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Sample records for age pubertal stage

  1. Relationship of Age for Grade and Pubertal Stage to Early Initiation of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Paul J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Davies, Susan L.; Tortolero, Susan; Baumler, Elizabeth; Banspach, Stephen W.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies suggest students who are substantially older than the average age for their grade engage in risky health behaviors, including substance use. However, most studies do not account for the distinct reasons why students are old for their grade (ie, grade retention vs delayed school entry) or for their pubertal stage. Thus, whether the association between age for grade and substance use is confounded by these factors is unknown. We sought to determine whether age, grade, or pubertal stage were associated with early substance use. Methods Cross-sectional Healthy Passages Wave I survey data from 5,147 fifth graders and their caregivers in Alabama, California, and Texas from 2004 through 2006 were analyzed in 2014. Logistic regressions examined whether older age for grade, grade retention, delayed school entry, or pubertal stage were associated with use of any substance, cigarettes, alcohol, or other drugs. Results Seventeen percent of fifth graders reported trying at least 1 substance. Among boys, advanced pubertal stage was associated with increased odds of cigarette, alcohol, or other drug use, whereas delayed school entry was associated with lower odds of any substance, alcohol, or other drug use. Among girls, advanced pubertal stage was associated only with higher odds of alcohol use, and delayed school entry was not associated with substance use. Neither older age for grade or grade retention was independently associated with substance use after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion Advanced pubertal stage may be a more important risk factor for substance use than age for grade. Pediatricians should consider initiating substance use screening earlier for patients with advanced pubertal stage. PMID:26583575

  2. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  3. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  4. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  5. Dioxin Exposure and Age of Pubertal Onset among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mary M.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Burns, Jane S.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Altshul, Larisa; Revich, Boris; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background: Animal data demonstrate associations of dioxin, furan, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures with altered male gonadal maturation. It is unclear whether these associations apply to human populations. Objectives: We investigated the association of dioxins, furans, PCBs, and corresponding toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations with pubertal onset among boys in a dioxin-contaminated region. Methods: Between 2003 and 2005, 499 boys 8–9 years of age were enrolled in a longitudinal study in Chapaevsk, Russia. Pubertal onset [stage 2 or higher for genitalia (G2+) or testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL] was assessed annually between ages 8 and 12 years. Serum levels at enrollment were analyzed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess age at pubertal onset as a function of exposure adjusted for potential confounders. We conducted sensitivity analyses excluding boys with pubertal onset at enrollment. Results: The median (range) total serum TEQ concentration was 21 (4–175) pg/g lipid, approximately three times higher than values in European children. At enrollment, boys were generally healthy and normal weight (mean body mass index, 15.9 kg/m2), with 30% having entered puberty by G2+ and 14% by TV criteria. Higher dioxin TEQs were associated with later pubertal onset by TV (hazard ratio = 0.68, 95% confidence interval, 0.49–0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest quartile). Similar associations were observed for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and dioxin concentrations for TV but not G2+. Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. Conclusions: Findings support an association of higher peripubertal serum dioxin TEQs and concentrations with later male pubertal onset reflected in delayed testicular maturation. PMID:21527364

  6. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages. PMID:23588889

  7. Advanced Pubertal Status at Age 11 and Lower Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Birgitta L.; Birch, Leann L.; Trost, Stewart G.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pubertal timing and physical activity. Study design A longitudinal sample of 143 adolescent girls was assessed at ages 11 and 13 years. Girls' pubertal development was assessed at age 11 with blood estradiol levels, Tanner breast staging criteria, and parental report of pubertal development. Girls were classified as early maturers (n = 41) or later maturers (n = 102) on the basis of their scores on the 3 pubertal development measures. Dependent variables measured at age 13 were average minutes/day of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity as measured by the ActiGraph accelerometer. Results Early-maturing girls had significantly lower self-reported physical activity and accumulated fewer minutes of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity and accelerometer counts per day at age 13 than later maturing girls. These effects were independent of differences in percentage body fat and self-reported physical activity at age 11. Conclusion Girls experiencing early pubertal maturation at age 11 reported lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 than their later maturing peers. Pubertal maturation, in particular early maturation relative to peers, may lead to declines in physical activity among adolescent girls. PMID:17961691

  8. Pubertal Stage and Deliberate Self-Harm in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, George C.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Beyers, Jennifer M.; Bond, Lyndal; Toumbourou, John W.; McMorris, Barbara J.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the association between pubertal stage and deliberate self-harm. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 12- to 15-year-olds in 300 secondary schools in the U.S. state of Washington in February-April 2002 and the Australian state of Victoria in June-August 2002. A total of 3,332 students in grades 7 and 9 provided complete data…

  9. Contribution of anthropometric characteristics to pubertal stage prediction in young male individuals☆

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Radamés Maciel Vitor; Arrais, Ricardo Fernando; de Azevedo, Jenner Chrystian Veríssimo; do Rêgo, Jeferson Tafarel Pereira; de Medeiros, Jason Azevedo; de Andrade, Ricardo Dias; Dantas, Paulo Moreira Silva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the contribution of anthropometric variables to predict the maturational stage in young males. Methods: Cross-sectional study that enrolled 190 male subjects aged between eight and 18 years, randomly selected from public and private schools in Natal, Northeast Brazil. Thirtytwo anthropometric variables were measured following the recommendations of the International Society for the Advancement of Kineanthropometry (ISAK). The assessment of sexual maturation was based on the observation of two experienced experts, who identified the pubertal development according to Tanner guidelines (1962). Results: The anthropometric variables showed a significant increase of their values during the advancement of pubertal development (p<0.05). The following variables showed the best value for prediction of maturational groups: sitting height, femoral biepicondylar diameter, forearm girth, triceps skinfold, tibiale laterale and acromiale-radiale bonelenghts. These variables were able to estimate the pubertal stages in 76.3% of the sujects. Conclusion: The anthropometric characteristics showed significant differences between the moments of maturational stages, being found, representatively, seven variables that best predict the stages of sexual maturation. PMID:25479854

  10. Prepubertal Organochlorine Pesticide Concentrations and Age of Pubertal Onset Among Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Thuy; Williams, Paige L.; Lee, Mary M.; Korrick, Susan A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Burns, Jane S.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa M.; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Hauser, Russ

    2014-01-01

    Background In animal studies, organochlorine pesticide (OCP) exposure alters pubertal development, however, epidemiological data are limited and inconsistent. Objective To evaluate the associations of serum OCP concentrations [hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocylohexane (β-HCH), and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE)] with male pubertal onset. Methods In Chapaevsk, Russia, a town environmentally contaminated with OCPs, 350 8–9 year old boys with measured OCPs were enrolled during 2003–2005 and were followed annually for eight years. We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV) > 3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). We used multivariable interval-censored models to evaluate associations of OCPs (quartiles) with physician-assessed pubertal onset. Results In adjusted models, boys with higher HCB concentrations had later mean ages of TV > 3 mL and P2+ (but not G2+). Mean age at attaining TV > 3 mL was delayed 3.6 (95% CI: −2.6, 9.7), 7.9 (95% CI: 1.7, 14.0), and 4.7 months (95% CI: −1.4, 10.9) for HCB Q2, Q3, and Q4, respectively, compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.06). Boys with higher HCB concentrations reached P2+ 0.1 months earlier (95% CI: −5.8, 5.6) for Q2, 4.7 months later (95% CI: −1.0, 10.3) for Q3 and 4.6 months later (95% CI: −1.1, 10.3) for Q4 compared to Q1 (trend p: 0.04). There were no associations of serum β-HCH and p,p′-DDE concentrations with age of pubertal onset. Conclusion Higher prepubertal serum HCB concentrations were associated with later age of gonadarche and pubarche. PMID:25118086

  11. Investigation of Relationships between Urinary Biomarkers of Phytoestrogens, Phthalates, and Phenols and Pubertal Stages in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle; Liao, Laura; Biro, Frank; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Erdmann, Chris; Hiatt, Robert A.; Rybak, Michael E.; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hormonally active environmental agents may alter the course of pubertal development in girls, which is controlled by steroids and gonadotropins. Objectives We investigated associations of concurrent exposures from three chemical classes (phenols, phthalates, and phytoestrogens) with pubertal stages in a multiethnic longitudinal study of 1,151 girls from New York City, New York, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and northern California who were 6–8 years of age at enrollment (2004–2007). Methods We measured urinary exposure biomarkers at visit 1 and examined associations with breast and pubic hair development (present or absent, assessed 1 year later) using multivariate adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Modification of biomarker associations by age-specific body mass index percentile (BMI%) was investigated, because adipose tissue is a source of peripubertal hormones. Results Breast development was present in 30% of girls, and 22% had pubic hair. High-molecular-weight phthalate (high MWP) metabolites were weakly associated with pubic hair development [adjusted PR, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88–1.00), fifth vs. first quintile]. Small inverse associations were seen for daidzein with breast stage and for triclosan and high MWP with pubic hair stage; a positive trend was observed for low-molecular-weight phthalate biomarkers with breast and pubic hair development. Enterolactone attenuated BMI associations with breast development. In the first enterolactone quintile, for the association of high BMI with any development, the PR was 1.34 (95% CI, 1.23–1.45 vs. low BMI). There was no BMI association in the fifth, highest quintile of enterolactone. Conclusions Weak hormonally active xenobiotic agents investigated in this study had small associations with pubertal development, mainly among those agents detected at highest concentrations. PMID:20308033

  12. Bone mass in schoolchildren in Brazil: the effect of racial miscegenation, pubertal stage, and socioeconomic differences.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Roberto Regis; Guerra-Junior, Gil; de Azevedo Barros-Filho, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate bone mass by phalanges ultrasound in healthy white and black schoolchildren in relationship to socioeconomic level, pubertal stage, and body composition. Included were 1,356 healthy schoolchildren aged from 6 to 11 years from different socioeconomic levels and both genders; all were placed into white and black groups. Weight, height, body mass index, fat percentage, fat mass, and lean mass were evaluated by anthropometric methods, and AD-SoS bone quantity and UBPI bone quality were evaluated using a third-generation IGEA phalanges DBM Sonic BP ultrasound. Data were compared using the Mann-Whitney, chi-squared, correlation coefficient, and analyses of multiple linear regression statistical tests with 5% significance. Black schoolchildren predominated in the low socioeconomic levels. Higher values of weight and height for black boys and girls were observed in the lean mass in relation to white children of the same gender and age. An increasing variation in the bone quantity mean was observed from 6 to 11 years of age and with pubertal stage for both genders and skin color. The white schoolchildren presented higher values of bone quantity and quality in relation to the black children. The anthropometric, gender, and socioeconomic level variables explained only 16 and 11% of the variability of bone quantity and quality, respectively. As such, the present study, carried out with healthy black and white Brazilian schoolchildren, demonstrated higher bone mass, as evaluated by ultrasound, in white than in black schoolchildren. PMID:19283337

  13. Younger pubertal age is associated with allergy and other atopic conditions in girls

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Chi-Chen; Pajak, Ashley; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Vangeepuram, Nita; Galvez, Maida; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Early menarche is linked to higher incidence of adult asthma, suggesting that earlier puberty may influence type 2 immune response characteristics of allergic diseases. We examined the hypothesis that timing of breast and pubic hair development, which precede menarche, is associated with increased childhood atopic conditions. Methods Girls were enrolled at 6–8 yr of age (2004–2007) in the Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program Puberty Study and were followed through 2011. Pubertal stages were assessed and atopic conditions were queried annually. Associations of age at pubertal stage 2 for breast or pubic hair development with atopic conditions were assessed using prevalence ratios (PR) or odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from log-binomial regression and generalized estimating equation models, controlling for body mass index and other covariates. A total of 1055 girls with medical and pubertal stage data were included. Results Asthma (ever vs. never) was associated with younger pubarche (≤10 vs. >10 yr, PR = 1.15, CI: 1.04–1.28 adjusted for race/ethnicity and site; PR = 1.13, CI: 1.01–1.25 further adjusted for BMI), but not thelarche. In longitudinal models, risk of developing allergies increased with younger age at pubarche (adjusted OR = 1.60, CI: 1.10–2.34; ≤10 vs. >10 yr). Risks were highest among black girls with earlier pubarche (n = 248/326); for allergies, their fully adjusted OR was 2.35, CI: 1.06–5.19 for pubarche ≤10 vs. >10 yr. Conclusions Atopic conditions during childhood are associated with younger age at pubarche, independent of obesity, and these relationships may vary by racial/ethnic groups. PMID:25387609

  14. Cardiovascular Responses to Caffeine by Gender and Pubertal Stage

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Amanda M.; Graczyk, Adam; Bendlin, Ashley; Sion, Teresa; Vattana, Karina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine use is on the rise among children and adolescents. Previous studies from our laboratory reported gender differences in the effects of caffeine in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that gender differences in cardiovascular responses to caffeine emerge after puberty and that cardiovascular responses to caffeine differ across the phases of the menstrual cycle. METHODS: To test these hypotheses, we examined heart rate and blood pressure before and after administration of placebo and 2 doses of caffeine (1 and 2 mg/kg) in prepubertal (8- to 9-year-olds; n = 52) and postpubertal (15- to 17-year-olds; n = 49) boys (n = 54) and girls (n = 47) by using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-response design. RESULTS: There was an interaction between gender and caffeine dose, with boys having a greater response to caffeine than girls. In addition, we found interactions between pubertal phase, gender, and caffeine dose, with gender differences present in postpubertal, but not in prepubertal, participants. Finally, we found differences in responses to caffeine across the menstrual cycle in post-pubertal girls, with decreases in heart rate greater in the midluteal phase and blood pressure increases greater in the midfollicular phase of the menstrual cycle. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that gender differences in response to caffeine emerge after puberty. Future research will determine the extent to which these gender differences are mediated by physiological factors, such as steroid hormones, or psychosocial factors, such as more autonomy and control over beverage purchases. PMID:24935999

  15. Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections. PMID:24318949

  16. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Development: Longitudinal Data from Finnish Twins at Ages 11 and 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mustanski, Brian S.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    To study sources of individual differences in pubertal development, the authors fit a sex-limitation common factor model to data reported, at ages 11 and 14 years, by 1,891 twin pairs on items that comprise the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS; A. C. Petersen, L. Crockett, M. Richards, & A. Boxer, 1988). The model divides variation into a general…

  17. Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents: a Critical Approach Considering the Interaction between Pubertal Stage and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Pediatricians increasingly diagnose the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in recent years to describe cardiovascular risk and to guide management of the obese child. However, there is an ongoing discussion about how to define the MetS in childhood and adolescence. Since insulin resistance-the major driver of MetS-is influenced by pubertal stage, it is questionable to use definitions for MetS in children and adolescents that do not take into account pubertal status. A metabolic healthy status in prepubertal stage does not predict a metabolic healthy status during puberty. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors improve at the end of puberty without treatment. However, having a uniform internationally accepted definition of the MetS for children and adolescents would be very helpful for the description of populations in different studies. Therefore, the concept of MetS has to be revisited under the influence of puberty stage. PMID:26747052

  18. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group. PMID:20721775

  19. The stability of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Foshee, Vangie A

    2012-06-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11-17 (N=6,425; 50% female; 53% White). Two measures of pubertal timing were used, stage-normative, based on the Pubertal Development Scale, a self-report scale of secondary sexual characteristics, and peer-normative, a one-item measure of perceived pubertal timing. Two longitudinal methods were used: one-way random effects ANOVA models and latent class analysis. When calculating intraclass correlation coefficients using the one-way random effects ANOVA models, which is based on the average reliability from one time point to the next, both measures had similar, but poor, stability. In contrast, latent class analysis, which looks at the longitudinal response pattern of each individual and treats deviation from that pattern as measurement error, showed three stable and distinct response patterns for both measures: always early, always on-time, and always late. Study results suggest instability in perceived pubertal timing from one age to the next, but this instability is likely due to measurement error. Thus, it may be necessary to take into account the longitudinal pattern of perceived pubertal timing across adolescence rather than measuring perceived pubertal timing at one point in time. PMID:21983873

  20. Fundamental voice frequency in female puberty measured with electroglottography during continuous speech as a secondary sex characteristic. A comparison between voice, pubertal stages, oestrogens and androgens.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M F; Møller, S; Krabbe, S; Bennett, P; Svenstrup, B

    1990-09-01

    The change of fundamental voice frequency in continuous speech in female puberty was analysed in 47 girls by comparison of 2000 consecutive electroglottographic cycles in a reading situation. The results were compared with serum concentrations of androgens (dihydroepiandrosterone, delta-4-androstenedione, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin), oestrogens (oestradiol, oestrone, and oestronesulphate), and somatic puberty (weight, height, mamma stages, and pubic hair stages). Fundamental frequency in continuous speech was related only to oestrone r = -0.34, (P less than 0.05). But the tone range in continuous speech and the lowest tone in the phonetogram were found to be significantly correlated with many of the pubertal and hormone parameters. All these correlations could be explained by a common age-dependency. By multiple regression analysis different sets of variables for prediction of speaking fundamental frequency were found before and after menarche. PMID:2262290

  1. Pubertal Development, Personality, and Substance Use: A 10-Year Longitudinal Study From Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Séguin, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Most research linking early pubertal development to substance use has focused on the effects of pubertal timing (age at which a certain stage of pubertal development is reached or pubertal status at a particular age—related to the maturation disparity hypothesis), but little research has focused on pubertal tempo (rate of growth through pubertal stages—related to the maturation compression hypothesis). However, both timing and tempo have not only been identified as important components of pubertal development, with different predictors, but have also been shown to be independently associated with other adolescent psychopathologies. Using latent growth-curve modeling, this study examined how pubertal status at age 12 and pubertal tempo (between 11 and 13 years) related to substance use from 15 to 16 years in boys from low socioeconomic backgrounds (N = 871). Results showed that both pubertal status at age 12 and tempo were significant predictors of increased levels of substance use and problems in mid to late adolescence. In an attempt to identify mechanisms that may explain the association between pubertal development and substance use it was found that sensation seeking partially mediated the association between pubertal status at age 12 and substance use behaviors. Impulse control was found to moderate the association sensation seeking had with marijuana use frequency, with high sensation-seeking scores predicting higher marijuana use frequency only at low levels of impulse control. These findings highlight the importance of considering multiple sources of individual variability in the pubertal development of boys and provide support for both the maturational disparity and compression hypotheses. PMID:24016016

  2. Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model.

    PubMed

    Negriff, Sonya; Saxbe, Darby E; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-12-01

    The timing and pace of pubertal development has been associated with psychosocial functioning, with pubertal variables represented both as predictors (e.g., earlier puberty linked with poor outcomes) and as sequelae (e.g., early stress linked with earlier puberty). However, the literature has largely not tested mediational models or prospective mechanisms of associations between puberty and psychosocial variables. In a longitudinal study including 454 youth followed over four timepoints (mean ages 10-18), structural equation modeling tested a hypothesized path from childhood maltreatment to cortisol (Time 1) to pubertal stage (Time 2), and psychosocial outcomes (Times 3 and 4). There was not support for the full hypothesized pathway in either gender. However, for boys, maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol, and more pubertal change predicted subsequent delinquency. For girls, cortisol predicted more pubertal change which then predicted substance use. This study demonstrates links between HPA axis function, pubertal development, and risky outcomes. PMID:26358357

  3. Pubertal development and regulation.

    PubMed

    Abreu, Ana Paula; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2016-03-01

    Puberty marks the end of childhood and is a period when individuals undergo physiological and psychological changes to achieve sexual maturation and fertility. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controls puberty and reproduction and is tightly regulated by a complex network of excitatory and inhibitory factors. This axis is active in the embryonic and early postnatal stages of life and is subsequently restrained during childhood, and its reactivation culminates in puberty initiation. The mechanisms underlying this reactivation are not completely known. The age of puberty onset varies between individuals and the timing of puberty initiation is associated with several health outcomes in adult life. In this Series paper, we discuss pubertal markers, epidemiological trends of puberty initiation over time, and the mechanisms whereby genetic, metabolic, and other factors control secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone to determine initiation of puberty. PMID:26852256

  4. Self-Rated Pubertal Development, Depressive Symptoms and Delinquency: Measurement Issues and Moderation by Gender and Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negriff, Sonya; Fung, Michelle T.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships between pubertal development, depressive symptoms and delinquency in a sample of 241 males and 213 females aged 9-13 years. Four objectives were set forth for this study: (1) to examine relationships between pubertal stage or timing and depressive symptoms and delinquency; (2) to compare continuous…

  5. Height-based Indices of Pubertal Timing in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Khairullah, Ammar; May, Margaret T.; Tilling, Kate; Howe, Laura D.; Leonard, Gabriel; Perron, Michel; Richer, Louis; Veillette, Suzanne; Pausova, Zdenka; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    It is important to account for timing of puberty when studying the adolescent brain and cognition. The use of classical methods for assessing pubertal status may not be feasible in some studies, especially in male adolescents. Using data from a sample of 478 males from a longitudinal birth cohort, we describe the calculations of three independent height-based markers of pubertal timing: Age at Peak Height Velocity (APHV), Height Difference in Standard Deviations (HDSDS), and Percent Achieved of Adult Stature (PAAS). These markers correlate well with each other. In a separate cross-sectional study, we show that the PAAS marker correlates well with testosterone levels and self-reported pubertal-stage scores. We conclude by discussing key considerations for investigators when drawing upon these methods of assessing pubertal timing. PMID:26052478

  6. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  7. Pubertal Timing and Demographic Predictors of Adolescents in Southwest Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Sabageh, Donatus; Adeoye, Oluwatosin Adediran; Adeomi, Adeleye Abiodun

    2015-01-01

    Background Changes in the timing of puberty have been an area of research interest in developed countries because of its associated health and psychosocial problems. Adolescents in Africa are no exception as they are reaching adulthood today much earlier than before. This changing trend may have a major influence on adolescents’ sexual behaviour. Aim This study determined the timing of puberty and demographic predictors among the adolescents in southwest Nigeria. Materials and Methods The study was a cross-sectional study. Using Modified Sexual Maturity Scale (MSMS) of pubertal assessment, data were collected from 1000 respondents from rural and urban areas of Osun state, Nigeria. Data were collected using pre-tested Assisted Self Completion Questionnaires (ASCQ). The rate of pubertal development was based on age group and current pubertal stage. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were done to identify significant demographic predictors. Statistical significance was at 5% level. Results The overall mean age of the respondents was 14.22±2.47 years. The mean age for males was 14.19±2.38 years and 14.25±2.57 years for females. A total of 52.9% of the respondents were males and 47.1% were females. Higher proportions of the females, 41.6% were already in late puberty stages compared to their male counterparts where 21.9% were at this stage. With regards to this rate of pubertal development, more males, 14.2% significantly had late rate of pubertal development than the females 5.1%. The significant demographic predictors was socio-economic class in females only. Conclusion From this study, the timing of puberty was early for females and socio-economic class is an important demographic predictor for pubertal development. This study was however limited because intrinsic factors such as genetic makeup and nutritional status which could affect the finding were not be excluded. PMID:26435973

  8. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  9. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  10. HPA axis genetic variation, pubertal status, and sex interact to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses to negative emotional faces in school-age children.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S; Belden, Andrew C; Botteron, Kelly N; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2015-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure, particularly during early life, and for variation in genes involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual differences in these factors predict differences in emotional responsivity may be important for understanding both normative emotional development and for understanding the mechanisms underlying internalizing disorders, like anxiety and depression, that have often been related to increased amygdala and hippocampus responses to negatively valenced emotional stimuli. The present study examined whether stress exposure and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predict individual differences in amygdala and hippocampus responses to fearful vs. neutral faces in school-age children (7-12 year olds; N = 107). Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted greater left amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Genetic profile scores interacted with sex and pubertal status to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses. Specifically, genetic profile scores were a stronger predictor of amygdala and hippocampus responses among pubertal vs. prepubertal children where they positively predicted responses to fearful faces among pubertal girls and positively predicted responses to neutral faces among pubertal boys. The current results suggest that genetic and environmental stress-related factors may be important in normative individual differences in responsivity to negative emotional stimuli, a potential mechanism underlying internalizing disorders. Further, sex and pubertal development may be key moderators of the effects of stress-system genetic variation on amygdala and hippocampus responsivity, potentially relating to sex differences in stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25583614

  11. HPA Axis Genetic Variation, Pubertal Status, and Sex Interact to Predict Amygdala and Hippocampus Responses to Negative Emotional Faces in School-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Belden, Andrew C.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a role for stress exposure, particularly during early life, and for variation in genes involved in stress response pathways in neural responsivity to emotional stimuli. Understanding how individual differences in these factors predict differences in emotional responsivity may be important for understanding both normative emotional development and for understanding the mechanisms underlying internalizing disorders, like anxiety and depression, that have often been related to increased amygdala and hippocampus responses to negatively valenced emotional stimuli. The present study examined whether stress exposure and genetic profile scores (10 single nucleotide polymorphisms within four hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis genes: CRHR1, NR3C2, NR3C1, and FKBP5) predict individual differences in amygdala and hippocampus responses to fearful vs. neutral faces in school-age children (7–12 year olds; N=107). Experience of more stressful and traumatic life events predicted greater left amygdala responses to negative emotional stimuli. Genetic profile scores interacted with sex and pubertal status to predict amygdala and hippocampus responses. Specifically, genetic profile scores were a stronger predictor of amygdala and hippocampus responses among pubertal vs. prepubertal children where they positively predicted responses to fearful faces among pubertal girls and positively predicted responses to neutral faces among pubertal boys. The current results suggest that genetic and environmental stress-related factors may be important in normative individual differences in responsivity to negative emotional stimuli, a potential mechanism underlying internalizing disorders. Further, sex and pubertal development may be key moderators of the effects of stress-system genetic variation on amygdala and hippocampus responsivity, potentially relating to sex differences in stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25583614

  12. Reliability of Pubertal Self Assessment Method: An Iranian Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Ali; Noorian, Shahab; Fallah, Javad S.; Setoudeh, Arya; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Abbasi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This investigation aims to evaluate the validity of a Persian Tanner Stages Self-Assessment Questionnaire. Methods In this cross sectional study, 190 male students aged 8-16 years selected from three layers of different regions of Tehran (North, Central and South) were enrolled. A Persian questionnaire illustrated with Tanner stages of puberty (genital development and pubic hair distribution) was prepared. Children were asked to select the illustration that best described their pubertal development. Tanner status of the children was also estimated by an independent physician using physical examination. The degree of agreement between subjects’ judgments with assessments made by the rater was compared through the calculation of the weighted kappa statistic coefficient. Findings We found a substantial agreement between self-assessment of pubertal development made by the children and doctor's assessment of genital development (kappa=0.63, P<0.0001) and also the pubic hair distribution (kappa= 0.74, P<0.0001). Although a large proportion of subjects in G4 (89.2%) and G5 (85.7%) were capable of accurately or almost accurately identifying their own Tanner sexual stages, some degree of disagreement was observed in G3 Tanner stage (%46.9). Conclusion Self-assessment of puberty should be used very cautiously and may not be a substitute method for routine evaluation of pubertal state especially for early and mid pubertal groups. PMID:23795257

  13. The Relationship between Greater Pre-Pubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation and Bone Strength during Adolescence†

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Natalie A.; Torner, James C.; Letuchy, Elena M.; Burns, Trudy L.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Gilmore, Julie M. Eichenberger; Schlechte, Janet A.; Levy, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater pre-pubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using BMI data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy-weight, HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15 and 17 years for estimates of body composition by DXA, bone compression (bone strength index) and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age – grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in Model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit ageage PHV) as the time variable for Model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in Model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p<0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) in Model 1, while OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p<0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck, but not radius (p>0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (Model 1.) Differences were no longer present following adjustment for lean mass (Model 2) in girls (p>0.05) while differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p<0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation and bone strength. PMID:26861036

  14. Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on the ventral prostate of rats during the peri-pubertal, pubertal and adult stage.

    PubMed

    Pochettino, Arístides A; Hapon, María Belén; Biolatto, Silvana M; Madariaga, María José; Jahn, Graciela A; Konjuh, Cintia N

    2016-10-01

    The herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is used on a wide variety of terrestrial and aquatic broadleaf weeds. 2,4-D has been shown to produce a wide range of adverse effects on animal and human health. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 2,4-D on rat ventral prostate (VP). Pregnant rats were exposed daily to oral doses of 70 mg/kg/day of 2,4-D from 16 days of gestation up to 23 days after delivery. Then, the treated groups (n = 8) were fed with a 2,4-D added diet until sacrificed by decapitation on postnatal day (PND) 45, 60, or 90. Morphometric studies were performed and androgen receptor (AR) protein levels in the VP were determined. AR, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) mRNA expression in the VP along with testosterone (T), dihydroxytestosterone (DHT), growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 serum levels were also determined to ascertain whether these parameters were differentially affected. Results of this study showed that 2,4-D exposure during gestation and until adulthood altered development of the prostate gland in male rats, delaying it at early ages while increasing its size in adults, indicate that 2,4-D could behave as endocrine disruptors (EDs). PMID:26759115

  15. Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Bennett, David S; Birnkrant, Jennifer M; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6month intervals from 11 to 13years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  16. Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure on Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, David S.; Birnkrant, Jennifer M.; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) and pubertal development. Children (n=192; 41% with PCE) completed the Pubertal Development Scale (Petersen, et al. 1988) and provided salivary dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) samples at 6 month intervals from 11 to 13 years. PCE was examined as a predictor of pubertal status, pubertal tempo, and DHEA levels in mixed models analyses controlling for age, sex, environmental risk, neonatal medical problems, other prenatal exposures, and BMI. PCE interacted with age such that PCE predicted slower pubertal tempo during early adolescence. PCE also interacted with age to predict slower increases in DHEA levels during early adolescence. These findings suggest that PCE may affect pubertal development and, if slower pubertal tempo continues, could lead to delayed pubertal status in mid-adolescence. PMID:25446013

  17. The Stability of Perceived Pubertal Timing across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cance, Jessica Duncan; Ennett, Susan T.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Foshee, Vangie A.

    2012-01-01

    It is unknown whether perceived pubertal timing changes as puberty progresses or whether it is an important component of adolescent identity formation that is fixed early in pubertal development. The purpose of this study is to examine the stability of perceived pubertal timing among a school-based sample of rural adolescents aged 11-17 (N =…

  18. Evolutionary fitness as a function of pubertal age in 22 subsistence-based traditional societies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Context The age of puberty has fallen over the past 130 years in industrialized, western countries, and this fall is widely referred to as the secular trend for earlier puberty. The current study was undertaken to test two evolutionary theories: (a) the reproductive system maximizes the number of offspring in response to positive environmental cues in terms of energy balance, and (b) early puberty is a trade-off response for high mortality rate and reduced resource availability. Methods Using a sample of 22 natural-fertility societies of mostly tropical foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists from Africa, South America, Australia, and Southeastern Asia, this study compares indices of adolescence growth and menarche with those of fertility fitness in these non-industrial, traditional societies. Results The average age at menarche correlated with the first reproduction, but did not correlate with the total fertility rate TFR or reproductive fitness. The age at menarche correlated negatively with their average adult body mass, and the average adult body weight positively correlated with reproductive fitness. Survivorship did not correlate with the age at menarche or age indices of the adolescent growth spurt. The population density correlated positively with the age at first reproduction, but not with menarche age, TFR, or reproductive fitness. Conclusions Based on our analyses, we reject the working hypotheses that reproductive fitness is enhanced in societies with early puberty or that early menarche is an adaptive response to greater mortality risk. Whereas body mass is a measure of resources is tightly associated with fitness, the age of menarche is not. PMID:21860629

  19. IGF-IR Mediated Mammary Tumorigenesis Is Enhanced during Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Craig I.; Moorehead, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Although breast cancer typically develops in women over the age of 40, it remains unclear when breast cancer initiating events occur or whether the mammary gland is particularly susceptible to oncogenic transformation at a particular developmental stage. Using MTB-IGFIR transgenic mice that overexpress type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) in a doxycycline-inducible manner, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated at different developmental stages. Tumor multiplicity was significantly increased while tumor latency was significantly decreased when the IGF-IR transgene was expressed during pubertal development compared to post-pubertal transgene expression. Moreover, metastatic spread of mammary tumors to the lungs was approximately twice as likely when IGF-IR was overexpressed in pubertal mice compared to post-pubertal mice. In addition, engraftment of pubertal MTB-IGFIR mammary tissue into cleared mammary fat pads of pubertal hosts produced tumors more frequently and faster than engraftment into adult hosts. These experiments show that the mammary microenvironment created during puberty renders mammary epithelial cells particularly susceptible to transformation. PMID:25259518

  20. Age, stage and senescence in plants

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, Hal; Salguero-Gómez, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    1. Senescence (an increase in the mortality rate or force of mortality, or a decrease in fertility, with increasing age) is a widespread phenomenon. Theories about the evolution of senescence have long focused on the age trajectories of the selection gradients on mortality and fertility. In purely age-classified models, these selection gradients are non-increasing with age, implying that traits expressed early in life have a greater impact on fitness than traits expressed later in life. This pattern leads inevitably to the evolution of senescence if there are trade-offs between early and late performance. 2. It has long been suspected that the stage- or size-dependent demography typical of plants might change these conclusions. In this paper, we develop a model that includes both stage- and age-dependence and derive the age-dependent, stage-dependent and age×stage-dependent selection gradients on mortality and fertility. 3. We applied this model to stage-classified population projection matrices for 36 species of plants, from a wide variety of growth forms (from mosses to trees) and habitats. 4. We found that the age-specific selection gradients within a life cycle stage can exhibit increases with age (we call these contra-senescent selection gradients). In later stages, often large size classes in plant demography, the duration of these contra-senescent gradients can exceed the life expectancy by several fold. 5. Synthesis. The interaction of age- and stage-dependence in plants leads to selection pressures on senescence fundamentally different from those found in previous, age-classified theories. This result may explain the observation that large plants seem less subject to senescence than most kinds of animals. The methods presented here can lead to improved analysis of both age-dependent and stage-dependent demographic properties of plant populations. PMID:23741075

  1. Association Between Urinary Phthalates and Pubertal Timing in Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Huijing; Cao, Yang; Shen, Qing; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yunhui

    2015-01-01

    Background Phthalates are synthetic chemicals and ubiquitous environmental contaminants, with hormonal activity that may alter the course of pubertal development in children. Objectives To determine whether exposure to phthalate metabolites is associated with timing of pubertal development in a cross-sectional study of a school-based clustered sample of 503 children from a suburban district in Shanghai, China, who were 7–14 years of age at enrollment (2010 October to November). Methods We analyzed six phthalate metabolites in urine samples by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The associations of exposures to phthalates with pubertal timing of testes, breast, and pubic hair development (represented as Tanner stages) were evaluated using an ordered logistic regression model adjusted for chronological age, body fat proportion (BF%), and parental education. Results In boys, urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) levels were negatively associated with testicular volume, and mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) levels were negatively associated with pubic hair stages. The odds of being in an advanced stage were decreased by 43%–51%. In girls, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), MEHHP, and MEOHP levels, as well as the sum of these levels, were positively associated with breast stages, and the association was much stronger in girls with high BF%; the odds of being in an advanced stage were increase by 29% to 50%. Conclusions Phthalate metabolites investigated in this study show significant associations with pubertal timing both in boys and in girls, especially among girls with high BF%. PMID:26212725

  2. Peer Group Similarity in Perceptions of Pubertal Timing

    PubMed Central

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Cance, Jessica D.; Harden, K. Paige

    2016-01-01

    Self-report measures of perceived pubertal timing correspond only weakly with clinical measures of “objective” physical development. Peer and school contexts shape adolescents’ self-perceptions of pubertal timing. The current study examined associations between perceived pubertal timing and the pubertal timing reported by nominated friends and schoolmates. Participants included 2,817 adolescents (Mage = 16.6; 49% female; 16% Black; 20% Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three measures of pubertal timing were included: age-standardized ratings of body changes, comparisons of development relative to peers (relative timing), and, in females, age at menarche. It was hypothesized that relative timing, which explicitly asks adolescents to compare themselves to their peers, would be related to the age-standardized pubertal timing of nominated friends and schoolmates. Surprisingly, there were no associations between relative timing and age-standardized pubertal timing reported by peers, suggesting that pubertal self-perceptions do not fluctuate in response to the average level of development in a friend group. Instead, males were similar to nominated friends and schoolmates in age-standardized ratings of body changes, and females were similar to nominated friends in relative timing, controlling for race, ethnicity, and age. Different self-report measures of pubertal timing index different underlying constructs, and the social processes that influence adolescents’ perceptions of pubertal maturation may differ between genders. PMID:25840777

  3. Peer Group Similarity in Perceptions of Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Kretsch, Natalie; Mendle, Jane; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2016-08-01

    Self-report measures of perceived pubertal timing correspond only weakly with clinical measures of "objective" physical development. Peer and school contexts shape adolescents' self-perceptions of pubertal timing. The current study examined associations between perceived pubertal timing and the pubertal timing reported by nominated friends and schoolmates. Participants included 2817 adolescents (Mage = 16.6; 49 % female; 16 % Black; 20 % Hispanic) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three measures of pubertal timing were included: age-standardized ratings of body changes, comparisons of development relative to peers (relative timing), and, in females, age at menarche. It was hypothesized that relative timing, which explicitly asks adolescents to compare themselves to their peers, would be related to the age-standardized pubertal timing of nominated friends and schoolmates. Surprisingly, there were no associations between relative timing and age-standardized pubertal timing reported by peers, suggesting that pubertal self-perceptions do not fluctuate in response to the average level of development in a friend group. Instead, males were similar to nominated friends and schoolmates in age-standardized ratings of body changes, and females were similar to nominated friends in relative timing, controlling for race, ethnicity, and age. Different self-report measures of pubertal timing index different underlying constructs, and the social processes that influence adolescents' perceptions of pubertal maturation may differ between genders. PMID:25840777

  4. Associations among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from ages 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in…

  5. Effects of biostimulation and nutritional supplementation on pubertal age and pregnancy rates of Nelore heifers (Bos indicus) in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C M G; Oliveira Filho, B D; Gambarini, M L; Viu, M A O; Lopes, D T; Sousa, A P F

    2009-07-01

    To determine effects of biostimulation (BIO) and dietary supplementation (BIO+S) on pubertal age and pregnancy rates, Nelore heifers (n=392) were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups (n=98/group). All animals were in tropical environmental conditions, in the middle-west region of Brazil, grazing in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu; Panicum Maximum, cv. Tanzânia and Brachiaria humidícula. The heifers of the BIO group were kept in the presence of bulls while being maintained on pasture; the animals in the BIO+S group were kept in the presence of bulls while being managed on pasture and were fed a diet with greater energy and protein content to produce 0.49 kg of BW gain/day; the animals in control group (the NBIO) were kept away from bulls and under pasture conditions; and the animals in the NBIO+S group were kept away from bulls, were maintained on pasture, and were fed the same diet as the BIO+S group. Heifers were bred at 22-23 months of age, and pregnancy diagnosis was made 45 days after the end of the breeding season. There were differences (P<0.05) between groups regarding pubertal heifers up to 19 months (NPH), final body weight (FBW) and pregnancy rates (P<0.01), with an advantage for the animals in the BIO and BIO+S groups. Although the effect of a diet with greater protein and energy content was not clear in this experiment, the exposure of heifers to a male during the prepubertal period decreased age at the first breeding season, resulting in a significant reduction in age of first pregnancy in Nelore heifers kept under extensive management systems in a tropical environment. PMID:18805660

  6. Pubertal development, spare time activities, and adolescent delinquency: testing the contextual amplification hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Tina; Oliver, Bonamy R; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-08-01

    Extensive evidence supports associations between early pubertal timing and adolescent externalizing behavior, but how and under which conditions they are linked is not fully understood. In addition, pubertal development is also characterized by variations in the relative speed at which individuals mature, but studies linking pubertal 'tempo' and outcomes are scarce. This study examined the mediating and moderating roles of spare time activities in associations between pubertal development and later delinquency, using data from a large (4,327 girls, 4,250 boys) longitudinal UK cohort (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children). Self-reports of Tanner stage were available from ages 9 to 14, spare time activities at age 12 and delinquency at age 15. Pubertal development was examined using latent growth models. Spare time activities were categorized using factor analyses, yielding four types (hanging out at home, hanging out outside, consumerist behavior, and sports/games), which were examined as mediators and moderators. Earlier and faster maturation predicted delinquency in boys and girls. Spare time activities partially mediated these links such that early maturing girls more often engaged in hanging out outside, which placed them at greater risk for delinquency. In addition, compared to their later and slower maturing counterparts, boys who matured earlier and faster were less likely to engage in sports/games, a spare time activity type that is linked to lower delinquency risk. No moderation effects were found. The findings extend previous research on outcomes of early maturation and show how spare time activities act as proxies between pubertal development and delinquency. PMID:24323040

  7. Genetic Influences on Pubertal Development and Links to Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic influences on adolescent psychological development are likely to be mediated and moderated by pubertal hormones. Combining genetic analyses with advanced models of pubertal development, we extended work on the measurement and psychological significance of puberty. We examined how genetic and environmental influences on puberty vary by the way that development is described (logistic versus linear models versus traditional methods) and the different aspects of puberty (adrenarche vs. gonadarche), and how genes and environment contribute to the covariation between different descriptions and aspects of puberty, and between pubertal development and behavior problems (substance use, age at sexual initiation). We also considered how puberty moderated the heritability of psychological outcomes (internalizing and externalizing problems), and sex differences. Participants from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study (403 girls, 395 boys) reported their pubertal development annually from ages 9 through 15; they and their parents reported their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence. There was a large genetic contribution to pubertal timing for both sexes no matter how it was measured, but findings for pubertal tempo varied by method. Genetic covariation accounted for most of the phenotypic correlations among different indicators of pubertal timing, and between pubertal timing and psychological outcome. We consider the implications of our results for understanding how pubertal hormones mediate or moderate genetic and environmental influences on psychological development. PMID:25903988

  8. Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

    A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

  9. Defining the Boundaries of Early Adolescence: A User's Guide to Assessing Pubertal Status and Pubertal Timing in Research with Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorn, Lorah D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Woodward, Hermi Rojahn; Biro, Frank

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses pragmatic issues regarding the assessment of puberty in research on adolescent health and development. Because pubertal processes have a major effect on physical, psychological, and social development, we posit that the assessment of pubertal status is at least as important as the specification of age for characterizing…

  10. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Aline Cristina; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2012-01-01

    Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords ‘endothelial', ‘children', ‘pediatric' and ‘infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children. PMID:22473410

  11. Modeling Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Examining Links to Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Corley, Robin P.; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing versus tempo, and sex differences in the nature and psychological significance of pubertal development. We used longitudinal self-report data to model linear and logistic trajectories of pubertal development, and used timing and tempo estimates from these models, and from traditional approaches (age at menarche and time from onset of breast development to menarche), to predict psychological outcomes of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and early sexual activity. Participants (738 girls, 781 boys) reported annually from ages 9 through 15 on their pubertal development, and they and their parents reported on their behavior in mid-to-late adolescence and early adulthood. Self reports of pubertal development provided meaningful data for both boys and girls, producing good trajectories, and estimates of individuals’ pubertal timing and tempo. A logistic model best fit the group data. Pubertal timing was estimated to be earlier in the logistic compared to linear model, but linear, logistic, and traditional estimates of pubertal timing correlated highly with each other and similarly with psychological outcomes. Pubertal tempo was not consistently estimated, and associations of tempo with timing and with behavior were model dependent. Advances in modeling facilitate the study of some questions about pubertal development, but assumptions of the models affect their utility in psychological studies. PMID:25437757

  12. Sertoli Cell Differentiation in Pubertal Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meishan boars experience puberty at a younger age than crossbred (BX) boars in association with earlier cessation of Sertoli cell proliferation and smaller post pubertal testicular size. The current study defined changes in expression, assessed by immunohistochemistry, of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH...

  13. Pubertal characteristics among schoolgirls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Felimban, Naila; Jawdat, Dunia; Al-Twaijri, Yasmin; Al-Mutair, Angham; Tamimi, Waleed; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamim, Hani; Al-Alwan, Ibrahim

    2013-07-01

    Puberty is the gradual transition period between childhood and adulthood. Many factors may contribute to the onset of puberty. The objective of the study was to determine the age of onset of secondary pubertal characteristics among Saudi Arabian girls. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a cluster sample design. Seven hundred and twenty-five schoolgirls between the ages of 6 and 16 years from diverse socioeconomic levels were included. During physical examinations, the height and weight of the girls were recorded, and the stages of breast and pubic hair development were determined according to Tanner stages; axillary hair development was determined according to modified stages. The median age at Tanner stage 2 for breast and pubic hair development was 10 years. The median age at stage 2 in modified scales for axillary hair development was 12 years. In conclusion, the median age of the onset of breast development at Tanner stage 2 for Saudi girls in Riyadh is lower than what has been reported in some countries in Europe, South Africa, Turkey and India but similar to girls in Hong Kong, China and white girls in the USA, which may support secular trends of an earlier onset of puberty. PMID:23640021

  14. Ages & Stages Questionnaire–Brazil–2011

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Cristina M. T.; Filgueiras, Alberto; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Professionals who assess early childhood development highly benefit from reliable development screening measures. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire was adapted Brazil in 2010 and named ASQ-BR. Modifications in some items were required to improve the instrument’s psychometric properties. The present study modified the ASQ-BR to verify if those changes increase its characteristics. Method. This study researched 67 522 children from 972 public day care centers and preschools. Changes in items were made considering Cronbach’s α and item-to-total correlations. Reliability, dimensionality, and item-to-total correlations were calculated. Results. Regarding dimensionality, 86.2% of the scales in ASQ-BR-2011 were unidimensional. Internal consistency showed improvement from 2010 to 2011: 53.8% of the scales increased the α statistics against 41.2% that decreased, and 5.0% remained the same. Finally, 65.2% of the modified items showed improvement. Conclusions. Overall, the instrument’s psychometrics improved from 2010 to 2011, especially in the personal/social domain. However, it still leaves room for improvement in future studies. PMID:27335984

  15. Onset of Disordered Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Early Adolescence: Interplay of Pubertal Status, Gender, Weight, and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Abraham, Suzanne

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the interplay of puberty, gender, weight, and age in regard to body image and disordered eating behaviors and attitudes in a sample of early adolescents. Results reveal that after menarche, females had increased personal expectations and were dissatisfied with weight/shape changes. Young males at puberty desired to build up their…

  16. Child maltreatment and household dysfunction: associations with pubertal development in a British birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leah; Denholm, Rachel; Power, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: We aimed to establish the association between adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) and pubertal maturation, which is associated with later health outcome(s). Methods: The 1958 British birth cohort (n = 17 638) includes all born in one week, March 1958, followed up to mid adulthood. Pubertal stage was rated by medical personnel at 11 and 16 years of age (y). Childhood maltreatment (neglect or abuse) and household dysfunction scores were constructed from information ascertained in childhood and at 45 y. Results: Childhood neglect, assessed at 7 y, was associated with late pubertal development on several markers after adjusting for early life circumstances: relative risk ratio (RRRadjusted) was 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06,1.21) and 1.06 (1.00,1.12) for late menarche and breast development (females) per unit increase in neglect score ranging 0–7, respectively; 1.14 (1.08,1.20) for late voice change and 1.07 (1.02,1.13) for pubic hair growth (males). The RRRadjusted for late pubic hair (females) and genitalia and facial hair (males) development was 1.04 (P = 0.052 to 0.085). Abuse score (0–3, for physical, sexual or psychological abuse) was associated in females with late menarche [RRRadjusted = 1.17 (1.01,1.36)] and in males with late pubic hair growth [RRRadjusted = 1.16 (1.01,1.34)] per unit increase, but not with other pubertal markers. Neither score (neglect or abuse) was associated with early puberty, but sexual abuse was associated with early [RRRadjusted = 1.86 (1.06,3.29)] as well as late menarche [RRRadjusted = 1.66 (1.02,2.71)] and witnessing abuse with early genitalia development [RRRadjusted = 1.57 (1.02,2.41)]. Household dysfunction score was not associated consistently with pubertal markers. Conclusions: Cumulative neglect by 7 y was associated with delayed development of several pubertal markers. The underlying role of pubertal development in linking childhood neglect with future adult health warrants further

  17. Familial cytomegalic adrenocortical hypoplasia: an X-linked syndrome of pubertal failure.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, I D; Smail, P J; Forsyth, C C

    1981-01-01

    Five boys with familial cytomegalic adrenocortical hypoplasia have been followed up for an average of 19 years. Despite treatment with replacement corticosteroids, all 5 failed to show a spontaneous onset of puberty and, when assessed at ages 13 to 19 years, all had both sexual infantilism and skeletal immaturity. Hypogonadism was confirmed by low levels of plasma testosterone, and pituitary reserve of gonadotrophin was shown to be inadequate by testing with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone. Two boys, both with adequate testosterone output on human chorionic gonadotrophin stimulation, were given gonadotrophin therapy, whereas the other 3 were treated with parenterally administered testosterone. With treatment, all 5 patients showed advances in pubertal staging. Although the mechanism of the hypogonadotropism remains unclear, the association of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism with familial cytomegalic adrenocortical hypoplasia appears to be a constant one and may be considered as a treatable inherited syndrome of pubertal failure. PMID:7197507

  18. Neonatal amygdala lesions advance pubertal timing in female rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Shannon B.Z.; Raper, Jessica; Bachevalier, Jocelyne; Wallen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Summary Social context influences the timing of puberty in both humans and nonhuman primates, such as delayed first ovulation in low-ranking rhesus macaques, but the brain region(s) mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing are unknown. The amygdala is important for responding to social information and thus, is a potential brain region mediating the effects of social context on pubertal timing. In this study, female rhesus macaques living in large, species-typical, social groups received bilateral neurotoxic amygdala lesions at one month of age and pubertal timing was examined beginning at 14 months of age. Pubertal timing was affected in neonatal amygdala-lesioned females (Neo-A), such that they experienced significantly earlier menarche and first ovulation than did control females (Neo-C). Duration between menarche and first ovulation did not differ between Neo-A and Neo-C females, indicating earlier first ovulation in Neo-A females was likely a consequence of earlier menarche. Social rank of Neo-A females was related to age at menarche, but not first ovulation, and social rank was not related to either event in Neo-C females. It is more likely that amygdalectomy affects pubertal timing through its modulation of GABA-ergic mechanisms rather than as a result of the removal of a social-contextual inhibition on pubertal timing. PMID:25462903

  19. Development: Ages & Stages--Emerging Physical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children develop their motor skills at different age levels. Newborn's movements are jerky and uncoordinated. Spending lots of floor time with a baby lying on her back or stomach helps her develop coordination, balance, and muscle strength during her earliest months. As locomotion enters a baby's life, she…

  20. Current Changes in Pubertal Timing: Revised Vision in Relation with Environmental Factors Including Endocrine Disruptors.

