ TM-autonomous capacity for enhanced recall responses and immune protection. Notably, the process of CD8+ TM aging is characterized by a progressive harmonization of memory and naive T cell traits, is broadly amenable to experimental acceleration or retardation, and serves as a constitutional component for the "rebound model" of memory T cell maturation. By casting CD8+ TM populations within the temporal framework of their slowly evolving properties, this model establishes a simple ontogenetic perspective on the principal organization of CD8+ T cell memory that may directly inform the development of improved diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic modalities.

  12. Aging promotes acquisition of naive-like CD8+ memory T cell traits and enhanced functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Bennett; Nguyen, Tom; Victorino, Francisco; Haist, Kelsey; Jhun, Kevin; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Hunter, Lawrence; Kedl, Ross; Clambey, Eric T.

    2016-01-01

    Protective T cell memory is an acquired trait that is contingent upon the preservation of its constituents and therefore vulnerable to the potentially deleterious effects of organismal aging. Here, however, we have found that long-term T cell memory in a natural murine host-pathogen system can substantially improve over time. Comprehensive molecular, phenotypic, and functional profiling of aging antiviral CD8+ memory T cells (CD8+ TM) revealed a pervasive remodeling process that promotes the gradual acquisition of distinct molecular signatures, of increasingly homogeneous phenotypes, and of diversified functionalities that combine to confer a CD8+ TM–autonomous capacity for enhanced recall responses and immune protection. Notably, the process of CD8+ TM aging is characterized by a progressive harmonization of memory and naive T cell traits, is broadly amenable to experimental acceleration or retardation, and serves as a constitutional component for the “rebound model” of memory T cell maturation. By casting CD8+ TM populations within the temporal framework of their slowly evolving properties, this model establishes a simple ontogenetic perspective on the principal organization of CD8+ T cell memory that may directly inform the development of improved diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic modalities. PMID:27617858

  13. Source memory retrieval is affected by aging and prefrontal lesions: behavioral and ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Swick, Diane; Senkfor, Ava J; Van Petten, Cyma

    2006-08-30

    Age-related deficits in source memory have been attributed to alterations in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function, but little is known about the neural basis of such changes. The present study examined the time course of item and source memory retrieval by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) in patients with focal lesions in lateral PFC and in healthy older and young controls. Both normal aging and PFC lesions were associated with decrements in item and source memory. However, older controls showed a decrease in item hit rate with no change in false alarms, whereas patients showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, ERPs revealed notable differences between the groups. The early positive-going old/new effect was prominent in the young but reduced in patients and older adults, who did not differ from each other. In contrast, older adults displayed a prominent left frontal negativity (600-1200 ms) not observed in the young. This left frontal effect was substantially smaller and delayed in the patients. The current results provide novel insights into the effects of aging on source memory and the role of the lateral PFC in these processes. Older controls appeared to adopt alternate memory strategies and to recruit compensatory mechanisms in left PFC to support task performance. In contrast, the lateral frontal patients were unable to use these mechanisms, thus exhibiting difficulties with strategic memory and monitoring processes.

  14. Tualang Honey Attenuates Noise Stress-Induced Memory Deficits in Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Azman, Khairunnuur Fairuz; Zakaria, Rahimah; Abdul Aziz, Che Badariah; Othman, Zahiruddin

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and stress exposure may lead to memory impairment while oxidative stress is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms involved. This study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of Tualang honey supplementation on memory performance in aged rats exposed to noise stress. Tualang honey supplementation was given orally, 200 mg/kg body weight for 28 days. Rats in the stress group were subjected to loud noise, 100 dB(A), 4 hours daily for 14 days. All rats were subjected to novel object recognition test for evaluation of memory performance. It was observed that the rats subjected to noise stress exhibited significantly lower memory performance and higher oxidative stress as evident by elevated malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and reduction of antioxidant enzymes activities compared to the nonstressed rats. Tualang honey supplementation was able to improve memory performance, decrease oxidative stress levels, increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration, decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, and enhance neuronal proliferation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus. In conclusion, Tualang honey protects against memory decline due to stress exposure and/or ageing via enhancement of mPFC and hippocampal morphology possibly secondary to reduction in brain oxidative stress and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration and cholinergic system.

  15. APOE E4 Carriers show prospective memory enhancement under nicotine, and evidence for specialisation within medial BA10.

    PubMed

    Evans, Simon; Gray, Marcus A; Dowell, Nicholas G; Tabet, Naji; Tofts, Paul S; King, Sarah L; Rusted, Jennifer M

    2013-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the APOE ɛ4 allele (which confers an increased risk of developing dementia) might be associated with cognitive advantages earlier in life. Further, nicotine might selectively benefit ɛ4 carriers. We used fMRI to explore performance on a prospective memory (PM) task in young adults (age 18-30) with and without nicotine using a within-subjects design. Participants performed an ongoing task while retaining a PM instruction to respond to specific stimuli embedded in the task. Nicotine effects varied according to APOE status. Reaction times to the PM cue were improved under nicotine in ɛ4 carriers, but not in ɛ3 carriers. In an event-related analysis, extrastriate responses to PM trials were enhanced by nicotine only in ɛ4 carriers. These differences in early visual processing may contribute to the behavioral findings. Activity in medial BA10 (previously implicated in PM) differentiated ɛ4 from ɛ3 carriers. One BA10 subregion showed greater deactivation in ɛ4 carriers during PM trials. Activity in other BA10 subregions was modulated by PM reaction time, pointing to region-specific effects within medial BA10. In addition, activity in right hippocampal formation was only seen in ɛ4 carriers receiving nicotine. These results demonstrate that cognitive enhancement by nicotine can selectively benefit APOE ɛ4 carriers, and point to genotype-specific differences in neural activity during PM. In addition, these results show that the role of medial BA10 in PM likely involves varying contributions from functionally specific subregions.

  16. Prospective Predictors of Mental Health after the Development of Breast Cancer in Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigated the prospective predictors of mental health after breast cancer diagnosis among mid-aged Australian women (initially aged 45-50 years). Two waves of data collected 2 years apart from a longitudinal population-based survey of 12,177 women identified a group of 63 women who reported onset of BC between T1 (T1) and Time 2…

  17. Age-Specific Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Memory and the Older Brain

    PubMed Central

    Siette, Joyce; Westbrook, R. Frederick; Cotman, Carl; Sidhu, Kuldip; Zhu, Wanlin; Sachdev, Perminder; Valenzuela, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical exercise in early adulthood and mid-life improves cognitive function and enhances brain plasticity, but the effects of commencing exercise in late adulthood are not well-understood. Method We investigated the effects of voluntary exercise in the restoration of place recognition memory in aged rats and examined hippocampal changes of synaptic density and neurogenesis. Results We found a highly selective age-related deficit in place recognition memory that is stable across retest sessions and correlates strongly with loss of hippocampal synapses. Additionally, 12 weeks of voluntary running at 20 months of age removed the deficit in the hippocampally dependent place recognition memory. Voluntary running restored presynaptic density in the dentate gyrus and CA3 hippocampal subregions in aged rats to levels beyond those observed in younger animals, in which exercise had no functional or synaptic effects. By contrast, hippocampal neurogenesis, a possible memory-related mechanism, increased in both young and aged rats after physical exercise but was not linked with performance in the place recognition task. We used graph-based network analysis based on synaptic covariance patterns to characterize efficient intrahippocampal connectivity. This analysis revealed that voluntary running completely reverses the profound degradation of hippocampal network efficiency that accompanies sedentary aging. Furthermore, at an individual animal level, both overall hippocampal presynaptic density and subregional connectivity independently contribute to prediction of successful place recognition memory performance. Conclusions Our findings emphasize the unique synaptic effects of exercise on the aged brain and their specific relevance to a hippocampally based memory system for place recognition. PMID:22795967

  18. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2016-11-22

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75(NTR) receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  19. Episodic Memory and Event Construction in Aging and Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Kristoffer; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-01-01

    Construction of imaginative or fictitious events requires the flexible recombination of stored information into novel representations. How this process is accomplished is not understood fully. To address this problem, older adults (mean age = 74.2; Experiment 1) and younger patients with MTL lesions (mean age = 54.2; Experiment 2), both of whom…

  20. A Prospective Study of Autobiographical Memory and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between autobiographical memory and the onset and maintenance of distressing memories following cancer. In Study 1, participants recently diagnosed with head, neck, or lung cancer were assessed for acute stress disorder (ASD). Participants with ASD reported fewer specific memories than did…

  1. Why are you late? Investigating the role of time management in time-based prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Waldum, Emily R; McDaniel, Mark A

    2016-08-01

    Time-based prospective memory tasks (TBPM) are those that are to be performed at a specific future time. Contrary to typical laboratory TBPM tasks (e.g., hit the Z key every 5 min), many real-world TBPM tasks require more complex time-management processes. For instance, to attend an appointment on time, one must estimate the duration of the drive to the appointment and then use this estimate to create and execute a secondary TBPM intention (e.g., "I need to start driving by 1:30 to make my 2:00 appointment on time"). Future under- and overestimates of drive time can lead to inefficient TBPM performance with the former lending to missed appointments and the latter to long stints in the waiting room. Despite the common occurrence of complex TBPM tasks in everyday life, to date, no studies have investigated how components of time management, including time estimation, affect behavior in such complex TBPM tasks. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate timing biases in both older and younger adults and, further, to determine how such biases along with additional time management components including planning and plan fidelity influence complex TBPM performance. Results suggest for the first time that younger and older adults do not always utilize similar timing strategies, and as a result, can produce differential timing biases under the exact same environmental conditions. These timing biases, in turn, play a vital role in how efficiently both younger and older adults perform a later TBPM task that requires them to utilize their earlier time estimate. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. The impact of excessive alcohol use on prospective memory: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    Research into the cognitive consequences of chronic excessive alcohol use continues to grow. Despite this, little research has investigated what impact excessive alcohol use might have upon everyday remembering. An important aspect of everyday remembering is prospective memory (PM), which refers to the cognitive ability of remembering to carry out an intended action at some future point in time. The majority of the studies which have focused on what impact excessive alcohol use has upon PM in teenagers and young adults have consistently found that the excessive drinkers reported more lapses in their short term (e.g., forgetting to lock one's door upon leaving home) and long term (e.g., forgetting to post a letter on time) aspects of everyday PM, when compared to low-dose alcohol users or non-users. It is concluded from this review that PM deficits should be added to the growing list of neuropsychological sequelae associated with excessive alcohol use. The magnitude of the effects of alcohol on PM depends upon the amount of alcohol consumed and how long one has been drinking. Major limitations of these studies include their reliance upon the use of self-report measures of PM, the issue of polydrug use complicating the picture, the need to control for the co-morbidity of other conditions--such as depression, and better drug-screening methods. Therefore, further studies need to employ objective measures alongside self-report measures of PM, incorporate better controls for the use of other drugs and mood states, as well as extending the focus of the research to study what effect different patterns of alcohol use might have upon PM, e.g., what impact binge drinking has upon everyday PM. These findings have educational and applied relevance within the alcohol field.

  3. A Diffusion Model Analysis of Adult Age Differences in Episodic and Semantic Long-Term Memory Retrieval

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaniol, Julia; Madden, David J.; Voss, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated adult age differences in episodic and semantic long-term memory tasks, as a test of the hypothesis of specific age-related decline in context memory. Older adults were slower and exhibited lower episodic accuracy than younger adults. Fits of the diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978) revealed age-related increases in…

  4. Exploring age differences in visual working memory capacity: is there a contribution of memory for configuration?

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J Scott; Clark, Katherine M

    2015-07-01

    Recent research has shown marked developmental increases in the apparent capacity of working memory. This recent research is based largely on performance on tasks in which a visual array is to be retained briefly for comparison with a subsequent probe display. Here we examined a possible theoretical alternative (or supplement) to a developmental increase in working memory in which children could improve in the ability to combine items in an array to form a coherent configuration. Elementary school children and adults received, on each trial, an array of colored spots to be remembered. On some trials, we provided structure in the probe display to facilitate the formation of a mental representation in which a coherent configuration is encoded. This stimulus structure in the probe display helped younger children, and thus reduced the developmental trend, but only on trials in which the participants were held responsible for the locations of items in the array. We conclude that, in addition to the development of the ability to form precise spatial configurations from items, the evidence is consistent with the existence of an actual developmental increase in working memory capacity for objects in an array.

  5. Exploring Age Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Is There a Contribution of Memory for Configuration?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Clark, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown marked developmental increases in the apparent capacity of working memory. This recent research is based largely on performance on tasks in which a visual array is to be retained briefly for comparison with a subsequent probe display. Here we examine a possible theoretical alternative (or supplement) to a developmental increase in working memory, in which children could improve in the ability to combine items in an array to form a coherent configuration. Elementary school children and adults received, on each trial, an array of colored spots to be remembered. On some trials, we provided structure in the probe display to facilitate the formation of a mental representation in which a coherent configuration is encoded. This stimulus structure in the probe display helped younger children and thus reduced the developmental trend, but only on trials in which the participant was held responsible for the locations of items in the array. We conclude that, in addition to the development of the ability to form precise spatial configurations from items, the evidence is consistent with the existence of an actual developmental increase in working memory capacity for objects in an array. PMID:25841172

  6. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  7. The neural correlates of age effects on verbal-spatial binding in working memory.

    PubMed

    Meier, Timothy B; Nair, Veena A; Meyerand, Mary E; Birn, Rasmus M; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of age-related differences in the binding of verbal and spatial information utilizing event-related working memory tasks. Twenty-one right handed younger adults and twenty-one right handed older adults performed two versions of a dual task of verbal and spatial working memory. In the unbound dual task version letters and locations were presented simultaneously in separate locations, while in the bound dual task version each letter was paired with a specific location. In order to identify binding-specific differences, mixed-effects ANOVAs were run with the interaction of age and task as the effect of interest. Although older adults performed worse in the bound task than younger adults, there was no significant interaction between task and age on working memory performance. However, interactions of age and task were observed in brain activity analyses. Older adults did not display the greater unbound than bound task activity that younger adults did at the encoding phase in bilateral inferior parietal lobule, right putamen, and globus pallidus as well as at the maintenance phase in the cerebellum. We conclude that the binding of letters and locations in working memory is not as efficient in older adults as it is in younger adults, possibly due to the decline of cognitive control processes that are specific to working memory binding.

  8. Effects of age, acoustic challenge, and verbal working memory on recall of narrative speech

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Caitlin M.; Rogers, Chad S.; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Peelle, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background A common goal during speech comprehension is to remember what we have heard. Encoding speech into long-term memory frequently requires processes such as verbal working memory that may also be involved in processing degraded speech. Here we tested whether young and older adult listeners’ memory for short stories was worse when the stories were acoustically degraded, or whether the additional contextual support provided by a narrative would protect against these effects. Methods We tested 30 young adults (aged 18–28 years) and 30 older adults (aged 65–79 years) with good self-reported hearing. Participants heard short stories that were presented as normal (unprocessed) speech, or acoustically degraded using a noise vocoding algorithm with 24 or 16 channels. The degraded stories were still fully intelligible. Following each story, participants were asked to repeat the story in as much detail as possible. Recall was scored using a modified idea unit scoring approach, which included separately scoring hierarchical levels of narrative detail. Results Memory for acoustically degraded stories was significantly worse than for normal stories at some levels of narrative detail. Older adults’ memory for the stories was significantly worse overall, but there was no interaction between age and acoustic clarity or level of narrative detail. Verbal working memory (assessed by reading span) significantly correlated with recall accuracy for both young and older adults, whereas hearing ability (better ear pure-tone average) did not. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with a framework in which the additional cognitive demands caused by a degraded acoustic signal use resources that would otherwise be available for memory encoding for both young and older adults. Verbal working memory is a likely candidate for supporting both of these processes. PMID:26683044

  9. Activation of NO-cGMP Signaling Rescues Age-Related Memory Impairment in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Chihiro S.; Takahashi, Toshihumi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairment (AMI) is a common feature and a debilitating phenotype of brain aging in many animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying AMI are still largely unknown. The cricket Gryllus bimaculatus is a useful experimental animal for studying age-related changes in learning and memory capability; because the cricket has relatively short life-cycle and a high capability of olfactory learning and memory. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying memory formation in crickets have been examined in detail. In the present study, we trained male crickets of different ages by multiple-trial olfactory conditioning to determine whether AMI occurs in crickets. Crickets 3 weeks after the final molt (3-week-old crickets) exhibited levels of retention similar to those of 1-week-old crickets at 30 min or 2 h after training; however they showed significantly decreased levels of 1-day retention, indicating AMI in long-term memory (LTM) but not in anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) in olfactory learning of crickets. Furthermore, 3-week-old crickets injected with a nitric oxide (NO) donor, a cyclic GMP (cGMP) analog or a cyclic AMP (cAMP) analog into the hemolymph before conditioning exhibited a normal level of LTM, the same level as that in 1-week-old crickets. The rescue effect by NO donor or cGMP analog injection was absent when the crickets were injected after the conditioning. For the first time, an NO donor and a cGMP analog were found to antagonize the age-related impairment of LTM formation, suggesting that deterioration of NO synthase (NOS) or molecules upstream of NOS activation is involved in brain-aging processes. PMID:27616985

  10. Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin

    1983-01-01

    Discusses current research (including that involving amnesiacs and snails) into the nature of the memory process, differentiating between and providing examples of "fact" memory and "skill" memory. Suggests that three brain parts (thalamus, fornix, mammilary body) are involved in the memory process. (JN)

  11. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex stimulation enhances memory and hippocampal neurogenesis in the middle-aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Albert; Jain, Neeraj; Vyas, Ajai; Lim, Lee Wei

    2015-01-01

    Memory dysfunction is a key symptom of age-related dementia. Although recent studies have suggested positive effects of electrical stimulation for memory enhancement, its potential targets remain largely unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that spatially targeted deep brain stimulation of ventromedial prefrontal cortex enhanced memory functions in a middle-aged rat model. Our results show that acute stimulation enhanced the short-, but not the long-term memory in the novel-object recognition task. Interestingly, after chronic high-frequency stimulation, both the short- and long-term memories were robustly improved in the novel-object recognition test and Morris water-maze spatial task compared to sham. Our results also demonstrated that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation upregulated neurogenesis-associated genes along with enhanced hippocampal cell proliferation. Importantly, these memory behaviors were strongly correlated with the hippocampal neurogenesis. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic ventromedial prefrontal cortex high-frequency stimulation may serve as a novel effective therapeutic target for dementia-related disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04803.001 PMID:25768425

  12. Does virtual reality have a future for the study of episodic memory in aging?

    PubMed

    Abichou, Kouloud; La Corte, Valentina; Piolino, Pascale

    2017-03-01

    Episodic memory is the memory of personally lived events located in time and space, it shapes our identity and allows us to project ourselves into the past and the future. This form of memory is vulnerable to the effects of age and its alteration, hindering the autonomy of the subjects, can predict the evolution towards neurodegenerative disorders. Hence, a better understanding of this type of memory is a priority in the field of public health. Actually, traditional neuropsychological tools are often decontextualized, using simplistic situations that did not require the mobilization of all the characteristics of episodic memory, thus they just offer a partial measure of this complex mnemonic capacity. Nowadays, the virtual reality (VR) is a tool allowing the immersion of subjects in simulations of real situations, rich in spatial and temporal naturalistic contexts. Due to its many characteristics, the VR allows to solve several limitations of the traditional tests. The purpose of this review is to expose studies that investigated episodic memory in normal and Alzheimer's disease using VR in order to address its relevance as a new tool in the future practice of neuropsychology of aging.