    PubMed

    Parent, Anne-Simone; Franssen, Delphine; Fudvoye, Julie; Pinson, Anneline; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to revise some common views on changes in pubertal timing. This revision is based on recent epidemiological findings on the clinical indicators of pubertal timing and data on environmental factor effects and underlying mechanisms. A current advancement in timing of female puberty is usually emphasized. It appears, however, that timing is also changing in males. Moreover, the changes are towards earliness for initial pubertal stages and towards lateness for final stages in both sexes. Such observations indicate the complexity of environmental influences on pubertal timing. The mechanisms of changes in pubertal timing may involve both the central neuroendocrine control and peripheral effects at tissues targeted by gonadal steroids. While sufficient energy availability is a clue to the mechanism of pubertal development, changes in the control of both energy balance and reproduction may vary under the influence of common determinants such as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These effects can take place right before puberty as well as much earlier, during fetal and neonatal life. Finally, environmental factors can interact with genetic factors in determining changes in pubertal timing. Therefore, the variance in pubertal timing is no longer to be considered under absolutely separate control by environmental and genetic determinants. Some recommendations are provided for evaluation of EDC impact in the management of pubertal disorders and for possible reduction of EDC exposure along the precautionary principle. PMID:26680578

  1. Phthalate exposure and pubertal development in a longitudinal study of US girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, M.S.; Teitelbaum, S.L.; McGovern, K.; Windham, G.C.; Pinney, S.M.; Galvez, M.; Calafat, A.M.; Kushi, L.H.; Biro, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Does phthalate exposure during early childhood alter the timing of pubertal development in girls? SUMMARY ANSWER Urinary concentrations of high-molecular weight phthalate (high-MWP) metabolites are associated with later pubarche. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Phthalates are anti-androgenic environmental agents known to alter early development, with possible effects on pubertal onset. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, AND DURATION This multi-ethnic study included 1239 girls from New York City, greater Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area who were 6–8 years old at enrollment (2004–2007) and who were followed until 2011. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Phthalate metabolites were measured in urine collected at enrollment from 1170 girls; concentrations ranged from <1 to >10 000 µg/l. Breast and pubic hair stages and body size were assessed one to two times annually to determine the age at transition from stage 1 to 2 for breast and pubic hair development. Associations between exposures and pubertal ages were estimated using Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and survival analyses. Associations were examined with respect to age-specific body mass-index percentile, one of the strongest predictors of pubertal onset. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Urinary concentrations of high-MWP including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (ΣDEHP) metabolites were associated with later pubic hair development during 7 years of observation. The relationship was linear and was stronger among normal-weight girls. Among normal-weight girls, age at pubic hair stage 2 (PH2) was 9.5 months older for girls in the fifth compared with the first quintile of urinary ΣDEHP (medians: 510 and 59 µg/g creatinine, respectively; adjusted HR 0.70, CI 0.53–0.93, P-trend 0.005. Age at first breast development was older for fifth quintile of mono-benzyl phthalate versus first (HR 0.83, CI 0.68–1.02; P-trend 0.018). No associations were observed between low

  2. Pubertal Development in Mexican American Girls: The Family’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Forman, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters’ weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs. PMID:19690203

  3. Epigenetic mechanisms in pubertal brain maturation

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Kathleen E.; Rodgers, Ali B.; Morgan, Christopher P.; Bale, Tracy L.

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period of development during which the reemergence of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus triggers a cascade of hormone-dependent processes. Maturation of specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex occurs during this window, but the complex mechanisms underlying these dynamic changes are not well understood. Particularly, the potential involvement of epigenetics in this programming has been under-examined. The epigenome is known to guide earlier stages of development, and it is similarly poised to regulate vital pubertal-driven brain maturation. Further, as epigenetic machinery is highly environmentally responsive, its involvement may also lend this period of growth to greater vulnerability to external insults, resulting in reprogramming and increased disease risk. Importantly, neuropsychiatric diseases commonly present in individuals during or immediately following puberty, and environmental perturbations including stress may precipitate disease onset by disrupting the normal trajectory of pubertal brain development via epigenetic mechanisms. In this review, we discuss epigenetic processes involved in pubertal brain maturation, the potential points of derailment, and the importance of future studies for understanding this dynamic developmental window and gaining a better understanding of neuropsychiatric disease risk. PMID:24239720

  4. Usefulness and Reliability of Tanner Pubertal Self-Rating to Urban Black Adolescents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Shane A.; Richter, Linda M.

    2005-01-01

    Self-rating of pubertal development is the recommended method to assess puberty in large community-based surveys of adolescent development and behavior. The aim of this study was to validate for the first time pubertal self-assessment using the sexual maturation scale developed by Tanner among Black South African adolescents (n=182) aged between…

  5. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood

    PubMed Central

    Almstrup, Kristian; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Busch, Alexander S.; Hagen, Casper P.; Nielsen, John E.; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphisms only explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation of the individual pubertal timing. PMID:27349168

  6. Pubertal changes in emotional information processing: pupillary, behavioral, and subjective evidence during emotional word identification.

    PubMed

    Silk, Jennifer S; Siegle, Greg J; Whalen, Diana J; Ostapenko, Laura J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Dahl, Ronald E

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated pupillary and behavioral responses to an emotional word valence identification paradigm among 32 pre-/early pubertal and 34 mid-/late pubertal typically developing children and adolescents. Participants were asked to identify the valence of positive, negative, and neutral words while pupil dilation was assessed using an eyetracker. Mid-/late pubertal children showed greater peak pupillary reactivity to words presented during the emotional word identification task than pre-/early pubertal children, regardless of word valence. Mid-/late pubertal children also showed smaller sustained pupil dilation than pre-/early pubertal children after the word was no longer on screen. These findings were replicated controlling for participants' age. In addition, mid-/late pubertal children had faster reaction times to all words, and rated themselves as more emotional during their laboratory visit compared to pre-/early pubertal children. Greater recall of emotional words following the task was associated with mid-/late pubertal status, and greater recall of emotional words was also associated with higher peak pupil dilation. These results provide physiological, behavioral, and subjective evidence consistent with a model of puberty-specific changes in neurobehavioral systems underpinning emotional reactivity. PMID:19144220

  7. Pubertal development in healthy children is mirrored by DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Almstrup, Kristian; Lindhardt Johansen, Marie; Busch, Alexander S; Hagen, Casper P; Nielsen, John E; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Juul, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Puberty marks numerous physiological processes which are initiated by central activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, followed by development of secondary sexual characteristics. To a large extent, pubertal timing is heritable, but current knowledge of genetic polymorphisms only explains few months in the large inter-individual variation in the timing of puberty. We have analysed longitudinal genome-wide changes in DNA methylation in peripheral blood samples (n = 102) obtained from 51 healthy children before and after pubertal onset. We show that changes in single methylation sites are tightly associated with physiological pubertal transition and altered reproductive hormone levels. These methylation sites cluster in and around genes enriched for biological functions related to pubertal development. Importantly, we identified that methylation of the genomic region containing the promoter of TRIP6 was co-ordinately regulated as a function of pubertal development. In accordance, immunohistochemistry identified TRIP6 in adult, but not pre-pubertal, testicular Leydig cells and circulating TRIP6 levels doubled during puberty. Using elastic net prediction models, methylation patterns predicted pubertal development more accurately than chronological age. We demonstrate for the first time that pubertal attainment of secondary sexual characteristics is mirrored by changes in DNA methylation patterns in peripheral blood. Thus, modulations of the epigenome seem involved in regulation of the individual pubertal timing. PMID:27349168

  8. Pubertal timing and sexual risk behaviors among rural African American male youth: testing a model based on life history theory.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2015-04-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects on sexual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend less on pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  9. Pubertal Timing and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Rural African American Male Youth: Testing a Model Based on Life History Theory

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Steven M.; Cho, Junhan; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Allen, Kimberly A.; Beach, Steven R. H.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2014-01-01

    Life History Theory (LHT), a branch of evolutionary biology, describes how organisms maximize their reproductive success in response to environmental conditions. This theory suggests that challenging environmental conditions will lead to early pubertal maturation, which in turn predicts heightened risky sexual behavior. Although largely confirmed among female adolescents, results with male youth are inconsistent. We tested a set of predictions based on LHT with a sample of 375 African American male youth assessed three times from age 11 to age 16. Harsh, unpredictable community environments and harsh, inconsistent, or unregulated parenting at age 11 were hypothesized to predict pubertal maturation at age 13; pubertal maturation was hypothesized to forecast risky sexual behavior, including early onset of intercourse, substance use during sexual activity, and lifetime numbers of sexual partners. Results were consistent with our hypotheses. Among African American male youth, community environments were a modest but significant predictor of pubertal timing. Among those youth with high negative emotionality, both parenting and community factors predicted pubertal timing. Pubertal timing at age 13 forecast risky sexual behavior at age 16. Results of analyses conducted to determine whether environmental effects ons exual risk behavior were mediated by pubertal timing were not significant. This suggests that, although evolutionary mechanisms may affect pubertal development via contextual influences for sensitive youth, the factors that predict sexual risk behavior depend lesson pubertal maturation than LHT suggests. PMID:25501863

  10. Sexual Dimorphisms in the Associations of BMI and Body Fat with Indices of Pubertal Development in Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Melissa K.; Stern, Elizabeth A.; Sedaka, Nicole M.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Brady, Sheila M.; Ali, Asem H.; Shawker, Thomas H.; Hubbard, Van S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The effect of obesity and concomitant insulin resistance on pubertal development is incompletely elucidated. Objective: To determine how measures of adiposity and insulin resistance are associated with pubertal maturation in boys and girls. Setting and Design: Breast and pubic hair Tanner stage and testicular volume by orchidometry were determined by physical examination in 1066 children. Ovarian volume was estimated by trans-abdominal ultrasound. Fat mass, skeletal age, and fasting serum for insulin and glucose, total T, estradiol, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, and androstenedione were measured at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Research Center. Convenience sample; 52% obese, 59% female. Results: Logistic regression identified a significant interaction between sex and obesity for prediction of pubertal development (P ≤ .01). There was a negative association between boys' testicular volume and body mass index (BMI)/fat mass but a positive association between girls' breast stage and BMI/fat mass. Ovarian volume in girls was positively associated with insulin resistance but not with BMI/fat mass. There was a positive association between obesity and measures of estrogen exposure (breast development and skeletal age) in both sexes. Positive correlations were seen for girls between BMI and pubic hair development and between insulin resistance and T production, whereas adiposity was negatively associated with pubic hair in boys. Conclusions: Significant sexual dimorphisms in the manifestations of pubertal development are seen in obese girls and boys. Two known effects of obesity, increased peripheral conversion of low-potency androgens to estrogens by adipose tissue-aromatase and increased insulin resistance, may be in large part responsible for these differences. PMID:24780051

  11. Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Coburn, Bryan; Wang, Pauline W; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T; Brahma, Vijaya; Donaldson, Sylva; Zhang, Yu; Surendra, Anu; Gong, Yunchen; Elizabeth Tullis, D; Yau, Yvonne C W; Waters, Valerie J; Hwang, David M; Guttman, David S

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4-17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function. PMID:25974282

  12. Lung microbiota across age and disease stage in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Coburn, Bryan; Wang, Pauline W.; Diaz Caballero, Julio; Clark, Shawn T.; Brahma, Vijaya; Donaldson, Sylva; Zhang, Yu; Surendra, Anu; Gong, Yunchen; Elizabeth Tullis, D.; Yau, Yvonne C. W.; Waters, Valerie J.; Hwang, David M.; Guttman, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the significance of bacterial species that colonize and persist in cystic fibrosis (CF) airways requires a detailed examination of bacterial community structure across a broad range of age and disease stage. We used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterize the lung microbiota in 269 CF patients spanning a 60 year age range, including 76 pediatric samples from patients of age 4–17, and a broad cross-section of disease status to identify features of bacterial community structure and their relationship to disease stage and age. The CF lung microbiota shows significant inter-individual variability in community structure, composition and diversity. The core microbiota consists of five genera - Streptococcus, Prevotella, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces. CF-associated pathogens such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Stenotrophomonas and Achromobacter are less prevalent than core genera, but have a strong tendency to dominate the bacterial community when present. Community diversity and lung function are greatest in patients less than 10 years of age and lower in older age groups, plateauing at approximately age 25. Lower community diversity correlates with worse lung function in a multivariate regression model. Infection by Pseudomonas correlates with age-associated trends in community diversity and lung function. PMID:25974282

  13. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  14. Cognitive vulnerabilities amplify the effect of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Kleiman, Evan M; Hamlat, Elissa J; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-05-01

    Early pubertal timing has been found to confer risk for the occurrence of interpersonal stressful events during adolescence. However, pre-existing vulnerabilities may exacerbate the effects of early pubertal timing on the occurrence of stressors. Thus, the current study prospectively examined whether cognitive vulnerabilities amplified the effects of early pubertal timing on interpersonal stress generation. In a diverse sample of 310 adolescents (M age = 12.83 years, 55 % female; 53 % African American), early pubertal timing predicted higher levels of interpersonal dependent events among adolescents with more negative cognitive style and rumination, but not among adolescents with lower levels of these cognitive vulnerabilities. These findings suggest that cognitive vulnerabilities may heighten the risk of generating interpersonal stress for adolescents who undergo early pubertal maturation, which may subsequently place adolescents at greater risk for the development of psychopathology. PMID:24061858

  15. Effects of early pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on social behavior of mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Weng, Huifang; Yan, Shengyao; Sun, Yangyang

    2016-04-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a main member of phthalates used as plasticizer in PVC plastics, is an environmental endocrine disrupter. The present study investigated the effect of DEHP on social behavior of mice following pubertal exposure (1, 10, 50, and 200mg/kg/d) from postnatal day 28 through postnatal day 42. The results showed that, in pubertal females, DEHP reduced the time spent in social play and social investigation and inhibited sociability, but a contrary effect was found in pubertal males, suggesting that the effect of DEHP on pubertal social behavior displays sex differences. In adults, DEHP reduced sociability in females and inhibited social play and social investigation in males, suggesting that early pubertal exposure to DEHP not only plays a significant role in puberty but also alters social behavior in adults. In addition, the present study showed that the higher dose of DEHP (50, 200mg/kg/d) reduced the relative weight of bilateral testis and anogenital distance of pubertal or adult males, suggesting an anti-androgenic activity of DEHP. These results suggest that early pubertal exposure to DEHP sex- and age- specifically affected the social behaviors of pubertal and even adult mice. PMID:26844866

  16. Age and correlation of California Paleogene benthic foraminiferal stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of age determinations and correlations derived from calcareous plankton with those derived from benthic foraminifers in a number of sections in California show significant overlap in time of the Ynezian through the Ulatisian Stages. Thus interbasin time correlations deduced from these stage assignments must be treated with caution. Calcareous plankton occasionally associated with benthic foraminifers diagnostic of the Narizian through the Zemorrian Stages indicate that the Narizian-Refugian boundary is within the upper Eocene of international usage and that the Refugian is entirely upper Eocene. Overlap of the Narizian and the Refugian appears to be minimal. The Zemorrian correlates, mostly, with the Oligocene, although the upper limit of the Zemorrian might be in the lower Miocene.

  17. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  18. Training the prepubertal and pubertal athlete.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, Valerie K

    2007-06-01

    Participation of prepubertal and pubertal children in sports has increased significantly over the past decade. There is a continuing concern for their emotional and physical well-being. This review discusses concerns that coaches, trainers, parents, and athletes must confront. Young athletes are limited in their ability to perform on the playing field by both their physical and emotional maturity. Competitive sports in this age group can lead to injury and disability. Both strength training and aerobic training can have benefits for this age group but must be performed in a cautious and creative fashion. Child athletes have increased nutritional demands that require special attention. The use of performance-enhancing drugs is of special concern in this age group. Training the child athlete should be performed with the utmost concern for the athlete's safety and well-being. PMID:19202665

  19. Comparison of Examination Methods Used in the Evaluation of Prepubertal and Pubertal Female Genitalia: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Cathy; McCann, John; Miyamoto, Sheridan; Rogers, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of three different examination methods in their ability to help the examiner detect both acute and non-acute genital injuries in prepubertal and pubertal girls suspected of having been sexually abused. Methods: Forty-six prepubertal and 74 pubertal girls, whose ages ranged from 4 months to 18 years, were…

  20. Transitions in body and behavior: a meta-analytic study on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Baams, Laura; Dubas, Judith Semon; Overbeek, Geertjan; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2015-06-01

    The present meta-analysis studies the relations of pubertal timing and status with sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior among youth aged 10.5-22.4 years. We included biological sex, age, and ethnicity as potential moderators. Four databases were searched for studies (published between 1980 and 2012) on the relation between pubertal timing or status and sexual behavior. The outcomes were (1) sexual intercourse; (2) combined sexual behavior; and (3) risky sexual behavior. Earlier pubertal timing or more advanced pubertal status was related to earlier and more sexual behavior, and earlier pubertal timing was related to more risky sexual behavior. Further, the links between (1) pubertal status and combined sexual behavior and (2) pubertal timing and sexual intercourse status, combined sexual behavior, and risky sexual behavior were stronger for girls than boys. Most links between pubertal status, timing, and sexual behavior and sexual risk behavior were stronger for younger adolescents. Moderation by ethnicity did not yield consistent results. There was significant variation in results among studies that was not fully explained by differences in biological sex, age, and ethnicity. Future research is needed to identify moderators that explain the variation in effects and to design sexual health interventions for young adolescents. PMID:25636818

  1. Exciting fear in adolescence: Does pubertal development alter threat processing?

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent development encompasses an ostensible paradox in threat processing. Risk taking increases dramatically after the onset of puberty, contributing to a 200% increase in mortality. Yet, pubertal maturation is associated with increased reactivity in threat-avoidance systems. In the first part of this paper we propose a heuristic model of adolescent affective development that may help to reconcile aspects of this paradox, which focuses on hypothesized pubertal increases in the capacity to experience (some) fear-evoking experiences as an exciting thrill. In the second part of this paper, we test key features of this model by examining brain activation to threat cues in a longitudinal study that disentangled pubertal and age effects. Pubertal increases in testosterone predicted increased activation to threat cues, not only in regions associated with threat avoidance (i.e., amygdala), but also regions associated with reward pursuit (i.e., nucleus accumbens). These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that puberty is associated with a maturational shift toward more complex processing of threat cues–which may contribute to adolescent tendencies to explore and enjoy some types of risky experiences. PMID:24548554

  2. Environmental phenols and pubertal development in girls.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Mary S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M; Windham, Gayle C; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M; Kushi, Lawrence H; Biro, Frank M

    2015-11-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 μM of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6-8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5-6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64-0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65-0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol: 4-9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96-1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09-1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5-dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  3. Sex- and age-dependent activity of glutathione peroxidase in reproductive organs in pre- and post-pubertal cattle in relation to total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kankofer, M; Wawrzykowski, J; Giergiel, M

    2013-08-01

    Antioxidative/oxidative balance is crucial for proper functioning of cells and tissues. It is suggested that this balance can be partly controlled by sex steroid hormones and in consequence can exhibit age- and sex-related dependency. The aim of present study was to describe sex- and age-related changes in the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with respect to total antioxidant activity (TAC) in reproductive organs of cattle. Biological samples were collected from slaughterhouse and comprised of ovaries, uterus, testes as well as livers as reference tissue. Animals were divided into group of bulls (aged between 13 and 24 months; n = 12), cows (aged between 14 and 27 months; n = 12) and female calves (aged between 2 weeks and 2 months; n = 12). Examined parameters were determined spectrophotometrically and the presence of GSH-Px isoform was confirmed by Western blotting technique. Activity of GSH-Px in genital tissues regardless of sex was significantly higher than in livers, while TAC showed opposite relationship. The differences in antioxidative parameters between testes and mature ovaries (e.g. GSH-Px-1.42 ± 0.47 nkat/mg prot vs. 1.08 ± 0.24 and 1.15 ± 0.23) were noticed as well as in chosen values between cows and female calves. Western blotting allowed the detection of cytosolic GSH-Px in all examined tissues with molecular weight around 21 kDa as monomer and around 84 kDa as tetramer depending on conditions of electrophoresis. The results may confirm the influence and regulatory role of sex steroid hormones on GSH-Px activity because the alterations were sex and age dependent. PMID:23740597

  4. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation modeling results indicated that youth who reported being more advanced in their pubertal development reported high levels of femininity and anxiety symptoms. Youth who reported high levels of masculinity had low levels of anxiety symptoms as reported by both youths and parents. The estimated effects of pubertal development, femininity, and masculinity on youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms were not significantly moderated by biological sex. Pubertal development and gender role orientation appear to be important in explaining levels of youth anxiety symptoms among clinic referred anxious youth. PMID:21916691

  5. Age, puberty, body dissatisfaction, and physical activity decline in adolescents. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) shows a marked decline during adolescence. Some studies have pointed to pubertal status or timing as possible PA determinants in this age group. Furthermore, it was supposed that the impact of pubertal changes on PA might be mediated by psychological variables like body dissatisfaction (BDS). Methods The 11- to 17-year-old subsample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS) was used (n = 6 813; 51.3% male, response rate = 66.6%). Through sex-specific sequential multinomial logistic regressions we analysed the univariate and independent associations of chronological age, absolute pubertal status, relative pubertal timing, and BDS with the frequency of PA. Results Chronological age showed a significantly negative association with PA in both sexes, independent of puberty. The odds of inactivity in contrast to nearly daily PA increased about 70% in boys and 35% in girls for each year of age, respectively. Adjusted for age and other possible confounders, inactivity was significantly less likely for boys in late pubertal stages (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09-0.78). The risk of inactivity was more than doubled in boys maturing earlier than peers in terms of relative pubertal timing (OR = 2.20, 95% CI = 1.36-3.56). No clear significant puberty effects were found in girls, but the inactivity was more likely for those with irregular menstruation (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.06-2.75). BDS also contributed to the prediction of PA in both sexes. It partially mediated puberty effects in boys but not in girls. Conclusions Overall, chronological age was a far more important predictor of PA in German adolescents than absolute pubertal status or relative pubertal timing. Further possible explanatory variables like sociocultural influences, social support or increasing time requirements for education should be analysed in conjunction with chronological age in future studies. PMID:22032266

  6. Breastfeeding versus Formula-Feeding & Girls’ Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P.; Biro, Frank M.; Pinney, Susan M.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Wolff, Mary S.; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls’ pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. Methods A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6–8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother’s education, mother’s menarcheal age, and family income. Results Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development (Hazard Ratios 0.90 [95% CI, 0.75–1.09] and 0.74 [95% CI, 0.59–0.94], respectively). Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. Conclusion The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  7. Breastfeeding versus formula-feeding and girls' pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Kale, Aarti; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Laurent, Cecile; Greenspan, Louise C; Hiatt, Robert A; Windham, Gayle; Galvez, Maida P; Biro, Frank M; Pinney, Susan M; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Wolff, Mary S; Barlow, Janice; Mirabedi, Anousheh; Lasater, Molly; Kushi, Lawrence H

    2015-03-01

    To examine the association of breastfeeding or its duration with timing of girls' pubertal onset, and the role of BMI as a mediator in these associations. A population of 1,237 socio-economically and ethnically diverse girls, ages 6-8 years, was recruited across three geographic locations (New York City, Cincinnati, and the San Francisco Bay Area) in a prospective study of predictors of pubertal maturation. Breastfeeding practices were assessed using self-administered questionnaire/interview with the primary caregiver. Girls were seen on at least annual basis to assess breast and pubic hair development. The association of breastfeeding with pubertal timing was estimated using parametric survival analysis while adjusting for body mass index, ethnicity, birth-weight, mother's education, mother's menarcheal age, and family income. Compared to formula fed girls, those who were mixed-fed or predominantly breastfed showed later onset of breast development [hazard ratios 0.90 (95 % CI 0.75, 1.09) and 0.74 (95 % CI 0.59, 0.94), respectively]. Duration of breastfeeding was also directly associated with age at onset of breast development (p trend = 0.008). Associations between breastfeeding and pubic hair onset were not significant. In stratified analysis, the association of breastfeeding and later breast onset was seen in Cincinnati girls only. The association between breast feeding and pubertal onset varied by study site. More research is needed about the environments within which breastfeeding takes place in order to better understand whether infant feeding practices are a potentially modifiable risk factor that may influence age at onset of breast development and subsequent risk for disease in adulthood. PMID:24916206

  8. Problems in Studying and Defining Pubertal Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petersen, Anne C.

    1984-01-01

    Issues in studying pubertal events are examined, including whether puberty is best characterized as a social construction or a physical event, whether early adolescence is a transitional or distinct life period, life events associated with puberty, boundaries of early adolescence, and possible models for studying pubertal change. (Author/BW)

  9. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  10. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  11. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen; Grimm, Kevin J.; Hipwell, Alison; Stepp, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study (PGS) who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African-American females had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  12. A Comparison of Self-Reported Puberty Using the Pubertal Development Scale and the Sexual Maturation Scale in a School-Based Epidemiologic Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lyndal; Clements, Jackie; Bertalli, Nadine; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; McMorris, Barbara J.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To examine concordance between two self-reported measures of puberty: Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) and Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and their acceptability to adolescents. Methods: Participants of a school-based study in grades 5, 7 and 9 were classified into one of 5 pubertal stages using each method. Results: 2864 students (age…

  13. Implementing the Ages and Stages questionnaire in health visiting practice.

    PubMed

    McKnight, Sara

    2014-11-01

    NHS South of Tyne and Wear introduced the Ages and Stages developmental screening tool as part of the health visiting core offer in June 2012. The tool comprises two sets of questionnaires, which cover the development of communication, gross and fine motor skills, problem-solving ability and personal-social skills (ASQ-3], self- regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect and interactions (ASQ-SE). ASQ was chosen over other screening tools for its reliability and validity. The introduction of the ASQ was to assist health visitors in the early detection of developmental problems and to support early interventions. By involving parents more, it was envisaged that they would be afforded a specific opportunity to think about how their child is developing, and should any developmental concerns become apparent, they would be more willing to accept referrals for early intervention. Initial feedback from parents and paediatricians has been positive. Most parents using the questionnaires felt that they were easy to complete and many found that they gained insight into their child's abilities. Further work should be undertaken to achieve a more representative sample of the target population. PMID:25612412

  14. Possible pubertal effect on therapeutic gains in an autistic girl.

    PubMed

    Ayres, A J; Mailloux, Z K

    1983-08-01

    A deaf, partially sighted, severely retarded autistic girl, 11 years, 6 months of age, received approximately 2 years of occupational therapy, where sensory integration procedures were employed to reduce self-stimulation. Videotaped time samples of the amount of stereotypies showed a consistent reduction from the time of starting therapy to an interruption for vacation and surgery for scoliosis 46 weeks later. On returning to therapy after a 9-week break, self-stimulation had greatly increased and did not return to the presurgery level during an additional 55 weeks of therapy, 30 of which followed the removal of a cast. Menarche occurred 1 week after removing the cast. Increased self-stimulation is linked to reduced inclination toward environmental interaction as well as to an interruption of intervention and possible pubertal effect. Brief reports on four other autistic adolescents who received similar therapy are consistent with the conjecture of frequent pubertal regression. PMID:6624850

  15. Prepubertal and pubertal canine reproductive studies: conflicting aspects.

    PubMed

    Gobello, C

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient knowledge has been acquired regarding the prepubertal and pubertal periods of domestic canids. Until further information becomes available, a better standardization of the definitions, a careful and complete description of experimental variables and end points is necessary to diminish experimental bias in published trials. The aim of this report is therefore to discuss the definition of puberty and some of the most conflicting conditions influencing the pubertal transition (e.g. age and body weight and condition score among others) that, in turn, will be useful for the future design of reproductive studies on the domestic dog. Only trials that could be easily processed by a meta-analysis will contribute to an improvement of our general knowledge on the reproductive physiology of this particular species. PMID:25251604

  16. Gene-Environment Interplay in the Association between Pubertal Timing and Delinquency in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Early pubertal timing places girls at elevated risk for a breadth of negative outcomes, including involvement in delinquent behavior. While previous developmental research has emphasized the unique social challenges faced by early maturing girls, this relation is complicated by genetic influences for both delinquent behavior and pubertal timing, which are seldom controlled for in existing research. The current study uses genetically informed data on 924 female-female twin and sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to (1) disentangle biological versus environmental mechanisms for the effects of early pubertal timing and (2) test for gene-environment interactions. Results indicate that early pubertal timing influences girls’ delinquency through a complex interplay between biological risk and environmental experiences. Genes related to earlier age at menarche and higher perceived development significantly predict increased involvement in both non-violent and violent delinquency. Moreover, after accounting for this genetic association between pubertal timing and delinquency, the impact of non-shared environmental influences on delinquency are significantly moderated by pubertal timing, such that the non-shared environment is most important among early maturing girls. This interaction effect is particularly evident for non-violent delinquency. Overall, results suggest early maturing girls are vulnerable to an interaction between genetic and environmental risks for delinquent behavior. PMID:21668078

  17. Associations Among Pubertal Development, Empathic Ability, and Neural Responses While Witnessing Peer Rejection in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; Colich, Natalie L.; Dapretto, Mirella

    2012-01-01

    Links among concurrent and longitudinal changes in pubertal development and empathic ability from age 10 to 13 and neural responses while witnessing peer rejection at age 13 were examined in 16 participants. More advanced pubertal development at age 13, and greater longitudinal increases in pubertal development, related to increased activity in regions underlying cognitive aspects of empathy. Likewise, at age 13 greater perspective taking related to activity in cognitive empathy-related regions; however, affective components of empathy (empathic concern and personal distress) were additionally associated with activity in affective pain-related regions. Longitudinal increases in empathic ability related to cognitive and affective empathy-related circuitry. Findings provide preliminary evidence that physical and cognitive-emotional development relate to adolescents’ neural responses when witnessing peer rejection. PMID:23379360

  18. Genetic Determinants of Pubertal Timing in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Gajdos, Zofia K.Z.; Henderson, Katherine D.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is an important developmental stage during which reproductive capacity is attained. The timing of puberty varies greatly among healthy individuals in the general population and is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Although genetic variation is known to influence the normal spectrum of pubertal timing, the specific genes involved remain largely unknown. Genetic analyses have identified a number of genes responsible for rare disorders of pubertal timing such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Kallmann syndrome. Recently, the first loci with common variation reproducibly associated with population variation in the timing of puberty were identified at 6q21 in or near LIN28B and at 9q31.2. However, these two loci explain only a small fraction of the genetic contribution to population variation in pubertal timing, suggesting the need to continue to consider other loci and other types of variants. Here we provide an update of the genes implicated in disorders of puberty, discuss genes and pathways that may be involved in the timing of normal puberty, and suggest additional avenues of investigation to identify genetic regulators of puberty in the general population. PMID:20144687

  19. Neonatal olfactory bulbectomy enhances locomotor activity, exploratory behavior and binding of NMDA receptors in pre-pubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Flores, G; Ibañez-Sandoval, O; Silva-Gómez, A B; Camacho-Abrego, I; Rodríguez-Moreno, A; Morales-Medina, J C

    2014-02-14

    In this study, we investigated the effect of neonatal olfactory bulbectomy (nOBX) on behavioral paradigms related to olfaction such as exploratory behavior, locomotor activity in a novel environment and social interaction. We also studied the effect of nOBX on the activity of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors during development. The behavioral effects of nOBX (postnatal day 7, PD7) were investigated in pre- (PD30) and post-pubertal (PD60) Wistar rats. NMDA receptor activity was measured with [(125)I]MK-801 in the brain regions associated with the olfactory circuitry. A significant increase in the novelty-induced locomotion was seen in the pre-pubertal nOBX rats. Although the locomotor effect was less marked than in pre-pubertal rats, the nOBX rats tested post-pubertally failed to habituate to the novel situation as quickly as the sham- and normal- controls. Pre-pubertally, the head-dipping behavior was enhanced in nOBX rats compared with sham-operated and normal controls, while normal exploratory behavior was observed between groups in adulthood. In contrast, social interaction was increased in post-pubertal animals that underwent nOBX. Both pre- and post-pubertal nOBX rats recovered olfaction. Interestingly, pre-pubertal rats showed a significant increase in the [(125)I]MK-801 binding in the piriform cortex, dorsal hippocampus, inner and outer layers of the frontal cortex and outer layer of the cingulate cortex. At post-pubertal age, no significant differences in [(125)I]MK-801 binding were observed between groups at any of the brain regions analyzed. These results suggest that nOBX produces pre-pubertal behavioral disturbances and NMDA receptor changes that are transitory with recovery of olfaction early in adulthood. PMID:24295633

  20. Understanding the Link Between Pubertal Timing in Girls and the Development of Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Sexual Harassment.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-02-01

    The link between sexual maturation, or pubertal timing, in girls and adolescent depressive symptoms is well-documented, but the underlying processes remain unclear. We examined whether sexual harassment, which has previously been linked to both pubertal timing and depressive symptoms, mediates this link, using a two-wave longitudinal study including 454 girls in 7th (M age  = 13.42, SD = .53) and 8th grade (M age  = 14.42, SD = .55). Pubertal timing was linked to depressive symptoms in both age groups, and predicted an increase in depressive symptoms among the 7th graders. Sexual harassment significantly mediated the link between pubertal timing and depressive symptoms among the 7th, but not the 8th grade girls. Together, our findings suggest that one way to prevent depressive symptoms among early-maturing girls could be to address sexual harassment in preventive intervention in early adolescence. PMID:25971216

  1. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early ... more likely to be diagnosed with late-stage lung cancer than those who are slightly older, a new ...

  2. Labial adhesions in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Roy Kallol; Sonika, Agarwal; Charu, Chanana; Sunesh, Kumar; Neena, Malhotra

    2006-01-01

    Labial adhesions after puberty are rare and are usually the result of chronic inflammation, urinary tract infection, hypoestrogenism or surgical procedures leading to vulval trauma. Sexual abuse leading to labial adhesions is extremely rare in girls who have attained menarche. Complete vulval fusion can rarely occur without any evidence of hypoestrogenism. We address this rare entity in three young pubertal girls wherein one had a history of genital trauma, the second had a history of surgical intervention due to urinary retention and the last one had a history of sexual abuse. All patients had history of genital trauma in common. Accepted management of this condition is adhesiolysis followed by application of estrogen cream in the postoperative period. PMID:16189695

  3. The roles of puberty and age in explaining the diminished effectiveness of parental buffering of HPA reactivity and recovery in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Hostinar, Camelia E; VanZomeren-Dohm, Adrienne A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-09-01

    Parental support is a powerful regulator of stress and fear responses for infants and children, but recent evidence suggests it may be an ineffective stress buffer for adolescents. The mechanisms underlying this developmental shift are not well-understood. The goal of the present study was to examine the independent and joint contributions of pubertal status and chronological age in explaining this shift. A sample of 75 typically developing youth (M age=12.95 years, SD=0.70, range=11.7-14.6 years; 37 females) was recruited to complete a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST-M) in the laboratory. Participants were recruited in such a way as to disentangle pubertal stage and chronological age by phone screening for markers of pubertal stage and then recruiting roughly equal numbers of younger and older, pre/early and mid/late pubertal youth who were then randomly assigned within groups to condition. The TSST-M was used as the stressor and youth prepared either with their parent or stranger (parent condition: N=39). Pubertal stage was confirmed by the Petersen Pubertal Development Scale at the time of testing and treated, along with chronological age, as a continuous variable in the analyses. The results revealed an interaction of pubertal stage and support condition for cortisol reactivity to the TSST-M such that preparing for the speech with the parent became a less potent buffer of the HPA axis as pubertal stage increased. Age did not interact with condition in predicting cortisol reactivity. In contrast, the parent's presence during speech preparation decreased in its effectiveness to hasten recovery of the HPA axis as children got older, but pubertal stage was not predictive of recovery rate. These patterns were specific to cortisol and were not observed with salivary alpha-amylase levels or subjective stress ratings for the task. These analyses suggest that the switch away from using parents as social buffers may be the result of neurobiological mechanisms

  4. Pubertal Status Predicts Back Pain, Overtiredness, and Dizziness in American and Dutch Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hunfeld, Joke A. M.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; LeResche, Linda

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Functional somatic symptoms, symptoms for which no organic pathologic basis can be found, are more prevalent in girls than in boys, and this difference tends to increase during adolescence. This might be explained, at least in part, by pubertal development. We hypothesized that pubertal maturation predicts the development of most functional somatic symptoms and that this especially is true for girls. METHOD: We used 2 longitudinal population-based studies to examine our hypotheses: the Longitudinal Study of Pain in Adolescents in Seattle (n = 1996 [49.7% girls]) and the Dutch Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (n = 2230 [51.0% girls]). Two assessment waves of each study were used. American adolescents were younger than Dutch adolescents at the first (11.6 vs 13.6) and second (14.5 vs 16.2) assessment waves, but they were in about the same pubertal development stage. Functional somatic symptoms were measured by pain questions, the Symptom Checklist-90, and the Youth Self-report. The Pubertal Development Scale was used to assess pubertal development on a continuous scale in both cohorts. RESULTS: Ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that American and Dutch adolescents at a later pubertal status at baseline were more likely (odds ratios ranged from 1.24 to 1.61) to report back pain, overtiredness, and dizziness but not stomach pain and headache 2 to 3 years later. Although these relationships were not equally strong for boys and girls, no significant gender differences were found. CONCLUSIONS: Pubertal status predicted the frequency of some, but not all, functional somatic symptoms at follow-up. PMID:21807699

  5. Pubertal Status and Emotional Reactivity to a Voluntary Hyperventilation Challenge Predicting Panic Symptoms and Somatic Complaints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Reardon, Laura E.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The main and interactive effects of pubertal status and emotional reactivity to bodily sensations elicited by a voluntary hyperventilation challenge were examined in relation to panic symptoms and self- and parent-reported somatic complaints among 123 (56 females) adolescents between the ages of 12 and 17 years (M[age] = 15.05; SD = 1.50). As…

  6. The Role of Pubertal Timing in What Adolescent Boys Do Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skoog, Therese; Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between pubertal timing and boys' Internet use, particularly their viewing of pornography. We used a sample comprising of 97 boys in grade 8 (M age, 14.22 years) from two schools in a medium-sized Swedish town. This age should be optimal for differentiating early, on-time, and later-maturing…

  7. Development's Tortoise and Hare: Pubertal Timing, Pubertal Tempo, and Depressive Symptoms in Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Harden, K. Paige; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Graber, Julia A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the sequence of pubertal maturation remains consistent across most individuals, the timing and tempo of development fluctuate widely. While past research has largely focused on the sequelae of pubertal timing, a faster tempo of maturation might also present special challenges to children for acclimating to new biological and social…

  8. [Growth rate can be manipulated. Estrogen production in pubertal boys can be blocked by an aromatase inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Hagenäs, Lars

    2002-01-17

    A review of a twelve month clinical trial [1] using a new, effective aromatase inhibitor treatment in boys with delayed puberty shows that the pubertal increase in estrogen levels can be blocked, with concomitant preserved pubertal growth rate. Circulating testosterone levels are greatly enhanced during treatment due to increased gonadotrophin secretion. Despite this, bone age maturation is slow leading to an increased final height prognosis (mean 5.1 cm) for the boys treated with aromatase inhibitor. PMID:11838072

  9. Relations of Pubertal Timing and Depressive Symptoms to Substance Use in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiesner, Margit; Ittel, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Tested three hypotheses concerning effects of pubertal timing on substance use during early adolescence. Findings supported only the stage termination hypothesis. Early maturing boys and girls reported a higher frequency of substance use within the following year after puberty than did the other participants, with the effects being more pronounced…

  10. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  11. Psychopathology and Social Competence during the Transition to Adolescence: The Role of Family Adversity and Pubertal Development

    PubMed Central

    Obradović, Jelena; Hipwell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    This study examined developmental processes linking competence and psychopathology in an urban sample of girls during their transition to adolescence. Longitudinal associations among indices of externalizing symptoms, social competence, and internalizing symptoms were also tested within contexts of family adversity and girls' pubertal status. Child, parent, and teacher report were employed to assess core constructs across six annual assessment waves, starting at age 9. Results revealed the significant effect of prior levels of externalizing symptoms on changes in social competence and internalizing symptoms, as well as reciprocal relations between social competence and internalizing symptoms. In addition, girl's maladaptive functioning predicted increases in family adversity exposure over time. Lastly, more mature pubertal status in early assessment waves was linked to an increase in internalizing symptoms; however, this association was reversed by the last assessment, when most girls had reached advance stages of puberty. The timing of these effects reveals important targets for future interventions aimed at promoting the successful adaptation of girls in adolescence. PMID:20576183

  12. The influence of pubertal timing and stressful life events on depression and delinquency among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Yu, Jing; Wu, Yun; Zhang, Jianxin

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influences of pubertal timing and stressful life events on Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Sex differences in these influences were also examined. A large sample with 4,228 participants aged 12-15 years (53% girls) was recruited in Beijing, China. Participants' pubertal development, stressful life events, depressive symptoms, and delinquency were measured using self-reported questionnaires. Both early maturing girls and boys displayed more delinquency than their same-sex on-time and late maturing peers. Early maturing girls displayed more depressive symptoms than on-time and late maturing girls, but boys in the three maturation groups showed similar levels of depressive symptoms. The interactive effects between early pubertal timing and stressful life events were significant in predicting depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. Early pubertal maturation is an important risk factor for Chinese adolescents' depression and delinquency. Stressful life events intensified the detrimental effects of early pubertal maturation on adolescents' depression and delinquency, particularly for girls. PMID:26261908

  13. Early Pubertal Timing as a Vulnerability to Depression Symptoms: Differential Effects of Race and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2013-01-01

    Robust evidence supports that girls and boys who experience early pubertal timing, maturing earlier than one’s peers, are vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression. However, it has yet to be clarified whether early pubertal timing confers vulnerability to African American as well as to Caucasian adolescents and whether this vulnerability is specific to depressive symptoms or can be generalized to symptoms of social anxiety. In previous studies, one race or one sex was examined in isolation or sample sizes were too small to examine racial differences. Our longitudinal study consisted of a sample of 223 adolescents (Mean age = 12.42, 54.3% female, 50.2% African American, and 49.8% Caucasian). At baseline, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and pubertal timing were assessed by self-report. Nine months later, we assessed depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, body esteem, and stressful life events that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that early pubertal timing interacted with stressful life events to predict increased symptoms of depression, but only for Caucasian girls and African American boys. Results were found to be specific to depressive symptoms and did not generalize to symptoms of social anxiety. Additionally, there was a significant positive indirect effect of pubertal timing on symptoms of depression through body esteem for Caucasian females. PMID:24014162

  14. Pubertal timing and early sexual intercourse in the offspring of teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    De Genna, Natacha M; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D

    2011-10-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when offspring were 6, 10 and 14 years old (n = 318). Adolescents (50% male) compared the timing of their pubertal maturation to same-sex peers. There was a significant 3-way interaction effect of race, sex, and pubertal timing on sexual debut (n = 305). This effect remained significant in a model controlling for maternal age at first intercourse, substance use, exposure to trauma, authoritative parenting, and peer sexual activity (n = 255). Early maturation was associated with early sex in daughters, and may be one pathway for the inter-generational transfer of risk for teenage pregnancy among daughters of teenage mothers. PMID:21279428

  15. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  16. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  17. Sex Variations in Youth Anxiety Symptoms: Effects of Pubertal Development and Gender Role Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Silverman, Wendy K.; Jaccard, James

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated whether pubertal development and gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity) can partially explain sex variations in youth anxiety symptoms among clinic-referred anxious youth (N = 175; ages 9-13 years; 74% Hispanic; 48% female). Using youth and parent ratings of youth anxiety symptoms, structural equation…

  18. The Impact of Pubertal Timing and Parental Control on Adolescent Problem Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arim, Rubab G.; Shapka, Jennifer D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among pubertal timing, parental control, and problem behaviors. There were 267 participants, whose ages ranged from 9 to 16 years. Both maternal and paternal psychological control predicted problem behaviors over and above the effects of behavioral control. For boys, early maturation and high levels of paternal…

  19. Pubertal Effects on Adjustment in Girls: Moving from Demonstrating Effects to Identifying Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…

  20. Blunted Sleep-Related Luteinizing Hormone Rise in Healthy Premenarcheal Pubertal Girls with Elevated Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Bordini, Brian; Littlejohn, Elizabeth; Rosenfield, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to determine whether excessive adiposity is associated with alteration of the normal hormonal changes of early pubertal girls. Design and Participants: Healthy 6.4- to 9.5-yr-old, prepubertal (PRE, n = 20) and 9.4- to 13.0-yr-old pubertal premenarcheal volunteers (PUB, n = 20) were divided into excessive-weight (EW) or normal-weight (NW) groups according to the 85th percentile body mass index. Interventions and Setting: Overnight blood sampling; GnRH agonist (GnRHag), low-dose ACTH, oral glucose tolerance tests, and pelvic ultrasonograms were performed in our Clinical Research Center. Results: EW girls were similar in age and baseline and ACTH- and GnRHag-stimulated androgen levels to stage-matched NW girls. However, the sleep-related LH rise was blunted in EW-PUB girls compared with NW-PUB girls. The sleep-related rise of mean LH in EW-PUB [0.68 ± 0.35 (sem) U/liter] was insignificant, less than that of NW-PUB (2.1 ± 0.45, P < 0.05) and not significantly different from that of PRE girls (0.08±0.03). EW-PUB had slower LH pulse frequency and a lower rise in LH pulse amplitude during sleep than NW-PUB girls (both P < 0.05). Overnight FSH patterns paralleled LH patterns, whereas estradiol levels were similar in stage-matched NW and EW groups, differing between stages as expected. Early morning and peak LH, FSH, and estradiol responses to GnRHag were similar in EW-PUB and NW-PUB and significantly greater than those of PRE girls. Conclusions: Healthy EW-PUB girls have significantly blunted sleep-related LH production. These data suggest that excess adiposity, in the absence of sex steroid excess, may subtly suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal function in premenarcheal pubertal girls. PMID:19190110

  1. Pubertal Development and Physical Victimization in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2006-01-01

    Although much research has established a link between pubertal development and adolescent involvement in offending, drug use, and other adverse outcomes, no research has examined whether puberty is associated with experiences of violent physical victimization. This is an unfortunate oversight because researchers are only beginning to understand…

  2. Defining a Valid Age Cutoff in Staging of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, Iain J.; Kuk, Deborah; Wreesmann, Volkert; Morris, Luc; Palmer, Frank L.; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal G.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tuttle, R. Michael; Shaha, Ashok R.; Gönen, Mithat; Shah, Jatin P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Age 45 years is used as a cutoff in the staging of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) as it represents the median age of most datasets. The aim of this study was to determine a statistically optimized age threshold using a large dataset of patients treated at a comprehensive cancer center. Methods Overall, 1807 patients with a median follow-up of 109 months were included in the study. Recursive partitioning was used to determine which American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) variables were most predictive of disease-specific death, and whether a different cutoff for age would be found. From the resulting tree, a new age cutoff was picked and patients were restaged using this new cutoff. Results The 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) by Union for International Cancer Control (AJCC/UICC) stage was 99.6, 100, 96, and 81 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Using recursive partitioning, the presence of distant metastasis was the most powerful predictor of DSS. For M0 patients, age was the next most powerful predictor, with a cutoff of 56 years. For M1 patients, a cutoff at 54 years was most predictive. Having reviewed the analysis, age 55 years was selected as a more robust age cutoff than 45 years. The 10-year DSS by new stage (using age 55 years as the cutoff) was 99.2, 98, 100, and 74 % for stages I–IV, respectively. Conclusion A change in age cutoff in the AJCC/UICC staging for WDTC to 55 years would improve the accuracy of the system and appropriately prevent low-risk patients being overstaged and overtreated. PMID:26215199

  3. Fatigued Breast Cancer Survivors: The Role of Sleep Quality, Depressed Mood, Stage, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Banthia, Rajni; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Ko, Celine M.; Varni, James W.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue is associated with lower health-related quality of life and the majority of breast cancer survivors experience persistent fatigue after finishing treatment. The present study examined age, cancer stage, sleep quality, and depressed mood as predictors of five dimensions of fatigue in seventy fatigued breast cancer survivors who no longer evidenced any signs of cancer and were finished with treatment. Discriminant function analyses were used to predict fatigue subgroup membership (higher, lower) from age, stage, mood, and sleep for five subtypes: General, Mental, Emotional, and Physical Fatigue, and Vigor. Significant discriminant functions were found for all subtypes. Findings suggest that age, staging, mood, and sleep are all important predictors, but there are differential relationships when subtypes of fatigue are considered. Given current limitations in treating fatigue directly, interventions targeting mood and sleep should be considered as alternate approaches to reduce fatigue. PMID:20205039

  4. Pubertal Onset in Girls is Strongly Influenced by Genetic Variation Affecting FSH Action

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Casper P.; Sørensen, Kaspar; Aksglaede, Lise; Mouritsen, Annette; Mieritz, Mikkel G.; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Main, Katharina M.; Meyts, Ewa Rajpert-De; Almstrup, Kristian; Juul, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Age at pubertal onset varies substantially in healthy girls. Although genetic factors are responsible for more than half of the phenotypic variation, only a small part has been attributed to specific genetic polymorphisms identified so far. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates ovarian follicle maturation and estradiol synthesis which is responsible for breast development. We assessed the effect of three polymorphisms influencing FSH action on age at breast deveopment in a population-based cohort of 964 healthy girls. Girls homozygous for FSHR -29AA (reduced FSH receptor expression) entered puberty 7.4 (2.5–12.4) months later than carriers of the common variants FSHR -29GG+GA, p = 0.003. To our knowledge, this is the strongest genetic effect on age at pubertal onset in girls published to date. PMID:25231187

  5. To Evaluate the Relationship between Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Skeletal Age

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Vivek; Rehani, Usha

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess skeletal age and establish relationship between mandibular canine calcification and skeletal age. Materials and methods: The study included 147 females aged 10 to 13 years. The subjects were divided into three groups: Group I—comprising of 10 to 11 years old female; Group II—comprising of 11 to 12 years old female; Group III—12 to 13 years female. OPG and hand and wrist radiographs of left side for each subject were taken with prior consent of their parents. The calcification status of canine was evaluated from orthopantomograms according to scores given in Demirjian’s method. The stages of ossification of various carpal bones were evaluated using radiographic atlas of Greulich-Pyle and skeletal age was calculated. Results: Data collected was statistically analyzed. Conclusion: The results drawn from this study showed that a strong correlation was observed for canine calcification stage F for 10 to 11 years and for stage G in 11 to 12 years and 12 to 13 years respectively. How to cite this article: Malik P, Rana V, Rehani U. To Evaluate the Relationship between Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Skeletal Age. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1): 14-19. PMID:25206128

  6. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. Objective: We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. Methods: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index–for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. Results: We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). Conclusion: In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early

  7. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  8. Identification of Aggressive Behaviour Tendencies in Junior Age Children: First Stage in a Study of Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a study of children aged eight to nine years who were presenting aggressive behavior, with the aim of facilitating intervention at an early stage. Results of questionnaires given to teachers, the children themselves, their peer group, and parents are examined. Difficulties that arose in undertaking this study are explored. (Author/CT)

  9. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early detection, researchers say To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not ...