  13. Differential Effect of Aging on Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Navnit; Priyadarshi, Brajesh

    2013-01-01

    Working memory (WM) declines with age. However it seems unclear, whether age related decline is more pronounced on verbal WM or on visuo-spatial WM. The present study compares the effect of aging on verbal and visuo-spatial modality of WM on native Hindi healthy speakers, in the age range of 40-to-above 80 years. It was found that normal aging affect both the verbal and visual working memory in similar way. Both modality declines with a similar rate up to 50–60 years and after 60 years relative saturation in span take place. Although verbal WM span is higher than visuo-spatial WM span, but no significant difference between verbal and visuo-spatial WM span were observed. PMID:23946892

  14. The effects of aging on the working memory processes of multimodal information.

    PubMed

    Solesio-Jofre, Elena; López-Frutos, José María; Cashdollar, Nathan; Aurtenetxe, Sara; de Ramón, Ignacio; Maestú, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Normal aging is associated with deficits in working memory processes. However, the majority of research has focused on storage or inhibitory processes using unimodal paradigms, without addressing their relationships using different sensory modalities. Hence, we pursued two objectives. First, was to examine the effects of aging on storage and inhibitory processes. Second, was to evaluate aging effects on multisensory integration of visual and auditory stimuli. To this end, young and older participants performed a multimodal task for visual and auditory pairs of stimuli with increasing memory load at encoding and interference during retention. Our results showed an age-related increased vulnerability to interrupting and distracting interference reflecting inhibitory deficits related to the off-line reactivation and on-line suppression of relevant and irrelevant information, respectively. Storage capacity was impaired with increasing task demands in both age groups. Additionally, older adults showed a deficit in multisensory integration, with poorer performance for new visual compared to new auditory information.

  15. Effects of aging and hypertension on learning, memory, and activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Meneses, A; Castillo, C; Ibarra, M; Hong, E

    1996-08-01

    A comparison between behavioral alterations induced by hypertension and aging was made in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) of different ages (3-24 months old), trained to perform autoshaping learning and activity tasks. Food-deprived rats received autoshaping training sessions during 6 days; the animals were retrained 1 month later. Two weeks after autoshaping training, the animals were evaluated in the spontaneous activity task during 2 consecutive days. The results show an age-related decrease in learning, memory, and spontaneous activity. Independently of the age group compared, WKY, though showing lower activity, learned and retrieved more than SHR. Accordingly, the reductions in learning and memory were correlated with both aging and hypertension. The combined influence of these two factors had synergistic detrimental effects on cognitive functions.

  16. Mood, Memory and Movement: An Age-Related Neurodegenerative Complex?

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Ann-Charlotte; Boger, Heather; Emborg, Marina E.

    2009-01-01

    The following review was constructed as a concept paper based on a recent workshop on neurodegenerative disease sponsored by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the American Geriatric Society (AGS), and the John A. Hartford Foundation. The meeting was entitled “Thinking, moving and feeling: Common underlying mechanisms? 4th Annual Bedside-to-Bench Conference” and had the purpose to connect current basic and clinical findings on common brain-related alterations occurring with aging such as depression, movement disorders, and cognitive decline. Many prominent researchers expressed their opinion on aging and it was revealed that age-related brain dysfunction of any kind seems to share several risk factors and/or pathways. But can something be done to actively achieve “successful aging”? In this review, based largely on the workshop and current literature, we have summarized some of the current theories for depression, movement and cognitive impairment with aging, as well as potential preventive measures. We have also summarized the emerging need for relevant animal models and how these could be developed and utilized. PMID:20021382

  17. Intake of Wild Blueberry Powder Improves Episodic-Like and Working Memory during Normal Aging in Mice.

    PubMed

    Beracochea, Daniel; Krazem, Ali; Henkouss, Nadia; Haccard, Guillaume; Roller, Marc; Fromentin, Emilie

    2016-08-01

    The number of Americans older than 65 years old is projected to more than double in the next 40 years. Cognitive changes associated to aging can affect an adult's day-to-day functioning. Among these cognitive changes, reasoning, episodic memory, working memory, and processing speed decline gradually over time. Early memory changes include a decline in both working and episodic memory. The aim of the present study was to determine whether chronic (up to 75 days) daily administration of wild blueberry extract or a wild blueberry full spectrum powder would help prevent memory failure associated with aging in tasks involving various forms of memory. Both blueberry ingredients were used in a study comparing young mice (6 months old) to aged mice (18 months old). At this age, mice exhibit memory decline due to aging, which is exacerbated first by a loss in working and contextual (episodic-like) memory. Contextual memory (episodic-like memory) was evaluated using the contextual serial discrimination test. Working and spatial memory were evaluated using the Morris-Water maze test and the sequential alternation test. Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. Supplementation with wild blueberry full spectrum powder and wild blueberry extract resulted in significant improvement of contextual memory, while untreated aged mice experienced a decline in such memory. Only the wild blueberry full spectrum powder significantly contributed to an improvement of spatial and working memory versus untreated aged mice. These improvements of cognitive performance may be related to brain oxidative status, acetylcholinesterase activity, neuroprotection, or attenuation of immunoreactivity.

  18. Neuroculture, active ageing and the 'older brain': problems, promises and prospects.

    PubMed

    Williams, Simon J; Higgs, Paul; Katz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the characteristics of a newly emergent 'neuroculture' and its relationship to cultures of ageing; in particular, the social meanings associated with 'active ageing' and 'cognitive health' and the discourses and sciences around memory and the 'ageing brain'. The argument proposes a critical perspective on this relationship by looking at the shifting boundaries between standards of normality and abnormality, values of health and illness, practices of therapy and enhancement, and the lines demarcating Third Age (healthy, active and agentic) and Fourth Age (dependency, loss and decline) periods of ageing. Conclusions offer further reflections on the complex questions that arise regarding expectations, hopes and ethics in relation to the promises and perils of a neurocultural future.

  19. Aging effects on discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lisa J; Virányi, Zsófia; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-02-01

    In laboratory dogs, aging leads to a decline in various cognitive domains such as learning, memory and behavioural flexibility. However, much less is known about aging in pet dogs, i.e. dogs that are exposed to different home environments by their caregivers. We used tasks on a touchscreen apparatus to detect differences in various cognitive functions across pet Border Collies aged from 5 months to 13 years. Ninety-five dogs were divided into five age groups and tested in four tasks: (1) underwater photo versus drawing discrimination, (2) clip art picture discrimination, (3) inferential reasoning by exclusion and (4) a memory test with a retention interval of 6 months. The tasks were designed to test three cognitive abilities: visual discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory. The total number of sessions to reach criterion and the number of correction trials needed in the two discrimination tasks were compared across age groups. The results showed that both measures increased linearly with age, with dogs aged over 13 years displaying slower learning and reduced flexibility in comparison to younger dogs. Inferential reasoning ability increased with age, but less than 10 % of dogs showed patterns of choice consistent with inference by exclusion. No age effect was found in the long-term memory test. In conclusion, the discrimination learning tests used are suitable to detect cognitive aging in pet dogs, which can serve as a basis for comparison to help diagnose cognition-related problems and as a tool to assist with the development of treatments to delay cognitive decline.

  20. [The role of peptides in aging control: results and prospects of research].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2010-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of long-term research designed to elucidate mechanisms of aging and evaluate efficacy of peptide bioregulators for the prevention of age-specific pathology. Peptides obtained by up-to-date methods in Russia, U.S.A., U.K., Germany, Italy, Spain, and France are reviewed. A molecular model is proposed to describe complementary interactions of short-chain peptides with gene promoters underlying initiation of protein synthesis. Prospects for the use of peptide bioregulators to prevent premature aging of the employable population in Russia are discussed.

  1. Activation of CREB by St. John's wort may diminish deletorious effects of aging on spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Trofimiuk, Emil; Holownia, Adam; Braszko, Jan J

    2010-03-01

    St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) is one of the leading psychotherapeutic phytomedicines. Beneficial effects of this herb in the treatment of mild to moderate depression are well known. In this study we tested a hypothesis that St. John's wort alleviates age-related memory impairments by increasing the levels of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in hippocampus. Middleaged rats (18 month-old) displayed a decline in the acquisition of spatial working memory (p < 0.001) in the Morris water maze (MWM). Chronic administration of Hypericum perforatum (HP) (350 mg/kg for 21 days), potently and significantly improved the processing of spatial information in the aged rats (p < 0.001). Also the herb increased the levels of pCREB in the aged rat's hippocampus (p < 0.01) as measured by western immunoblotting. Aging caused significant locomotor impairments as tested in the open field (p < 0.001) but not in the MWM test. However, these were unaffected by treatment with HP. Thus, this study indicates that St. John's wort effectively prevents aging-induced deterioration of spatial memory in 18 month-old rats, possibly by the activation of CREB regulated genes associated with memory formation. It appears that mechanism is probably inactive in young rats.

  2. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep quality and architecture as well as sleep's homeostatic and circadian controls change with healthy aging. Changes include reductions in slow-wave sleep's (SWS) percent and spectral power in the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), number and amplitude of sleep spindles, rapid eye movement (REM) density and the amplitude of circadian rhythms, as well as a phase advance (moved earlier in time) of the brain's circadian clock. With mild cognitive impairment (MCI) there are further reductions of sleep quality, SWS, spindles, and percent REM, all of which further diminish, along with a profound disruption of circadian rhythmicity, with the conversion to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sleep disorders may represent risk factors for dementias (e.g., REM Behavior Disorder presages Parkinson's disease) and sleep disorders are themselves extremely prevalent in neurodegenerative diseases. Working memory , formation of new episodic memories, and processing speed all decline with healthy aging whereas semantic, recognition, and emotional declarative memory are spared. In MCI, episodic and working memory further decline along with declines in semantic memory. In young adults, sleep-dependent memory consolidation (SDC) is widely observed for both declarative and procedural memory tasks. However, with healthy aging, although SDC for declarative memory is preserved, certain procedural tasks, such as motor-sequence learning, do not show SDC. In younger adults, fragmentation of sleep can reduce SDC, and a normative increase in sleep fragmentation may account for reduced SDC with healthy aging. Whereas sleep disorders such as insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and narcolepsy can impair SDC in the absence of neurodegenerative changes, the incidence of sleep disorders increases both with normal aging and, further, with neurodegenerative disease. Specific features of sleep architecture, such as sleep spindles and SWS are strongly linked to SDC. Diminution of these features with healthy aging

  3. Focus of Attention in Children's Motor Learning: Examining the Role of Age and Working Memory.

    PubMed

    Brocken, J E A; Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the relative effectiveness of different attentional focus instructions on motor learning in primary school children. In addition, we explored whether the effect of attentional focus on motor learning was influenced by children's age and verbal working memory capacity. Novice 8-9-year old children (n = 30) and 11-12-year-old children (n = 30) practiced a golf putting task. For each age group, half the participants received instructions to focus (internally) on the swing of their arm, while the other half was instructed to focus (externally) on the swing of the club. Children's verbal working memory capacity was assessed with the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Consistent with many reports on adult's motor learning, children in the external groups demonstrated greater improvements in putting accuracy than children who practiced with an internal focus. This effect was similar across age groups. Verbal working memory capacity was not found to be predictive of motor learning, neither for children in the internal focus groups nor for children in the external focus groups. In conclusion, primary school children's motor learning is enhanced by external focus instructions compared to internal focus instructions. The purported modulatory roles of children's working memory, attentional capacity, or focus preferences require further investigation.

  4. Reassessing the effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on hippocampal memory and cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Castellano, James F; Fletcher, Bonnie R; Patzke, Holger; Long, Jeffrey M; Sewal, Angila; Kim, David H; Kelley-Bell, Bennett; Rapp, Peter R

    2014-08-01

    Converging results link histone acetylation dynamics to hippocampus-dependent memory, including evidence that histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) administration enhances long-term memory. Previously, we demonstrated that aging disrupts the coordinated epigenetic response to recent experience observed in the young adult hippocampus. Here, we extended that work to test the cognitive effects of a novel, brain-penetrant HDACi (EVX001688; EVX) that we confirmed yields robust, relatively long lasting dose-dependent increases in histone acetylation in the hippocampus. In young rats, acute systemic EVX administration, scheduled to yield elevated histone acetylation levels during training in a contextual fear conditioning (CFC) task, had no effect on memory retention at 24 h at any dose examined (10, 30, or 60 mg/kg). Pretraining injection of another HDACi, sodium butyrate, also failed to affect fear memory, and CFC training itself had no influence on hippocampal histone acetylation at 1 hour in mice or two strains of rats. EVX administration before water maze training in young rats yielded a modest effect such that the middle dose produced marginally better 24-h retention than either the low or high dose, but only a small numerical benefit relative to vehicle. Guided by those findings, a final experiment tested the influence of pretraining EVX treatment on age-related spatial memory impairment. The results, revealing no effect on performance, are consistent with the idea that effective procognitive HDACi treatments in aging may require intervention aimed at restoring coordinated epigenetic regulation rather than bulk increases in hippocampal histone acetylation.

  5. Motor Skills Enhance Procedural Memory Formation and Protect against Age-Related Decline

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nils C. J.; Genzel, Lisa; Konrad, Boris N.; Pawlowski, Marcel; Neville, David; Fernández, Guillén; Steiger, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The ability to consolidate procedural memories declines with increasing age. Prior knowledge enhances learning and memory consolidation of novel but related information in various domains. Here, we present evidence that prior motor experience–in our case piano skills–increases procedural learning and has a protective effect against age-related decline for the consolidation of novel but related manual movements. In our main experiment, we tested 128 participants with a sequential finger-tapping motor task during two sessions 24 hours apart. We observed enhanced online learning speed and offline memory consolidation for piano players. Enhanced memory consolidation was driven by a strong effect in older participants, whereas younger participants did not benefit significantly from prior piano experience. In a follow up independent control experiment, this compensatory effect of piano experience was not visible after a brief offline period of 30 minutes, hence requiring an extended consolidation window potentially involving sleep. Through a further control experiment, we rejected the possibility that the decreased effect in younger participants was caused by training saturation. We discuss our results in the context of the neurobiological schema approach and suggest that prior experience has the potential to rescue memory consolidation from age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27333186

  6. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature.

  7. [Artificial intelligence meeting neuropsychology. Semantic memory in normal and pathological aging].

    PubMed

    Aimé, Xavier; Charlet, Jean; Maillet, Didier; Belin, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Artificial intelligence (IA) is the subject of much research, but also many fantasies. It aims to reproduce human intelligence in its learning capacity, knowledge storage and computation. In 2014, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) started the restoring active memory (RAM) program that attempt to develop implantable technology to bridge gaps in the injured brain and restore normal memory function to people with memory loss caused by injury or disease. In another IA's field, computational ontologies (a formal and shared conceptualization) try to model knowledge in order to represent a structured and unambiguous meaning of the concepts of a target domain. The aim of these structures is to ensure a consensual understanding of their meaning and a univariant use (the same concept is used by all to categorize the same individuals). The first representations of knowledge in the AI's domain are largely based on model tests of semantic memory. This one, as a component of long-term memory is the memory of words, ideas, concepts. It is the only declarative memory system that resists so remarkably to the effects of age. In contrast, non-specific cognitive changes may decrease the performance of elderly in various events and instead report difficulties of access to semantic representations that affect the semantics stock itself. Some dementias, like semantic dementia and Alzheimer's disease, are linked to alteration of semantic memory. We propose in this paper, using the computational ontologies model, a formal and relatively thin modeling, in the service of neuropsychology: 1) for the practitioner with decision support systems, 2) for the patient as cognitive prosthesis outsourced, and 3) for the researcher to study semantic memory.