  10. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography. PMID:16869426

  11. Pubertal status associations with reward and threat sensitivities and subcortical brain volumes during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Urošević, Snežana; Collins, Paul; Muetzel, Ryan; Lim, Kelvin O; Luciana, Monica

    2014-08-01

    Adolescence is characterized by complex developmental processes that impact behavior, biology, and social functioning. Two such adolescence-specific processes are puberty and increases in reward sensitivity. Relations between these processes are poorly understood. The present study focused on examining unique effects of puberty, age, and sex on reward and threat sensitivities and volumes of subcortical brain structures relevant for reward/threat processing in a healthy sample of 9-18year-olds. Unlike age, pubertal status had a significant unique positive relationship with reward sensitivity. In addition, there was a trend for adolescent females to exhibit higher threat sensitivity with more advanced pubertal development and higher reward and threat sensitivity with older age. Similarly, there were significant puberty by sex interaction effects on striatal volumes, i.e., left nucleus accumbens and right pallidum. The present pattern of results suggests that pubertal development, independent of chronological age, is uniquely associated with reward hypersensitivity and with structural differences in striatal regions implicated in reward processing. PMID:24512818

  12. High prevalence of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite changes in WHO guidelines, stavudine is still used extensively for treatment of pediatric HIV in the developing world. Lipoatrophy in sub-Saharan African children can be stigmatizing and have far-reaching consequences. The severity and extent of lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal children living in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown. Methods In this cross-sectional study, children who were 3-12 years old, on antiretroviral therapy and pre-pubertal were recruited from a Family HIV Clinic in South Africa. Lipoatrophy was identified and graded by consensus between two HIV pediatricians using a standardized grading scale. A professional dietician performed formal dietary assessment and anthropometric measurements of trunk and limb fat. Previous antiretroviral exposures were recorded. In a Dual-Energy X-ray Absorbtiometry (DXA) substudy body composition was determined in 42 participants. Results Among 100 recruits, the prevalence of visually obvious lipoatrophy was 36% (95% CI: 27%–45%). Anthropometry and DXA measurements corroborated the clinical diagnosis of lipoatrophy: Both confirmed significant, substantial extremity fat loss in children with visually obvious lipoatrophy, when adjusted for age and sex. Adjusted odds ratio for developing lipoatrophy was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3 - 2.9) for each additional year of accumulated exposure to standard dose stavudine. Cumulative time on standard dose stavudine was significantly associated with reductions in biceps and triceps skin-fold thickness (p=0.008). Conclusions The prevalence of visually obvious lipoatrophy in pre-pubertal South African children on antiretroviral therapy is high. The amount of stavudine that children are exposed to needs review. Resources are needed to enable low-and-middle-income countries to provide suitable pediatric-formulated alternatives to stavudine-based pediatric regimens. The standard stavudine dose for children may need to be reduced. Diagnosis of lipoatrophy at an early stage is

  13. Elucidating the mechanisms linking early pubertal timing, sexual activity, and substance use for maltreated versus nonmaltreated adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Brensilver, Matthew; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To test models linking pubertal timing, peer substance use, sexual behavior, and substance use for maltreated versus comparison adolescents. Three theoretical mechanisms were tested: 1) peer influence links early pubertal timing to later sexual behavior and substance use, 2) early maturers engage in substance use on their own and then select substance-using friends, or 3) early maturers initiate sexual behaviors which leads them to substance-using peers. Methods The data came from a longitudinal study of the effects of child maltreatment on adolescent development (303 maltreated and 151 comparison adolescents; age: 9–13 years at initial wave). Multiple-group structural equation models tested the hypotheses across three timepoints including variables of pubertal timing, perception of peer substance use, sexual behavior, and self-reported substance use. Results Early pubertal timing was associated with substance-using peers only for maltreated adolescents, indicating the mediation path from early pubertal timing through substance-using peers to subsequent adolescent substance use and sexual behavior only holds for maltreated adolescents. Mediation via sexual behavior was significant for both maltreated and comparison adolescents. This indicates that sexual behavior may be a more universal mechanism linking early maturation with risky friends regardless of adverse life experiences. Conclusions The findings are a step toward elucidating the developmental pathways from early puberty to risk behavior and identifying early experiences that may alter mediation effects. PMID:26003577

  14. Pubertal timing, sexual behaviour and self-reported depression in middle adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Kosunen, Elise; Rimpelä, Matti

    2003-10-01

    The associations between pubertal timing, sexual activity and self-reported depression were analysed in a population sample of 17,082 girls and 15,922 boys aged 14-16 as a par of a classroom survey. Pubertal timing was assessed by age at onset of menstruation (menarche) or ejaculations (oigarche). Sexual experiences elicited included kissing, light petting, heavy petting and intercourse. Self-reported depression was measured by the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. Among girls, self-reported depression was associated with early puberty and intimate sexual relationship. Among boys depression was associated with very early and late puberty and experience of intercourse. Early puberty is a risk factor for self-reported depression. Intimate sexual relationships in middle adolescent are likely to indicate problems in adolescent development rather than successful adolescent passage. PMID:12972267

  15. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase.

    PubMed

    Decker, Celeste; Yu, Zi-Fan; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Guffon, Nathalie; Teles, Elisa Leão; Miranda, M Clara Sá; Wraith, J Edmond; Beck, Michael; Arash, Laila; Scarpa, Maurizio; Ketteridge, David; Hopwood, John J; Plecko, Barbara; Steiner, Robert; Whitley, Chester B; Kaplan, Paige; Swiedler, Stuart J; Conrad, Susan; Harmatz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Growth failure is characteristic of untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Growth was studied in fifty-six MPS VI patients (5 to 29 years old) prior to and for up to 240 weeks of weekly infusions of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) at 1 mg/kg during Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 3 or Phase 3 Extension clinical trials. Height, weight, and Tanner stage data were collected. Pooled data were analyzed to determine mean height increase by treatment week, growth impacts of pubertal status, baseline urinary GAG, and age at treatment initiation. Growth rate for approximately 2 years prior to and following treatment initiation was analyzed using longitudinal modeling. RESULTS: Mean height increased by 2.9 cm after 48 weeks and 4.3 cm after 96 weeks on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Growth on ERT was not correlated with baseline urinary GAG. Patients under 16 years of age showed greatest increases in height on treatment. Model results based on pooled data showed significant improvement in growth rate during 96 weeks of ERT when compared to the equivalent pretreatment time period. Delayed pubertal onset or progression was noted in 10 patients entering the clinical trials; all of whom showed progression of at least one Tanner stage during 2 years on ERT, and 6 of whom (60%) completed puberty. CONCLUSION: Analysis of mean height by treatment week and longitudinal modeling demonstrate significant increase in height and growth rate in MPS VI patients receiving long-term ERT. This impact was greatest in patients aged below 16 years. Height increase may result from bone growth and/or reduction in joint contractures. Bone growth and resolution of delayed puberty may be related to improvements in general health, bone cell health, nutrition, endocrine gland function and reduced inflammation. PMID:20634905

  16. Enzyme replacement therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis VI: Growth and pubertal development in patients treated with recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Celeste; Yu, Zi-Fan; Giugliani, Roberto; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D.; Guffon, Nathalie; Teles, Elisa Leão; Miranda, M. Clara Sá; Wraith, J. Edmond; Beck, Michael; Arash, Laila; Scarpa, Maurizio; Ketteridge, David; Hopwood, John J.; Plecko, Barbara; Steiner, Robert; Whitley, Chester B.; Kaplan, Paige; Swiedler, Stuart J.; Conrad, Susan; Harmatz, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Background and Methods Growth failure is characteristic of untreated mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI: Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome). Growth was studied in fifty-six MPS VI patients (5 to 29 years old) prior to and for up to 240 weeks of weekly infusions of recombinant human arylsulfatase B (rhASB) at 1 mg/kg during Phase 1/2, Phase 2, Phase 3 or Phase 3 Extension clinical trials. Height, weight, and Tanner stage data were collected. Pooled data were analyzed to determine mean height increase by treatment week, growth impacts of pubertal status, baseline urinary GAG, and age at treatment initiation. Growth rate for approximately 2 years prior to and following treatment initiation was analyzed using longitudinal modeling. Results Mean height increased by 2.9 cm after 48 weeks and 4.3 cm after 96 weeks on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Growth on ERT was not correlated with baseline urinary GAG. Patients under 16 years of age showed greatest increases in height on treatment. Model results based on pooled data showed significant improvement in growth rate during 96 weeks of ERT when compared to the equivalent pretreatment time period. Delayed pubertal onset or progression was noted in 10 patients entering the clinical trials; all of whom showed progression of at least one Tanner stage during 2 years on ERT, and 6 of whom (60%) completed puberty. Conclusion Analysis of mean height by treatment week and longitudinal modeling demonstrate significant increase in height and growth rate in MPS VI patients receiving long-term ERT. This impact was greatest in patients aged below 16 years. Height increase may result from bone growth and/or reduction in joint contractures. Bone growth and resolution of delayed puberty may be related to improvements in general health, bone cell health, nutrition, endocrine gland function and reduced inflammation. PMID:20634905

  17. Pubertal Maturation and African American Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Brody, Gene H.; Conger, Rand D.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2006-01-01

    The association of pubertal maturation with internalizing and externalizing symptoms was examined with a sample of 867 African-American 10-12-year-old children. Children reported their pubertal development status and timing using a self-report questionnaire, and symptoms were assessed through diagnostic interviews with the children and their…

  18. Pubertal Development: Correspondence between Hormonal and Physical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Puberty is advanced by sex hormones, yet it is not clear how it is best measured. The interrelation of multiple indices of puberty was examined, including the Pubertal Development Scale (PDS), a picture-based interview about puberty (PBIP), and a physical exam. These physical pubertal measures were then associated with basal hormones responsible…

  19. Fathers and Their Adolescent Sons: Pubertal Development and Paternal Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Mark D.; Jones, Randall M.; Coyl, Diana, D.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relation between pubertal transition and qualitative aspects of the father-son relationship through a survey of 173 adolescent males and 122 fathers. Assessed physical affection, general support, companionship, and sustained contact over three levels of pubertal development. Found that perception of physical affection was the only…

  20. Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Sexual Behavior in Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah R.; Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Girls who experience earlier pubertal timing relative to peers also exhibit earlier timing of sexual intercourse and more unstable sexual relationships. Although pubertal development initiates feelings of physical desire, the transition into romantic and sexual relationships involves complex biological and social processes contributing both to…

  1. Stage III Colon Cancer: The Individualized Strategy of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Aged Under and Over 70

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chieh-Sheng; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yu-Guang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Wu, Yi-Ying; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the specific chemoregimens selected for adjuvant therapy in the patients with stage III colon cancer. We investigated the trends in chemotherapeutic prescribing patterns and looked for adequate therapeutic setting for these patients. Methods 288 patients presenting with stage III colon cancer and undergoing adjuvant therapies after curative surgery for more than 3-month were enrolled between January 2006 and December 2011. Demographic characteristics and therapeutic factors were analyzed, including age, gender, histological grade, tumor sizes, tumor location, pathologic stage, performance status, serum carcinoembryonic antigen, regimens selection, interval from the operation to the start of adjuvant therapy and prolonged adjuvant therapy. Kaplan– Meier methods were utilized for drawing survival curves and Cox model was used to analyze survival, prognostic factors. Results The analysis showed that the patients aged under 70 received more intensive therapies than those aged over 70 (P<0.001). Later, advanced analysis in therapeutic factors was conducted between the patients aged under 70 and those over 70. In the patients aged under 70, significant differences in 4-year overall survival (OS) were noted between UFUR (oral tegafur-uracil plus leucovorin) groups and FOLFOX (5-FU plus oxaliplatin) [65.6% versus (vs) 89.8%, relative risk (RR) 3.780, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.263–11.315, P = 0.017]. There were also differences in 4-year OS between these patients with and without oxaliplatin-contained regimens (92.1% vs 83.4%, respectively, RR 0.385, 95% CI 0.157–0.946, P = 0.037). In addition, the patients who received intravenous or combined therapy also had higher 4-year OS than those only received oral regimens (92.1% vs 76.6%, P = 0.077), though the finding did not reach statistical significance. In contrast to the survival benefits of above therapeutic settings for the patients aged under 70, there was less

  2. Increased neural response to peer rejection associated with adolescent depression and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Greg J.; Lee, Kyung Hwa; Nelson, Eric E.; Stroud, Laura R.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2014-01-01

    Sensitivity to social evaluation has been proposed as a potential marker or risk factor for depression, and has also been theorized to increase with pubertal maturation. This study utilized an ecologically valid paradigm to test the hypothesis that adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) would show altered reactivity to peer rejection and acceptance relative to healthy controls in a network of ventral brain regions implicated in affective processing of social information. A total of 48 adolescents (ages 11–17), including 21 with a current diagnosis of MDD and 27 age- and gender-matched controls, received rigged acceptance and rejection feedback from fictitious peers during a simulated online peer interaction during functional neuroimaging. MDD youth showed increased activation to rejection relative to controls in the bilateral amygdala, subgenual anterior cingulate, left anterior insula and left nucleus accumbens. MDD and healthy youth did not differ in response to acceptance. Youth more advanced in pubertal maturation also showed increased reactivity to rejection in the bilateral amygdala/parahippocampal gyrus and the caudate/subgenual anterior cingulate, and these effects remained significant when controlling for chronological age. Findings suggest that increased reactivity to peer rejection is a normative developmental process associated with pubertal development, but is particularly enhanced among youth with depression. PMID:24273075

  3. Trajectories of Depressed Mood from Early Adolescence to Young Adulthood: The Effects of Pubertal Timing and Adolescent Dating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Biehl, Michael C.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating on trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood were examined among youths who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results showed that for both boys and girls, the trajectories of depressed mood between the ages of 12 and 23 took an…

  4. Relationships of Pubertal Development among Early Adolescents to Sexual and Nonsexual Risk Behaviors and Caregivers' Parenting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; Bhaskar, Brinda; Walker, Leslie R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a school-based sample of fifth graders (mean age = 10.38, SD = 0.66) and their parents (N = 408) from Washington, D.C., the authors examine associations of pubertal development with early adolescents' sexual and nonsexual risk behaviors and their caregivers' parenting behaviors and of these risk behaviors with parenting behaviors. Results…

  5. The Effects of Pubertal Changes on Body Image and Relations with Peers of the Opposite Sex in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Tome, H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined impact of pubertal maturation on body image and on perceived quality of relations with opposite sex peers in adolescence. Findings from 157 French adolescents aged 11 to 16 years confirmed that boys evaluated themselves on attractiveness more positively than girls. Found no sex difference on perceived physical condition. (Author/NB)

  6. An Exploratory Study of Pubertal Maturation Timing and Self-Esteem among Gay and Bisexual Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 83 gay and bisexual male youths (17-23 years old) found that pubertal maturation was associated with self-reported age of first orgasm and homosexual activity and frequency of orgasms during junior high school. It concluded that gay and bisexual male youths share with heterosexual male youths a similar developmental trajectory in regard…

  7. Transitions in Physiologic Coupling: Sleep Stage and Age Dependence of Cardio-respiratory Phase Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on various features of cardiac and respiratory dynamics with the aim to better understand key aspects of the underlying neural control of these systems. We investigate how sleep influences cardio-respiratory coupling, and how the degree of this coupling changes with transitions across sleep stages in healthy young and elderly subjects. We analyze full night polysomnographic recordings of 189 healthy subjects (age range: 20 to 90 years). To probe cardio-respiratory coupling, we apply a novel phase synchronization analysis method to quantify the adjustment of rhythms between heartbeat and breathing signals. We investigate how cardio-respiratory synchronization changes with sleep-stage transitions and under healthy aging. We find a statistically significant difference in the degree of cardio-respiratory synchronization during different sleep stages for both young and elderly subjects and a significant decline of synchronization with age. This is a first evidence of how sleep regulation and aging influence a key nonlinear mechanism of physiologic coupling as quantified by the degree of phase synchronization between the cardiac and respiratory systems, which is of importance to develop adequate modeling approaches.

  8. Pubertal Timing and Tempo: Associations With Childhood Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Blankson, A. Nayena; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined pubertal timing and tempo in a sample of 445 adolescents (53% male), using both variable-centered (latent growth curve) and person-centered (latent class) approaches, to discern the pubertal development trajectories associated with the experience of maltreatment. Results from the variable-centered analyses indicated a slower initial tempo that increased later for boys who had experienced neglect. The person-centered results indicated three classes for boys that mainly differentiated tempo effects and two classes for girls primarily distinguishing timing differences. For girls, sexual abuse predicted membership in an earlier pubertal timing class. These findings enhance our knowledge of the variability in pubertal development as well as gender differences in maltreatment types that may alter pubertal timing and tempo. PMID:26146470

  9. Longitudinal Effects of Adolescent Girls' Pubertal Development, Perceptions of Pubertal Timing, and Parental Relations on Eating Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarr, Amy E.; Richards, Maryse H.

    1996-01-01

    Examined both concurrently and longitudinally the influence of pubertal development, perceptions of pubertal timing, and experience with parents on the development of eating problems in normal adolescent girls. Found that adolescent girls' positive relationships with both parents were related to healthier eating. Results suggest that the…

  10. Aging Effects on Cardiac and Respiratory Dynamics in Healthy Subjects across Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Aicko Y.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Penzel, Thomas; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Respiratory and heart rate variability exhibit fractal scaling behavior on certain time scales. We studied the short-term and long-term correlation properties of heartbeat and breathing-interval data from disease-free subjects focusing on the age-dependent fractal organization. We also studied differences across sleep stages and night-time wake and investigated quasi-periodic variations associated with cardiac risk. Design: Full-night polysomnograms were recorded during 2 nights, including electrocardiogram and oronasal airflow. Setting: Data were collected in 7 laboratories in 5 European countries. Participants: 180 subjects without health complaints (85 males, 95 females) aged from 20 to 89 years. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Short-term correlations in heartbeat intervals measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent α1 show characteristic age dependence with a maximum around 50–60 years disregarding the dependence on sleep and wake states. Long-term correlations measured by α2 differ in NREM sleep when compared with REM sleep and wake, besides weak age dependence. Results for respiratory intervals are similar to those for α2 of heartbeat intervals. Deceleration capacity (DC) decreases with age; it is lower during REM and deep sleep (compared with light sleep and wake). Conclusion: The age dependence of α1 should be considered when using this value for diagnostic purposes in post-infarction patients. Pronounced long-term correlations (larger α2) for heartbeat and respiration during REM sleep and wake indicate an enhanced control of higher brain regions, which is absent during NREM sleep. Reduced DC possibly indicates an increased cardiovascular risk with aging and during REM and deep sleep. Citation: Schumann AY; Bartsch RP; Penzel T; Ivanov PC; Kantelhardt JW. Aging effects on cardiac and respiratory dynamics in healthy subjects across sleep stages. SLEEP 2010;33(7):943-955. PMID:20614854

  11. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia. PMID:27435496

  12. The Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Stage III Colorectal Cancer is Independent of Age and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Powers, Brian; Vlahiotis, Anna; Mutch, Matthew; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Tan, Benjamin; Piccirillo, Jay F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the combined effect of age and comorbidity on receipt of chemotherapy and its impact on survival in elderly patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods All patients over age 65 with Stage III CRC diagnosed 1996–2006 were identified from the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Oncology Data Services registry. An age/comorbidity staging system was created using the ACE-27 comorbidity index and data from both Stage II and III CRC. The staging system was then applied to patients with Stage III CRC. Odds of receiving chemotherapy were calculated, and survival analyses determined the impact of chemotherapy on overall survival in each age/comorbidity stage. Results 435 patients with Stage III CRC were evaluated [median age 75 years (range 65–99)]. Advancing age/comorbidity stage (Alpha, Beta, Gamma) was associated with decreasing odds of receiving chemotherapy for Stage III CRC [Odds Ratio 0.83 (95% CI, 0.51–1.35) for Beta and 0.14 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24) for Gamma, compared to Alpha]. Chemotherapy was associated with lower risk of death in each of the age/comorbidity stages, compared to those who underwent surgery only. The hazard ratio for death in patients who did not receive chemotherapy, relative to those who did, within each age/comorbidity stage was 1.8 [95%CI 1.06–3.06] for Alpha, 2.24 [95%CI 1.38–3.63] for Beta and 2.10 [95% CI 1.23–3.57] for Gamma. Conclusion While stage III CRC patients with increasing age and comorbidity are less likely to receive chemotherapy, receipt of chemotherapy is associated with a lower risk of death. PMID:21113435

  13. Aging assessment and license renewals: Plant life management for the first stage boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Kawamura, Shinichi; Aoki, Masataka; Mori, Tsuguo

    1996-09-01

    The first stage Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been operating more than 25 years. Some components have potential of failure by aging. So, evaluations have been done for the main components such as Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), Reactor Internals, Primary Coolant Piping, Reactor Recirculation Pump, Cable (Inside PCV), Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and Concrete Structure. This evaluation has been done by joint study between electric utilities and manufacturers to confirm integrity and identify necessary development.

  14. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  15. A longitudinal pilot study on phonetograms/voice profiles in pre-pubertal choir boys.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, M F

    1993-12-01

    The phonetogram or voice profile, measuring frequency combined with intensity of the voice, has replaced simple measurement of tone ranges for analysis of professional boys choirs. Knowledge of the relationship between pubertal, sex hormones, and phonetogram development has been established in stratified studies. The connection between the singing voice in puberty and other pubertal phenomena needs documentation in longitudinal studies also. Therefore, a pilot study was carried out, where three boys aged 13-15 years were analysed at intervals of 2 months. Measurement of phonetograms, free and total serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) showed a significant relationship between SHBG and lowering of the lowest tones in the phonetograms (P < 0.01) confirming earlier stratified studies. PMID:8877226

  16. Consequences of Early Life Programing by Genetic and Environmental Influences: A Synthesis Regarding Pubertal Timing.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christian L; DiVall, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual maturation is closely tied to growth and body weight gain, suggesting that regulative metabolic pathways are shared between somatic and pubertal development. The pre- and postnatal environment affects both growth and pubertal development, indicating that common pathways are affected by the environment. Intrauterine and early infantile developmental phases are characterized by high plasticity and thereby susceptibility to factors that affect metabolic function as well as related reproductive function throughout life. In children born small for gestational age, poor nutritional conditions during gestation can modify metabolic systems to adapt to expectations of chronic undernutrition. These children are potentially poorly equipped to cope with energy-dense diets and are possibly programmed to store as much energy as possible, causing rapid weight gain with the risk for adult disease and premature onset of puberty. Environmental factors can cause modifications to the genome, so-called epigenetic changes, to affect gene expression and subsequently modify phenotypic expression of genomic information. Epigenetic modifications, which occur in children born small for gestational age, are thought to underlie part of the metabolic programming that subsequently effects both somatic and pubertal development. PMID:26680576

  17. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  18. The effects of exercise on pubertal progression and reproductive function in girls.

    PubMed

    Warren, M P

    1980-11-01

    To determine whether a significant energy drain during adolescence had a significant effect on puberty and normal reproductive function, 15 ballet dancers, aged 13--15 yr, who maintained a high level of physical activity from early adolescence were followed for 4.0 yr. Menarche was remarkably delayed in this group, occurring at a mean of 15.4 yr, significantly different (P < 0.01) from normal controls (12.5 yr) and normal music students (12.6 yr). In 2 dancers aged 18 yr, primary amenorrhea has persisted. While premenarchial, all of the dancers had varying breast development (Tanner stages 2--4) and low to low normal gonadotropin levels, normal PRL and T4 levels, and normal skull x-rays. The dancers' mean body weight and calculated body fat were significantly less than in controls (P < 0.05). The progression of sexual development and the onset of menarche correlated in 10 or 15 subjects with a decrease in exercise and/or injury causing forced rest of at least 2-month duration. During this interval, weight gain was minimal or absent, with no significant change in body composition. A significant dichotomy in the order of pubertal development was also noted; while breast development and menarche were delayed, pubic hair development was not affected. Reversion to the amenorrheic state occurred in 11 of 13 patients with a return to exercise without a change in weight. In conclusion, energy drain may have an important modulatory effect on the hypothalamic pituitary set point at puberty and, in combination with low body weight, may prolong the prepubertal state and induce amenorrhea. PMID:6775000

  19. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: Examining the stages of change detection

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old–new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old–new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central–parietal old–new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old–new effect. The younger adults’ early old–new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults’ behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults. PMID:24420648

  20. Does neighborhood environment influence girls' pubertal onset? findings from a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pubertal onset occurs earlier than in the past among U.S. girls. Early onset is associated with numerous deleterious outcomes across the life course, including overweight, breast cancer and cardiovascular health. Increases in childhood overweight have been implicated as a key reason for this secular trend. Scarce research, however, has examined how neighborhood environment may influence overweight and, in turn, pubertal timing. The current study prospectively examined associations between neighborhood environment and timing of pubertal onset in a multi-ethnic cohort of girls. Body mass index (BMI) was examined as a mediator of these associations. Methods Participants were 213 girls, 6-8 years old at baseline, in an on-going longitudinal study. The current report is based on 5 time points (baseline and 4 annual follow-up visits). Neighborhood environment, assessed at baseline, used direct observation. Tanner stage and anthropometry were assessed annually in clinic. Survival analysis was utilized to investigate the influence of neighborhood factors on breast and pubic hair onset, with BMI as a mediator. We also examined the modifying role of girls' ethnicity. Results When adjusting for income, one neighborhood factor (Recreation) predicted delayed onset of breast and pubic hair development, but only for African American girls. BMI did not mediate the association between Recreation and pubertal onset; however, these associations persisted when BMI was included in the models. Conclusions For African American girls, but not girls from other ethnic groups, neighborhood availability of recreational outlets was associated with onset of breast and pubic hair. Given the documented risk for early puberty among African American girls, these findings have important potential implications for public health interventions related to timing of puberty and related health outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:22414266

  1. Age estimation from stages of epiphyseal union in the presacral vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Ríos, Luis

    2011-02-01

    The presacral vertebrae have various secondary centers of ossification, whose timing of fusion can be used for age estimation of human skeletal remains up to the middle to the latter third decade. However, detailed information about the age at which these secondary centers of ossification fuse has been lacking. In this study, the timing of epiphyseal union in presacral vertebrae was studied in a sample of modern Portuguese skeletons (57 females and 47 males) between the ages of 9 and 30, taken from the Lisbon documented skeletal collection. A detailed photographic record of these epiphyses and the age ranges for the different stages of epiphyseal union are provided. Partial union of epiphyses was observed from 11 to 27 years of age. In general, centers of ossification begin to fuse first in the cervical and lumbar vertebrae, followed by centers of ossification in the thoracic region. The first center of ossification to complete fusion is usually that of the mammillary process in lumbar vertebrae. This is usually followed by that of the transverse process, spinous transverse process, and annular ring, regardless of vertebra type. There were no statistically significant sex differences in timing of fusion, but there was a trend toward early maturation in females for some vertebra or epiphyses. Bilateral epiphyses did not show statistically significant differences in timing of fusion. This study offers information on timing of fusion of diverse epiphyseal locations useful for age estimation of complete or fragmented human skeletal remains. PMID:20872802

  2. Age and petrology of alkalic postshield and rejuvenated-stage lava from Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    At the top of the Waimea Canyon Basalt on the island of Kauai, rare flows of alkalic postshield-stage hawaiite and mugearite overlie tholeiitic flows of the shield stage. These postshield-stage flows are 3.92 Ma and provide a younger limit for the age of the tholeiitic shield stage. The younger Koloa Volcanics consist of widespread alkalic rejuvenated-stage flows and vents of alkalic basalt, basanite, nephelinite, and nepheline melilitite that erupted between 3.65 and 0.52 Ma. All the flows older than 1.7 Ma occur in the west-northwestern half of the island and all the flows younger than 1.5 Ma occur in the east-southeastern half. The lithologies have no spatial or chronological pattern. The flows of the Koloa Volcanics are near-primary magmas generated by variable small degrees of partial melting of a compositionally heterogeneous garnet-bearing source that has about two-thirds the concentration of P2O5, rare-earth elements, and Sr of the source of the Honolulu Volcanics on the island of Oahu. The same lithology in the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics is generated by similar degrees of partial melting of distinct source compositions. The lavas of the Koloa Volcanics can be generated by as little as 3 percent to as much as 17 percent partial melting for nepheline melilitite through alkalic basalt, respectively. Phases that remain in the residue of the Honolulu Volcanics, such as rutile and phlogopite, are exhausted during formation of the Koloa Volcanics at all but the smallest degrees of partial melting. The mantle source for Kauai lava becomes systematically more depleted in 87Sr/86Sr as the volcano evolves from the tholeiitic shield stage to the alkalic postshield stage to the alkalic rejuvenated stage: at the same time, the lavas become systematically more enriched in incompatible trace elements. On a shorter timescale, the lavas of the Koloa Volcanics display the same compositional trends, but at a lower rate of change. The source characteristics of the Koloa

  3. Temporal Relationship Between Insulin Sensitivity and the Pubertal Decline in Physical Activity in Peripubertal Hispanic and African American Females

    PubMed Central

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Belcher, Britni R.; Hsu, Ya-Wen; McClain, Arianna D.; Chou, Chih-Ping; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Weigensberg, Marc J.; Goran, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Little attention has been paid to possible intrinsic biological mechanisms for the decline in physical activity that occurs during puberty. This longitudinal observational study examined the association between baseline insulin sensitivity (SI) and declines in physical activity and increases in sedentary behavior in peripubertal minority females over a year. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were Hispanic and African American girls (n = 55; 76% Hispanic; mean age 9.4 years; 36% obese). SI and other insulin indices were measured at baseline using the frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Physical activity was measured on a quarterly basis by accelerometry and self-report. RESULTS Physical activity declined by 25% and time spent in sedentary behaviors increased by ∼13% over 1 year. Lower baseline SI predicted the decline in physical activity measured by accelerometry, whereas higher baseline acute insulin response to glucose predicted the decline in physical activity measured by self-report. Time spent in sedentary behavior increased by ~13% over 1 year, and this was predicted by lower baseline SI. All models controlled for adiposity, age, pubertal stage, and ethnicity. CONCLUSIONS When evaluated using a longitudinal design with strong outcome measures, this study suggests that lower baseline SI predicts a greater decline in physical activity in peripubertal minority females. PMID:23846812

  4. Parental Knowledge is a Contextual Amplifier of Associations of Pubertal Maturation and Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Abar, Caitlin C; Jackson, Kristina M

    2015-09-01

    Earlier pubertal development and less parental knowledge have been linked to more substance use during adolescence. The present study examines interactions between pubertal timing and tempo and parental knowledge (children's disclosure, parental control, and parental solicitation) for adolescent substance initiation. Data are from a northeastern US-based cohort-sequential study examining 1023 youth (52 % female) semiannually for up to 6 assessments (ages 10.5-19 years). The findings supported the hypothesis that lower knowledge is a contextual amplifier of early timing-substance use associations in girls and later timing/slower tempo-substance use associations in boys, though results varied based on source of knowledge. The findings suggest that prevention efforts may have the greatest impact when targeting families of early developing girls, and later developing boys, and that incorporating a focus on specific sources of knowledge depending on the pubertal maturation profile of the adolescent may prove valuable in prevention/intervention efforts. PMID:26208832

  5. Heightened stress responsivity and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: Implications for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    SPEAR, LINDA PATIA

    2011-01-01

    This commentary reviews and reflects on the studies of this special section: studies that collectively provide compelling evidence for meaningful changes in stress- and emotionally reactive psychophysiological systems with the transition from middle childhood into adolescence. The observed changes were complex and often overlaid upon ontogenetic differences in basal levels of activation of these systems. Maturational increases in responsiveness to stressors were stressor dependent and differentially expressed across autonomic and hormonal measures. Pubertal status increased the impact of some affective valence manipulations, although not significantly influencing others, including negative affect-related potentiation of startle/reflexes. Such ontogenetic increases in stressor and affect sensitivity may have implications for developmental psychopathology. Developmental increases in stressor reactivity may normally aid youth in responding adaptively to the challenges of adolescence, but may result in stress dysregulation among at-risk adolescents, increasing further their vulnerability for psychopathology. Pubertal-related increases in sensitivity to emotionally laden stimuli may exacerbate individual predispositions for exaggerated affective processing, perhaps contributing to the emergence of psychological disorders in these youth. Together, these studies, with their innovative use of autonomic, reflexive, and hormonal measures to index age- and pubertal-related changes in reactivity to stressors and affective stimuli, provide promising directions for future research. Some of these, along with a few cautionary notes, are outlined. PMID:19144224

  6. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  7. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    PubMed Central

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  8. Age and the Association of Kidney Measures with Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hallan, Stein I.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Black, Corri; Ishani, Areef; Kleefstra, Nanne; Naimark, David; Roderick, Paul; Tonelli, Marcello; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Astor, Brad C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Levin, Adeera; Wen, Chi-Pang; Coresh, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Context Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in older individuals, but the risk implications of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high albuminuria across the full age range are controversial. Objective To evaluate possible effect modification (interaction) of age on the association of estimated GFR and albuminuria with clinical risk examining both relative and absolute risk. Design, Setting, Participants We investigated 2,051,244 participants from 33 general population or high-risk (of vascular disease) cohorts and 13 CKD cohorts from Asia, Australesia, Europe, and North/South America conducted during 1972–2011 with mean follow-up time of 5.8 years (range 0–31 years). Main Outcome Measures Hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) according to eGFR and albuminuria were meta-analyzed across age categories after adjusting for sex, race, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, cholestserol, body mass index, and smoking. Absolute risks were estimated using HRs and average incidence rates. Results Mortality (112,325 deaths) and ESRD (8,411 events) risk were higher at lower eGFR and higher albuminuria in every age category. In general/high-risk cohorts, relative mortality risk for reduced eGFR decreased with increasing age: e.g., adjusted HRs (95% CI) at eGFR 45 vs. 80 ml/min/1.73m2 were 3.50 (2.55–4.81), 2.21 (2.02–2.41), 1.59 (1.42–1.77), and 1.35 (1.23–1.48) in age categories 18–54, 55–64, 65–74 and 75+ years, respectively (P-values for age interaction <0.05). Absolute risk differences for the same comparisons were higher at older age (9.0 [95% CI, 6.0–12.8], 12.2 [10.3–14.3], 13.3 [9.0–18.6], and 27.2 [13.5–45.5] excess deaths per 1,000 person-years, respectively). For increased albuminuria, reduction of relative risk with increasing age were less evident, while differences in absolute risk were higher in the older age categories (7.5 [95% CI, 4.3–11.9], 12.2 [7.9–17

  9. Genetics of Unilateral and Bilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity Stages

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Tina; Altay, Lebriz; Viehweger, Eva; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Felsch, Moritz; Fauser, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease causing visual impairment and blindness. Various gene variants are strongly associated with late stage AMD, but little is known about the genetics of early forms of the disease. This study evaluated associations of genetic factors and different AMD stages depending on unilateral and bilateral disease severity. Methods In this case-control study, participants were assigned to nine AMD severity stages based on the characteristics of each eye. 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and attempted to correlate with AMD severity stages by uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses and trend analyses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Results Of 3444 individuals 1673 were controls, 379 had early AMD, 333 had intermediate AMD and 989 showed late AMD stages. With increasing severity of disease and bilateralism more SNPs with significant associations were found. Odds ratios, especially for the main risk polymorphisms in ARMS2 (rs10490924) and CFH (rs1061170), gained with increasing disease severity and bilateralism (exemplarily: rs1061170: unilateral early AMD: OR = 1.18; bilateral early AMD: OR = 1.20; unilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.28; bilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.39, unilateral geographic atrophy (GA): OR = 1.50; bilateral GA: OR = 1.71). Trend analyses showed p<0.0001 for ARMS2 (rs10490924) and for CFH (rs1061170), respectively. AUC of risk models for various AMD severity stages was lowest for unilateral early AMD (AUC = 0.629) and showed higher values in more severely and bilaterally affected individuals being highest for late AMD with GA in one eye and neovascular AMD in the other eye (AUC = 0.957). Conclusion The association of known genetic risk factors with AMD became stronger with increasing disease severity, which also led to an increasing discriminative ability of AMD cases and controls. Genetic predisposition was

  10. The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project for Orthopedically Handicapped Children, Ages 4-8. Overview, 1978-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robert; Haynes, Wendy

    The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project (Washington, D.C.) conducts weekly workshops to enhance the creative expression and self esteem of orthopedically handicapped children, aged 4 to 8 years. The Living Stage program is designed to demonstrate that methods of improvisational theatre can have a positive impact on parental…

  11. Atomic structure of Cu-10. 9 at % Be alloys in the early stages of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffuse x-ray scattering was employed to investigate the local atomic structure and static strains in a single crystal of a Cu-10.9 at. % Be alloy in the early stages of aging. In addition to these experiments, neutron elastic and inelastic scattering were obtained to investigate the phonon properties in the as-quenched state of this alloy. In the as-quenched state, there is a nearly regular array of small ellipsoidal Be clusters aligned along <100> directions (This produces the tweed contrast seen in TEM). The density of these clusters is 7.5 x 10/sup 26//m/sup 3/. The diffuse streaks seen in electron diffraction patterns are due largely to thermal diffuse scattering. Phonon-dispersion curves show no large differences from those of pure copper, except at (xi xi xi)/sub T/ zone boundary, where there is softening. This difference may be due to a Kohn anomaly. The elastic anisotropy of this alloy increases considerably with alloying, which probably leads to the plate-like GP zone morphology in subsequent aging treatments. The structure of the GP zones is a mixture of Be-rich single- and multi-layered zones. As aging proceeds, the zones grow in thickness.

  12. Stage-structured models of intra- and inter-specific competition within age classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jian; Gourley, Stephen A.; Lou, Yijun

    2016-01-01

    In some species, larvae and adults experience competition in completely different ways. Simple stage-structured models without larval competition usually yield a single delay equation for the adults. Using an age structured system incorporating competition among both larvae and adults, we derive a system of distributed delay equations for the numbers of larvae and adults. The system is neither cooperative nor reducible to a single equation for either variable. Positivity, boundedness and uniform strong persistence are established. Linear stability analysis of equilibria is difficult due to the strong coupling, but results are proved for small delays using monotone systems theory and exponential ordering. For small delay we prove a theorem on generic convergence to equilibria, which does not directly follow from standard theory but can be proved indirectly using comparison arguments. Finally, we consider an extension to two-strain competition and prove theorems on the linear stability of the boundary equilibria.

  13. Adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire for Remote Aboriginal Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Aprano, Anita; Silburn, Sven; Johnston, Vanessa; Robinson, Gary; Oberklaid, Frank; Squires, Jane

    2016-04-01

    A key challenge to providing quality developmental care in remote Aboriginal primary health care (PHC) centers has been the absence of culturally appropriate developmental screening instruments. This study focused on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Ages and Stages Questionnaires, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), with careful attention to language and culture. We aimed to adapt the ASQ-3 for use with remote dwelling Australian Aboriginal children, and to investigate the cultural appropriateness and feasibility of the adapted ASQ-3 for use in this context. We undertook a qualitative study in two remote Australian Aboriginal communities, using a six-step collaborative adaptation process. Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs) were trained to use the adapted ASQ-3, and follow-up interviews examined participants' views of the cultural acceptability and usefulness of the adapted instrument. The adapted ASQ-3 was found to have high face validity and to be culturally acceptable and relevant to parents, AHWs, and early childhood development experts. PMID:25488936

  14. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  15. Environmental factors influencing growth and pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Delemarre-van de Waal, H A

    1993-01-01

    Postnatal growth is based on hereditary signals and environmental factors in a complex regulatory network. Each factor must be in an optimal state for normal growth of the child. Fetal conditions may also have consequences on postnatal height. Intrauterine growth retardation can be recovered postnatally, although postnatal growth remains depressed in about one-third of cases. After birth, the environment may exert either a positive or negative effect on growth. In underdeveloped countries, malnutrition plays a major role in inhibiting the growth process. Children from families of higher socioeconomic classes are taller than their coevals in the lower socioeconomic groups. Urbanization also has a positive effect on growth. Better child care is supported by sufficient food supply, appropriate health and sanitation services, and a higher level of education. Over the last century, these factors have induced a taller stature and a more rapid maturity in Europe, North America, and Australia; a phenomenon which has been referred to as "the secular trend" in growth. Recently, a secular trend has also been reported in some developing countries. Although urbanization in general appears to be associated with better conditions of living, this is not the case in the slums of South America or in Africa where rural children are better off than children living in the poor cities. This paper describes in more detail the different hereditary and environmental factors that act during the fetal period and postnatally, and which play a role in human growth and pubertal development. PMID:8243404

  16. Pre-pubertal castration improves spatial learning during mid-adolescence in rats.

    PubMed

    Moradpour, Farshad; Naghdi, Nasser; Fathollahi, Yaghoub; Javan, Mohamad; Choopani, Samira; Gharaylou, Zeinab

    2013-10-01

    Hippocampus functions, including spatial cognition and stress responses, mature during adolescence. In addition, hippocampus neuronal structures are modified by circulating sex steroids, which dramatically increase during adolescence. Therefore, the effects of castration and the circulating levels of the main sex steroid testosterone on spatial learning and memory were examined across postnatal ages to test whether pre-pubertal castration affected rats' spatial ability in the Morris Water maze (MWM). Male rats were either castrated or sham-castrated at 22d (days of age), or left gonadally intact. They were then trained and tested in the MWM beginning at 28d, 35d, 45d or 60d. We found that all of the intact rats learned the spatial task; however, the males at 22d and 28d required more trials to acquire the task than the males at older ages. The males castrated at 22d and tested at 35d had significantly lower escape latency and traveled distance during training than the sham-castrated males trained at the same age. No differences were observed in mean values of escape latency and traveled distance at 45d even though they had comparable levels of testosterone. We conclude that adult-typical performance for male spatial memory emerges during mid-adolescence and that pre-pubertal castration appears to improve spatial learning during this time. PMID:23871792

  17. Menarcheal and pubertal development and determining factors among schoolgirls in Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Opare-Addo, P M; Stowe, M; Ankobea-Kokroe, F; Zheng, T

    2012-02-01

    To determine menarcheal and pubertal ages and possible factors responsible for current pubertal trends in Kumasi, Ghana, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 720 urban and rural Kumasi 7-17-year-old schoolgirls and their mothers in 2008. Heights and weights were measured and additional information obtained by survey. Mantel-Haenzsel, χ(2), ordered logistic regression and probit analyses were used to analyse the data collected. With 40.42% menarcheal prevalence, median menarcheal ages were significantly different: 12.37 ± 1.48 years urban and 13.41 ± 2.25 years rural; 12.89 ± 1.93 years, overall. Obesity (OR = 2.57; p = 0.033) and high socioeconomic status (OR = 2.12; p = 0.008) were predictors of early menarche, while a younger mother was protective against early menarche (OR = 0.32; p = 0.039). Age at menarche among Kumasi schoolgirls has dropped 0.76 years since it was last determined among similarly aged girls in 1986, declining at a rate of about 0.32 years/decade. The predicting factors provide an important opportunity for intervention through school curricula and targeted education of adolescents. PMID:22296429

  18. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    PubMed Central

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4–10 dpf). 10 dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7 dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more

  19. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine.

    PubMed

    Kristofco, Lauren A; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4-10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72h studies were conducted at 1-4, 4-7 and 7-10dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p<0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4-10dpf). 10dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0-4dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more sensitive to DPH. Our

  20. Pubertal Timing Fluctuations across Middle School: Implications for Girls' Psychological Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bridget M.; Juvonen, Jaana

    2012-01-01

    The relative nature of pubertal timing has received little attention in research linking early pubertal development with psychological adjustment. The current study examines the dynamic association between pubertal timing and internalizing symptoms among an urban, ethnically diverse sample of girls (n = 1,167; 50% Latina, 30% Black/African…

  1. Modeling Pubertal Timing and Tempo and Examining Links to Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltz, Adriene M.; Corley, Robin P.; Bricker, Josh B.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in…

  2. Static Strain Aging Behavior of a Manganese-Silicon Steel After Single and Multi-stage Straining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraj, P.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, static strain aging behavior of an alloy steel containing high amounts of silicon and manganese was examined while the influences of initial microstructure and pre-strain on the aging kinetics were evaluated as well. The rate of strain aging in a low carbon steel was also determined and compared with that occurred in the alloy steel. The rates of static strain aging in the steels were defined at room temperature and at 95 °C by means of double-hit tensile testing and hardness measurements. In addition, three-stage aging experiments at 80 °C were carried out to estimate aging behavior under multi-pass deformation processing. The results showed that in-solution manganese and silicon atoms could significantly affect the aging behavior of the steel and reduce the kinetics of static strain aging as compared to the low carbon steel. The initial microstructure also played an important role on the aging behavior. The rapidly cooled steel having mean ferrite grain size of 9.7 μm showed the least aging susceptibility index during the aging experiments. Accordingly, the activation energies for static strain aging were calculated as 93.2 and 85.7 kJ/mole for the alloy steel having fine and coarse ferrite-pearlite structures, respectively while it was computed as 79.1 kJ/mole for the low carbon steel with ferrite mean grain size of about 16.2 μm.

  3. Contextual Amplification or Attenuation of the Impact of Pubertal Timing on Mexican-origin Boys’ Mental Health Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Deardorff, Julianna; Liu, Yu; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the role of neighborhood contextual variation in the putative association between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Mexican-origin boys. Method In a sample of 7th grade Mexican-origin boys (N = 353; x̄age = 12.8 years) we assessed a range of secondary sexual characteristics, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. Reports on all secondary sexual characteristics were collapsed and age-standardized to represent total pubertal timing. We also distinguished between the timing of physical changes driven by adrenal versus gonadal maturation. Boys’ residential addresses were geocoded and American Community Survey data were used to describe neighborhoods along two dimensions: ethnic concentration and socioeconomic disadvantage. Three years later (in 10th grade) we re-assessed internalizing and externalizing symptoms. We examined the moderating influence of neighborhood ethnic concentration and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage on the prospective associations between puberty timing (total, gonadal, adrenal) and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Results Earlier total pubertal timing predicted increases in externalizing symptoms, but only when Mexican-origin boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. Total timing results for externalizing symptoms were replicated for adrenal timing. Further, early adrenal timing predicted increases in internalizing symptoms, but again, only when boys lived in neighborhoods low on ethnic concentration. No effects were observed for gonadal timing specifically. Conclusions Early pubertal timing, especially advanced physical changes initiated and regulated by adrenal maturation, have important implications for Mexican-origin boys’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but these implications depend on neighborhood characteristics. Ethnically concentrated neighborhoods are protective for early-maturing Mexican-origin boys. PMID:23992760

  4. Mobile phone radiation during pubertal development has no effect on testicular histology in rats.

    PubMed

    Tumkaya, Levent; Kalkan, Yildiray; Bas, Orhan; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2016-02-01

    Mobile phones are extensively used throughout the world. There is a growing concern about the possible public health hazards posed by electromagnetic radiation emitted from mobile phones. Potential health risk applies particularly to the most intensive mobile phone users-typically, young people. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone exposure to the testes, by assessing the histopathological and biochemical changes in the testicular germ cells of rats during pubertal development. A total of 12 male Sprague Dawley rats were used. The study group (n = 6) was exposed to a mobile phone for 1 h a day for 45 days, while the control group (n = 6) remained unexposed. The testes were processed with routine paraffin histology and sectioned. They were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, caspase 3, and Ki-67 and then photographed. No changes were observed between the groups (p > 0.05). The interstitial connective tissue and cells of the exposed group were of normal morphology. No abnormalities in the histological appearance of the seminiferous tubules, including the spermatogenic cycle stage, were observed. Our study demonstrated that mobile phones with a low specific absorption rate have no harmful effects on pubertal rat testicles. PMID:24097363

  5. Loss of vitamin D receptor signaling from the mammary epithelium or adipose tissue alters pubertal glandular development

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Abby L.; Zinser, Glendon M.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D3 receptor (VDR) signaling within the mammary gland regulates various postnatal stages of glandular development, including puberty, pregnancy, involution, and tumorigenesis. Previous studies have shown that vitamin D3 treatment induces cell-autonomous growth inhibition and differentiation of mammary epithelial cells in culture. Furthermore, mammary adipose tissue serves as a depot for vitamin D3 storage, and both epithelial cells and adipocytes are capable of bioactivating vitamin D3. Despite the pervasiveness of VDR in mammary tissue, individual contributions of epithelial cells and adipocytes, as well as the VDR-regulated cross-talk between these two cell types during pubertal mammary development, have yet to be investigated. To assess the cell-type specific effect of VDR signaling during pubertal mammary development, novel mouse models with mammary epithelial- or adipocyte-specific loss of VDR were generated. Interestingly, loss of VDR in either cellular compartment accelerated ductal morphogenesis with increased epithelial cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis within terminal end buds. Conversely, VDR signaling specifically in the mammary epithelium modulated hormone-induced alveolar growth, as ablation of VDR in this cell type resulted in precocious alveolar development. In examining cellular cross-talk ex vivo, we show that ligand-dependent VDR signaling in adipocytes significantly inhibits mammary epithelial cell growth in part through the vitamin D3-dependent production of the cytokine IL-6. Collectively, these studies delineate independent roles for vitamin D3-dependent VDR signaling in mammary adipocytes and epithelial cells in controlling pubertal mammary gland development. PMID:25139050

  6. The role of environmental factors in pubertal gynecomastia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Proliferation of grandular tissue in the male breast during puberty, or pubertal gynecomastia, is a common condition that is usually benign and reversible. Since not all boys develop gynecomastia during puberty we were interested in whether environmental factors play a role. Furt...