  8. Event-based prospective memory in patients with Parkinson’s disease: the effect of emotional valence

    PubMed Central

    Mioni, G.; Meligrana, L.; Rendell, P. G.; Bartolomei, L.; Perini, F.; Stablum, F.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of Parkinson’s disease (PD) on prospective memory (PM) tasks by varying the emotional content of the PM actions. Twenty-one older adults with PD and 25 healthy older adults took part in the present study. Participants performed three virtual days in the Virtual Week task. On each virtual day, participants performed actions with positive, negative or neutral content. Immediately following each virtual day, participants completed a recognition task to assess their retrospective memory for the various PM tasks. PD patients were less accurate than the control group at both PM accuracy and recognition task accuracy. The effect of emotional valence was also evident, indicating that all participants were more accurate on positive PM tasks than both negative and neutral. This study confirmed PM impairment in PD patients and extended previous research showing how positive emotional stimuli can influence PM performance. PMID:26257636

  9. Forensic age diagnostics using projection radiography of the clavicle: a prospective multi-center validation study.

    PubMed

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Ottow, Christian; Schulz, Ronald; Püschel, Klaus; Bajanowski, Thomas; Ramsthaler, Frank; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Vieth, Volker; Schmidt, Sven; Schmeling, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The radiological investigation of the ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphysis represents the crucial tool for assessing whether a living individual has completed the age of 18 years. However, exposure to radiation cannot always be accepted due to legal reasons and radiation-free methods still lack reference data or are not available. Therefore, this study examines the role of pre-existing radiographic material of the clavicles, making it necessary to prospectively validate the established five-stage classification system for evaluating the clavicular ossification process as well as to enlarge the so far very limited pool of available reference data. Accordingly, standard posterior-anterior projection radiographs of 836 sternoclavicular joints prospectively obtained during 418 forensic autopsies (age range 15-30 years) were analyzed. Stage III was first found at ages 16 and 15 (males/females), stage IV at ages 22 and 21 (males/females), and stage V at age 26 in both sexes. The presented results principally corroborate the previous reference data from 2004, suggesting reliability of the five-stage classification system. In conclusion, chest radiographs may still be useful for forensic age diagnostics in living individuals but only in certain cases. In age estimations which can be planned in advance, projection radiography of the clavicle must still be considered obsolete.

  10. Neuroscientists as Cartographers: Mapping the Crossroads of Gonadal Hormones, Memory and Age Using Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A.; Acosta, Jazmin I.; Talboom, Joshua S.

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive function is multidimensional and complex, and research in multiple species indicates it is considerably impacted by age and gonadal hormone milieu. One domain of cognitive function particularly susceptible to age-related decrements is spatial memory. Gonadal hormones can alter spatial memory, and they are potent modulators of brain microstructure and function in many of the same brain areas affected by aging. In this paper, we review decades of animal and human literature to support a tertiary model representing interactions between gonadal hormones, spatial cognition and age given that: 1) gonadal hormones change with age, 2) age impacts spatial learning and memory, and 3) gonadal hormones impact spatial learning and memory. While much has been discovered regarding these individual tenets, the compass for future aging research points toward clarifying the interactions that exist between these three points, and understanding mediating variables. Indeed, identifying and aligning the various components of the complex interactions between these tenets, including evaluations using basic science, systems, and clinical perspectives, is the optimal approach to attempt to converge the many findings that may currently appear contradictory. In fact, as discoveries are being made it is becoming clear that the findings across studies that appear contradictory are not contradictory at all. Rather, there are mediating variables that are influencing outcome and affecting the extent, and even the direction, of the effects that gonadal hormones have on cognition during aging. These mediating variables are just starting to be understood. By aligning basic scientific discoveries with clinical interpretations, we can maximize the opportunities for discoveries and subsequent interventions to allow individuals to “optimize their aging” and find their own map to cognitive health as aging ensues. PMID:20877209

  11. Neural bases of prospective memory: a meta-analysis and the "Attention to Delayed Intention" (AtoDI) model.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Scarpazza, Cristina; Sartori, Giuseppe; Moscovitch, Morris; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-05-01

    Remembering to realize delayed intentions is a multi-phase process, labelled as prospective memory (PM), and involves a plurality of neural networks. The present study utilized the activation likelihood estimation method of meta-analysis to provide a complete overview of the brain regions that are consistently activated in each PM phase. We formulated the 'Attention to Delayed Intention' (AtoDI) model to explain the neural dissociation found between intention maintenance and retrieval phases. The dorsal frontoparietal network is involved mainly in the maintenance phase and seems to mediate the strategic monitoring processes, such as the allocation of top-down attention both towards external stimuli, to monitor for the occurrence of the PM cues, and to internal memory contents, to maintain the intention active in memory. The ventral frontoparietal network is recruited in the retrieval phase and might subserve the bottom-up attention captured externally by the PM cues and, internally, by the intention stored in memory. Together with other brain regions (i.e., insula and posterior cingulate cortex), the ventral frontoparietal network would support the spontaneous retrieval processes. The functional contribution of the anterior prefrontal cortex is discussed extensively for each PM phase.

  12. Working memory in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jifang; Gao, Dingguo; Chen, Yinghe; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Ya

    2010-08-01

    Using a battery of working memory span tasks and n-back tasks, this study aimed to explore working memory functions in early-school-age children with Asperger's syndrome (AS). Twelve children with AS and 29 healthy children matched on age and IQ were recruited. Results showed: (a) children with AS performed better in digit and word recall tasks, but worse in block recall task and variant-visual-patterns test; (b) children with AS took longer time in most conditions of n-back tasks, and showed larger effects of task load. These findings indicated imbalance of working memory development in AS children: they had advantage in the phonological loop storing, but disadvantage in the visuospatial sketchpad storing, and partial deficit in central executive.

  13. Recognition Memory Measures Yield Disproportionate Effects of Aging on Learning Face-Name Associations

    PubMed Central

    James, Lori E.; Fogler, Kethera A.; Tauber, Sarah K.

    2008-01-01

    No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: more face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies. PMID:18808254

  14. Recognition memory measures yield disproportionate effects of aging on learning face-name associations.

    PubMed

    James, Lori E; Fogler, Kethera A; Tauber, Sarah K

    2008-09-01

    No previous research has tested whether the specific age-related deficit in learning face-name associations that has been identified using recall tasks also occurs for recognition memory measures. Young and older participants saw pictures of unfamiliar people with a name and an occupation for each person, and were tested on a matching (in Experiment 1) or multiple-choice (in Experiment 2) recognition memory test. For both recognition measures, the pattern of effects was the same as that obtained using a recall measure: More face-occupation associations were remembered than face-name associations, young adults remembered more associated information than older adults overall, and older adults had disproportionately poorer memory for face-name associations. Findings implicate age-related difficulty in forming and retrieving the association between the face and the name as the primary cause of obtained deficits in previous name learning studies.

  15. Initial evidence linking synaptic superoxide production with poor short-term memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sameh S; Young, Jared W; Wallace, Chelsea K; Gresack, Jodi; Jeste, Dilip V; Geyer, Mark A; Dugan, Laura L; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2011-01-12

    Unregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a marker of cellular and organismal aging linked to cognitive decline in humans and rodents. The sources of elevated ROS contributing to cognitive decline are unknown. Because NADPH oxidase (Nox) inhibition may prevent memory decline with age, we hypothesized that Nox and not mitochondrial sources of synaptic ROS production are linked to individual variance in cognitive performance in aged mice. Young (8 months) and aged (26 months) mice were tested in the novel object recognition task (NORT). Mitochondrial and Nox ROS production was assayed in isolated synaptosomes using spin trapping electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Aged mice exhibited variance in NORT performance, with some performing similar to young mice while others exhibited poorer short-term memory. EPR studies indicated that Nox rather than mitochondria was the major ROS source at the synapse, and Nox-induced but not mitochondrial-induced ROS levels correlated with NORT performance in aged mice. Our findings support the hypothesis that variance in Nox-specific synaptic ROS production may predict short-term memory deficits with age.

  16. Gait disorder as a predictor of spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing M.; Meng, Zhaoxiang; Yin, Zhenglu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether gait dysfunction is a predictor of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in aged mice. Methods A total of 100 12-month-old male mice that had no obvious abnormal motor ability and whose Morris water maze performances were not significantly different from those of two-month-old male mice were selected for the study. The selected aged mice were then divided into abnormal or normal gait groups according to the results from the quantitative gait assessment. Gaits of aged mice were defined as abnormal when the values of quantitative gait parameters were two standard deviations (SD) lower or higher than those of 2-month-old male mice. Gait parameters included stride length, variability of stride length, base of support, cadence, and average speed. After nine months, mice exhibiting severe spatial learning and memory impairment were separated from mice with mild or no cognitive dysfunction. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment in the abnormal and normal gait groups was tested by a chi-square test and the correlation between gait dysfunction and decline in cognitive function was tested using a diagnostic test. Results The 12-month-old aged mice were divided into a normal gait group (n = 75) and an abnormal gait group (n = 25). Nine months later, three mice in the normal gait group and two mice in the abnormal gait group had died. The remaining mice were subjected to the Morris water maze again, and 17 out of 23 mice in the abnormal gait group had developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment, including six with stride length deficits, 15 with coefficient of variation (CV) in stride length, two with base of support (BOS) deficits, five with cadence dysfunction, and six with average speed deficits. In contrast, only 15 out of 72 mice in the normal gait group developed severe spatial learning and memory impairment. The rate of severe spatial learning and memory impairment was significantly higher in

  17. Motherhood mitigates aging-related decrements in learning and memory and positively affects brain aging in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gatewood, Jessica D; Morgan, Melissa D; Eaton, Mollie; McNamara, Ilan M; Stevens, Lillian F; Macbeth, Abbe H; Meyer, Elizabeth A A; Lomas, Lisa M; Kozub, Frederick J; Lambert, Kelly G; Kinsley, Craig Howard

    2005-07-30

    The current work examined spatial learning and memory (i.e., latencies to find a baited food well) in age-matched nulliparous, primiparous and multiparous (NULL, PRIM and MULT, zero, one or two pregnancies and lactations, respectively). We tested at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age in a dry land version of the Morris water maze (Main task), and at 12, 18 and 24 months in the same task in which the original location of the baited well was changed (Reversal task). We show that PRIM/MULT rats, compared to the age-matched NULL females, learned the spatial tasks significantly better and exhibited attenuated memory decline, up to 24 months of age. Furthermore, at the conclusion of behavioral testing, we investigated levels of these animals' hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus) immunoreactive amyloid precursor protein (APP), a marker of neurodegeneration and age-related cognitive loss. MULTs had significantly reduced APP in both CA1 and DG, relative to PRIMs and NULLs, and PRIMs had a trend (p<0.06) toward a reduction in APP compared to NULLs in DG. Further, level of APP was negatively correlated with performance in the two tasks (viz., more APP, worse maze performance). Reproduction, therefore, with its attendant natural endocrine and postpartum sensory experiences, may facilitate lifelong learning and memory, and may mitigate markers of neural aging, in the rat. Combining natural hormonal exposure with subsequent substantial experience with stimuli from the offspring may preserve the aged parous female brain relative to that of NULL females.

  18. Spermidine Suppresses Age-Associated Memory Impairment by Preventing Adverse Increase of Presynaptic Active Zone Size and Release

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun K.; Pech, Ulrike; Fulterer, Andreas; Ender, Anatoli; Mauermann, Stephan F.; Andlauer, Till F. M.; Beuschel, Christine; Thriene, Kerstin; Quentin, Christine; Schwärzel, Martin; Mielke, Thorsten; Madeo, Frank; Dengjel, Joern; Fiala, André; Sigrist, Stephan J.

    2016-01-01

    Memories are assumed to be formed by sets of synapses changing their structural or functional performance. The efficacy of forming new memories declines with advancing age, but the synaptic changes underlying age-induced memory impairment remain poorly understood. Recently, we found spermidine feeding to specifically suppress age-dependent impairments in forming olfactory memories, providing a mean to search for synaptic changes involved in age-dependent memory impairment. Here, we show that a specific synaptic compartment, the presynaptic active zone (AZ), increases the size of its ultrastructural elaboration and releases significantly more synaptic vesicles with advancing age. These age-induced AZ changes, however, were fully suppressed by spermidine feeding. A genetically enforced enlargement of AZ scaffolds (four gene-copies of BRP) impaired memory formation in young animals. Thus, in the Drosophila nervous system, aging AZs seem to steer towards the upper limit of their operational range, limiting synaptic plasticity and contributing to impairment of memory formation. Spermidine feeding suppresses age-dependent memory impairment by counteracting these age-dependent changes directly at the synapse. PMID:27684064

  19. Food restriction increases long-term memory persistence in adult or aged mice.

    PubMed

    Talhati, F; Patti, C L; Zanin, K A; Lopes-Silva, L B; Ceccon, L M B; Hollais, A W; Bizerra, C S; Santos, R; Tufik, S; Frussa-Filho, R

    2014-04-03

    Food restriction (FR) seems to be the unique experimental manipulation that leads to a remarkable increase in lifespan in rodents. Evidences have suggested that FR can enhance memory in distinct animal models mainly during aging. However, only few studies systemically evaluated the effects FR on memory formation in both adult (3-month-old) and aged (18-24-month-old) mice. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute (12h) or repeated (12h/day for 2days) FR protocols on learning and memory of adult and aged mice evaluated in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PM-DAT), an animal model that concurrently (but independently) evaluates learning and memory, anxiety and locomotion. We also investigated the possible role of FR-induced stress by the corticosterone concentration in adult mice. Male mice were kept at home cage with food ad libitum (CTRL-control condition) or subjected to FR during the dark phase of the cycle for 12h/day or 12h/2days. The FR protocols were applied before training, immediately after it or before testing. Our results demonstrated that only FR for 2days enhanced memory persistence when applied before training in adults and before testing in aged mice. Conversely, FR for 2days impaired consolidation and exerted no effects on retrieval irrespective of age. These effects do not seem to be related to corticosterone concentration. Collectively, these results indicate that FR for 2days can promote promnestic effects not only in aged mice but also in adults.

  20. Span, CRUNCH, and Beyond: Working Memory Capacity and the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schneider-Garces, Nils J.; Gordon, Brian A.; Brumback-Peltz, Carrie R.; Shin, Eunsam; Lee, Yukyung; Sutton, Bradley P.; Maclin, Edward L.; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging data emphasize that older adults often show greater extent of brain activation than younger adults for similar objective levels of difficulty. A possible interpretation of this finding is that older adults need to recruit neuronal resources at lower loads than younger adults, leaving no resources for higher loads, and thus leading to performance decrements [Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis; e.g., Reuter-Lorenz, P. A., & Cappell, K. A. Neurocognitive aging and the compensation hypothesis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17, 177–182, 2008]. The Compensation-Related Utilization of Neural Circuits Hypothesis leads to the prediction that activation differences between younger and older adults should disappear when task difficulty is made subjectively comparable. In a Sternberg memory search task, this can be achieved by assessing brain activity as a function of load relative to the individual’s memory span, which declines with age. Specifically, we hypothesized a nonlinear relationship between load and both performance and brain activity and predicted that asymptotes in the brain activation function should correlate with performance asymptotes (corresponding to working memory span). The results suggest that age differences in brain activation can be largely attributed to individual variations in working memory span. Interestingly, the brain activation data show a sigmoid relationship with load. Results are discussed in terms of Cowan’s [Cowan, N. The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87–114, 2001] model of working memory and theories of impaired inhibitory processes in aging. PMID:19320550

  1. Gulliver meets Descartes: early modern concepts of age-related memory loss.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Daniel

    2003-03-01

    Age-related memory loss was a marginal issue in medical discussions during early modern times and until well into the second half of the 17th century. There are many possible explanations: the lack of similar traditions in antiquity and in the Middle Ages, insufficient physiological and morphological knowledge of the brain, and the underlying conflict between idealistic and materialistic perspectives on the functions of the soul and the conditions of these in old age. After these boundaries had been pushed back by the influence of Cartesianism and Iatromechanism, the problem of age-related memory loss was increasingly regarded as a physical illness and began to receive more attention. This trend first occurred in medicine, before spreading to the literary world, where the novel "Gulliver's Travels" is one clear and famous example.

  2. Binding and Inhibition in Working Memory: Individual and Age Differences in Short-Term Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberauer, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    Two studies investigated the relationship between working memory capacity (WMC), adult age, and the resolution of conflict between familiarity and recollection in short-term recognition tasks. Experiment 1 showed a specific deficit of young adults with low WMC in rejecting intrusion probes (i.e., highly familiar probes) in a modified Sternberg…

  3. Working memory training and transfer in older adults: effects of age, baseline performance, and training gains.

    PubMed

    Zinke, Katharina; Zeintl, Melanie; Rose, Nathan S; Putzmann, Julia; Pydde, Andrea; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that working memory training may benefit older adults; however, findings regarding training and transfer effects are mixed. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of a process-based training intervention in a diverse sample of older adults and explored possible moderators of training and transfer effects. For that purpose, 80 older adults (65-95 years) were assigned either to a training group that worked on visuospatial, verbal, and executive working memory tasks for 9 sessions over 3 weeks or to a control group. Performance on trained and transfer tasks was assessed in all participants before and after the training period, as well as at a 9-month follow-up. Analyses revealed significant training effects in all 3 training tasks in trained participants relative to controls, as well as near transfer to a verbal working memory task and far transfer to a fluid intelligence task. Encouragingly, all training effects and the transfer effect to verbal working memory were stable at the 9-month follow-up session. Further analyses revealed that training gains were predicted by baseline performance in training tasks and (to a lesser degree) by age. Gains in transfer tasks were predicted by age and by the amount of improvement in the trained tasks. These findings suggest that cognitive plasticity is preserved over a large range of old age and that even a rather short training regime can lead to (partly specific) training and transfer effects. However, baseline performance, age, and training gains moderate the amount of plasticity.