  7. Pubertal Timing and Personality in Early Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Nora; Bandura, Mary M.

    The personality correlates of timing of puberty were investigated in this study. Estimates of total body water/body weight (TBW/BW) ratios obtained from the height and weight measurements of 85 sixth-grade girls were the primary measure of pubertal timing. Information on breast development and menarche was also obtained. Measures included scales…

  8. Sex steroids, growth hormone, leptin and the pubertal growth spurt.

    PubMed

    Rogol, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    A normal rate for the linear growth of a child or adolescent is a strong statement for the good general health of that child. Normal growth during childhood is primarily dependent on adequate nutrition, an adequate psychosocial environment, the absence of disease and adequate amounts thyroid hormone and growth hormone (and its downstream product, IGF-1). At adolescence there is the reawakening of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its interaction with the GH/IGF-1 axis to subserve the pubertal growth spurt. The fat tissue-derived hormone, leptin and its receptor are likely involved in at least two aspects of pubertal development - sexual development itself and the alterations in body composition including the regional distribution of fat and bone mineralization. During the prepubertal years the male female differences in body composition are quite modest, but change remarkably during pubertal development with boys showing a relative decrement in fat percentage and girls a marked increase in concert with rising levels of circulating leptin. The boys show a much greater increase in lean body tissue and the relative proportions of water, muscle and bone. These may be observed as the differential growth of the shoulders and hips. The net effect of these pubertal changes is that the young adult woman has approximately 25% body fat in the 'gynoid' distribution while the male has much more muscle, especially in the shoulders and upper body but only approximately 13% body fat. PMID:19955758

  9. Early Pubertal Timing and Girls' Problem Behavior: Integrating Two Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stattin, Hakan; Kerr, Margaret; Skoog, Therese

    2011-01-01

    Girls' early pubertal timing has been linked in many studies to behavioral problems such as delinquency and substance use. The theoretical explanations for these links have often involved the girls' peer relationships, but contexts have also been considered important in some explanations. By integrating two theoretical models, the…

  10. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas.

    PubMed

    Beehner, Jacinta C; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M; Cheney, Dorothy L; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2009-10-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal taxa. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the life span of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across taxa were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by 1 year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after 3 years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  11. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  12. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    PubMed

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth. PMID:27017718

  13. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  14. Effect of Maternal Age on the Ratio of Cleavage and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Early Developmental Stage Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; GOTO, Hiroya; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; MONJI, Yasunori; IWATA, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452

  15. Learning Multiple Band-Pass Filters for Sleep Stage Estimation: Towards Care Support for Aged Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takadama, Keiki; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Matsushima, Hiroyasu; Hattori, Kiyohiko; Nakajima, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the sleep stage estimation method that can provide an accurate estimation for each person without connecting any devices to human's body. In particular, our method learns the appropriate multiple band-pass filters to extract the specific wave pattern of heartbeat, which is required to estimate the sleep stage. For an accurate estimation, this paper employs Learning Classifier System (LCS) as the data-mining techniques and extends it to estimate the sleep stage. Extensive experiments on five subjects in mixed health confirm the following implications: (1) the proposed method can provide more accurate sleep stage estimation than the conventional method, and (2) the sleep stage estimation calculated by the proposed method is robust regardless of the physical condition of the subject.

  16. Maternal Age of Menarche and Blood Pressure in Adolescence: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Tsz Chun; Leung, Gabriel Matthew; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Age of puberty has declined substantially in developed settings and is now declining in the rest of the world with economic development. Early age of puberty is associated with non-communicable diseases in adulthood, and may be a long-term driver of population health with effects over generations. In a non-Western setting, we examined the association of maternal age of menarche with blood pressure in late childhood/adolescence. Methods We used generalised estimating equations to estimate the adjusted association of maternal age of menarche with age-, sex- and height-adjusted blood pressure z-score from 10 to 16 years in Hong Kong’s population-representative birth cohort, “Children of 1997” (n = 8327). We also assessed whether associations were mediated by body mass index (BMI) or pubertal stage. Results Earlier maternal age of menarche was associated with higher systolic blood pressure in adolescence [-0.02 z-score per year older maternal age of menarche, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.04 to -0.003]. The association of maternal age of menarche with systolic blood pressure was mediated by adiposity and/or pubertal stage at 11 years. Maternal age of menarche was not associated with diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion Earlier maternal age of puberty was associated with higher systolic blood pressure, largely mediated by adiposity, highlighting the importance of tackling childhood obesity as a public health priority in view of the secular trend of declining age of puberty. PMID:27454175

  17. The effects of circulating testosterone and pubertal maturation on risk for disordered eating symptoms in adolescent males

    PubMed Central

    Culbert, K. M.; Burt, S. A.; Sisk, C. L.; Nigg, J. T.; Klump, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Testosterone may be a biological factor that protects males against eating disorders. Elevated prenatal testosterone exposure is linked to lower levels of disordered eating symptoms, but effects emerge only after mid-puberty. Whether circulating levels of testosterone account for decreased risk for disordered eating in boys after mid-puberty is currently unknown; however, animal data support this possibility. In rodents, prenatal testosterone’s masculinizing effects on sex-differentiated behaviors emerge during puberty when circulating levels of testosterone increase and ‘activate’ the expression of masculinized phenotypes. This study investigated whether higher levels of circulating testosterone predict lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys, and in particular whether effects are associated with advancing pubertal maturation. Method Participants were 213 male twins from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. The Minnesota Eating Behavior Survey and Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire assessed several disordered eating symptoms. The Pubertal Development Scale assessed pubertal status. Afternoon saliva samples were assayed for testosterone using enzyme immunoassays. Results Consistent with animal data, higher levels of circulating testosterone predicted lower levels of disordered eating symptoms in adolescent boys and effects emerged with advancing puberty. Results were not accounted for by several important covariates, including age, adiposity, or mood/anxiety symptoms. Conclusions Findings suggest that elevated circulating testosterone may be protective and underlie decreased risk for eating pathology in males during/after puberty, whereas lower levels of testosterone may increase risk and explain why some, albeit relatively few, males develop eating disorders. PMID:24406155

  18. Bringing the Law to the Gerontological Stage: A Different Look at Movies and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Israel

    2006-01-01

    Films often portray the complexities of real-life aging issues, showing how they are apparently handled outside of and around the law or legal issues. Furthermore, films considering the aged and the social issues associated with aging also reveal how the law actually functions as a framework around and within which people develop customs, habits,…

  19. Effects of Low-Dose Estrogen Replacement During Childhood on Pubertal Development and Gonadotropin Concentrations in Patients With Turner Syndrome: Results of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiaohai; Garg, Sipi; Kowal, Karen; Cutler, Gordon B.; Ross, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The optimal approach to estrogen replacement in girls with Turner syndrome has not been determined. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of an individualized regimen of low-dose ethinyl estradiol (EE2) during childhood from as early as age 5, followed by a pubertal induction regimen starting after age 12 and escalating to full replacement over 4 years. Design: This study was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Setting: The study was conducted at two US pediatric endocrine centers. Subjects: Girls with Turner syndrome (n = 149), aged 5.0–12.5 years, were enrolled; data from 123 girls were analyzable for pubertal onset. Intervention(s): Interventions comprised placebo or recombinant GH injections three times a week, with daily oral placebo or oral EE2 during childhood (25 ng/kg/d, ages 5–8 y; 50 ng/kg/d, ages >8–12 y); after age 12, all patients received escalating EE2 starting at a nominal dosage of 100 ng/kg/d. Placebo/EE2 dosages were reduced by 50% for breast development before age 12 years, vaginal bleeding before age 14 years, or undue advance in bone age. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcome measures for this report were median ages at Tanner breast stage ≥2, median age at menarche, and tempo of puberty (Tanner 2 to menarche). Patterns of gonadotropin secretion and impact of childhood EE2 on gonadotropins also were assessed. Results: Compared with recipients of oral placebo (n = 62), girls who received childhood low-dose EE2 (n = 61) had significantly earlier thelarche (median, 11.6 vs 12.6 y, P < 0.001) and slower tempo of puberty (median, 3.3 vs 2.2 y, P = 0.003); both groups had delayed menarche (median, 15.0 y). Among childhood placebo recipients, girls who had spontaneous breast development before estrogen exposure had significantly lower median FSH values than girls who did not. Conclusions: In addition to previously reported effects on cognitive measures and GH

  20. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Kumar; Chandra, Gautam; Neelam, Kumari; Kumar, Sanjeet; Singla, Harish; Yadav, Sanjay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fibroadenomas are benign neoplasms usually arising between the ages of 15–25 years. Approximately 0.4% fibroadenomas arise in juvenile age group. Usually the diagnosis is straightforward by clinical examination and FNAC. But sometimes rapid growth and giant size may pose difficulty in clinical approach. Case presentation In this paper we are presenting a rare case of giant juvenile fibroadenoma in a 10 years old girl which was diagnosed by FNAC and treated by excision. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology. Discussion Giant juvenile fibroadenomas are over 5 cm in diameter and tend to show rapid growth mimicking a carcinoma. But histological features are similar to smaller fibroadenomas and can be enucleated. Conclusion Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery. PMID:26433926

  1. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age. PMID:27293604

  2. Exogenous pubertal induction by oral versus transdermal estrogen therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenigsberg, Lisa; Balachandar, Sadana; Prasad, Kris; Shah, Bina

    2013-04-01

    Hypogonadal adolescent girls need estrogen therapy for the induction of puberty. For years, oral conjugated estrogens have been used for this purpose, starting at a very low dose, with gradual increments over time, to allow for the maturation of the reproductive organs, in order to mimic physiologic conditions. Several concerns, mainly due to first pass through the liver, are manifest with oral estrogen therapy. With the advent of transdermal estrogens and its improved efficacy profile as well as reduced side effects, it seems reasonable to consider it for pubertal induction. The primary objective of this study was to compare and contrast oral versus transdermal estrogen with regard to metabolism and physiology and to review current available data on transdermal estrogens with respect to exogenous pubertal induction. PMID:22112543

  3. Control of voice gender in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Cartei, Valentina; Cowles, Wind; Banerjee, Robin; Reby, David

    2014-03-01

    Adult listeners are capable of identifying the gender of speakers as young as 4 years old from their voice. In the absence of a clear anatomical dimorphism in the dimensions of pre-pubertal boys' and girls' vocal apparatus, the observed gender differences may reflect children's regulation of their vocal behaviour. A detailed acoustic analysis was conducted of the utterances of 34 6- to 9-year-old children, in their normal voices and also when asked explicitly to speak like a boy or a girl. Results showed statistically significant shifts in fundamental and formant frequency values towards those expected from the sex dimorphism in adult voices. Directions for future research on the role of vocal behaviours in pre-pubertal children's expression of gender are considered. PMID:24372318

  4. CHILDHOOD ADVERSITY AND PUBERTAL TIMING: UNDERSTANDING THE ORIGINS OF ADULTHOOD CARDIOVASCULAR RISK

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether greater childhood adversity relates to younger menarcheal age; whether younger menarcheal age relates to increased CVD risk; and whether greater childhood adversity relates to increased CVD risk, directly or indirectly (mediated by menarcheal age). Methods Among 650 pre-menopausal women (ages 25-45; M=34.9[5.6]), SEM was performed to estimate relations between childhood adversity, menarcheal age, and CVD risk. Results Results supported a covariate-adjusted model (RMSEA=0.035; CFI=0.983) in which greater childhood adversity was related to younger menarcheal age (β=−.13, p<.01) and younger menarcheal age was related to greater CVD risk (β=−.18, p<.05). Direct and indirect effects of childhood adversity on CVD risk were non-significant. Re-evaluation of the same model with additional covariate-adjustment for adulthood body composition showed the relation between menarcheal age and CVD risk attenuated (β=−.03, p=.376). Conclusions Cross-sectional evidence suggests family-related adversity experiences in childhood confer risk for earlier menarche which, in turn, relates to increased CVD risk in adulthood, possibly via post-pubertal body size. PMID:23428374

  5. Treatment Effects of Removable Functional Appliances in Pre-Pubertal and Pubertal Class II Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Primožič, Jasmina; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment effects of removable functional appliances in Class II malocclusion patients according to the pre-pubertal or pubertal growth phase has yet to be clarified. Objectives To assess and compare skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of removable functional appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment between pre-pubertal and pubertal patients. Search methods Literature survey using the Medline, SCOPUS, LILACS and SciELO databases, the Cochrane Library from inception to May 31, 2015. A manual search was also performed. Selection criteria Randomised (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials with a matched untreated control group. No restrictions were set regarding the type of removable appliance whenever used alone. Data collection and analysis For the meta-analysis, cephalometric parameters on the supplementary mandibular growth were the main outcomes, with other cephalometric parameters considered as secondary outcomes. Risk of bias in individual and across studies were evaluated along with sensitivity analysis for low quality studies. Mean differences and 95% confidence intervals for annualised changes were computed according to a random model. Differences between pre-pubertal and pubertal patients were assessed by subgroup analyses. GRADE assessment was performed for the main outcomes. Results Twelve articles (but only 3 RCTs) were included accounting for 8 pre-pubertal and 7 pubertal groups. Overall supplementary total mandibular length and mandibular ramus height were 0.95 mm (0.38, 1.51) and 0.00 mm (-0.52, 0.53) for pre-pubertal patients and 2.91 mm (2.04, 3.79) and 2.18 mm (1.51, 2.86) for pubertal patients, respectively. The subgroup difference was significant for both parameters (p<0.001). No maxillary growth restrain or increase in facial divergence was seen in either subgroup. The GRADE assessment was low for the pre-pubertal patients, and generally moderate for the pubertal patients. Conclusions Taking into account the limited quality and

  6. Energy requirements for growth of pubertal female Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, F O M; Berchielli, T T; Resende, K T; Gomes, H F B; Almeida, A K; Sakomura, N K; Teixeira, I A M A

    2016-04-01

    Previous research on energy requirements of female Saanen goats, using the factorial approach, has not considered the specific requirements for maintenance and growth during the pubertal phase. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate energy requirements for maintenance (Trial 1) and growth (Trial 2) of non-pregnant and non-lactating female Saanen goats at the pubertal phase from 30 to 45 kg. In Trial 1, the net energy requirements for maintenance (NEm ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats randomly assigned to three levels of intake: ad libitum, and 70% and 40% of ad libitum intake. These animals were pair-fed in six slaughter groups, each consisting of one animal for each level of intake. In Trial 2, the net energy requirements for growth (NEg ) were estimated using 18 female Saanen goats, which were fed ad libitum and slaughtered at targeted BW of 30, 38 and 45 kg. The NEm was 52 kcal/kg(0.75) of BW. The NEg increased from 3.5 to 4.7 Mcal/kg of BW gain as BW increased from 30 to 45 kg. Our results suggest that the guidelines of the major feeding systems for the entire growth phase may not be adequate for females at pubertal phase. PMID:26249003

  7. Variations in the Pattern of Pubertal Changes in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. A.; Tanner, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development. The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years. On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys. The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years. Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5440182

  8. APPLYING TEP MEASUREMENTS TO ASSESS THE AGING STAGE OF MARAGING 250 STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Y.; Gelbstein, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-28

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 deg. C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  9. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Aging Stage of Maraging 250 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snir, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Gelbstein, Y.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 °C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni3(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  10. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  11. Pubertal Timing as a Potential Mediator of Adoption Effects on Problem Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Bricker, Josh; Corley, Robin P.; Wadsworth, Sally J.

    2012-01-01

    Adopted children show more problem behaviors than nonadopted children. Given that internationally-adopted individuals show earlier puberty than non-adopted individuals, and early puberty is associated with problem behaviors in nonadopted youth, we analyzed data from domestic adoptees to determine whether problem behaviors could be explained by differences in pubertal timing. Relative to nonadopted controls (n = 153), domestically-adopted girls (n = 121) had earlier menarche, earlier sexual initiation, and more conduct disorder symptoms. Age at menarche partially mediated the relation of adoptive status to sexual initiation, but not to conduct disorder symptoms. Extending findings from international adoptees, results show that domestic adoption is also linked to earlier puberty, and suggest early puberty as one mechanism linking adoption to problematic outcomes. PMID:23335840

  12. Pubertal bisphenol A exposure alters murine mammary stem cell function leading to early neoplasia in regenerated glands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danhan; Gao, Hui; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Wu, Anqi; Yeh, I-Tien; Chen, Yidong; Zou, Yi; Huang, Changjiang; Walter, Christi A; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2014-04-01

    Perinatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has been shown to cause aberrant mammary gland morphogenesis and mammary neoplastic transformation. Yet, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that mammary glands exposed to BPA during a susceptible window may lead to its susceptibility to tumorigenesis through a stem cell-mediated mechanism. We exposed 21-day-old Balb/c mice to BPA by gavage (25 μg/kg/d) during puberty for 3 weeks, and a subset of animals were further challenged with one oral dose (30 mg/kg) of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) at 2 months of age. Primary mammary cells were isolated at 6 weeks, and 2 and 4 months of age for murine mammary stem cell (MaSC) quantification and function analysis. Pubertal exposure to the low-dose BPA increased lateral branches and hyperplasia in adult mammary glands and caused an acute increase of MaSC in 6-week-old glands and a delayed increase of luminal progenitors in 4-month-old adult gland. Most importantly, pubertal BPA exposure altered the function of MaSC from different age groups, causing early neoplastic lesions in their regenerated glands similar to those induced by DMBA exposure, which indicates that MaSCs are susceptible to BPA-induced transformation. Deep sequencing analysis on MaSC-enriched mammospheres identified a set of aberrantly expressed genes associated with early neoplastic lesions in patients with human breast cancer. Thus, our study for the first time shows that pubertal BPA exposure altered MaSC gene expression and function such that they induced early neoplastic transformation. PMID:24520039

  13. Lung cancer diagnosis and staging in the minimally invasive age with increasing demands for tissue analysis

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel B.; Wright, Jeffrey; VanderLaan, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis and staging of patients with lung cancer in recent decades has increasingly relied on minimally invasive tissue sampling techniques, such as endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) or endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) needle aspiration, transbronchial biopsy, and transthoracic image guided core needle biopsy. These modalities have been shown to have low complication rates, and provide adequate cellular material for pathologic diagnosis and necessary ancillary molecular testing. As an important component to a multidisciplinary team approach in the care of patients with lung cancer, these minimally invasive modalities have proven invaluable for the rapid and safe acquisition of tissue used for the diagnosis, staging, and molecular testing of tumors to identify the best evidence-based treatment plan. The continuous evolution of the field of lung cancer staging and treatment has translated into improvements in survival and quality of life for patients. Although differences in clinical practice between academic and community hospital settings still exist, improvements in physician education and training as well as adoption of technological advancements should help narrow this gap going forward. PMID:26380180

  14. Age and stage at diagnosis: a hospital series of 11 women with intellectual disability and breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer has been poorly studied in women with intellectual disability (ID), which makes designing a policy for screening the nearly 70 million women with ID in the world difficult. As no data is available in the literature, we evaluated breast cancer at diagnosis in women with ID. Methods Women with ID were searched retrospectively among all women treated for invasive breast cancer in a single hospital over 18 years. Age at diagnosis was compared among the whole group of women. Tumor size, lymph node involvement, SBR grade, TNM classification, and AJCC stage were compared to controls matched for age and period of diagnosis using conditional logistic regression. Results Among 484 women with invasive breast cancer, 11 had ID. The mean age at diagnosis was 55.6 years in women with ID and 62.4 years in the other women. The mean tumor size in women with ID was 3.53 cm, compared to 1.80 cm in 44 random controls from among the 473 women without ID. Lymph node involvement was observed in 9 of the 11 women with ID compared to 12 of the controls (OR = 11.53, p = 0.002), and metastases were found in 3 of the 11 women with ID compared to 1 of the 44 controls (OR = 12.00, p = 0.031). The AJCC stage was higher in women with ID compared to controls (OR = 3.19, p = 0.010). Conclusions Women with ID presented at an earlier age with tumors of a higher AJCC stage than controls despite no significant differences in tumor grade and histological type. Thus, delayed diagnosis may be responsible for the differences between disabled and non-disabled women. PMID:24593240

  15. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (p<0.001). The overall and 5-year cancer specific survival rates were 88.1% and 90.8% in young group, 64.8% and 81.3% in elderly group, which had significant difference in both univariate and multivariate analysis (p<0.001). Further analysis showed this significant difference existed across all the AJCC stage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate. PMID:26269768

  16. [GENDER AND AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AT HOSPITAL OBSERVATIONS STAGE].

    PubMed

    Dadashova, G M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of literature shows that very little data are available on gender differences and age-specific drug use in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). In this work, the character of drug therapy was studied as dependent on the age and sex of patients with CHF under in-hospital observation conditions. Among hospitalized patients with CHF, an important role is played by modern drug therapy. Gender differences were found in respect of therapy with ACE inhibitors, which was used in men more frequently than in women (89 and 78%, respectively, p <0.001). Aldosterone antagonists were used in the treatment of women much less frequently than in men (32.9 and 42%, respectively, p < 0.001). Loop diuretics are more frequently prescribed to men (48 and 40%, respectively, p < 0.001) and thiazide diuretics, to women (38.9 and 27%, respectively, p < 0.001). In older age groups, CHF treatment both in men (p < 0.05) and in women (p < 0.001) is characterized by decreased use of beta-adrenoblockers and increased use of aldosterone antagonists (p < 0.05). In women, older age groups meet increased prescription frequency of ACE inhibitors/ARBs (from 79.1 to 95.3%p < 0.01) and aldosterone antagonists (from 29.3 to 38.2% p < 0.001). PMID:27416677

  17. Development: Ages & Stages--How Children Develop a Sense of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents suggestions on how to increase awareness of a sense of time for infants up to age 6. It recommends using children's personal experiences to help them understand time concepts. Individual components of this article include: (1) "I Go Now!"--Birth to 2 (Carla Poole); (2) "Today's My Birthday!"--3 to 4 (Susan A. Miller); and (3)…

  18. The Ages and Stages Questionnaire and Neurodevelopmental Impairment in Two-Year-Old Preterm-Born Children

    PubMed Central

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Nijhuis, Ard; Hulzebos, Christian V.; van Imhoff, Deirdre E.; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G.; van Haastert, Ingrid C.; Lopriore, Enrico; Katgert, Titia; Swarte, Renate M.; van Lingen, Richard A.; Mulder, Twan L.; Laarman, Céleste R.; Steiner, Katerina; Dijk, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the ability of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, Third Edition (ASQ3) to help identify or exclude neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two. Methods We studied the test results of 224 children, born at <32 postmenstrual weeks, who had scores on ASQ3 and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (BSIDIII) and neurological examination at 22–26 months’ corrected age. We defined NDI as a score of <70 on the cognitive—or motor composite scale of BSIDIII, or impairment on neurological examination or audiovisual screening. We compared NDI with abnormal ASQ3 scores, i.e., < -2SDs on any domain, and with ASQ3 total scores. To correct for possible overestimation of BSIDIII, we also analyzed the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds for NDI, i.e., scores <80 and <85. Results We found 61 (27%) children with abnormal ASQ3 scores, and 10 (4.5%) children who had NDI with original BSIDIII thresholds (<70). Twelve children had NDI at BSIDIII thresholds at <80, and 15 had <85. None of the 163 (73%) children who passed ASQ3 had NDI. The sensitivity of ASQ3 to detect NDI was excellent (100%), its specificity was acceptable (76%), and its negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%. Sensitivity and NPV remained high with the adjusted BSIDIII thresholds. Conclusion The Ages and Stages Questionnaire is a simple, valid and cost-effective screening tool to help identify and exclude NDI in very preterm-born children at the corrected age of two years. PMID:26193474

  19. The effects of hydraulic resistance strength training in pre-pubertal males.

    PubMed

    Weltman, A; Janney, C; Rians, C B; Strand, K; Berg, B; Tippitt, S; Wise, J; Cahill, B R; Katch, F I

    1986-12-01

    In order to examine the effectiveness and safety of hydraulic resistance strength training in young males, 26 pre-pubertal males (mean age = 8.2 +/- 1.3 yr) completed a 14-wk strength training study. Subjects were evaluated before and after the 14-wk experimental period for pubertal state (Tanner's sexual maturity rating, serum testosterone, and serum dihydroepiandrosterone sulfate). Effectiveness of the strength training program was determined by measuring pre-post differences in: isokinetic strength for flexion and extension at the knee and elbow joints at two speeds (30 degrees and 90 degrees X s-1) (KIN COM, Chattecx, Inc., Chattanooga, TN), flexibility, standing long jump, vertical jump, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, and creatinine phosphokinase. Safety of strength training was assessed by biphasic musculoskeletal scintigraphy before and after the program and by physician evaluation of complaints by subjects. Strength training subjects (N = 16) participated in a 45 min/session, 3 session/wk, 14-wk supervised strength training program with an attendance rate of 91.5%. Participants performed concentric work using hydraulic resistance equipment (Hydra-Fitness Industries, Belton, TX). Eccentric work was not performed. Control subjects (N = 10) did not strength train but did participate in sport activities and activities of daily living. Results indicated that strength training subjects increased isokinetic strength as a result of strength training (average concentric work/repetition increases by 18.5 to 36.6% for the eight motions tested; torque scores over the first 90% of the range of motion increases by 13.1 to 45.1% for the eight motions tested). These changes were significantly greater than changes seen in the control group (P less than 0.05). Strength training subjects also demonstrated significant improvements (as compared to control subjects) in vertical jump (+10.4%), flexibility (+8.4%), and maximal oxygen consumption [+19

  20. The estimated prevalence and incidence of late stage age related macular degeneration in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jarrar, Zakariya; Wormald, Richard; Cook, Derek G; Fletcher, Astrid E; Rudnicka, Alicja R

    2012-01-01

    Background UK estimates of age related macular degeneration (AMD) occurrence vary. Aims To estimate prevalence, number and incidence of AMD by type in the UK population aged ≥50 years. Methods Age-specific prevalence rates of AMD obtained from a Bayesian meta-analysis of AMD prevalence were applied to UK 2007–2009 population data. Incidence was estimated from modelled age-specific prevalence. Results Overall prevalence of late AMD was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI) 1.7% to 3.3%), equivalent to 513 000 cases (95% CrI 363 000 to 699 000); estimated to increase to 679 000 cases by 2020. Prevalences were 4.8% aged ≥65 years, 12.2% aged ≥80 years. Geographical atrophy (GA) prevalence rates were 1.3% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.9%), 2.6% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.7%) and 6.7% (95% CrI 4.6% to 9.6%); neovascular AMD (NVAMD) 1.2% (95% CrI 0.9% to 1.7%), 2.5% (95% CrI 1.8% to 3.4%) and 6.3% (95% CrI 4.5% to 8.6%), respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of late AMD were 60% higher in women versus men (314 000 cases in women, 192 000 men). Annual incidence of late AMD, GA and NVAMD per 1000 women was 4.1 (95% CrI 2.4% to 6.8%), 2.4 (95% CrI 1.5% to 3.9%) and 2.3 (95% CrI 1.4% to 4.0%); in men 2.6 (95% CrI 1.5% to 4.4%), 1.7 (95% CrI 1.0% to 2.8%) and 1.4 (95% CrI 0.8% to 2.4%), respectively. 71 000 new cases of late AMD were estimated per year. Conclusions These estimates will guide health and social service provision for those with late AMD and enable estimation of the cost of introducing new treatments. PMID:22329913

  1. Opinion Paper: A Cognitive-cultural Segregation and the Three Stages of Aging.

    PubMed

    Kyriazis, Marios

    2016-01-01

    There is no doubt that the world is divided and unequal, mostly with respect to wealth. However, the true obstacle preventing the progress of humanity is not the divide between the rich and the poor. It is the divide between the cognitive and the physical. Apart from the social and ethical issues associated with this, there are also medical ones. The implications of this divide have direct relevance to aging, both in research and in the clinical sense. We cannot simply apply the same 'healthy aging' guidelines to everybody, but we need to establish if our approach is specifically suited to the individual. Our research endeavours need to have this division in focus. In this Opinion paper I describe three separate groups of humanity, which are divided, not by economic criteria, but by a worldview of intellectual creativity. Each arbitrary group has its own health priorities. If we overlook these priorities we may, at best, give the wrong advice to our patients, or at worst waste resources and exacerbate the rate of age-related degeneration in many individuals. As our society becomes more reliant on technology, what is now considered 'healthy' may not be so, for many millions of people. PMID:26651458

  2. [Dynamic age-related changes in the human physique at stages in postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Shaparenko, P F

    1989-12-01

    In 926 children (7 age groups) combined group differences of the signs have been studied by means of a unified standardized method, using the hand length as a linear measure; the conformity index to definitive size has been applied. For newborns proportional discrepancy to the definitive sizes is specific. They have a relatively long, thick and round body, short extremities, large dimensions of the head and abundant adipose subcutaneous deposits. According to the constitutional peculiarities the newborns resemble the children of the digestive type in mature persons--pycnotic or endomorphic. Beginning from birth, including children of early and first childhood (4-7 years of age), age changes of complexion go in two directions: a) dolichomorphy of complexion is realized; for it decreasing diameters of the chest and dimensions of the neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis (in boys), shoulder, arm, hand, foot and decrease in the subcutaneous adipose tissue are specific; b) longitudinal proportions of body and extremity segments change under influence of biomechanical adaptations to physical loads in connection with adaptation to the vertical position. PMID:2631652

  3. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  4. Genetic and Environmental Influences on the Association between Pubertal Maturation and Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marceau, Kristine; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    The literature consistently shows an association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems in girls. The association for boys is less clear. The present study examines genetic and environmental influences on the association between pubertal maturation and internalizing problems for boys and girls in two primarily Caucasian adolescent…

  5. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use in Middle Adolescence: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Marttunen, Mauri; Frojd, Sari

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research has associated early puberty with emotional and behavioral symptoms particularly among girls, while among boys, findings have been contradictory as to whether risks are associated with early or late pubertal timing. We studied the association between pubertal timing and substance use behaviors in middle adolescence in a 2-year…

  6. Pubertal Timing and Substance Use: Associations between and within Families across Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Danielle M.; Rose, Richard J.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2000-01-01

    Used between-family analyses of data from adolescent twin girls to offer new evidence that early menarche is associated with earlier initiation and greater frequency of smoking and drinking. Found that association of pubertal timing with substance use could not be explained by between-family confounds, and pubertal timing influence on drinking…

  7. Ethnicity, Perceived Pubertal Timing, Externalizing Behaviors, and Depressive Symptoms among Black Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Matusko, Niki; Antonucci, Toni; Jackson, James S.

    2011-01-01

    An accumulation of research evidence suggests that early pubertal timing plays a significant role in girls' behavioral and emotional problems. If early pubertal timing is a problematic event, then early developing Black girls should manifest evidence of this crisis because they tend to be the earliest to develop compared to other girls from…

  8. The Role of Peer Stress and Pubertal Timing on Symptoms of Psychopathology during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sontag, Lisa M.; Graber, Julia A.; Clemans, Katherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Stress is known to amplify the link between pubertal timing and psychopathology. However, few studies have examined the role of peer stress as a context for this link. The present study examined the interaction between perceived pubertal timing and peer stress on symptoms of psychopathology in early adolescence. The sample consisted of 264…

  9. Links between Pubertal Timing and Neighborhood Contexts: Implications for Girls' Violent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obeidallah, Dawn; Brennan, Robert T.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Earls, Felton

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between girls' violent behavior, pubertal timing, and neighborhood characteristics. Method: A total of 501 Hispanic, black, and white adolescent girls and their parents were interviewed twice over a 3-year period (1995-1998). Violent behavior was assessed using the Self-Report of Offending Scale and pubertal timing…

  10. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  11. A Longitudinal Investigation of Associations between Boys' Pubertal Timing and Adult Behavioral Health and Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taga, Keiko A.; Markey, Charlotte N.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2006-01-01

    To extend research linking pubertal timing and adolescent health outcomes, this study examines boys' pubertal timing and subsequent interpersonal success and health behaviors in mid adulthood. Past research has shown that boys' pubertal timing is associated with both positive and negative developmental outcomes in the short term, and so it is…

  12. Pathology of aging female SENCAR mice used as controls in skin two-stage carcinogenesis studies.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J M; Quander, R; Devor, D; Wenk, M L; Spangler, E F

    1986-01-01

    The pathology of 60 aged female SENCAR mice used as acetone controls in skin painting studies was studied. Fifty percent of the mice survived past 96 weeks of age. The major contributing causes of death identified in 42 mice were glomerulonephritis (8 mice), histiocytic sarcoma (7 mice), and other tumors (8 mice). Glomerulonephritis was found in the majority of mice and was associated with thymic hyperplasia, focal vasculitis, and lymphoid hyperplasia. Necropsy of 58 mice surviving past 50 weeks of age revealed that 41 had an average of 1.36 tumors per mouse. The most common tumors included histiocytic sarcoma (13 mice), pulmonary adenoma or adenocarcinoma (11 mice), mammary tumors (11 mice), follicular center cell lymphoma (4 mice), and hepatocellular adenoma (4 mice). The 13 histiocytic sarcomas appeared to arise in the uterus and metastasized to liver (9 mice), lung (4 mice), kidney (3 mice), and other tissues. Lung tumors were of the solid and papillary types, and tumor cells frequently contained surfactant apoprotein (SAP) but did not contain Clara cell antigens, suggesting their origin from alveolar Type II cells. A variety of nonneoplastic lesions, similar to those observed in other mouse strains, were seen in other tissues of these mice. Amyloid-like material was seen only in nasal turbinates and thyroid gland. In a group of 28 mice exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for up to 88 weeks, as a control for other treatment groups, 7 (25%) had papillomas and 5 (17.8%) had squamous cell carcinomas of the skin at necropsy, although many other induced papillomas regressed during the study. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. PMID:3780636

  13. Effects of Pubertal Exposure to Dietary Soy on Estrogen Receptor Activity in the Breast of Cynomolgus Macaques.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Fitriya N; Wood, Charles E; Willson, Cynthia J; Register, Thomas C; Lees, Cynthia J; Howard, Timothy D; Huang, Zhiqing; Murphy, Susan K; Tooze, Janet A; Chou, Jeff W; Miller, Lance D; Cline, J Mark

    2016-05-01

    Endogenous estrogens influence mammary gland development during puberty and breast cancer risk during adulthood. Early-life exposure to dietary or environmental estrogens may alter estrogen-mediated processes. Soy foods contain phytoestrogenic isoflavones (IF), which have mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist properties. Here, we evaluated mammary gland responses over time in pubertal female cynomolgus macaques fed diets containing either casein/lactalbumin (n = 12) or soy protein containing a human-equivalent dose of 120 mg IF/day (n = 17) for approximately 4.5 years spanning menarche. We assessed estrogen receptor (ER) expression and activity, promoter methylation of ERs and their downstream targets, and markers of estrogen metabolism. Expression of ERα and classical ERα response genes (TFF1, PGR, and GREB1) decreased with maturity, independent of diet. A significant inverse correlation was observed between TFF1 mRNA and methylation of CpG sites within the TFF1 promoter. Soy effects included lower ERβ expression before menarche and lower mRNA for ERα and GREB1 after menarche. Expression of GATA-3, an epithelial differentiation marker that regulates ERα-mediated transcription, was elevated before menarche and decreased after menarche in soy-fed animals. Soy did not significantly alter expression of other ER activity markers, estrogen-metabolizing enzymes, or promoter methylation for ERs or ER-regulated genes. Our results demonstrate greater ER expression and activity during the pubertal transition, supporting the idea that this life stage is a critical window for phenotypic modulation by estrogenic compounds. Pubertal soy exposure decreases mammary ERα expression after menarche and exerts subtle effects on receptor activity and mammary gland differentiation. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 385-95. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27006379

  14. Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

  15. Relationship between urinary and serum growth hormone and pubertal status.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Addison, G M; Price, D A

    1992-01-01

    Urinary growth hormone (uGH) excretion and serum growth hormone concentrations have been compared in three groups of children. Group 1 consisted of 21 children who had had cranial irradiation as part of their treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; group 2, 18 normal children; and group 3, 12 boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty who were in early puberty. Children in groups 1 and 2 each had a 24 hour serum growth hormone profile (sampling every 20 minutes) and concurrent urine collection. The 12 boys in group 3 had a total of 21 profiles (sampling every 15 minutes for 12 hours) and concurrent urine collections. In the prepubertal children (n = 17), in both groups 1 and 2, there was a significant correlation between mean serum growth hormone and total uGHng/g creatinine. There were also significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both peak serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In the pubertal children (n = 22), in groups 1 and 2, whether combined or in separate groups, there was no significant correlation between total uGHng/g creatinine and mean serum growth hormone, peak serum growth hormone, or mean amplitude of the pulses in the growth hormone profile. In group 3 there were significant correlations between total uGHng/g creatinine and both the mean serum growth hormone and mean amplitude of the pulses in the profile. Therefore uGH estimations appear to correlate well with serum growth hormone profiles in children who are prepubertal or in early puberty, but not in those further advanced in pubertal development. These results may reflect a variation in the renal handling of growth hormone during pubertal development. uGH estimation may be an unreliable screening investigation for growth hormone sufficiency in mid to late puberty. PMID:1739346

  16. The Effect of Exposure to Atrazine on Dopaminergic Development in Pubertal Male SD Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Shu; He, Xi; Ma, Kun; Wu, Yan-Ping; Li, Bai-Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Atrazine (ATR, 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is used worldwide as a herbicide, and its presence in the environment has resulted in documented human exposure. A lack of strong evidence for genetic heritability of idiopathic Parkinson's disease has focused attention on environmental toxicants in the disease etiology, particularly agrichemicals. Parkinson's disease is associated with advanced age and is characterized by the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, but it is unclear whether specific neuronal damage could result from insults during development. The juvenile period is particularly vulnerable to environmental agent, therefore, we evaluated the effects of a 28-day exposure to ATR on the dopaminergic system in pubertal rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with ATR at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg bw, daily from postnatal days 27 to 54. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that pubertal exposure to ATR would disrupt the development of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The content of DA and levodopa (L-DA) were examined in striatum samples by HPLC-FL, and the mRNA and protein expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, orphan nuclear hormone receptor (Nurr1), Nurr1 interacting protein (NuIP), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors of the Cip̲Kip family (p57kip2) were examined in samples of the nigrostriatum by use of fluorescence Real-Time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Exposure of juvenile rats to the high dose of ATR led to reduced levels of DA and L-DA, genes expression of NuIP, Nurr1, and p57kip2 in animals. PMID:26331294

  17. Pubertal Timing and Vulnerabilities to Depression in Early Adolescence: Differential Pathways to Depressive Symptoms by Sex

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2014-01-01

    Although research implicates pubertal processes in the emergence of the sex difference in depression during adolescence, few studies have examined how cognitive and affective vulnerabilities influence the effect of pubertal timing on depressive symptoms. The current study prospectively examined whether early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescents with more negative cognitive styles and lower emotional clarity, and whether this risk was specific to adolescent girls. In a diverse sample of 318 adolescents, early pubertal timing predicted increases in depressive symptoms among adolescent boys and girls with more negative cognitive styles and adolescent girls with poor emotional clarity. These findings suggest that earlier pubertal maturation may heighten the risk of depression for adolescents with pre-existing vulnerabilities to depression, and that early-maturing adolescent girls with lower levels of emotional clarity may be particularly vulnerable to depressive symptoms, representing one pathway through which the sex difference in depression may emerge. PMID:24439622

  18. Implications for the early shield-stage evolution of Tenerife from K/Ar ages and magnetic stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillou, Hervé; Carracedo, Juan Carlos; Paris, Raphael; Pérèz Torrado, Francisco José

    2004-05-01

    The combined use of field geology, radioisotopic dating and magnetic stratigraphy applied to the old shield volcanoes of Tenerife provides a reliable time framework for the early, shield-stage evolution of the island. The greater part of this new set of ages, obtained from sequences of lava flows is in agreement with the astronomical polarity time scale. This approach illustrates that previous K-Ar data collected without a comprehensive stratigraphy should be viewed with caution, and in some cases discarded altogether. The shield volcanoes of Tenerife encompass a relatively small number of magnetozones, an observation consistent with the relatively short periods of growth shown by the new ages (1-2 my). The island was constructed by the aggregation of three successive shields: the Roque del Conde (Central shield), between about 11.9 and 8.9 Ma, and the Teno (6.2-5.6 Ma) and Anaga (4.9-3.9 Ma) volcanoes. This new oldest subaerial age of Tenerife fits with the others obtained in the Canaries in a clear west to east monotonous age progression, one of the main restrictions for hotspot-related island chains.

  19. Battling regional (stage III) lung cancer: bumpy road of a cancer survivor in the immunotherapy age.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhonglin; Biddinger, Paul; Schroeder, Carsten; Tariq, Khurram

    2016-01-01

    A 58-year-old woman, a heavy smoker, was diagnosed with stage III squamous cell lung cancer. She was treated with concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy, with partial response. 2 months later, she had haemoptysis caused by brisk bleeding from the radiated right upper lobe. Fortunately, her bleed was self-limited. 4 months later, a rapidly enlarging renal mass was discovered and turned out to be metastatic from the lung primary. Second-line chemotherapy with docetaxel and ramucirumab did not have effects on the renal mass after 2 cycles. Despite not being eligible for a durvalumab trial because of lack of PD-L1 expression, she had a meaningful response to nivolumab. Once every 2 weeks, infusion of nivolumab resulted in rapid tumour shrinkage in multiple areas. In the next few months, she experienced a variety of side effects, some of which were potentially life-threatening. She had disease progression 9 months into treatment. PMID:27389724

  20. Prognosis of Pregnancy-Associated Gastric Cancer: An Age-, Sex-, and Stage-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min Jeong; Park, Young Soo; Song, Ho June; Park, Se Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is a rare condition. This case-control study was performed to identify the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer. Methods All consecutive patients who presented to our tertiary referral hospital with pregnancy-associated gastric cancer from 1991 to 2012 were identified. Two age-, sex-, and stage-matched controls for each case were also identified from the records. Clinicopathological, gynecological, and oncological outcomes were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor, and E-cadherin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Results The median overall survival rates of the pregnancy-associated gastric cancer and control groups were 7.0 months and 15.0 months, respectively (p=0.189). Poor prognostic factors included advanced stage and tumor location in the corpus or the entire stomach but not pregnancy status or loss of E-cadherin. Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer was associated with a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (21 days vs 7 days, p=0.021). The two groups did not differ in the expression of the receptors or E-cadherin. Conclusions The dismal prognosis of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer may related to the tumor stage and location rather than to pregnancy itself. PMID:27114414

  1. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies. PMID:23068179

  2. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia. PMID:27105211

  3. Metabolic clearance and production rates of oestradiol and progesterone during pubertal and postpubertal development in gilts.

    PubMed

    Christenson, R K; Ford, J J; Redmer, D A

    1985-09-01

    The crossbred gilts studied were aged 80 days (prepubertal), 180 days (prepubertal or postpubertal) and 260 days (postpubertal or pregnant). Estimates of metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of oestradiol and progesterone were consistently less (21 and 27%) in plasma than in blood, and these differences were not influenced by age of gilt. The MCR (1/day per kg body weight) for oestradiol and progesterone in plasma was greater (P less than 0.05) for 80-day-old prepubertal gilts than for older gilts. The MCR values of oestradiol and progesterone were similar in 180-day-old and 260-day-old gilts independent of reproductive state. Production rate (PR) of oestradiol and progesterone increased with age (80-180 days), and age and reproductive state differences were much more pronounced for PR of progesterone than of oestradiol. These results support the hypothesis that a reduction in the MCR and an increase in PR of oestradiol and progesterone in the gilt are associated with the process of pubertal development, and changes in gonadal steroid concentrations appear not to alter the MCR of oestradiol and progesterone. PMID:4032373

  4. Aromatase excess syndrome: a rare autosomal dominant disorder leading to pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Fukami, Maki; Miyado, Mami; Nagasaki, Keisuke; Shozu, Makio; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2014-03-01

    Overexpression of CYP19A1 encoding aromatase results in a rare genetic disorder referred to as aromatase excess syndrome (AEXS). Male patients with AEXS manifest pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, gonadotropin deficiency, and advanced bone age, while female patients are mostly asymptomatic. To date, 30 male patients with molecularly confirmed AEXS have been reported. A total of 12 types of submicroscopic rearrangements, i.e., two simple duplications, four simple deletions, two simple inversions, and four complex rearrangements, have been implicated in AEXS. Clinical severity of AEXS primarily depends on the types of the rearrangements. AEXS appears to account for a small number of cases of pre- or peri-pubertal onset gynecomastia, and should be suspected particularly when gynecomastia is associated with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, characteristic hormone abnormalities and/or advanced bone age. Treatment with an aromatase inhibitor appears to benefit patients with AEXS, although long-term safety of this class of drugs remains unknown. PMID:24716396

  5. Effects of exposure of pre-pubertal boars to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate on their frozen-thawed sperm viability post-puberty.

    PubMed

    Spjuth, L; Saravia, F; Johannisson, A; Lundeheim, N; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2006-10-01

    Late effects of pre-pubertal oral exposure to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plastic softener used in, for example, polyvinyl chloride-products, on semen quality in young boars have not been clear-cut. The aim of this study was to determine whether stress imposed on spermatozoa would reveal such effects. Semen was collected from post-pubertal boars (8-9 months of age), which had been exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) body weight of DEHP per os three times a week from 3 to 7 weeks of age and from control siblings given placebo (water). The semen was cryopreserved and examined for plasma membrane integrity post-thaw using the short hypo-osmotic swelling test and flow cytometry (propidium iodide /SYBR-14). Sperm motility was assessed by computer-assisted sperm analysis. No significant difference in plasma membrane integrity could be found between the groups. The DEHP-exposed group had a significantly lower percentage of linearly motile spermatozoa at 30 min (P < 0.05) and 120 min (P < 0.001) after thawing, and a larger amplitude of lateral displacement of the head 120 min after thawing (P < 0.05), compared with controls. In summary, spermatozoa from boars pre-pubertally exposed to low doses of DEHP, showed kinematic deviations post-thaw that could be related to DEHP exposure. PMID:16961572

  6. The association of insurance and stage at diagnosis among patients aged 55 to 74 years in the national cancer database.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth M; Fedewa, Stacey A; Cokkinides, Vilma; Virgo, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have demonstrated that individuals without health insurance are less likely to have a usual source of health care and receive preventive services including cancer screening and are more likely to be diagnosed at late stages of cancer. To examine the potential impact of health care reform on stage at diagnosis, we analyzed the relationship between stage at diagnosis and insurance status for patients who were nearly elderly (55-64 years old) and younger elderly (65-74 years old). We examined patients diagnosed with 8 common cancers from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2007, using data from the National Cancer Database, a hospital-based cancer registry jointly sponsored by the American Cancer Society and the American College of Surgeons, which includes approximately 70% of all malignant cancers in the United States treated at 1400 facilities throughout the United States. Cancer site-specific multivariable log binomial models were used to generate risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates for advanced stage of disease at diagnosis (stage III or IV vs stage I) by insurance category, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, and area level education. The final analytic cohort contained 843,177 patients. For each cancer site, uninsured and Medicaid-insured patients had the highest proportion of American Joint Committee on Cancer stages III and IV cancers at diagnosis, and those with private insurance and Medicare plus supplemental insurance the lowest. Risk ratios (95% CI) for uninsured patients compared with privately insured patients were 1.75 (1.64-1.86) for prostate, 1.12 (1.11-1.14) for lung/bronchus, 2.08 (1.98-2.17) for breast, 1.25 (1.22-1.27) for colorectal, 1.51 (1.40-1.64) for uterine corpus, 1.91 (1.73-2.12) for urinary bladder, 1.80 (1.62-2.01) for melanoma, and 1.37 (1.24-1.51) for thyroid cancers. Lower RRs (95% CI) observed for patients with Medicare coverage alone were 1.23 (1.17-1.29) for prostate, 1.05 (1.03-1.06) for lung

  7. Effect of oxandrolone and timing of pubertal induction on final height in Turner’s syndrome: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Emma Jane; Perry, Rebecca J; Cole, Tim J; Casey, Sarah; Paterson, Wendy F; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Betts, Peter; Dunger, David B

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of oxandrolone and the timing of pubertal induction on final height in girls with Turner’s syndrome receiving a standard dose of growth hormone. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial. Setting 36 paediatric endocrinology departments in UK hospitals. Participants Girls with Turner’s syndrome aged 7-13 years at recruitment, receiving recombinant growth hormone therapy (10 mg/m2/week). Interventions Participants were randomised to oxandrolone (0.05 mg/kg/day, maximum 2.5 mg/day) or placebo from 9 years of age. Those with evidence of ovarian failure at 12 years were further randomised to oral ethinylestradiol (year 1, 2 µg daily; year 2, 4 μg daily; year 3, 4 months each of 6, 8, and 10 μg daily) or placebo; participants who received placebo and those recruited after the age of 12.25 years started ethinylestradiol at age 14. Main outcome measure Final height. Results 106 participants were recruited, of whom 14 withdrew and 82/92 reached final height. Both oxandrolone and late pubertal induction increased final height: by 4.6 (95% confidence interval 1.9 to 7.2) cm (P=0.001, n=82) for oxandrolone and 3.8 (0.0 to 7.5) cm (P=0.05, n=48) for late pubertal induction with ethinylestradiol. In the 48 children who were randomised twice, the effects on final height (compared with placebo and early induction of puberty) of oxandrolone alone, late induction alone, and oxandrolone plus late induction were similar, averaging 7.1 (3.4 to 10.8) cm (P<0.001). No cases of virilisation were reported. Conclusion Oxandrolone had a positive effect on final height in girls with Turner’s syndrome treated with growth hormone, as did late pubertal induction with ethinylestradiol at age 14 years. However, these effects were not additive, so using both had no advantage. Oxandrolone could, therefore, be offered as an alternative to late pubertal induction for increasing final height in Turner’s syndrome. Trial registration Current

  8. The impact of the sexual maturation stage on body mass index in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S S; Kinik, E

    1999-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is used in the clinical assessment of adiposity in children and adolescents. Population-based, race-specific and age-specific curves of BMI for children and adolescents exist, but there are noknown sexual maturation-based BMI curves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pubertal development (assessed according to the Tanner breast stage) on BMI in adolescent girls in a cross-sectional study. The study group comprised 167 healthy girls, between the ages of nine and 16 years, attending school near a hospital in Gerede, Bolu. A significant positive correlation was found between the Tanner stage of breast development and BMI (r = 0.79, p < 0.001). Age also had a significant influence on BMI (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). After controlling the effects of age, BMI was highly correlated with weight (r = 0.82, p < 0.001) and the Tanner breast stage (r = 0.49, p < 0.001), but not with height. The correlation between BMI and the sexual stage was also found to increase with increasing age. But when breast development was taken as a control parameter, BMI was not statistically associated with age or height. As a result, there was a significant variation in BMI with the Tanner breast stage in addition to the well known change with increasing age in adolescent girls. Developmental differences occurring in the same age may require that BMI be evaluated only within the same sexual stages in adolescence. This study indicates that the curves of BMI need to take into account the sexual maturation stage of adolescents. PMID:10770091

  9. Pubertal maturation and affective symptoms in adolescence and adulthood: Evidence from a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Gaysina, Darya; Richards, Marcus; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The higher prevalence of affective symptoms among women compared to men emerges in adolescence, and it has been associated with pubertal maturation. However, it remains unclear whether pubertal timing has long-term influences on affective symptoms. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, we investigated whether pubertal timing was associated with affective symptoms over the life course, distinguishing those with symptoms in adolescence only, symptoms in adulthood only, and symptoms in both adolescence and adulthood. In females, there was no evidence that early pubertal maturation was a risk factor for affective symptoms. However, those with particularly late menarche (≥15 years) showed a lower risk of adult-onset affective symptoms (odds ratio = 0.54, 95% confidence interval = 0.31, 0.95). This effect of late pubertal timing was not explained by a range of sociobehavioral factors. In contrast, in males, late pubertal timing was associated with increased risk of adolescent-onset affective symptoms that tracked into adulthood (odds ratio = 2.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.44, 3.06). This effect was partly explained by low prepubertal body mass index. Sex-specific effects of pubertal timing on the long-term risk of affective symptoms might be due to different effects of gonadal hormonal on the central nervous system, as well as different social experiences during puberty. PMID:26439078

  10. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict. PMID:24885688

  11. Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk

    PubMed Central

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; TROOP-GORDON, WENDY; LAMBERT, SHARON F.; NATSUAKI, MISAKI N.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social–behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths’ social–behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social–behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

  12. Long-term consequences of pubertal timing for youth depression: Identifying personal and contextual pathways of risk.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Lambert, Sharon F; Natsuaki, Misaki N

    2014-11-01

    This research explored sex differences in the pathways linking pubertal timing to depression across 4 years. A sample of 167 youth (M age = 12.41 years, SD = 1.19) and their caregivers completed measures of puberty and semistructured interviews of interpersonal stress and youth depression. Youth reported on psychological (negative self-focus, anxious arousal) and social-behavioral (coping) characteristics; parents reported on youths' social-behavioral characteristics (withdrawal/social problems) and deviant peer affiliations. Early maturation predicted stable high trajectories of depression in girls; although early maturing boys showed low initial levels of depression, they did not differ from girls by the final wave of the study. Latent growth curve analyses identified several psychological, social-behavioral, and interpersonal pathways accounting for the contribution of pubertal timing to initial and enduring risk for depression in girls as well as emerging risk for depression in boys. These findings provide novel insight into multilevel processes accounting for sex differences in depression across the adolescent transition. PMID:25422971

  13. Induction of immunocastration in pre-pubertal boars immunized with recombinant gonadotropin-releasing hormone conjugated with Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin fljB.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Song, Young-Jo; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Jang, Young-Gyu; Kim, Hyoung-Moon; Han, Jang-Hyuck; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Choi, In-Soo

    2015-05-01

    Immunocastration is an alternative method used to replace surgical castration commonly performed in swine farms. In boars, the main effects of immunocastration are reduction of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and the resulting inhibition of testicular function. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunocastration efficacy in pre-pubertal boars vaccinated with a recombinant GnRH protein conjugated with Salmonella Typhimurium flagellin fljB (STF2). A total of 35 boars were assigned to three groups: the untreated group (n = 5), the surgically castrated group (n = 5), and the immunocastrated group (n = 25). Pigs in the immunocastration group were immunized with the GnRH-STF2 vaccine at pre-pubertal ages 4 and 8 weeks. All experimental pigs were kept for 26 weeks before slaughter. Anti-GnRH antibody levels of immunocastrated pigs were significantly higher than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). In contrast, testosterone levels of immunocastrated pigs were significantly lower than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). Statistical significances were not found in the body weights and backfat thicknesses of untreated vs. immunocastrated pigs. Weights of the testes and epididymides of immunocastrated pigs were significantly lower than those of untreated pigs (P < 0.001). Testicular tissues of immunocastrated pigs were severely suppressed compared with those of untreated pigs. In conclusion, immunization with the STF2-GnRH vaccine effectively induced immunocastration in pre-pubertal boars. PMID:26164876

  14. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Wales and Germany and therefore has implications across the Carboniferous Euramerican Belt. Further, the Betsie has been interpreted to represent the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary in North America, making this directly measured age an important marker not only within the CAB but also for refinement of the Carboniferous timescale.

  15. The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in

  16. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Featured Article Meningococcal Disease: Information for Teens and College Students Certain teens and young adults have a higher ... Managing Money Meningococcal Disease: Information for Teens and College Students Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs ...

  17. Facial preferences in early adolescent girls: pubertal maturity predicts preferences maturity.

    PubMed

    Kościński, Krzysztof

    2013-09-01

    Despite numerous studies on perception of facial attractiveness in adults, preferences in adolescents remain poorly recognized. The aim of present study was to explore facial preferences in girls at early adolescence (11-14 years old) and compare them with preferences of women. All females evaluated the same 30 male faces, which were also assessed by independent judges for several perceived features. Regardless of age, girls assessed attractiveness much the same as women, and the strengths of their preferences for specific facial features were similar to those of women. Except for the youngest girls, pubertal maturity (measured as the time elapsed since the menarche and breast development) correlated positively with the similarity of the girls' attractiveness evaluations to those of adult women and with strength of preference for cues to good biological quality (skin healthiness and sexy appearance). This remained true even after controlling for age and psychosexual development, suggesting thus that sex hormones are involved in development of facial preferences in pubescent girls. PMID:24308210

  18. Semen analysis in post-pubertal patients with posterior urethral valves: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Puri, A; Gaur, K K; Kumar, A; Bhatnagar, V

    2002-03-01

    The issues of sexual function and fertility are becoming relevant in patients with posterior urethral valves (PUV), as more of them reach adulthood. To evaluate the semen of post-pubertal patients with PUV as a determinant of future fertility, all such patients (age >16 years) attending the follow-up urology clinic of our department from 1985 to December 1999 were contacted. Of the nine patients contacted, eight agreed to form the study group. All eight patients were asked to provide a post-masturbation semen sample and urine. Semen was analysed for pH, viscosity, liquefaction time, sperm morphology, sperm count, motility, and agglutination. The patients ages ranged from 16 to 21 years (mean 17.5 years). One patient with chronic renal failure awaiting a renal transplant refused to give a semen sample; two tried but failed to ejaculate on three consecutive visits. Their urine was negative for sperm. Of the five patients who gave semen, the liquefaction time was high in two. pH ranged from 7.2 to 8, sperm counts were 24-80 million. None of the patients had oligospermia. Abnormal sperm agglutination was present in four cases; a higher percentage of immotile sperm was also present in four. Semen abnormalities in the form of increased liquefaction time, abnormal sperm agglutination, and a high percentage of immotile sperm were thus seen in the present study. The bearing of these findings on subsequent sexual function and fertility remains a matter of speculation. PMID:11956780

  19. Bone mineral homeostasis, bone growth, and mineralisation during years of pubertal growth: a unifying concept.

    PubMed Central

    Krabbe, S; Transbøl, I; Christiansen, C

    1982-01-01

    Serum calcium, magnesium proteins, phosphate, and immunoparathyroid hormone were measured in 338 normal children and adolescents aged between 7 and 20 years and in 123 normal adults aged between 21 and 50 years. Protein corrected serum calcium and magnesium remained stable throughout the study. Despite hyperphosphataemia protein corrected calcium exceeded the concentrations of normal adults. Serum phosphate and the Ca X P product greatly exceeded adult values and fell rather slowly towards adult levels after the pubertal growth spurt. Serum immunoparathyroid hormone tended to exceed normal adult values and was judged high for the level of serum calcium. Similarities between mineral metabolism in childhood an adolescence and in acromegaly were striking. On this basis in the light of studies demonstrating stimulatory actions of gonadal hormones on growth hormone and of growth hormone on the secretion of parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a unifying concept is developed. This concept places growth hormone in the unique position of being the main driver and co-ordinator during childhood and adolescence of bone growth an mineralisation on the one hand, and of blood mineral homeostasis on the other. Gonadal hormones probably express some of their actions through stimulation of growth hormone secretion and others by different mechanisms. According to this concept growth hormone is maintaining th Ca X P product at a suitable high level as long as growth hormone and gonadal hormones deliver bone matrix for mineralisation at a high rate. PMID:7092291

  20. Experience and cortical control over the pubertal transition to rougher play fighting in rats.

    PubMed

    Foroud, Afra; Whishaw, Ian Q; Pellis, Sergio M

    2004-02-01

    With the onset of puberty, play fighting in rats decreases in frequency and the tactics of attack and defense that are used are rougher. Previous studies have shown that the changes in the frequency of play and in the use of defensive tactics arise independently of social experience. Furthermore, while the former involves subcortical regulation, the latter depends on cortical mechanisms. In this study, the possible mechanisms regulating the developmental changes in the tactics of attack were examined. Two experiments were conducted using male rats. In the first study, rats reared in isolation from weaning were compared to rats reared in pairs, and were tested in the juvenile and early post-pubertal phases (30 and 60 days postnatally). In the second experiment, rats with their cortex removed shortly after birth were compared to sham-treated controls, and were tested in pairs at both the juvenile and early adult phases (30 and 90 days). Two measures of 'roughness,' derived from previous studies, were measured. Results showed that isolation-reared rats had the typical age-related changes in roughness of attack, whereas decorticated rats failed to show this age-related modulation, maintaining, or even exaggerating, the juvenile-typical pattern of attack. These findings suggest that social experience is not needed for this developmental change to occur, and that an intact cortex is needed to regulate this change in behavior. PMID:14739011

  1. The Effects of Simazine, a Chlorotriazine Herbicide, on Female Pubertal Development*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorotriazine herbicides, such as atrazine and its metabolites, have been shown to target the neuroendocrine regulation of male and female reproductive development. However, no studies have evaluated the effects of the chlorotriazine simazine on pubertal development in the femal...

  2. Pubertal testosterone influences threat-related amygdala–orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Erika E.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Worthman, Carol M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Ryan, Neal D.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that normative pubertal maturation is associated with increased threat reactivity, and this developmental shift has been implicated in the increased rates of adolescent affective disorders. However, the neural mechanisms involved in this pubertal increase in threat reactivity remain unknown. Research in adults indicates that testosterone transiently decreases amygdala–orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) coupling. Consequently, we hypothesized that increased pubertal testosterone disrupts amygdala–OFC coupling, which may contribute to developmental increases in threat reactivity in some adolescents. Hypotheses were tested in a longitudinal study by examining the impact of testosterone on functional connectivity. Findings were consistent with hypotheses and advance our understanding of normative pubertal changes in neural systems instantiating affect/motivation. Finally, potential novel insights into the neurodevelopmental pathways that may contribute to adolescent vulnerability to behavioral and emotional problems are discussed. PMID:24795438

  3. Effects of Temperature on the Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Li, Wenxiang; Yang, Yuting; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Xu, Baoyun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhu, Xun; Wang, Shijun; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-02-01

    The demographics of Bradysia odoriphaga were examined with an age-stage, two-sex life table that was developed at 15, 20, 25, and 30°C under controlled conditions. The intrinsic rate of increase and mean generation time were 0.0574 and 48.08 d at 15°C, 0.1175 and 30.09 d at 20°C, 0.1369 and 26.31 d at 25°C, and 0.1247 and 26.55 d at 30°C, respectively. The gross reproductive rate (GRR), the net reproductive rate (R0), and the pre-adult survivorship (la) were consistent with the relationship R0stages was 38.01, 27.62, 23.74, and 24.10 d at 15, 20, 25, and 30°C, respectively. The highest values for the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, and fecundity (0.1369 d(-1), 1.147 d(-1), and 50.53 eggs, respectively) and the shortest mean generation time were at 25°C. Still, B. odoriphaga was able to develop, survive, and reproduce across the entire temperature range (15-30°C). This study provides insight into the temperature-dependent phenology of B. odoriphaga and will contribute to the modeling of its population dynamics and to its management in the field. PMID:26470112

  4. Biomarkers for assessing reproductive development and health: Part 1--Pubertal development.

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, John C; Lynch, Courtney D; Buck, Germaine M

    2004-01-01

    The proposed National Children's Study has helped raise awareness of the issues related to children's health and the importance of monitoring the growth and development of children from preconception through adulthood. Many genetic predispositions can adversely impact the normal development process, and various environmental exposures have been linked to adverse reproductive health in rodent models and a small number of accidental human exposures. To monitor reproductive health and identify adverse effects at the earliest possible juncture, investigators must develop a network of biomarkers covering all stages and aspects of reproductive development and function. Biomarkers are biological indicators that can be measured repeatedly and are informative on one or more aspects of biological development or function. They can range from the anatomical level down to the molecular level and may provide information on the nature of an exposure, the effect of an exposure, or the susceptibility of individuals or populations to the toxic effects of an exposure. In theory, biomarkers can be used to monitor a wide variety of conditions and responses ranging from abnormal development to early indicators of late-onset disease. The main stumbling block with this theory has been finding appropriate biomarkers for particular conditions and exposures. Such biomarkers must be easily accessible, robust, and sensitive. Ideally, they will be expressed across a large section of the population, and can be monitored quickly, easily, conveniently, and with minimal cost. In this review, we discuss some of the current and emerging biomarkers of human pubertal development. PMID:14698938

  5. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: Contested discourses of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a ‘natural’ and a ‘normal’ paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses

  6. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: contested discourses of ageing.

    PubMed

    Low, Joe; Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a 'natural' and a 'normal' paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses of ageing

  7. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  8. Relationship between Age and pre-End Stage Renal Disease Care in Elderly Patients Treated With Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2016-01-01

    Receipt of pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) clinical care can improve outcomes for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The study addressed age-related variations in receipt of a composite of recommended care to include nephrologist and dietician care and use of arterio-venous fistula at first outpatient MHD. Less than 2% of patients treated with MHD received all three forms of pre-ESRD care, and 63.3% received none of the three elements of care. The mean number of pre-ESRD care elements received by the oldest group (≥80 years) did not differ from the youngest group (<55 years), but was less than the 55-66 and 67-79 years groups; adjusted ratios of 0.93 (0.92-0.94; p<0.001) and 0.94 (0.92-0.95; p<0.001), respectively. A major effort is needed to ensure comprehensive pre-ESRD care for all patients with advanced CKD, especially for the youngest and oldest patient groups, who were less likely to receive recommended pre-ESRD care. PMID:27254965

  9. Electrodeposition and isothermal aging of Co and Mn layers on stainless steel for interconnectors: Initial stages of spinel phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R.; Carmezim, M. J.; Montemor, M. F.

    2014-06-01

    Electrodeposited Co and Mn spinel phase oxides for application as coatings for metallic interconnectors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells were prepared. The study aims at understanding the initial stages of transformation of the metallic layers into the spinel phase. Co and Mn metallic layers were sequentially deposited over AISI 430 stainless steel substrate from acidic sulfate solutions and annealed in oxidizing and inert atmospheres between 600 °C and 800 °C. The coatings obtained showed a thickness above 20 μm. After 1 h of isothermal aging the coatings were composed of layers of un-reacted metallic elements and Mn based oxides. The spinel phase was studied by XRD and revealed Mn based tetragonal structure Mn3O4 with Co in solid solution and a non-determined Co/Mn ratio. According to EDS measurements this ratio should vary with depth. Full conversion was not obtained at these time frames with the presence other Mn oxides (MnO and Mn2O3). In inert atmosphere, the allotropic Mn transformation from α to β phase was detected. No outward diffusion of Cr was detected, due to the short exposure times.

  10. Relationship Between Age and Pre-End Stage Renal Disease Care in Elderly Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C; Yan, Guofen

    2016-01-01

    Receipt of pre-end stage renal disease (ESRD) clinical care can improve outcomes for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This study addressed age-related variations in receipt of a composite of recommended care to include nephrologist and dietician care, and use of an arteriovenous fistula at first outpatient maintenance HD. Less than 2% of patients treated with maintenance HD received all three forms of pre-ESRD care, and 63.3% received none of the three elements of care. The mean number of pre-ESRD care elements received by the oldest group (80 years and older) did not differ from the youngest group (less than 55 years), but was less than the 55 to 66 and 67 to 79 years groups; adjusted ratios of 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94; p < 0.001) and 0.94 (0.92 to 0.95; p < 0.001), respectively. A major effort is needed to ensure comprehensive pre-ESRD care for all patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially for the youngest and oldest patient groups, who were less likely to receive recommended pre-ESRD care. PMID:27254965

  11. Adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in a large contemporary population of pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Falaschetti, Emanuela; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Jones, Alexander; Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas; Whincup, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Davey Smith, George; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations of several markers of adiposity and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers in pre-pubertal children. Methods and results Four measures of adiposity,body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined fat mass, and leptin concentration, were available in up to 7589 children aged 8.8–11.7 (9.9 mean) years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Thirteen per cent of boys and 18.8% of girls were overweight, and 5.3% of boys and 5% of girls were obese. Body mass index was highly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.91), DXA fat mass (r = 0.87), and leptin concentration (r = 0.75), and all had similar associations with cardiovascular risk factors. A 1 kg/m2 greater BMI was associated with 1.4mmHg (95% CI 1.25–1.44) higher systolic blood pressure (BP). In 5002 children, a 1 kg/m2 greater BMI was associated with a 0.05 mmol/L (95% CI 0.036–0.055) higher non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and 0.03 mmol/L (95% CI −0.034 to −0.025) lower HDL cholesterol. There were also graded associations with apolipoproteins A1 and B, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Comparing children who were obese with those who were normal weight, the odds ratio for hypertension was 10.7 (95% CI 7.2–15.9) for boys and 13.5 (95% CI 9.4–19.5) for girls. Conclusion In pre-pubertal UK children, overweight/obesity is common and has broadly similar associations with BP, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol to those observed in adults. Future research should evaluate whether effective interventions to maintain healthy weight in childhood could have important benefits for adult cardiovascular risk. PMID:20972265

  12. Coming of Age in the Kisspeptin Era: Sex differences, Development, and Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The status of the neuroendocrine reproductive axis differs dramatically between early development, puberty, and various stages of adulthood, and also differs in several critical ways between the sexes, including its earlier pubertal activation in females than males and the presence of neural circuitry that generates preovulatory hormone surges in females but not males. The reproductive axis is controlled by various hormonal and neural pathways that converge upon forebrain gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, and many of the critical age and sex differences in the reproductive axis likely reflect differences in the “upstream” circuits and factors that regulate the GnRH system. Recently, the neural kisspeptin system has been implicated as an important regulator of GnRH neurons. Here I discuss the evidence supporting a critical role of kisspeptin signaling at different stages of life, including early postnatal and pubertal development, as well as in adulthood, focusing primarily on information gleaned from mammalian studies. I also evaluate key aspects of sexual differentiation and development of the brain as it relates to the Kiss1 system, with special emphasis on rodents. In addition to discussing recent advances in the field of kisspeptin biology, this paper will highlight a number of unanswered questions and future challenges for kisspeptin investigators, and will stress the importance of studying the kisspeptin system in both males and females, as well as in multiple species. PMID:20083160

  13. Profile of Breast Diseases in Post Pubertal Women Assessed By Clinical Breast Examination – A Community Based Study in Rural Pondicherry

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Narayanasamy Subbaraju; Palaniappan, M.; Nandi, Partha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast diseases in women, whether benign or malignant, are very commonly encountered. Benign diseases are under reported and cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. This study was undertaken with an aim to study the profile of various breast disease in the community. Materials and Methods In this observational study all the post pubertal women residing in the selected village (n=1000) were included. The study was done from September 2013 to August 2015. A thorough history taking was done with the help of a predesigned proforma followed by a clinical breast examination and further investigation at our hospital if necessary. Results It was found in this study that mastalgia, both cyclical and non-cyclical as well as lumps were a common finding in the general population. Significant proportions of women were found to be in the peri-menopausal age group. Median age of menarche was 13 years; menopause was 45 years. The average age at first childbirth was 21 years with 1 year being the median duration of breast-feeding. A total of 128 women (1 in 8) had positive symptomatology with 94 (1 in 11) of them having a breast disease on examination. One was diagnosed with breast cancer. The prevalence of cyclical mastalgia was 1 in 11, non-cyclical mastalgia 1 in 34, fibroadenosis 1 in 23 and fibroadenoma 1 in 100. The awareness regarding risk factors and the availability of screening program was very poor. The average age of presentation of mastalgia was 34 years; fibroadenosis was 35 years and fibroadenoma 29 years. None of the women interacted with or had consulted a practitioner regarding mastalgia as it was not perceived to be a sign of malignancy and did not cause any significant discomfort. Conclusion It was thus concluded from this study that benign breast diseases are a common occurrence in the general population. Breast cancer continues to be diagnosed only at later stages owing to lack of awareness and inadequately structured screening

  14. A Circulating MicroRNA Profile Is Associated with Late-Stage Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grassmann, Felix; Schoenberger, Peter G. A.; Brandl, Caroline; Schick, Tina; Hasler, Daniele; Meister, Gunter; Fleckenstein, Monika; Lindner, Moritz; Helbig, Horst; Fauser, Sascha; Weber, Bernhard H. F.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs) which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV) AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected = 5.6*10−5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected = 8.0*10−4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected = 9.6*10−3). A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p = 1.2*10−8). To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA) were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005). Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGFβ, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. PMID:25203061

  15. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren; Makino, Satoshi; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tamiya, Gen

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  16. The rates of change of the stochastic trajectories of acceleration variability are a good predictor of normal aging and of the stage of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    The accelerometer data from mobile smart phones provide stochastic trajectories that change over time. This rate of change is unique to each person and can be well-characterized by the continuous two-parameter family of Gamma probability distributions. Accordingly, on the Gamma plane each participant can be uniquely localized by the shape and the scale parameters of the Gamma probability distribution. The scatter of such points contains information that can unambiguously separate the normal controls (NC) from those patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) that are at a later stage of the disease. In general normal aging seems conducive of more predictable patterns of variation in the accelerometer data. Yet this trend breaks down in PD where the statistical signatures seem to be a more relevant predictor of the stage of the disease. Those patients at a later stage of the disease have more random and noisier patterns than those in the earlier stages, whose statistics resemble those of the older NC. Overall the peak rates of change of the stochastic trajectories of the accelerometer are a good predictor of the stage of PD and of the age of a “normally” aging individual. PMID:23882193

  17. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  18. Early Childhood Psychosocial Screening in Culturally Diverse Populations: A Survey of Clinical Experience With the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyman, D. Russell; Njoroge, Wanjiku F. M.; Willis, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a qualitative study to seek the feedback of service providers with regard to the usefulness of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional as a screening tool for multicultural populations. They addressed provider satisfaction with the tool by surveying a multidisciplinary sample of practitioners who provide a range…

  19. Evaluation of the Turkish Version of the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional" in Identifying Children with Social-Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucuker, Sevgi; Kapci, Emine Gul; Uslu, Runa Idil

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of the Age and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker & E. Twombly, 2003) for Turkish children was examined. A total of 608 mothers completed the ASQ-SE's. Overall sensitivity and overall specificity were 83.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Test-retest reliability, assessed by classifying children as…

  20. Age estimates of the seaward-dipping volcanic wedge, earliest oceanic crust, and earliest drift-stage sediments along the North American Atlantic continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Richard N.

    Owing to their depths of burial along and adjacent to the North American continental margin, there is no direct evidence obtained from boreholes for the ages of the seaward-dipping volcanic wedge, earliest drift-stage sediments overlying the wedge, and the earliest Atlantic oceanic crust between the East Coast (ECMA) and Blake Spur (BSMA) magnetic anomalies. Maximum ages of late Sinemurian for drift-stage sediments have been determined from exploration wells in the Scotian Basin. A similar age is postulated for those sediments in the Georges Bank Basin, but palynomorphs from exploration wells may indicate that earliest drift-stage sediments, in places associated with volcanic rocks, are of Bajocian age and occur higher in the section above the postrift unconformity as recognized on seismic lines. In the Southeast Georgia Embayment of the Blake Plateau Basin, the oldest drift-stage sediments overlying the postrift unconformity that were drilled are of Kimmeridgian-Tithonian age. In the Baltimore Canyon Trough, the volcanic wedge overlies the postrift unconformity which truncates buried synrift rocks that may be as young as Sinemurian. In the Carolina Trough and Blake Plateau Basin, a possible offshore flood basalt marking the postrift unconformity and traced as a reflector to the volcanic wedge may correspond to a subsurface flood basalt onshore that may be part of CAMP (Hettangian). Alternatively, its magmatic source may have been that of the possibly younger volcanic wedge. Sea-floor-spreading-rate lines based on the latest Jurassic time scales and extended to the BSMA and ECMA indicate ages of 166 and 171 Ma for the BSMA and 172 and 179 Ma for the ECMA. An alternative model suggests a middle Pliensbachian/early Toarcian age (188-190 Ma) for the igneous activity that produced the volcanic wedge and earliest oceanic crust.

  1. Animal Modeling of Early Programming and Disruption of Pubertal Maturation.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Juan M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Puberty is a fascinating developmental transition that gates the attainment of reproductive capacity and culminates the somatic and sexual maturation of the organism. Rather than a circumscribed phenomenon, puberty is the endpoint of a long-lasting developmental continuum, which initiates in utero. Besides important genetic determinants, the tempo of puberty is influenced by numerous endogenous and exogenous factors that, acting at different levels of the developing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis along the maturational continuum indicated above, can influence puberty onset. Among the different modifiers of puberty, in this chapter we will focus our attention on two major groups of signals, sex steroids and nutritional cues, and how these interplay mostly with the central elements of the HPG axis, and especially with gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and their key upstream afferents, Kiss1 neurons, to influence the timing of puberty. Special emphasis will be given to summarize information emerging from relevant preclinical (mostly rodent) animal models, and how this information might be relevant in terms of translational medicine, as it may help for a better understanding and eventually management of pubertal disorders of escalating prevalence worldwide. PMID:26680574

  2. Attachment, parenting styles and bullying during pubertal years.

    PubMed

    van der Watt, Ronél

    2014-01-01

    Research that focuses on combining attachment, parenting styles, bullying and the reciprocal nature thereof in the parent-adolescent and peer relationships is limited. The bio-psychosocial changes that adolescents experience open up broader social realities and are perceived differently by parents and adolescents. Attachment processes and parenting styles may elicit dissimilar perceptions. These processes are also associated with the multifaceted dynamics of bullying. The aim of the article is to advocate for research on the possible link between the implications of attachment, parenting styles and bullying. Exploring the association between attachment, parenting styles and bullying can deepen the understanding of the developmental challenges within the parent-adolescent relationship, add insight to the different perceptions of adolescents and parents, and complement intervention programmes accordingly. Firstly, this article outlines bio-psychosocial changes in the pubertal years as related to the social realities of the adolescent. Secondly, a discussion on the concepts 'attachment', 'parenting styles', 'bullying', and the potential link between these concepts will follow. Thirdly, an outline of the clinical implications of the apparent association between these concepts is given. The article concludes with recommendations that researchers can consider while exploring the relationship between attachment, parenting styles, and bullying and the delineation thereof in the parent-adolescent relationship. PMID:25533411

  3. A comprehensive approach to the spectrum of abnormal pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Heather; Malhotra, Shilpa

    2012-04-01

    Puberty is the biological transition from childhood to adulthood. The process involves the coordination of hormonal, physical, psychosocial, and cognitive systems to result in physiologic change. Precocious puberty is defined as pubertal development beginning earlier than expected based on normal standards. Gonadotropin dependent precocious puberty is caused by premature activation of the hypothalamus resulting in pulsatile secretion of GnRH. Gonadotropin independent precocious puberty is caused by excess sex hormones from peripheral or external sources. Treatment with GnRH agonists should be offered to prevent early fusion of the epiphyseal plates to avoid unnecessary short stature and should not be based on perceived psychosocial consequences of early puberty. Delayed puberty is the absence of or incomplete development of secondary sexual characteristics. Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or primary hypogonadism may result from genetic mutation syndromes or can be acquired from antiovarian antibodies, exposure to radiation or chemotherapy, inflammatory insult, or surgical removal of the gonads. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or secondary hypogonadism is due to hypothalamic dysfunction resulting in impaired secretion of GnRH. The long-term goal for patients with inadequate estrogen stimulation is to maintain the serum concentration of sex steroids within the normal adult range to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics, prevent premature bone loss, and ultimately to induce fertility when indicated. PMID:22764552

  4. Association of Age to Mortality and Repeat Revascularization in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients: Implications for Clinicians and Future Health Policies

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswami, Ashok; Alloggiamento, Thomas; Forman, Daniel E; Leong, Thomas K; Go, Alan S; McCulloch, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Background: The clinical effects of age occur over an age continuum, yet age as a primary predictor is often analyzed using arbitrary age cut-points. Objective: To assess whether transformation of a continuous variable such as age using a spline function can uncover nonlinear associations between age and cardiovascular outcomes. Design: Observational retrospective cohort study in 1015 Kaiser Permanente Northern California patients with end-stage renal disease after index coronary revascularization. Age, the primary predictor, was modeled by 5 different techniques: 1) dichotomized at 65 years or older; 2) at 80 years or older (as a sensitivity analysis); 3) categorized as younger than 55 years (reference), 55 to 64, 65 to 74, and 75 years or older; 4) linear (every 5 years) variable; and 5) nonlinear by transformation into a cubic spline. Age categories were changed in a sensitivity analysis. Main Outcome Measures: Primary and secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality and repeat revascularization, respectively. Results: Graphical assessment demonstrated that age dichotomized at either 65 years and older or 80 years and older led to loss of information. Categorized age underestimated or overestimated risk at the extremes of age. A sensitivity analysis demonstrated that an arbitrary change in the age category led to a different conclusion. Age modeled linearly adequately represented mortality risk but was suboptimal with repeat revascularization. Only the cubic spline demonstrated the nonlinear association between age and repeat revascularization. Conclusion: Employing the continuous variable age as a case study, we have demonstrated that the use of flexible transformations, such as spline functions, can unearth clinically meaningful associations that would not have been possible otherwise. Future research should determine whether incorporation of these methods can improve decision making at a population level. PMID:26934624

  5. Multi-stage uplift of the Colorado Plateau and the age of Grand Canyon and precursor canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, K. E.; Lee, J. P.; Kelley, S. A.; Crow, R.

    2012-12-01

    Debates about the age of Grand Canyon link to debates about the timing of surface uplift(s) of the Colorado Plateau- Rocky Mountain (CP-RM) region. One "old Grand Canyon" model proposes that a paleocanyon of almost the same depth and location as today's Grand Canyon was carved by a NE-flowing "California" paleoriver 80-70 Ma, then was re-used at ~55 Ma by a SW-flowing "Arizona" paleoriver. This model postulates the CP-RM region was uplifted to near modern elevations during the Laramide orogeny. A second model postulates a 17 Ma Grand Canyon; this time corresponds to Basin and Range extension and postulated mantle-driven surface uplift. The "young Grand Canyon" model postulates that >2/3 of modern Grand Canyon was carved by W-flowing Colorado River that became integrated to the Gulf of California at 5-6 Ma during Neogene mantle-driven uplift of the CP/RM region. Thermochronologic data are poised to substantially resolve these debates. Our thermochronology dataset combines published and new apatite fission-track and helium analyses, and joint thermal history modeling using both systems. This dataset reveals three major cooling episodes: 1) a multi-stage Sevier-Laramide contraction episode from about 90 Ma to 50 Ma with structural relief on upwarps on the order 0.5-1 km, compatible with a similar magnitude of surface uplift; 2) 30-20 Ma cooling that was associated with denudation and northward cliff retreat of most of the Mesozoic section from Grand Canyon region; 3) <10 Ma cooling that is best documented in eastern Grand Canyon as part of a general pattern of decreasing age of cooling/denudation to the NE. Combined geologic and thermochronologic data define the age and 3-D geometry of Cenozoic paleotopography that led to Grand Canyon carving. Combined AHe and AFT data indicate 2-4 km of sedimentary rocks covered the Grand Canyon region until about 40 Ma, negating the California River model. These strata were not removed from the Marble Canyon area until after about

  6. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Charles F.; Chow, David K.; Gami, Minaxi S.; Iser, Wendy B.; Hanselman, Keaton B.; Wolkow, Catherine A.; David, Lawrence; Goldberg, Ilya G.; Cooke, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits upon behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well-maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration did not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments. PMID:15699524

  7. Behavioral deficits during early stages of aging in Caenorhabditis elegans result from locomotory deficits possibly linked to muscle frailty.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Charles F; Chow, David K; David, Lawrence; Cooke, Carol A; Gami, Minaxi S; Iser, Wendy B; Hanselman, Keaton B; Goldberg, Ilya G; Wolkow, Catherine A

    2004-12-01

    Many behavioral responses require the coordination of sensory inputs with motor outputs. Aging is associated with progressive declines in both motor function and muscle structure. However, the consequences of age-related motor deficits on behavior have not been clearly defined. Here, we examined the effects of aging on behavior in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. As animals aged, mild locomotory deficits appeared that were sufficient to impair behavioral responses to sensory cues. In contrast, sensory ability appeared well maintained during aging. Age-related behavioral declines were delayed in animals with mutations in the daf-2/insulin-like pathway governing longevity. A decline in muscle tissue integrity was correlated with the onset of age-related behavioral deficits, although significant muscle deterioration was not. Treatment with a muscarinic agonist significantly improved locomotory behavior in aged animals, indicating that improved neuromuscular signaling may be one strategy for reducing the severity of age-related behavioral impairments. PMID:15699524

  8. Changes and tracking of fat mass in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Vink, Eva E; van Coeverden, Silvia C C M; van Mil, Edgar G; Felius, Bram A; van Leerdam, Frank J M; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriëtte A

    2010-06-01

    Puberty is a critical period in body composition development. The influence of puberty on the development of fat mass asks for further investigation. We investigated the development of fat mass during puberty in a longitudinal prospective study in 152 healthy nonobese white girls, initial ages between 9 to 12 years. The influence of menarcheal age and the existing of tracking of fat mass have been analyzed. In 10 years time, participants were measured on eight time points. Various anthropometric data were collected, breast development was staged according to Tanner and body composition was determined with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Calculations were made with the use of a linear mixed model. Fat mass increases from 7.9 kg (23.6%) at B1 to 18.5 kg (29.3%) at B5. Fat mass is higher in girls with an early menarche than in girls with a late menarche from B2. Girls in the quartile with initially the lowest fat mass have a chance of being in the same quartile after 10 years of 77% (P < 0.001). Girls in the quartile with initially the highest fat mass, have a risk of staying in the highest quartile of 55% (P < 0.001). Menarcheal age is of great influence on the development of fat mass. Girls with an early menarche, will have a bigger fat mass, especially at the end of puberty. Tracking of fat mass exists: a high amount of fat mass in early puberty will continue to exist at young adulthood. PMID:19875991

  9. Early pubertal timing as a vulnerability to depression symptoms: differential effects of race and sex.

    PubMed

    Hamlat, Elissa J; Stange, Jonathan P; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2014-05-01

    Robust evidence supports that girls and boys who experience early pubertal timing, maturing earlier than one's peers, are vulnerable to developing symptoms of depression. However, it has yet to be clarified whether early pubertal timing confers vulnerability to African American as well as to Caucasian adolescents and whether this vulnerability is specific to depressive symptoms or can be generalized to symptoms of social anxiety. In previous studies, one race or one sex was examined in isolation or sample sizes were too small to examine racial differences. Our longitudinal study consisted of a sample of 223 adolescents (Mage = 12.42, 54.3 % female, 50.2 % African American, and 49.8 % Caucasian). At baseline, depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, and pubertal timing were assessed by self-report. Nine months later, we assessed depressive symptoms, social anxiety symptoms, body esteem, and stressful life events that occurred between baseline and follow-up. Analyses indicated that early pubertal timing interacted with stressful life events to predict increased symptoms of depression, but only for Caucasian girls and African American boys. Results were found to be specific to depressive symptoms and did not generalize to symptoms of social anxiety. Additionally, there was a significant positive indirect effect of pubertal timing on symptoms of depression through body esteem for Caucasian females. PMID:24014162

  10. Adolescents' Increasing Stress Response to Social Evaluation: Pubertal Effects on Cortisol and Alpha-Amylase during Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Bos, Esther; de Rooij, Mark; Miers, Anne C.; Bokhorst, Caroline L.; Westenberg, P. Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Stress responses to social evaluation are thought to increase during adolescence, which may be due to pubertal maturation. However, empirical evidence is scarce. This study is the first to investigate the relation between pubertal development and biological responses to a social-evaluative stressor longitudinally. Participants performed the Leiden…

  11. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Change, Gender, and Psychological Well-Being of Mexican Early Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjet, Corina; Hernandez-Guzman, Laura

    2002-01-01

    Studied the role of pubertal development on depression, externalizing behavior problems, self-esteem, and body-image of 951 Mexican early adolescents. Findings show that the acute experience of menarche adversely affected the psychological well-being of girls, specifically in terms of depressive symptomatology. Pubertal change in boys did not…

  12. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  13. Impact of Pubertal Development and Physical Activity on Heart Rate Variability in Overweight and Obese Children in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Su-Ru; Chiu, Hung-Wen; Lee, Yann-Jinn; Sheen, Tzong-Chi; Jeng, Chii

    2012-01-01

    Child obesity is frequently associated with dysfunction of autonomic nervous system. Children in pubertal development were suggested to be vulnerable to autonomic nervous system problems such as decrease of heart rate variability from dysregulation of metabolic control. This study explored the influence of pubertal development on autonomic nervous…

  14. Pubertal Timing, Peer Victimization, and Body Esteem Differentially Predict Depressive Symptoms in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamlat, Elissa J.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    This study prospectively examined pubertal timing and peer victimization as interactive predictors of depressive symptoms in a racially diverse community sample of adolescents. We also expanded on past research by assessing body esteem as a mechanism by which pubertal timing and peer victimization confer risk for depression. In all, 218…

  15. Pubertal status, interaction with significant others, and self-esteem of adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lacković-Grgin, K; Dekovíc, M; Opacić, G

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between pubertal status, the quality of interactions with significant others, and the self-esteem of adolescent girls. The model which was tested, hypothesized that pubertal status affects self-esteem through girls' interactions with their parents and friends. Pubertal status was operationalized as the number of months between occurrence of the first menstrual periods and time of the investigation. The measure of self-esteem was the shortened form of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Analyses revealed that girls who begun menstruating six months before the investigation obtained higher scores on the measure of self-esteem than did girls who had been menstruating 13 months or more. The best predictor of self-esteem, however, was the quality of interaction with their mothers. The results support the theoretical view that stresses the importance of interaction with significant others for the development of self-esteem. PMID:7832033

  16. Effect of simulated stages of the canine oestrous cycle on Escherichia coli binding to canine endometrium.

    PubMed

    Krekeler, N; Lodge, K M; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra, a prevalent infectious uterine disease that affects intact middle-aged bitches, is typically associated with Escherichia coli. Our hypotheses were (i) that bacterial adhesion to canine endometrium differs between different stages of the oestrous cycle and (ii) that the adhesin FimH facilitates this adhesion. Twelve post-pubertal, ovariectomized greyhound bitches were treated with exogenous hormones to simulate different stages of the oestrous cycle. Tissue samples from each uterus were incubated with a pathogenic E. coli strain carrying the fimH gene, but no other adhesin genes (P4-wt)--or an E. coli strain in which fimH was insertionally inactivated (P4-∆fimH::kan)--or with phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control. After washing, tissue samples were homogenized for quantification of adherent bacteria. The differences in binding to canine endometrium at different stages of the oestrous cycle were not significant. However, the mean difference in binding of the P4-wt and the P4-∆fimH::kan across all stages of the simulated oestrous cycle was significant (p < 0.001 by paired t-test on geometric means). Individual differences in numbers of P4-wt bacteria bound between dogs might suggest genetic variations or epigenetic differences in FimH receptor expression by the endometrium, unrelated to the stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:23279531

  17. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  18. Pre-pubertal gonadectomy and the social consequences of acute ethanol in adolescent male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Morales, Melissa; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2014-07-01

    It has previously been shown that pre-pubertal or adult gonadectomy (GX) increases ethanol intake in male rats. This study examined whether this sex-selective increase reflects a GX-induced maintenance in males of more adolescent-typical responsiveness to ethanol characterized by enhanced sensitivity to positive (e.g., socially facilitating) and a decreased sensitivity to adverse (e.g., socially inhibitory) effects of ethanol. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-pubertally GX, sham (SH)-operated, or non-manipulated (NM) at postnatal day (P) 25. During the late adolescent transition into adulthood (P48 - baseline day), rats were given a saline injection, placed alone into a familiar test apparatus for 30min and then exposed for 10min to an unfamiliar partner of the same age and sex. On the following day (P49), similar testing occurred after administration of 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 or 1.25g/kg ethanol. At baseline, GX males and females displayed higher levels of social activity (especially adolescent-typical play and contact behavior) than SH and NM animals, with GX females displaying greater social activity than GX males. Neither males nor females demonstrated social facilitation at lower ethanol doses, regardless of hormonal status. Whereas the social inhibitory effects of higher doses of ethanol were similar across groups among females, SH males were less sensitive than both GX and NM males to ethanol-induced social inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced ethanol intake in GX males is not related to alterations in sensitivity to ethanol's social inhibitory effects. GX, however, results in retention of adolescent-typical social behaviors, with older GX adolescent rats resembling early adolescents in exhibiting elevated social activity-particularly play and contact behavior. PMID:24816080

  19. Deslorelin implants in pre-pubertal female dogs: short- and long-term effects on the genital tract.

    PubMed

    Marino, G; Rizzo, S; Quartuccio, M; Macrì, F; Pagano, G; Taormina, A; Cristarella, S; Zanghì, A

    2014-04-01

    Deslorelin acetate is a GnRH agonist used for contraception in dogs. This study aimed to evaluate the treatment of pre-pubertal female dogs with deslorelin acetate implants, to better investigate the primary stimulatory effect of the drug and the long-term effects on the genital tract, throughout repeated treatments. Sicilian hound female dogs (24) were randomly assigned to treated group, control group 1 and control group 2. First group bitches were implanted at 4.5, 9.0 and 13.5 months and monitored clinically, ultrasonographically and endocrinologically, throughout the study period (13.5 months). Control group 1 bitches were not implanted and clinically monitored for the same period. At 18 months, the animals underwent ovariohysterectomy, thus allowing evaluation of the internal genitalia. Control group 2 bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the age of 4.5 months. The suppression of oestrus was obtained in the treated group despite the fact that the first implant caused a modest increase in plasmatic levels of 17-beta estradiol and an evident cornification of the vaginal mucosa cells (50-80%). Estradiol and progesterone were at baseline levels for the remaining study period, in which no other oestrous manifestations were observed. The external genitalia maintained a juvenile appearance. The ovaries, ultrasonographically, showed no follicular structures and stayed the same size. At 18 months, the genital tract was still juvenile with inactive small ovaries and a thin filiform uterus. Deslorelin suppressed ovarian activity in pre-pubertal bitches, and oestrous induction was not observed despite the presence of the primary stimulatory effect of the drug. Juvenile genitalia were an expected side effect of the treatment. PMID:24467617

  20. Pubertal status, pre-meal drink composition, and later meal timing interact in determining children's appetite and food intake.

    PubMed

    Patel, Barkha P; Hamilton, Jill K; Vien, Shirley; Thomas, Scott G; Anderson, G Harvey

    2016-09-01

    Puberty is a period of development that alters energy intake patterns. However, few studies have examined appetite and food intake (FI) regulation during development of puberty in children and adolescents. Therefore, the objective was to measure the effect of pubertal status on FI and subjective appetite after pre-meal glucose and whey protein drinks in 9- to 14-year-old boys and girls. In a within-subject, randomized, repeated-measures design, children (21 pre-early pubertal, 15 mid-late pubertal) received equally sweetened drinks containing Sucralose (control), glucose, or whey protein (0.75 g/kg body weight) in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standardized breakfast on 6 separate mornings. Ad libitum FI was measured either 30 or 60 min later and appetite was measured over time. In pre-early and mid-late pubertal boys and girls there was no effect of sex on total FI (kcal). Glucose and whey protein drinks reduced calorie intake similarly at 30 min. But at 60 min, whey protein reduced FI (p < 0.001) compared with control and glucose in pre-early pubertal children, but not in mid-late pubertal children. However, sex was a factor (p = 0.041) when FI was expressed per kilogram body weight. Pubertal status did not affect FI/kilogram body weight in boys, but it was 32% lower in mid-late pubertal girls than at pre-early puberty (p = 0.010). Appetite was associated with FI in mid-late pubertal children only. In conclusion, pubertal development affects appetite and FI regulation in children. PMID:27507005

  1. Peri-pubertal exposure to testicular hormones organizes response to novel environments and social behaviour in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gillian R.; Kulbarsh, Kyle D.; Spencer, Karen A.; Duval, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that exposure to testicular hormones during the peri-pubertal period of life has long-term, organizational effects on adult sexual behaviour and underlying neural mechanisms in laboratory rodents. However, the organizational effects of peri-pubertal testicular hormones on other aspects of behaviour and brain function are less well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of manipulating peri-pubertal testicular hormone exposure on later behavioural responses to novel environments and on hormone receptors in various brain regions that are involved in response to novelty. Male rodents generally spend less time in the exposed areas of novel environments than females, and this sex difference emerges during the peri-pubertal period. Male Lister-hooded rats (Rattus norvegicus) were castrated either before puberty or after puberty, then tested in three novel environments (elevated plus-maze, light–dark box, open field) and in an object/social novelty task in adulthood. Androgen receptor (AR), oestrogen receptor (ER1) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF-R2) mRNA expression were quantified in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and medial amygdala. The results showed that pre-pubertally castrated males spent more time in the exposed areas of the elevated-plus maze and light–dark box than post-pubertally castrated males, and also confirmed that peri-pubertal hormone exposure influences later response to an opposite-sex conspecific. Hormone receptor gene expression levels did not differ between pre-pubertally and post-pubertally castrated males in any of the brain regions examined. This study therefore demonstrates that testicular hormone exposure during the peri-pubertal period masculinizes later response to novel environments, although the neural mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. PMID:26159287

  2. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Though often discussed as though it were a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The present review synthesizes the research on negative psychological sequelae of early pubertal timing in adolescent girls. Emphasis is on three theoretical perspectives by which precocious development is believed to affect the emergence of adverse outcomes: biological, psychosocial, and selection effects. PMID:20740062

  3. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  4. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  5. New K-Ar ages and the geologic evidence against rejuvenated-stage volcanism at Haleakalā, East Maui, a postshield-stage volcano of the Hawaiian island chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, David R.; Nishimitsu, Yoshitomo; Tagami, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    The age of the Kula/Hāna boundary is ca. 0.15–0.12 Ma; thus, volcanic quiescence of only ∼0.03 m.y. separates the two formations, much shorter than the previously known limit of 0.25–0.30 m.y. The brevity of this hiatus, coupled with coincident vent loci and broadly similar geochemical characteristics for the Hāna and the upper part of the Kula Volcanics, indicates that the Hāna Volcanics unit comprises deposits of postshield-stage volcanism that has waned substantially since ca. 0.4–0.3 Ma. Haleakalā has not yet begun a classically defined rejuvenated stage. Our findings support recent numerical modeling of plume-lithosphere interactions that predict that Haleakalā is near the end of its postshield growth.

  6. Sexually dimorphic innate immunological responses of pre-pubertal Brahman cattle following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Jeffery A; Burdick Sanchez, Nicole C; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Ballou, Michael A; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2015-08-15

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 μg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness. PMID:26144890

  7. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  8. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  9. Effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight and food intake differ among pre-pubertal, gonadal-intact, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Yiliyasi, Mayila; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excessive body weight gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgen in female appetite and body weight regulation have not been fully studied. In this study, whether the roles of androgen in the regulation of body weight and appetite were different among ages and/or the estrogen milieu in females was evaluated. Body weight gain and food intake were increased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. Testosterone administration also affected the serum leptin level and adipose leptin gene expression levels differently in each experimental condition. Hypothalamic mRNA levels of ERα, which plays pivotal roles in regulation of body weight and metabolism, were decreased by chronic testosterone administration in pre-pubertal and gonadal-intact female rats, but not in ovariectomized female rats. These results indicate that the effects of testosterone on body weight and appetite differed among ages and/or estrogen milieu in female rats, and that attenuation of estrogens' actions on the hypothalamus might be partly involved in the androgen-induced increases of body weight gain and food intake in females. PMID:27139935

  10. DNA damage response (DDR) and senescence: shuttled inflamma-miRNAs on the stage of inflamm-aging.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Orciani, Monia; Ceka, Artan; Cricca, Monica; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Bonafè, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    A major issue in aging research is how cellular phenomena affect aging at the systemic level. Emerging evidence suggests that DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is a key mechanism linking DNA damage accumulation, cell senescence, and organism aging. DDR activation in senescent cells promotes acquisition of a proinflammatory secretory phenotype (SASP), which in turn elicits DDR and SASP activation in neighboring cells, thereby creating a proinflammatory environment extending at the local and eventually the systemic level. DDR activation is triggered by genomic lesions as well as emerging bacterial and viral metagenomes. Therefore, the buildup of cells with an activated DDR probably fuels inflamm-aging and predisposes to the development of the major age-related diseases (ARDs). Micro (mi)-RNAs - non-coding RNAs involved in gene expression modulation - are released locally and systemically by a variety of shuttles (exosomes, lipoproteins, proteins) that likely affect the efficiency of their biological effects. Here we suggest that some miRNAs, previously found to be associated with inflammation and senescence - miR-146, miR-155, and miR-21 - play a central role in the interplay among DDR, cell senescence and inflamm-aging. The identification of the functions of shuttled senescence-associated miRNAs is expected to shed light on the aging process and on how to delay ARD development. PMID:26431329

  11. DNA damage response (DDR) and senescence: shuttled inflamma-miRNAs on the stage of inflamm-aging

    PubMed Central

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Orciani, Monia; Ceka, Artan; Cricca, Monica; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Bonafè, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    A major issue in aging research is how cellular phenomena affect aging at the systemic level. Emerging evidence suggests that DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is a key mechanism linking DNA damage accumulation, cell senescence, and organism aging. DDR activation in senescent cells promotes acquisition of a proinflammatory secretory phenotype (SASP), which in turn elicits DDR and SASP activation in neighboring cells, thereby creating a proinflammatory environment extending at the local and eventually the systemic level. DDR activation is triggered by genomic lesions as well as emerging bacterial and viral metagenomes. Therefore, the buildup of cells with an activated DDR probably fuels inflamm-aging and predisposes to the development of the major age-related diseases (ARDs). Micro (mi)-RNAs - non-coding RNAs involved in gene expression modulation - are released locally and systemically by a variety of shuttles (exosomes, lipoproteins, proteins) that likely affect the efficiency of their biological effects. Here we suggest that some miRNAs, previously found to be associated with inflammation and senescence - miR-146, miR-155, and miR-21 - play a central role in the interplay among DDR, cell senescence and inflamm-aging. The identification of the functions of shuttled senescence-associated miRNAs is expected to shed light on the aging process and on how to delay ARD development. PMID:26431329

  12. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  13. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  14. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Gutierrez, E.; Kohorn, E.I.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treated under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters - including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters - were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among factors on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates.