  4. Exposure to radiation accelerates normal brain aging and produces deficits in spatial learning and memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukitt-Hale, B.; Casadesus, G.; Carey, A.; Rabin, B. M.; Joseph, J. A.

    Previous studies have shown that radiation exposure, particularly to particles of high energy and charge (HZE particles), produces deficits in spatial learning and memory. These adverse behavioral effects are similar to those seen in aged animals. It is possible that these shared effects may be produced by the same mechanism; oxidative stress damage to the central nervous system caused by an increased release of reactive oxygen species is likely responsible for the deficits seen in aging and following irradiation. Both aged and irradiated rats display cognitive impairment in tests of spatial learning and memory such as the Morris water maze and the radial arm maze. These rats have decrements in the ability to build spatial representations of the environment and they utilize non-spatial strategies to solve tasks. Furthermore, they show a lack of spatial preference, due to a decline in the ability to process or retain place (position of a goal with reference to a "map" provided by the configuration of numerous cues in the environment) information. These declines in spatial memory occur in measures dependent on both reference and working memory, and in the flexibility to reset mental images. These results show that irradiation with high-energy particles produces age-like decrements in cognitive behavior that may impair the ability of astronauts to perform critical tasks during long-term space travel beyond the magnetosphere. Supported by NASA Grants NAG9-1190 and NAG9-1529

  5. Discrimination Performance in Aging Is Vulnerable to Interference and Dissociable from Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Sacks, Patricia K.; Turner, Sean M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal…

  6. Shared Etiology of Phonological Memory and Vocabulary Deficits in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin L.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to investigate the etiologic basis for the association between deficits in phonological memory (PM) and vocabulary in school-age children. Method: Children with deficits in PM or vocabulary were identified within the International Longitudinal Twin Study (ILTS; Samuelsson et al., 2005). The ILTS includes 1,045…

  7. Analyzing False Memories in Children with Associative Lists Specific for Their Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carneiro, Paula; Albuquerque, Pedro; Fernandez, Angel; Esteves, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Two experiments attempted to resolve previous contradictory findings concerning developmental trends in false memories within the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm by using an improved methodology--constructing age-appropriate associative lists. The research also extended the DRM paradigm to preschoolers. Experiment 1 (N = 320) included…

  8. Children with Differing Developmental Trajectories of Prelinguistic Communication Skills: Language and Working Memory at Age 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Sira; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Tolvanen, Asko; Ahonen, Timo; Aro, Tuija

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors examine the developmental continuity from prelinguistic communication to kindergarten age in language and working memory capacity. Method: Following work outlining 6 groups of children with different trajectories of early communication development (ECD; Määttä, Laakso, Tolvanen, Ahonen, & Aro, 2012), the…

  9. Effects of aging and divided attention on recognition memory processes for single and associative information.

    PubMed

    Kinjo, Hikari

    2011-04-01

    In the divided attention paradigm to test age-related associative memory deficits, whether the effects of divided attention occur at encoding or retrieval has not been clarified, and the effect on retention has not been studied. This study explored whether and how much divided attention at either encoding, retention, or retrieval diminished accuracy in recognizing a single feature (object or location) and associated features (object+location) by 23 elderly people (13 women; M age = 70.6 yr., SD = 2.8) recruited from a neighborhood community circle, and 29 female college students (M age = 20.8 yr., SD = 1.1). The results showed a significant decline in memory performance for both age groups due to divided attention in location and associative memory at retention, suggesting that the retention process demands attentional resources. Overall, regardless of their relative deficiency in associative memory, older adults showed an effect of divided attention comparable to that of younger adults in a recognition task.

  10. Processing Efficiency in Preschoolers' Memory Span: Individual Differences Related to Age and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response…

  11. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  12. Investigating the Effects of Veridicality on Age Differences in Verbal Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shake, Matthew C.; Perschke, Meghan K.

    2013-01-01

    In the typical loaded verbal working memory (WM) span task (e.g., Daneman & Carpenter, 1980), participants judge the veridicality of a series of sentences while simultaneously storing the sentence final word for later recall. Performance declines as the number of sentences is increased; aging exacerbates this decline. The present study examined…

  13. Age Differences in Children's Memory of Information about Aggressive, Socially Withdrawn, and Prosociable Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowski, William M.

    1990-01-01

    In two studies, second and sixth graders heard descriptions of hypothetical boys and girls who were either aggressive, socially withdrawn, or prosociable. Subjects' memories of items in the descriptions were assessed. Results indicated that school-age and early adolescent children's recall of information about a peer is affected by the peer's…

  14. Learn to forget: regulation of age-related memory impairment by neuronal-glial crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Jackson, George R

    2014-11-19

    Dementia is among the most feared complications of aging in the U.S. In this issue of Neuron, Yamazaki et al. (2014) present a tour de force mechanistic analysis of a "hit" from a proteomic screen carried out using a Drosophila mutation that affects memory.

  15. Electroencephalogram and Heart Rate Measures of Working Memory at 5 and 10 Months of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann; Marcovitch, Stuart; Calkins, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital…

  16. Experimental febrile seizures induce age-dependent structural plasticity and improve memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, K; Ichikawa, J; Matsuki, N; Ikegaya, Y; Koyama, R

    2016-03-24

    Population-based studies have demonstrated that children with a history of febrile seizure (FS) perform better than age-matched controls at hippocampus-dependent memory tasks. Here, we report that FSs induce two distinct structural reorganizations in the hippocampus and bidirectionally modify future learning abilities in an age-dependent manner. Compared with age-matched controls, adult mice that had experienced experimental FSs induced by hyperthermia (HT) on postnatal day 14 (P14-HT) performed better in a cognitive task that requires dentate granule cells (DGCs). The enhanced memory performance correlated with an FS-induced persistent increase in the density of large mossy fiber terminals (LMTs) of the DGCs. The memory enhancement was not observed in mice that had experienced HT-induced seizures at P11 which exhibited abnormally located DGCs in addition to the increased LMT density. The ectopic DGCs of the P11-HT mice were abolished by the diuretic bumetanide, and this pharmacological treatment unveiled the masked memory enhancement. Thus, this work provides a novel basis for age-dependent structural plasticity in which FSs influence future brain function.

  17. Impact of Aging on the Dynamics of Memory Retrieval: A Time-Course Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oztekin, Ilke; Gungor, Nur Zeynep; Badre, David

    2012-01-01

    The response-signal speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) procedure was used to provide an in-depth investigation of the impact of aging on the dynamics of short-term memory retrieval. Young and older adults studied sequentially presented 3-item lists, immediately followed by a recognition probe. Analyses of composite list and serial position SAT…

  18. Two Hemispheres for Better Memory in Old Age: Role of Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Isingrini, Michel

    2011-01-01

    This experiment explored the functional significance of age-related hemispheric asymmetry reduction associated with episodic memory and the cognitive mechanisms that mediate this brain pattern. ERPs were recorded while young and older adults performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Results confirmed that the parietal old/new effect was of larger…

  19. Cognitive and neuropsychological underpinnings of relational and conjunctive working memory binding across age.

    PubMed

    van Geldorp, Bonnie; Parra, Mario A; Kessels, Roy P C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form associations (i.e., binding) is critical for memory formation. Recent studies suggest that aging specifically affects relational binding (associating separate features) but not conjunctive binding (integrating features within an object). Possibly, this dissociation may be driven by the spatial nature of the studies so far. Alternatively, relational binding may simply require more attentional resources. We assessed relational and conjunctive binding in three age groups and we included an interfering task (i.e., an articulatory suppression task). Binding was examined in a working memory (WM) task using non-spatial features: shape and colour. Thirty-one young adults (mean age = 22.35), 30 middle-aged adults (mean age = 54.80) and 30 older adults (mean age = 70.27) performed the task. Results show an effect of type of binding and an effect of age but no interaction between type of binding and age. The interaction between type of binding and interference was significant. These results indicate that aging affects relational binding and conjunctive binding similarly. However, relational binding is more susceptible to interference than conjunctive binding, which suggests that relational binding may require more attentional resources. We suggest that a general decline in WM resources associated with frontal dysfunction underlies age-related deficits in WM binding.

  20. Context Memory Decline in Middle Aged Adults is Related to Changes in Prefrontal Cortex Function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Diana; Maillet, David; Pasvanis, Stamatoula; Ankudowich, Elizabeth; Grady, Cheryl L; Rajah, M Natasha

    2016-06-01

    The ability to encode and retrieve spatial and temporal contextual details of episodic memories (context memory) begins to decline at midlife. In the current study, event-related fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of context memory decline in healthy middle aged adults (MA) compared with young adults (YA). Participants were scanned while performing easy and hard versions of spatial and temporal context memory tasks. Scans were obtained at encoding and retrieval. Significant reductions in context memory retrieval accuracy were observed in MA, compared with YA. The fMRI results revealed that overall, both groups exhibited similar patterns of brain activity in parahippocampal cortex, ventral occipito-temporal regions and prefrontal cortex (PFC) during encoding. In contrast, at retrieval, there were group differences in ventral occipito-temporal and PFC activity, due to these regions being more activated in MA, compared with YA. Furthermore, only in YA, increased encoding activity in ventrolateral PFC, and increased retrieval activity in occipital cortex, predicted increased retrieval accuracy. In MA, increased retrieval activity in anterior PFC predicted increased retrieval accuracy. These results suggest that there are changes in PFC contributions to context memory at midlife.

  1. Electrophysiological evidence for strategically orienting retrieval toward the specific age of a memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey D; McGhee, Anna K

    2015-11-01

    For over a century, memory researchers have extensively studied the differences between retrieving memories that were encoded in the remote past as opposed to recently. Although this work has largely focused on the changes that these memory traces undergo over time, an unexplored issue is whether retrieval attempts and other strategic processes might be differentially oriented in order to effectively access memories of different ages. The current study addressed this issue by instructing participants to retrieve words that were encoded either one week (remote) or about 30 minutes earlier (recent). To maximize the possibility that participants adopted distinct retrieval orientations, separate blocks of the memory test employed exclusion task procedures in which the words from only one encoding period were targeted at a given time, in the face of distractors from the other period. Event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by correctly-rejected new items were contrasted to minimize confounding effects of retrieval success. The new-item ERPs revealed differences according to the targeted week, such that the ERPs over posterior scalp were more positive-going for the recent compared to remote blocks. Furthermore, using multiple methods, these ERP effects were dissociated from differences in difficulty across the two conditions. The findings provide novel evidence that knowledge about when a memory was initially encoded leads to differences in the adoption of retrieval processing strategies.

  2. The Survival Effect in Memory: Does It Hold into Old Age and Non-Ancestral Scenarios?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Lau, Karen P. L.; Truong, Linda

    2014-01-01

    The survival effect in memory refers to the memory enhancement for materials encoded in reference to a survival scenario compared to those encoded in reference to a control scenario or with other encoding strategies [1]. The current study examined whether this effect is well maintained in old age by testing young (ages 18–29) and older adults (ages 65–87) on the survival effect in memory for words encoded in ancestral and/or non-ancestral modern survival scenarios relative to a non-survival control scenario. A pilot study was conducted to select the best matched comparison scenarios based on potential confounding variables, such as valence and arousal. Experiment 1 assessed the survival effect with a well-matched negative control scenario in both young and older adults. The results showed an age-equivalent survival effect across an ancestral and a non-ancestral modern survival scenario. Experiment 2 replicated the survival effect in both age groups with a positive control scenario. Taken together, the data suggest a robust survival effect that is well preserved in old age across ancestral and non-ancestral survival scenarios. PMID:24788755

  3. Age-Related Visual and Kinesthetic Encoding Effects on Spatial Memory of a Maze-Like Floor Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, Jan D.; And Others

    As part of an experimental research program on lifespan naturalistic and laboratory memory for spatial representation, investigators examined interactions between the effects of visual and kinesthetic encoding and age on memory for space using a modification of the Sinnott (1987) human maze paradigm. It was hypothesized that an age effect favoring…

  4. Using fMRI to Investigate Memory in Young Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, Henrica M. A.; de Ruiter, Michiel B.; Ouwendijk, Mieke; Oostrom, Kim J.; Wilke, Marko; Boersma, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to infants being born small for gestational age (SGA). SGA is associated with differences in brain anatomy and impaired cognition. We investigated learning and memory in children born SGA using neuropsychological testing and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Study Design 18 children born appropriate for gestational age (AGA) and 34 SGA born children (18 with and 16 without postnatal catch-up growth) participated in this study. All children were between 4 and 7 years old. Cognitive functioning was assessed by IQ and memory testing (Digit/Word Span and Location Learning). A newly developed fMRI picture encoding task was completed by all children in order to assess brain regions involved in memory processes. Results Neuropsychological testing demonstrated that SGA children had IQ’s within the normal range but lower than in AGA and poorer performances across measures of memory. Using fMRI, we observed memory related activity in posterior parahippocampal gyrus as well as the hippocampus proper. Additionally, activation was seen bilaterally in the prefrontal gyrus. Children born SGA showed less activation in the left parahippocampal region compared to AGA. Conclusions This is the first fMRI study demonstrating different brain activation patterns in 4-7 year old children born SGA, suggesting that intrauterine growth restriction continues to affect neural functioning in children later-on. PMID:26132815

  5. Preservation of musical memory and engagement in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Lola L; Sikka, Ritu; Vanstone, Ashley

    2015-03-01

    In striking contrast to the difficulties with new learning and episodic memories in aging and especially in Alzheimer's disease (AD), musical long-term memories appear to be largely preserved. Evidence for spared musical memories in aging and AD is reviewed here. New data involve the development of a Musical Engagement Questionnaire especially designed for use with AD patients. The questionnaire assesses behavioral responses to music and is answered by the care partner. Current results show that, despite cognitive loss, persons with mild to moderate AD preserve musical engagement and music seeking. Familiar music evokes personal autobiographical memories for healthy younger and older adults as well and for those with mild to moderate AD. It is argued that music is a prime candidate for being a stimulus for cognitive stimulation because musical memories and associated emotions may be readily evoked; that is, they are strong and do not need to be repaired. Working with and through music as a resource may enhance social and communication functions.

  6. Chronic nicotine improves working and reference memory performance and reduces hippocampal NGF in aged female rats.

    PubMed

    French, Kristen L; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E; Moore, Alfred B; Nelson, Matthew E; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2006-05-15

    The cholinergic system is involved in cognition and several forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and nicotine administration has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both humans and rodents. While experiments with humans have shown that nicotine improves the ability to handle an increasing working memory load, little work has been done in animal models evaluating nicotine effects on performance as working memory load increases. In this report, we demonstrate that in aged rats nicotine improved the ability to handle an increasing working memory load as well as enhanced performance on the reference memory component of the water radial arm maze task. The dose required to exert these effects (0.3mg/kg/day) was much lower than doses shown to be effective in young rats and appears to be a lower maintenance dose than is seen in light to moderate smokers. In addition, our study reports a nicotine-induced reduction in nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels in the hippocampus of the aged rat. The effects of nicotine on hippocampal NGF levels are discussed as a potential mechanism of nicotine-induced improvements in working and reference memory.

  7. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  8. Undesired Teacher Behaviours According to the Studentship Memories of Prospective Teachers in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Hüseyin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the types of undesired behaviours observed by prospective primary school teachers during their studentship at primary school. 35 voluntary prospective teachers studying at the faculty of education in Adiyaman University participated into the study, which was conducted within qualitative research techniques.…

  9. The influence of emotional priming on the neural substrates of memory: a prospective fMRI study using portrait art stimuli.

    PubMed

    Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Mey, Johan; Bossuyt, Axel; Luypaert, Robert

    2012-07-16

    Events coupled with an emotional context seem to be better retained than non-emotional events. The aim of our study was to investigate whether an emotional context could influence the neural substrates of memory associations with novel portrait art stimuli. In the current prospective fMRI study, we have investigated for one specific visual art form (modern artistic portraits with a high degree of abstraction) whether memory is influenced by priming with emotional facial pictures. In total forty healthy female volunteers in the same age range were recruited for the study. Twenty of these women participated in a prospective brain imaging memory paradigm and were asked to memorize a series of similar looking, but different portraits. After randomization, for twelve participants (Group 1), a third of the portraits was emotionally primed with approach-related pictures (smiling baby faces), a third with withdrawal-related pictures (baby faces with severe dermatological conditions), and another third with neutral images. Group 2 consisted of eight participants and they were not primed. Then, during an fMRI session 2h later, these portraits were viewed in random order intermixed with a set of new (previously unseen) ones, and the participants had to decide for each portrait whether or not they had already been seen. In a separate experiment, a different sample of twenty healthy females (Group 3) rated their mood after being exposed to the same art stimuli, without priming. The portraits did not evoke significant mood changes by themselves, supporting their initial neutral emotional character (Group 3). The correct decision on whether the portraits were Familiar of Unfamiliar led to similar neuronal activations in brain areas implicated in visual and attention processing for both groups (Groups 1 and 2). In contrast, whereas primed participants showed significant higher neuronal activities in the left midline superior frontal cortex (Brodmann area (BA) 6), unprimed

  10. Executive and theory-of-mind contributions to event-based prospective memory in children: exploring the self-projection hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ford, Ruth M; Driscoll, Timothy; Shum, David; Macaulay, Catrin E

    2012-03-01

    In two studies, 4- to 6-year-olds were asked to name pictures of animals for the benefit of a watching hand puppet (the ongoing task) but to refrain from naming and to remove from view any pictures of dogs (the prospective memory [PM] task). Children also completed assessments of verbal ability, cognitive inhibition, working memory, and false-belief understanding (both studies), empathy (Study 1 only), and performance on false-sign tests that matched the false-belief tests in narrative content and structure (Study 2 only). Both studies found that inhibition and false-belief performance made unique contributions to the variance in PM, although in Study 1 the influence of inhibition was evident only when children needed to withhold naming. Study 2 further demonstrated that false-belief performance was the only reliable predictor of whether children remembered to return to the researcher an object that had been loaned to them prior to the picture-naming game. Both experiments uncovered moderate relations between PM and chronological age, but such relations were rarely significant after taking account of cognitive ability. We consider the implications of the findings for (a) current views regarding frontal/executive contributions to PM development and (b) the suggestion that the same brain network underlies various forms of mental self-projection, including envisioning the future and understanding the minds of other people.

  11. Age-Related Frontal Hyperactivation Observed across Different Working Memory Tasks: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Mohammad; Sikaroodi, Hajir; Maleki, Farid; Ali Oghabian, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hosein

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patterns of activation, convergence and divergence of three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Working Memory (WM) tasks in two different age groups. We want to understand potential impact of task and subjects’ age on WM activations as well as most important areas with regard to WM functions. Materials and methods: Thirty-five healthy volunteers completed visual, verbal, and novel auditory WM tasks. The subjects were selected from age extremes to depict possible impact of normal aging. The General Linear Model was used to report significant activations and the effect of age group. Contrasts revealed differences in activation between tasks, and Combined Task Analysis was performed to determine common regions of activation across tasks. Results: Most of the observed differences between the tasks were seen in areas that were responsible for feature processing. Frontal regions were mainstay activation areas, regardless of the utilized stimulus. We found an age-related reduction in activity of visual (in visually-presented tasks) and auditory (in auditory task) cortices but an age-related increase in prefrontal cortex for all tasks. Conclusion: Regardless of the type of the task stimuli, frontal regions are the most important activation areas in WM processing. These areas are also main targets of age-related changes with regard to activation patterns. Our results also indicate that prefrontal overactivity in working memory might be a compensatory effort to mask age-related decline in sensory processing. PMID:22885811

  12. Effects of exposure to heavy particles and aging on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard; Joseph, James; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Shannahan, Ryan; Hering, Kathleen

    Exposure to HZE particles produces changes in neurocognitive performance. These changes, including deficits in spatial learning and memory, object recognition memory and operant responding, are also observed in the aged organism. As such, it has been proposed that exposure to heavy particles produces "accelerated aging". Because aging is an ongoing process, it is possible that there would be an interaction between the effects of exposure and the effects of aging, such that doses of HZE particles that do not affect the performance of younger organisms will affect the performance of organisms as they age. The present experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that young rats that had been exposed to HZE particles would show a progressive deterioration in object recognition memory as a function of the age of testing. Rats were exposed to 12 C, 28 S or 48 Ti particles at the N.A.S.A. Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Following irradiation the rats were shipped to UMBC for behavioral testing. HZE particle-induced changes in object recognition memory were tested using a standard procedure: rats were placed in an open field and allowed to interact with two identical objects for up to 30 sec; twenty-four hrs later the rats were again placed in the open field, this time containing one familiar and one novel object. Non-irradiated control animals spent significantly more time with the novel object than with the familiar object. In contrast, the rats that been exposed to heavy particles spent equal amounts of time with both the novel and familiar object. The lowest dose of HZE particles which produced a disruption of object recognition memory was determined three months and eleven months following exposure. The threshold dose needed to disrupt object recognition memory three months following irradiation varied as a function of the specific particle and energy. When tested eleven months following irradiation, doses of HZE particles that did

  13. Childhood bullying behaviors at age eight and substance use at age 18 among males. A nationwide prospective study.

    PubMed

    Niemelä, S; Brunstein-Klomek, A; Sillanmäki, L; Helenius, H; Piha, J; Kumpulainen, K; Moilanen, I; Tamminen, T; Almqvist, F; Sourander, A

    2011-03-01

    Childhood bullying behaviors (bullying and victimization) were studied as risk factors for substance use among Finnish males. The study design was a nationwide prospective general population study, where information was collected in 1989 and 1999. Bullying behaviors and childhood psychopathology at age eight were collected from teachers, parents and boys themselves. At age 18, self-reports of frequent drunkenness (once a week or more often), daily heavy smoking (10 cigarettes or more per day), and illicit drug use during the past six months were obtained from 78% of the boys attending the study at age eight (n=2946). Being frequently victimized at age eight predicted daily heavy smoking, and this was evident even after adjusting for childhood family background, psychopathology at age eight and at age 18, and other forms of substance use. In multivariate analysis, bullying others frequently predicted illicit drug use, while being a victim of bullying associated with a lower occurrence of illicit drug use. Bullying behaviors had no association with frequent drunkenness independent of other factors. Accordingly, being a victim of bullying predisposes in particular to subsequent smoking. Bullying others in childhood can be regarded as an early indicator to illicit drug use later in life. The screening and intervention possibilities in order to recognize the risk group for later health compromising behaviors are emphasized.

  14. Representational explanations of "process" dissociations in recognition: the DRYAD theory of aging and memory judgments.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Aaron S

    2010-10-01

    It is widely assumed that older adults suffer a deficit in the psychological processes that underlie remembering of contextual or source information. This conclusion is based in large part on empirical interactions, including disordinal ones, that reveal differential effects of manipulations of memory strength on recognition in young and old subjects. This article lays out an alternative theory that takes as a starting point the overwhelming evidence from the psychometric literature that the effects of age on memory share a single mediating influence. Thus, the theory assumes no differences between younger and older subjects other than a global difference in memory fidelity--that is, the older subjects are presumed to have less valid representations of events and objects than are young subjects. The theory is articulated through 3 major assumptions and implemented in a computational model, DRYAD, to simulate fundamental results in the literature on aging and recognition, including the very interactions taken to imply selective impairment in older people. The theoretical perspective presented here allows for a critical examination of the widely held belief that aging entails the selective disruption of particular memory processes.

  15. Improved Learning and Memory in Aged Mice Deficient in Amyloid β-Degrading Neutral Endopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Walther, Thomas; Albrecht, Doris; Becker, Matthias; Schubert, Manja; Kouznetsova, Elena; Wiesner, Burkard; Maul, Björn; Schliebs, Reinhard; Grecksch, Gisela; Furkert, Jens; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Becker, Axel; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard

    2009-01-01

    Background Neutral endopeptidase, also known as neprilysin and abbreviated NEP, is considered to be one of the key enzymes in initial human amyloid-β (Aβ) degradation. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of NEP deficiency on the initial development of dementia-like symptoms in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings We found that while endogenous Aβ concentrations were elevated in the brains of NEP-knockout mice at all investigated age groups, immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies did not detect any Aβ deposits even in old NEP knockout mice. Surprisingly, tests of learning and memory revealed that the ability to learn was not reduced in old NEP-deficient mice but instead had significantly improved, and sustained learning and memory in the aged mice was congruent with improved long-term potentiation (LTP) in brain slices of the hippocampus and lateral amygdala. Our data suggests a beneficial effect of pharmacological inhibition of cerebral NEP on learning and memory in mice due to the accumulation of peptides other than Aβ degradable by NEP. By conducting degradation studies and peptide measurements in the brain of both genotypes, we identified two neuropeptide candidates, glucagon-like peptide 1 and galanin, as first potential candidates to be involved in the improved learning in aged NEP-deficient mice. Conclusions/Significance Thus, the existence of peptides targeted by NEP that improve learning and memory in older individuals may represent a promising avenue for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19240795

  16. ERP correlates of item recognition memory: effects of age and performance.

    PubMed

    Wolk, David A; Sen, N Mandu; Chong, Hyemi; Riis, Jenna L; McGinnis, Scott M; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2009-01-23

    Decline in episodic memory is a common feature of healthy aging. Event-related potential (ERP) studies in young adults have consistently reported several modulations thought to index memory retrieval processes, but relatively limited work has explored the impact of aging on them. Further, work with functional imaging has demonstrated differential neural recruitment in elderly subjects depending on their level of cognitive performance which may reflect compensatory or, alternatively, inefficient processing. In the present study we examined the effect of aging and level of performance on both early (FN400, LPC) and later [late frontal effect (LFE)] ERP indices of recognition memory. We found that the FN400 and LPC were absent or attenuated in the older group relative to young adults, but that the LFE was actually increased, analogous to findings in the functional imaging literature. Additionally, the latter effect was most prominent in the poorer performing older participants. These findings suggest that weak memory retrieval supported by earlier ERP modulations, may lead to an enhanced LFE in the service of additional retrieval attempts.

  17. Reading comprehension in aging: the role of working memory and metacomprehension.

    PubMed

    De Beni, Rossana; Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara

    2007-03-01

    This study examines age-related differences in reading comprehension analyzing the role of working memory and metacomprehension components in a sample of young (18-30 years), young-old (65-74 years), and old-old (75-85 years) participants. Text comprehension abilities were measured by a standardized test, including two texts: a narrative and an expository text. The elderly's reading comprehension performance, when compared to the norm, emerged to be adequate. More specifically, the young-old showed an equivalent level of comprehension as the young adults for the narrative text. However, a clear age-related decline was found in the case of the expository text. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that working memory capacity, as well as different metacomprehension components but not age, are the key aspects in explaining the different patterns of changes in the comprehension of narrative and expository texts.

  18. Professional expertise does not eliminate age differences in imagery-based memory performance during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lindenberger, U; Kliegl, R; Baltes, P B

    1992-12-01

    Using a testing-the-limits paradigm, the authors investigated the modulation (attenuation) of negative adult age differences in imagery-based memory performance as a function of professional expertise. Six older graphic designers, 6 normal older adults, 6 younger graphic design students, and 6 normal younger students participated in a 19-session program with a cued-recall variant of the Method of Loci. Older graphic designers attained higher levels of mnemonic performance than normal older adults but were not able to reach younger adults' level of performance; a perfect separation of age groups was achieved. Spatial visualization was a good predictor of mnemonic performance. Results suggest that negative adult age differences in imagery-based memory are attenuated but not eliminated by the advantages associated with criterion-relevant ability (talent) and experience.

  19. Age differences in working memory updating: the role of interference, focus switching and substituting information.

    PubMed

    Lendínez, Cristina; Pelegrina, Santiago; Lechuga, M Teresa

    2015-05-01

    Working memory updating (WMU) tasks require different elements in working memory (WM) to be maintained simultaneously, accessing one of these elements, and substituting its content. This study examined possible developmental changes from childhood to adulthood both in focus switching and substituting information in WM. In addition, possible age-related changes in interference due to representational overlap between the different elements simultaneously held in these tasks were examined. Children (8- and 11-year-olds), adolescents (14-year-olds) and younger adults (mean age=22 years) were administered a numerical updating memory task, in which updating and focus switching were manipulated. As expected, response times decreased and recall performance increased with age. More importantly, the time needed for focus switching was longer in children than in adolescents and younger adults. On the other hand, substitution of information and interference due to representational overlap were not affected by age. These results suggest that age-related changes in focus switching might mediate developmental changes in WMU performance.

  20. Effects of healthy ageing on precision and binding of object location in visual short term memory.

    PubMed

    Pertzov, Yoni; Heider, Maike; Liang, Yuying; Husain, Masud

    2015-03-01

    Visual short term memory (STM) declines as people get older, but the nature of this deterioration is not well understood. We tested 139 healthy subjects (19-83 years) who were first required to identify a previously seen object and then report its location using a touchscreen. Results demonstrated an age-related decline in both object identification and localization. Deterioration in localization performance was apparent even when only 1 item had to be remembered, worsening disproportionately with increasing memory load. Thus, age-dependent memory degradation cannot be explained simply by a decrease in the number of items that can be held in visual STM but rather by the precision with which they are recalled. More important, there was no evidence for a significant decrease in object-location binding with increasing age. Thus, although precision for object identity and location declines with age, the ability to associate object identity to its location seems to remain unimpaired. As it has been reported that binding deficits in STM might be the first cognitive signs of early Alzheimer's disease (AD), the finding that object-location binding processes are relatively intact with normal aging supports the possible suitability of using misbinding as an index measures for probing early diagnosis of AD.

  1. Oral administration of squid lecithin-transphosphatidylated phosphatidylserine improves memory impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bombi; Sur, Bong-Jun; Han, Jeong-Jun; Shim, Insop; Her, Song; Lee, Yang-Seok; Lee, Hye-Jung; Hahm, Dae-Hyun

    2015-01-02

    Recently, lecithin-derived phosphatidylserine (PS), which originates from marine life, has received much attention as a viable alternative to bovine cerebral cortex PS. In this study, the use of squid phosphatidylcholine-transphosphatidylated PS (SQ-PS) was evaluated through examination of its ameliorating effects on age-associated learning and memory deficits in rats. Aged rats were orally administered SQ-PS (10, 20, or 50 mg/kg per day) once a day for seven days 30 min prior to behavioral assessment in a Morris water maze. SQ-PS administration produced significant dose-dependent improvements in escape latency for finding the platform in the Morris water maze in the aged rats even though Soy-PS administration also exhibited comparable improvements with SQ-PS. Biochemical alterations in the hippocampal cholinergic system, including changes in choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholinesterase immunoreactivity, were consistent with the behavioral results. In addition, SQ-PS treatment significantly restored age-associated decreases of choline transporter and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor type 1 mRNA expression in the hippocampus. These results demonstrate that orally administered SQ-PS dose-dependently aids in the improvement of memory deficits that occur during normal aging in rats. This suggests that SQ-PS may be a useful therapeutic agent in the treatment of diminished memory function in elderly people.

  2. Prior Parity Positively Regulates Learning and Memory in Young and Middle-Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zimberknopf, Erica; Xavier, Gilberto F; Kinsley, Craig H; Felicio, Luciano F

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive experience in female rats modifies acquired behaviors, induces long-lasting functional neuroadaptations and can also modify spatial learning and memory. The present study supports and expands this knowledge base by employing the Morris water maze, which measures spatial memory. Age-matched young adult (YNG) nulliparous (NULL; nonmated) and primiparous (PRIM; one pregnancy and lactation) female rats were tested 15 d after the litter's weaning. In addition, corresponding middle-aged (AGD) PRIM (mated in young adulthood so that pregnancy, parturition, and lactation occurred at the same age as in YNG PRIM) and NULL female rats were tested at 18 mo of age. Behavioral evaluation included: 1) acquisition of reference memory (platform location was fixed for 14 to 19 d of testing); 2) retrieval of this information associated with extinction of the acquired response (probe test involving removal of the platform 24 h after the last training session); and 3) performance in a working memory version of the task (platform presented in a novel location every day for 13 d, and maintained in a fixed location within each day). YNG PRIM outperformed NULL rats and showed different behavioral strategies. These results may be related to changes in locomotor, mnemonic, and cognitive processes. In addition, YNG PRIM exhibited less anxiety-like behavior. Compared with YNG rats, AGD rats showed less behavioral flexibility but stronger memory consolidation. These data, which were obtained by using a well-documented spatial task, demonstrate long lasting modifications of behavioral strategies in both YNG and AGD rats associated with a single reproductive experience. PMID:22330253

  3. Impacts of Normal Aging on Different Working Memory Tasks: Implications from an fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Fakhri, Mohammad; Sikaroodi, Hajir; Maleki, Farid; Ghanaati, Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate patterns of activation, convergence and divergence of three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) Working Memory (WM) tasks in two different age groups. We want to understand potential impact of task and subjects’ age on WM activations as well as most important areas with regard to WM functions. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five healthy volunteers completed visual, verbal, and novel auditory WM tasks. The subjects were selected from age extremes to depict possible impact of normal aging. General Linear Model was used to report significant activations and the effect of group. One-to-one comparison of the tasks and Combined Task Analysis was also performed. Results: Most of the observed differences between the tasks were seen in areas that were responsible for feature processing. Frontal regions were mainstay activation areas, regardless of the utilized stimulus. We found an age-related reduction in activity of visual (in visually-presented tasks) and auditory (in auditory task) cortices but an age-related increase in prefrontal cortex for all tasks. Conclusion: Regardless of the type of the task stimuli, frontal regions are the most important activation areas in WM processing. These areas are also main targets of age-related changes with regard to activation patterns. Our results also indicate that prefrontal overactivity in working memory might be a compensatory effort to mask age-related decline in sensory processing. PMID:22954588

  4. Memory impairment in rats after desflurane anesthesia is age and dose dependent.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Jennifer K; Jones, Nigel C; Royse, Alistair G; Royse, Colin F

    2015-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) predominantly affects the elderly who suffer memory and concentration deficits after anesthesia and surgery. Animal studies have demonstrated anesthetic alone may contribute to POCD but results are variable and little is known about common anesthetics other than isoflurane. The present study investigated dose-dependence of desflurane anesthesia in young adult and aged rats. We hypothesize higher concentrations of desflurane will result in memory impairment in the water maze and that impairment will be worse in aged rats. Effects of anesthesia (1 or 1.5 MAC, 4 h) desflurane, or sham exposure on cognition were investigated in young adult (3 months) and aged (20-24 months) rats at 1, 4, and 12 weeks post-exposure. The Morris water maze was used to assess acquisition and retention of spatial reference memory. Latency to find the hidden platform and swimming speed were compared between treatments. Aged rats showed significant impairment in task acquisition after exposure to 1.5 MAC, but not 1.0 MAC desflurane anesthetic when tested 1 week following exposure. Latency to find the platform and distance travelled were significantly longer in aged rats given 1.5 MAC desflurane (latency: F(1,108) = 19.71, p < 0.0001; distance: F(1,108) = 5.79, p = 0.018). Deficits were not long-lasting and were no longer present at 4 or 12 weeks. In contrast, young adult rats performed equally as well as sham-exposed control rats irrespective of desflurane dose. This study showed the effects of desflurane on learning and memory in the water maze are age and dose dependent and are brief in duration.