  15. Pretreatment prognostic factors in carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a multivariable analysis of the effect of age, stage, histology and blood counts on survival

    SciTech Connect

    Kapp, D.S.; Fischer, D.; Gutierrez, E.; Kohorn, E.I.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-04-01

    From January, 1953 thorugh December, 1977, 910 previously untreated patients with invasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix (Stages IB-IVB) were seen at Yale-New Haven Medical Center and affiliated hospitals. An extensive retrospective analysis was undertaken in an attempt to identify prognostically significant pretreatment factors. The patients studied were uniformly staged according to the current FIGO recommendations and the majority of patients had been treatment under standardized protocols combining external beam radiation therapy and intracavity radium. Pretreatment parameters, including prior medical illnesses, gross tumor characteristics, histology, and blood parameters were studied, employing stepwise Cox regression analyses to identify the possible effects of all factors and all two-way interactions among fators on survival, disease-free survival and freedom from local-regional failure, controlling for stage of disease. FIGO stage patients age at diagnosis, pretreatment neutrophil count and hematocrit, uterine position, prior subtotal hysterectomy, histology, history of diabetes mellitus and number of pregnancies were all found to have prognostic significance. When other factors including stage of disease were controlled for, increased tumor size was associated with decreased disease-free survival and local-regional control rates.

  16. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carina T; De Souza, Diogo B; Costa, Waldemar S; Pereira-Sampaio, Marco A; Sampaio, Francisco J B

    2015-10-15

    Orchiopexy is performed as part of cryptorchidism and testicular torsion treatment. The inflammation caused by the needle and suture penetration has been suggested to be one of the possible causes of subfertility after parenchymal transfixation of the testicles. The purpose of the present study was to investigate testicular alterations after parenchymal transfixation sutures at different ages in rats. Prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats were submitted to parenchymal suturing (without tying the knots, thus avoiding local ischemic injury) of the right testicle, which was maintained for 4 hours. All animals were subjected to euthanasia on completion of 14 weeks of life. The right testicles were studied as the sutured testicles, whereas the left organs were studied as contralateral. One age-matched control group of rats that was not submitted to any procedure was used for comparison. During euthanasia, sperm were collected from the tail of the epididymal and evaluated for concentration, motility, and viability. Samples from testicular tissue were collected for morphologic analysis. Sperm analysis indicated that only the adult operated animals presented reductions in motility (38.2% of adult vs. 54.1% of control; P = 0.02) and viability (16.6% of adult vs. 24.6% of control; P = 0.003). Several morphologic alterations were noted both in sutured and in contralateral testes at all ages. For instance, the seminiferous epithelium volumetric density of right testicles was reduced from 50.4% in controls to 32.3% in prepubertal operated animals, 45.3% in pubertal operated animals, and 39.4% in adult operated animals (P < 0.05). The seminiferous epithelium volumetric density was also reduced to 39.9% and 39.0% in contralateral testicles of animals operated before and after puberty, respectively (P < 0.05). The animals operated on before puberty and in adulthood showed more testicular morphologic alterations, as seminiferous tubule volumetric density, seminiferous tubule length

  17. A Reevaluation of the Question: Is the Pubertal Resurgence in Pulsatile GnRH Release in the Male Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta) Associated With a Gonad-Independent Augmentation of GH Secretion?

    PubMed

    Shahab, M; Trujillo, M Vargas; Plant, T M

    2015-10-01

    A somatic signal has been posited to trigger the pubertal resurgence in pulsatile GnRH secretion that initiates puberty in highly evolved primates. That GH might provide such a signal emerged in 2000 as a result of a study reporting that circulating nocturnal GH concentrations in castrated juvenile male monkeys increased in a 3-week period immediately preceding the pubertal resurgence of LH secretion. The present study was conducted to reexamine this intriguing relationship, again in an agonadal model. Four castrated juvenile male monkeys were implanted with indwelling jugular catheters, housed in remote sampling cages, and subjected to 24 hours of sequential blood sampling (every 30 min) every 2 weeks from 19.5 to 22 months of age. Twenty-four-hour profiles of circulating GH concentrations were analyzed using the pulse detection algorithm, PULSAR, and developmental changes in pulsatile GH release with respect to the initiation of the pubertal rise of LH secretion (week 0; observed between 22.5 and 32 mo of age) were examined for significance by a repeated-measures ANOVA. Changes in the parameters of pulsatile GH secretion, including mean 24-hour GH concentration and GH pulse frequency and pulse amplitude for 3 (n = 4) and 6 (n = 3) months before week 0 were unremarkable and nonsignificant. These findings fail to confirm those of the earlier study and lead us to conclude that the timing of the pubertal resurgence of GnRH release in the male monkey is not dictated by GH. Reasons for the discrepancy between the two studies are unclear. PMID:26181107

  18. An Alternative to Farmer Age as an Indicator of Life-Cycle Stage: The Case for a Farm Family Age Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rob J. F.

    2006-01-01

    In studies of farming, the age of the principal decision-maker (PDM) has been associated with numerous farm structural and managerial features and has been widely accepted as a good indicator of the influence of life-cycle factors on decision-making. As such, it has become an important aspect of many quantitative studies of agricultural change.…

  19. Associations between Early Life Stress, Child Maltreatment, and Pubertal Development among Girls in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D.; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Ge, Xiaojia

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated pubertal development in girls with maltreatment histories (N=100), assessed at 4 time points over 2 years, beginning in the spring of their final year of elementary school. This sample is unique in that participants were subject to an unusual level of environmental risk early in life and resided in foster care at the…

  20. Early Pubertal Timing and the Union Formation Behaviors of Young Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Shannon E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether the transition into adolescence, proxied by pubertal timing, shaped the transition into adulthood, proxied by union formation behaviors, among contemporary American women. In a sample drawn from Add Health (n = 7,523), early maturing girls reported an accelerated transition to marriage and cohabitation in young…

  1. Effects of altered food intake during pubertal development in male and female Wistar rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA is currently validating assays that will be used in a Tier I Screening Battery to detect endocrine disrupting chemicals. A primary concern with the Protocols for the Assessment of Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Juvenile Male and Female Rats is that a non...

  2. Pubertal Development and Adolescent Girls' Substance Use: Race, Ethnicity, and Neighborhood Contexts of Vulnerability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.

    2012-01-01

    To highlight individual and neighborhood interactions in the risk of adolescent substance use, this study examined the moderating role of neighborhood disadvantage on the relationship between pubertal development and adolescent girls' substance use. Drawing on the contextual amplification hypothesis, it was hypothesized that the effect of pubertal…

  3. EFFECT OF 1,3-DINITROBENZENE ON PREPUBERTAL, PUBERTAL, AND MOUSE SPERMATOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult mice to 0.8, 16, 32, 40, or 48 mg 1,3-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB)/kg body weight and measuring responses 1-25 d posttreatment (dpt) demonstrated significant effects on testicular function only at 48 mg/kg dosage m-DNB had no effect on body ...

  4. EFFECTS OF DIBUTYL PHTHALATE IN MALE RABBITS FOLLOWING IN UTERO, ADOLESCENT OR POST-PUBERTAL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of dibutyl phthalate in male rabbits following in utero, adolescent, or post-pubertal exposure
    Ty T. Higuchi1, Jennifer S. Palmer1, L. Earl Gray Jr2., and D. N. Rao Veeramachaneni1
    1Animal Reproduction and Biotechnology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort

  5. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Pubertal Timing: Results from Two National Sibling Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ge, Xiaojia; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Reiss, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental effects on individual variation in pubertal timing using two national samples of siblings from the Nonshared Environment of Adolescent Development (NEAD) and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). In each sample, female and male siblings with different degrees of genetic…

  6. Off-Time Pubertal Timing Predicts Physiological Reactivity to Postpuberty Interpersonal Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne Emilie; Powers, Sally I.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated associations between retrospectively assessed timing of pubertal development, interpersonal interactions, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity to an interpersonal stress task in 110 young adult women. Participants provided salivary cortisol samples at points prior and subsequent to a video-taped conflict discussion…

  7. Detrimental Psychological Outcomes Associated with Early Pubertal Timing in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendle, Jane; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Though often discussed as a discrete event, puberty comprises one segment of a larger developmental continuum and is notable for rapid transformation across a multitude of domains. Research suggests that an earlier rate of pubertal maturation in girls correlates with a number of detrimental outcomes compared with on-time or later maturation. The…

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Marital Relationships: The Role of Offspring's Pubertal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2007-01-01

    This study charted the longitudinal trajectories of wives' and husbands' reports of marital love, satisfaction, and conflict and explored whether and how first- and second-born offspring's pubertal development was related to marital changes. Data were drawn from the first 7 years of a longitudinal study of family relationships. Participants…

  9. ABILITY OF THE MALE RAT PUBERTAL ASSAY TO DETECT ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS THAT ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABILITY OF THE MALE RAT PUBERTAL ASSAY TO DETECT ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS THAT ALTER THYROID HORMONE HOMEOSTASIS

    Stoker, Tammy E.1; Laws, Susan C.1; Ferrell, Janet M.1; Cooper, Ralph L.1.

    Endocrinology Branch, RTD, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, 27711.

    The...

  10. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on IVF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (n = 25) or low (n = 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g. fertility) in an IVF system for high- and low-AFC heifers. From a pool of 120 heifers, 10 high- and 1...

  11. Identification of various testicular cell populations in pubertal and adult cockerels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precise identification of the male germinal stem cell population is important for their practical use in programs dedicated to the integration of exogenous genetic material in testicular tissues. In the present study, our aim was to identify germinal cell populations in the testes of pubertal and ad...

  12. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYLETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL. T.E. Stoker1, J. Ferrell1, J.M. Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1 and S.C. Laws1. 1 Reprod. Tox. Div., 2 Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, RTP, NC.

    P...

  13. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  14. Pubertal Development, Choice of Friends, and Smoking Initiation among Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapela, Laurie A.; Gebelt, Janet L.; McRee, Nick

    2006-01-01

    Prior research has indicated that pubertal development and peer associations are important determinants of adolescent smoking behavior. However, more remains to be learned about "why" these variables matter or how they may be related to one another in ways that lead to the initiation of smoking. Using contractual data from the National…

  15. IPRODIONE DELAYS MALE RAT PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT, REDUCING SERUM TESTOSTERONE AND EX VIVO TESTOSTERONE PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iprodione (IPRO) is a dichlorophenyl dicarboximide fungicide similar to the androgen receptor (AR) antagonist vinclozolin. The current studies were designed to determine if IPRO would delay male rat pubertal development like vinclozolin and to identify the mechanism(s) of action...

  16. Pubertal Timing and Early Sexual Intercourse in the Offspring of Teenage Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Genna, Natacha M.; Larkby, Cynthia; Cornelius, Marie D.

    2011-01-01

    Early puberty is associated with stressful family environments, early sexual intercourse, and teenage pregnancy. We examined pubertal timing and sexual debut among the 14-year-old offspring of teenage mothers. Mothers (71% Black, 29% White) were recruited as pregnant teenagers (12-18 years old). Data were collected during pregnancy and when…

  17. A Dominant X-Linked QTL Regulating Pubertal Timing in Mice Found by Whole Genome Scanning and Modified Interval-Specific Congenic Strain Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chao; Guo, Zhengxia; Zhao, Ying; Zhou, Yuxun; Li, Kai; Xing, Zhenghong; Chen, Guoqiang; Liang, Yinming; Jin, Li; Xiao, Junhua

    2008-01-01

    Background Pubertal timing in mammals is triggered by reactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and modulated by both genetic and environmental factors. Strain-dependent differences in vaginal opening among inbred mouse strains suggest that genetic background contribute significantly to the puberty timing, although the exact mechanism remains unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a genome-wide scanning for linkage in reciprocal crosses between two strains, C3H/HeJ (C3H) and C57BL6/J (B6), which differed significantly in the pubertal timing. Vaginal opening (VO) was used to characterize pubertal timing in female mice, and the age at VO of all female mice (two parental strains, F1 and F2 progeny) was recorded. A genome-wide search was performed in 260 phenotypically extreme F2 mice out of 464 female progeny of the F1 intercrosses to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling this trait. A QTL significantly associated was mapped to the DXMit166 marker (15.5 cM, LOD = 3.86, p<0.01) in the reciprocal cross population (C3HB6F2). This QTL contributed 2.1 days to the timing of VO, which accounted for 32.31% of the difference between the original strains. Further study showed that the QTL was B6-dominant and explained 10.5% of variation to this trait with a power of 99.4% at an alpha level of 0.05.The location of the significant ChrX QTL found by genome scanning was then fine-mapped to a region of ∼2.5 cM between marker DXMit68 and rs29053133 by generating and phenotyping a panel of 10 modified interval-specific congenic strains (mISCSs). Conclusions/Significance Such findings in our study lay a foundation for positional cloning of genes regulating the timing of puberty, and also reveal the fact that chromosome X (the sex chromosome) does carry gene(s) which take part in the regulative pathway of the pubertal timing in mice. PMID:18725948

  18. Comparison of Conservative and Surgical Therapy Concepts for Synechia of the Labia in Pre-Pubertal Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bussen, S.; Eckert, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sütterlin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the primary and secondary therapeutic successes of different therapy schemes for the treatment of synechia of the labia in pre-pubertal girls. Materials and Methods: The treatment courses of 47 pre-pubertal girls who were treated between February 2007 and February 2013 in the special outpatient clinic for paediatric gynaecology of a department for gynaecology at a German university hospital and for whom information on the course of the disease was available for at least the six months following end of the treatment. 23 of these children were treated with a topical estriol therapy (treatment group A). For 24 of the girls a manual separation of the adhering labia minora was undertaken (treatment group B). Statistical evaluation was performed using the χ2 test, Fischerʼs exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: For 18 of the 23 (80 %) girls in treatment group A topical estriol therapy alone led to a resolution of the synechia. Five of these 23 children (20 %) required a secondary manual separation. All girls for whom treatment was not successful were under 5 years of age. For all 24 girls (100 %) of treatment group B the primary manual separation was performed with success. The recurrence rates after ≥ 6 months in cases with identical after-care did not differ between the two treatment groups (treatment group A: 34 %, treatment group B: 33 %, χ2 test: p = 0.853). 16 of the 17 recurrences occurred ≥ 3 months after the end of the therapy. Conclusion: Our results show that for children < 5 years of age a 4-week topical therapy with estriol is a promising therapy option for synechia of the labia that is less of a burden for the family situation. Especially for girls ≥ 5 years of age, primary therapy fails in up to 20 % of the cases. Primary manual separation represents a more effective therapeutic option. Irrespective of the treatment applied, a recurrence after ≥ 3 must be

  19. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong’s “Children of 1997” Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M.; Schooling, C. Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. Methods We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: “Children of 1997” (n = 8,327). Results Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Conclusions Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk. PMID:27088360

  1. Disparities in late stage diagnosis, treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural residence among women in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Markossian, Talar W; Hines, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the outcomes of late stage breast cancer diagnosis, receiving first course treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural/urban residence in Georgia. The authors used cross-sectional and follow-up data (1992-2007) for Atlanta and Rural Georgia cancer registries that are part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (N = 23,500 incident breast cancer cases in non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic African Americans). Multilevel modeling and Cox proportional hazard models revealed that compared to whites, African American women had significantly increased odds of late stage diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, p = 0.0001) and unknown tumor stage (OR = 1.27, p = 0.0001), decreased odds of receiving radiation (OR = 0.93, p = 0.041) or surgery (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0001), and increased risk of death following breast cancer diagnosis (hazard rate ratio [HR] = 1.50, p = 0.0001). Increased age was significantly associated with the odds of late/unknown stage at diagnosis, worse treatment, and survival. Women residing in rural areas had significantly decreased odds of receiving radiation and surgery with radiation (OR = 0.59, p = 0.0001), and for receiving breast-conserving surgery compared to mastectomy (OR = 0.73, p = 0.005). Factors affecting each level of the breast cancer continuum are distinct and should be examined separately. Efforts are needed to alleviate disparities in breast cancer outcomes in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:22591230

  2. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique) and skinfold thickness (SFT) at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems. PMID:21703012

  3. Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Hydroxyatrazine in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Program’s Male and Female Pubertal Protocols. ABSTRACT Two critical components of the validation of any in vivo screening assay are to demonstrate sensitivity (ability to detect weak endocrine ...

  4. Effect of Advancing Age and Multiple Chronic Conditions on Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease after Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswami, Ashok; Kiley, Mary-Lou; Anthony, Faith F; Chen, Yuexin; Chen, Jason; Rajagopal, Sumanth; Liu, Taylor I; Young, Charlie; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is insufficient information on the effect that advancing age and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) have on mortality after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vs non-ESRD. Objective: To assess whether a differential effect of age and MCC exists between ESRD and non-ESRD. Design: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the national Kaiser Permanente Cardiac Device Registry of patients who underwent placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013. Main Outcome Measures: All-cause mortality. Results: Of 7825 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, ESRD-affected patients constituted 4.0% of the cohort (n = 311), were similar in age (p = 0.91), and presented with a larger comorbidity burden (3.3 ± 1.3 vs 2.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). The effect of advancing age (every 5 years) on mortality in the ESRD cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.20) was less than in the non-ESRD cohort (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.25–1.32). Similarly, the effect of each additional comorbidity in the ESRD cohort was less (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91–1.19) than in the non-ESRD group (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16–1.25). Lastly, ESRD was independently associated with a 3-fold greater hazard of mortality. Conclusions: Advancing age and increasing number of MCC have a differential effect on mortality risk in patients with ESRD compared with their non-ESRD counterparts. Future studies should focus on assessment of nonlinear relationships of age, MCC, and naturally occurring clusters of MCC on mortality. PMID:26562307

  5. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL(-1)) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL(-1)) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL(-1) and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL(-1)) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL(-1)) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL(-1) and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL(-1) respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty. PMID:26893810

  6. Copper and zinc concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes

    PubMed Central

    Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazl; Tahmasebian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    To investigate uterine fluid and serum copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) variations during the estrous cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures; 18, 15, 16 and 22 were pro-estrous, estrous, met-estrous and diestrous, respectively. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean (± SEM) total serum (77.10 ± 1.50 µg dL-1) and uterine fluid (296.40 ± 9.40 μg dL-1) Cu in cyclic cows was higher than the values of 54.00 ± 1.10 μg dL-1 and 133.40 ± 5.70 μg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum (114.60 ± 3.20 μg dL-1) and the uterine fluid (349.90 ± 8.90 μg dL-1) Zn content in cyclic cows were also higher than those (98.80 ± 1.50 μg dL-1 and 246.6 ± 4.50 μg dL-1 respectively) in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Cu in pro-estrus and estrus were lower than those in other stages and also lower than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest serum Zn content was recorded in pro- and met-estrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Zn content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Cu and Zn were actively secreted in uterine lumen and were not dependent on blood serum. The values also increased after puberty. PMID:26893810

  7. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  8. Factors Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Critical Illness, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Jan; Wu, Chi-Jung; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Shih, Fang-Ying; Wang, Shou-Wen; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Shih, Hsin-I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood culture contamination in emergency departments (ED) that experience a high volume of patients has negative impacts on optimal patient care. It is therefore important to identify risk factors associated with blood culture contamination in EDs. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospectively observational study in a university-affiliated hospital were conducted between August 2011 and December 2012. Positive monomicrobial and negative blood cultures drawn from adult patients in the ED were analyzed to evaluate the possible risk factors for contamination. A total of 1,148 positive monomicrobial cases, 391 contamination cases, and 13,689 cases of negative blood culture were identified. Compared to patients with negative blood cultures, patients in triage levels 1 and 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 2.24), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (IRR = 2.05), and older patients (IRR: 1.02 per year) were more likely to be associated with ED blood culture contamination. Conclusions/Significance Critical patients (triage levels 1 and 2), ESRD patients, and older patients were more commonly associated with blood culture contamination in the ED. Further studies to evaluate whether the characteristics of skin commensals contribute to blood culture contamination is warranted, especially in hospitals populated with high-risk patients. PMID:26448628

  9. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  10. Age at Puberty and Father Absence in a National Probability Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The relations between intactness of the parental unit (e.g., father absent at age 14) and pubertal timing in both men and women were examined in a US national probability sample. In both men and women, an absent father at age 14 predicted an earlier age of puberty (e.g., early menarche or voice change). There was little evidence that an absent…

  11. [Neuromuscular status of children of different gestational age on the stage of transition from intrauterine immersion to the earth's gravity].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The work was aimed at describing the neuromuscular status of premature baby in the context of the ontogenetic and zero gravity model using the results of superficial interference electromyography (IEMG). Throughout six postnatal weeks, IEMG of premature babies is similar to EMG of full-term child on the first days of extrauterine life; IEMG is characterized by a "simplified" temporal structure, low amplitude and frequency, IEMG dynamics of fullterm child is slow in contrast to premature baby; the reason seems to be maximum long intrauterine life during which the motor system gets better prepared and maturates. On the other hand, complexity and high amplitude of premature baby IEMG as compared with full-term child of the same postconceptual age are associated with the inevitable sensory stimulation after birth. Abilitation procedures provided to premature baby could be adapted to the purposes of post-flight rehabilitation of cosmonauts. PMID:22953537

  12. Age-developmental stage and severity of trauma related symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms in participants who lost their fathers during the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Plasć, Ivana Dijanić; Poljarević, Sanja; Loncar, Mladen; Henigsberg, Neven

    2011-01-01

    Children of different ages will experience a traumatic event in a different ways. The most important in the generalization of research findings is recognizing that children of different ages think differently, act differently and have different emotional functioning. Experiences that are extremely traumatic to an adult may be perceived by a young child as something that is not so frightening. The fear that the child feels will more frequently be a reflection of that of the adult rather than generated by the child's own perception of the event. So, the individual experience of the trauma is age dependent. Our study focused on children who lost their fathers in conditions of war The aim was to explore the association between age-developmental stages and the severity of trauma related symptoms, anxiety and depressive symptoms in participants who lost their fathers during the war. The study included 103 people who lost their fathers during the war in Croatia, who came to the physical and psychiatric examination organized by the Ministry of Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity. The sample was consisted of the participants who were children, or not born yet, at the time when they lost their fathers during the war in Croatia. At the time of interview, the participants were aged between 15 and 35 years old. Data was collected using a structured clinical interview which also included socio-demographic data. Data about former and current psychiatric symptoms were collected using the following instruments: Clinician- Administrated PTSD Scale (CAPS), Hamilton anxiety scale (HAMA), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD). Results showed that there was significant correlation between age and results on used scales. The participants who lost their fathers at a very young age or even before they were born showed less trauma symptoms (r=0.249; p < 0.05) less anxiety (r=0.374; p < 0.01) and depressive (r=0.384; p<0.01) symptoms than participants who lost their fathers at

  13. A longitudinal study of body dissatisfaction and pubertal timing in an ethnically diverse adolescent sample.

    PubMed

    de Guzman, Natalie S; Nishina, Adrienne

    2014-01-01

    In a 7-year study, adolescents' body dissatisfaction (N=1370) was examined across four high school years as a function of pubertal development (perceived timing relative to peers and self-reported physical changes measured during Grades 6-10) in the context of the high school transition. Boys and girls who, during early high school, perceived themselves to be late relative to peers were at risk for body dissatisfaction across the high school years. Boys who were late in pubertal development reported more body dissatisfaction in early high school than on-time boys, but then decreased over time. African-American girls reported less body dissatisfaction across the high school years relative to other girls. Asian girls reported more dissatisfaction in early high school than African-American, Latina, and Multiethnic girls, and increased over time. Results highlight the importance of considering late development within context as a risk factor in body dissatisfaction research. PMID:24331829

  14. Regarding the real diversity of Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the late Pliocene (Chapadmalalan Age/Stage) of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Alfredo E; Taglioretti, Matías; DE Los Reyes, Martín; Cuadrelli, Francisco; Poire, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    A large diversity of Glyptodontidae has been proposed as characterizing the Chapadmalalan Age (Pliocene). Most of these taxa were recognized on the basis of partial dorsal carapaces and/or caudal tubes, whereas the main diagnostic characteristic is a particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms. From a biostratigraphic point of view some species are biostratigraphically important. The Upper Chapadmalalan is based on the Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis biozone. Both the re-evaluation of the type and referred materials and new significant findings from the Chapadmalal and El Polvorín Formations indicate that the diversity of Pliocene Glyptodontidae is more limited than previously supposed. The particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms that characterizes some of the species actually corresponds to a taphonomic alteration, which results in a non-real ornamentation pattern. Thus, the Glyptodontinae P. chapadmalensis must be replaced as a fossil guide because neither this species nor the species included in the genera Urotherium, Trachycalyptus and Lomaphorus are well characterized. Taking into account the diversity of Glyptodontidae for this lapse, the Glyptodontinae are very scarce (a situation that contrasts with its records in the Pleistocene), whereas Eosclerocalyptus, "Plohophorini" (Plohophorus) and Doedicurinae (cf. Eleutherocercus antiquus) are among the most recorded taxa. PMID:27276376

  15. Highly retentive core domains in K-feldspar preserve argon ages from high temperature stages of granite exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Marnie; Lister, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Retentive core domains are characterized by diffusion parameters that imply K-feldspar should be able to retain argon even at temperatures near or above the granite solidus. In this case it should be possible to date granite emplacement using argon geochronology, and the same answer should be obtained as by using other methods. We present one case study where this is the case, from the elevated Capoas granite stock on Palawan, in the Philippines, and another where it is not, from the South Cyclades Shear Zone, on Ios, Greece. We attempt to determine the factors such as the role of fluid ingress in triggering the in situ recrystallization that can eliminate and/or modify the core domains, leading to relatively youthful ages. Thermochronology is still possible, because less retentive diffusion domains exist, but different methods need to be applied to interpret the data. The work also demonstrates that K-feldspar can be sufficiently retentive as to allow direct dating of processes that reduce the dimensions of diffusion domains, e.g., cataclased and/or recrystallized K-feldspar in fault rock and/or mylonite. These are important developments in the methodology of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, but to further advance we need to clarify the nature of these highly retentive core domains. In particular, we need better understand how they are modified by microstructural processes during deformation and metamorphism. We need also to assess the role of any crystal structural changes during step-heating in vacuo.

  16. Treatment of early-stage human epidermal growth factor 2-positive cancers among medicare enrollees: age and race strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Luis, Ines; Lin, Nancy U; Keating, Nancy L; Barry, William T; Lii, Joyce; Burstein, Harold J; Winer, Eric P; Freedman, Rachel A

    2016-08-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is highly efficacious regardless of age. Recent data suggested that many older patients with HER2-positive disease do not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. Nevertheless, some of this 'under-treatment' may be clinically appropriate. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to identify patients aged ≥ 66 with stage ≥ Ib-III, HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed during 2010-2011 (HER2 status available) who did not have a history of congestive heart failure. We described all systemic treatments received and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment patterns. Among 770 women 44.4 % did not receive trastuzumab, including 21.8 % who received endocrine therapy only, 6.3 % who received chemotherapy (±endocrine therapy) and 16.2 % who did not receive any systemic therapy. In addition to age and grade, race was strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab (64.4 % of Non-Hispanic blacks vs. 43.6 % of whites did not receive trastuzumab, adjusted ORNon-Hispanic black vs. white = 3.14, 95 %CI = 1.38-7.17), and many patients with stage III disease did not receive trastuzumab. Further, 16.2 % of patients did not receive any systemic treatment and this occurred more frequently for black patients. Over 40 % of older patients with indication to receive adjuvant trastuzumab did not receive it and nearly 20 % of these patients did not receive any other treatment. Although treatment omission may be appropriate in some cases, we observed concerning differences in trastuzumab receipt, particularly for black women. Strategies to optimize care for older patients and to eliminate treatment disparities are urgently needed. PMID:27484879

  17. Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?

    PubMed

    Zawatski, William; Lee, Mary M

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that interfere with endogenous endocrine action. The frequent use of chemicals with endocrine active properties in household products and contamination of soil, water, and food sources by persistent chemical pollutants result in ubiquitous exposures. Wildlife observations and animal toxicological studies reveal adverse effects of EDCs on reproductive health. In humans, a growing number of epidemiological studies report an association with altered pubertal timing and progression. While these data are primarily reported in females, this review will focus on the small number of studies performed in males that report an association of polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier sexual maturity rating and confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and endosulfan on delaying pubertal onset and progression in boys. Recent studies have also demonstrated that EDC exposure may affect pubertal testosterone production without having a noticeable effect on sexual maturity rating. A limitation to understand the effects of EDCs in humans is the potential for confounding due to the long temporal lag from early-life exposures to adult outcomes. The complex interplay of multiple environmental exposures over time also complicates the interpretation of human studies. These studies have identified critical windows of vulnerability during development when exposures to EDCs alter critical pathways and affect postnatal reproductive health. Contemporaneous exposures can also disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This paper will review the normal process of puberty in males and summarize human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs. PMID:23709001

  18. Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that interfere with endogenous endocrine action. The frequent use of chemicals with endocrine active properties in household products and contamination of soil, water, and food sources by persistent chemical pollutants result in ubiquitous exposures. Wildlife observations and animal toxicological studies reveal adverse effects of EDCs on reproductive health.In humans, a growing number of epidemiological studies report an association with altered pubertal timing and progression. While these data are primarily reported in females,this review will focus on the small number of studies performed in males that report an association of polychlorinated biphenyls with earlier sexual maturity rating and confirm subtle effects of lead, dioxins, and endosulfan on delaying pubertal onset and progression in boys. Recent studies have also demonstrated that EDC exposure may affect pubertal testosterone production without having a noticeable effect on sexual maturity rating.A limitation to understand the effects of EDCs in humans is the potential for confounding due to the long temporal lag from early-life exposures to adult outcomes. The complex interplay of multiple environmental exposures over time also complicates the interpretation of human studies. These studies have identified critical windows of vulnerability during development when exposures to EDCs alter critical pathways and affect postnatal reproductive health. Contemporaneous exposures can also disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This paper will review the normal process of puberty in males and summarize human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs. PMID:23977686

  19. Peripubertal administration of icariin and icaritin advances pubertal development in female rats.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Ku; Lee, Sang-Bum; Kwon, Hyosuk; Sung, Chung Ki; Park, Young In; Dong, Mi-Sook

    2012-03-01

    Epimedii Herba is a traditional medicinal herb used in Korea and China and exerts estrogenic activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of peripubertal administration of Epimedii Herba on pubertal development in female rats using a modified protocol of the rodent 20-day pubertal female assay. Female Sprague-Dawley rats (21 days old after weaning, 10 rats per group) were divided into five groups: saline (Con), ethinyl estradiol (E2), Epimedii Herba ext (Ext), icariin (ICI), and icaritin (ICT), which were administered by oral gavage (E2 by subcutaneous injection) from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND40. The time to vaginal opening (VO) was shorter for the Epimedii groups, particularly for the ICT group (p<0.05). Treatment with ICI and ICT significantly increased the duration of the estrus cycle (ICI, 2.78 days; ICT, 4.0 days; control, 1.78 days). Ovary weight was reduced by E2 treatment and increased by the Ext, ICI, and ICT treatments while the weight of the uterus and pituitary glands increased significantly only in the E2 and ICT groups. Although Epimedii Herba displayed relatively weak estrogenic activity, its repeated administration could affect pubertal development in female rats. PMID:24116294

  20. The Developmental Pathway From Pubertal Timing to Delinquency and Sexual Activity From Early to Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Negriff, Sonya; Elizabeth, J. Susman; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2013-01-01

    There is strong evidence that early pubertal timing is associated with adolescent problem behaviors. However, there has been limited investigation of the mechanisms or developmental relationships. The present study examined longitudinal models incorporating pubertal timing, delinquency, and sexual activity in a sample of 454 adolescents (9–13 years old at enrollment; 47% females). Participants were seen for three assessments approximately 1 year apart. Characteristics of friendship networks (older friends, male friends, older male friends) were examined as mediators. Structural equation modeling was used to test these associations as well as temporal relationships between sexual activity and delinquency. Results showed that early pubertal timing at Time 1 was related to more sexual activity at Time 2, which was related to higher delinquency at Time 3, a trend mediation effect. None of the friendship variables mediated these associations. Gender or maltreatment status did not moderate the meditational pathways. The results also supported the temporal sequence of sexual activity preceding increases in delinquency. These findings reveal that early maturing adolescents may actively seek out opportunities to engage in sexual activity which appears to be risk for subsequent delinquency. PMID:21191640

  1. Sexual differentiation of human behavior: effects of prenatal and pubertal organizational hormones.

    PubMed

    Berenbaum, Sheri A; Beltz, Adriene M

    2011-04-01

    A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another organizational period, with the possibility of decreasing sensitivity to sex hormones across the pubertal transition. In this paper, we review evidence that sex hormones present during the prenatal and pubertal periods produce permanent changes to behavior. There is good evidence that exposure to high levels of androgens during prenatal development results in masculinization of activity and occupational interests, sexual orientation, and some spatial abilities; prenatal androgens have a smaller effect on gender identity, and there is insufficient information about androgen effects on sex-linked behavior problems. There is little good evidence regarding long-lasting behavioral effects of pubertal hormones, but there is some suggestion that they influence gender identity and perhaps some sex-linked forms of psychopathology, and there are many opportunities to study this issue. PMID:21397624

  2. Association of Iron Depletion with Menstruation and Dietary Intake Indices in Pubertal Girls: The Healthy Growth Study

    PubMed Central

    Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Giannopoulou, Angeliki; Damianidi, Louisa; Chrousos, George P.; Manios, Yannis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the associations of iron depletion (ID) with menstrual blood losses, lifestyle, and dietary habits, in pubertal girls. The study sample comprised 1222 girls aged 9–13 years old. Biochemical, anthropometrical, dietary, clinical, and physical activity data were collected. Out of 274 adolescent girls with menses, 33.5% were found to be iron depleted (defined as serum ferritin < 12 μg/L) compared to 15.9% out of 948 girls without menses. Iron-depleted girls without menses were found to have lower consumption of poultry (P = 0.017) and higher consumption of fruits (P = 0.044) and fast food (P = 0.041) compared to their peers having normal iron status. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that girls with menses were 2.57 (95% CI: 1.37, 4.81) times more likely of being iron depleted compared to girls with no menses. Iron depletion was found to be associated with high calcium intake, high consumption of fast foods, and low consumption of poultry and fruits. Menses was the only factor that was found to significantly increase the likelihood of ID in these girls. More future research is probably needed in order to better understand the role of diet and menses in iron depletion. PMID:24455693

  3. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: A role for pubertal onset.

    PubMed

    Drzewiecki, Carly M; Willing, Jari; Juraska, Janice M

    2016-09-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development, marked by maturation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region important for executive functioning. During this time, the human PFC decreases in overall volume and thickness. Likewise in adolescent rodents, losses of neurons, dendrites, dendritic spines and neurotransmitter receptors have been documented within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), sometimes with sex and layer specificity. However, changes in the number of synapses during this time have not been examined. In the present study, we stereologically quantified the number of synaptophysin-immunoreactive boutons in the male and female rat mPFC across multiple time points from the juvenile period through adulthood (postnatal days (P) 25, 35, 45, 60 and 90). In females, there was a significant decrease in synaptophysin boutons between P35 and P45, coinciding with the onset of puberty. In males, there was no significant main effect of age on synaptophysin boutons; however, in both males and females, pubertal onset was associated with significant synaptic losses. These results suggest that puberty is a critical period for synaptic pruning within the rat mPFC, potentially contributing to maturation of adolescent executive function. Synapse 70:361-368, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27103097

  4. Effect of follicle age on conception rate in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age of the ovulatory follicle on fertility. Ovulation (d 0) was synchronized in post pubertal heifers in Montana (n = 153; MT) and Ohio (n = 152). All heifers received estradiol benzoate (EB; 1mg/500kg BW) on d 6 and were assigned to either ...

  5. The Effects of Comorbidity and Age on RTOG Study Enrollment in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Are Eligible for RTOG Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Firat, Selim; Byhardt, Roger W.; Gore, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of measured comorbidity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) combined modality therapy (CMT) study enrollment in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-one patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score {>=}70 and clinical Stage III NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively for comorbidity, RTOG study eligibility, and enrollment at initial consultation. Effect of comorbidity scores (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) were tested on patient selection for CMT, RTOG enrollment, and overall survival. Results: Comorbidity (Grade 4; p < 0.005) and use of radiation only (p {<=} 0.001) were associated with inferior survival independent of other factors. Patient selection for CMT was affected by age ({>=}70, p < 0.001), comorbidity (severity index [SI]> 2, p = 0.001), and weight loss (>5%, p = 0.001). Thirty-three patients (19%) were enrolled in a CMT RTOG study (Group 1). Forty-nine patients (29%) were eligible but not enrolled (Group 2), and 57 (33%) were ineligible (Group 3). The most common ineligibility reasons were weight loss (67%) and comorbidity in the exclusion criteria of the RTOG studies (63%). Group 1 patients were the youngest (p = 0.02), with the lowest comorbidity scores (p < 0.001) and SI (p < 0.001) compared with Groups 2 and 3. Group 3 patients were the oldest with the most unfavorable comorbidity profile. Comorbidity scores (SI >2; p = 0.006) and age ({>=}70; p = 0.05) were independent factors influencing RTOG study enrollment in patients meeting study eligibility requirements (Groups 1 and 2). Conclusions: Comorbidity scales could be useful in stratification of patients in advanced lung cancer trials and interpretation of results particularly regarding the elderly population.

  6. Modeling the Effects of Constant and Variable Temperatures on the Vital Rates of an Age-, Stage-, and Sex-Structured Population by Means of the SANDY Approach.

    PubMed

    Nachman, G; Gotoh, T

    2015-06-01

    We present a general and flexible mathematical model (called SANDY) that can be used to describe many biological phenomena, including the phenology of arthropods. In this paper, we demonstrate how the model can be fitted to vital rates (i.e., rates associated with development, survival, hatching, and oviposition) of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)) exposed to different constant temperatures ranging from 15°C to 37.5°C. SANDY was incorporated into an age-, stage- and sex-structured dynamic model, which was fitted to cohort life-tables of T. urticae conducted at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). Age- and temperature-dependent vital rates for the three main stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) constituting the life-cycle of mites were adequately described by the SANDY model. The modeling approach allows for simulating the growth of a population in a variable environment. We compared the predicted net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) at fluctuating temperatures with empirical values obtained from life-table experiments conducted at temperatures that changed with a daily amplitude (±0, ±3, ±6, ±9, and ±12°C) around an average of 22°C. Results show that R0 decreases with increasing amplitude, while rm is more robust to variable temperatures. An advantage of SANDY is that the same simple mathematical expression can be applied to describe all the vital rates. Besides, the approach is not confined to modeling the influence of a single factor on population growth but allows for incorporating the combined effect of several limiting factors, provided that the combined effect of the factors is multiplicative. PMID:26313989

  7. Early stage drug treatment that normalizes proinflammatory cytokine production attenuates synaptic dysfunction in a mouse model that exhibits age-dependent progression of Alzheimer's disease-related pathology.

    PubMed

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Norris, Christopher M; Sompol, Pradoldej; Wilcock, Donna M; Goulding, Danielle; Neltner, Janna H; St Clair, Daret; Watterson, D Martin; Van Eldik, Linda J

    2012-07-25

    Overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines in the CNS has been implicated as a key contributor to pathophysiology progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and extensive studies with animal models have shown that selective suppression of excessive glial proinflammatory cytokines can improve neurologic outcomes. The prior art, therefore, raises the logical postulation that intervention with drugs targeting dysregulated glial proinflammatory cytokine production might be effective disease-modifying therapeutics if used in the appropriate biological time window. To test the hypothesis that early stage intervention with such drugs might be therapeutically beneficial, we examined the impact of intervention with MW01-2-151SRM (MW-151), an experimental therapeutic that selectively attenuates proinflammatory cytokine production at low doses. MW-151 was tested in an APP/PS1 knock-in mouse model that exhibits increases in AD-relevant pathology progression with age, including increases in proinflammatory cytokine levels. Drug was administered during two distinct but overlapping therapeutic time windows of early stage pathology development. MW-151 treatment attenuated the increase in microglial and astrocyte activation and proinflammatory cytokine production in the cortex and yielded improvement in neurologic outcomes, such as protection against synaptic protein loss and synaptic plasticity impairment. The results also demonstrate that the therapeutic time window is an important consideration in efficacy studies of drugs that modulate glia biological responses involved in pathology progression and suggest that such paradigms should be considered in the development of new therapeutic regimens that seek to delay the onset or slow the progression of AD. PMID:22836255

  8. Is Pubertal Timing Associated with Psychopathology in Young Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Seeley, John R.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This investigation tested whether the timing of puberty continued to be associated with experiences of psychopathology (symptoms and disorders) from mid-adolescence into young adulthood. Method: At age 24, 931 participants from a large community sample, who had been interviewed twice during adolescence, completed a telephone interview…

  9. A Validation Study of Early Adolescents' Pubertal Self-Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Katharine E.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Keating, Kristen; Simon, Gayle M.; Gehrman, Christine; Jones, Kenneth Lee

    2004-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether self-assessed puberty is sufficiently reliable and valid to substitute for physician examination when feasibility of physician examination is low (e.g., behavioral research). Adolescents (convenience sample N = 178 endocrinology patients and N = 125 from educational trial; mean age 12.7 and 11.3 years,…

  10. Defined pattern of Sertoli cell differentiation in pubertal porcine testes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Number of Sertoli cells is a primary determinant of mature testicular size and sperm production. In boars, formation of the blood/testis barrier, which occurs by 4 mo of age in commercial breeds, signals the end of Sertoli cell proliferation. Previous studies established that expression of p27Kip1, ...

  11. Pubertal Development and Prepubertal Height and Weight Jointly Predict Young Adult Height and Body Mass Index in a Prospective Study in South Africa12

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Richter, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Height and adiposity track over childhood, but few studies, to our knowledge, have longitudinally examined the mediating relation of the timing and progression of puberty. Objective: We assessed interrelations between prepubertal height and body mass index, the progression through puberty, and young adult height and adiposity. Methods: We analyzed data from the Birth to Twenty Plus study (females, n = 823; males, n = 765). Serial measures of anthropometry and pubertal development were obtained between ages 9 and 16 y. We used latent class growth analysis to categorize pubertal development with respect to pubic hair (females and males), breasts (females), and genitalia (males) development. Adult height and weight were obtained at ages 18 to 20 y. Results: Among females, higher latent class (earlier initiation and faster progression through puberty) was associated with an increased risk of obesity [pubic hair class 3 compared with class 1: RR, 3.41 (95% CI: 1.57, 7.44)] and inconsistent associations with height. Among males, higher latent class was associated with increased adult height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: 2.43 cm (95% CI: 0.88, 4.00)] and increased risk of overweight/obesity [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: OR, 3.44 (95% CI: 1.44, 8.20)]. In females, the association with adult height became inverse after adjusting for prepubertal height [pubic hair development class 3 compared with class 1: females, −1.31 cm (95% CI: −2.32, −0.31)]; in males, the association with height was attenuated with this adjustment [−0.56 cm (95% CI: −1.63, 0.52)]. Associations with adiposity were attenuated after adjusting for prepubertal adiposity. Conclusions: Progression through puberty modifies the relation between prepubertal and adult anthropometry. Screening for early or rapid progression of puberty might identify children at an increased risk of becoming overweight or obese adults. PMID:27335138

  12. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P < 0.05), which was largely due to a 6.4-7.8 % (P < 0.05) greater cortical mass in the posterior-lateral, medial and posterior-medial 66 % tibial regions. Cortical area was not significantly different across PA-fitness categories in girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P < 0.05) greater SSIpolar compared to inactive-fit girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P < 0.05) greater total bone area. There was also a small region-specific cortical mass benefit in the posterior-medial 66 % tibia cortex in active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys. PMID:26983726

  13. Different effects on bone strength and cell differentiation in pre pubertal caloric restriction versus hypothalamic suppression✩,✩✩

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, R.N.; Safadi, F.F.; Barbe, M.F.; Carpio-Cano, Fe Del; Popoff, S.N.; Yingling, V.R.