  5. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    PubMed

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  6. Brain functional correlates of working memory: reduced load-modulated activation and deactivation in aging without hyperactivation or functional reorganization.

    PubMed

    Kaup, Allison R; Drummond, Sean P A; Eyler, Lisa T

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to identify brain functional correlates of working memory performance in aging, in hopes of facilitating understanding of mechanisms that promote better versus worse working memory in late-life. Among 64 healthy adults, aged 23 to 78, we examined the relationship between age, working memory performance, and brain functional response during task performance. We focused on the association between working memory load-modulated functional response and individual differences in performance and whether these function-performance relationships differed with age. As expected, older age was associated with poorer working memory performance. Older age was also associated with reduced load-modulated activation including in bilateral prefrontal and parietal regions and left caudate as well as reduced deactivation including in the medial prefrontal cortex. Contrary to findings of hyperactivation in aging, we found no evidence of increased activation with older age. Positive associations identified between brain response and performance did not differ with age. Our findings suggest that the neural mechanisms underlying better versus worse working memory performance are age-invariant across adulthood, and argue against a pattern of functional reorganization in aging. Results are discussed within the broader literature, in which significant heterogeneity in findings between studies has been common.

  7. A diffusion tensor imaging and neuropsychological study of prospective memory impairment in South African HIV positive individuals.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Jacqueline; Jacqueline, Hoare; Westgarth-Taylor, Jenny; Jenny, Westgarth-Taylor; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Jean-Paul, Fouche; Spottiswoode, Bruce; Bruce, Spottiswoode; Paul, Robert; Robert, Paul; Thomas, Kevin; Kevin, Thomas; Stein, Dan; Dan, Stein; Joska, John; John, Joska

    2012-09-01

    HIV-associated prospective memory (ProM) impairment has emerged, in earlier studies as a significant predictor of medication management and independence in activities of daily living. The relationship between ProM and white matter integrity in HIV has not previously been investigated. Participants, including 128 HIV-infected individuals and 32 healthy controls, were assessed using a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation and both objective and subjective measures of ProM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was utilized to investigate the relationship of white matter integrity to ProM in a randomly selected subsample of 40 HIV positive subjects, using a whole brain voxel-based approach to define fractional anisotrophy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD). Total prospective memory was significantly poorer in the HIV positive group when compared with healthy controls (p = 0.023). Time-based ProM was poorer in the HIV group compared to healthy controls both without prompts (p = 0.001) and with prompts (p = 0.001). Poor Total ProM score correlated with performance on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning, information processing speed, learning, and working memory (p < 0.05). Those HIV positive participants with poor ProM had significantly decreased FA in the regions of superior corona radiata (p = 0.0035), the corpus collosum (p = 0.006) and the cingulum (p = 0.0033) when compared to those who were HIV positive with good ProM. This study reinforces the importance of ProM assessment in HIV.

  8. Aging selectively impairs recollection in recognition memory for pictures: Evidence from modeling and ROC curves

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Marc W.; Bessette-Symons, Brandy; Zhang, Yaofei; Hoyer, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older adults were tested on recognition memory for pictures. The Yonelinas high threshold (YHT) model, a formal implementation of two-process theory, fit the response distribution data of both younger and older adults significantly better than a normal unequal variance signal detection model. Consistent with this finding, non-linear zROC curves were obtained for both groups. Estimates of recollection from the YHT model were significantly higher for younger than older adults. This deficit was not a consequence of a general decline in memory; older adults showed comparable overall accuracy and in fact a non-significant increase in their familiarity scores. Implications of these results for theories of recognition memory and the mnemonic deficit associated with aging are discussed. PMID:16594795

  9. Compensating for Memory Losses throughout aging: Validation and Normalization of the Memory Compensation Questionnaire for Non-Clinical French Populations

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Sophie; Mazzocco, Clémence; Maury, Pascale; Grosselin, Anne; Van der Elst, Wim; Dixon, Roger A.; Stephan, Yannick; Brouillet, Denis

    2015-01-01

    The MCQ is a seven-factor scale that measures individual differences in the tendency to select particular strategies and to overcome perceived or real memory losses. Our aim was to establish a French version of the MCQ and to evaluate its psychometric properties in a lifespan perspective. We first tested the underlying factor structure of the MCQ in a large sample of 749 adults from aged from 18 to 92 years. Results showed that the factor structure of the French version corresponded well with the one obtained in English-, Dutch- and Spanish-speaking samples, supporting the cross-national robustness of the MCQ. We confirmed a seven-factor order model that supports the construct validity of the questionnaire. The reliabilities of the scales were good (α > .70) to acceptable (α = .66 and .62). Criterion validity was verified by means of significant correlations between health composites and MCQ subscales. Gender and Age affected most of the MCQ subscales but not the level of education. The MCQ revealed to be a heuristic tool for assessing daily compensatory behaviors that are developed in order to achieve successful aging. Thus, regression-based normative data and a user-friendly computer program were provided to facilitate scoring and norming by clinicians and researchers dealing with aging. PMID:25459917

  10. The role of dual-task and task-switch in prospective memory: behavioural data and neural correlates.

    PubMed

    Bisiacchi, Patrizia S; Schiff, Sami; Ciccola, Alessia; Kliegel, Matthias

    2009-04-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue while being actively engaged in an ongoing task in which the cue is embedded. To date, experimental paradigms vary as to whether or not they require participants immediately to stop working on the ongoing task whenever they encounter a PM event (cue) and directly switch to the prospective action (task-switch approach). Alternatively, several other paradigms used in the literature encourage participants to continue working on the ongoing task item after the cue, and only then, perform the prospective action (dual-task approach). The present study explores the possible behavioural and electrophysiological effects that both approaches may have on PM performance. Seventeen young adults performed both versions of a standard PM task in a counterbalanced order during which behavioural data and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded. Behavioural data showed a decrement in PM performance in the task-switch compared to the dual-task condition. In addition, EEG data revealed differences between the dual-task and task-switch approach in event-related potential (ERP) components associated with response inhibition and with post-retrieval monitoring (i.e. late positive complex). No differences between the two tasks were found with regard to the PM event detection processes (i.e. N300) and the retrieval of the intended action from long-term memory. In sum, findings demonstrate that it does make a difference which task approach is applied and suggest that dual-task and task-switch paradigms may result in different processing and neurophysiological dynamics particularly concerning attentional resources and cognitive control.

  11. Iron Level and Myelin Content in the Ventral Striatum Predict Memory Performance in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weiskopf, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Age-related memory impairments have been associated with structural changes in the dopaminergic system, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent work indicates that iron accumulation might be of particular relevance. As iron accumulates, a degeneration of myelin sheaths has been observed in the elderly, but the relationship between both and their impact on memory performance in healthy elderly humans remain important open questions. To address this issue, we combined an established behavioral paradigm to test memory performance [verbal learning memory test (VLMT)] with state of the art quantitative magnetic resonance imaging techniques allowing us to quantify the degree of myelination and iron accumulation via markers of tissue microstructure in a group of young (18–32 years) and healthy elderly humans (55–79 years). As expected, we observed a decrease in gray matter volume and myelin, and an increase of iron in the elderly relative to the young subjects within widespread brain regions, including the basal ganglia. Furthermore, higher levels of iron within the ventral striatum were accompanied by a negative correlation between myelin and iron specific for the elderly participants. Importantly, both markers of iron and myelin (and their ratio) predicted the performance of the elderly in the VLMT. This suggests that ventral striatum iron accumulation is linked to demyelination and impairments in declarative memory. Together, our data provide novel insights into underlying microstructural mechanisms of memory decline in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory decline in healthy elderly is a common phenomenon, but the underlying neural mechanisms remain unclear. We used a novel approach that allowed us to combine behavior and whole-brain measures of iron, myelin, and gray matter in the participant's individual subspace to analyze structure–structure and structure–behavior interactions. We were able to show, that age-related high levels of iron

  12. "Forgetting to remember" in Huntington's disease: a study of laboratory, semi-naturalistic, and self-perceptions of prospective memory.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, Diane R; Pirogovsky, Eva; Woods, Steven Paul; Holden, Heather M; Filoteo, J Vincent; Gluhm, Shea; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Gilbert, Paul E

    2014-02-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is dependent on executive processes known to be impaired in Huntington's disease (HD); however, no study to the authors' knowledge has investigated PM in this group. We examined performance-based, semi-naturalistic, and self-reported PM in 20 individuals diagnosed with mild-moderate HD and 20 demographically similar controls. Relative to controls, HD participants demonstrated significantly lower scores in time-based PM, event-based PM (at a trend level), and the semi-naturalistic PM trial, all of which were marked by omission errors. HD participants demonstrated comparable recognition memory for the PM intentions relative to controls. HD and control participants also showed comparable scores in self-reported PM complaints. The results suggest that HD is associated with deficits in the strategic aspects of PM. HD-associated PM deficits also are evident in real-world situations, which may relate to an apparent meta-memory deficit for PM functioning as indicated by HD participants' overestimation of their PM performance on self-report.

  13. Supporting older and younger adults' memory for recent everyday events: A prospective sampling study using SenseCam.

    PubMed

    Mair, Ali; Poirier, Marie; Conway, Martin A

    2017-03-01

    This study measured the effect of a wearable camera, SenseCam, on older and younger adults' memories of recently experienced everyday events. Participants used SenseCam to prospectively sample events from a typical week, which they recalled two weeks later. Recall was cued by a self-generated title only (control condition), by the title and forward-order SenseCam images, or by the title and random-order SenseCam images. In the control condition, older and younger adults' memories were comparably episodic, but older adults recalled more semantic details. Both forward- and random-order SenseCam images were associated with increased episodic and semantic recall in both groups, and there was a small but significant effect of temporal order favouring the forward-order condition. These findings suggest that SenseCam is effective in supporting retrieval of memory for recent events, and the results of the temporal order manipulation also shed light on the mechanism of SenseCam's effect.

  14. Prospective memory rehabilitation using smartphones in patients with TBI: What do participants report?

    PubMed

    Evald, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Use of assistive devices has been shown to be beneficial as a compensatory memory strategy among brain injury survivors, but little is known about possible advantages and disadvantages of the technology. As part of an intervention study participants were interviewed about their experiences with the use of low-cost, off-the-shelf, unmodified smartphones combined with Internet calendars as a compensatory memory strategy. Thirteen community-dwelling patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) received a 6-week group-based instruction in the systematic use of a smartphone as a memory compensatory aid followed by a brief structured open-ended interview regarding satisfaction with and advantages and disadvantages of the compensatory strategy. Ten of 13 participants continued to use a smartphone as their primary compensatory strategy. Audible and visual reminders were the most frequently mentioned advantages of the smartphone, and, second, the capability as an all-in-one memory device. In contrast, battery life was the most often mentioned disadvantage, followed by concerns about loss or failure of the device. Use of a smartphone seems to be a satisfactory compensatory memory strategy to many patients with TBI and smartphones come with features that are advantageous to other compensatory strategies. However, some benefits come hand-in-hand with drawbacks, such as the feeling of dependency. These aspects should be taken into account when choosing assistive technology as a memory compensatory strategy.

  15. Prospective memory and antiretroviral medication non-adherence in HIV: an analysis of ongoing task delay length using the memory for intentions screening test.

    PubMed

    Poquette, Amelia J; Moore, David J; Gouaux, Ben; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-02-01

    Using multi-process framework by McDaniel and Einstein (2000), the current study examined whether the length of prospective memory (PM) delay intervals as measured by the 2- and 15-min subscales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) have differential predictive value for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Participants included 74 HIV-infected individuals whose ARV adherence was tracked with an electronic monitoring system. Participants were classified as "adherent" (n = 49) or "non-adherent" (n = 25) based on recorded pill bottle openings of ≥90% of prescribed doses over 30 days. An adherence group by MIST delay interval interaction was observed, such that non-adherent participants had worse performance on the 15-min, but not 2-min delay PM MIST subscales. The observed MIST 15-min delay effects were significantly more pronounced on time- versus event-cued PM trials. Long-delay time-based PM was predictive of non-adherence independent of demographics, mood state, self-reported adherence, and general cognitive functioning. Findings from this clinical study indicate that ARV non-adherence may be particularly associated with deficits in strategic cue monitoring over longer PM delays, which may inform interventions to improve adherence among persons living with HIV infection.

  16. Prospective Memory and Antiretroviral Medication Non-Adherence in HIV: An Analysis of Ongoing Task Delay Length Using the Memory for Intentions Screening Test

    PubMed Central

    Poquette, Amelia J.; Moore, David J.; Gouaux, Ben; Morgan, Erin E.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    Using McDaniel & Einstein’s (2000) multi-process framework, the current study examined whether the length of prospective memory (PM) delay intervals as measured by the 2- and 15- minute subscales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test (MIST) have differential predictive value for antiretroviral (ARV) adherence. Participants included 74 HIV-infected individuals whose ARV adherence was tracked with an electronic monitoring system. Participants were classified as “adherent” (n = 49) or “non-adherent” (n = 25) based on recorded pill bottle openings of ≥90% of prescribed doses over 30 days. An adherence group by MIST delay interval interaction was observed, such that non-adherent participants had worse performance on the 15-min, but not 2-min delay PM MIST subscales. The observed MIST 15- min delay effects were significantly more pronounced on time- versus event-cued PM trials. Long-delay time-based PM was predictive of non-adherence independent of demographics, mood state, self-reported adherence, and general cognitive functioning. Findings from this clinical study indicate that ARV non-adherence may be particularly associated with deficits in strategic cue monitoring over longer PM delays, which may inform interventions to improve adherence among persons living with HIV infection. PMID:23095304

  17. Gender and iron genes may modify associations between brain iron and memory in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Bartzokis, George; Lu, Po H; Tingus, Kathleen; Peters, Douglas G; Amar, Chetan P; Tishler, Todd A; Finn, J Paul; Villablanca, Pablo; Altshuler, Lori L; Mintz, Jim; Neely, Elizabeth; Connor, James R

    2011-06-01

    Brain iron increases with age and is abnormally elevated early in the disease process in several neurodegenerative disorders that impact memory including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Higher brain iron levels are associated with male gender and presence of highly prevalent allelic variants in genes encoding for iron metabolism proteins (hemochromatosis H63D (HFE H63D) and transferrin C2 (TfC2)). In this study, we examined whether in healthy older individuals memory performance is associated with increased brain iron, and whether gender and gene variant carrier (IRON+) vs noncarrier (IRON-) status (for HFE H63D/TfC2) modify the associations. Tissue iron deposited in ferritin molecules can be measured in vivo with magnetic resonance imaging utilizing the field-dependent relaxation rate increase (FDRI) method. FDRI was assessed in hippocampus, basal ganglia, and white matter, and IRON+ vs IRON- status was determined in a cohort of 63 healthy older individuals. Three cognitive domains were assessed: verbal memory (delayed recall), working memory/attention, and processing speed. Independent of gene status, worse verbal-memory performance was associated with higher hippocampal iron in men (r=-0.50, p=0.003) but not in women. Independent of gender, worse verbal working memory performance was associated with higher basal ganglia iron in IRON- group (r=-0.49, p=0.005) but not in the IRON+ group. Between-group interactions (p=0.006) were noted for both of these associations. No significant associations with white matter or processing speed were observed. The results suggest that in specific subgroups of healthy older individuals, higher accumulations of iron in vulnerable gray matter regions may adversely impact memory functions and could represent a risk factor for accelerated cognitive decline. Combining genetic and MRI biomarkers may provide opportunities to design primary prevention clinical trials that target high-risk groups.

  18. [Diversity of the psychopathology of memory complaints in the aging adult].

    PubMed

    Verdon, Benoît

    2007-09-01

    A strong correlation was frequently observed between memory complaints and the scores obtained on anxiety and depression scales. This paper contributes to explore the psychopathological basis of the experience of decreased memory efficiency. Our research, based on a clinical psychopathological methodology, rests upon semi-directed interviews associated with a psychological examination combining neuropsychological tests and projective methodology. The population consists of 31 subjects aged 53 to 85 years, who presented with memory complaint upon their own initiative in a memory clinic and for whom the neuropsychological examination ruled out the hypothesis of the onset of cerebral deterioration. The patients exhibited more or less mild neurotic, borderline and narcissistic psychic modes of functioning. There was no patient exhibiting psychotic functioning. We have been able to verify among the neurotic patients how the emphasis of anxiety of memory loss correspond to a revival of the anxiety of castration, that of being dispossessed of capacities which guarantee autonomy, judgement, power of decision and action. Furthermore, in the contemporary context of cerebral pathologies which can transform every intelligent man in a dependent, indeed bedridden being, this complaint jointly betrays an anxiety triggered by the risk of a violated intimacy due to the care which could be given as well as an anxiety linked to eviction, dispossession and to acts of mistreatment which are greatly apprehended. In patients exhibiting borderline functioning, the complaint of memory decline betrayed anxiety of fracture and dissolution of the self, and of lack of object-support. In narcissistic patients, the weakness of memory mobilisation eradicated the illusion that time does not pass, does not cause damage and that objects neither leave nor die.

  19. Decelerating Mortality Rates in Older Ages and its Prospects through Lee-Carter Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Yadav, Suryakant; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2012-01-01

    The present study attempts to study the age pattern mortality and prospects through Lee-Carter approach. The objectives of the study are to examine the trend of mortality decline and life expectancy. Contemporaneously, we have projected life expectancy up to 2025, projecting ASDR using Lee-Carter method. Life table aging rate (LAR) used to estimate the rate of mortality deceleration. Overtime, LAR increased and during recent decade it remained more or less unchanged. By age, LAR significant increased in the oldest of old. The slope is steepest in the oldest of old in the recent decade. The rates of mortality increased in oldest of old as the age group is more vulnerable to chronic disease and vulnerable to identifiable risk factors for virtually every disease, marked by senility. The analysis revealed that the level of mortality is not declining but rate of acceleration is declining and is further expected to decline. By the year 2025, the age specific death rates for the age group 5–9 and 10–14 will go below one per thousand.Life expectancy will attained as high as 73 and 79 years for male and female and is further expected to increase linearly. 71 percent of total female birth and 57 percent of total male birth will survive up to age 70+. Also the findings revealed that mortality rate is declining with constant rate up to age 70 and thereafter, the mortality rate accelerates and this holds true for both sexes. PMID:23236414

  20. Prevalence of memory disorders in ambulatory patients aged ≥70 years with chronic heart failure (from the EFICARE study).

    PubMed

    Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; de Groote, Pascal; Galinier, Michel; Isnard, Richard; Logeart, Damien; Komajda, Michel

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this multicenter observational study conducted in France was to determine the prevalence of memory impairment in ambulatory patients aged≥70 years with chronic heart failure (HF). Two hundred ninety-one cardiologists recruited 912 ambulatory patients with HF (mean age 79.2±5.8 years) from January to November 2009. Memory was evaluated by the delayed-recall Memory Impairment Screen (MIS-D). Memory impairment was defined as MIS-D score≤6 and severe memory impairment as MIS-D score≤4. HF was diagnosed 4.4±4.8 years earlier and mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 43.6±12.0%. Memory impairment was found in 416 subjects (45.6%, 95% confidence interval 42.4 to 48.8) and severe memory impairment in 213 subjects (23.4%, 95% confidence interval 20.6 to 26.1), whereas cardiologists only suspected memory impairment in 109 patients (12%; before evaluation by MIS). Determinants of memory disorders included older age, lower education level, depression, history of stroke, renal failure, and less regular physical activity. The severity of memory impairment increased with increasing severity of HF (New York Heart Association classification; p<0.00001). In conclusion, memory impairment in older patients with HF is common. The use of a simple-to-use tool such as the MIS-D may identify patients at risk and enable implementation of management strategies to improve therapeutic compliance.

  1. Voluntary exercise rescues sevoflurane-induced memory impairment in aged male mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dan; Tian, Miao; Ma, Zhiming; Zhang, Leilei; Cui, Yunfeng; Li, Jinlong

    2016-12-01

    Postoperative cognitive impairment is especially common in older patients following major surgery. Although exposure to sevoflurane is known to cause memory deficits, few studies have examined the putative approaches to reduce such impairments. This study tested the hypotheses that sevoflurane exposure can decrease NR2B subunit-containing NMDA receptor activity in hippocampus of aged mice, and voluntary exercise may counteract the declining hippocampal functions. We found that long exposure (3 h/day for 3 days), but not short exposure (1 h/day for 3 days), to 3 % sevoflurane produced a long-lasting spatial memory deficits up to 3 weeks in aged mice, and such an effect was not due to the neuronal loss in the hippocampus, but was correlated with a long-term decrease in Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus. Furthermore, voluntary exercise rescued sevoflurane-induced spatial memory deficits in aged mice and restored Fyn kinase expression and NR2B subunit phosphorylation in the hippocampus to a level comparable to control animals. Generally, our results suggested that Fyn-mediated NR2B subunit phosphorylation may play a critical role in sevoflurane-induced impairment in cognitive functions in aged animals, and voluntary exercise might be an important non-pharmacological approach to treatment of inhaled anesthetics-induced postoperative cognitive impairment in clinical settings.

  2. DRYAD and ADH: Further comments on explaining age-related differences in memory.

    PubMed

    Naveh-Benjamin, Moshe; Smyth, Andrea C

    2016-02-01

    Recently, Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) questioned some of the main assumptions/hypotheses of DRYAD (or density of representations yields age-related deficits), a global-deficit model of aging and memory judgments (Benjamin, 2010; Benjamin et al., 2012). Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016) provided empirical evidence that seems incompatible with DRYAD, but that fits the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH; Naveh-Benjamin, 2000), 1 specific-deficit theoretical view. In response, Aaron Benjamin (2016) offered a discussion of the complementary strengths and weaknesses of the DRYAD and the ADH, and the potential ways they might work together. We agree with many of his comments, but are not convinced that DRYAD is able to explain basic replicable empirical evidence of the type mentioned in Smyth and Naveh-Benjamin (2016). We discuss the reasons why we are not fully convinced by the demonstration of DRYAD's simulation of results presented in Benjamin (2016) and then present an implementation of ADH in a computationally based age-related impaired neuromodulation approach that was shown to simulate the basic empirical results of age-related associative memory deficits. We also discuss the issues of parsimony of theories and the appropriate type of representation, in the context of global versus specific deficits theoretical views. Finally, we show that the ADH's take on the distinction between items and associations has been adopted by some global computational models of memory. We believe that considerations of the above issues and others raised by Benjamin (2016) can lead to fruitful discussions that will benefit both theory development and existing knowledge of aging and memory.

  3. Memory retrieval improvement by Ptychopetalum olacoides in young and aging mice.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Adriana L; Piato, Angelo L S; Bardini, Simone; Netto, Carlos A; Nunes, Domingos S; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2004-12-01

    Amazonian peoples use traditional remedies prepared with Ptychopetalum olacoides (PO) roots for treating various age-related conditions. This study shows that a single intraperitoneally (i.p.) administration of Ptychopetalum olacoides ethanol extract (POEE, 50 and 100mg/kg) improved memory retrieval in step-down inhibitory avoidance (P memory amelioration was also observed (P aging (14 months) mice presenting memory deficit (14.95 [10.8-41]) as compared to adult (2.5 months) mice (57 [15.7-141.2]), with the extract given acutely i.p. 100 mg/kg (300 [133.1-300] versus control 14.95 [10.8-41]) or p.o. 800 mg/kg (28.4 [15.1-84.6] versus control 11.5 [7.8-23.3]). Indeed, aging mice treated with POEE (800 mg/kg, p.o.) performed as well as adult mice. Consistently with its traditional use, the data suggest that POEE facilitates memory retrieval. Although the antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties previously described for this extract may be of relevance, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the improvement in memory retrieval here reported merit further scrutiny.

  4. Frontotemporal Network Connectivity during Memory Encoding Is Increased with Aging and Disrupted by Beta-Amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Jagust, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of cognitively normal older adults harbor brain β-amyloid (Aβ), a prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease associated with neural alterations and episodic memory decline. We examined how aging and Aβ deposition affect neural function during memory encoding of visual scenes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans. Thirty-six cognitively normal older people underwent fMRI scanning, and positron emission tomography with [11C] Pittsburgh compound B to measure fibrillar brain Aβ; 15 young subjects were studied with fMRI. Older adults without Aβ deposition showed reduced regional brain activation (compared with young subjects) with decreased task-independent functional connectivity between parahippocampal gyrus and prefrontal cortex. In this network, task-related connectivity was increased compared with young subjects, and the degree of connectivity was related to memory performance. In contrast, older individuals with Aβ deposition showed no such increased task-related network connectivity, but did display increased regional activity unassociated with performance. These findings suggest that network connectivity plays a significant role in compensating for reduced regional activity during successful memory encoding in aging without Aβ deposition, while in those with Aβ this network compensation fails and is accompanied by inefficient regional hyperactivation. PMID:24259567

  5. Age-Related Effects on Memory for Social Stimuli: The Role of Valence, Arousal, and Emotional Responses.

    PubMed

    Hess, Thomas M; Popham, Lauren E; Growney, Claire M

    2017-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Previous research (Hess et al., 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 853-863) suggested that age-based positivity effects in memory were attenuated with social stimuli. This research examined the degree to which this generalized across arousal levels associated with social images. Variations in approach and avoidance responses to individual images were also examined, along with age differences in their relationship to memory performance.

  6. Reversal of aging-related emotional memory deficits by norepinephrine via regulating the stability of surface AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Zhou, Jun; Li, Ming-Xing; Wu, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Jin, You; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related emotional memory deficit is a well-known complication in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. To address this issue, we examined the role of norepinephrine (NE) and its relevant drug desipramine in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), surface expression of AMPA receptor, and associative fear memory in rats. We found that there was a defective regulation of NE content and AMPA receptor trafficking during fear conditioning, which were accompanied by impaired emotional memory and LTP in aged rats. Furthermore, we also found that the exogenous upregulation of NE ameliorated the impairment of LTP and emotional memory via enhancing AMPA receptor trafficking in aged rats, and the downregulation of NE impaired LTP in adult rats. Finally, acute treatment with NE or desipramine rescued the impaired emotional memory in aged rats. These results imply a pivotal role for NE in synaptic plasticity and associative fear memory in aging rats and suggest that desipramine is a potential candidate for treating aging-related emotional memory deficit.

  7. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  8. ERPs and their brain sources in perceptual and conceptual prospective memory tasks: Commonalities and differences between the two tasks.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Gabriela; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Makeig, Scott; Kilborn, Kerry; Evans, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    The present study examined whether Event-Related Potential (ERP) components and their neural generators are common to perceptual and conceptual prospective memory (PM) tasks or specific to the form of PM cue involved. We used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to study the contributions of brain source activities to scalp ERPs across the different phases of two event-based PM-tasks: (1) holding intentions during a delay (monitoring) (2) detecting the correct context to perform the delayed intention (cue detection) and (3) carrying out the action (realisation of delayed intentions). Results showed that monitoring for both perceptual and conceptual PM-tasks was characterised by an enhanced early occipital negativity (N200). In addition the conceptual PM-task showed a long-lasting effect of monitoring significant around 700ms. Perceptual PM-task cues elicited an N300 enhancement associated with cue detection, whereas a midline N400-like response was evoked by conceptual PM-task cues. The Prospective Positivity associated with realisation of delayed intentions was observed in both conceptual and perceptual tasks. A common frontal-midline brain source contributed to the Prospective Positivity in both tasks and a strong contribution from parieto-frontal brain sources was observed only for the perceptually cued PM-task. These findings support the idea that: (1) The enhanced N200 can be understood as a neural correlate of a 'retrieval mode' for perceptual and conceptual PM-tasks, and additional strategic monitoring is implemented according the nature of the PM task; (2) ERPs associated with cue detection are specific to the nature of the PM cues; (3) Prospective Positivity reflects a general PM process, but the specific brain sources contributing to it depend upon the nature of the PM task.

  9. Who, when, and where? Age-related differences on a new memory test

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Catherine A.; Holden, Heather M.; Van Etten, Emily J.; Wagner, Gabrielle M.; Hileman, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Our study examined age-related differences on a new memory test assessing memory for “who,” “when,” and “where,” and associations among these elements. Participants were required to remember a sequence of pictures of different faces paired with different places. Older adults remembered significantly fewer correct face–place pairs in the correct sequence compared with young adults. Correlation analyses with standardized neuropsychological tests provide preliminary evidence for construct validity. Our results offer insight into age-related changes in the ability to remember associations between people and places at different points in time using a portable test that can be administered rapidly in various settings. PMID:26670185

  10. Cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and memory in the aging bilingual brain

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Angela; Dennis, Nancy A.; Li, Ping

    2014-01-01

    In recent years bilingualism has been linked to both advantages in executive control and positive impacts on aging. Such positive cognitive effects of bilingualism have been attributed to the increased need for language control during bilingual processing and increased cognitive reserve, respectively. However, a mechanistic explanation of how bilingual experience contributes to cognitive reserve is still lacking. The current paper proposes a new focus on bilingual memory as an avenue to explore the relationship between executive control and cognitive reserve. We argue that this focus will enhance our understanding of the functional and structural neural mechanisms underlying bilingualism-induced cognitive effects. With this perspective we discuss and integrate recent cognitive and neuroimaging work on bilingual advantage, and suggest an account that links cognitive control, cognitive reserve, and brain reserve in bilingual aging and memory. PMID:25520695

  11. Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval. PMID:17383774

  12. Caloric restriction preserves memory and reduces anxiety of aging mice with early enhancement of neurovascular functions

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Ishita; Guo, Janet; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Zhong, Yu; Rempe, Ralf G.; Hoffman, Jared D.; Armstrong, Rachel; Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M.S.; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Neurovascular integrity plays an important role in protecting cognitive and mental health in aging. Lifestyle interventions that sustain neurovascular integrity may thus be critical on preserving brain functions in aging and reducing the risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that caloric restriction (CR) had an early effect on neurovascular enhancements, and played a critical role in preserving vascular, cognitive and mental health in aging. In particular, we found that CR significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier function in young mice at 5-6 months of age. The neurovascular enhancements were associated with reduced mammalian target of rapamycin expression, elevated endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, and increased ketone bodies utilization. With age, CR decelerated the rate of decline in CBF. The preserved CBF in hippocampus and frontal cortex were highly correlated with preserved memory and learning, and reduced anxiety, of the aging mice treated with CR (18-20 months of age). Our results suggest that dietary intervention started in the early stage (e.g., young adults) may benefit cognitive and mental reserve in aging. Understanding nutritional effects on neurovascular functions may have profound implications in human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27829242

  13. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success.

  14. Plasticity of memory for new learning in very old age: a story of major loss?

    PubMed

    Singer, Tania; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    Longitudinal survivors of the Berlin Aging Study (N = 96, mean age = 84 years, range 75-101 years) were instructed and trained in a mnemonic skill to examine plasticity of episodic memory performance in very old age. Performance gains after mnemonic instruction were modest, and most individuals were unable to further enhance their performance during 4 sessions of mnemonic practice. Whereas the proportion of variance explained by measures from the broad fluid-ability domain (e.g., perceptual speed) increased with training, the proportion of variance explained by crystallized-ability domain (e.g., word knowledge) and sociobiographical variables decreased. Furthermore, prior 6-year longitudinal changes (loss) in perceptual speed predicted individual differences in plasticity. Results suggest that aging-induced biological factors are a prominent source of individual differences in cognitive plasticity in very old age.

  15. Age-related effects on the neural correlates of autobiographical memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    St Jacques, Peggy L; Rubin, David C; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-07-01

    Older adults recall less episodically rich autobiographical memories (AM), however, the neural basis of this effect is not clear. Using functional MRI, we examined the effects of age during search and elaboration phases of AM retrieval. Our results suggest that the age-related attenuation in the episodic richness of AMs is associated with difficulty in the strategic retrieval processes underlying recovery of information during elaboration. First, age effects on AM activity were more pronounced during elaboration than search, with older adults showing less sustained recruitment of the hippocampus and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) for less episodically rich AMs. Second, there was an age-related reduction in the modulation of top-down coupling of the VLPFC on the hippocampus for episodically rich AMs. In sum, the present study shows that changes in the sustained response and coupling of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) underlie age-related reductions in episodic richness of the personal past.

  16. Interactive effects of working memory and trial history on Stroop interference in cognitively healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Andrew J; Balota, David A

    2015-03-01

    Past studies have suggested that Stroop interference increases with age; however the robustness of this effect after controlling for processing speed has been questioned. Both working memory (WM) and the congruency of the immediately preceding trial have also been shown to moderate the magnitude of Stroop interference. Specifically, interference is smaller both for individuals with higher working memory capacity and following an incongruent trial. At present, it is unclear whether and how these 3 variables (age, WM and previous congruency) interact to predict interference effects in the standard Stroop color-naming task. We present analyses of Stroop interference in a large database of Stroop color-naming trials from a lifespan sample of well-screened, cognitively healthy, older adults. Our results indicated age-related increases in interference (after controlling for processing speed) that were exaggerated for individuals with low WM. This relationship between age and WM occurred primarily when the immediately preceding trial was congruent. Following an incongruent trial, interference increased consistently with age, regardless of WM. Taken together, these results support previous accounts of multiple mechanisms underlying control in the Stroop task and provide insight into how each component is jointly affected by age, WM, and trial history.

  17. [Regularities of the egocentric spatial memory development in children aged 24-60 months].

    PubMed

    Dashniani, M G; Chkhikivishvili, N Ts; Naneĭshvili, T L; Burdzhanadze, M A; Maglakelidze, G A

    2009-09-01

    In order to assess development of the egocentric system of the spatial short-term memory in children (n=66) of different ages (24-60 months) the Inverted Delayed Reaction test has been used. It was found that in the children aged 24-36 months regularities of performance of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test significantly differ in conditions of different loads onto the mechanisms of dead reckoning; the children aged 36-60 months do not show sensitivity to different loads. In children aged 42+/-4 months functional elimination of any of the sensory system (visual, kinesthetic, vestibular) during rotation significantly deteriorated results of the Inverted Delayed Reaction test performance, while in children aged 60+/-4 months number of correct responses decreased if two or three sensory systems were eliminated simultaneously. The data obtained permit to conclude that the Inverted Delayed Reaction test is sufficiently sensitive for evaluation development of the egocentric spatial memory system in children and that formation of the dead reckoning mechanisms starts in an age of 24 months and in the period of 24-60 months its further upgrading does occur.

  18. Little exercise, big effects: Reversing aging and infection-induced memory deficits, and underlying processes

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Chapman, Timothy R.; Ahrendsen, Jared T.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge; Watkins, Linda R.; Patterson, Susan L.; Maier, Steven F.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously found that healthy aged rats are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following a severe bacterial infection than are younger adult rats. Such a peripheral challenge is capable of producing a neuroinflammatory response, and in the aged brain this response is exaggerated and prolonged. Normal aging primes, or sensitizes microglia and this appears to be the source of this amplified inflammatory response. Among the outcomes of this exaggerated neuroinflammatory response are impairments in synaptic plasticity, and reductions of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), both of which have been associated with cognitive impairments. Since it has been shown that physical exercise increases BDNF mRNA in the hippocampus, the present study examined voluntary exercise in 24 mos old F344xBN rats as a neuroprotective therapeutic in our bacterial infection model. Although aged rats ran only an average of 0.7 km per week, this small amount of exercise was sufficient to completely reverse infection-induced impairments in hippocampus-dependent long-term memory compared to sedentary animals. Strikingly, exercise prevented the infection-induced exaggerated neuroinflammatory response and the blunted BDNF mRNA induction seen in the hippocampus of sedentary rats. Moreover, voluntary exercise abrogated age-related microglial sensitization, suggesting a possible mechanism for exercise-induced neuroprotection in aging. PMID:21832188

  19. No aging bias favoring memory for positive material: evidence from a heterogeneity-homogeneity list paradigm using emotionally toned words.

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel; Smith, Jacqui; Baltes, Paul B

    2005-12-01

    Some authors argue for a memory advantage of older adults for positively toned material. To investigate the contribution of selective processing to a positivity effect, the authors investigated young (n = 72, aged 18 to 31) and older (n = 72, aged 64 to 75) adults' memory for emotionally toned words using a multitrial paradigm that compares performance for heterogeneous (mixed valence) and homogeneous (single valence) lists. Regarding the age comparison, there was no evidence for an aging bias favoring positive material. Moreover, older adults' memory was less affected by emotion-based processing prioritization. Although there was no support for age-specific processing biases in memory for emotionally toned words, the findings are consistent with proposals that negative information receives processing priority in some contexts. Possible limits to the generalizability of the present findings (e.g., to nonverbal material) are discussed.

  20. Preclinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Studies of Memory, Aging, and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Febo, Marcelo; Foster, Thomas C.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides for non-invasive evaluation of brain structure and activity and has been employed to suggest possible mechanisms for cognitive aging in humans. However, these imaging procedures have limits in terms of defining cellular and molecular mechanisms. In contrast, investigations of cognitive aging in animal models have mostly utilized techniques that have offered insight on synaptic, cellular, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms affecting memory. Studies employing magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRI and MRS, respectively) in animal models have emerged as an integrative set of techniques bridging localized cellular/molecular phenomenon and broader in vivo neural network alterations. MRI methods are remarkably suited to longitudinal tracking of cognitive function over extended periods permitting examination of the trajectory of structural or activity related changes. Combined with molecular and electrophysiological tools to selectively drive activity within specific brain regions, recent studies have begun to unlock the meaning of fMRI signals in terms of the role of neural plasticity and types of neural activity that generate the signals. The techniques provide a unique opportunity to causally determine how memory-relevant synaptic activity is processed and how memories may be distributed or reconsolidated over time. The present review summarizes research employing animal MRI and MRS in the study of brain function, structure, and biochemistry, with a particular focus on age-related cognitive decline. PMID:27468264

  1. Daily supplementation with mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) improves balance and working memory in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Miller, Marshall G; Gomes, Stacey M; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Decline in brain function during normal aging is partly due to the long-term effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Several fruits and vegetables have been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigated the effects of dietary mushroom intervention on mobility and memory in aged Fischer 344 rats. We hypothesized that daily supplementation of mushroom would have beneficial effects on behavioral outcomes in a dose-dependent manner. Rats were randomly assigned to receive a diet containing either 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, or 5% lyophilized white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus); after 8 weeks on the diet, a battery of behavioral tasks was given to assess balance, coordination, and cognition. Rats on the 2% or 5% mushroom-supplemented diet consumed more food, without gaining weight, than rats in the other diet groups. Rats in the 0.5% and 1% group stayed on a narrow beam longer, indicating an improvement in balance. Only rats on the 0.5% mushroom diet showed improved performance in a working memory version of the Morris water maze. When taken together, the most effective mushroom dose that produced improvements in both balance and working memory was 0.5%, equivalent to about 1.5 ounces of fresh mushrooms for humans. Therefore, the results suggest that the inclusion of mushroom in the daily diet may have beneficial effects on age-related deficits in cognitive and motor function.

  2. Association between MAPT haplotype and memory function in patients with Parkinson's disease and healthy aging individuals.

    PubMed

    Winder-Rhodes, Sophie E; Hampshire, Adam; Rowe, James B; Peelle, Jonathan E; Robbins, Trevor W; Owen, Adrian M; Barker, Roger A

    2015-03-01

    Genetic variation is associated with differences in the function of the brain as well as its susceptibility to disease. The common H1 haplotypic variant of the microtubule-associated protein tau gene (MAPT) has been related to an increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD). Furthermore, among PD patients, H1 homozygotes have an accelerated progression to dementia. We investigated the neurocognitive correlates of MAPT haplotypes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Thirty-seven nondemented patients with PD (19 H1/H1, 18 H2 carriers) and 40 age-matched controls (21 H1/H1, 19 H2 carriers) were scanned during performance of a picture memory encoding task. Behaviorally, H1 homozygosity was associated with impaired picture recognition memory in PD patients and control subjects. These impairments in the H1 homozygotes were accompanied by an altered blood-oxygen level-dependent response in the medial temporal lobe during successful memory encoding. Additional age-related differences in blood-oxygen level-dependent response were observed in the medial temporal lobes of H1 homozygotes with PD. These results suggest that common variation in MAPT is not only associated with the dementia of PD but also differences in the neural circuitry underlying aspects of cognition in normal aging.

  3. False memories and normal aging: Links between inhibitory capacities and monitoring processes.

    PubMed

    Colombel, Fabienne; Tessoulin, Marine; Gilet, Anne-Laure; Corson, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests an increased production of false memories with advancing age. The activation-monitoring theory proposes that strategic monitoring processes influence the probability of false recall in the DRM paradigm. In the present study, we examined the hypothesis that a low level of inhibition may impair the efficient use of monitoring processes during information retrieval and thus increase the production of false memories in aging. Accordingly, we conducted a study in which older adults with low or high levels of inhibition performed a standard DRM task or an inclusion DRM task that disables monitoring processes. The results indicated that low inhibitory capacities were associated with fewer correct recalls and increased production of critical lures (false memories), suggesting difficulties in using monitoring processes at the time of retrieval. Our findings also showed that the relationship between Age and the production of critical lures in a standard DRM task is mediated by Inhibition. These results are interpreted as suggesting that inhibitory abilities may partly be linked to the impairment of monitoring processes in the elderly. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katyoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was assessed using B-mode ultrasound. The relationship between FMD and task-related brain activation in a priori regions of interest was modeled using hierarchical linear regression. Brachial FMD, was significantly related to reduced working memory-related activation in the right superior parietal lobule (β=0.338, p=0.027), independent of age, sex, systolic blood pressure, and full scale IQ (F(5,36)=2.66, p=0.038). These data provide preliminary support for the association between a preclinical marker of endothelial dysfunction and cerebral hemodynamic alterations in healthy middle-aged adults. Considering the modifiable nature of endothelial function, additional investigations on the prognostic significance of FMD on future cognitive impairment are warranted. PMID:20493622

  5. fMRI subsequent source memory effects in young, middle-aged and old adults.

    PubMed

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Trejo-Morales, Patricia; Pasaye-Alcaraz, Erick Humberto; Aguilar-Castañeda, Erika; Salgado-Lujambio, Perla; Sosa-Ortiz, Ana Luisa

    2015-03-01

    The ability to remember the spatial context in which our experiences occur declines linearly across the adult lifespan. However, little is known about whether this source memory decline is associated with neural activity changes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans were recorded in young, middle-aged and old adults to investigate brain activity variations across the adult lifespan during encoding of subsequent spatial source memory retrieval. Twelve healthy individuals of both sexes were enrolled in each age group. During encoding, participants performed natural/artificial judgment of images of common objects that were randomly presented in one of the quadrants of the screen. During retrieval, the images presented at encoding were randomly mixed with new ones and displayed at the center of the screen. Participants judged whether each image was new or old and, if an image was old, they were instructed to indicate in which quadrant the image was presented in the encoding session. The contrast between study items that were later recognized and assigned a correct source judgment with those whose sources were subsequently forgotten revealed that positive subsequent memory effects disappear by middle age in the left medial orbitofrontal gyrus and appear in the left superior occipital gyrus. This under-recruitment and over-recruitment brain activity was also present in old adults. The results allowed us to identify the specific brain regions that first fail to encode spatial information into an episodic representation during the adult lifespan.

  6. Changes in pattern completion – a key mechanism to explain age-related recognition memory deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Vieweg, Paula; Stangl, Matthias; Howard, Lorelei R.; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate memory retrieval from partial or degraded input requires the reactivation of memory traces, a hippocampal mechanism termed pattern completion. Age-related changes in hippocampal integrity have been hypothesized to shift the balance of memory processes in favor of the retrieval of already stored information (pattern completion), to the detriment of encoding new events (pattern separation). Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we investigated the impact of cognitive aging (1) on recognition performance across different levels of stimulus completeness, and (2) on potential response biases. Participants were required to identify previously learned scenes among new ones. Additionally, all stimuli were presented in gradually masked versions to alter stimulus completeness. Both young and older adults performed increasingly poorly as the scenes became less complete, and this decline in performance was more pronounced in elderly participants indicative of a pattern completion deficit. Intriguingly, when novel scenes were shown, only the older adults showed an increased tendency to identify these as familiar scenes. In line with theoretical models, we argue that this reflects an age-related bias towards pattern completion. PMID:25597525

  7. Age and active navigation effects on episodic memory: A virtual reality study.

    PubMed

    Sauzéon, Hélène; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Arvind Pala, Prashant; Taillade, Mathieu; Guitton, Pascal

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the navigation-related age effects on learning, proactive interference semantic clustering, recognition hits, and false recognitions in a naturalistic situation using a virtual apartment-based task. We also examined the neuropsychological correlates (executive functioning [EF] and episodic memory) of navigation-related age effects on memory. Younger and older adults either actively navigated or passively followed the computer-guided tour of an apartment. The results indicated that active navigation increased recognition hits compared with passive navigation, but it did not influence other memory measures (learning, proactive interference, and semantic clustering) to a similar extent in either age group. Furthermore, active navigation helped to reduce false recognitions in younger adults but increased those made by older adults. This differential effect of active navigation for younger and older adults was accounted for by EF score. Like for the subject-performed task effects, the effects from the navigation manipulation were well accounted for by item-specific/relational processing distinction, and they were also consistent with a source monitoring deficit in older adults.

  8. Normal aging affects movement execution but not visual motion working memory and decision-making delay during cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kikuro; Barnes, Graham R; Ito, Norie; Olley, Peter M; Warabi, Tateo

    2014-07-01

    Aging affects virtually all functions including sensory/motor and cognitive activities. While retinal image motion is the primary input for smooth-pursuit, its efficiency/accuracy depends on cognitive processes. Elderly subjects exhibit gain decrease during initial and steady-state pursuit, but reports on latencies are conflicting. Using a cue-dependent memory-based smooth-pursuit task, we identified important extra-retinal mechanisms for initial pursuit in young adults including cue information priming and extra-retinal drive components (Ito et al. in Exp Brain Res 229:23-35, 2013). We examined aging effects on parameters for smooth-pursuit using the same tasks. Elderly subjects were tested during three task conditions as previously described: memory-based pursuit, simple ramp-pursuit just to follow motion of a single spot, and popping-out of the correct spot during memory-based pursuit to enhance retinal image motion. Simple ramp-pursuit was used as a task that did not require visual motion working memory. To clarify aging effects, we then compared the results with the previous young subject data. During memory-based pursuit, elderly subjects exhibited normal working memory of cue information. Most movement-parameters including pursuit latencies differed significantly between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit and also between young and elderly subjects. Popping-out of the correct spot motion was ineffective for enhancing initial pursuit in elderly subjects. However, the latency difference between memory-based pursuit and simple ramp-pursuit in individual subjects, which includes decision-making delay in the memory task, was similar between the two groups. Our results suggest that smooth-pursuit latencies depend on task conditions and that, although the extra-retinal mechanisms were functional for initial pursuit in elderly subjects, they were less effective.

  9. The benefit of amplification on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older hearing impaired adults.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Karen A; Desjardins, Jamie L

    2015-01-01

    Untreated hearing loss can interfere with an individual's cognitive abilities and intellectual function. Specifically, hearing loss has been shown to negatively impact working memory function, which is important for speech understanding, especially in difficult or noisy listening conditions. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of hearing aid use on auditory working memory function in middle-aged and young-older adults with mild to moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Participants completed two objective measures of auditory working memory in aided and unaided listening conditions. An aged matched control group followed the same experimental protocol except they were not fit with hearing aids. All participants' aided scores on the auditory working memory tests were significantly improved while wearing hearing aids. Thus, hearing aids worn during the early stages of an age-related hearing loss can improve a person's performance on auditory working memory tests.

  10. Tart cherry supplementation improves working memory, hippocampal inflammation, and autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Gomes, Stacey M; Miller, Marshall G; Bielinski, Donna F; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of debilitating diseases and improved cognition in aged populations. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, which have previously been shown to be anti-inflammatory and modulate autophagy. Tart cherries contain a variety of potentially beneficial phytochemicals; however, little research has been done to investigate the effects of tart cherry on the aging brain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if tart cherry supplementation can improve cognitive and motor function of aged rats via modulation of inflammation and autophagy in the brain. Thirty 19-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were weight-matched and assigned to receive either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 2 % Montmorency tart cherry. After 6 weeks on the diet, rats were given a battery of behavioral tests to assess for strength, stamina, balance, and coordination, as well as learning and working memory. Although no significant effects were observed on tests of motor performance, tart cherry improved working memory of aged rats. Following behavioral testing, the hippocampus was collected for western/densitometric analysis of inflammatory (GFAP, NOX-2, and COX-2) and autophagy (phosphorylated mTOR, Beclin 1, and p62/SQSTM) markers. Tart cherry supplementation significantly reduced inflammatory markers and improved autophagy function. Daily consumption of tart cherry reduced age-associated inflammation and promoted protein/cellular homeostasis in the hippocampus, along with improvements in working memory. Therefore, addition of tart cherry to the diet may promote healthy aging and/or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.

  11. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men.

  12. Bilingualism interacts with domain in a working memory task: evidence from aging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lin; Craik, Fergus I M; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Younger and older adults who were either monolingual or bilingual were tested with verbal and spatial working memory (WM) span tasks. Aging was associated with a greater decline in spatial WM than in verbal WM, but the age-related declines were equivalent in both language groups. The bilingual participants outperformed the monolinguals in spatial WM, but achieved lower levels of performance than monolinguals in verbal WM. This interaction between bilingualism and WM domain was also consistent across the adult life span. These results are discussed in terms of the interactions between a domain-general executive processing advantage for bilinguals and the domain-specific content of particular WM tasks.

  13. Quantum dot based memory devices: Current status and future prospect by simulation perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Darma, Y. Rusydi, A.

    2014-02-24

    We discuss the simulation of floating gate MOSFET memory performance consists of Si/Ge/Si quantum dots for electronics storage nodes with higk-κ material as the tunnel oxide. Heterostructure quantum dot was proposed to maintain the good memory performance without losing the long retention characteristic. As the results, retention time could be increase significantly without deteriorating the writing/erasing speed. By selected the dot size of 9–15nm and the tunnel oxide thickness of 2nm, the retention characteristic can reach up to 10{sup 9}s while the writing and erasing time at the order of 10{sup −6}s. By replace the SiO{sub 2} tunnel oxide with high-κ material such as HfO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} the leakage current due to the shrinkage of tunnel oxide thickness can be suppressed by the factor of 10 for the EOT lower than ∼1nm. Moreover, the charge-trapping that generated by the defect at Si substrate and higk-κ material interface are fully considered. We found that, the charge-trapping affects the retention time and memory operation performance. By increasing the charge-trapping depth and width, the memory operation time decrease significantly while the retention characteristic slightly improved.