    2013-01-01

    Hypothalamic amenorrhea and energy restriction during puberty affect peak bone mass accrual. One hypothesis suggests energy restriction alters hypothalamic function resulting in suppressed estradiol levels leading to bone loss. However, both positive and negative results have been reported regarding energy restriction and bone strength. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate energy restriction and hypothalamic suppression during pubertal onset on bone mechanical strength and the osteogenic capacity of bone marrow-derived cells in two models: female rats treated with gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH-a) or 30% energy restriction. At 23 days of age, female Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to three groups: control group (C, n=10), GnRH-a group (n=10), and Energy Restriction (ER, n=12) group. GnRH-a animals received daily injections for 27 days. The animals in the ER group received 70% of the control animals’ intake. After sacrifice (50 days of age), body weight, uterine and muscle weights were measured. Bone marrow-derived stromal cells were cultured and assayed for proliferation and differentiation into osteoblasts. Outcome measures included bone strength, bone histomorphometry and architecture, serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin. GnRH-a suppressed uterine weight, decreased osteoblast proliferation, bone strength, trabecular bone volume and architecture compared to control. Elevated serum IGF-1 and osteocalcin levels and body weight were found. The ER model had an increase in osteoblast proliferation compared to the GnRH-a group, similar bone strength relative to body weight and increased trabecular bone volume in the lumbar spine compared to control. The ER animals were smaller but had developed bone strength sufficient for their size. In contrast, suppressed estradiol via hypothalamic suppression resulted in bone strength deficits and trabecular bone volume loss. In summary, our results support the hypothesis that during periods of

  14. Oral exposure of pubertal male mice to endocrine-disrupting chemicals alters fat metabolism in adult livers.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Lin, Xiaojian; Miao, Wenyu; Wang, Linggang; Wu, Yan; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-12-01

    The potential for the exposure of humans and wildlife to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been increasing. Risk assessment for such EDCs is primarily based on detecting the main endpoints related to the endocrine and reproductive systems, while the effects on glucose and fat metabolism have only received limited attention. In this study, pubertal male C57BL/6J mice were orally administered 10 mg/kg body weight cypermethrin (CYP), 100 mg/kg body weight atrazine (ATZ), and 0.1 mg/kg body weight 17α-ethynyestradiol (EE2) for 4 weeks and then switched to a high-energy diet (HD) for 8 weeks. The body weight gain in the EDC-treated groups was lower than that in the control group during exposure and then tended to show values similar to the HD group. The epididymal fat weight, cell size and serum triacylglycerol (TG) and total cholesterol (TCH) levels in the EDC-HD groups were lower than those in the HD group. The transcription of genes related to glycolytic and gluconeogenic processes in the liver was affected by EDC exposure. Furthermore, the expression levels of transcriptional factors including PPARα, PPARγ, and SREBP1C and their target genes related to fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in the liver were also influenced by early life EDC administration. The results showed that early-life-stage exposure to high doses of various environmental EDCs affected the homeostasis of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the livers of adult male mice. PMID:24916741

  15. Reward sensitivity for a palatable food reward peaks during pubertal developmental in rats.

    PubMed

    Friemel, Chris M; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Puberty is a critical period for the initiation of drug use and abuse. Because early drug use onset often accounts for a more severe progression of addiction, it is of importance to understand the underlying mechanisms and neurodevelopmental changes during puberty that are contributing to enhanced reward processing in teenagers. The present study investigated the progression of reward sensitivity toward a natural food reward over the whole course of adolescence in male rats (postnatal days 30-90) by monitoring consummatory, motivational behavior and neurobiological correlates of reward. Using a limited-free intake paradigm, consumption of sweetened condensed milk (SCM) was measured repeatedly in adolescent and adult rats. Additionally, early- and mid-pubertal animals were tested in Progressive Ratio responding for SCM and c-fos protein expression in reward-associated brain structures was examined after odor conditioning for SCM. We found a transient increase in SCM consumption and motivational incentive for SCM during puberty. This increased reward sensitivity was most pronounced around mid-puberty. The behavioral findings are paralleled by enhanced c-fos staining in reward-related structures revealing an intensified neuronal response after reward-cue presentation, distinctive for pubertal animals. Taken together, these data indicate an increase in reward sensitivity during adolescence accompanied by enhanced responsiveness of reward-associated brain structures to incentive stimuli, and it seems that both is strongly pronounced around mid-puberty. Therefore, higher reward sensitivity during pubertal maturation might contribute to the enhanced vulnerability of teenagers for the initiation of experimental drug use. PMID:20700386

  16. Sex 'n' drugs 'n' rock 'n' roll: the meaning and social consequences of pubertal timing.

    PubMed

    Waylen, Andrea; Wolke, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    This is a brief review of the normal changes in adolescent behaviour and the interplay between biology and social factors that occur at and around puberty, in an attempt to explain when this transition may become problematic The onset of puberty is a biological marker for an individual's transition from a non-reproductive to a reproductive state. Adolescence is a normal developmental transition associated with clearly visible physical changes, reorganization and pruning of neuronal circuits in the brain and the occurrence of new behaviours and interests. It is a time when new life tasks (orientation towards peers of the other sex, romantic and sexual involvement and mastering an educational career) need to be mastered. Parent-child conflict increases and becomes more intense as the adolescent struggles for more independence while still requiring support. These normal changes can become problematic if biological and social expectations diverge e.g. entering puberty very early or very late. While early pubertal onset in boys is likely to have beneficial effects, in girls precocious pubertal timing may have a negative impact on body-image, affect (or emotional well-being) and sex-role expectations. Other individual biological predispositions and genetic endowment may interact with social factors (e.g. peers, parenting style, neighbourhood) making adolescence either an adaptive or a challenging transition. There is a lack of sufficiently large longitudinal studies that have been able to study this interaction between genetics, biology and social environment on adolescent development. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort provides a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of pubertal timing on social behaviour. Planned assessments and concepts are outlined. PMID:15554900

  17. Pubertal activation of estrogen receptor α in the medial amygdala is essential for the full expression of male social behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Mariko; Musatov, Sergei; Morishita, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Toshiro; Tsukahara, Shinji; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2016-07-01

    Testosterone plays a central role in the facilitation of male-type social behaviors, such as sexual and aggressive behaviors, and the development of their neural bases in male mice. The action of testosterone via estrogen receptor (ER) α, after being aromatized to estradiol, has been suggested to be crucial for the full expression of these behaviors. We previously reported that silencing of ERα in adult male mice with the use of a virally mediated RNAi method in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) greatly reduced sexual behaviors without affecting aggressive behaviors whereas that in the medial amygdala (MeA) had no effect on either behavior. It is well accepted that testosterone stimulation during the pubertal period is necessary for the full expression of male-type social behaviors. However, it is still not known whether, and in which brain region, ERα is involved in this developmental effect of testosterone. In this study, we knocked down ERα in the MeA or MPOA in gonadally intact male mice at the age of 21 d and examined its effects on the sexual and aggressive behaviors later in adulthood. We found that the prepubertal knockdown of ERα in the MeA reduced both sexual and aggressive behaviors whereas that in the MPOA reduced only sexual, but not aggressive, behavior. Furthermore, the number of MeA neurons was reduced by prepubertal knockdown of ERα. These results indicate that ERα activation in the MeA during the pubertal period is crucial for male mice to fully express their male-type social behaviors in adulthood. PMID:27325769

  18. Biceps skin-fold thickness may detect and predict early lipoatrophy in HIV-infected pre-pubertal children on antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Steve; Schulte-Kemna, Eva; Cotton, Mark F.; Zöllner, Ekkehard Werner; Haubrich, Richard; Klinker, Hartwig; Sun, Xiaoying; Jain, Sonia; Edson, Clair; van Niekerk, Margaret; Ryan, Emily; Rabie, Helena; Browne, Sara H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of lipoatrophy in children on antiretroviral therapy in Southern Africa is high, affecting around a third of children. Early diagnosis of lipoatrophy is essential for effective intervention to arrest progression. Methods Pre-pubertal children on antiretroviral therapy were recruited from a hospital-based family HIV clinic in Cape Town and followed up prospectively. Lipoatrophy was identified and graded by consensus between two HIV pediatricians. A dietician performed anthropometric measurements of trunk and limb fat. Anthropometric measurements in children with and without lipoatrophy were compared using multivariable linear regression adjusting for age and gender. The most discerning anthropometric indicators of lipoatrophy underwent Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis. The precision of anthropometric measurements performed by an inexperienced healthcare worker was compared to a research dietician. Results 36/100 recruits had lipoatrophy at baseline and a further 9 developed lipoatrophy by 15 month follow-up. Annual incidence of lipoatrophy was 12% (CI: 5–20%) per person-year of follow-up. A biceps skin-fold thickness <5mm at baseline had a sensitivity of 89% (CI: 67–100%) and a specificity of 60% (CI: 46–75%) for predicting which children would go on to develop lipoatrophy by 15 month follow-up. Negative and positive predictive values were 97% (CI: 91–100%) and 32% (CI: 14–50%). Conclusion Biceps skin-fold thickness <5mm in pre-pubertal children exposed to thymidine analogue-based antiretroviral therapy may be a useful screening tool to identify children who are likely to go on to develop lipoatrophy. The variation in precision of measurements performed by an inexperienced healthcare worker only marginally impacted performance. PMID:23249919

  19. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  20. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing. PMID:26071872

  1. Gender differences in sagittal standing alignment before pubertal peak growth: the importance of subclassification and implications for spinopelvic loading

    PubMed Central

    Dolphens, Mieke; Cagnie, Barbara; Vleeming, Andry; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Danneels, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender differences in sagittal standing alignment at pre-peak height velocity age thereby applying a scientifically sound and practically oriented classification scheme for overall standing balance. The study population consisted of healthy boys (n = 639) and girls (n = 557) before pubertal peak growth. During subjects' habitual standing, sagittal plane measures of the spine, pelvis and lower limbs were collected using a clinical screening protocol. With each subject classified as one of three postural types (neutral, sway-back, or leaning-forward), differences in sagittal plane alignment were analyzed between sexes. The results revealed clear differences between genders in each of the postural types. Within the neutral and sway-back postural subgroups, boys presented more forward inclination of the trunk, more thoracic kyphosis and more pelvis backtilt compared with girls. Within the leaning-forward category, girls displayed more forward trunk lean, less thoracic kyphosis and more pelvic anteversion. A state of lumbar segmental hyperextension appeared to exist in female leaning-forward subjects. Our results reveal for the first time that sagittal standing alignment is different between prepubescent boys and girls when subjects are appropriately subclassified, and conversely represent a ‘wash-out effect’ when pooled. When the classification system is applied, gender-specificity in gravity line position is suggested, implying gender-related differences in lever arms and thus load. Present findings may add to our understanding of gender-specific biomechanical challenges posed by habitual posture, and may shed new light on sagittal standing alignment as a possible contributory factor in developmental spinal-pelvic disorders. PMID:24107185

  2. Differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells from peri-pubertal testes of three different bovine breeds

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Utkarsh K.; Aslam, Muhammad K. M.; Pandey, Shashank; Nayak, Samiksha; Chhillar, Shivani; Srinivasan, A.; Mohanty, T. K.; Kadam, Prashant H.; Chauhan, M. S.; Yadav, Savita; Kumaresan, Arumugam

    2014-01-01

    Sub-fertility is one of the most common problems observed in crossbred males, but the etiology remains unknown in most of the cases. Although proteomic differences in the spermatozoa and seminal plasma between breeds have been investigated, the possible differences at the sperm precursor cells and supporting/nourishing cells have not been studied. The present study reports the differential proteomic profile of spermatogenic and Sertoli cells in crossbred and purebred bulls. Testis was removed by unilateral castration of 12 peri-pubertal bulls (10 months age), four each from crossbred (Holstein Friesian × Tharparkar), exotic purebred [Holstein Friesian (HF)] and indigenous purebred [Tharparkar (TP)] bulls. Spermatogenic and Sertoli cells were isolated and subjected to proteomic analysis. Protein extracts from the Sertoli and spermatogenic cells of each breed were analyzed with 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and analyzed with Decyder™ software. Compared to HF, 26 protein spots were over expressed and 14 protein spots were under expressed in spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls. Similarly, 7 protein spots were over expressed and 15 protein spots were under expressed in the spermatogenic cells of TP bulls compared to that of crossbred bulls. Out of 12 selected protein spots identified through mass spectrometry, Phosphatidyl ethanolamine binding protein was found to be over expressed in the spermatogenic cells of crossbred bulls compared to TP bulls. The protein, gamma actin was found to be over expressed in the Sertoli cells of HF bulls, whereas Speedy Protein-A was found to be over expressed in Sertoli cells of crossbred bulls. It may be concluded that certain proteomic level differences exist in sperm precursor cells and nourishing cells between breeds, which might be associated with differences in the fertility among these breeds. PMID:25364731

  3. Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Luís; Krustrup, Peter; Silva, Gustavo; Rebelo, Antonio; Oliveira, José; Brito, João

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the performance and heart rate responses during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test-Level 1 (Yo-Yo IE1) in children under the age of 10. One hundred and seven male children (7-9 years) performed the Yo-Yo IE1 at the beginning (M1), middle (M2) and end (M3) of the school year. Data from individual heart rate curves of the Yo-Yo IE1 were analysed in order to detect the inflection point between an initial phase of fast rise in heart rate values and a second phase in which the rise of the heart rate values is much smaller. The distance covered in the Yo-Yo IE1 improved from M1 to M3 (884 ± 496 vs. 1032 ± 596 m; p < 0.05; d = 0.27), with intermediate values for M2 (962 ± 528 m). Peak heart rate (HRpeak) decreased from M1 to M2 and M3 (204 ± 9, 202 ± 9 and 200 ± 9 bpm, respectively; p < 0.05; d = 0.25-0.42). The 7th shuttle of the test (280 m), corresponding to 2.5 min, was identified as the inflection point between the two phases. Also, absolute heart rate at the 7th shuttle decreased progressively throughout the year (185 ± 9, 183 ± 10, and 179 ± 10 bpm; p < 0.05; d = 0.31-0.61). The present study provides evidence of the usefulness of a maximal as well as a submaximal version of Yo-Yo IE1 as a tool to monitor changes in aerobic fitness in pre-pubertal children. PMID:25611184

  4. Childhood adversity and youth depression: influence of gender and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Karen D; Flynn, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This research examined three possible models to explain how childhood social adversity and recent stress interact to predict depression in youth: stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Drawing from a stress-sensitization theory of depression, we hypothesized that exposure to childhood adversity, in the form of disruptions in critical interpersonal relationships, would lower youths' threshold for depressive reactions to recent interpersonal stress. We expected that this pattern of stress sensitization would be most salient for girls negotiating the pubertal transition. These hypotheses were examined in two studies: a longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of 399 youth (M = 11.66 years) and a concurrent, interview-based investigation of 147 youth (M = 12.39 years). Findings supported the role of stress-sensitization processes in pubertal girls and prepubertal boys, and stress-amplification processes in prepubertal girls. Childhood social adversity specifically predicted sensitization to recent interpersonal, but not noninterpersonal, stress. These findings build on prior theory and research by suggesting that early adversity exerts context-specific effects that vary across gender and development. Future research will need to identify the specific mechanisms underlying this stress-sensitization process. PMID:17459181

  5. Relationship between pubertal timing and body size in underfed male rats.

    PubMed

    Glass, A R; Anderson, J; Herbert, D; Vigersky, R A

    1984-07-01

    A direct connection has been proposed between body size and sexual maturation by the critical body weight and critical body fat hypotheses. To test these theories in male rats, we compared the degree of sexual maturation in animals with reduced growth rate due to undernutrition with that in weight-matched but normally fed rats. Underfed rats had significantly larger prostate, seminal vesicle, and testis weights than the weight-matched normally fed controls at the three time points studied: the early pubertal period (approximate time of onset of rising serum testosterone), late pubertal period (approximate time of appearance of mature spermatids), and young adult period. At the first time point, testes of underfed rats, but not those of normally fed, weight-matched controls, showed mature step 19 spermatids, and serum testosterone was significantly higher in the underfed animals. At all time points, serum LH levels were similar in both groups, while serum FSH levels were significantly lower in the underfed rats at all points. The Lee index, an index of fatness, was significantly lower in the underfed rats. The current study indicates that underfed rats are more sexually mature than normally fed controls of the same weight despite having a lower percentage of body fat. These findings do not support the critical body weight or critical body fat hypotheses of puberty in male rats. PMID:6428861

  6. Growth and pubertal development in children and adolescents: effects of diet and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rogol, A D; Clark, P A; Roemmich, J N

    2000-08-01

    The longitudinal growth of an individual child is a dynamic statement of the general health of that child. Measurements should be performed often and accurately to detect alterations from physiologic growth. Although any single point on the growth chart is not very informative, when several growth points are plotted over time, it should become apparent whether that individual's growth is average, a variant of the norm, or pathologic. Somatic growth and maturation are influenced by several factors that act independently or in concert to modify an individual's genetic growth potential. Linear growth within the first 2 y of life generally decelerates but then remains relatively constant throughout childhood until the onset of the pubertal growth spurt. Because of the wide variation among individuals in the timing of the pubertal growth spurt, there is a wide range of physiologic variations in normal growth. Nutritional status and heavy exercise training are only 2 of the major influences on the linear growth of children. In the United States, nutritional deficits result from self-induced restriction of energy intake. That single factor, added to the marked energy expenditure of training and competition for some sports, and in concert with the self-selection of certain body types, makes it difficult to identify the individual factors responsible for the slow linear growth of some adolescent athletes, for example, those who partake in gymnastics, dance, or wrestling. PMID:10919954

  7. Responses of testis, epididymis, and sperm of pubertal rats exposed to functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Forcados, Gilead E; Anao, Osemudiamen O; Agbowo, Agatha; Patlolla, Anita K

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the response of testes, epididymides and sperm in pubertal Wistar rats following exposure to 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mg kg(-1) functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) for 5 days. The results showed that administration of (f-MWCNTs) significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in a dose-dependent manner in both testes and sperm compared with control group. Moreover, the significant decrease in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase and glutathione level was accompanied with significant elevation in the levels of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde in both testes and sperm of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats. The spermiogram of (f-MWCNTs)-treated rats indicated significant decrease in epididymal sperm number, sperm progressive motility, testicular sperm number and daily sperm production with elevated sperm abnormalities when compared with the control. Exposure to (f-MWCNTs) decreased plasma testosterone level and produced marked morphological changes including decreased geminal epithelium, edema, congestion, reduced spermatogenic cells and focal areas of tubular degeneration in the testes. The lumen of the epididymides contained reduced sperm cells and there was mild to severe hyperplasia epithelial cells lining the duct of the epididymis. Collectively, pubertal exposure of male rats to (f-MWCNTs) elicited oxidative stress response resulting in marked testicular and epididymides dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 543-551, 2016. PMID:25410135

  8. Long-term cortisol treatment inhibits pubertal development in male common carp, Cyprinus carpio L.

    PubMed

    Consten, D; Bogerd, J; Komen, J; Lambert, J G; Goos, H J

    2001-04-01

    The onset and regulation of puberty is determined by functional development of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis. Stress has been shown to interfere with reproduction and the functioning of the BPG axis. The response to chronic and severe stress may require much energy and force the organism to make adaptive choices. Energy that is normally available for processes like growth, immune response, or reproduction will be channeled into restoration of the disturbed homeostasis. Cortisol plays a key role in the homeostatic adaptation during or after stress. In the present study, immature common carp were fed with cortisol-containing food pellets covering the pubertal period. We showed that cortisol caused an inhibition of pubertal development, by affecting directly or indirectly all components of the BPG axis. The salmon GnRH content of the brain was decreased. Luteinizing hormone- and FSH-encoding mRNA levels in the pituitary and LH plasma levels were diminished by long-term cortisol treatment, as was the testicular androgen secretion. Testicular development, reflected by gonadosomatic index and the first wave of spermatogenesis, was retarded. PMID:11259251

  9. A Pan African age for the HP-HT granulite gneisses of Zabargad island: implications for the early stages of the Red Sea rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancelot, Joël R.; Bosch, Delphine

    1991-12-01

    Up to now the age of granulite gneisses intruded by the Zabargad mantle diapir has been an unsolved problem. These gneisses may represent either a part of the adjacent continental crust primarily differentiated during the Pan African orogeny, or new crust composed of Miocene clastic sediments deposited in a developing rift, crosscut by a diabase dike swarm and gabbroic intrusions, and finally metamorphosed and deformed by the mantle diapir. Previous geochronological results obtained on Zabargad island and Al Lith and Tihama-Asir complexes (Saudi Arabia) suggest an Early Miocene age of emplacement for the Zabargad mantle diapir during the early opening of the Red Sea rift. In contrast, Sm sbnd Nd and Rb sbnd Sr internal isochrons yield Pan African dates for felsic and basic granulites collected 500-600 m from the contact zone with the peridotites. Devoid of evidence for retrograde metamorphic, minerals from a felsic granulite provide well-defined Rb sbnd Sr and Sm sbnd Nd dates of 655 ± 8 and 699 ± 34 Ma for the HP-HT metamorphic event (10 kbar, 850°C). The thermal event related to the diapir emplacement is not recorded in the Sm sbnd Nd and Rb sbnd Sr systems of the studied gneisses; in contrast, the development of a retrograde amphibolite metamorphic paragenesis strongly disturbed the Rb sbnd Sr isotopic system of the mafic granulite. The initial 143Nd/ 144Nd ratio of the felsic granulite is higher than the contemporaneous value for CHUR and is in agreement with other Nd isotopic data for samples of upper crust from the Arabian shield. This result suggests that source rocks of the felsic granulite were derived at 1.0 to 1.2 Ga from either an average MORB-type mantle or a local 2.2 Ga LREE-depleted mantle. Zabargad gneisses represent a part of the disrupted lower continental crust of the Pan African Afro-Arabian shield. During early stages of the Red Sea rifting in the Miocene, these Precambrian granulites were intruded and dragged upwards by a rising peridotite

  10. Effects of Pubertal Timing on Communication Behaviors and Stress Reactivity in Young Women during Conflict Discussions with Their Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weichold, Karina; Buttig, Sabine; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2008-01-01

    Individuation, a process whereby adolescents gain autonomy from their parents while maintaining emotional relatedness, is displayed by characteristic styles of verbal exchanges. Negotiating this developmental transition is often stressful for adolescents and their parents. This study deals with the association between pubertal timing,…

  11. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  12. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  13. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Van Den Bree, Marianne B. M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls' (N = 1,335) and boys' (N = 1,203) cigarette and alcohol use across a 12-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time…

  14. ASSESSMENT OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER (PBDE) MIXTURE, IN THE EDSP MALE AND FEMALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    DE-71, a commercial mixture, was used to test the sensitivity of the female and male pubertal protocol to detect thyroid active chemicals. These protocols are being evaluated for the U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program as part of a Tier I Screening Battery. To exa...

  15. The Effect of Pubertal and Psychosocial Timing on Adolescents' Alcohol Use: What Role Does Alcohol-Specific Parenting Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.

    2011-01-01

    In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…

  16. Effect of pubertal status and number of estrous cycles prior to the breeding season on pregnancy rate in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate whether pubertal status prior to breeding influences pregnancy rate in beef heifers. Records were collected at West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte, NE from 2002 to 2011 (Exp. 1; n = 1,005) and Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman,...

  17. Do Trajectories of Household Risk in Childhood Moderate Pubertal Timing Effects on Substance Initiation in Middle School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Andrews, Judy A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on pubertal timing has either evaluated contextual predictors of early puberty or negative adjustment outcomes associated with off-time development, especially early maturation. In this study, we integrated these 2 lines of research by evaluating the moderating influence of early childhood household risk on associations between…

  18. THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERCIAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL EITHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE EFFECTS OF DE-71, A COMMERICAL POLYBROMINATED DIPHENYL ETHER MIXTURE, ON FEMALE PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION. S.C. Laws1, J. M. Ferrell1, J. M Hedge2, K. M. Crofton2, R.L. Cooper1, and T.E. Stoker1. 1Reprod. Tox. Div., 2Neurotox. Div., NHEERL, ORD, USEPA, R...

  19. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls' Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J.; Roosa, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in…

  20. Assessment of DE-71, a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixture, in the EDSP male and female pubertal protocols.

    PubMed

    Stoker, Tammy E; Laws, Susan C; Crofton, Kevin M; Hedge, Joan M; Ferrell, Janet M; Cooper, Ralph L

    2004-03-01

    DE-71, a commercial mixture, was used to test the sensitivity of the female and male pubertal protocol to detect thyroid active chemicals. These protocols are being evaluated for the U.S. EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program as part of a Tier I Screening Battery. To examine the ability of these protocols to screen for chemicals that induce the clearance of thyroid hormone, we examined male and female Wistar rats following DE-71 exposure. Rats were gavaged daily with 0, 3, 30, or 60 mg/kg DE in corn oil from postnatal day (PND) 23-53 in the male or PND 22-41 in the female. The temporal effects of DE-71 on liver enzymes and thyroid hormones were measured in another group of males and females following only 5 days of dosing (PND 21 to 26 in females and PND 23 to 28 in males). Serum T4 was significantly decreased at 30 and 60 mg/kg following the 5-day exposures and in the 21-day exposed females. Doses of 3, 30, and 60 mg/kg decreased T4 in 31-day exposed males. Serum T3 was decreased and TSH elevated by 30 and 60 mg/kg in the 31-day exposed males only. Decreased colloid area and increased follicular cell heights (indicative of the hypothyroid state) were observed in thyroids of the 60 mg/kg groups of 20- and 31-day exposed female and males. Increased liver-to-body weight ratios coincided with a significant induction of uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UDGPT; two to four-fold), and ethoxy- and pentoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD and PROD) at the two highest doses in all exposures. Of the androgen dependent tissues in the 31-day exposed males, seminal vesicle (SV) and ventral prostate (VP) weights were reduced at 60 mg/kg, while testes and epididymal weights were not affected. Preputial separation (PPS) was also significantly delayed by doses of 30 and 60 mg/kg. In the female, the 60 mg/kg dose also caused a significant delay in the age of vaginal opening. Based upon the thyroid hormone response data, this study provides evidence that the 31-day

  1. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  2. Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI). Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August) had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10), later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45) and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9) compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February) showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10), for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15) and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006). The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91) or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7). However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin

  3. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  4. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R; Smith, Sheryl S

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K(+) (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28-32 PND) and pubertal (~35-44 PND) female wild-type or α4-/- mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K(+) induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4-/-, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K(+) at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K(+), suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence. PMID:27561815

  5. Pubertal Expression of α4βδ GABAA Receptors Reduces Seizure-Like Discharges in CA1 Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lie; Shen, Hui; Merlin, Lisa R.; Smith, Sheryl S.

    2016-01-01

    More than half of children with epilepsy outgrow their seizures, yet the underlying mechanism is unknown. GABAergic inhibition increases at puberty in female mice due to expression of extrasynaptic α4βδ GABAA receptors (GABARs). Therefore, we tested the role of these receptors in regulating seizure-like discharges in CA1 hippocampus using a high K+ (8.5 mM) seizure model. Spontaneous field potentials were recorded from hippocampus of pre-pubertal (~28–32 PND) and pubertal (~35–44 PND) female wild-type or α4−/− mice. The coastline length, a measure of burst intensity, was assessed. 8.5 mM K+ induced seizure-like discharges in over 60% of pre-pubertal slices, but only in 7% of pubertal slices, where the coastline length was reduced by 70% (P = 0.04). However, the pubertal decrease in seizure-like discharges was not seen in the α4−/−, implicating α4βδ GABARs as the cause of the decreased seizure-like activity during puberty. Administration of THIP or DS2, to selectively increase α4βδ current, reduced activity in 8.5 mM K+ at puberty, while blockade of α5-GABARs had no effect. GABAergic current was depolarizing but inhibitory in 8.5 mM K+, suggesting a mechanism for the effects of α4βδ and α5-GABARs, which exhibit different polarity-dependent desensitization. These data suggest that α4βδ GABARs are anti-convulsant during adolescence. PMID:27561815

  6. The Antecedents of Menarcheal Age: Heredity, Family Environment, and Stressful Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Considered variations in pubertal timing, specifically age at menarche, and association with various antecedents, including heredity; weight and weight for height; stressful life events; family relations; absence or presence of adult male in household; and psychological adjustment, in 75 premenarcheal adolescent girls. Found complex interactions…

  7. Use of commercial and social sources of alcohol by underage drinkers: the role of pubertal timing.

    PubMed

    Storvoll, Elisabet E; Pape, Hilde; Rossow, Ingeborg

    2008-01-01

    We have explored whether alcohol use and procurement of alcohol from commercial and social sources vary with pubertal timing. A sub-sample of 9291 Norwegian minors (13-17 year-olds) was extracted from a nationwide school survey (response rate: 92%). Adolescents who had matured early (early developers, EDs) reported higher consumption and more alcohol-related harm than those who had matured late (late developers, LDs) or at the "normal" time (on time developers, ODs). Purchases from on-premise and off-premise outlets were much more important sources of alcohol for EDs than for ODs and LDs - both in relative and absolute terms. Moreover, EDs were somewhat more likely to obtain alcohol from social sources. Taken together, the findings indicate that adolescents who mature early have access to a larger variety of sources of alcohol than adolescents who mature later - which in turn may explain their increased level of drinking. PMID:17553624

  8. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo R; de Farias, Wialla K T; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  9. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Rodrigo R.; de Farias, Wialla K. T.; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M.; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  10. The progestin levonorgestrel disrupts gonadotropin expression and sex steroid levels in pubertal roach (Rutilus rutilus).

    PubMed

    Kroupova, H K; Trubiroha, A; Lorenz, C; Contardo-Jara, V; Lutz, I; Grabic, R; Kocour, M; Kloas, W

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestin levonorgestrel (LNG) on the reproductive endocrine system of a teleost fish, the roach (Rutilus rutilus). Pubertal roach were exposed for 28 days in a flow-through system to four concentrations of LNG (3, 31, 312, and 3124 ng/l). Both males and females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited the upregulated levels of vitellogenin and oestrogen receptor 1 mRNA in the liver. At the same concentration, LNG caused a significant upregulation of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding luteinising hormone β-subunit (lhβ) and the suppression of the mRNA expression of the gene encoding follicle-stimulating hormone β-subunit (fshβ) in the pituitary of both male and female roach. A lower LNG concentration (312 ng/l) suppressed mRNA expression of fshβ in males only. Females treated with 3124 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and oestradiol (E2) concentrations, whereas their testosterone (T) level was higher compared with the control. Females exposed to 312 ng/l LNG presented significantly lower plasma E2 concentrations. Males exposed to ≥31 ng/l LNG exhibited significantly reduced 11-KT levels. As determined through a histological analysis, the ovaries of females were not affected by LNG exposure, whereas the testes of males exposed to 31 and 312 ng/l LNG exhibited a significantly higher percentage of spermatogonia B compared with the control. The results of the present study demonstrate that LNG disrupts the reproductive system of pubertal roach by affecting the pituitary gonadotropin expression and the sex steroid levels. This disruption was determined to occur in males after exposure to an environmentally relevant concentration (31 ng/l). Moreover, the highest tested concentration of LNG (3124 ng/l) exerted an oestrogenic effect on fish of both sexes. PMID:24893273

  11. Immunohistochemical evaluation of apoptosis and proliferation in the mucous membrane of selected uterine regions in pre-pubertal bitches exposed to low doses of zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Stopa, E; Babińska, I; Zielonka, Ł; Gajęcki, M; Gajęcka, M

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. Those biologically active compounds occur naturally and they include zearalenone (ZEN), a mycotoxin that contaminates plant material, including the ingredients used in the production of commercial dog food. The influence of monotonic, low-dose and long-term exposure to ZEN on pre-pubertal bitches has not been fully explored to date. This paper describes a 42-day experiment performed on clinically healthy female dogs aged approximately 70 days, with estimated body weight of 8 kg. The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups (EI and EII) and a control group (C) of 10 animals each. Group EI received 50 μg ZEN/kg (of body weight) per os, group EII received 75 μg ZEN/kg BW per os, and the control group was administered placebo. The bitches were ovariohysterectomized at the end of the experiment (at around 112 days of age), and selected sections of the uterine wall were subjected to immunohistochemical analyses (TUNEL and PCNA). A shift towards higher apoptotic (AI) and proliferative index (PI) was observed, in particular in group EI. Higher AI and PI values were noted in the epithelium of all uterine regions analysed and in the uterine glands in the uterine horn proximal to the body of the uterus. PMID:27096802

  12. Le sacrum de Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q ( Australopithecus africanus): nouvelles données sur la croissance et sur l'âge osseux du spécimen (hommage à R. Broom et J.T. Robinson) . The sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14 Q (Australopithecus africanus): new data on the growth and on the osseus age of the specimen (homage to R. Broom and J.T. Robinson)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Christine; Gommery, Dominique

    1999-08-01

    The fossil sacrum of Sterkfontein Sts 14Q ( Australopithecus africanus) was compared with 96 human sacrums of known age so as to reveal its growth stage. Robinson (1972) noticed the presence of an immature trait (unfused intervertebral disc between S1 and S2) in this individual which in other respects is supposed to be a fully matured adult. Our study brings us to define a "sub-adult" category corresponding to a class between the ages of 16 to 25 years in modern humans. Sts 14Q had the same state of maturation, which corresponds to a post-pubertal individual which had not finished its growth concerning the sacral breadth, and probably the pelvic breadth.

  13. Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  14. Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  15. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  16. Effect of insulin with concurrent amino acid infusion on protein metabolism in rapidly growing pubertal children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Godil, Mushtaq A; Wilson, Thomas A; Garlick, Peter J; McNurlan, Margaret A

    2005-08-01

    Insulin treatment of prepubertal children with insulin-dependent diabetes improves body protein balance by decreasing the rate of protein degradation without stimulating protein synthesis. However, insulin also causes hypoaminoacidemia, so the inability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis may have been limited by substrate availability. We investigated the ability of insulin to stimulate protein synthesis in growing pubertal children who were given sufficient amino acids to counter insulin-induced hypoaminoacidemia. Protein metabolism in six pubertal children with type 1 diabetes was assessed from leucine kinetics during a primed, 6-h infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine. The children were studied in the postabsorptive state during a basal (insulin withdrawn) period and during the infusion of 0.83 mU * kg(-1) * min(-1) human regular insulin. Amino acids and glucose were given with insulin to prevent hypoaminoacidemia and hypoglycemia. Net leucine balance was significantly higher with insulin than in the basal state, the result of decreased protein degradation but also decreased protein synthesis. The data suggest that insulin alone does not increase protein synthesis in pubertal children with type 1 diabetes. PMID:16006430

  17. Pubertal timing and its link to behavioral and emotional problems among 'at-risk' African American adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K; Pina, Armando A

    2009-06-01

    Using an 'at-risk' sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N=102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation modeling results indicated that the girls' retrospective reports of menarche were significantly related to their perceived relative menarche, whereas the girls' retrospective reports of development of their breasts were not related to their perceived relative development of breasts. Girls who perceived their breasts developing early relative to their peers were more likely to engage in delinquent behaviors according to teacher report. Significant effects of teacher reported adolescent internalizing problems also were found for girls who retrospectively reported either early or late development of breasts. The study's findings underscore the importance of teasing apart the effects of different indicators of girls' pubertal development on psychosocial adjustment and including teachers' reports of girls' emotional and behavioral problems, particularly among girls with the additional risks associated with residing in an economically disadvantaged urban setting. PMID:18801563

  18. Peer and Individual Risk Factors in Adolescence Explaining the Relationship Between Girls' Pubertal Timing and Teenage Childbearing.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, C Emily; Cance, Jessica Duncan; Maslowsky, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Girls with early pubertal timing are at elevated risk for teenage childbearing; however, the modifiable mechanisms driving this relationship are not well understood. The objective of the current study was to determine whether substance use, perceived peer substance use, and older first sexual partners mediate the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Data are from Waves 1-15 of the female cohort of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth 1997 (NLSY97), a nationwide, ongoing cohort study of U.S. men and women born between 1980 and 1984. The analytic sample (n = 2066) was 12-14 years old in 1997 and ethnically diverse (51 % white, 27 % black, 22 % Latina). Using structural equation modeling, we found substance use in early adolescence and perceived peer substance use each partially mediated the relationships among girls' pubertal timing, sexual debut, and teenage childbearing. Our findings suggest early substance use behavior as one modifiable mechanism to be targeted by interventions aimed at preventing teenage childbearing among early developing girls. PMID:26769576

  19. In vitro development of secondary follicles from pre-pubertal and adult goats cultured in two-dimensional or three-dimensional systems.

    PubMed

    Silva, G M; Rossetto, R; Chaves, R N; Duarte, A B G; Araújo, V R; Feltrin, C; Bernuci, M P; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Xu, M; Woodruff, T K; Campello, C C; Figueiredo, J R

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) alginate culture systems on in vitro development of pre-antral caprine follicles. In addition, the influence of the reproductive age of the ovary donor on the in vitro culture success was investigated. Pre-antral follicles from pre-pubertal or adult goats were isolated and cultured directly on a plastic surface (2D) or encapsulated in an alginate-based matrix (3D). After 18 days, the oocytes underwent in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) to produce embryos. The 3D system showed higher rates of follicle survival, lower rates of oocyte extrusion, and a greater number of recovered oocytes for IVM and IVF (P < 0.05). Only pre-antral follicles from adult animals produced MII oocytes and embryos. The estradiol concentrations increased from day 2 to day 12 of culture in all groups tested (P < 0.05). Conversely, progesterone concentrations were lower in 3D-cultured follicles than in 2D-cultured follicles, with differences on days 2 and 6 of culture (P < 0.05). We provide compelling evidence that a 2D or 3D alginate in vitro culture system offers a promising approach to achieving full in vitro development of caprine pre-antral follicles to produce mature oocytes that are capable of fertilization and viable embryos. PMID:24666604

  20. Effects of pubertal timing on deviant behaviors in Taiwan: A longitudinal analysis of 7th- to 12th-grade adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Meng-Che; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between pubertal timing and deviant behaviors in Taiwan using Taiwan Youth Project (TYP) data. The TYP used multistage-stratified and class-clustered methods in 40 randomly selected schools. We analyzed 1541 adolescents (770 boys; 50.0%) who self-reported their deviant behaviors in 7th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grades. Participants were assigned to early- (n = 244; 15.8%), on-time- (n = 992; 64.4%), and late- (n = 305; 19.8%) puberty groups, and one-way analysis of variance and latent growth modeling were used to examine the frequency of deviant behaviors between them. Early-puberty adolescents had more deviant behaviors (mean = 0.43, SD = 0.74) than did late-puberty adolescents during 7th grade (mean = 0.27, SD = 0.59; p = 0.004), but not after 8th grade. There were no significant differences in the deviance level between on-time-puberty and early- and late-puberty adolescents. Moreover, puberty was not correlated with the growth of deviant behaviors, which decreased with age. However, boys seemed to engage in more deviant behaviors at the beginning, but their engagement seemed to decline faster than it did for girls. In sum, the deviance of early-puberty adolescents seemed to diminish as they got older. PMID:25956430

  1. Oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation in post-pubertal female children at risk for premature ovarian failure due to accelerated follicle loss in Turner Syndrome or cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, K; Bedoschi, G

    2014-01-01

    Objective To preliminarily study the feasibility of oocyte cryopreservation in post-pubertal girls aged between 13 and 15 years who were at risk for premature ovarian failure due to the accelerated follicle loss associated with Turner’s Syndrome or cancer treatments. Design Retrospective cohort and review of literature. Setting Academic fertility preservation unit. Participants Three girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome, one girl diagnosed with germ-cell tumor and one girl diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukemia. Interventions Assessment of ovarian reserve, ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation, and mature oocyte cryopreservation. Main Outcome Measure Response to ovarian stimulation, number of mature oocytes cryopreserved and complications, if any. Results Mean AMH, baseline FSH, Estradiol and antral follicle counts were 1.30 ± 0.39, 6.08 ± 2.63, 41.39 ± 24.68, 8.0 ± 3.2; respectively. In Turner girls the ovarian reserve assessment indicated already diminished ovarian reserve. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation was successfully performed in all female children referred for fertility preservation. A range of 4–11 mature oocytes (mean 8.1 ± 3.4) was cryopreserved without any complications. All girls tolerated the procedure well. Conclusions Oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible technique in selected female children at risk for premature ovarian failure. Further studies would be beneficial to test the success of oocyte cryopreservation in young girls. PMID:25214440

  2. Effect of Aging in the Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Online-Hemodiafiltration

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Alexandra; Madureira, José; Alija, Pablo; Fernandes, João Carlos; Oliveira, José Gerardo; Lopez, Martin; Filgueiras, Madalena; Amado, Leonilde; Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Miranda, Vasco; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to evaluate how aging could influence patients’ perception of health quality of life (HRQOL), as well as, the effect of aging on dialysis adequacy and in hematological, iron status, inflammatory and nutritional markers. In this transversal study were enrolled 305 ESRD patients under online-hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) (59.67% males; 64.9 ± 14.3 years old). Data about comorbidities, hematological data, iron status, dialysis adequacy, nutritional and inflammatory markers were collected from patient’s records. Moreover, HRQOL score, by using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF), was assessed. Analyzing the results according to quartiles of age, significant differences were found for some parameters evaluated by the KDQOL-SF instrument, namely for work status, physical functioning and role-physical, which decreased with increasing age. We also found a higher proportion of diabetic patients, a decrease in creatinine, iron, albumin serum levels, transferrin saturation and nPCR, with increasing age. Moreover, significant negative correlations were found between age and mean cell hemoglobin concentration, iron, transferrin saturation, albumin, nPCR, work status, physical functioning and role-physical. In conclusion, our results showed that aging is associated with a decreased work status, physical functioning and role-physical, with a decreased dialysis adequacy, iron availability and nutritional status, and with an increased proportion of diabetic patients and of patients using central venous catheter, as the vascular access. The knowledge of these changes associated with aging, which have impact in the quality of life of the patients, could be useful in their management. PMID:25657849

  3. Increased Neurokinin B (Tac2) Expression in the Mouse Arcuate Nucleus Is an Early Marker of Pubertal Onset with Differential Sensitivity to Sex Steroid-Negative Feedback than Kiss1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Víctor M.; Kwong, Cecilia; Noel, Sekoni D.; Martin, Cecilia; Xu, Shuyun; Clifton, Donald K.; Carroll, Rona S.; Steiner, Robert A.; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2012-01-01

    At puberty, neurokinin B (NKB) and kisspeptin (Kiss1) may help to amplify GnRH secretion, but their precise roles remain ambiguous. We tested the hypothesis that NKB and Kiss1 are induced as a function of pubertal development, independently of the prevailing sex steroid milieu. We found that levels of Kiss1 mRNA in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) are increased prior to the age of puberty in GnRH/sex steroid-deficient hpg mice, yet levels of Kiss1 mRNA in wild-type mice remained constant, suggesting that sex steroids exert a negative feedback effect on Kiss1 expression early in development and across puberty. In contrast, levels of Tac2 mRNA, encoding NKB, and its receptor (NK3R; encoded by Tacr3) increased as a function of puberty in both wild-type and hpg mice, suggesting that during development Tac2 is less sensitive to sex steroid-dependent negative feedback than Kiss1. To compare the relative responsiveness of Tac2 and Kiss1 to the negative feedback effects of gonadal steroids, we examined the effect of estradiol (E2) on Tac2 and Kiss1 mRNA and found that Kiss1 gene expression was more sensitive than Tac2 to E2-induced inhibition at both juvenile and adult ages. This differential estrogen sensitivity was tested in vivo by the administration of E2. Low levels of E2 significantly suppressed Kiss1 expression in the ARC, whereas Tac2 suppression required higher E2 levels, supporting differential sensitivity to E2. Finally, to determine whether inhibition of NKB/NK3R signaling would block the onset of puberty, we administered an NK3R antagonist to prepubertal (before postnatal d 30) females and found no effect on markers of pubertal onset in either WT or hpg mice. These results indicate that the expression of Tac2 and Tacr3 in the ARC are markers of pubertal activation but that increased NKB/NK3R signaling alone is insufficient to trigger the onset of puberty in the mouse. PMID:22893725

  4. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  5. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  6. Effects of homozygosity of the nude (rnu) gene in an inbred strain of rats: studies of lymphoid and non--lymphoid organs in different age groups of nude rats of LEW background at a stage in the gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Hougen, H P; Klausen, B

    1984-01-01

    Several age groups of nude homozygous rnu/rnu and heterozygous rnu/+ rats of the same genetic background at an early stage of back-crossing (LEW/Mol) were compared as to body and organ weights, histological appearance and cell density of lymphoid organs, haematological values and differential counts of bone marrow and peripheral blood. No thymic tissue was found in the nude animals. 7-week-old nudes were smaller than control animals and had relatively larger non-lymphoid organs and cell-depleted peripheral lymphoid organs. Other age groups showed little difference. Peripheral blood of nude rats showed no signs of lymphopaenia in contrast with the findings in nude mice. The number of thoracic duct lymphocytes was, however, significantly smaller in all age groups of the nude rats, and the bone marrow tended to contain fewer lymphocytes. PMID:10628778

  7. Physiological and environmental factors associated with central fat distribution in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Suder, A; Plonka, M; Jagielski, P; Piorecka, B; Glodzik, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the work was to determine a degree of explanation of the variation of central fat distribution described by the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) by both environmental and biological factors, including hormonal ones. The authors also intended to define the factors which are connected with a risk of abdominal obesity in girls. The study material includes a cross-sectional sample of 297 girls aged 9–16 years, examined in sport and regular schools in Cracow, Poland. Direct anthropometric measurements were done, breast development was assessed (Tanner stage) and leptin and ghrelin concentration in blood serum was estimated (by RIA method). The girls’ lifestyles and socio-economic status were investigated through survey questionnaires. The stepwise descending regression method was applied to evaluate a degree of WC, WHtR and BMI variation explanation. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to indicate factors connected with a risk of abdominal obesity (WHtR ³ 0.50) by calculating odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Variation of WC and WHtR was explained in, respectively, 53% and 44% by biological factors i.e. age, body height, the Tanner stage and blood serum leptin and ghrelin concentration as well as by environmental factors i.e. obesity prevalence in fathers and the girls’ high physical activity. Variation of BMI was explained in 56% by a similar set of variables, excluding the level of physical activity. The biological factors were the highest determinants of an adipose tissue distribution type in the girls. Besides biological factors a significant role was also played by the environmental ones: obesity prevalence in fathers and high level of physical activity. The waist to height ratio seemed to be a more sensitive identifier of environmental behaviours than the general adiposity index. PMID:26084228

  8. A longitudinal study: changes in cortical thickness and surface area during pubertal maturation.

    PubMed

    Herting, Megan M; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Dahl, Ronald E; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal) on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence. PMID:25793383

  9. A Longitudinal Study: Changes in Cortical Thickness and Surface Area during Pubertal Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Gautam, Prapti; Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Sex hormones have been shown to contribute to the organization and function of the brain during puberty and adolescence. Moreover, it has been suggested that distinct hormone changes in girls versus boys may contribute to the emergence of sex differences in internalizing and externalizing behavior during adolescence. In the current longitudinal study, the influence of within-subject changes in puberty (physical and hormonal) on cortical thickness and surface area was examined across a 2-year span, while controlling for age. Greater increases in Tanner Stage predicted less superior frontal thinning and decreases in precuneus surface area in both sexes. Significant Tanner Stage and sex interactions were also seen, with less right superior temporal thinning in girls but not boys, as well as greater decreases in the right bank of the superior temporal sulcus surface area in boys compared to girls. In addition, within-subject changes in testosterone over the 2-year follow-up period were found to relate to decreases in middle superior frontal surface area in boys, but increases in surface area in girls. Lastly, larger increases in estradiol in girls predicted greater middle temporal lobe thinning. These results show that within-subject physical and hormonal markers of puberty relate to region and sex-specific changes in cortical development across adolescence. PMID:25793383

  10. Thermochronology of economic mineral deposits: dating the stages of mineralization at Panasqueira, Portugal, by high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectrum techniques on muscovite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snee, L.W.; Sutter, J.F.; Kelly, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    This study is an example of a new and powerful application of 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of muscovite. It is now possible to establish time constraints necessary for solving some of the long-standing problems in economic geology. Beyond this, the unique geologic situation of Panasqueira has allowed us to quantify the thermal characteristics of muscovite. Published fluid inclusion data have been used to estimate a muscovite argon closure temperature of ~325??C during rapid cooling or short reheating and a temperature of ~270??C during slow cooling or extended reheating. Argon-loss patterns displayed by all dated muscovites resulted from reheating after original closure; the mechanism for this argon loss appears to have been argon transport by volume diffusion. Thus, 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of muscovite can be used to evaluate thermal conditions controlling argon diffusion as well as age, duration, and number of episodes of mineralization. -from Authors

  11. Pubertal Development and Behavior: Hormonal Activation of Social and Motivational Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Ronald E.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes are part of a more general re-orientation of social behavior. More specifically we hypothesize that pubertal maturation is associated with the activation of social and motivational tendencies, which in turn influence behavior and emotion in adolescence depending upon interactions with social context. We focus on evidence for two examples of these motivational changes: 1) increases in sensation seeking (motivational tendency to want to experience high-intensity, exciting experiences) and 2) stronger natural interest in—and pursuit of—contact with peers and potential romantic partners. We consider how these motivational changes contribute to the broader social re-orientation of adolescence, including exploration of social experiences, the development of skills and knowledge relevant to taking on adult social roles, individuation from family, and the establishment of an individual identity, all of which represent core developmental tasks during this period in the life span (Blakemore, 2008; Dahl & Spear, 2004; Steinberg & Morris, 2000). The paper also emphasizes the importance of investigating and understanding the direct influences of puberty on behavior and disentangling these from the broader set of changes during adolescent development. PMID:19942334

  12. Development of an Immortalised, Post-Pubertal Gonadotrophon-Releasing Hormone Neuronal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, A.; Ng, Y.; Divall, S. A.; Singh, S. P.; Radovick, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is important in reproduction, although some of the mechanisms for its synthesis and release remain elusive. Progress in understanding the GnRH neurone has been hampered by the limited number and diffuse distribution of the neurone in the mammalian brain. Several stable GnRH-expressing cell lines have been developed using in vivo expression of the simian virus 40 T Antigen (TAg), and they have been helpful for the study of gene expression and neuronal function. However, expression of an immortalising gene may interfere with normal cellular function. We developed a novel GnRH-secreting cell line transgenic mouse model suitable for targeted transformation in post-pubertal mice using a tetracycline-regulated TAg transgene. This clonal cell line, GRT, expresses neuronal markers and GnRH. GRT cells grown in medium containing tetracycline-free serum express increasing mRNA levels of GnRH associated with declining levels of TAg expression. The novelty and ultimately the usefulness of this cell line is that TAg expression, which could affect the GnRH neuronal phenotype, can be regulated by tetracycline. PMID:18624926

  13. Differential proteome and gene expression reveal response to carbon ion irradiation in pubertal mice testes.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; He, Yuxuan; Zhang, Hong; Miao, Guoying

    2014-03-21

    Heavy ion radiation, a high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, has been shown to have adverse effects on reproduction in male mice. The aim of this study was to profile and investigate the differentially expressed proteins in pubertal male mice testes following carbon ion radiation (CIR). Male mice underwent whole-body irradiation with CIR (1 and 4 Gy), and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was used to investigate the alteration in protein expression in 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) gels of testes caused by irradiation after 14 days. 8 differentially expressed proteins were identified and these proteins were mainly involved in energy supply, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell proliferation, cell cycle, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial respiration, which play important roles in the inhibition of testicular function in response to CIR. Furthermore, we confirmed the relationship between transcription of mRNA and the abundance of proteins. Our results indicated that these proteins may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanism of CIR toxicity, and suggested that the gene expression response to CIR involves diverse regulatory mechanisms from transcription of mRNA to the formation of functional proteins. PMID:24440814

  14. Pubertal development and behavior: hormonal activation of social and motivational tendencies.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E

    2010-02-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes are part of a more general re-orientation of social behavior. More specifically we hypothesize that pubertal maturation is associated with the activation of social and motivational tendencies, which in turn influence behavior and emotion in adolescence depending upon interactions with social context. We focus on evidence for two examples of these motivational changes: (1) increases in sensation-seeking (motivational tendency to want to experience high-intensity, exciting experiences) and (2) stronger natural interest in--and pursuit of--contact with peers and potential romantic partners. We consider how these motivational changes contribute to the broader social re-orientation of adolescence, including exploration of social experiences, development of skills and knowledge relevant to taking on adult social roles, individuation from family, and establishment of an individual identity, all of which represent core developmental tasks during this period in the life span (Blakemore, 2008; Dahl & Spear, 2004; Steinberg & Morris, 2000). The paper also emphasizes the importance of investigating and understanding the direct influences of puberty on behavior and disentangling these from the broader set of changes during adolescent development. PMID:19942334

  15. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON PROTEIN CARBONYL CONTENT IN FRONTAL CORTEX AND CEREBELLUM OF BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood, largely due to a lack of data on exposures in older adults and adequate animal models. We examined the acute effects of the volatile organic compound, toluene, in a study investigating m...

  16. The Treatment Decision-Making Process: Age Differences in a Sample of Women Recently Diagnosed with Nonrecurrent Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisek, Ann C.; Laliberte, Linda L.; Allen, Susan M.; Mor, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    Using retrospective, self-report data collected from women recently diagnosed with breast cancer (N=179), examines the influence of age differences in the treatment decision-making process. Findings indicate that older women were less likely than their younger counterparts to have desired participation in therapy selection or sought out medical…

  17. Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

  18. An Extended Age-Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Room-Temperature Storage and Cold Deformation Process Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Grong, Øystein; Schäfer, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    In this article, a new age-hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys is presented (named NaMo-Version 2), which takes into account the combined effect of cold deformation and prolonged room-temperature storage on the subsequent response to artificial aging. As a starting point, the original physical framework of NaMo-Version 1 is revived and used as a basis for the extension. This is permissible, since a more in-depth analysis of the underlying particle-dislocation interactions confirms previous expectations that the simplifying assumption of spherical precipitates is not crucial for the final outcome of the calculations, provided that the yield strength model is calibrated against experimental data. At the same time, the implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner formalism means that the different microstructure models can be linked together in a manner that enforces solute partitioning and competition between the different hardening phases which form during aging ( e.g., clusters, β″ and β'). In a calibrated form, NaMo-Version 2 exhibits a high degree of predictive power, as documented by comparison with experiments, using both dedicated nanostructure and yield strength data as a basis for the validation. Hence, the model is deemed to be well-suited for simulation of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys involving cold-working operations like sheet forming and stretch bending in combination with heat treatment and welding.

  19. Quality of Early Family Relationships and Individual Differences in the Timing of Pubertal Maturation in Girls: A Longitudinal Test of an Evolutionary Model

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Bruce J.; McFadyen-Ketchum, Steven; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    In an 8-year prospective study of 173 girls and their families, the authors tested predictions from J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary model of individual differences in pubertal timing. This model suggests that more negative–coercive (or less positive–harmonious) family relationships in early childhood provoke earlier reproductive development in adolescence. Consistent with the model, fathers' presence in the home, more time spent by fathers in child care, greater supportiveness in the parental dyad, more father–daughter affection, and more mother–daughter affection, as assessed prior to kindergarten, each predicted later pubertal timing by daughters in 7th grade, The positive dimension of family relationships, rather than the negative dimension, accounted for these relations. In total, the quality of fathers' investment in the family emerged as the most important feature of the proximal family environment relative to daughters' pubertal timing. PMID:10474213

  20. Adiposity in children born small for gestational age.

    PubMed

    Tappy, L

    2006-12-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that children born small for gestational age (SGA) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders as adults. This suggests that foetal undernutrition leads to permanent metabolic alterations, which predispose to metabolic abnormalities upon exposure to environmental factors such as low physical activity and/or high-energy intake in later life (thrifty phenotype hypothesis). However, this relationship is not restricted to foetal undernutrition or intrauterine growth retardation, but is also found for children born premature, or for high birth weight children. Furthermore, early post-natal nutrition, and more specifically catch-up growth, appear to modulate cardiovascular risk as well. Intrauterine growth retardation can be induced in animal models by energy/protein restriction, or ligation of uterine arteries. In such models, altered glucose homeostasis, including low beta-cell mass, low insulin secretion and insulin resistance is observed after a few weeks of age. In humans, several studies have confirmed that children born SGA have insulin resistance as adolescents and young adults. Alterations of glucose homeostasis and increased lipid oxidation can indeed be observed already in non-diabetic children born SGA at early pubertal stages. These children also have alterations of stature and changes in body composition (increased fat mass), which may contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Permanent metabolic changes induced by foetal/early neonatal nutrition (metabolic inprinting) may involve modulation of gene expression through DNA methylation, or alterations of organ structure. It is also possible that events occurring during foetal/neonatal development lead to long-lasting alterations of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis or the hypothalamo-pituitary-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. PMID:17133233

  1. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity. PMID:25866877

  2. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context. PMID:26386303

  3. Pubertal exposure to di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate influences social behavior and dopamine receptor D2 of adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ran; Xu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Qingjie

    2016-02-01

    DEHP, one of the most commonly phthalates used in plastics and many other products, is an environmental endocrine disruptor (EED). Puberty is another critical period for the brain development besides the neonatal period and is sensitive to EEDs. Social behavior is organized during puberty, so the present study is to investigate whether pubertal exposure to DEHP influenced social behavior of adult female mice. The results showed that pubertal exposure to DEHP for 2 weeks did not change the serum level of 17β-estradiol and the weight of uterus of adult females, but decreased the number of grid crossings and the frequency of rearing, and increased grooming in open field. DEHP reduced the open arm entries and the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze. DEHP reduced mutual sniffing and grooming between unfamiliar conspecifics in social play task and reduced the right chamber (containing unfamiliar female mouse) entries and the frequency of sniffing unfamiliar female mouse. DEHP at 1 mg kg(-1) d(-1) reduced the time spent in right chamber. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that DEHP decreased the levels of estrogen receptor β (ERβ), dopamine receptor D2, and the phosphorylation of ERKs in striatum. These results suggest that pubertal exposure to DEHP impaired social investigation and sociability and influenced anxiety-like state of adult female mice. The decreased activity of ERK1/2, and the down-regulated D2 and ERβ in striatum may be associated with the DEHP-induced changes of emotional and social behavior in mice. PMID:26524146

  4. Does soaking temperature during controlled slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testes influence course of in vitro spermatogenesis?

    PubMed

    Arkoun, Brahim; Dumont, Ludovic; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Rondanino, Christine; Bironneau, Amandine; Wils, Julien; Rives, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    The banking of testicular tissue before highly gonadotoxic treatment is a prerequisite for the preservation of fertility in pre-pubertal boys not yet producing sperm. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C on the ability of frozen-thawed mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to generate haploid germ cells after in vitro maturation. Testes of 6.5-day-old post-partum CD-1 mice were cryopreserved by using a controlled slow freezing protocol with soaking at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C. Frozen-thawed pre-pubertal testicular tissues were cultured in vitro on agarose gel for 30 days. Histological evaluations were performed and flagellated late spermatids were counted after mechanical dissection of the cultured tissues. The differentiation of frozen SSCs into elongated spermatids was more efficient after treatment at -9 °C than at -7 °C and -8 °C. After dissection, flagellated late spermatids were observed by using Shorr staining. The number of flagellated late spermatids was significantly decreased after slow freezing when compared with a fresh tissue control. Therefore, the soaking temperature during slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue might positively influence the course of in vitro spermatogenesis. Our slow freezing protocol with a soaking temperature at -9 °C was the optimal condition in terms of the achievement of in vitro spermatogenesis with a higher production of elongated spermatids, although the effectiveness of the maturation process was reduced compared with the fresh tissue control. PMID:26714728

  5. The Scribble Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    The term "Scribble Stage" highlights how first efforts appear in student independent work. Age does not correlate with "scribble" work as does experience; upper grade students and even adults will often approach new materials and techniques in an experimental manner as a means to become familiar with them. Everyone is a beginner at the things they…

  6. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  7. Characteristics of youth soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill level

    PubMed Central

    Malina, Robert M; Ribeiro, Basil; Aroso, João; Cumming, Sean P

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the growth, maturity status and functional capacity of youth soccer players grouped by level of skill. Subjects The sample included 69 male players aged 13.2–15.1 years from clubs that competed in the highest division for their age group. Methods Height and body mass of players were measured and stage of pubic hair (PH) was assessed at clinical examination. Years of experience in football were obtained at interview. Three tests of functional capacity were administered: dash, vertical jump and endurance shuttle run. Performances on six soccer‐specific tests were converted to a composite score which was used to classify players into quintiles of skill. Multiple analysis of covariance, controlling for age, was used to test differences among skill groups in experience, growth status and functional capacity, whereas multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the relative contributions of age, years of training in soccer, stage of PH, height, body mass, the height×weight interaction and functional capacities to the composite skill score. Results The skill groups differed significantly in the intermittent endurance run (p<0.05) but not in the other variables. Only the difference between the highest and lowest skill groups in the endurance shuttle run was significant. Most players in the highest (12 of 14) and high (11 of 14) skill groups were in stages PH 4 and PH 5. Pubertal status and height accounted for 21% of the variance in the skill score; adding aerobic resistance to the regression increased the variance in skill accounted for to 29%. In both regressions, the coefficient for height was negative. Conclusion Adolescent soccer players aged 13–15 years classified by skill do not differ in age, experience, body size, speed and power, but differ in aerobic endurance, specifically at the extremes of skill. Stage of puberty and aerobic resistance (positive coefficients) and height (negative coefficient) are significant

  8. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    PubMed

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  9. Effects of food nutrient content, insect age and stage in the feeding cycle on the FMRFamide immunoreactivity of diffuse endocrine cells in the locust gut.

    PubMed

    Zudaire, E; Simpson, S J; Montuenga, L M

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the influence of variations in dietary protein and digestible carbohydrate content, of insect age and of time during the feeding cycle on the endocrine cells of the ampullar region of the midgut in the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria L. Morphometric analysis of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was used as an indirect measure of the amount of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) stored in the gut endocrine cells. There was a highly significant correlation between FaRP content and the nutritional quality of the food, measured relative to the concentrations and ratio of protein to digestible carbohydrate in a nutritionally optimal diet. The direction of the relationship between FaRP content and diet quality varied with age during the fifth stadium. On day 1, FaRP levels increased with the nutritional quality of the food, while on day 4 the opposite relationship was observed. Release of peptide was triggered by the onset of a meal during ad libitum feeding, with cell FaRP levels returning to premeal values within 15 min of the meal ending. The results also suggested that cell contents were released during food deprivation beyond the normal intermeal interval. Locusts switched for a single meal during ad libitum feeding on day 4 from a low- to a high-carbohydrate food did not respond by reducing endocrine cell FaRP content. Our results show a relationship between the diffuse gut endocrine system and feeding and nutrition in locusts. The ampullar endocrine cells are in three-way contact with the midgut luminal contents, with the primary urine from the Malpighian tubules and with the haemolymph. They are thus ideally positioned to play an integrative receptor-secretory function in the regulation of a variety of post-ingestive processes, such as enzyme secretion, absorption, gut motility or nutrient metabolism. PMID:9866881

  10. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  11. Insights into the Genetic Architecture of Early Stage Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Genome-Wide Association Study Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aspelund, Thor; Aung, Tin; Baird, Paul N.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cheng, Ching Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara; Hewitt, Alex W.; Inouye, Michael; Jonasson, Fridbert; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Launer, Lenore; Li, Xiaohui; Liew, Gerald; Lumley, Thomas; McElduff, Patrick; McKnight, Barbara; Mitchell, Paul; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rochtchina, Elena; Rotter, Jerome I.; Scott, Rodney J.; Tay, Wanting; Taylor, Kent; Teo, Yik Ying; Uitterlinden, André G.; Viswanathan, Ananth; Xie, Sophia; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Tai, E. Shyong; Siscovick, David; Klein, Ronald; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y.; Attia, John; Wang, Jie Jin

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD has been relatively under studied. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of early AMD, including 4,089 individuals with prevalent signs of early AMD (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial changes) and 20,453 individuals without these signs. For various published late AMD risk loci, we also compared effect sizes between early and late AMD using an additional 484 individuals with prevalent late AMD. GWAS meta-analysis confirmed previously reported association of variants at the complement factor H (CFH) (peak P = 1.5×10−31) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (P = 4.3×10−24) loci, and suggested Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms (rs2075650; P = 1.1×10−6) associated with early AMD. Other possible loci that did not reach GWAS significance included variants in the zinc finger protein gene GLI3 (rs2049622; P = 8.9×10−6) and upstream of GLI2 (rs6721654; P = 6.5×10−6), encoding retinal Sonic hedgehog signalling regulators, and in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene (rs621313; P = 3.5×10−6), involved in melanin biosynthesis. For a range of published, late AMD risk loci, estimated effect sizes were significantly lower for early than late AMD. This study confirms the involvement of multiple established AMD risk variants in early AMD, but suggests weaker genetic effects on the risk of early AMD relative to late AMD. Several biological processes were suggested to be potentially specific for early AMD, including pathways regulating RPE cell melanin content and signalling pathways potentially involved in retinal regeneration, generating hypotheses for further investigation. PMID:23326517

  12. Differences in mGnRH and cGnRH-II contents in pituitaries and discrete brain areas of Rana rugulosa W. according to age and stage of maturity.

    PubMed

    Yuanyou, L; Haoran, L

    2000-02-01

    (1) In tadpoles, chicken-II gonadotropin-releasing hormone (cGnRH-II) could be measured in the brains before metamorphosis, but mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) did not appear until the stage of metamorphosis, i.e. cGnRH-II appeared earlier than mGnRH during ontogenesis. (2) During the metamorphic climax, mGnRH content increased more rapidly than cGnRH-II; the content of mGnRH was about two times of that of cGnRH-II. (3) In juveniles and adults, the content of mGnRH and cGnRH-II, and the distribution pattern of mGnRH (but not cGnRH-II) in the brains and pituitaries changed with age and stages of gonadal development. mGnRH mainly distributed in the rostral brain areas, whereas cGnRH-II had a widespread distribution in the brain. (4) Both mGnRH and cGnRH-II were present in the pituitaries at each stage of maturity. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) content at sexually maturity was significantly higher than that at other stages of gonadal development, and the content of mGnRH was about 15-18 times of that of cGnRH-II. (5) These results suggest that both mGnRH and cGnRH-II are potentially involved in the direct regulation of pituitary gonadotropes, and mGnRH may be the major active form, cGnRH-II may also serve as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the brain. PMID:11790340

  13. Measurement of macular pigment optical density among healthy Chinese people and patients with early-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xue-Tao; Gu, Hong; Han, Xu; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Li, Xue; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Xu, Jun; Snellingen, Torkel; Liu, Xi-Pu; Wang, Ning-Li; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2015-01-01

    AIM To measure the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in healthy Chinese people and patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS Cross-sectional population based study. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were ascertained by questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was completed for all participants. Participants underwent general physical and ophthalmic examinations and MPOD was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Foveal architecture was measured by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS MPOD of 225 participants (122 healthy and 103 early AMD) was 0.48±0.18. Patients with early AMD (0.52±0.19) tended to have higher MPOD levels than healthy people (0.47±0.17), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.06). Participants with carrot or corn oil intake every week tended to have higher levels of MPOD (P=0.002 and 0.008 respectively) while those with corn intake had relatively lower level of MPOD (P=0.01). MPOD increased with the center foveal thickness (P=0.01). CONCLUSION Our findings show that there is no statistically significant association between MPOD and early AMD in the studied population. MPOD is related to center foveal thickness and diets would influence MPOD levels. PMID:26682171

  14. [Evaluation of nutrition mode and nutritional status and pro health education of children during the period of pubertal spurt in the city of Szczecin].

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna; Friedrich, Mariola; Radziszewska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This research was aimed at evaluation of the method of nutrition and the state of nutrition in the children aged 13 during the period of pubertal spurt who had their body mass, body height and waist measurement defined. These values led to calculation of BMI, WC, and WHtR indicators, which were related to centile distribution of children from Warszawa and Lódź. Only in 63.6% of girls and 68.9% of boys from Szczecin schools the value of BMI was proper. The problem of accumulation of fat tissue (WC > or = 90 c) around the waist refers to nearly 14% of girls and 9.4% of boys. The value of the indicator WHtR > or = 90 c was found in 11% of the children under research. Children with overweight (BMI 90-97 c) and obesity (BMI > or = 97 c) were selected based on the value of BMI indicator. Their menus of three chosen at random weekdays were obtained. Analysis of the nutrition method of children with overweight and obesity showed low energy value of the diet, general protein, complex carbohydrates, cellulose, mineral components (Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn), A, E (girls), C (boys), group B vitamins and also liquids deficiency. The children have undergone a special pro health education in the form of "live" workshops and 3 months after an evaluation inquiry was conducted to assess the effects of the workshops. The analysis of the evaluation inquiry showed that the children have included in their diet breakfasts and afternoon snacks and to their main meal menus whole wheat products, larger quantity of vegetables, fruit and water. It has been also established that sweets, meals of fast food types, chips, pizzy and energizing drinks have been limited. PMID:19803444

  15. Geological and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on late-stage Deccan rhyolitic volcanism, inter-volcanic sedimentation, and the Panvel flexure from the Dongri area, Mumbai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Pande, Kanchan

    2014-04-01

    Post-K-Pg Boundary Deccan magmatism is well known from the Mumbai area in the Panvel flexure zone. Represented by the Salsette Subgroup, it shows characters atypical of much of the Deccan Traps, including rhyolite lavas and tuffs, mafic tuffs and breccias, spilitic pillow basalts, and "intertrappean" sedimentary or volcanosedimentary deposits, with mafic intrusions as well as trachyte intrusions containing basaltic enclaves. The intertrappean deposits have been interpreted as formed in shallow marine or lagoonal environments in small fault-bounded basins due to syn-volcanic subsidence. We report a previously unknown sedimentary deposit underlying the Dongri rhyolite flow from the upper part of the Salsette Subgroup, with a westerly tectonic dip due to the Panvel flexure. We have obtained concordant 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.6 ± 0.6 Ma (2σ) and 62.9 ± 0.2 Ma (2σ) for samples taken from two separate outcrops of this rhyolite. The results are significant in showing that (i) Danian inter-volcanic sedimentary deposits formed throughout Mumbai, (ii) the rock units are consistent with the stratigraphy postulated earlier for Mumbai, (iii) shale fragments known in some Dongri tuffs were likely derived from the sedimentary deposit under the Dongri rhyolite, (iv) the total duration of extrusive and intrusive Deccan magmatism was at least 8-9 million years, and (v) Panvel flexure formed, or continued to form, after 63 Ma, possibly even 62 Ma, and could not have formed by 65-64 Ma as concluded in a recent study.

  16. The Moderating Effects of Pubertal Timing on the Longitudinal Associations Between Parent-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Shelton, Katherine H.; van den Bree, Marianne B.M.

    2010-01-01

    This prospective, longitudinal study investigated the moderating role of pubertal timing on reciprocal links between adolescent appraisals of parent-child relationship quality and girls’ (N=1335) and boys’ (N=1203) cigarette and alcohol use across a twelve-month period. Reciprocal effects were found between parent-child relations and on-time maturing boys and girls’ cigarette and alcohol use, after estimating stability in these constructs across time. Parent-child relationship quality was associated with increased alcohol use twelve months later for early maturing girls. Cigarette and alcohol use were associated with increased problems in the parent-child relationship for late maturing girls. No off-time effects were observed for off-time maturing boys in the pathways between parent-child relationship quality and substance use. Pubertal timing moderated the pathway linking parent-child relationship quality with cigarette use one year later such that the association was stronger for late maturing girls compared to early and on-time maturing girls. The findings indicate interplay between the psychosocial aspects of maturation, family relationships and adolescent substance use and highlight possible gender-specific influences. PMID:21170159

  17. Stage Posts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soulsby, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Uncertainty about identity and the future is occurring at a stage of life when people do question what they have achieved and what they still want to achieve. The notion of midlife crisis has been in existence for some time but recently its occurrence has coincided with opportunities to take early retirement or redundancy. This has meant that the…

  18. Differential effects of short term feeding of a soy protein isolate diet and estrogen treatment on bone in the pre-pubertal rat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beneficial effects of a soy diet on bone quality have been assumed to be due to the putative estrogenic actions of isoflavones. We studied the effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on bone quality and compared these effects to 17 beta-estradiol (E2) in pre-pubertal rats. Female rats were weaned to a ...

  19. EVALUATION OF AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE IN THE ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM'S MALE PUBERTAL PROTOCOL: ABILITY TO DETECT EFFECTS OF THYROID ENDPOINTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Tier 1 male pubertal protocol was designed to detect reproductive development and thyroid function. One purpose of this in vivo protocol is to detect thyrotoxicants via a number of different mechanisms of action. Here we evaluate ...

  20. THE EFFECT OF ATRAZINE ON PUBERTY IN THE MALE WISTAR RATS: AN EVALUATION IN THE PROTOCOL FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT AND THYROID FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since atrazine (ATR), a chlorotriazine herbicide, has been shown previously to alter the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) through a direct effect on the central nervous system (CNS), we hypothesized that exposure to ATR in the EDSTAC male pubertal protoco...

  1. Are the Effects of Early Pubertal Timing on the Initiation of Weekly Alcohol Use Mediated by Peers and/or Parents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the link between early pubertal timing and initiation of weekly alcohol use is mediated by changes in perceived parental alcohol-specific rule setting and changes in perceived proportion of drinkers in the peer group. Longitudinal data including 3 annual waves were used to estimate the hazard for adolescents to initiate…

  2. Modifications to the Current EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program's Tier 1 Female Pubertal Protocol: A Study on the Effects of the Chlorotriazine Simazine

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently the US EPA is implementing a screening program for environmental endocrine disruptors. One of the in vivo assays in the Tier 1 Screen of the Endocrine Disruptors Screening Program (EDSP) is a female pubertal assay. In this study we examined the chlorotriazine simazine, ...

  3. PUBERTAL DEVELOPMENT IN FEMALE WISTAR RATS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO PROPAZINE AND ATRAZINE BIOTRANSFORMATION BY-PRODUCTS, DIAMINO-S-CHLOROTRIAZINE AND HYDROXYATRAZINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown previously that the chlorotriazine herbicide, atrazine (ATR), delays the onset of pubertal development in female rats. ATR and its by-products of microbial degradation are present in soil and groundwater. Since current maximum contaminant levels are set only for ATR...

  4. Corrected Age for Preemies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prenatal Baby Bathing & Skin Care Breastfeeding Crying & Colic Diapers & Clothing Feeding & Nutrition Preemie Sleep Teething & Tooth Care Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Baby > Preemie > Corrected Age ...

  5. Health-related quality of life and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in early stages – longitudinal results from the population-based KORA cohort in a working age population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is widely recognized that health-related quality of life (HRQL) is impaired in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but there is a lack of research on longitudinal associations of COPD and HRQL. This study examined the effects of COPD in early stages of disease on HRQL over ten years in a working-age general population setting in Southern Germany while considering the influence of common comorbidities. Methods In the population-based KORA F4 study (2006–08) 1,321 participants aged 41–61 years performed spirometry and reported information on HRQL (measured by the generic SF-12) and comorbidities. For the same participants, HRQL information was available seven years before and three years after the lung function test from the previous S4 (1999–2001) and the F4L follow-up study (2010). Using linear mixed models, the physical and mental component summary scores (PCS-12 / MCS-12) of the SF-12 were compared over time between COPD groups. Results 7.8% of participants were classified as having COPD (according to the LLN definition and the Global Lungs Initiative), 59.4% of them in grade 1. Regression models showed a negative cross-sectional association of COPD grade 2+ with PCS-12 which persisted when comorbidities were considered. Adjusted mean PCS-12 scores for the COPD grade 2+ group were reduced (−3.5 (p = 0.008) in F4, −3.3 (p = 0.014) in S4 and −4.7 (p = 0.003) in F4L) compared to the group without airflow limitation. The size of the COPD effect in grade 2+ was similar to the effect of myocardial infarction and cancer. Over ten years, a small decline in PCS-12 was observed in all groups. This decline was larger in participants with COPD grade 2+, but insignificant. Regarding MCS-12, no significant cross-sectional or longitudinal associations with COPD were found. Conclusion Despite small HRQL differences between COPD patients in early disease stages and controls and small changes over ten years, our results

  6. Stages of Anal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... following stages are used for anal cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells ... or check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) Treatment of stage 0 is ...

  7. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  8. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood. PMID:8920329

  9. Do Trajectories of Household Risk in Childhood Moderate Pubertal Timing Effects on Substance Initiation in Middle School?

    PubMed Central

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Andrews, Judy A.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on pubertal timing has either evaluated contextual predictors of early puberty or negative adjustment outcomes associated with off-time development, especially early maturation. In this study, we integrated these 2 lines of research by evaluating the moderating influence of early childhood household risk on associations between early puberty and 8th-grade substance use in a longitudinal sample of 1,070 participants. We determined trajectories of early childhood household risk using group-based trajectory analysis. Rates of early maturation were higher but not significantly so in groups with high household risk. Early timing was associated with higher rates of substance initiation only among individuals with a history of high household risk. PMID:20604607

  10. Study of Five Pubertal Transition-Related Gene Polymorphisms as Risk Factors for Premature Coronary Artery Disease in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chengchun; Ma, Genshan; Wei, Li; Chen, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (DLK-rs10144321, SIX6-rs1254337, MKRN3-rs12148769, LIN28B-rs7759938, and KCNK9-rs1469039) were found to be strongly associated with age at menarche. Recent studies also suggested that age at menarche is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Since an association between these five SNPs and premature coronary artery disease (CAD) has never been reported, we investigated whether these SNPs are associated with premature CAD and its severity in a Chinese Han population. Methods We enrolled 432 consecutive patients including 198 with premature CAD (<55 years in men and <65 years in women) and 234 controls. All subjects were genotyped for the five SNPs by the PCR-ligase detection reaction method. The associations between these SNPs and premature CAD and its severity were analyzed. Results The following genotypes were identified: GG, AG, and AA at rs10144321 and rs12148769; TT, AT, and AA at rs1254337; CC, CT, and TT at rs1469039; and TT and CT at rs7759938. Significant differences in genotype distribution frequencies at rs1254337 were found between controls and patients with premature CAD (P<0.05). No associations were found between the five SNPs and the severity of coronary lesions (all P>0.05). Compared with controls, patients with premature CAD had a higher prevalence of T2DM and dyslipidemia, and the proportion of patients with T2DM rose significantly with an increase in the number of stenosed coronary vessels (all P<0.05). After adjustment for the clinical parameters in multivariable analysis, three factors were identified that significantly increased the risk of premature CAD: the AA genotype at rs1254337 (OR: 2.388, 95% CI: 1.190–4.792, P = 0.014), male gender (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 1.012–2.420, P = 0.044), and T2DM (OR 2.252, 95% CI: 1.233–4.348, P = 0.015). Conclusions Among the five pubertal

  11. Body size and pubertal development explain ethnic differences in structural geometry at the femur in Asian, Hispanic, and white early adolescent girls living in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, D.L.; Weaver, C.M.; McCabe, L.D.; McCabe, G.M.; Novotny, R.; Van Loan, M.D.; Going, S.; Matkovic, V.; Boushey, C.J.; Savaiano, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in structural geometry is present in adulthood, but when this variation arises and what influences this variation prior to adulthood remains poorly understood. Ethnicity is commonly the focus of research of skeletal integrity and appears to explain some of the variation in quantification of bone tissue. However, why ethnicity explains variation in skeletal integrity is unclear. Methods Here we examine predictors of bone cross sectional area (CSA) and section modulus (Z), measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the Advanced Hip Analysis (AHA) program at the narrow neck of the femur in adolescent (9–14 yr) girls (n=479) living in the United States who were classified as Asian, Hispanic, or white if the subject was 75% of a given group based on parental reported ethnicity. Protocols for measuring height and weight follow standardized procedures. Total body lean mass (LM) and total body fat mass (FM) were quantified in kilograms using DXA. Total dietary and total dairy calcium intakes from the previous month were estimated by the use of an electronic semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (eFFQ). Physical activity was estimated for the previous year by a validated self-administered modifiable activity questionnaire for adolescents with energy expenditure calculated from the metabolic equivalent (MET) values from the Compendium of Physical Activities. Multiple regression models were developed to predict CSA and Z. Results Age, time from menarche, total body lean mass (LM), total body fat mass (FM), height, total calcium, and total dairy calcium all shared a significant (p<0.05), positive relationship with CSA. Age, time from menarche, LM, FM, and height shared significant (p<0.05), positive relationships with Z. For both CSA and Z, LM was the most important covariate. Physical activity was not a significant predictor of geometry at the femoral neck (p≥0.339), even after removing LM as a covariate. After adjusting for covariates

  12. The increase in the number of spines on the gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuron across pubertal development in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Songzi; Takumi, Ken; Iijima, Norio; Ozawa, Hitoshi

    2016-05-01

    The onset of puberty is initiated by an increase in the release of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from GnRH neurons in the hypothalamus. However, the precise mechanism that leads to the activation of GnRH neurons at puberty remains controversial. Spines are small protrusions on the surface of dendrites that normally receive excitatory inputs. In this study, we analyzed the number and morphology of spines on GnRH neurons to investigate changes in synaptic inputs across puberty in rats. For morphological estimation, we measured the diameter of the head (DH) of each spine and classified them into small-type (DH < 0.65 μm), large-type (DH > 0.65 μm) and giant-type (DH > 0.9 μm). The greatest number of spines was observed at the proximal dendrite within 50 μm of the soma. At the soma and proximal dendrite, the number of spines was greater in adults than in juveniles in both male and female individuals. Classification of spines revealed that the increase in spine number was due to increases in large- and giant-type spines. To further explore the relationship between spines on GnRH neurons and pubertal development, we next analyzed adult rats neonatally exposed to estradiol benzoate, in which puberty onset and reproductive functions are disrupted. We found a decrease in the number of all types of spines. These results suggest that GnRH neurons become to receive more and greater excitatory inputs on the soma and proximal dendrites as a result of the changes that occur at puberty and that alteration to spines plays a pivotal role in normal pubertal development. PMID:26667127

  13. Regulation of gonadal sex ratios and pubertal development by the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Prakash; Patino, Reynaldo

    2013-01-01

    We examined associations between thyroid condition, gonadal sex and pubertal development in zebrafish. Seventy-two-hour postfertilization larvae were reared in untreated medium or in the presence of goitrogens (sodium perchlorate, 0.82 mM; methimazole, 0.15 and 0.3 mM) or thyroxine (1 and 10 nM) for 30 days. Thyrocyte height, gonadal sex and gonadal development were histologically determined at 45 and 60 days postfertilization (dpf). Thyrocyte hypertrophy, an index of hypothyroidism, was observed at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Similarly, gonadal sex ratios were biased toward ovaries relative to control animals at 45 and 60 dpf in perchlorate-treated fish but only at 45 dpf in methimazole-treated fish. Gonadal sex ratios were biased toward testes at 45 and 60 dpf in thyroxine-treated fish. Spermatogenesis was delayed in testes from goitrogen-treated fish at 60 dpf relative to control values, but was unaffected in testes from thyroxine-treated individuals. Oogenesis seemed to be nonspecifically delayed in all treatments relative to control at 60 dpf. This study confirmed the previously reported association between hypothyroid condition and ovarian-skewed ratios, and hyperthyroid condition and testicular-skewed ratios, and also showed that male pubertal development is specifically delayed by experimental hypothyroidism. The simultaneous recovery from the hypothyroid and ovary-inducing effects of methimazole by 60 dpf (27 days post-treatment) suggests that the ovary-skewing effect of goitrogens is reversible when thyroid conditions return to basal levels before developmental commitment of gonadal sex. Conversely, the masculinizing effect of hyperthyroidism seems to be stable and perhaps permanent.

  14. Trading stages: life expectancies in structured populations.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Ulrich K; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim; Horvitz, Carol

    2012-10-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied because they are hard to use and interpret, and tools for age and stage structured populations are missing. We present easily interpretable expressions for the sensitivities and elasticities of life expectancy to vital rates in age-stage models, and illustrate their application with two biological examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography. PMID:22664576

  15. Healing of 400 intra-alveolar root fractures. 1. Effect of pre-injury and injury factors such as sex, age, stage of root development, fracture type, location of fracture and severity of dislocation.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Andreasen, F M; Mejàre, I; Cvek, M

    2004-08-01

    significant factor, as girls showed more frequent hard tissue healing than boys. This relationship could possibly be explained by the fact that girls experienced trauma at an earlier age (i.e. with more immature root formation) and their traumas were of a less severe nature. Thus, the pre-injury or injury factors which had the greatest influence upon healing (i.e. whether hard tissue fusion or pulp necrosis) were: age, stage of root development (i.e. the size of the pulpal lumen at the fracture site) and mobility of the coronal fragment, dislocation of the coronal fragment and diastasis between fragments (i.e. rupture or stretching of the pulp at the fracture site). PMID:15245518

  16. A double blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of low dose testosterone undecanoate on the growth of small for age, prepubertal boys.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D C; Butler, G E; Kelnar, C J; Wu, F C

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess whether very low doses of testosterone can accelerate growth without an undue advance in bone age in prepubertal boys with constitutional delay of growth. SUBJECTS--23 prepubertal boys aged 11-14 years with height at or below the third centile for chronological age. DESIGN--Randomised, double blind trial comparing oral testosterone undecanoate 20 mg once daily versus placebo for six months. The 18 months' observation period of each subject comprised a six month pretreatment period, followed by a six month treatment (testosterone undecanoate or placebo) period, and a six month period after termination of treatment. OUTCOME MEASURES--At intervals of six months standing and sitting height were measured. Bone age, pubertal stage, weight, and lean body mass were also determined. Growth hormone, luteinising hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone secretion and testosterone concentration were measured before, after, and six months after treatment. RESULTS--Boys taking testosterone undecanoate (n = 11) showed a significantly greater height velocity (mean (SEM) 5.84 (0.53) cm/year) and sitting height velocity (3.54 (0.57) cm/year) during treatment than the placebo treated boys (n = 12, height velocity = 3.38 (0.22) cm/year, sitting height velocity = 1.58 (0.19) cm/year. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding changes in growth hormone, gonadotrophins, testosterone, or dihydrotestosterone concentrations. Bone age was not advanced significantly more rapidly in either group. CONCLUSIONS--There is accelerated gain in height during six months of treatment with low dose testosterone undecanoate, without a significantly greater rise in bone age compared with controls. Testosterone undecanoate is a safe, well tolerated, and effective treatment in the management of constitutional delay of growth. PMID:7574856

  17. Stages and Behaviors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & ... Legal Documents alz.org » Caregiver Center » Stages and Behaviors Text size: A A A Stages / Behaviors As ...

  18. Noncytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus can persist in testicular tissue after vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls but prevents subsequent infection.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Riddell, Kay P; Walz, Paul H; Rhoades, Jim; Harland, Richard; Zhang, YiJing; Galik, Patricia K; Brodersen, Bruce W; Cochran, Anna M; Brock, Kenny V; Carson, Robert L; Stringfellow, David A

    2007-01-15

    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the risk of prolonged testicular infection as a consequence of vaccination of peri-pubertal bulls with a modified-live, noncytopathic strain of BVDV and to assess vaccine efficacy in preventing prolonged testicular infections after a subsequent acute infection. Seronegative, peri-pubertal bulls were vaccinated subcutaneously with an approximate minimum immunizing dose or a 10x standard dose of modified-live, noncytopathic BVDV or were maintained as unvaccinated controls. Forty-nine days after vaccination, all bulls were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic field strain of BVDV. Semen and testicular biopsies collected after vaccination and challenge were assayed for BVDV using virus isolation, reverse transcription-nested PCR, or immunohistochemistry and the identity of viral strains was determined by nucleotide sequencing of PCR products. The vaccine strain of BVDV was detected in testicular tissue of vaccinated bulls as long as 134 days after immunization. Prolonged testicular infections with the challenge strain were detected only in unvaccinated bulls as long as 85 days after challenge. Whereas vaccination caused prolonged testicular infection in some bulls, it did prevent subsequent infection of testicular tissue with the challenge strain. This research demonstrates that subcutaneous vaccination of naïve, peri-pubertal bulls with a noncytopathic, modified-live strain of BVDV can result in prolonged viral replication within testicular tissue. The risk for these prolonged testicular infections to cause venereal transmission of BVDV or subfertility is likely to be low but requires further investigation. PMID:17005300

  19. Effect of insulin supplementation on in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles from adult and pre-pubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Nath, Amar; Hakim, Bilal Ahmad; Rajender, Singh; Singh, Kavita; Sachdev, Monika; Konwar, Rituraj

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the impact of insulin concentrations on in vitro pre-antral follicle growth, survival, antrum formation rate, and retrieval of mature oocytes in mice. Mice pre-antral follicle growth were recorded on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 in α-modified essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with insulin concentrations of 6, 8, and 10 μg/ml along with 10% FBS, 100 mIU/ml follicle stimulating hormone, 10 mIU/ml luteinizing hormone, 100 μg/ml penicillin, and 50 μg/ml streptomycin. After 12 d of growth in vitro, follicles were allowed to mature for 16-18 h in α-MEM supplemented with 1.5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and 5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). The initial diameter (54.86 ± 2.5 μm) of mice oocyte progressively increased in all the three insulin concentration groups and attained a maximum size on day 12 (71.90 ± 2.8 μm). Supplementation with higher concentrations of insulin (both 8 and 10 μg/ml) significantly enhanced antrum formation without effecting the oocyte diameter and percent retrieval of mature oocyte in all the three concentration groups. Both in vitro cultured as well as in vivo collected follicles and oocytes showed similar localization and expression of oocyte maturation markers SAS1B and GDF9. Insulin concentration of 8 μg/ml was found to be optimal for in vitro follicle culture of adult mice (42-49 d). Optimized follicle culture conditions were also assessed successfully with pre-pubertal mice (12-14 d); however, adult mice showed higher follicle survival, antrum formation, and more mature oocytes production in comparison to pre-pubertal mice. PMID:26956357

  20. Saturation of subcutaneous adipose tissue expansion and accumulation of ectopic fat associated with metabolic dysfunction during late and post-pubertal growth

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Alderete, Tanya L.; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Weigensberg, Marc; Goran, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objective Puberty is a period defined by large changes in adipose tissue accumulation and distribution, however longitudinal patterns of ectopic fat development have not been shown. We have previously shown significant declines in beta-cell function (BCF) across puberty and hypothesize that accumulation of ectopic fat deposition, particularly hepatic fat, will predict this fall. Subject/Methods We conducted a longitudinal study and examined 2-year change in abdominal fat distribution and type 2 diabetes risk markers in 76 Hispanic children and young adults (16.1 ±0.5 years, 66% obese, 52% male, 51% post-pubertal). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF) and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) were measured by 3-Tesla MRI, and markers of type 2 diabetes risk were collected at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Results Baseline pubertal status significantly moderated 2-year change in ectopic fat deposition, such that VAT, HFF and PFF increased in individuals during late and post-pubertal growth whereas children earlier in their pubertal development decreased ectopic accumulation and had less VAT accumulation (VAT: pTanner*time =0.044, 0.31±0.08L vs. 0.03±0.10L; HFF: pTanner*time=0.007, 1.34±0.87% vs. −2.61±1.11%; PFF: pTanner*time<0.001, 1.61±0.39% vs. −0.96±0.50%). Independent of pubertal status, two-year increase in HFF and VAT significantly associated with a decline in BCF (β=−1.04, p=0.038; β=−1.81, p=0.020) and metabolic function, while accumulation of SAAT significantly associated with BCF (β=1.36, p=0.012) and metabolic improvement. HFF accumulation was the only depot to significantly predict clinical markers of type 2 diabetes risk, fasting glucose and HbA1c, and circulating free fatty acid levels (β=1.00, p=0.034; β=1.00, p=0.015; β=01.01, p=0.024). Conclusions The accumulation of SAAT defends against type 2 diabetes risk and potentially ectopic

  1. Recovery rate, morphological quality and nuclear maturity of canine cumulus-oocyte complexes collected from anestrous or diestrous bitches of different ages.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Sousa, M; Luvoni, G Cecilia; Rocha, A

    2007-10-01

    Canine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) were recovered from ovaries of post-pubertal animals (1-3, 4-6 and 7-10 years old) at different ovarian estrous phases (anestrus and diestrus). The number of COCs, and the number and nuclear maturity of high-quality (grade-1) oocytes were assessed. For all animals, no significant differences were found between the two reproductive phases relatively to the total number of COCs and grade-1 oocytes recovered. However, significant higher numbers of COCs were recovered from young than from elderly animals, and the proportion of grade-1 oocytes was also significantly higher in the younger group than in the other two age-groups. Of 226 grade-1 oocytes, 73% were at the germinal vesicle stage (GV), 10% had resumed meiosis (9% at germinal vesicle breakdown; 1% at metaphase-I) and 17% were degenerated. A significant effect of the reproductive phase on oocyte nuclear maturity was found only for adult animals, with a higher number of GV oocytes being found at anestrous (79%) due to higher rates of meiosis resumption (34%) at diestrous. The high number of grade-1 oocytes with meiosis resumption and fragmented or unidentified nuclear contents, indicates that current criteria for the selection of viable canine COCs are not optimized and need a new definition. PMID:17714773

  2. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  3. Bone Mineral and Predictors of Bone Mass in White, Hispanic, and Asian Early Pubertal Girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Racial differences in body size have been suggested to explain racial differences in bone in black and white youth. Previous studies of nonblack racial differences during growth used small cohorts spread over a large developmental age and cannot adequately address this question. Mater...

  4. Electro convulsive therapy in pre-pubertal catatonia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Thakur, A; Dutta, S; Jagadheesan, K; Sinha, V K

    2001-10-01

    Depression in prepubertal age group is a relatively rare condition. The presence of life threatening catatonic features call for aggressive treatment. Electro convulsive therapy (ECT) has been described to be effective in these circumstances; however, doubts have been raised about its safety profile. This present case study illustrates the efficacy and safety of ECT in prepubertal catatonia. PMID:21407888

  5. Pubertal Development of the Understanding of Social Emotions: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Stephanie; Thompson, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Recent developmental cognitive neuroscience research has supported the notion that puberty and adolescence are periods of profound socio-emotional development. The current study was designed to investigate whether the onset of puberty marks an increase in the awareness of complex, or "mixed," emotions. Eighty-three female participants (aged 9-16…

  6. Pubertal Development Moderates the Importance of Environmental Influences on Depressive Symptoms in Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Alexis C.; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Dick, Danielle M.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence differences in depressive symptoms between the sexes typically emerge in adolescence, with symptoms more prevalent among girls. Some evidence suggests that variation in onset and progression of puberty might contribute to these differences. This study used a genetically informative, longitudinal (assessed at ages 12, 14, and 17) sample…

  7. Contexts of Risk? Explaining the Link between Girls' Pubertal Development and Their Delinquency Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynie, Dana L.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data on 5,477 girls attending mixed-sex secondary schools found that early puberty and physical development that was advanced relative to age were related most strongly to "party" deviance (drinking, smoking, disorderly conduct), but also to minor and serious delinquency. Parent-child…

  8. Impairment of cognitive performance after reelin knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex of pubertal or adult rats.

    PubMed

    Brosda, Jan; Dietz, Frank; Koch, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The glycoprotein reelin is important for embryonic neuronal migration. During adulthood reelin possibly acts as a modulator of synaptic plasticity. Several studies link reduced levels of reelin messenger RNA and protein to the pathophysiology of certain neuropsychiatric disorders. However, little is known about reelin's role for behavioral and cognitive functions in vivo. Therefore, the effect of a reelin knockdown in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of Wistar rats was examined in behavioral tasks related to neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia. Rats treated with reelin antisense phosphothioate oligonucleotides in the mPFC during puberty or adulthood were tested for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle reflex, spatial working memory, object recognition, and locomotor activity. Reelin quantification in the mPFC was assessed by Western blotting. Local reelin knockdown during puberty or adulthood induced (1) a PPI deficit as well as (2) an impairment of spatial working memory and object recognition following pubertal injections. Western blot analyses showed a distinct and highly selective reelin knockdown in the rats' mPFC. These results indicate that mPFC reelin signaling plays an important role in behavioral tasks with relevance to e.g. schizophrenia. Understanding reelin's function as a neurotrophic modulator of the extracellular matrix may help to achieve new insights into the etiology of certain neuropsychiatric diseases and foster prospective treatment strategies. PMID:21784155

  9. Comparative proteomic profiling and possible toxicological mechanism of acute injury induced by carbon ion radiation in pubertal mice testes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    2016-07-01

    We investigated potential mechanisms of acute injury in pubertal mice testes after exposure to carbon ion radiation (CIR). Serum testosterone was measured following whole-body irradiation with a 2Gy carbon ion beam. Comparative proteomic profiling and Western blotting were applied to identify potential biomarkers and measure protein expression, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was performed to detect apoptotic cells. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to investigate protein localization. Serum testosterone was lowest at 24h after CIR, and 10 differentially expressed proteins were identified at this time point that included eIF4E, an important regulator of initiation that combines with mTOR and 4EBP1 to control protein synthesis via the mTOR signalling pathway during proliferation and apoptosis. Protein expression and localization studies confirmed their association with acute injury following exposure to CIR. These three proteins may be useful molecular markers for detecting abnormal spermatogenesis following exposure to environmental and cosmic radiation

  10. Lung Cancer Staging and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Jones, Kirk D; Jablons, David M

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) TNM staging system was developed by the International Association for the Staging of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lung Cancer Staging Project by a coordinated international effort to develop data-derived TNM classifications with significant survival differences. Based on these TNM groupings, current 5-year survival estimates in NSLCC range from 73 % in stage IA disease to 13 % in stage IV disease. TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in predicting recurrence rates and survival times, followed by tumor histologic grade, and patient sex, age, and performance status. Molecular prognostication in lung cancer is an exploding area of research where interest has moved beyond TNM stage and into individualized genetic tumor analysis with immunohistochemistry, microarray, and mutation profiles. However, despite intense research efforts and countless publications, no molecular prognostic marker has been adopted into clinical use since most fail in subsequent cross-validation with few exceptions. The recent interest in immunotherapy for NSCLC has identified new biomarkers with early evidence that suggests that PD-L1 is a predictive marker of a good response to new immunotherapy drugs but a poor prognostic indicator of overall survival. Future prognostication of outcomes in NSCLC will likely be based on a combination of TNM stage and molecular tumor profiling and yield more precise, individualized survival estimates and treatment algorithms. PMID:27535389

  11. High Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Insulin Resistance in HIV-Infected Pre-Pubertal African Children on Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Steve; Abdullah, Kameelah L.; Haubrich, Richard; Cotton, Mark F.; Browne, Sara H.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Data describing the true extent of antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in perinatally-infected children on ART in Africa is sparse. METHODS Fasting total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, insulin and glucose were performed on the first 100, of 190 pediatric ART clinic attendees. Diet assessment was performed by a trained dietician. Lipoatrophy was formally graded by consensus between two expert HIV pediatricians. Durations of previous ART exposures, clinical stage, pre-ART viral load, nadir and current CD4 were recorded. Dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) was performed on a subset of 42 patients selected semi-randomly. RESULTS Prevalences of insulin resistance, abnormal total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride were 10%, 13%, 12%, 13 % and 9% respectively. Overall, 40% had at least one lipid abnormality or insulin resistance. Adjusted mean LDL cholesterol increased by 0.24mmol/L for each additional year of cumulative lopinavir/r exposure (p=0.03) after correcting for age, gender, body mass index, previous stavudine exposure, age at ART initiation, dietary fat and refined carbohydrate, while adjusted mean LDL cholesterol was 0.9mmol/L higher in children exposed to efavirenz within the previous six months (p=0.02). Adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity, DEXA revealed that greater trunk fat and lower peripheral subcutaneous fat were associated with elevated triglycerides but not with total cholesterol, LDL, HDL or HOMA. Similarly, the presence of visually obvious lipoatrophy was associated with elevated triglycerides but not with total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HOMA or lactate. CONCLUSIONS Prevalences of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia were high. Cumulative lopinovir is an independent risk factor for dyslipidemia, with efavirenz exposure having only transitory effect. PMID:26421804

  12. Sex hormone-binding globulin and lipid profile in pubertal children.

    PubMed

    Garcés, Carmen; Oya, Iría de; Lasunción, Miguel A; López-Simón, Laura; Cano, Beatriz; de Oya, Manuel

    2010-02-01

    Men and women have different lipid profiles throughout life, related to changes in sex hormones; and this has been associated with sex-related differences in the prevalence of coronary heart disease. The influence of sex hormone changes during puberty on the lipid profile has been reported, but levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) (the specific plasma binding protein of sex hormones) have not been evaluated even though its regulatory role might be crucial. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between sex hormones and SHBG and changes in plasma lipid levels during puberty. Our population-based sample included 370 healthy schoolchildren (175 male and 195 female), ranging from 12 to 15 years old. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were significantly lower in 15-year-olds than in younger boys, and apolipoprotein (apo) A-I levels steeply decreased across the studied age groups. Parallel to these changes, testosterone levels increased whereas SHBG decreased as age increases in boys. In girls, no significant differences were observed in these variables among the age groups. Testosterone and SHBG were highly correlated with anthropometric variables. Sex hormone-binding globulin was negatively associated with triglycerides (TG) in both sexes, remaining statistically significant after further adjustment for age and body mass index (BMI) in girls. Sex hormone-binding globulin was the only predictive variable for HDL-C and TG in multiple linear regression analysis, after adjustment by BMI, in both sexes, accounting for 10% of the variance of HDL-C in boys and for around 5% of the variance of TG in both sexes. In boys, testosterone and SHBG remained significantly correlated to apo A-I levels, even after adjusting for age and BMI, and were the most important predictive variables for apo A-I in multiple linear regression analysis. In conclusion, SHBG levels are related to a decrease in HDL-C and apo A-I levels during puberty in boys and

  13. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  14. Generational reproductive outcomes in Wistar rats maternally exposed to Ricinus communis oil at different stages of gestation.

    PubMed

    Salami, S A; Raji, Y

    2015-10-01

    Fetal programming hypothesis presupposes that stimulus or insult acting during critical periods of uterine growth and development may permanently alter tissue structure and function. Ricinus communis oil (RCO) has been reported to possess/used as laxative, labor-inducing and estrogenic properties. Generational reproductive effects of maternal exposure to RCO was investigated in rats. A total of 25 pregnant rats randomly assigned to five equal groups were treated with distilled water (control, group 1), RCO (950 mg/kg p.o.) during gestation days (GD) 1-7, 7-14, 14-21 and 1-21, respectively. Birth weight, morphometric data, anogenital distance (AGD), pubertal age, sperm parameters, hormonal profile, organ weight and histopathology were determined in the first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations. Results showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) in birth weight/morphometric data in male pups from the GD 1-7 and 7-14 groups. AGD decreased significantly in RCO-treated F1 males. Pubertal age of F1 females decreased significantly (P<0.05) compared with controls. At postnatal day 90, F1 males from the RCO-treated group showed significant decrease in testis weight, body weight, sperm count, motility and normal morphology. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased in RCO-treated F1 males, which also showed testicular interstitial edema and epididymal hypospermia. Only pubertal indexes were altered in F2 rats. Maternal exposure to RCO at early gestation periods impaired androgen-mediated reproductive end points in the first generation of rats. RCO exhibits endocrine disrupting capabilities. PMID:26118402

  15. Ovulation induction in pre-pubertal Sahiwal-Friesian cross bred heifers by the use of clomiphene citrate and hCG.

    PubMed

    Ubaid-Ur-Rehman; Ali, Shujait; Ahmad, Nazir; Khanum, Shanaz Adeeb; Zubair, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    In this study, an attempt was made to induce ovulation in crossbred pre-pubertal heifers by the use of clomiphene citrate (an anti-estrogen) and hCG. The hypothesis was that the clomiphene citrate, being anti-estrogen, would remove negative feedback effect of estrogen on the release of pituitary gonadotropins. Elevated gonadotropins would support ovarian follicular growth to a point where hCG would induce ovulation. Six pre-pubertal heifers were given clomiphene citrate orally at 300 mg/heifer for 9 days. At the same time, six control heifers were given placebo tablets. On following day, hCG was given to all heifers at a dose of 2500IU. Blood was collected before, during and after treatment and plasma was assayed for progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) concentrations. Five heifers (83.3%) in the experimental group had E2 concentrations above 10 pg/ml compared to one heifer (16.7%) in control group. Due to a wide variation, mean E2 concentration did not differ significantly between experimental and control heifers. The P4 assays showed that four heifers (66.7%) in the experimental group had ovulated (P4>1ng/ml plasma) compared to one heifer (16.7%) in control group, and mean P4 concentration differed (P<0.05) when concentrations were greatest in the clomiphene citrate-treated heifers. In conclusion, clomiphene citrate along with hCG can be used to induce ovulation in pre-pubertal heifers. PMID:25104473

  16. Effects of Pubertal Cannabinoid Administration on Attentional Set-Shifting and Dopaminergic Hyper-Responsivity in a Developmental Disruption Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Francisco S.; Grace, Anthony A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescent exposure to cannabinoids in vulnerable individuals is proposed to be a risk factor for psychiatric conditions later in life, particularly schizophrenia. Evidence from studies in animals has indicated that a combination of repeated pubertal cannabinoid administration with either neonatal prefrontocortical lesion, isolation rearing, or chronic NMDA receptor antagonism administration induces enhanced schizophrenia-like behavioral disruptions. The effects of adolescent exposure to CB1 receptor agonists, however, have not been tested in a developmental disruption model of schizophrenia. Methods: This was tested in the methylazoxymethanol (MAM) model, in which repeated treatment with the synthetic cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2mg/kg) was extended over 25 days throughout puberty (postnatal days 40–65) in control and MAM rats. The rats received 20 injections, which were delivered irregularly to mimic the human condition. Adult rats were tested for attentional set-shifting task and locomotor response to amphetamine, which was compared with in vivo recording from ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons. Results: MAM-treated rats showed impairment in the attentional set-shifting task, augmented locomotor response to amphetamine administration, and an increased number of spontaneously active DA neurons in the VTA. Interestingly, pubertal WIN treatment in normal animals induced similar changes at adulthood as those observed in MAM-treated rats, supporting the notion that adolescence exposure to cannabinoids may represent a risk factor for developing schizophrenia-like signs at adulthood. However, contrary to expectations, pubertal WIN administration did not exacerbate the behavioral and electrophysiological changes in MAM-treated rats beyond that observed in WIN-treated saline rats (Sal). Indeed, WIN treatment actually attenuated the locomotor response to amphetamine in MAM rats without impacting DA neuron activity states

  17. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer ...