Science.gov

Sample records for age race education

  1. The Earnings Impact of Age, Education, Race, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, William R.; Linke, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Statistics prove that being middle-aged, well educated, white, and male enhances earnings. This paper uses data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with some common statistical techniques to chart the specific impact of age, education, race, and gender on earnings. It is shown that earnings…

  2. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  3. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. PMID:23168270

  4. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  5. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  6. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  7. Race, Ethnicity and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Philip S., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This theme issue contains papers on race and ethnicity in public education: "Introduction" (Philip Hart); "Toward Democratic Education: The Importance of Culturally Responsive Leadership in 21st Century Schools" (Donna M. Davis); "Improving the Selection Process for Identifying Gifted Ethnic Minority Children" (John Dillard and Nettye R. Brazil);…

  8. Race Is...Race Isn't: Critical Race Theory and Qualitative Studies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Laurence, Ed.; Deyhle, Donna, Ed.; Villenas, Sofia, Ed.

    Critical race theory offers a way to understand how ostensibly race-neutral structures in education--knowledge, merit, objectivity, and "good education"--in fact help form and police the boundaries of white supremacy and racism. Critical race theory can be used to deconstruct the meaning of "educational achievement," to recognize that the…

  9. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  10. Race, Culture and Moral Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummett, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Maintains that the great need in moral education is to consider general moral standards and arguments first and apply these to behavior affecting racial inequality, rather than to start from a concentration on racism, working back towards morality. Considers the consequences of confusing race with culture or viewing religion only as a…

  11. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  12. Race, Ethnicity, and Education. Praeger Perspectives. [Four Volumes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, E. Wayne, Ed.; Pang, Valerie Ooka, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book moves beyond traditional thinking and approaches to multicultural education to more accurately reflect the dramatically changing circumstances faced by North American schools in an age of globalization. The volumes address ways in which race and ethnicity affect learning across the life span, at all levels of formal education as well as…

  13. Own- and other-race categorization of faces by race, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lun; Bentin, Shlomo

    2008-12-01

    We investigated how visual experience with faces of a particular race affects subordinate group-level categorizations in Chinese and Israeli participants living in the respective countries. Categorization of faces by race, gender, and age was examined within subjects with participants who had only minimal experience with the other-race faces. As would be predicted by the previously documented other-race advantage effect, both Chinese and Israeli participants classified the race of the face more quickly and more accurately for other-race than for own-race faces. In contrast, the observers' race did not interact with the race of the rated face either for gender or for age categorization. The absence of these interactions suggests that the physiognomic characteristics that determine the gender and age of a face are universal, rather than race specific. Furthermore, these data suggest that determining the race of a face is not imposed as a first step in face processing, preempting the perception of other category-defining physiognomic characteristics. PMID:19001573

  14. Variation in Response to a Home Intervention to Support Daily Function by Age, Race, Sex, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Dennis, Marie P.; Hauck, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Functional difficulty is associated with increased frailty and poor life quality, with the oldest old, women, African Americans and less educated at greatest risk of disablement. This study examines whether these at-risk groups benefit differentially from an in-home intervention previously found to effectively reduce functional difficulties. Methods 319 community-living functionally vulnerable adults 70 years or older were randomized to usual care or an intervention involving occupational and physical therapy home instruction in problem-solving, device use, energy conservation, safety, fall recovery, balance and muscle strengthening instruction. Outcome measures at six and 12 months included difficulty level in ambulation, instrumental (IADLs) and activities of daily living (ADLs), self-efficacy, and fear of falling. Results At six-months, for ADLs, individuals ≥80 years (p=.022), women (p=.036), and less educated (p=.028) intervention participants improved compared to their control group counterparts. For mobility, women (p=.048) and the oldest (p=.001) intervention participants improved relative to their counterparts. For self-efficacy, women (p=.036) and less educated (p=.016) intervention participants benefited more. For fear of falling, those less educated improved more (p=.001). A similar pattern was found at 12 months. For IADLs, Whites improved more than non-Whites at 12 months. Conclusions Treatment benefits varied by specific participant characteristics, with individuals at greatest disability riskbeing most responsive to the intervention. Both White and non-White participants benefited similarly except in IADL functioning. Future research should control for participant characteristics, identify underlying mechanisms for variation in treatment effects, and tailor treatment to patient characteristics and desired outcomes. PMID:18693230

  15. Race, Education, and the Politics of Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Barbara Loomis

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the legacies of the 1954 "Brown v. Board of Education" Supreme Court decision within the historical context of race relations in the United States. The pursuit by African Americans to exercise their rights of citizenship is described as influenced by the changing face of fear. The Supreme Court decisions that determined the…

  16. Race, Racial Projects, and Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Danny Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Critical scholars have argued that mathematics education is in danger of becoming increasingly influenced by and aligned with neoliberal and neoconservative market-focused projects. Although this larger argument is powerful, there are often 2 peculiar responses to issues of race and racism within these analyses. These responses are characterized…

  17. Race Wrestling: Struggling Strategically with Race in Educational Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2004-01-01

    As researchers try to understand, improve, and equalize U.S. schooling, we talk too little about how to study race well. It is particularly crucial, I argue, that researchers struggle to interrogate education's familiar racial practices more self-consciously and strategically. I suggest that researchers "race wrestle" by struggling with race on…

  18. Race, Culture, and Educational Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article criticizes the view that, if cultural factors within the black community explain poor educational outcomes for blacks, then blacks should bear all of the disadvantages that follow from this. Educational outcomes are the joint, iterated product of schools' responses to students' and parents' culturally conditioned conduct. Schools are…

  19. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese

    2015-01-01

    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  20. Race Matters? Examining and Rethinking Race Portrayal in Preclinical Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jennifer; Ucik, Laura; Baldwin, Nell; Hasslinger, Christopher; George, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Critical examination of "health disparities" is gaining consideration in medical schools across the United States, often as elective curricula that supplement required education. However, there is disconnect between discussions of race and disparities in these curricula and in core science courses. Specifically, required preclinical science lecturers often operationalize race as a biological concept, framing racialized disparities as inherent in bodies. A three- and five-month sampling of lecture slides at the authors' medical school demonstrated that race was almost always presented as a biological risk factor.This presentation of race as an essential component of epidemiology, risk, diagnosis, and treatment without social context is problematic, as a broad body of literature supports that race is not a robust biological category. The authors opine that current preclinical medical curricula inaccurately employ race as a definitive medical category without context, which may perpetuate misunderstanding of race as a bioscientific datum, increase bias among student-doctors, and ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes.At the authors' institution, students approached the medical school administration with a letter addressing the current use of race, urging reform. The administration was receptive to proposals for further analysis of race in medical education and created a taskforce to examine curricular reform. Curricular changes were made as part of the construction of a longitudinal race-in-medicine curriculum. The authors seek to use their initiatives and this article to spark critical discussion on how to use teaching of race to work against racial inequality in health care. PMID:27166865

  1. Do Mothers' Educational Expectations Differ by Race and Ethnicity, or Socioeconomic Status?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngmi; Sherraden, Michael; Clancy, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Research has linked parents' educational expectations to children's educational attainment, but findings are inconsistent regarding differences in educational expectations by race and ethnicity. In addition, existing studies have focused on school-age children and their parents. In this study, we use a state representative sample to examine…

  2. Ethnographic Investigations of Issues of Race in Scandinavian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Dennis; Lunneblad, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    In this article we aim to present an overview of some of the ways in which issues of race and ethnicity are represented and researched in educational ethnography in Scandinavia. Several things are suggested. Amongst them is that educational ethnographers in Scandinavia rarely use the concept of race. The term (im)migrant(s) is used instead and the…

  3. Race-ing through the School Day: African American Educators' Experiences with Race and Racism in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the ways African American educators experience themselves as raced individuals in their school settings and explores their perceptions of racial discrimination, subordination, and isolation. For this study, five African American educators participated in in-depth phenomenological interviews. Qualitative data analysis of their…

  4. Talking Race: Facilitating Critical Conversations in Educational Leadership Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Bradley W.; Diem, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    In the field of education, critical conversations focusing on race and race relations are of primary importance given the continued inequities within our society. Statistically, public schools continue to be racially and socioeconomically separate and unequal. In our continued efforts to address such inequities, this study examines the ways in…

  5. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  6. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  7. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  8. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  9. 18 CFR 1300.106 - Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of race, color, religion, age, or disability. 1300.106 Section 1300.106 Conservation of Power and... AUTHORITY § 1300.106 Harassment on the basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. It is TVA policy... basis of race, color, religion, age, or disability. Accordingly, all employees must avoid any action...

  10. Race and Gender: Equal Opportunities Policies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnot, Madeleine, Ed.

    This reader is one of four parts of the Open University (in the United Kingdom) Course E333, "Policy-making in Education." The ten articles included focus on the patterns of race and gender inequalities in British education, and the methods used by central and local government and educational institutions to address those inequalities. Articles…

  11. Negotiating Race-Related Tensions: How White Educational Leaders Recognize, Confront, and Dialogue about Race and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite exposure of educational disparities for students of color, as well as the notion that educational training rarely discusses race and racism, there continues to be a lack of discourse on race, racism, and anti-racism in educational leadership. Subsequently, it is important to challenge deficit thinking and encourage further examination of…

  12. The rules of implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age.

    PubMed

    Axt, Jordan R; Ebersole, Charles R; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-09-01

    The social world is stratified. Social hierarchies are known but often disavowed as anachronisms or unjust. Nonetheless, hierarchies may persist in social memory. In three studies (total N > 200,000), we found evidence of social hierarchies in implicit evaluation by race, religion, and age. Participants implicitly evaluated their own racial group most positively and the remaining racial groups in accordance with the following hierarchy: Whites > Asians > Blacks > Hispanics. Similarly, participants implicitly evaluated their own religion most positively and the remaining religions in accordance with the following hierarchy: Christianity > Judaism > Hinduism or Buddhism > Islam. In a final study, participants of all ages implicitly evaluated age groups following this rule: children > young adults > middle-age adults > older adults. These results suggest that the rules of social evaluation are pervasively embedded in culture and mind. PMID:25079218

  13. Resources for Aging Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Lorraine A.

    Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…

  14. Age and race effects on pain sensitivity and modulation among middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Goodin, Burel R.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Bartley, Emily J.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Staud, Roland; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of aging and race on responses to noxious stimuli using a wide range of stimulus modalities. The participants were 53 non-Hispanic Blacks and 138 non-Hispanic White adults, ages 45 to 76. The participants completed a single 3-hour sensory testing session where responses to thermal, mechanical, and cold stimuli were assessed. The results suggest that there are selected age differences, with the older group less sensitive to warm and painful heat stimuli than middle-aged participants, particularly at the knee. This site effect supports the hypothesis that the greatest decrement in pain sensitivity associated with aging occurs in the lower extremities. In addition, there were several instances where age and race effects were compounded, resulting in greater race differences in pain sensitivity among the older participants. Overall, the data suggest that previously reported race differences in pain sensitivity emerged in our older samples, and this study contributes new findings in that these differences may increase with age in non-Hispanic Blacks for temporal summation and both heat and cold immersion tolerance. We have added to the aging and pain literature by reporting several small to moderate differences in responses to heat stimuli between middle and older age adults. PMID:24239561

  15. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  16. Race, the Black Male, and Heterogeneous Racisms in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Bailey, Juanita; Ray, Nichole; Lasker-Scott, Tennille

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the effects of historical and current racism on the educational experiences of American Black males. The authors use critical race theory to illustrate how assumptions about culture and gender have subverted the egalitarian ideals of adult education. Teachers and students are urged to use critical reflection and open…

  17. The Positional Arms Race in Higher Education. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Gordon C.

    The market for undergraduate education has many similarities to an arms race. A school's position, relative to other schools, determines its success in attracting students and student quality. Its position, in turn, is largely determined by the size of its student subsidies, the difference between its educational spending, and the net tuition it…

  18. Restrictiveness and Race in Special Education: Practicalizing the Laws

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obiakor, Festus; Beachum, Floyd D.; Harris, Mateba

    2005-01-01

    This article is a response to Fierros and Blomberg's article on "Restrictions and Race in Special Education Placements in For-Profit and Non-Profit Charter Schools in California." It compliments these scholars for confirming through their findings that ethnically diverse students with special education needs endure segregationist policies in…

  19. The two worlds of race revisited: a meditation on race in the age of Obama.

    PubMed

    Early, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    Nearly fifty years ago, the American Academy organized a conference and two issues of its journal "Daedalus" on the topic of "The Negro American." The project engaged top intellectuals and policy-makers around the conflicts and limitations of mid-1960s liberalism in dealing with race. Specifically, they grappled with the persistent question of how to integrate a forced-worker population that had been needed but that was socially undesirable once its original purpose no longer existed. Today, racism has been discredited as an idea and legally sanctioned segregation belongs to the past, yet the question the conference participants explored -- in essence, how to make the unwanted wanted -- still remains. Recent political developments and anticipated demographic shifts, however, have recast the terms of the debate. Gerald Early, guest editor for the present volume, uses Barack Obama's election to the presidency as a pretext for returning to the central question of "The Negro American" project and, in turn, asking how white liberalism will fare in the context of a growing minority population in the United States. Placing his observations alongside those made by John Hope Franklin in 1965, Early positions his essay, and this issue overall, as a meditation on how far we have come in America to reach "the age of Obama" and at the same time how far we have to go before we can overcome "the two worlds of race." PMID:21465840

  20. Class, Race and Gender in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Audrey

    Research bears out the assertion that the traditional tests and measures used to define achievement have incorporated societal attitudes about class, race, and gender. Cultural factors, teacher behaviors, and teacher bias can account for early differences in the reading achievement of girls and boys. Furthermore, girls' grades for English and…

  1. Race, Identity and Representation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Cameron, Ed.; Crichlow, Warren, Ed.

    This book presents 24 essays, written by scholars in the humanities and social sciences, that offer cultural and poststructural appraisals of race. The essays illustrate the range, scope, diversity, appeal, and power of work currently underway in the field. They attempt to intervene in the increasingly acrimonious debate over racial inequality and…

  2. Negative perceptions about condom use in a clinic population: comparisons by gender, race and age.

    PubMed

    Crosby, R; Shrier, L A; Charnigo, R; Sanders, S A; Graham, C A; Milhausen, R; Yarber, W L

    2013-02-01

    We sought to elucidate the associations of 13 items assessing negative perceptions about condom use with gender, age and race in a sample of clinic attendees. Patients from four clinics, in three US cities, were recruited (N = 928). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. The primary measure was a 13-item adapted version of the Condom Barriers Scale. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were employed to relate the 13 items to gender, age and race. Gender, race and age all had significant associations with negative perceptions of condoms and their use. A primary finding was a large number of significant differences between men and women, with negative perceptions more common among women than among men. For African Americans, especially women, negative perceptions were more common among older participants than among younger participants. In conclusion, important demographic differences regarding negative perceptions may inform the tailoring of intervention efforts that seek to rectify negative perceptions about condoms and thus promote condom use among individuals at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the USA. On the other hand, our findings also suggest that the majority of STI clinic attendees may hold positive perceptions about condoms and their use; maintaining and building upon these positive perceptions via education, counselling, and access is also important. PMID:23467292

  3. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  4. Air Age Education Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a three-day program aimed at public school educators and community leaders. The goal was to encourage these people to include air age education in their programs. Activities included hands-on projects. (MA)

  5. Democracy Now? Race, Education, and Black Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: The Supreme Court's June 2007 decision on the Parents Involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No. 1 (PICS) provides an important context for school districts and educational policy makers as they consider the role of race in school assignment. The PICS decision has been described as essentially "undoing" the…

  6. Job Satisfaction Characteristics of Higher Education Faculty by Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Parveen

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to investigate, at a national level, the job satisfaction characteristics of higher education faculty of 5 different races. Data for this quantitative secondary analysis study were taken from the national study of postsecondary faculty (NSOPF) collected in the year 2004. The study used chi-square, one-way-ANOVA,…

  7. Citizenship and Race in Second-Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the links between citizenship and race in second-language education through an examination of the ways in which citizenship is linked to English language proficiency within a key Canadian federal adult English as a Second Language assessment document, the "Canadian Language Benchmarks" ("CLB"). It uses…

  8. Parental Practices and Educational Achievement: Social Class, Race, and "Habitus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodovski, Katerina

    2010-01-01

    A large, nationally representative database of American elementary school students was used to quantitatively assess the complex ways in which race intersects with social class, affecting parenting strategies that in turn produce various educational outcomes among children. The determinants and consequences of parental practices associated with…

  9. Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…

  10. Cracking Silent Codes: Critical Race Theory and Education Organizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Celina

    2007-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) has moved beyond legal scholarship to critique the ways in which "colorblind" laws and policies perpetuate existing racial inequalities in education policy. While criticisms of CRT have focused on the pessimism and lack of remedies presented, CRT scholars have begun to address issues of praxis. Specifically, communities…

  11. Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Dinesh

    This book addresses the issue of angry campus confrontations over issues of race, gender, and ethnicity, and more broadly, the dilemma of the college's and university's ability and desire to attain the goals of liberal education while also desiring to be "politically correct." It is noted that student activists have split the university on moral…

  12. Race-Ethnicity, Education, and Employment after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, James S.; Saunders, Lee; Staten, David

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article was to identify the relationship between race-ethnicity and employment after spinal cord injury (SCI), while evaluating interrelationships with gender, injury severity, and education. The authors used a cohort design using the most current status from a post-injury interview from the National SCI Statistical Center.…

  13. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  14. Evaluation of Age, Sex, and Race Bias in the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Rex B.; Lachar, David

    1992-01-01

    Whether the external validity of the Personality Inventory for Children (PIC) was moderated by age, sex, or race was studied using 1,333 children and adolescents referred for mental health services. Race and sex generally did not moderate the relation of PIC scales to symptom checklists. Some relationships were age modified. (SLD)

  15. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  16. Education, Prophecy, and the Nuclear Arms Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the social role of education. Describes how students and faculty of the School of Education at the University of California at Santa Barbara used "Ground Zero Week" to organize and carry out a communitywide, nonpartisan, educational series of teach-ins on nuclear war issues. (RW)

  17. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  18. What's the Use of Race? Investigating the Concept of Race in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Marc Phillip

    2013-01-01

    What's the use of race and does race matter? These two questions serve as the foundation for this dissertation comprised of three studies examining: (1) how scholars "use" race in their research and how their decisions matter for the way race is interpreted; (2) how students make meaning of race (as a social construct) during a time…

  19. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student's t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1-S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5-S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1-S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5-S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  20. The influence of sex, age, and race experience on pacing profiles during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Magnus; Assarsson, Hannes; Carlsson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate pacing-profile differences during the 90 km Vasaloppet ski race related to the categories of sex, age, and race experience. Skiing times from eight sections (S1 to S8) were analyzed. For each of the three categories, 400 pairs of skiers were matched to have a finish time within 60 seconds, the same start group, and an assignment to the same group for the other two categories. Paired-samples Student’s t-tests were used to investigate sectional pacing-profile differences between the subgroups. Results showed that males skied faster in S2 (P=0.0042), S3 (P=0.0049), S4 (P=0.010), and S1–S4 (P<0.001), whereas females skied faster in S6 (P<0.001), S7 (P<0.001), S8 (P=0.0088), and S5–S8 (P<0.001). For the age category, old subjects (40 to 59 years) skied faster than young subjects (19 to 39 years) in S3 (P=0.0029), and for the other sections, there were no differences. Experienced subjects (≥4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) skied faster in S1 (P<0.001) and S1–S4 (P=0.0054); inexperienced skiers (<4 Vasaloppet ski race completions) had a shorter mean skiing time in S5–S8 (P=0.0063). In conclusion, females had a more even pacing profile than that of males with the same finish time, start group, age, and race experience. No clear age-related pacing-profile difference was identified for the matched subgroups. Moreover, experienced skiers skied faster in the first half whereas inexperienced skiers had higher skiing speeds during the second half of the race. PMID:26937207

  1. And We Are Still Not Saved: Critical Race Theory in Education Ten Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixson, Adrienne D.; Rousseau, Celia K.

    2005-01-01

    In 1995, Teachers College Record published an article by Gloria Ladson-Billings and William Tate entitled "Toward a Critical Race Theory of Education". In this article, the authors proposed that critical race theory (CRT), a framework developed by legal scholars, could be employed to examine the role of race and racism in education. Within a few…

  2. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savas, Gokhan

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  3. Examining Race-Related Silences: Interrogating the Education of Tomorrow's Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diem, Sarah; Carpenter, Bradley W.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study is to examine the inclusion of race-related conversations within educational leadership preparation programs. We consider how students and professors within one preparation program conceptualize the ways in which conversations pertaining to race are present and/or missing within their courses. Specifically, we…

  4. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  5. The IQ Argument. Race, Intelligence and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eysenck, Hans J.

    The controversy over the causes of intelligence--genetic or environmental--is reviewed. More specifically, the subject of the consistently lower intelligence scores for blacks is analyzed. Much attention is devoted to Jensen and his monograph published in the "Harvard Educational Review," entitled "How much can we boost IQ and scholastic…

  6. Race, Ethnicity and Education under New Labour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Sally

    2005-01-01

    From 1997 the New Labour government was eager to affirm a commitment to social justice and racial equality, and initially there were moves to address some long-standing educational grievances. But a continuation of Conservative market policies of choice and diversity in schooling and a targeting of 'failing' schools exacerbated school segregation…

  7. Virtual Invisibility: Race and "Communication Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Katherine Grace; Wilson, Cicely

    2014-01-01

    Articles published in "Communication Education" ("CE") from 2000 to 2013 yielded four major themes: teacher/instructor to student communication, public speaking, technology, and identity. An analysis of the articles within each major theme revealed a notable absence of research investigating the experiences of students of color…

  8. The effect of age on the racing speed of Thoroughbred racehorses

    PubMed Central

    TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The running performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been reported to peak when they are between 4 and 5 years old. However, changes in their racing speed by month or season have not been reported. The purposes of this study were to reveal the average racing speed of Thoroughbreds, and observe changes in their average speed with age. The surveyed races were flat races on turf and dirt tracks with firm or standard track conditions held by the Japan Racing Association from January 1st, 2002 to December 31st, 2010. The racing speed of each horse was calculated by dividing the race distance (m) by the horse’s final time (sec). Average speeds per month for each age and distance condition were calculated for each gender group when there were 30 or more starters per month for each age and distance condition for each gender group. The common characteristic change for all conditions was an average speed increase up until the first half of the age of 4 years old. The effect of increased carry weight on average speed was small, and average speed increased with the growth of the horse. After the latter half of the age of 4 years old, the horses’ average speed remained almost constant, with little variation. It is speculated that decreases in the weight carried; and the retirement of less well performing horses; are responsible for the maintenance of average speed. PMID:26170760

  9. Emotional expressions preferentially elicit implicit evaluations of faces also varying in race or age.

    PubMed

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V; Mallan, Kimberley M

    2014-10-01

    Both facial cues of group membership (race, age, and sex) and emotional expressions can elicit implicit evaluations to guide subsequent social behavior. There is, however, little research addressing whether group membership cues or emotional expressions are more influential in the formation of implicit evaluations of faces when both cues are simultaneously present. The current study aimed to determine this. Emotional expressions but not race or age cues elicited implicit evaluations in a series of affective priming tasks with emotional Caucasian and African faces (Experiments 1 and 2) and young and old faces (Experiment 3). Spontaneous evaluations of group membership cues of race and age only occurred when those cues were task relevant, suggesting the preferential influence of emotional expressions in the formation of implicit evaluations of others when cues of race or age are not salient. Implications for implicit prejudice, face perception, and person construal are discussed. PMID:25046242

  10. Interactional Issues in the Teaching of "Race" and Ethnicity in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Susie

    2006-01-01

    This paper draws on research into the teaching of "race" and ethnicity in higher education, including interviews with lecturers and students of specialist sociology of "race" options. It focuses particularly on interactional issues: the conversations conducted about "race" and ethnicity within seminar rooms were often conflictual and emotional in…

  11. The Reproduction of Biological "Race" through Physical Education Textbooks and Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brent

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the usage of "race" in high school physical education textbooks in Australia. In particular, it examines the concept of biological "race" in connection with human performance in sport. DNA studies do not indicate that separate classifiable subspecies (races) exist within modern humans. A content analysis of…

  12. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  13. Race to the Top: Implications for Professional Development in Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hourigan, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an initial look at Race to the Top as it relates to professional development for arts educators. Topics include the philosophy of Race to the Top education reform, data informed professional development, performance pay, and how these changes may affect arts educators.

  14. Effects of education and race on cognitive decline: An integrative study of generalizability versus study-specific results.

    PubMed

    Gross, Alden L; Mungas, Dan M; Crane, Paul K; Gibbons, Laura E; MacKay-Brandt, Anna; Manly, Jennifer J; Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Romero, Heather; Sachs, Bonnie; Thomas, Michael; Potter, Guy G; Jones, Richard N

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine variability across multiple prospective cohort studies in level and rate of cognitive decline by race/ethnicity and years of education. We compare data across studies, we harmonized estimates of common latent factors representing overall or general cognitive performance, memory, and executive function derived from the: (a) Washington Heights, Hamilton Heights, Inwood Columbia Aging Project (N = 4,115), (b) Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (N = 525), (c) Duke Memory, Health, and Aging study (N = 578), and (d) Neurocognitive Outcomes of Depression in the Elderly (N = 585). We modeled cognitive change over age for cognitive outcomes by race, education, and study. We adjusted models for sex, dementia status, and study-specific characteristics. The results found that for baseline levels of overall cognitive performance, memory, and executive function, differences in race and education tended to be larger than between-study differences and consistent across studies. This pattern did not hold for rate of cognitive decline: effects of education and race/ethnicity on cognitive change were not consistently observed across studies, and when present were small, with racial/ethnic minorities and those with lower education declining at faster rates. In this diverse set of datasets, non-Hispanic Whites and those with higher education had substantially higher baseline cognitive test scores. However, differences in the rate of cognitive decline by race/ethnicity and education did not follow this pattern. This study suggests that baseline test scores and longitudinal change have different determinants, and future studies to examine similarities and differences of causes of cognitive decline in racially/ethnically and educationally diverse older groups is needed. PMID:26523693

  15. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  16. Race and Education: The Roles of History and Society in Educating African American Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, William H., Ed.; Lewis, James H., Ed.; Chou, Victoria, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers on race in U.S. education written by scholars who believe that improvement in the educational achievement of African American children will not occur by changing the curriculum or achieving desegregation. True change requires innovations based on replacing constructs rooted in past white hegemony and its…

  17. Quantitative Intersectionality: A Critical Race Analysis of the Chicana/o Educational Pipeline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing the critical race framework of intersectionality, this research reexamines the Chicana/o educational pipeline through a quantitative intersectional analysis. This approach disaggregates data along the intersection of race, class, gender, and citizenship status to provide a detailed portrait of the educational trajectory of Mexican-origin…

  18. Economies of Racism: Grounding Education Policy Research in the Complex Dialectic of Race, Class, and Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Anthony L.; De Lissovoy, Noah

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to interrogate the current theoretical discourse in education concerning issues of race and class. The authors maintain that in recent years educational theory and critical policy discourse have unintentionally become splintered in such a way that race and class theories are employed separately, without much analysis of…

  19. When Culture Implies Deficit: Placing Race at the Center of Hmong American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePouw, Christin

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for a critical race analysis of Hmong American education that places race and racism at the center of analysis, highlights Whiteness as property and recognizes the fluid and situated racialization of Hmong American students. Majoritarian explanations of inequities in Hmong American education often describe Hmong American student…

  20. After the Silence of Aesthetic Enchantment: Race, Music, and Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Wayne

    2005-01-01

    In this fifth installment of what has become a series of essay reviews of books that raise issues important to music education and relevant to the ideals of the MayDay Group, the author turns his attention to a topic rarely considered or discussed in conjunction with music education: race. Race, assert Radano and Bohlman, is a specter that lurks…

  1. Howard Thurman, Black Spirituality, and Critical Race Theory in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines aspects of Dr. Howard W Thurman's (1900-1982) career in higher education through the lenses of Black spirituality and critical race theory. The experiences of Howard Thurman offers distinct perspectives through which to interrogate the Black experience in American higher education and the intersections of race, religion and…

  2. Reporting on Race, Education & No Child Left Behind: A Guide for Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tammy, Ed.

    This handbook is a tool that reporters can use to uncover the hidden dimensions of race in public education and ask the right questions about the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Section 1, "Race Revealed", includes "Special Education" (Daniel J. Losen); "Dropout and Graduation Rates" (Daniel J. Losen); "Segregation" (Jacinta Ma and John Yun);…

  3. Motor Performance Age and Race Differences between Black and Caucasian Boys Six to Nine Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNucci, James M.

    This study was undertaken to compare the motor performance age and race differences between black and caucasian boys ages six to nine. One hundred and twenty subjects were administered 25 test items which measured (a) muscular strength, (b) muscular endurance, (c) cardio-respiratory endurance, (d) speed, (e) power, (f) agility, (g) balance, and…

  4. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  5. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  6. Methods of Suicide by Age: Sex and Race Differences among the Young and Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Santos, John F.

    1986-01-01

    Annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (Whites, Blacks, non-Whites excluding Black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. (Author/ABL)

  7. Race, Ethnicity, and Higher Education Policy: The Use of Critical Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    Cross-sectional frameworks, or between-group approaches, in quantitative research in higher education have limitations that hinder what we know about the intersection of race and educational opportunities and outcomes. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  9. Are Clinical Diagnoses of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias Affected by Education and Self-Reported Race?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teresi, Jeanne A.; Grober, Ellen; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Ehrlich, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial examined whether the diagnostic process for Alzheimer's disease and other dementias may be influenced by knowledge of the patient's education and/or self-reported race. Four conditions were implemented: diagnostic team knows (a) race and education, (b) education only, (c) race only, or (d) neither. Diagnosis and…

  10. Own-race and own-age biases facilitate visual awareness of faces under interocular suppression

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Timo; End, Albert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The detection of a face in a visual scene is the first stage in the face processing hierarchy. Although all subsequent, more elaborate face processing depends on the initial detection of a face, surprisingly little is known about the perceptual mechanisms underlying face detection. Recent evidence suggests that relatively hard-wired face detection mechanisms are broadly tuned to all face-like visual patterns as long as they respect the typical spatial configuration of the eyes above the mouth. Here, we qualify this notion by showing that face detection mechanisms are also sensitive to face shape and facial surface reflectance properties. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS) to render faces invisible at the beginning of a trial and measured the time upright and inverted faces needed to break into awareness. Young Caucasian adult observers were presented with faces from their own race or from another race (race experiment) and with faces from their own age group or from another age group (age experiment). Faces matching the observers’ own race and age group were detected more quickly. Moreover, the advantage of upright over inverted faces in overcoming CFS, i.e., the face inversion effect (FIE), was larger for own-race and own-age faces. These results demonstrate that differences in face shape and surface reflectance influence access to awareness and configural face processing at the initial detection stage. Although we did not collect data from observers of another race or age group, these findings are a first indication that face detection mechanisms are shaped by visual experience with faces from one’s own social group. Such experience-based fine-tuning of face detection mechanisms may equip in-group faces with a competitive advantage for access to conscious awareness. PMID:25136308

  11. Own-race and own-age biases facilitate visual awareness of faces under interocular suppression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; End, Albert; Sterzer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    The detection of a face in a visual scene is the first stage in the face processing hierarchy. Although all subsequent, more elaborate face processing depends on the initial detection of a face, surprisingly little is known about the perceptual mechanisms underlying face detection. Recent evidence suggests that relatively hard-wired face detection mechanisms are broadly tuned to all face-like visual patterns as long as they respect the typical spatial configuration of the eyes above the mouth. Here, we qualify this notion by showing that face detection mechanisms are also sensitive to face shape and facial surface reflectance properties. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS) to render faces invisible at the beginning of a trial and measured the time upright and inverted faces needed to break into awareness. Young Caucasian adult observers were presented with faces from their own race or from another race (race experiment) and with faces from their own age group or from another age group (age experiment). Faces matching the observers' own race and age group were detected more quickly. Moreover, the advantage of upright over inverted faces in overcoming CFS, i.e., the face inversion effect (FIE), was larger for own-race and own-age faces. These results demonstrate that differences in face shape and surface reflectance influence access to awareness and configural face processing at the initial detection stage. Although we did not collect data from observers of another race or age group, these findings are a first indication that face detection mechanisms are shaped by visual experience with faces from one's own social group. Such experience-based fine-tuning of face detection mechanisms may equip in-group faces with a competitive advantage for access to conscious awareness. PMID:25136308

  12. After the Glow: Race Ambivalence and Other Educational Prognoses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2011-01-01

    The Right has a long history of questioning the importance of race analysis. Recently, the conceptual and political status of race has come under increased scrutiny from the Left. Bracketing the language of "race" has meant that the discourse of skin groups remains at the level of abstraction and does not speak to real groups as such. As a…

  13. Age and Race Differences in the Trajectories of Self-Esteem

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; Liang, Jersey; Krause, Neal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess age- and race-based variation in within-persons changes in self-esteem over a 16-year period. We used hierarchical linear modeling with data from 3,617 adults aged 25 and older who were interviewed up to four times. Self-esteem increased, on average, over the course of the study period. At the same time, significant age variations around this trend were observed, with younger adults experiencing increases in self-esteem and older adults experiencing decreases. In general, race differences were not evident with respect to average levels or rates of change in self-esteem. However, a significant age by race interaction suggested that late life declines in self-esteem were steeper for blacks compared to whites. These findings suggest the presence of age- and race-based stratification with respect to self-esteem. Future work in this area should examine the health and well-being effects of declining self-esteem during old age. PMID:20230130

  14. Intersectionality and Race in Education. Routledge Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopal, Kalwant, Ed.; Preston, John, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Education is a controversial subject in which difficult and contested discourses are the norm. Individuals in education experience multiple inequalities and have diverse identifications that cannot necessarily be captured by one theoretical perspective alone. This edited collection draws on empirical and theoretical research to examine the…

  15. Critical Race Theory and Education: Racism and Anti-Racism in Educational Theory and Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2006-01-01

    What is Critical Race Theory (CRT) and what does it offer educational researchers and practitioners outside the US? This paper addresses these questions by examining the recent history of anti-racist research and policy in the UK. In particular, the paper argues that conventional forms of anti-racism have proven unable to keep pace with the…

  16. Education in a Multi-Racial Society: Race Class and Patriarchy in Collusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsaran, Dave

    2001-01-01

    Examines Trinidad and Tobago's attempts to increase educational access for all students, noting how race, class, and gender influence into which tier of a two-tiered system a student enters. Utilizes the creole society thesis to understand the soicety of Trinidad and Tobago, with its interaction of different races, cultures, institutional…

  17. Race, Cultural Capital, and the Educational Effects of Participation in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David J.

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether cultural capital, household educational resources, family structure, and race relate to participation in football, basketball, or other sports and whether the effects of participation on academic achievement differ by race and sport. Suggests that cultural disadvantage contributes to increased interest in basketball and football…

  18. An Examination of the Legal Debate Regarding Race-Based Education Policies from 1849 to 1964

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Dana Thompson

    2008-01-01

    In June 2007, the United States Supreme Court rendered its most recent decision on the constitutionality of race-based education policies. The Court decided that race-based student assignment policies implemented in two school districts to ensure racially integrated schools violated the United States Constitution. Since the implementation of the…

  19. Overview of Constitutional Requirements in Race-Conscious Affirmative Action Policies in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Civil Rights Project, Cambridge, MA.

    Most educational institutions must meet strict legal requirements when considering race in admissions, financial aid, student assignment, and other policy decisions. Based on U.S. Supreme Court rulings, both the Equal Protection Clause and Title VI require that race-conscious policies be subject to "strict scrutiny." A court evaluates whether the…

  20. Obstacles to Addressing Race and Ethnicity in the Mathematics Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Amy Noelle; Schmeichel, Mardi

    2012-01-01

    This Research Commentary builds on a 2-stage literature review to argue that there are 4 obstacles to making a sociopolitical turn in mathematics education that would allow researchers to talk about race and ethnicity in ways that take both identity and power seriously: (a) the marginalization of discussions of race and ethnicity; (b) the…

  1. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.

    2001-01-01

    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  2. Counter-Narrative as Method: Race, Policy and Research for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors argue for a research and conceptual agenda that complicates and disrupts common narratives in teacher education that have serious implications for race. Building on the pivotal work of legal scholar Derrick Bell and through a critical race theory (CRT) lens, this article challenges researchers to broaden and complexify traditional…

  3. Gifted Students' Perceptions of Parenting Styles: Associations with Cognitive Ability, Sex, Race, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Adelson, Jill L.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Houlihan, Deanna Vogt; Keizer, Benjamin M.

    2013-01-01

    Children whose parents are warm and responsive yet also set limits and have reasonable expectations for their children tend to have better outcomes than their peers whose parents show less warmth and responsiveness, have low expectations, or both. Parenting behavior is related to family race and children's sex, age, and cognitive ability. However,…

  4. Influence of Age, Sex, and Race on College Students' Exercise Motivation of Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egli, Trevor; Bland, Helen W.; Melton, Bridget F.; Czech, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined differences in exercise motivation between age, sex, and race for college students. Participants: Students from 156 sections of physical activity classes at a midsize university were recruited (n = 2,199; 1,081 men, 1,118 women) in 2005-2006 and volunteered to complete the Exercise Motivation Inventory. Methods:…

  5. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  6. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  7. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  8. Educational inequality by race in Brazil, 1982-2007: structural changes and shifts in racial classification.

    PubMed

    Marteleto, Leticia J

    2012-02-01

    Despite overwhelming improvements in educational levels and opportunity during the past three decades, educational disadvantages associated with race still persist in Brazil. Using the nationally representative Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra por Domicílio (PNAD) data from 1982 and 1987 to 2007, this study investigates educational inequalities between white, pardo (mixed-race), and black Brazilians over the 25-year period. Although the educational advantage of whites persisted during this period, I find that the significance of race as it relates to education changed. By 2007, those identified as blacks and pardos became more similar in their schooling levels, whereas in the past, blacks had greater disadvantages. I test two possible explanations for this shift: structural changes and shifts in racial classification. I find evidence for both. I discuss the findings in light of the recent race-based affirmative action policies being implemented in Brazilian universities. PMID:22259031

  9. Educational Inequality by Race in Brazil, 1982–2007: Structural Changes and Shifts in Racial Classification

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Leticia J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite overwhelming improvements in educational levels and opportunity during the past three decades, educational disadvantages associated with race still persist in Brazil. Using the nationally representative Pesquisa Nacional de Amostra por Domicílio (PNAD) data from 1982 and 1987 to 2007, this study investigates educational inequalities between white, pardo (mixed-race), and black Brazilians over the 25-year period. Although the educational advantage of whites persisted during this period, I find that the significance of race as it relates to education changed. By 2007, those identified as blacks and pardos became more similar in their schooling levels, whereas in the past, blacks had greater disadvantages. I test two possible explanations for this shift: structural changes and shifts in racial classification. I find evidence for both. I discuss the findings in light of the recent race-based affirmative action policies being implemented in Brazilian universities. PMID:22259031

  10. Educating from Marx: Race, Gender, and Learning. Marxism and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad; Carpenter, Sara

    2011-01-01

    In recent years adult educators have been working to develop an important body of literature on neo-liberalism, capitalism, and imperialism. Many of these analyses draw on various strands of Marxist theorizing. With the exception of Jane Thompson's work as an early socialist feminist, a Marxist-Feminist framework has yet to be articulated for…

  11. Closing the race and gender gaps in computer science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, John Henry

    Life in a technological society brings new paradigms and pressures to bear on education. These pressures are magnified for underrepresented students and must be addressed if they are to play a vital part in society. Educational pipelines need to be established to provide at risk students with the means and opportunity to succeed in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. STEM educational pipelines are programs consisting of components that seek to facilitate students' completion of a college degree by providing access to higher education, intervention, mentoring, support infrastructure, and programs that encourage academic success. Successes in the STEM professions mean that more educators, scientist, engineers, and researchers will be available to add diversity to the professions and to provide role models for future generations. The issues that the educational pipelines must address are improving at risk groups' perceptions and awareness of the math, science, and engineering professions. Additionally, the educational pipelines must provide intervention in math preparation, overcome gender and race socialization, and provide mentors and counseling to help students achieve better self perceptions and provide positive role models. This study was designed to explorer the underrepresentation of minorities and women in the computer science major at Rowan University through a multilayered action research methodology. The purpose of this research study was to define and understand the needs of underrepresented students in computer science, to examine current policies and enrollment data for Rowan University, to develop a historical profile of the Computer Science program from the standpoint of ethnicity and gender enrollment to ascertain trends in students' choice of computer science as a major, and an attempt to determine if raising awareness about computer science for incoming freshmen, and providing an alternate route into the computer science

  12. Differential Effect of Race, Education, Gender, and Language Discrimination on Glycemic Control in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Brice Reynolds, D.; Walker, Rebekah J.; Campbell, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Discrimination has been linked to negative health outcomes, but little research has investigated different types of discrimination to determine if some have a greater impact on outcomes. We examined the differential effect of discrimination based on race, level of education, gender, and language on glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients and Methods: Six hundred two patients with type 2 diabetes from two adult primary care clinics in the southeastern United States completed validated questionnaires. Questions included perceived discrimination because of race/ethnicity, level of education, sex/gender, or language. A multiple linear regression model assessed the differential effect of each type of perceived discrimination on glycemic control while adjusting for relevant covariates, including race, site, gender, marital status, duration of diabetes, number of years in school, number of hours worked per week, income, and health status. Results: The mean age was 61.5 years, and the mean duration of diabetes was 12.3 years. Of the sample, 61.6% were men, and 64.9% were non-Hispanic black. In adjusted models, education discrimination remained significantly associated with glycemic control (β=0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.03, 0.92). Race, gender and language discrimination were not significantly associated with poor glycemic control in either unadjusted or adjusted analyses. Conclusions: Discrimination based on education was found to be significantly associated with poor glycemic control. The findings suggest that education discrimination may be an important social determinant to consider when providing care to patients with type 2 diabetes and should be assessed separate from other types of discrimination, such as that based on race. PMID:25549154

  13. Age, Race and Regional Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Incidence Rates in Georgia between 2000 and 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wonsuk; De, Subhendu; Wilkins, Thad; Smith, Selina A.; Blumenthal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates and mortality have been decreasing in the United States. Currently, states in the South have the smallest reduction in CRC mortality. The trends of CRC incidence rates in Georgia in comparison to the United States have not been investigated. We analyzed age-adjusted incidence rates of CRC in Georgia and the United States from 2000 to 2012 using data from SEER 18 registries. Age-adjusted incidence rates (95% CI) were calculated as cases per 100,000 to the 2000 US Standard population. CRC incidence rates were calculated for groupings based on age at time of diagnosis, race, sex, and geographic location within Georgia. Incidence rates were higher in males compared to females in Georgia. In Georgians age 50–64, incidence rates were higher compared to the US, while those ages 65+ displayed lower incidence rates. Black Georgians age 50–64 generally exhibited higher incidence rates of CRC and lower rates of decrease in incidence compared to other races in Georgia. Asian/Pacific Islander females age 50–64 in Georgia exhibited an increasing trend in incidence rate. Whites and blacks Georgians age 50–64 displayed higher incidence rates compared to the US, while Asian/Pacific Islanders displayed lower incidence rates. Greater incidence rates of CRC in rural and Greater Georgia were seen across all races when compared to overall rates in Georgia. Efforts should be made to address disparities in Georgia based on race and geographic location. Increased screening by colonoscopy or fecal occult blood testing, reduction of risk factors and promotion of healthy lifestyles can reduce CRC incidence rates. PMID:27042701

  14. Race-Related Health Disparities and Biological Aging: Does Rate of Telomere Shortening Differ Across Blacks and Whites?

    PubMed Central

    Rewak, Marissa; Buka, Stephen; Prescott, Jennifer; De Vivo, Immaculata; Loucks, Eric B.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Non, Amy L.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent work suggests that leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging, is sensitive to effects of social stress and may also provide early indication of premature aging. Using data from a birth cohort with LTL information at birth and in middle adulthood we examined a potential source of race-based health disparity by testing the hypothesis that Blacks would demonstrate a faster rate of telomere shortening than Whites. Linear regression analyses were conducted and adjusted for pack years, BMI, education and social factors, diet, exercise, marital status, and age. At birth black individuals had LTLs that were longer, on average, than their White counterparts (b = 3.85, p < 0.01). However, rate of shortening was greater for Blacks, who showed a larger difference in length between birth and adulthood (b = 5.10, p = 0.01) as compared with Whites, resulting in smaller racial differences in absolute adult LTL. PMID:24686071

  15. Sex, Race, and Age Disparities in the Improvement of Survival for Gastrointestinal Cancer over Time

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Jue-feng; Yang, Li-feng; Shen, Yun-zhu; Jia, Hui-xun; Zhu, Ji; Li, Gui-chao; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    There have been notable improvements in survival over the past 2 decades for gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. However, the degree of improvement by age, race, and sex remains unclear. We analyzed data from 9 population-based cancer registries included in the SEER program of the National Cancer Institute (SEER 9) in 1990 to 2009 (n = 288,337). The degree of survival improvement over time by age, race, and sex was longitudinally measured. From 1990 to 2009, improvements in survival were greater for younger age groups. For patients aged 20 to 49 years and diagnosed from 2005 to 2009, adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.66–0.83), 0.49 (95% CI, 0.37–0.64), 0.69 (95% CI, 0.65–0.76), 0.62 (95% CI, 0.54–0.69), and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.42–0.76), for cancer of the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum and anus, respectively, compared with the same age groups of patients diagnosed during 1990 to 1994. Compared with African Americans, whites experienced greater improvement in small intestinal and anal cancer survival. Female anal cancer and regional anal cancer patients experienced no improvement. Our data suggest that different improvement in survival in age, sex and race exists. PMID:27406065

  16. Is educational achievement a turning point for incarcerated delinquents across race and sex?

    PubMed

    Blomberg, Thomas G; Bales, William D; Piquero, Alex R

    2012-02-01

    Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement serves as a positive turning point and re-directs juvenile delinquents away from subsequent offending. Attention is also given to race/sex contingencies. Using a sample of 4,147 delinquents released from Florida correctional institutions (86% male, 57% non-White, average age at release = 16.8 years), propensity score analysis yielded two findings: youth with above average academic achievement while incarcerated were significantly more likely to return to school post-release, and youth with above average attendance in public school were significantly less likely to be re-arrested in the 1-year post-release period. While the academic gains were pronounced among African-American males, the preventive effects of school attendance are similar across race and sex, suggesting that education can be a part of a larger prevention effort that assists juvenile delinquents in successful community re-entry. PMID:21643669

  17. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. PMID:26610722

  18. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  19. The Intersection of Race, Culture, Language, and Disability: Implications for Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchett, Wanda J.; Klingner, Janette K.; Harry, Beth

    2009-01-01

    To date, few researchers have sought to examine the effect of issues of race, culture, language, and disability, let alone to look specifically at the intersection of these issues, as it relates to special education identification, special education service delivery, and students of color's access to an equitable education. Thus, this article will…

  20. Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David

    2014-01-01

    Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…

  1. Influence of age, gender, and race on nitric oxide release over acupuncture points-meridians

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821

  2. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  3. Age-Related Changes in Children’s Associations of Economic Resources and Race

    PubMed Central

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children’s associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5–6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10–11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African–American (n = 93), European–American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian–American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African–American and European–American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children’s associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African–American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European–American targets. Finally, children associated African–American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European–American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants’ own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children’s associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  4. Age-Related Changes in Children's Associations of Economic Resources and Race.

    PubMed

    Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Age-related changes in children's associations of economic resources and race were investigated. The sample (N = 308) included 5-6 year-olds (n = 153, M = 6.01 years, SD = 0.33 years) and 10-11 year-olds (n = 155, M = 11.12 years, SD = 0.59 years) of African-American (n = 93), European-American (n = 92), Latino (n = 62), Asian-American (n = 23), and multi-racial or multi-ethnic (n = 26) background. Participants matched pairs of target children (African-American and European-American) with visual indicators of low, middle, and high economic status. Children's associations of economic resources with racial groups changed with age, and reflected different associations at high, middle, and low levels of the economic spectrum. Specifically, children associated targets of both races with middle economic status at a comparable rate, and with age, increasingly associated targets of both races with indicators of middle economic status. By contrast, both younger and older children associated African-American targets with indicators of low economic status more frequently than European-American targets. Finally, children associated African-American targets with indicators of high economic status less frequently with age, resulting in a perceived disparity in favor of European-American targets at high economic status among older children that was not present among younger children. No differences were found by participants' own racial or ethnic background. These results highlight the need to move beyond a dichotomized view (rich or poor) to include middle economic status when examining children's associations of economic resources and race. PMID:27378981

  5. Basic Facts on College-Going Rates by Income, Race, Sex, and Age, 1970 to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frances, Carol

    Data on the income, race, sex, and age of college students from 1970 to 1980 are presented, and policy implications of the trends are considered. The most significant finding is that the college-going rates for full-time students from the lowest incomes (under $5,000) increased measurably (9.5 percent in 1974 to 14.3 percent in 1980). The…

  6. The development of implicit attitudes. Evidence of race evaluations from ages 6 and 10 and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Baron, Andrew Scott; Banaji, Mahzarin R

    2006-01-01

    To understand the origin and development of implicit attitudes, we measured race attitudes in White American 6-year-olds, 10-year-olds, and adults by first developing a child-oriented version of the Implicit Association Test (Child IAT). Remarkably, implicit pro-White/anti-Black bias was evident even in the youngest group, with self-reported attitudes revealing bias in the same direction. In 10-year-olds and adults, the same magnitude of implicit race bias was observed, although self-reported race attitudes became substantially less biased in older children and vanished entirely in adults, who self-reported equally favorable attitudes toward Whites and Blacks. These data are the first to show an asymmetry in the development of implicit and explicit race attitudes, with explicit attitudes becoming more egalitarian and implicit attitudes remaining stable and favoring the in-group across development. We offer a tentative suggestion that mean levels of implicit and explicit attitudes diverge around age 10. PMID:16371144

  7. RACE AND EQUAL EDUCATION OPPORTUNITY IN PROTLAND'S PUBLIC SCHOOLS, A REPORT TO THE BOARD OF EDUCATION, MULTNOMAH SCHOOL DISTRICT NO. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHWAB, HERBERT M.

    THE SCHOOL BOARD APPOINTED A COMMITTEE ON RACE AND EDUCATION TO DETERMINE IF PORTLAND SCHOOLS DEPRIVED THE CHILDREN OF ONE RACE THE EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AFFORDED TO THOSE OF OTHER RACES, WHAT MIGHT BE DONE TO IMPROVE THE ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN CULTURALLY DEPRIVED AREAS OF THE CITY, AND WHAT MIGHT THE SCHOOL SYSTEM DO THROUGH ITS…

  8. Age- and race-dependence of the fibroglandular breast density analyzed on 3D MRI

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Ke; Su, Min-Ying; Chau, Man-Kwun; Chan, Siwa; Nguyen, Hoanglong; Tseng, Tiffany; Huang, Yuhong; McLaren, Christine E.; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the age- and race-dependence of the breast fibroglandular tissue density based on three-dimensional breast MRI. Methods: The normal breasts of 321 consecutive patients including Caucasians, Asians, and Hispanics were studied. The subjects were separated into three age groups: Younger than 45, between 45 and 55, and older than 55. Computer algorithms based on body landmarks were used to segment the breast, and fuzzy c-means algorithm was used to segment the fibroglandular tissue. Linear regression analysis was applied to compare mean differences among different age groups and race∕ethnicity groups. The obtained parameters were not normally distributed, and the transformed data, natural log (ln) for the fibroglandular tissue volume, and the square root for the percent density were used for statistical analysis. Results: On the average, the transformed fibroglandular tissue volume and percent density decreased significantly with age. Racial differences in mean transformed percent density were found among women older than 45, but not among women younger than 45. Mean percent density was higher in Asians compared to Caucasians and Hispanics; the difference remained significant after adjustment for age, but not significant after adjusted for both age and breast volume. There was no significant difference in the density between the Caucasians and the Hispanics. Conclusions: The results analyzed using the MRI-based method show age- and race-dependence, which is consistent with literature using mammography-based methods. PMID:20632587

  9. Variation of Laminar Depth in Normal Eyes With Age and Race

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Lindsay A.; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Fazio, Massimo; Smith, Brandon; Clark, Mark; Downs, J. Crawford; Owsley, Cynthia; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine if laminar depth (LD) and prelaminar tissue volume (PTV) are associated with age and race in healthy human eyes. Methods. Optic nerve head images from enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of 166 normal eyes from 84 subjects of African descent (AD) and European descent (ED) were manually delineated to identify the principal surfaces: internal limiting membrane, Bruch's membrane (BM), anterior sclera (AS), and anterior surface of the lamina cribrosa. These four surfaces defined the LD and PTV using Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and AS for reference structures. Generalized estimating equations were used to evaluate whether the effect of age on each outcome was differential by race. Results. When age was analyzed as a continuous variable, the interaction term between age and race was statistically significant for mean LDBMO (P = 0.015) and mean LDAS (P = 0.0062) after adjusting for axial length and BMO area. For every 1-year increase in age, the LDAS was greater on average by 1.78 μm in AD subjects and less by 1.71 μm in ED subjects. Mean PTV was lower in the older subjects (1248 × 106 μm3 AD, 881 × 106 μm3 ED) compared to the younger subjects (1316 × 106 μm3 AD, 1102 × 106 μm3 ED) in both groups. Conclusions. With increasing age, the LD changes differently across racial groups in normal subjects. The LD in ED subjects showed a significantly decreasing slope suggesting that the lamina moves anteriorly with age in this group. PMID:25414182

  10. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  11. Race Differences in Age-Trends of Autonomic Nervous System Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017

  12. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  13. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies found that the athlete’s age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete’s age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. Methods We investigated the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete’s age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. Results The athlete’s ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete’s ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. Conclusion The athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete’s age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete’s age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete’s age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further

  14. Age, race, and implicit prejudice: using process dissociation to separate the underlying components.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Brandon D; von Hippel, William; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2009-02-01

    Older adults express greater prejudice than younger adults, but it is not clear why. In a community-based sample, we found that older White adults demonstrated more racial prejudice on an implicit measure, the race Implicit Association Test, than did younger adults. Process-dissociation procedures indicated that this difference in implicit prejudice was due to older adults having less control of their automatic prejudicial associations rather than stronger automatic prejudicial associations. Furthermore, this age difference in control was mediated by age-related deficits in inhibitory ability. White participants showed stronger automatic prejudicial associations than did Black participants. PMID:19175528

  15. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  16. Space Age Driver Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  17. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

  18. Timing the second birth: fecundability models for selected race and age groups in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A

    1986-12-01

    This article tests exponential models for fecundability for use in predicting the timing of the second birth in a non-contracepting population, using data from Hawaii for reference. The paper begins with an extensive review of the literature on mathematical models for birth intervals. The most common problem with prior studies is that the reference data are often biased with uncontrolled parameters such as maternal age, abortion history, lactation practice and pregnancy planning. Pertinent bias in the present data is evaluated. The principal tool used here is an exponential distribution, maximum-likelihood method, involving partial differential equations. The model was constructed by subjecting it to 3 steps: 1) it was tested for exponentiality with a Gail-Gastwirth test that does not depend upon an unknown parameter; 2) the reciprocal of the mean second birth interval was calculated for each group that passed the first test; 3) the estimated frequencies were tested against observed by the chi-squared goodness of fit test. The results are tabulated as separate racial groups, combined races, and age groups. Fecundabilities varied widely by age within all races. For all races, rates were .07045, .03423 and .02777 for ages 20-24, 25-29, and 30-34. Thus the results suggest that fecundability rates are largely determined by age related factors associated with coital frequency, rather than by racial or physiological variations. Other factors potentially influencing fecundability in actual data or models are discussed, such as period effects, the "intendedness" of pregnancy, types of non-live birth intervals, lactation, induced and spontaneous abortion, and differences in pre- and post-demographic transition populations. Finally appendices are added discussing cohort size bias, presenting data set documentation and evaluating the length of pregnancy term and post-partum sterility in the data used here. PMID:12268733

  19. Age- and Race-Related Differences in Human Scleral Material Properties

    PubMed Central

    Grytz, Rafael; Fazio, Massimo A.; Libertiaux, Vincent; Bruno, Luigi; Gardiner, Stuart; Girkin, Christopher A.; Downs, J. Crawford

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. We tested the hypothesis that there are age- and race-related differences in posterior scleral material properties, using eyes from human donors of European (20–90 years old, n = 40 eyes) and African (23–74 years old, n = 22 eyes) descent. Methods. Inflation tests on posterior scleral shells were performed while full-field, three-dimensional displacements were recorded using laser speckle interferometry. Scleral material properties were fit to each eye using a microstructure-based constitutive formulation that incorporates the collagen fibril crimp and the local anisotropic collagen architecture. The effects of age and race were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equations, while accounting for intradonor correlations. Results. The shear modulus significantly increased (P = 0.038) and collagen fibril crimp angle significantly decreased with age (P = 0.002). Donors of African descent exhibited a significantly higher shear modulus (P = 0.019) and showed evidence of a smaller collagen fibril crimp angle (P = 0.057) compared to donors of European descent. The in-plane strains in the peripapillary sclera were significantly lower with age (P < 0.015) and African ancestry (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The age- and race-related differences in scleral material properties result in a loss of scleral compliance due to a higher shear stiffness and a lower level of stretch at which the collagen fibrils uncrimp. The loss of compliance should lead to larger high frequency IOP fluctuations and changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical response in the elderly and in persons of African ancestry, and may contribute to the higher susceptibility to glaucoma in these at-risk populations. PMID:25389203

  20. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  1. Complicating Blackness in Teacher Education: Race, Intersectionality, and the Lives of Black Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Corliss Charonne

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on preparing educators to teach for social justice. Black teachers have been highlighted for their historical and present work with black students, eliminating educational inequities seemingly through their race consciousness and activism. The literature on black teachers has treated them as a…

  2. Exploring the Impact of "Race Talk" in the Education Classroom: Doctoral Student Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Michelle L.; Wilson, Brandy S.; Lewis, Ashlee A.; Wills, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore doctoral students' experiences engaging in conversations about the role of race and racism in education during their programs. We conducted focus groups with graduate students in a School of Education at a predominantly White institution in the South. Our findings support the notion that creating…

  3. Treatment of Race/Ethnicity in Career-Technical Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Xing, Xue

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how researchers of career-technical education have treated the construct of race/ethnicity in recent studies. Fifty-one of 71 articles published in the Career and Technical Education Research (CTER) over a 7-year span (2005-2011) were included. A content analysis found that only one quarter (n = 13, 25.49%) of eligible studies…

  4. A White Veneer: Education Policy, Space and "Race" in the Inner City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulson, Kalervo

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores how neo-liberal education policy change and urban renewal in inner Sydney and London has interacted with "raced" and classed educational identities. I draw on two examples of policy change, the "Building the Future" policy development in the inner city area of Sydney and the "Excellence in Cities" partnership programme in East…

  5. Race to the Top and the Exclusion of Welfare Recipients from Educational Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Michelle A.; Stephens, Mattyna L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, President Obama and his administration sought to overhaul the existing educational reform program and launched their initiative titled Race to the Top (RTTT). RTTT, a competitive grant program, comprised six priorities designed to help states reform their current educational systems. Priority five calls for states to evaluate their…

  6. Politics and the Scoring of Race to the Top Applications. Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Daniel H.

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration's education legacy could hinge on the success of the Race to the Top (RTT) program. Now more than ever, with the Department of Education's recent announcement of the round-two winners, RTT has received its share of praise and criticism. The praise stems from RTT's success in fostering policy discussions about the…

  7. Constitutional Law and Race-Conscious Policies in K-12 Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ancheta, Angelo

    This digest examines the constitutional framework guiding the use of race-conscious policymaking in K-12 education. Despite the requirements of Brown v Board of Education, recent court decisions suggest that desegregation remedies are becoming more limited, and voluntary policies will be subject to greater scrutiny. The legal framework governing…

  8. Internal Rates of Return to College Education in the United States by Sex and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Elchanan; Cooper, Samuel T.

    1997-01-01

    Provides IRORs (internal rates of return) to investment in higher education by race and sex, using data from the 1985 wave of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Black males obtain a rate of return somewhat below other subgroups. Females tend to have a larger return to an investment in education than their male counterparts. (63 references) (MLH)

  9. Critical Race Theory and Interest Convergence as Analytic Tools in Teacher Education Policies and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, H. Richard, IV

    2008-01-01

    In "The Report of the AERA Panel on Research and Teacher Education," Cochran-Smith and Zeichner's (2005) review of studies in the field of teacher education revealed that many studies lacked theoretical and conceptual grounding. The author argues that Derrick Bell's (1980) interest convergence, a principle of critical race theory, can be used as…

  10. Critical Race Theory, Disability Microaggressions and Latina/o Student Experiences in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dávila, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    This research draws upon critical race theory (CRT) to explore the experiences of Latina/o students in special education. It seeks to extend the theoretical construct of racial microaggressions and illustrate the additional layer of disability as I present data that are particular to the context of special education and the assigned label of…

  11. Race, School Choice and Transfers to Opportunity: Implications for Educational Stratification in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lori Diane

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the links between race, school choice and educational stratification in South Africa. It focuses on racial differences in families' efforts to take advantage of choice by transferring to opportunity (i.e., transferring to a school perceived to offer students better access to educational opportunity than their current…

  12. Race and Human Rights Violations in the United States: Considerations for Human Rights and Moral Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Garrett Albert

    2000-01-01

    States that moral educators can learn from North Americans who have challenged U.S. human rights violations, especially violations within the United States. Uses race as an analytical tool to illustrate human rights abuses. Concludes by discussing the implications for crossing boundaries between human rights work and moral education. (CMK)

  13. Conforming Amendments to the Regulations Governing Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Race, Color, National, Origin, Disability, Sex, and Age under the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987; Final Rule. Federal Register, Part IV: Department of Education, 34 CFR Parts 100, 104, 106, and 110.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The Secretary amends the regulations governing nondiscrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, handicap, and age to conform with statutory amendments made by the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1987 (CRRA). These amendments add a definition of "program or activity" or "program" that adopts the statutory definition of "program…

  14. Influential Factors on the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Kornexl, Elmar; Raschner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE), which refers to an over-representation of selected athletes born early in the selection year, was proven to be present in alpine ski racing in all age categories at both national and international levels. However, the influential factors on, or the causal mechanisms of, the RAE are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine three possible influential factors on the relative age effect in alpine skiing: physical performance, anthropometric characteristics and biological maturational status. The study included the investigation of 282 elite Austrian youth ski racers and 413 non-athletes (comparison group) of the same age (10–13 years) and region. Six physical performance tests were performed, body mass and height were assessed, and the age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated. A significant RAE was present in the ski racers. No differences were shown in the physical performance characteristics or in the calculated APHV between the relative age quarters. These results suggest that ski racers born in the last quarter can counteract the relative age disadvantages if they already present the same level of physical performance and maturational status as those born at the beginning of the year. The height and weight of ski racers born at the beginning of the year were significantly higher compared to the non-athletes, and ski racers born in relative age quarter 1 were taller and heavier compared to the ski racers of the other quarters. This indicates that the anthropometric characteristics influence the selection process in alpine ski racing, and that relatively older athletes are more likely to be selected if they exhibit advanced anthropometric characteristics. PMID:26252793

  15. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified. PMID:24335783

  16. Impact of age, gender and race on circulating gammadelta T cells

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Cristiana; Armstrong, Cheryl L; Cummings, Jean Saville; Deetz, Carl O; Tan, Ming; Lu, Changwan; Davis, Charles E.; Pauza, C. David

    2010-01-01

    A major subset of human peripheral blood γδ T cells expresses the Vγ2Vδ2 T cell receptor (TCR) and responds to malignant or infectious diseases. We noted significant differences in the numbers of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in blood samples from healthy Caucasian or African American (AA) donors. On average, CA donors had 3.71 ± 4.37% Vδ2 cells (as a percentage of total lymphocytes) compared to 1.18 ± 2.14% Vδ2 cells for AA donors (p < 0.0001). Age and race had the greatest impact on Vδ2 cell levels; the effect of age was similar for both racial groups. The Vδ2+ cell population was dominated, for both donor groups, by cells expressing the Vγ2-Jγ1.2 Vδ2 T cell receptor, an apparent result of strong positive selection and there was substantial overlap in the public Vγ2 clonotypes from both racial groups. Mechanisms for selection and amplification of Vδ2 cells are nearly identical for both groups, despite the significant difference in baseline levels. These data show that appropriate controls, matched for age and race, may be required for clinical studies of Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in infectious disease or cancer and raise important questions about the mechanisms regulating the levels of circulating Vδ2 cells. PMID:20600446

  17. "Race" and Early Childhood Education: An International Approach to Identity, Politics, and Pedagogy. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…

  18. Eighth Annual "Brown" Lecture in Education Research: Through a Glass Darkly--The Persistence of Race in Education Research & Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson-Billings, Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Although education researchers understand that race is a problematic concept of spurious value, the concept persists in our research and scholarship. Each of the social sciences that contribute to the field of education has a history of racialized understandings that make their way to both our research and practice. Until we begin to carefully…

  19. Variation of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex

    PubMed Central

    Rebeis, Eduardo Baldassari; de Campos, Jose Ribas Milanez; Moreira, Luis Felipe Pinho; Pastorino, Antonio Carlos; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible variations in the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum relative to age, race, and sex in individuals free of thoracic wall deformities. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2012, 166 individuals with morphologically normal thoracic walls consented to have their chests and the perimeter of the lower third of the thorax measured according to the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum. The participant characteristics are presented (114 men and 52 women; 118 Caucasians and 48 people of African descent). RESULTS: Measurements of the Anthropometric Index for pectus excavatum were statistically significantly different between men and women (11–40 years old); however, no significant difference was found between Caucasians and people of African descent. For men, the index measurements were not significantly different across all of the age groups. For women, the index measurements were significantly lower for individuals aged 3 to 10 years old than for individuals aged 11 to 20 years old and 21 to 40 years old; however, no such difference was observed between women aged 11 to 20 years old and those aged 21 to 40 years old. CONCLUSION: In the sample, significant differences were observed between women aged 11 to 40 years old and the other age groups; however, there was no difference between Caucasian and people of African descent. PMID:24141837

  20. Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierstein, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

  1. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  2. Sex, age, race and intervention type in clinical studies of HIV cure: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rowena E; Heitzeg, Mary M

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  3. Sex, Age, Race and Intervention Type in Clinical Studies of HIV Cure: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Heitzeg, Mary M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This systematic review was undertaken to determine the extent to which adult subjects representing sex (female), race (nonwhite), and age (>50 years) categories are included in clinical studies of HIV curative interventions and thus, by extension, the potential for data to be analyzed that may shed light on the influence of such demographic variables on safety and/or efficacy. English-language publications retrieved from PubMed and from references of retrieved papers describing clinical studies of curative interventions were read and demographic, recruitment year, and intervention-type details were noted. Variables of interest included participation by sex, age, and race; changes in participation rates by recruitment year; and differences in participation by intervention type. Of 151 publications, 23% reported full demographic data of study enrollees, and only 6% reported conducting efficacy analyses by demographic variables. Included studies recruited participants from 1991 to 2011. No study conducted safety analyses by demographic variables. The representation of women, older people, and nonwhites did not reflect national or international burdens of HIV infection. Participation of demographic subgroups differed by intervention type and study location. Rates of participation of demographic groups of interest did not vary with time. Limited data suggest efficacy, particularly of early therapy initiation followed by treatment interruption, may vary by demographic variables, in this case sex. More data are needed to determine associations between demographic characteristics and safety/efficacy of curative interventions. Studies should be powered to conduct such analyses and cure-relevant measures should be standardized. PMID:25313793

  4. The Race to Educational Reform in the USA: The Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Victoria; Lazaro, Luis Miguel

    2011-01-01

    From the cognitive perspective of embodiment and relying mostly on the powerful and revealing tool of metaphor, we approach the issue of education in the Obama administration's discourse trying to unveil the ideological preferences hidden behind the use of the different metaphors. It is assumed that this body of metaphors will contribute to the…

  5. Race and Special Educational Needs in the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diniz, Fernando Almeida

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of effects of "institutionalized racism" on the education of black and minority children with special educational needs in the United Kingdom focuses on a Scottish study which raised issues concerning: racism in special education research; over and under representation in special education; equitable assessment, curriculum and access to…

  6. Disrupting Postsecondary Prose: Toward a Critical Race Theory of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Lori D.

    2016-01-01

    Ladson-Billings and Tate ushered critical race theory (CRT) into education and challenged racial inequities in schooling contexts. In this article, I consider the role CRT can play in disrupting postsecondary prose, or the ordinary, predictable, and taken for granted ways in which the academy has functioned for centuries as a bastion of racism and…

  7. Effect of Sex and Race Identification on Instrument Assignment by Music Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Stewart, Erin E.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sex and race identification on the assignment of instruments to beginning band students. Participants (N = 201) were music educators solicited by university professors across the United States. Participants completed an online survey about instrument assignments. Half the participants were…

  8. The Story of Schooling: Critical Race Theory and the Educational Racial Contract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2013-01-01

    This article is an engagement of methodology as an ideologico-racial practice through Critical Race Theory's practice of storytelling. It is a conceptual extension of this practice as explained through Charles Mills' use of the "racial contract (RC) as methodology" in order to explain the Herrenvolk Education--one standard for…

  9. Roma Education in Europe: In Support of the Discourse of Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskovic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the research findings and policies regarding the conditions and educational needs of the Roma population in Europe. It examines assumptions, possibilities, and setbacks of translating and appropriating US-American academic discourse on race into the debate across the continent. The central task for researchers, policy makers,…

  10. Everyone Sees Color: Toward a Transformative Critical Race Framework of Early Literacy Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Kindel Turner

    2013-01-01

    This article builds a rationale for using the transformative pedagogy of critical race theory (CRT) to reframe early literacy teacher education and create counternarratives to address pervasive issues of inequity among minoritized students. This article also highlights the tensions that resulted from the author's use of such a framework:…

  11. The Intersection of Gender, Race, and Disability: Latina Students in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer C.

    2005-01-01

    In this qualitative study the author used case study methods to examine perceptions of gender, race, and disability through the viewpoints and experiences of Latina students. The participants were secondary school girls with mild to moderate disabilities attending single-gender and coeducational special education classes on an urban school site in…

  12. Reflections on Race: Affirmative Action Policies Influencing Higher Education in France and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahoo, Saran

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Although frequently associated with the United States, affirmative action is not a uniquely American social policy. Indeed, 2003 witnessed review and revision of affirmative action policies affecting higher education institutions in both France and the United States. Using critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical lens, this…

  13. Race and Class Categories and Subcategories in Educational Thought and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Educational thought and research often operates with whole-race ("Black", "White", and "Asian") and whole-class ("low-income") categories. For both explaining disparities and assessing them normatively, it is essential to pay attention to subdivisions within those groups. Regarding affirmative action, on…

  14. Race-Sex Differences in Job Quality Returns Attributed to Education among Young Rural Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggers, Judi L.; Dunkelberger, John E.

    Using the general hypothesis that job quality returns to education are positive for all employment indicators among race and sex groupings, a sample of young adults originally from southern rural areas and small towns was queried concerning the status ranking of their current occupation, income earned, supervisory responsibility, and extent of…

  15. Stimulating Reform: Race to the Top, Competitive Grants and the Obama Education Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the origins, evolution, and impact of the Obama administration's Race to the Top (RTTT) competitive grant program and places it in the broader context of the debate over the No Child Left Behind Act and the shifting intergovernmental relations around education. RTTT is fundamentally about two things: creating…

  16. The Color of Caring: Race and the Implementation of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jean A.; Gordon, Jenny; Price, Paula Groves

    2008-01-01

    The authors use Noddings (1984; 1992; 1999) and Beauboeuf-Lafontant's (2002) theories of caring in education to look at how race (conceptualized to include Whiteness) affected the implementation of the A+ Schools Program, an arts-based reform designed to augment student achievement and appreciation for the arts. They examine the implementation of…

  17. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  18. Battling Inertia in Educational Leadership: CRT Praxis for Race Conscious Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Bellara, Aarti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how institutional racism is mediated by faculty negotiating power and privilege in the selection of Black (African American) women into an educational leadership preparation program. Critical race theory (CRT) praxis is used to analyze the faculty dynamics in the candidate selection process situated in…

  19. The New Politics of Race and Gender. Education Policy Perspective Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Catherine, Ed.

    This book demonstrates that liberal policy cannot adequately address deep-seated assumptions and traditional practices that undermine minorities and women in schools. Chapters focus on educational policy and its implementation at all levels of school politics in the United States, Australia, and Israel. Part 1, "Cutting Across Race and Gender,"…

  20. The Role of Theatre and Embodied Knowledge in Addressing Race in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role of theatrical performance as a means of addressing the embodied and spatio-temporal manifestations of race and racism within South African higher education. As part of Jansen's proposal for a post-conflict pedagogy in South Africa, the article argues for the development and inclusion of embodied knowledges as an…

  1. Race, Difference, Meritocracy, and English: Majoritarian Stories in the Education of Secondary Multilingual Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kara

    2013-01-01

    In this study, empirical and conceptual scholarship (approximately 100 studies) regarding the education of secondary multilingual learners and their teachers are analyzed through the lens of critical race theory (CRT). Specifically, four common majoritarian stories are identified that are both challenged and endorsed in the research literature:…

  2. The Race for Class: Reflections on a Critical Raceclass Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonardo, Zeus

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to appraise the insights gained from Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education. It is particularly interested in CRT's relationship with Marxist discourse, which falls under two questions. One, how does CRT understand Marxist concepts, such as "capital," which show up in the way CRT appropriates them? The article argues that…

  3. Education Stimulus Watch: Special Report 3. The Full Story on Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    Over the last year, no education story has garnered more enthusiastic or sustained positive attention than Race to the Top, the $4.35 billion federal program intended to spur and support groundbreaking state-level reforms. The White House called state responses to the competition "overwhelming." Columnist David Brooks wrote that it was helping to…

  4. "Am I Going Crazy?!": A Critical Race Analysis of Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Croom, Natasha N.; Vasquez, Philip L.

    2011-01-01

    The graduate school experience for students of color has been theorized as oppressive and dehumanizing (Gay, 2004). Scholars have struggled to document how students of color navigate and negotiate oppressive and dehumanizing conditions in their daily experiences of doctoral education. We provide a critical race analysis of the everyday experiences…

  5. Leaving Home State for College: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Parental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niu, Sunny X.

    2015-01-01

    Using the College Board SAT registration and questionnaire data of 2010 high school graduating seniors, we found clear patterns by race/ethnicity and parental education on two outcomes: out-of-state score-sending and out-of-state college attendance. White students had the highest rates and Hispanic students had the lowest rates, and there was a…

  6. Changing Hearts and Minds: The Quest for Open Talk about Race in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusch, Edith A.; Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to seek to conceptualize a theory of self-contribution as a framework for understanding and demonstrating the dispositions and skills academics and educational leaders need to break the silence and engage in constructive talk about race across color lines. Design/methodology/approach: Brian Fay's framework for…

  7. Model of the Transmission of Educational Status: Sex-Race Differentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosby, Arthur G.; Picou, J. Steven

    Extending application of Svalastoga's (1965) concept of system permeability to the intrasystem analysis of sex-race differentials in educational permeability in the rural South, an operational procedure was developed to quantify permeability as the percent variation in filial attainment of a status not associated with variations in parental…

  8. The Burden of Teaching Teachers: Memoirs of Race Discourse in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dawn G.; Evans-Winters, Venus

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the views and educational experiences of two African American female scholars, from a critical race and black feminist theorist perspective, teaching in the area of social justice to predominantly white female preservice teachers. These testimonies reveal the struggles encountered by these scholars when engaging students in a…

  9. Effect of Age, Sex, and Race Distance on Front Crawl Stroke Parameters in Subelite Adolescent Swimmers During Competition.

    PubMed

    Dormehl, Shilo J; Osborough, Conor D

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect of age, sex and race distance on velocity (v), stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL) and stroke index (SI) of subelite adolescent swimmers in competition, and to investigate their pacing strategies during the 100-m and 200-m events. Video footage of 112 adolescent swimmers (56 female; 56 male), competing in the 100-m and 200-m freestyle events, in two age groups (12-14; 15-18 years) was recorded and subsequently analyzed. A MANOVA showed that all stroke parameters significantly differed between sexes and between race distances. The older adolescents had a higher v, a longer SL and a greater SI (p < .01) than the younger adolescents. There were significant interaction effects between age and sex for v, SL and SI. Most adolescents had a SL that was within 7% of that reported for 1992 Olympians, but had up to 16% lower SRs. Separate Friedman's ANOVAs showed that SL differed between successive race quarters for both age groups, both sexes and both race distances. It is likely that physical immaturity, inexperience in competition pacing and within-race fatigue strongly influence the performances of subelite adolescent front crawl swimmers. PMID:25902554

  10. Virtual Education and the Race to the Bottom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Versluis, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The president of a vastly profitable virtual education corporation asserted that customers flock to him, not for an education, but for the material comforts that an education provides. Compelled by technology and supported by the World Trade Organization, such huge credentialing agencies employ lowpaid contractors to dish out homogenized info…

  11. Cultural Identity and Education: A Critical Race Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Theodorea Regina; Candis, Matthew Reese

    2013-01-01

    The authors begin this article looking at the start of the journey through this new 21st century and how educators at every level are endeavoring to meet the challenge to be responsive to the educational needs of their students, current and future. This is especially true in relationship to the education of students of diverse backgrounds…

  12. The Ivory and Ebony Towers: Race Relations and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles Vert

    The adaptations of black and of white students to each other and to their teachers and administrators in institutions of higher education are compared. Complementarity is the basic theme. Examples demonstrate the principle that the majority population that is educated in a setting that excludes the minority receives a deficient education, and vice…

  13. Gender, race, ethnicity, and science education in the middle grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catsambis, Sophia

    This article examines gender differences in science achievements and attitudes during the middle grade, when our nation's scientific pipeline begins to emerge. It uses data from a large, nationally representative sample of eighth-grade students (NELS-88). The findings show that in these grades female students do not lag behind their male classmates in science achievements tests, grades, and course enrollments. Actually, some female students have higher probabilities of enrolling in high-ability classes than males. However, female students have less positive attitudes toward science, participate in fewer relevant extracurricular activities, and aspire less often to science careers than males. Students' science attitudes and career interests vary according to students' gender as well as their racial or ethnic background. These findings emphasize the need to further examine the interrelationships between gender and race or ethnicity in our efforts to understand the processes leading to women's limited participation in science-related careers.Received: 2 August 1993; Revised: 8 August 1994;

  14. "Destiny Has Thrown the Negro and the Filipino under the Tutelage of America": Race and Curriculum in the Age of Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2009-01-01

    The article brings together the fields of curriculum studies, history of education, and ethnic studies to chart a transnational history of race, empire, and curriculum. Drawing from a larger study on the history of education in the Philippines under U.S. rule in the early 1900s, it argues that race played a pivotal role in the discursive…

  15. Class, Race, and Power: Interest Group Politics and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Adriane

    2005-01-01

    Literature review focuses on what theory and research primarily from political science and sociology of education have to say about families and communities working for change in education. Questions: (1) Do low-income minority families have the power to create positive and lasting change in school and/or district organization and policy? (2) Is…

  16. The LunaRace - a public outreach, involvement, education and support mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzl, H.; Bouquet, F.; Arafune, K.; Contino, M.-C.; Fontaine, T. H.; Freihoefer, J.; Grey, I.; Leindecker, W.; Lintchik, E.; Meierink, G.; Pauly, K.; Shen, Z.; Simi, N.; Summerer, L.; Weinmann, G.; Yoon, J.

    2002-10-01

    Today's level of technology allows for many fantastic missions to space. Funding of these missions is a problem, because government are cutting space budgets and commercial expenditure in space is minimal. The major obstacle to achieving global involvement into large scale, economically viable space enterprises is the lack of public involvement, education and support. At the 1999 Summer Session of the International Space University, the LunaRace (LR) mission has been desgined. With its extensive public outreach program before, during and after the race, this mission could be the first to bridge the gap between space and public. In national and international design contests, the most promising rover designs will be selected. Similar to the Tour de France and Paris-Dakar, the LR will be a staged event from the Apollo 17 to the Luna 21 landing site and back, during one Lunar Day. During the remaining sunlight after the race the surviving rovers will be used for public outreach purposes. This LunaRace will be a stepping stone for future human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Next to the technology pull it implies, it has a high chance of boosting public support and education that brings the institution of commercially viable space enterprises a step closer.

  17. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  18. Race to the Top: Characteristics of Grantees' Amended Programs and Education's Review Process. GAO-12-228R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education (Education) established the Race to the Top (RTT) grant fund to encourage states to support school reform efforts. In 2010, Education awarded 12 RTT grants totaling nearly $4 billion, making RTT the largest competitive grant fund ever administered by Education. Individual grantee awards ranged from $75 million to…

  19. Methods of suicide by age: sex and race differences among the young and old.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, J L; Santos, J F

    The elderly have the highest suicide rate in the United States. In partial explanation of this finding, a common statement in the suicide literature is that older persons tend to use more drastic and effective methods of suicide. However, little, if any, data have been presented in defense of this explanation. In order to investigate the validity of this contention, annual official statistics for specific methods of suicide (firearms, hanging, poisons) by age for different sex and racial groups (whites, blacks, nonwhites excluding black) were examined from 1960 to 1978. Comparisons among the age-sex-race groups, along with trends over time and differences in the methods employed, were noted. For white males, blacks of both sexes, and nonwhites excluding black females, the findings confirmed the use of more violent methods by the elderly than by the young in terms of the proportion of suicides by firearms and/or hanging. Less support and, in fact, opposite results for method-related age differences were obtained for white females and nonwhites excluding black males. Another general finding was an increase in the use of firearms for most of the groups studied. The need for data for specific groups within the nonwhite category excluding blacks is apparent both from the available literature and from the present findings. Possible explanations and implications of the observed results are discussed. PMID:3830918

  20. Effect of Age and Race Upon Quality of Life of Young Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, P.K.; Broxson, A.C.; Munsell, M.F.; Basen-Enquist, K.; Rosenblum, C.K.; Schover, L.R.; Nguyen, L.H.; Hsu, L.; Castillo, L.; Hahn, K.M.E.; Litton, J.K.; Mattair, D.M.; Hortobagyi, G.N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given their early age of diagnosis, young breast cancer (BC) survivors face issues that differ widely from their older counterparts. Patients and Methods We mailed a survey to 2209 patients who were ≤45 years at time of BC diagnosis. Each survey was comprised of: the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors instrument, Menopause Symptom Scale, and questions aimed at obtaining pertinent background information. Results 1090 patients completed the survey. Mean age at time of diagnosis was 39.5 years; median years from diagnosis was 6.6 years. Distress related to vaginal dryness (p=0.0002) and pain from intercourse (p=0.0014) was significantly higher in patients who were <5 years from diagnosis, compared to those >10 years from diagnosis. In the area of financial problems, black women had greater distress than white women (p=0.0010). Compared to white women, Hispanic women had worse family distress scores (p=0.0028) and summary cancer specific scores (p=0.0076). Patients >10 years from diagnosis had poorer sexual interest (p=0.003) than women who were closer to diagnosis. Women ≥40 years at diagnosis had significantly lower sexual interest (p=0.0016) than women <40 years. Stage and neoadjuvant chemotherapy did not have a significant effect on QOL. Conclusion Even in comparison to stage and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, race, age at diagnosis, and time from diagnosis have significant long term effects on QOL following BC treatment. PMID:24461458

  1. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  2. A Comparison of New Students' Reasons for Initially Attending Piedmont Technical Institute Relative to Age, Gender and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carden, Thomas E.

    A questionnaire seeking information on the relative influence of patronage factors (characteristics of an institution), sources of influence (family, friends), and influential practices and media (recruitment tactics) was administered to 100 freshmen, to determine if reasons for attending Piedmont Technical Institute differed by age, sex, or race.…

  3. Race and Educational Ambitions: The Case of Japanese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Russell

    This study compares explanatory factors related to the educational expectations of Japanese American and White college students. The research was conducted at a major West Coast state university located in an urban metropolitan area. Data were gathered through a questionnaire mailed to a sample of 200 Japanese Americans and 200 White full-time…

  4. Race and Color: Revisiting Perspectives in Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Carla R.

    2016-01-01

    Racial inequities, such as systematic disparities in school discipline and achievement outcomes, are a perennial characteristic of public education in the United States. Although attention to interracial chasms such as the Black-White achievement gap is common, limited efforts are devoted to understanding how and why colorism motivates imbalances…

  5. The Proper Consideration of Race in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudenstine, Neil L.

    2001-01-01

    A former Harvard University president looks at the academic considerations that led him to become an extremely dedicated advocate of affirmative action in higher education, emphasizing his belief that student diversity offers a powerful way of creating the intellectual energy needed to promote greater knowledge as well as respect for difference.…

  6. The Sounds of Silence: Talking Race in Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Writing from the perspective of anti-racist theory, the author is hopeful that the newfound interest in social justice may make lasting differences in the ways music education is conceived and practiced; and yet she is understandably wary, pointing to the numerous and serious misunderstandings often associated with altruistic but naive approaches…

  7. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  8. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  9. Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel

    2012-01-01

    We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982

  10. Current and Future Education Leaders' Perceptions of Race to the Top's Teacher Evaluation and Compensation Components, before and after Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Orin; Windish, Daniel; Taylor, Rosemarye

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the professional perceptions of educational leaders as to the fairness and impact of teacher evaluation and compensation reforms under Race to the Top. The study surveyed graduate students in education and educational leadership programs to assess changes in their perceptions from prior to RTTT implementation…

  11. The 20th-Year Anniversary of Critical Race Theory in Education: Implications for Leading to Eliminate Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capper, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Though the first published application of critical race theory (CRT) to education occurred 20 years ago, implications of CRT for educational leadership did not occur until López conducted a CRT analysis of the politics of education literature in 2003. No publications explicitly identify the implications of CRT for leadership practice.…

  12. Justice for All or Justice for Just Us? Toward a Critical Race Pedagogy of Hope through "Brown" in Urban Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Sherick

    2011-01-01

    This article uses critical theoretical methods to reconsider the potential of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka" in urban education. It finds "Brown" as a potentially useful tool for coconstructing critical race pedagogy of hope that involves (a) Socratic questioning of the endemic nature of racism and power dynamics of public education and…

  13. Mixed-Race School-Age Children: A Summary of Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Alejandra M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines data on racial identification from the 2000 Census to document the mixed race population of children in the United States. Using California data as an example, the article considers various methods for tabulating multiple-response race data, noting the impact of each on demographic conclusions. Discusses how federal guidelines on race…

  14. Race, childhood insulin, childhood caloric intake, and class 3 obesity at age 24: 14-year prospective study of schoolgirls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Daniels, Stephen R; Wang, Ping

    2012-03-01

    The prevalence of Class 3 obesity (BMI ≥40 kg/m(2)) has more than doubled in the past 25 years. In a 14-year prospective study from age 10 to 24 of a biracial schoolgirl cohort (293 black, 256 white), we assessed childhood correlates of Class 3 BMI at age 24. Of 42 girls with Class 3 BMI at age 24, 36 (86%) were black. By logistic regression, significant explanatory variables of Class 3 BMI at age 24 included top decile waist circumference at age 11 (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-13.9, P = 0.0002), age 10 BMI ≥ the Center for Disease Control (CDC) 2000 top 15% (OR 7.0, 95% CI 2.5-19.3, P = 0.0002), and a three-way interaction between race, childhood insulin, and average caloric intake from age 10 to age 19 (for each unit increase, OR 1.7 95% CI 1.3-2.2, P = 0.0003). Age 10 BMI, age 11 waist circumference, and interaction of race, childhood insulin, and childhood caloric intake predict Class 3 obesity in young adulthood, facilitating childhood identification of girls at high risk for developing Class 3 obesity. PMID:21593807

  15. Sex difference in race performance and age of peak performance in the Ironman Triathlon World Championship from 1983 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fastest Ironman race times in ‘Ironman Hawaii’ were achieved in very recent years. This study investigated the change in sex difference in both race performance and the age of peak performance across years in the top ten athletes for split disciplines and overall race time in the ‘Ironman Hawaii’ between 1983 and 2012. Methods Changes in split times, overall race times, and age of athletes across years for the top ten overall and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners were investigated using regression analyses and analyses of variance. Results Between 1983 and 2012, the overall top ten men and women finishers improved their swimming (only men), cycling, running, and overall race times. The sex difference in overall race time decreased significantly (p = 0.01) from 15.2% to 11.3% across time. For the split disciplines, the sex difference remained unchanged (p > 0.05) for swimming (12.5 ± 3.7%) and cycling (12.5 ± 2.7%) but decreased for running from 13.5 ± 8.1% to 7.3 ± 2.9% (p = 0.03). The time performance of the top ten swimmers remained stable (p > 0.05), while those of the top ten cyclists and top ten runners improved (p < 0.01). The sex difference in performance remained unchanged (p > 0.05) in swimming (8.0 ± 2.4%), cycling (12.7 ± 1.8%), and running (15.2 ± 3.0%). Between 1983 and 2012, the age of the overall top ten finishers and the fastest swimmers, cyclists, and runners increased across years for both women and men (p < 0.01). Conclusions To summarize, for the overall top ten finishers, the sex difference decreased across years for overall race time and running, but not for swimming and cycling. For the top ten per discipline, the sex difference in performance remained unchanged. The athletes improved their performances across years although the age of peak performance increased. PMID:23849215

  16. Relationships among race, education, criminal thinking, and recidivism: moderator and mediator effects.

    PubMed

    Walters, Glenn D

    2014-02-01

    Moderator and mediator relationships linking variables from three different theoretical traditions-race (subcultural theory), education (life-course theory), and criminal thinking (social learning theory)-and recidivism were examined in 1,101 released male federal prison inmates. Preliminary regression analyses indicated that racial status (White, Black, Hispanic) moderated the relationship between criminal thinking, as measured by the General Criminal Thinking (GCT) score of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and recidivism. Further analysis, however, revealed that it was not racial status, per se, that moderated the relationship between the PICTS and recidivism, but educational attainment. Whereas the PICTS was largely effective in predicting recidivism in inmates with 12 or more years of education, it was largely ineffective in predicting recidivism in inmates with fewer than 12 years of education. When education and the GCT score were compared as possible mediators of the race-recidivism relationship only the GCT successfully mediated this relationship. Sensitivity testing showed that the GCT mediating effect was moderately robust to violations of the sequential ignorability assumption on which causal mediation analysis rests. Moderator and mediator analyses are potentially important avenues through which theoretical constructs can be integrated and assessment strategies devised. PMID:22327209

  17. Projections of the population of states, by age, sex, and race: 1988 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Wetrogan, S I

    1988-10-01

    This report presents projections of the resident population for the 50 states and the District of Columbia by age, sex, and race for 1988-2010. These projections are the 1st to be produced by single years of age for individual calendar years. They are also the 1st to use an enhanced methodology that incorporates the annual state-to-state flows of migrants from matched tax returns together with the demographic detail from the Current Population Survey and decennial census. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) The South and West will continue to be the fastest growing regions in the US. By 2010, the South will still be the most populous region, increasing its share of the total population to over 37%, while the West will become the 2nd most populous region with over 23% of the population. 21% of the population will reside in the Midwest, while about 19% will reside in the Northeast. 2) California is projected to remain the most populous state for the next 25 years, followed by New York (until 1990, when Texas pushes it to 3rd), Florida, and Illinois (by the year 2000). 3) Of the 4 regions in 1986 and 1990, the Northeast will have the highest proportion of its population in the 65 or over age group. It will also have the lowest proportion in the younger groups, under 5 and 5-17. The West will have a higher proportion of its population in the youngest age group and a lower proportion in the oldest group. 4) During the last decade of this century, the numbers of children under age 5 are projected to decline by 1.5 million, while the numbers of school-age children will increase by over 3 million. By 2000, the Northeast will still have the oldest age distribution, while the West will continue to have the youngest. 5) Between 2000 and 2010, the numbers of children under age 5 are projected to remain constant in the US, while declining in the Northeast and Midwest and increasing in the South and West. By 2010, the Northeast, Midwest, and South all will have approximately

  18. The Gulf War era multiple sclerosis cohort: age and incidence rates by race, sex and service.

    PubMed

    Wallin, Mitchell T; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Pulaski, Sarah; Maloni, Heidi; Mahan, Clare M; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Kurtzke, John F

    2012-06-01

    We characterize here a new nationwide incident cohort of multiple sclerosis from the US military-veteran population. This cohort provides an update to the only other US nationwide incidence study of multiple sclerosis performed during the 1970s. Medical records and data from the Department of Defense and Department of Veterans Affairs for cases of multiple sclerosis who served in the military between 1990, the start of the Gulf War era, and 2007 and who were service-connected for this disorder by the Department of Veterans Affairs from 1990 on, were reviewed. A total of 2691 patients were confirmed as having multiple sclerosis: 2288 definite, 190 possible, 207 clinically isolated syndrome and six neuromyelitis optica. Overall racial categories were White, Black and other, which included all Hispanics. There were 1278 White males and 556 females; 360 Black males and 296 females; and 200 others, 153 (77%) of whom were Hispanic. Mean age at onset of 30.7 years did not differ significantly by race or sex. Age at onset was 17-50 years in 99%, the same age range as 99% of the military. Average annual age specific (age 17-50 years) incidence rates per 100 000 for the entire series were 9.6 with 95% confidence interval of 9.3-10.0. Rates for Blacks were highest at 12.1 with confidence interval 11.2-13.1, Whites were 9.3 (interval 8.9-9.8) and others 6.9 (interval 6.0-7.9). For 83 Hispanics defined for 2000-07, the rate was 8.2 (interval 6.5-10.1). Much smaller numbers gave rates of 3.3 for Asian/Pacific Islanders and 3.1 for native Americans. Rates by sex for Whites were 7.3 and 25.8 male and female, respectively, for Blacks 8.4 and 26.3, and for Hispanics 6.6 and 17.0. Rates by service were high for Air Force (10.9) and Army (10.6), medium for Navy (9.1) and Coast Guard (7.9), and low for Marines (5.3). Relative risk of multiple sclerosis was 3.39 female:male and 1.27 Black:White. These new findings indicate that females of all races now have incidence rates for multiple

  19. Virtual Human Technology: Capturing Sex, Race, and Age Influences in Individual Pain Decision Policies

    PubMed Central

    Hirsh, Adam T.; Alqudah, Ashraf F.; Stutts, Lauren A.

    2008-01-01

    Pain assessment is subject to bias due to characteristics of the individual in pain and of the observing person. Few research studies have examined pain assessment biases in an experimental setting. The present study employs innovative virtual human technology to achieve greater experimental control. A lens model design was used to capture decision-making policies at the idiographic and nomothetic level. Seventy-five undergraduates viewed virtual humans (VH) that varied in sex, race, age, and pain expression. Participants provided computerized ratings with Visual Analogue Scales on the VH's pain intensity, pain unpleasantness, negative mood, coping, and need for medical treatment. Idiographic analyses revealed that individuals used pain expression most frequently as a significant cue. Nomothetic analyses showed that higher pain expression VH and female VH were viewed as having higher pain intensity, higher pain unpleasantness, greater negative mood, worse coping, and a greater need to seek medical treatment than lower pain expression VH and male VH, respectively. Older VH were viewed as having worse coping and a greater need to seek medical treatment than younger VH. This innovative paradigm involving VH technology and a lens model design was shown to be highly effective and could serve as a model for future studies investigating pain-related decision making in healthcare providers. PMID:18930596

  20. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum. PMID:24399260

  1. Predictors of Age of Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of a Consistent Source of Medical Care, Race, and Condition Severity.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Natacha D; Morrell, Holly E R; Neece, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent source of care (CSC), and the interaction between these variables after controlling for birth cohort, birth order, poverty level, parental education, and health insurance. While African American children were diagnosed earlier than Caucasians, this effect was moderated by ASD severity and CSC. Having a CSC predicted earlier diagnosis for Caucasian but not African American children. Both physician and parent behaviors may contribute to diagnostic delays in minority children. PMID:26280401

  2. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

  3. Boundary Spanners and Advocacy Leaders: Black Educators and Race Equality Work in Toronto and London, 1968-1995

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri

    2016-01-01

    This comparative study examines the historical development of race equality efforts during the 1970s and 1980s in two global cities--Toronto and London--and the role of African Canadian and Black British educators in longstanding school-community partnerships. I characterize the leadership stance of Black educators as boundary spanners and…

  4. The New Political Economy of Urban Education: Neoliberalism, Race, and the Right to the City. Critical Social Thought

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Urban education and its contexts have changed in powerful ways. Old paradigms are being eclipsed by global forces of privatization and markets and new articulations of race, class, and urban space. These factors and more set the stage for Pauline Lipman's insightful analysis of the relationship between education policy and the neoliberal economic,…

  5. Schooling and the Silenced "Others": Race and Class in Schools. Special Studies in Teaching and Teacher Education, Number Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Lois; Fine, Michelle; Lareau, Annette

    In education, it is necessary to look at students who are marginalized, and excluded, who is centered or privileged, and how, through academic discourse, silences are created, sustained, and legitimized. The three papers in this collection explore the politics of silencing and voice in education. "It's More Covert Today': The Importance of Race in…

  6. The Special Educator in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.

    The author cites the arrival of the information age and considers its implications for special education. He suggests that special educators must build their information management skills. Four specific applications of microcomputers in special education are addressed: tool applications (in which students use microcomputer technology as personal…

  7. Dark Age Education: Our Latest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)

  8. Educational Disadvantage and the Educational Needs of Immigrants. Observations on the Report on Education of the Select Committee on Race Relations and Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This paper recognizes the need to educate children, especially immigrant pupils, and adults for life in a multiracial society, while making observations on a British select committee report on race relations and immigration. The paper accepts the committee's view that many of those born in Great Britain who belong to minority ethnic groups will…

  9. Race and Ancestry in the Age of Inclusion: Technique and Meaning in Post-Genomic Science

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Janet K.; Ackerman, Sara L.; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A.; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so, by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals’ genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251

  10. Race and ancestry in the age of inclusion: technique and meaning in post-genomic science.

    PubMed

    Shim, Janet K; Ackerman, Sara L; Darling, Katherine Weatherford; Hiatt, Robert A; Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin

    2014-12-01

    This article examines how race and ancestry are taken up in gene-environment interaction (GEI) research on complex diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. Using 54 in-depth interviews of 33 scientists and over 200 hours of observation at scientific conferences, we explore how GEI researchers use and interpret race, ethnicity, and ancestry in their work. We find that the use of self-identified race and ethnicity (SIRE) exists alongside ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to ascertain genetic ancestry. Our participants assess the utility of these two techniques in relative terms, downplaying the accuracy and value of SIRE compared to the precision and necessity of AIMs. In doing so, we argue that post-genomic scientists seeking to understand the interactions of genetic and environmental disease determinants actually undermine their ability to do so by valorizing precise characterizations of individuals' genetic ancestry over measurement of the social processes and relations that differentiate social groups. PMID:25378251

  11. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  12. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Pittenger, D.B.

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  13. Prevalence of Self-Neglect across Gender, Race, and Socioeconomic Status: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.; Evans, Denis A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-neglect is the behavior of an elderly person that threatens his/her own health and safety, and it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, the scope of the self-neglect in the community population remains unclear. We examined the prevalence of self-neglect and its specific behaviors of hoarding, hygiene and other environmental hazards in a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods A population-based cohort study conducted from 2007 to 2010 in a single cycle in a geographically defined community of 4 adjacent neighborhoods in Chicago, Ill., USA. Participant's personal and home environment was rated on hoarding, personal hygiene, house in need of repair, unsanitary conditions, and inadequate utility. Prevalence estimates were presented across gender, race/ethnicity, education and income levels. Results There were 4,627 older adults in the cohort. The prevalence of self-neglect and specific personal and environmental hazards varied significantly by race/ethnicity and by levels of education and income. For race/ethnicity, black older adults (men 13.2%; women 10.9%) had a significantly higher prevalence of self-neglect than white older adults (men 2.4%; women 2.6%). For those with less than high school education, the prevalence of the self-neglect was 14.7% in men and 10.9% in women. For those with an annual income of less than USD 15,000, the prevalence of self-neglect was 21.7% in men and 15.3% in women. Conclusion The prevalence of self-neglect and specific behaviors of hoarding, poor hygiene, and other environmental hazards are higher among black older adults and among those with lower levels of education and income. PMID:22189358

  14. Working through Whiteness, Race and (Anti) Racism in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne; Dowling, Fiona; Fitzgerald, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Background: The persistent gaps between a largely white profession and ethnically diverse school populations have brought renewed calls to support teachers' critical engagement with race. Programmes examining the effects of racism have had limited impact on practice, with student teachers responding with either denial, guilt or fear; they also…

  15. Education for a New Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Leonard

    Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…

  16. Exploring the Sensitivity of Education Costs to Racial Composition of Schools and Race-Neutral Alternative Measures: A Cost Function Application to Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2011-01-01

    This article applies the education cost function methodology in order to estimate additional costs associated with black student concentration and with alternative, race-neutral measures of urban poverty. Recent research highlights the continued importance of the role of race in educational outcomes, and how the intersection of peer group effects…

  17. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  18. Benefit/risk for adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use by age, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G

    2015-12-01

    In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances. PMID:26602222

  19. Achilles tendon ruptures stratified by age, race, and cause of injury among active duty U.S. Military members.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J; Mason, K T; Clark, D A

    1999-12-01

    A total of 865 members of the U.S. military underwent repair of Achilles tendon ruptures at U.S. military hospitals during calendar years 1994, 1995, and 1996. The discharge summaries of these patients were analyzed for patient demographic information, including age, race, and causative activity. Patients were then stratified by age, race, and cause of injury. Blacks were at increased risk for undergoing repair of the Achilles tendon compared with nonblacks (overall relative risk = 4.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.63, 4.74; summary odds ratio controlling for age = 3.69, CI = 3.25, 4.19). Participation in the game of basketball accounted for 64.9% of all injuries in black patients and 34.0% of all injuries in nonblack patients. Among those injured, blacks had a significantly increased risk for injury related to playing basketball than nonblacks (relative risk = 1.82, CI = 1.58, 2.10). This finding suggests that there may be other predisposing factor(s) that result in a higher risk of Achilles tendon ruptures in black individuals. PMID:10628159

  20. The Responsibility of Adult Educators in the Nuclear Age. TECHNIQUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Sandra; Goldberg, Joan Carol

    1984-01-01

    The task of adult educators is to provide students with information as well as opportunities to explore alternatives to the arms race. As a starting point to raising nuclear issues in the classroom and incorporating them into the curriculum, the adult educator can administer a survey or questionnaire to students about nuclear weapons and the…

  1. In the Name of Diversity: Education and the Commoditization and Consumption of Race in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Gregory M.

    2005-01-01

    In exploring the relationship between cultural capital, symbolic violence and the diversification of the curriculum the notion of commoditization of race in higher education is developed. The term first and foremost emphasizes how students from "disadvantaged" racialized communities remain significantly underrepresented at selective universities…

  2. A Guide to Personalizing Learning: Suggestions for the Race to the Top-District Competition. An Education White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Meg

    2012-01-01

    The top priority for the U.S. Department of Education's new Race to the Top-District (RTT-D) competition is to create personalized-learning environments to bolster student achievement: "Absolute Priority 1: Personalized Learning Environments. To meet this priority, an applicant must coherently and comprehensively address how it will build on the…

  3. A Smarter Path to a "Race to the Top" in Education Reform. WebMemo. No. 2779

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lips, Dan

    2010-01-01

    The Obama Administration has signaled that it will include a $1.35 billion expansion of the "Race to the Top" (RTTT) fund in its FY 2011 budget. This is in addition to the $4.35 billion for RTTT included in last year's stimulus bill. Under the Department of Education's (DOE) guidelines for RTTT, states must meet certain requirements to be eligible…

  4. The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadderton, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the implications of the Troops to Teaching (TtT) programme, to be introduced in England in autumn 2013, for Initial Teacher Education (ITE) and race equality. TtT will fast-track ex-armed service members to teach in schools, without necessarily the requirement of a university degree. Employing theories of white supremacy,…

  5. Poverty, Race, and the Contexts of Achievement: Examining Educational Experiences of Children in the U.S. South

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Miller-Cribbs, Julie E.; Van Horn, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article considers issues of educational inequality in the U.S. South from a social work/social justice perspective. After a review of existing literature and discussion of cultural versus structural explanations for race and socioeconomic status gaps in academic achievement, findings are presented from a study examining child-, classroom-,…

  6. Through the Prism of Critical Race Theory: "Niceness" and Latina/o Leadership in the Politics of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a critical race theory (CRT) framework, I conduct a rhetorical and discursive analysis of data from a study of Utah Latino/a educational and political leaders. In analyzing how participants advocate closing the achievement gaps that affect Latina/o and Chicana/o students, I find that participants' political discourse is shaped by…

  7. Seeking the "Truth" in the Stories We Tell: The Role of Critical Race Epistemology in Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espino, Michelle M.

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on how critical race theory informed the author's epistemological perspective and methodological approach as she analyzed Mexican American educational narratives and formulated her identity as a scholar. Using a storytelling technique employed in CRT, the author weaves together her position as the translator of participants'…

  8. Disparities in the Treatment of African American Males as Compared to Other Races with Emphasis on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Cecil Jerome

    2009-01-01

    This study represents a review of the literature along with an analysis of secondary data. The study analyzes and highlights the disparities in the quality of education provided to African American males. High school graduation rates among African American males as compared to other races suggest that there are factors that have created such…

  9. The Effects of Race and Maternal Education Level on Children's Retells of the Renfrew Bus Story--North American Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kleeck, Anne; Lange, Alissa; Schwarz, Amy Louise

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Renfrew Bus Story--North American Edition (RBS-NA; C. Glasgow & J. Cowley, 1994) is widely used in clinical and research settings to determine children's language abilities, although possible influences of race and maternal education on RBS-NA performance are unknown. The current study compared RBS-NA retells of 4 groups of children:…

  10. How the Question We Ask Most about Race in Education Is the Very Question We Most Suppress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2001-01-01

    Expands on an ethnographic study of a California school district, examining how adults repeatedly asked how achievement was linked to race yet repeatedly suppressed the question, and exploring the role of educational research in the dynamics of talk and silence. An explanatory habit of framing isolated players as particularly responsible for…

  11. G. Stanley Hall and an American Social Darwinist Pedagogy: His Progressive Educational Ideas on Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodchild, Lester F.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the influence of evolutionary ideas, especially Social Darwinism, on G. Stanley Hall's (1844-1924) educational ideas and major writings on gender and race. Hall formed these progressive ideas as he developed an American Social Darwinist pedagogy, embedded in his efforts to create the discipline of psychology, the science of…

  12. Cardiac Output and Performance during a Marathon Race in Middle-Aged Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    Billat, Véronique L.; Petot, Hélène; Landrain, Morgan; Meilland, Renaud; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost). Methods. We measured the SV, heart rate (HR), CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3 hr 30 min ± 45 min). Results. Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively). Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO × m−1) (r = −0.65, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the runner's ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r = 0.83, P < 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners. PMID:22645458

  13. Racial Primes and Black Misandry on Historically White Campuses: Toward Critical Race Accountability in Educational Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William A.; Yosso, Tara J.; Solorzano, Daniel G.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Racial primes are an outgrowth and inculcation of a well-structured, highly developed, racially conservative, "race-neutral" or "color-blind" racial socialization process in which children learn race-specific stereotypes about African Americans and other race/ethnic groups. As they get older, they continue to receive--both involuntary…

  14. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  15. Predictors of Age of Diagnosis for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Role of a Consistent Source of Medical Care, Race, and Condition Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Natacha D.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Neece, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Having a consistent source of medical care may facilitate diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study examined predictors of age of ASD diagnosis using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Using multiple linear regression analysis, age of diagnosis was predicted by race, ASD severity, having a consistent…

  16. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  17. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System.

    PubMed

    Horberg, Michael Alan; Hurley, Leo Bartemeier; Klein, Daniel Benjamin; Towner, William James; Kadlecik, Peter; Antoniskis, Diana; Mogyoros, Miguel; Brachman, Philip Sigmund; Remmers, Carol Louise; Gambatese, Rebecca Claire; Blank, Jackie; Ellis, Courtney Georgiana; Silverberg, Michael Jonah

    2015-11-01

    HIV care cascades can evaluate programmatic success over time. However, methodologies for estimating cascade stages vary, and few have evaluated differences by demographic subgroups. We examined cascade performance over time and by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in Kaiser Permanente, providing HIV care in eight US states and Washington, DC. We created cascades for HIV+ members' age ≥13 for 2010-2012. We measured "linkage" (a visit/CD4 within 90 days of being diagnosed for new patients; ≥1 medical visit/year if established); "retention" (≥2 medical visits ≥60 days apart); filled ART (filled ≥3 months of combination ART); and viral suppression (HIV RNA <200 copies/mL last measured in year). The cascades were stratified by calendar year, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. We found men had statistically (p < 0.05) higher percent linkage, filled ART, and viral suppression for 2010 and 2011 but not for 2012. Women had significantly greater retention for all years. Annually, older age was associated (p < 0.05) with retention, filled ART, and viral suppression but not linkage. Latinos had greater (p < 0.05) retention than whites or blacks in all years, with similar retention comparing blacks and whites. Filled ART and viral suppression was increased (p < 0.05) for whites compared with all racial/ethnic groups in all years. Cascade methodology requiring success at upstream stages before measuring success at later stages (i.e., "dependent" methodology) underreported performance by up to 20% compared with evaluating each stage separately ("independent"). Thus, care results improved over time, but significant differences exist by patient demographics. Specifically, retention efforts should be targeted toward younger patients and blacks; women, blacks, and Latinos require greater ART prescribing. PMID:26505968

  18. Race and Higher Education: Rethinking Pedagogy in Diverse College Classrooms. Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Annie, Ed.; Tuitt, Frank, Ed.

    This collection, reprinted from the "Harvard Educational Review," is designed to help educators understand how the changing demographics of the college and university students in this country have complicated the manner in which higher education institutions think about what it means to teach in racially diverse classrooms. Part 1, "Racial and…

  19. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Doamekpor, Lauren A.; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  20. From Jim Crow to Affirmative Action and Back Again: A Critical Race Discussion of Racialized Rationales and Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yosso, Tara J.; Parker, Laurence; Solorzano, Daniel G.; Lynn, Marvin

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors outline critical race theory (CRT) as an analytical framework that originated in schools of law to examine and challenge the continuing significance of race and racism in U.S. society. They then describe the CRT framework within the field of education. CRT scholarship offers an explanatory structure that accounts for…

  1. Effects of advanced maternal age and race/ethnicity on placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio in very low birthweight infants.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, B E; Mackley, A; Jain, N; Locke, R; Paul, D A

    2015-07-01

    To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ≥35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, -0.45 ± 0.71 vs -0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r(2) = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:25567078

  2. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  3. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  4. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  5. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  6. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  7. Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

  8. Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. The Updated Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this important…

  9. Teaching in Color: A Critical Race Theory in Education Analysis of the Literature on Preservice Teachers of Color and Teacher Education in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2014-01-01

    In this article I take seriously the call for recruiting and retaining more preservice teachers of color by critically considering some of the pressing challenges they might encounter in teacher preparation programs. I draw from critical race theory (CRT) in education to review the extant literature on preservice teachers of color and teacher…

  10. Poverty, race, and the contexts of achievement: Examining educational experiences of children in the U.S. south.

    PubMed

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Miller-Cribbs, Julie E; Van Horn, Lee

    2007-10-01

    This article considers issues of educational inequality in the U.S. South from a social work/ social justice perspective. After a review of existing literature and discussion of cultural versus structural explanations for race and socioeconomic status gaps in academic achievement, findings are presented from a study examining child-, classroom-, and school-level factors that influence academic achievement among public school children in the South. Although a sizeable minority of southern children attend schools that are segregated along racial and socioeconomic lines, and although these schools are different in various aspects of educational environment, once family structure, parental characteristics, the use of ability grouping, and rural school location were taken into account, no influence of race on achievement remained. Implications for social work policy and practice are discussed. PMID:18232241

  11. Evidence-based sentencing: Public openness and opposition to using gender, age, and race as risk factors for recidivism.

    PubMed

    Scurich, Nicholas; Monahan, John

    2016-02-01

    The incarceration of criminal offenders in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. One way to scale back the prison population is by using empirical risk assessment methods to apportion prison sentences based on the likelihood of the offender recidivating, so-called "evidence-based sentencing." This practice has been denounced by some legal scholars, who claim that the use of certain empirically relevant risk factors-including gender, age, and race-is plainly immoral. This study tested whether lay individuals share their sentiment. More than 600 participants weighted to be representative of the United States population were asked about the extent to which they would support imposing shorter sentences for old versus young offenders, female versus male offenders, and white versus black offenders, all else being equal. The results indicate that very few participants (<3%) had no settled opinion about using evidence-based sentencing, and approximately half were unequivocally opposed to the practice. Whereas more than 3-quarters of participants were against using race to determine prison sentences, almost half were open to the possibility of using gender and more than 3-quarters of the participants were open to the possibility of using age to determine prison sentences. Individual differences as a function of participants' own demographic characteristics, or of their belief in "just deserts" as the primary purpose of sentencing, or of their political outlook, were either inconsistently or meagerly related to these findings. The profoundly disparate views held by the general public regarding the use of specific risk factors do not bode well for the use of demographic risk factors in sentencing as a way to roll back mass incarceration. PMID:26390055

  12. Differences in ovarian aging patterns between races are associated with ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ovarian aging patterns differ between races, and appear to affect fertility treatment outcomes. What causes these differences is, however, unknown. Variations in ovarian aging patterns have recently been associated with specific ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. We, therefore, attempted to determine differences in how functional ovarian reserve (FOR) changes with advancing age between races, and whether changes are associated with differences in distribution of ovarian genotypes and sub-genotypes of the FMR1 gene. Methods We determined in association with in vitro fertilization (IVF) FOR in 62 young Caucasian, African and Asian oocyte donors and 536 older infertility patients of all three races, based on follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and oocyte yields, and investigated whether differences between races are associated with differences in distribution of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes. Results Changes in distribution of mean FSH, AMH and oocyte yields between young donors and older infertility patients were significant (all P < 0.001). Donors did not demonstrate significant differences between races in AMH and FSH but demonstrated significant differences in oocyte yields [F(2,59) = 4.22, P = 0.019]: Specifically, African donors demonstrated larger oocyte yields than Caucasians (P = 0.008) and Asians (P = 0.022). In patients, AMH levels differed significantly between races [F (2,533) = 4.25, P = 0.015]. Holm-Sidak post-hoc comparisons demonstrated that Caucasians demonstrated lower AMH in comparison to Asians (P = 0.007). Percentages of FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes in patients varied significantly between races, with Asians demonstrating fewer het-norm/low sub-genotypes than Caucasians and Africans (P = 0.012). Conclusion FOR changes in different races at different rates, and appears to parallel ovarian FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotype distributions. Differences

  13. "Abolish the White Race" or "Transfer Economic Power to the People"?: Some Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2012-01-01

    "Race Traitor", a movement founded by Noel Ignatiev and John Garvey, has been given a boost in recent months in three different arenas: the Occupy movement; an antiracist advertising campaign; and in an academic journal. With respect to the last, which is the main focus of this paper, Critical Race Theorists John Preston and Charlotte Chadderton,…

  14. Learning to Teach about Race: The Racialized Experience of a South Asian American Feminist Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnanadass, Edith

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the intellectual and experiential journey of a South Asian American (SAA) feminist who teaches about race and anti-racist praxis in the United States. It starts with her struggles trying to teach about race through the lens of White privilege and ends by sharing her current teaching practices which foreground the concept of…

  15. The Aesthetics of White Racism in Pre-Service Teacher Education: A Critical Race Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Winters, Venus E.; Hoff, Pamela Twyman

    2011-01-01

    The authors use critical race theory (CRT) and critical race feminism (CRF) as a lens for analyzing and grappling with White students' resistance to learning about and deconstructing systems of oppression. The authors build on the work of critical scholars whose work exposes the ways in which White pre-service teachers resist counter-hegemonic…

  16. Disrupting Apartheid of Knowledge: "Testimonio" as Methodology in Latina/o Critical Race Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Lindsay Perez

    2009-01-01

    This article utilizes a Latina/o critical race theory (LatCrit) framework to disrupt a narrowly defined process of knowledge production in academia, informed by Eurocentric epistemologies and specific ideological beliefs. This process has created an apartheid of knowledge in academia. Disrupting this apartheid allows critical race researchers to…

  17. The Seattle Decision on Race and Public Schools: Implications for Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis

    2008-01-01

    In a recent ruling, the U.S. Supreme Court in "Parents v. Seattle" (Parents Involved, 2007) determined that race cannot be the sole factor in the assignment of children to public schools. The court also identified the conditions which would justify the use of race in assigning children to schools. In this article we (a) provide a historical…

  18. The Nonlinear Relationship between Education and Mortality: An Examination of Cohort, Race/Ethnic, and Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Bethany G.; Rehkopf, David H.; Rogers, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers investigating the relationship between education and mortality in industrialized countries have consistently shown that higher levels of education are associated with decreased mortality risk. The shape of the education-mortality relationship and how it varies by demographic group have been examined less frequently. Using the U.S. National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files, which link the 1986 through 2004 NHIS to the National Death Index through 2006, we examine the shape of the education-mortality curve by cohort, race/ethnicity, and gender. Whereas traditional regression models assume a constrained functional form for the dependence of education and mortality, in most cases semiparametric models allow us to more accurately describe how the association varies by cohort, both between and within race/ethnic and gender subpopulations. Notably, we find significant changes over time in both the shape and the magnitude of the education-mortality gradient across cohorts of women and white men, but little change among younger cohorts of black men. Such insights into demographic patterns in education and mortality can ultimately help increase life expectancies. PMID:24288422

  19. Race, Age, and Identity Transformations in the Transition from High School to College for Black and First-Generation White Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2014-01-01

    Race and class differences in academic and social integration matter for educational success, social mobility, and personal well-being. In this article, I use interview data with students attending predominantly white four-year research universities to investigate the integration experiences of black and first-generation white men. I examine each…

  20. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  1. Psychological and biological responses to race-based social stress as pathways to disparities in educational outcomes.

    PubMed

    Levy, Dorainne J; Heissel, Jennifer A; Richeson, Jennifer A; Adam, Emma K

    2016-09-01

    We present the race-based disparities in stress and sleep in context model (RDSSC), which argues that racial/ethnic disparities in educational achievement and attainment are partially explained by the effects of race-based stressors, such as stereotype threat and perceived discrimination, on psychological and biological responses to stress, which, in turn, impact cognitive functioning and academic performance. Whereas the roles of psychological coping responses, such as devaluation and disidentification, have been theorized in previous work, the present model integrates the roles of biological stress responses, such as changes in stress hormones and sleep hours and quality, to this rich literature. We situate our model of the impact of race-based stress in the broader contexts of other stressors [e.g., stressors associated with socioeconomic status (SES)], developmental histories of stress, and individual and group differences in access to resources, opportunity and employment structures. Considering both psychological and biological responses to race-based stressors, in social contexts, will yield a more comprehensive understanding of the emergence of academic disparities between Whites and racial/ethnic minorities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27571526

  2. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  3. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  4. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: An Analysis of the Standardization Sample Based on Age, Gender, Race, and Diagnostic Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven I.; Jarosewich, Tania

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the standardization sample of a new teacher rating scale designed to assist in the identification of gifted students. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S) is based on a multidimensional model of giftedness. Results indicate no age or race/ethnicity differences on any of the scales and small but significant differences…

  5. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  6. Jobs, Dollars and Race From an Educator's Perspective: Urban Education in a Pluralistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, John W.

    That 1975 has ushered in a new and different way of thinking and reacting to public education at all levels as well as reflecting consumerism, confrontation, and conciliation is the main message of this paper. What follows is an attempt to place urban public schooling within the context of America, 1975. The short era of equal educational…

  7. 76 FR 80966 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex, and Race of Persons...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection: Age, Sex... Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal..., Federal Bureau of Investigation, CJIS Division, Module E-3, 1000 Custer Hollow Road,......

  8. The effect of weight, body mass index, age, sex, and race on plasma concentrations of subcutaneous sumatriptan: a pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Sagar; Gautam, Anirudh; Rapoport, Alan M; Fisher, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective/background Factors such as body size (weight and body mass index [BMI]), age, sex, and race might influence the clinical response to sumatriptan. We evaluated the impact of these covariates on the plasma concentration (Cp) profile of sumatriptan administered subcutaneously. Methods We conducted three pharmacokinetic studies of subcutaneous sumatriptan in 98 healthy adults. Sumatriptan was administered subcutaneously (236 administrations) as either DFN-11 3 mg, a novel 0.5 mL autoinjector being developed by Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories; Imitrex® (Sumatriptan) injection 3 mg or 6 mg (6 mg/0.5 mL); or Imitrex STATdose 4 mg or 6 mg (0.5 mL). Blood was sampled for 12 hours to determine sumatriptan Cp. Maximum Cp (Cmax), area under the curve during the first 2 hours (AUC0–2), and total area under the curve (AUC0–∞) were determined using noncompartmental methods. Post hoc analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between these exposure metrics and each of body weight, BMI, age, sex, and race (categorized as white, black, or others). Results Both weight and BMI correlated negatively with each exposure metric for each treatment group. Across all treatment groups, AUC0–2 for subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value was 1.03–1.12 times the value for subjects with BMI more than median value. For subjects with BMI less than or equal to median value receiving DFN-11, median AUC0–2 was slightly less than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 4 mg and larger than that for subjects with BMI more than median value receiving Imitrex 3 mg. Results were similar for the other exposure metrics and for weight. Exposure was higher in women than in men, which can be attributed in part to differences in weight. There was no relationship between exposure and age. For DFN-11, AUC0–2 and AUC0–∞ were lower in nonwhites compared with whites; the ratio of median values was 0.84 and 0.89, respectively. A similar

  9. Adult Literacy in Tennessee: An Analysis by Gender, Age, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keesler, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the state of adult literacy in Tennessee. The field of adult education underwent a transition as the testing procedure and the test changed to correlate with the induction of the Common Core standards in public schools. Adult students face many barriers to overcome to be successful. The research…

  10. Immigrant and native financial well-being: The roles of place of education and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Painter, Matthew A

    2013-09-01

    Immigrants' integration into U.S. society has occupied the interest of both scholars and the general public throughout the nation's history. This paper draws on and refines dominance-differentiation theory to explore how immigrants' place of education (whether they completed their education in the United States or abroad) and racial/ethnic status differentially affect their ability to integrate into U.S. society. Using the Survey of Income and Program Participation and wealth attainment as an indicator of economic integration, this paper finds mixed evidence for dominance-differentiation theory. Foreign education is associated with lower wealth attainment and race/ethnicity serves as an important stratifying factor for blacks and Latinos; however, there is little support for the theory when comparing the wealth attainment of immigrants with their same-race/co-ethnic native-born peers. This paper concludes with a discussion of why place of education matters for wealth attainment in the United States and explores its implications for both educational and racial/ethnic stratification among U.S. immigrants. PMID:23859737

  11. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  12. Ethnicity and Race: Creating Educational Opportunities around the Globe. International Advances in Education: Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elinor L., Ed.; Gibbons, Pamela E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This volume of Global Initiatives for Equity and Social Justice takes a resource perspective toward culture, ethnicity, and race. Its purpose is to foster global dialog about race and ethnicity, with an emphasis on sharing strategies and solutions. While one might view problems stemming from racial and ethnic differences as intractable, the book's…

  13. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  14. Young Girls' and Caretakers' Reports of Problem Behavior: Comprehension and Concordance across Age, Race, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Lee Ann; Simpson, Sally S.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses a research instrument developed and utilized by the Pittsburgh Girls Study that asked young girls (ages 7 and 8) and their caretakers to report on the girls' involvement in a variety of problem behaviors. In this article, the authors evaluate whether comprehension, prevalence, and caretaker-child concordance of problem…

  15. Child and Mother Client Satisfaction Questionnaire Scores regarding Mental Health Services: Race, Age, and Gender Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Valire Carr; Koeske, Gary; Greeno, Catherine G.

    2004-01-01

    This study used the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) to examine the level of consumer satisfaction with children's (ages 8 to 17 years) outpatient mental health services. Analyses were completed using both individual satisfaction items and a summed scale score. The CSQ scale had satisfactory internal consistency reliability for both…

  16. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  17. Patterns of Parental Independence Giving to Adolescents: Variations by Race, Age, and Gender of Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulcroft, Richard A.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the differences among Anglo, African American, and Hispanic parents in granting independence to adolescents. Using data from a national families survey found distinct patterns of independence giving across racial groups by gender and by age of the adolescent. Differences are attributed to values of modified patriarchy, communalism, and…

  18. Guggenheim for Governor: Antisemitism, Race, and the Politics of Gilded Age Colorado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the summer of 1893 financial panic struck Colorado. The price of silver, in a protracted downward spiral since the conclusion of the Civil War, finally crashed. With economic and political turmoil come angry responses, as people search for scape-goats to explain their new and unexpected poverty. And in Gilded Age Colorado, one of those angry…

  19. Race(ing) Stories: Digital Storytelling as a Tool for Critical Race Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the use of digital storytelling as a medium for exploring the significance of race in the educational experiences of youth. A critical race theory (CRT) framework is utilized because CRT places race at the center of social analysis and values the everyday experiences of people of color. The author focuses on two US high…

  20. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  1. An empirical analysis of 30 years of U.S. juvenile and adult sexual homicide offender data: race and age differences in the victim-offender relationship.

    PubMed

    Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Myers, Wade C; Heide, Kathleen M

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the racial patterns of crimes committed by sexual homicide offenders (SHOs). This study examined race and age influences on victim-offender relationship for juvenile and adult SHOs. A large sample (N = 3868) from the Supplemental Homicide Reports (1976-2005) was used. Analyses of victim-offender patterns included examining victim age effects (child, adolescent, adult, and elderly). The findings revealed several race- and age-based differences. Black offenders were significantly overrepresented in the SHO population. This finding held for juveniles and adults independently. White SHOs were highly likely to kill within their race, "intra-racially" (range 91-100%) across four victim age categories, whereas Black SHOs killed both intra-racially (range 24-82%) and inter-racially (18-76%), with the likelihood of their killing inter-racially increasing as the age of the victim increased. This study underscores the importance of considering victim-offender racial patterns in sexual murder investigations, and it offers practical implications for offender profiling. PMID:20487160

  2. The Flynn Effect within Subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, Race, Income, Education, and Urbanization Differences in the NLSY-Children Data

    PubMed Central

    Ang, SiewChing; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wänström, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations. PMID:20657802

  3. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Alenghat, Francis J.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  4. The Prevalence of Atherosclerosis in Those with Inflammatory Connective Tissue Disease by Race, Age, and Traditional Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Alenghat, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation promotes cardiovascular disease. Inflammatory connective tissue diseases (CTD) like lupus and rheumatoid arthritis associate with cardiovascular risk, but it is unknown whether particular groups of patients have enhanced propensity for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) associated with their CTD. Analysis of aggregate health record data at a large U.S. academic center identified CTD and ASCVD status for 287,467 African American and white adults. ASCVD prevalence in those with CTD was 29.7% for African Americans and 14.7% for white patients with prevalence ratios, compared to those without CTD, of 3.1 and 1.8, respectively. When different types of CTD were analyzed individually (rheumatoid arthritis; lupus; scleroderma; Sjögren Syndrome; dermatomyositis/polymyositis; unspecified/mixed CTD; other inflammatory arthropathy), increased ASCVD rates were found in nearly all subsets, always with higher prevalence ratios in African Americans. The prevalence ratio of ASCVD was particularly high in young African Americans. Furthermore, individuals lacking traditional cardiovascular risk factors had more ASCVD if they had CTD (prevalence ratio 2.9). Multivariate analysis confirmed a positive interaction between CTD and African-American race and a negative interaction between CTD and age. The factors driving the observed disproportionate CTD-associated ASCVD in African Americans, young adults, and those without traditional risk factors warrant further study. PMID:26842423

  5. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  6. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity*

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Methods Utilizing data from the 2002–2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Results Between 2002–2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p<0.001). The prevalence of past year non-daily (p<0.001) and daily use varied significantly during this time (p<0.001). Controlling for survey year and other confounders, characteristics associated with increased odds of perceived great risk of regular cannabis use included: female sex; Non-White race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000–49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12–17 and 18–25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008–2012. Conclusions Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. PMID:25735467

  7. Infant health, race/ethnicity, and early educational outcomes using the ECLS-B.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Jamie L

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the "Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Birth Cohort," this article emphasizes the central role of poor infant health as a mechanism in the formation of early educational disparities. Results indicate that the varying prevalence of poor infant health across racial/ethnic groups explains a significant portion of the black disadvantage and a moderate portion of the Asian advantage relative to whites in math and reading skills at age four. Results also demonstrate that infant health is an equal opportunity offender across social groups as children with poor health are equally disadvantaged in terms of early cognitive development, regardless of racial/ethnic status. Overall, results indicate that health at birth has important consequences for individual educational achievement and racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive development and school readiness. PMID:22171366

  8. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  9. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  10. Researching Race/Ethnicity and Educational Inequality in the Netherlands: A Critical Review of the Research Literature between 1980 and 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Peter A. J.; Clycq, Noel; Timmerman, Christianne; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and critically analyzes how educational sociologists in the Netherlands have studied the relationship between race/ethnicity and educational inequality between 1980 and 2008. Five major research traditions are identified: (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and ethnic discrimination; (3) school characteristics; (4) school…

  11. Watching Children: A History of America's Race to Educate Kids and the Creation of the "Slow-Learner" Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenkiewich, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    On January 25, 2011, United States President Barack Obama delivered his State of the Union address to Congress and to the nation. As part of that address, President Obama articulated his vision for American education and stated that America had "to win the race to educate our kids" (Obama, 2011, state of the union). Mr. Obama's…

  12. A Hierarchical Examination of the Immigrant Achievement Gap: The Additional Explanatory Power of Nationality and Educational Selectivity over Traditional Explorations of Race and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared immigrant and nonimmigrant educational achievement (i.e., the immigrant gap) in math by reexamining the explanatory power of race and socioeconomic status (SES)--two variables, perhaps, most commonly considered in educational research. Four research questions were explored through growth curve modeling, factor analysis, and…

  13. A Reconceptualization of Physical Education: The Intersection of Gender/Race/Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura; Solomon, Melinda A.

    2005-01-01

    Over the past several years, numerous reports have reported data documenting declining participation in physical activity among youth. We argue that the gender, race and social class differences in these data have not been an important consideration, and that understanding the implications of these differences is crucial for improving physical…

  14. Crafting the Normative Subject: Queerying the Politics of Race in the New Zealand Health Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlivan, Kathleen; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Aspin, Clive; Allen, Louisa; Sanjakdar, Fida

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the potential of queering as a mode of critique by problematising the ways in which liberal politics of race shape normative understandings of health in a high school classroom. Drawing on findings from an Australian and New Zealand (NZ) research project designed to respond to religious and cultural difference in school-based…

  15. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Macheo

    2010-01-01

    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  16. Disrupting "The Amazing Race": Education, Exploration, and Exploitation in Reality Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on research in the fields of visual culture and critical media literacy to establish a rationale for utilizing popular culture in social studies classroom instruction. One reality television show, CBS's "The Amazing Race", introduces viewers to diverse people and places. Although the decision to use this show to support social…

  17. Race-Class Relations and Integration in Secondary Education: The Case of Miller High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Eick explores the history of a comprehensive high school from the world views of its assorted student body, confronting issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, nationality, and religion. Her case study examines the continuities and differences in student relationships over five decades. While she discusses the "dark side" of the high school…

  18. Race Education/Training: The State of the Art; Issues and Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John F.; Chesler, Mark

    The two papers comprising this conference report serve the following purposes: (1) to alert practitioners and consumers in race relations and anti-racism endeavors to the major issues in the field; (2) to facilitate continuing dialogue; and (3) to provide impetus for a more thorough assessment of the state of the art. The first, by John F. Coffey,…

  19. The Advanced Placement Arms Race and the Reproduction of Educational Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klugman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background: Access to Advanced Placement (AP) courses is stratified by class and race. Researchers have identified how schools serving disadvantaged students suffer from various kinds of resource deprivations, concluding that interventions are needed to equalize access to AP courses. On the other hand, the theory of Effectively Maintained…

  20. Access to Music Education with Regard to Race in Two Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvador, Karen; Allegood, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study examined access to school music instruction with regard to race in two urban areas: Detroit, Michigan, and Washington, DC, in 2009-2010. We found significant differences in the provision of music instruction between schools with high and low proportions of nonwhite enrollment, in categories including curricular offerings,…

  1. Educating for Anti-Racism: Producing and Reproducing Race and Power in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonn, Christopher C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I explore some of the issues associated with teaching about race, culture, and ethnicity in a psychology program. These curriculum initiatives are part of a broader agenda of raising awareness about racialised oppression and exclusion and contributing to the development of ways of researching and practicing psychology that are…

  2. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  3. Maternal age specific risk rate estimates for Down syndrome among live births in whites and other races from Ohio and metropolitan Atlanta, 1970-1989.

    PubMed Central

    Huether, C A; Ivanovich, J; Goodwin, B S; Krivchenia, E L; Hertzberg, V S; Edmonds, L D; May, D S; Priest, J H

    1998-01-01

    Our primary objective was to estimate, by one year and five year intervals, maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among whites and among other races from two different populations, metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio, using live birth and prenatally diagnosed cases ascertained during 1970-1989. The five year estimates were also calculated separately for each of the five four year periods during these 20 years. Additionally, we compared two different methods of estimating these risk rates by using a third population of whites, and compared two different statistical methods of smoothing the risk rates. The results indicate good agreement between the metropolitan Atlanta and south west Ohio estimates within races, but show a statistically significant difference between the two race categories. Because 86% of live births in the "other races" category in the combined population are to blacks, these data may be seen as the first estimates of maternal age specific risk rates for Down syndrome among blacks calculated by one year intervals. We found excellent agreement in the risk rate estimates among the five four year time periods, between the estimates obtained by using the two different methods of estimation, and between the estimates obtained using the two different methods of statistical smoothing. Our estimated risk rates for white women in their 20s strongly reinforce those from previous studies currently being used for genetic counselling purposes. While we did find somewhat higher rates for women under 20, and increasingly higher rates for those over 30 years of age, these differences are not substantial. Thus, this study in general supports the risk rates estimated from data collected mostly during the 1960s and 1970s. PMID:9643290

  4. The role of Alzheimer’s and cerebrovascular pathology in mediating the effects of age, race, and apolipoprotein E genotype on dementia severity in pathologically confirmed Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Gavett, Brandon E.; John, Samantha E.; Gurnani, Ashita S.; Bussell, Cara A.; Saurman, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dementia severity can be modeled as the construct δ, representing the “cognitive correlates of functional status.” Objective We recently validated a model for estimating δ in the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center’s Uniform Data Set; however, δ’s association with neuropathology remains untested. Methods We used data from 727 decedents evaluated at Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Centers nationwide. Participants spoke English, had no genetic abnormalities, and were pathologically diagnosed with AD as a primary or contributing etiology. Clinical data from participants’ last visit prior to death were used to estimate dementia severity (δ). Results A structural equation model using age, education, race, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype (number of ε2 and ε4 alleles) as predictors and latent AD pathology and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathology as mediators fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.031; CFI = .957). AD pathology mediated the effects of age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. An older age at death and more ε2 alleles were associated with less AD pathology and, in turn, with less severe dementia. In contrast, more ε4 alleles were associated with more pathology and more severe dementia. Although age and race contributed to differences in CVD pathology, CVD pathology was not related to dementia severity in this sample of decedents with pathologically confirmed AD. Conclusions Using δ as an estimate of dementia severity fits well within a structural model in which AD pathology directly affects dementia severity and mediates the relationship between age and APOE genotype on dementia severity. PMID:26444761

  5. Self-reported race/ethnicity in the age of genomic research: its potential impact on understanding health disparities.

    PubMed

    Mersha, Tesfaye B; Abebe, Tilahun

    2015-01-01

    This review explores the limitations of self-reported race, ethnicity, and genetic ancestry in biomedical research. Various terminologies are used to classify human differences in genomic research including race, ethnicity, and ancestry. Although race and ethnicity are related, race refers to a person's physical appearance, such as skin color and eye color. Ethnicity, on the other hand, refers to communality in cultural heritage, language, social practice, traditions, and geopolitical factors. Genetic ancestry inferred using ancestry informative markers (AIMs) is based on genetic/genomic data. Phenotype-based race/ethnicity information and data computed using AIMs often disagree. For example, self-reporting African Americans can have drastically different levels of African or European ancestry. Genetic analysis of individual ancestry shows that some self-identified African Americans have up to 99% of European ancestry, whereas some self-identified European Americans have substantial admixture from African ancestry. Similarly, African ancestry in the Latino population varies between 3% in Mexican Americans to 16% in Puerto Ricans. The implication of this is that, in African American or Latino populations, self-reported ancestry may not be as accurate as direct assessment of individual genomic information in predicting treatment outcomes. To better understand human genetic variation in the context of health disparities, we suggest using "ancestry" (or biogeographical ancestry) to describe actual genetic variation, "race" to describe health disparity in societies characterized by racial categories, and "ethnicity" to describe traditions, lifestyle, diet, and values. We also suggest using ancestry informative markers for precise characterization of individuals' biological ancestry. Understanding the sources of human genetic variation and the causes of health disparities could lead to interventions that would improve the health of all individuals. PMID:25563503

  6. Race-Class Relations and Integration in Secondary Education: The Case of Miller High. Secondary Education in a Changing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eick, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Eick explores the history of a comprehensive high school from the world views of its assorted student body, confronting issues of race, ethnicity, class, gender, nationality, and religion. Her case study examines the continuities and differences in student relationships over five decades. While she discusses the "dark side" of the high school…

  7. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204

  8. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  9. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  10. Skin cancer risk perceptions: A comparison across ethnicity, age, education, gender, and income

    PubMed Central

    Buster, Kesha J.; You, Zhiying; Fouad, Mona; Elmets, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of non-cutaneous and cutaneous malignancies support the hypothesis that poor risk-perception status contributes to health disparity. Objective We evaluated skin cancer risk perceptions across race and other demographic markers using the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) and compared them to discover differences in perception that may contribute to the disparities in skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. Methods Respondents with no prior history of skin cancer were randomly selected to answer questions assessing perceived risk and knowledge of preventive strategies of skin cancer. Logistic regression was performed to identify associations between perceptions of skin cancer and demographic variables including self-described race, age, sex, education, income, and health insurance status. Results Blacks, the elderly, and people with less education perceived themselves as at lower risk of developing skin cancer. They, along with Hispanics, were also more likely to believe that one cannot lower their skin cancer risk and that there are so many different recommendations on how to prevent skin cancer that it makes it difficult to know which ones to follow. Lower education also correlated with greater reluctance to have a skin exam. Limitations HINTS is a cross-sectional instrument, thus it only provides a snapshot of skin cancer perceptions. Conclusion Uncertainty and altered perceptions are more common in the skin cancer risk perceptions of ethnic minorities, the elderly, and those with less education. These are the same groups that are subject to disparities in skin cancer outcomes. Educational programs directed at these demographic groups may help to reduce the skin cancer-related health disparities. PMID:21875760

  11. Does the "Negro" "Still" Need Separate Schools? Single-Sex Educational Settings as Critical Race Counterspaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Clarence L., Sr.; Flennaugh, Terry K.; Blackmon, Samarah M.; Howard, Tyrone C.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether contemporary educators should consider single-sex educational settings as viable interventions in educating African American males. Using qualitative data from a 2-year study of single-sex educational spaces in two Los Angeles County high schools, the authors argue that when all-male spaces effectively function as…

  12. Rules Set for $4 Billion Race to Top Contest: Final Rules Give States Detailed Map in Quest for $4 Billion in Education Stimulus Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    For a good shot at $4 billion in grants from the federal Race to the Top Fund, states will need to make a persuasive case for their education reform agendas, demonstrate significant buy-in from local school districts, and devise plans to evaluate teachers and principals based on student performance, according to final regulations released last…

  13. Using Performance Ethnography to Confront Issues of Privilege, Race, and Institutional Racism: An Account of an Arts-Based Teacher Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierros, Edward Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Preservice student teachers engaged in a collaborative research initiative to examine the memory of the 1954 "Brown v. Topeka Board of Education" decision that culminated in a public performance. Ethnographic data were translated into performance texts through students' performances that confronted issues of privilege, race, and institutional…

  14. Using Latina/o Critical Race Theory (LatCrit) and Racist Nativism to Explore Intersectionality in the Educational Experiences of Undocumented Chicana College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez Huber, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    One of the most powerful elements of Critical Race Theory (CRT) in Education is that it provides critical researchers with a lens not offered by many other theoretical frameworks--that is, the ability to examine how multiple forms of oppression can intersect within the lives of People of Color and how those intersections manifest in researchers'…

  15. Creating Cover and Constructing Capacity: Assessing the Origins, Evolution, and Impact of Race to the Top. Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinn, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The Obama administration's Race to the Top (RTT) competitive grant program has been heralded for revolutionizing the federal role in education and transforming state school reform efforts. This paper offers an initial analysis of the origins, evolution, and impact of RTT. In many ways, RTT is an attempt to circumvent the perceived failings of No…

  16. Degrees Conferred in Institutions of Higher Education, by Race-Ethnicity and Sex: 1976-77 through 1986-87. Survey Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Henry A.; Brown, Patricia Q.

    The report summarizes data on higher education degrees conferred in the United States in the decade between 1976-77 and 1986-87. Information is given in textual and tabular form, and data are detailed by race/ethnicity; sex; and field of study for bachelor's, master's, doctor's, and first professional degrees. Data on degrees awarded to…

  17. What Does Human Capital Do? A Review of Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology". NBER Working Paper No. 17820

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acemoglu, Daron; Autor, David

    2012-01-01

    Goldin and Katz's "The Race between Education and Technology" is a monumental achievement that supplies a unified framework for interpreting how the demand and supply of human capital have shaped the distribution of earnings in the U.S. labor market over the 20th century. This essay reviews the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of this work…

  18. Pre-K & the Race to the Top: A Review of Early Education Proposals in States' Phase I Grant Applications. Federal Policy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayl, Chrisanne L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past year, many national leaders have committed to reform education and reshape America's school system. With this goal in mind, the Obama administration created a competitive grant program entitled Race to the Top (RTTT), which was passed by Congress as a part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). RTTT features two grant…

  19. Safety in Stereotypes? The Impact of Gender and "Race" on Young People's Perceptions of Their Post-Compulsory Education and Labour Market Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Vanessa; Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the impact of gender and "race" on young people's perceptions of the educational and labour market opportunities available to them after they complete their compulsory schooling in England. Its findings are based on a study of the views of girls and boys about the government-supported "Apprenticeships" programme, which,…

  20. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  1. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  2. Moral Education of Youths in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang

    2006-01-01

    In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…

  3. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed. PMID:24771083

  4. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  5. Affirmative Action and the University: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender in Higher Education Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Kul B.; Critzer, John W.

    This book examines the impact of affirmative action on higher education hiring practices. Using data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Education Statistics, the book summarizes, tracks, and evaluates changes in the gender and ethnic makeup of academic and nonacademic…

  6. Exercise and Aging: New Perspectives and Educational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)

  7. Race/Ethnicity, Education, and Treatment Parameters as Moderators and Predictors of Outcome in Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Brenner, Heather; Franko, Debra L.; Thompson, Douglas R.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Boisseau, Christina L.; Roehrig, James P.; Richards, Lauren K.; Bryson, Susan W.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Crow, Scott J.; Devlin, Michael J.; Gorin, Amy A.; Kristeller, Jean L.; Masheb, Robin; Mitchell, James E.; Peterson, Carol B.; Safer, Debra L.; Striegel, Ruth H.; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2014-01-01

    Objective Binge eating disorder (BED) is prevalent among individuals from minority racial/ethnic groups and among individuals with lower levels of education, yet the efficacy of psychosocial treatments for these groups has not been examined in adequately powered analyses. This study investigated the relative variance in treatment retention and post-treatment symptom levels accounted for by demographic, clinical, and treatment variables as moderators and predictors of outcome. Method Data were aggregated from eleven randomized, controlled trials of psychosocial treatments for BED conducted at treatment sites across the United States. Participants were N = 1,073 individuals meeting criteria for BED including n = 946 Caucasian, n = 79 African American, and n = 48 Hispanic/Latino participants. Approximately 86% had some higher education; 85% were female. Multi-level regression analyses examined moderators and predictors of treatment retention, Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) global score, frequency of objective bulimic episodes (OBEs), and OBE remission. Results Moderator analyses of race/ethnicity and education were non-significant. Predictor analyses revealed African Americans were more likely to drop out of treatment than Caucasians, and lower level of education predicted greater post-treatment OBEs. African Americans showed a small but significantly greater reduction in EDE global score relative to Caucasians. Self-help treatment administered in a group showed negative outcomes relative to other treatment types, and longer treatment was associated with better outcome. Conclusions Observed lower treatment retention among African Americans and lesser treatment effects for individuals with lower levels of educational attainment are serious issues requiring attention. Reduced benefit was observed for shorter treatment length and self-help administered in groups. PMID:23647283

  8. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  9. Aging and Higher Education: Prospects for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of adulthood educational participation should be developed according to a criterion of environmental and situationally dependent factors rather than solely to one of inexorable and cross-situational biophysical decline. Environmental and organismic factors that may relate to chronically low rates of educational participation by…

  10. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  11. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  12. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  13. Restrictiveness and Race in Special Education: The Failure to Prevent or to Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartledge, Gwendolyn

    2005-01-01

    Disproportionality in special education is a widespread problem for racial minorities, particularly for African and Native American students. Furthermore, special education placements for racial minority students tend to be highly restrictive and permanent. School personnel might approach this problem through a focus on prevention. That is,…

  14. Critical Race Ethnography of Higher Education: Racial Risk and Counter-Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The Ethnography of the University Initiative (EUI) joins a long history of critique, challenge and transformation of higher education. EUI courses are an important site for the creation of non-traditional narratives in which students challenge "business-as-usual" in higher education. For under-represented students, this includes inquiry…

  15. Reimagining Critical Race Theory in Education: Mental Health, Healing, and the Pathway to Liberatory Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Ebony O.; Stovall, David

    2015-01-01

    Long-standing theoretical education frameworks and methodologies have failed to provide space for the role mental health can play in mediating educational consequences. To illustrate the need for such space, Ebony McGee and David Stovall highlight the voices of black undergraduates they have served in the capacities of teacher, researcher, and…

  16. Race, Racial Concentration, and the Dynamics of Educational Inequality across Urban and Suburban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lleras, Christy

    2008-01-01

    This study uses national data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study to model educational inequality as a feedback process among course placement, student engagement, and academic achievement, separately for students in schools with high and low percentages of African American students. Results find strong effects of placement,…

  17. Countering the Politics of Class, Race, Gender, and Geography in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Travis S.

    2011-01-01

    Mirroring many of the same social and geographic inequities present in the K-12 educational system, the promise of early childhood education has been unfulfilled for many young children and their families. Social norms and funding structures, including the lack of universal, publicly funded high-quality preschool offerings, have served to…

  18. Engaging the Pink Elephant in the Room: Investigating Race and Racism through Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Najuana P.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods practitioner inquiry aimed to facilitate transformative learning of individuals' racial attitudes. The focus of this research was to investigate what influence participating in a semester-long social justice art education studio course may have on preservice and practicing art educators' implicit (unconscious) and…

  19. Trayvon Martin and the Curriculum of Tragedy: Critical Race Lessons for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Theodorea Regina; Stovall, David O.

    2013-01-01

    In what ways do the tragedies centered on the lives of black youth, particularly black male youth, inform teachers, education policymakers, and teacher educators about what knowledge is most worth knowing? In this counter/story, we will examine the details of the life and death of Trayvon Martin. From these details, we will extract and interpret a…

  20. Learning while Black: Community Voices on Race, Education and the Boston Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patmon, Denise

    2007-01-01

    Educators and community activists in Boston are talking together about academic achievement and persistence. However, they are also asking questions that are foreign to white suburban discussions of school success and college readiness. In this article, the author relates the range of concerns raised at the "Education of Black Youth in Boston"…

  1. How To Succeed in School without Really Learning: The Credentials Race in American Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David F.

    Getting ahead and getting an education are inseparable in the minds of most Americans. Social mobility lies at the core of the American dream, and educational opportunity is the primary avenue by which to realize this dream. This book suggests that it is time to consider whether the connection between schooling and social mobility is doing more…

  2. Racial Microaggressions in the Workplace: A Critical Race Analysis of the Experiences of African American Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Gunby, Norris W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of racial microaggressions, racial/ethnic identity, and coping, as they relate to job satisfaction. We found that the experiencing of racial microaggressions negatively affects job satisfaction and that educators in higher education contexts often engage in detachment coping. Job satisfaction was…

  3. Race, Policy, and Politics: The Kentucky Plan for Equal Opportunity in Postsecondary Education, 1982-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The Commonwealth of Kentucky was identified in the Adams v Richardson case as one of the nineteen states that were cited for providing separate but equal education for black and white students in higher education. The Office of Civil Rights (OCR) required the state of Kentucky to develop a voluntary desegregation plan for its state institutions to…

  4. The Intersection of Gender, Race, and Disability: Latina Students in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madigan, Jennifer C.

    This qualitative research paper reports on Latina students in single-gender and coeducational secondary-level special education placements for students with mild to moderate learning disabilities. Classroom observations and interviews were conducted with nine Latina special education students. All participants were in their first, second, or third…

  5. A Race to the Bottom--Prison Education and the English and Welsh Policy Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    This article examines prison education in England and Wales arguing that a disjuncture exists between the policy rhetoric of entitlement to education in prison at the European level and the playing out of that entitlement in English and Welsh prisons. Caught between conflicting discourses around a need to combat recidivism and a need for…

  6. Race, Class, and Disproportionality: Reevaluating the Relationship between Poverty and Special Education Placement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Carla; Fernandez, Sonia DeLuca

    2006-01-01

    This article analyzes how a recent National Research Council report (2002) defined the impact of poverty in explaining the overrepresentation of minority students in special education. Echoing the perspective of mainstream special education literature, the report offered a latent theory of compromised development which indicated that minority…

  7. Teaching about Aging. Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This teaching guide on aging contains 18 activities for students. A major cognitive objective is for students to examine and evaluate personal and societal attitudes and behavior toward aging in the United States and in other societies. When students make cross-cultural comparisons of these attitudes and behaviors they become aware that their own…

  8. The Golden Age of Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The state of education in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in this brief analysis of the country's growth. Considered are the single-sex institutions, enrollment trends at the university level, faculty shortages, campus expansion, and religious influences. (LBH)

  9. Sports, Race, and Ressentiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, William C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…

  10. Racing into Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tina R.

    2002-01-01

    Presents an activity in which race cars are designed and constructed out of edible materials. Students explore relationships between speed, distance, and time using both math and science. Includes a chart that shows alignment with the National Science Education Standards. (DDR)

  11. Educational Status, Anger, and Inflammation in the MIDUS National Sample: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Lewis, Tené T.; Coe, Christopher L.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial differences in anger frequency and expression styles have been found. Further, African Americans receive fewer health benefits from higher education than Whites. Purpose To investigate racial differences in how anger moderates the association between education and inflammation. Methods Midlife in the U.S. (MIDUS) participants (N = 1,200; 43.0% male; 18.5% African American) provided education and anger data via survey assessments. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and fibrinogen were determined from a fasting blood sample following an overnight clinic visit. Results African Americans reported higher anger-out, IL-6, and fibrinogen and lower anger-control than Whites. Anger-out predicted higher IL-6 and fibrinogen among African Americans with higher education, whereas trait anger and anger-out predicted lower fibrinogen among Whites with higher education. Anger-out marginally predicted higher IL-6 in less educated Whites. Conclusions Findings underscore racial differences in the benefits and consequences of educational attainment, and how social inequities and anger are manifest in inflammatory physiology. PMID:25715901

  12. PRECISION IN ESTIMATES OF DISABILITY PREVALENCE FOR THE POPULATION AGED 65 AND OVER IN THE UNITED STATES BY RACE AND ETHNICITY

    PubMed Central

    SIORDIA, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Populations are aging worldwide. In the United States (US), the older adult (aged ≥65) population will increase rapidly in the decades to come. Identifying public health needs in older adults requires that sample-derived estimates of disability prevalence be produced using transparent methodologies. Objectives Produce estimates of disabilities for the US older adult population by race and ethnicity and present measures on the ‘level of precision’ in the estimates. Design Cross-sectional study used American Community Survey (ACS) Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) 3-year file collected during 2009-2011 survey period. Setting Community dwelling population aged ≥65 in US. Participants The 1,494,893 actual survey participants (unweighted count) are said to represent 40,496,512 individuals after population weights are applied (weighted count). From the weighted counts, the average age is 75, about 56% are females, and most (80%) are Non-Latino-Whites (NLW). Results Qualitative comparisons provide some evidence that except for hearing, disability prevalence is highest in Non-Latino-Blacks along the following disability items: independent living (25%); ambulatory (34%); self-care (15%); cognitive (11%); and vision (11%). Person inflation ratios, width of 95% confidence interval, and rates of allocations are smaller in NLWs than all the other race-ethnic groups—suggesting disability estimates for NLWs merit the highest level of confidence. Conclusions Improving measures of health in the older adult population requires that efforts continue to highlight how estimates of disability prevalence have the potential to vary in precision and as a function of various known and unknown factors. PMID:26258112

  13. Food Category Purchases Vary by Household Education and Race/Ethnicity: Results from Grocery Receipts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to characterize food group purchases from grocery receipts. Food shoppers (aged >/=19 years with at least one child aged

  14. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  15. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  16. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  17. Making Tobacco Education Relevant to the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)

  18. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  19. Educational Outcomes and Indicators for Early Childhood (Age 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to present a model of: (1) early childhood outcomes at age 3, where outcomes are defined as the results…

  20. Beliefs about Aging: Implications for Future Educational Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…

  1. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  2. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  3. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  4. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  5. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…

  6. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  7. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  8. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  9. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  10. "Brown v Board of Education" in the Age of Choice and Professional Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Philip

    2004-01-01

    "Brown v Board of Education" was decided in 1954 by the Supreme Court in the United States to order the desegregation of students by race in public schools. Opposition to this order occurred in many of the states as well as from the federal executive branch of government itself. Over time, alternatives to educating students have surfaced, some of…

  11. A Golden Age? Dostoevsky, Daoism and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…

  12. Inner-City Femininities and Education: "Race", Class, Gender and Schooling in Young Women's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; Halsall, Anna; Hollingworth, Sumi

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers how urban, ethnically diverse working class girls' constructions of femininities mediate and shape their dis/engagement with education and schooling. We discuss how girls generated a sense of identity value/worth through practices such as "speaking my mind"--which prioritized notions of agency and visibility and resisted the…

  13. Race without Racism: How Higher Education Researchers Minimize Racist Institutional Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes 255 articles published in seven peer-reviewed journals over a 10-year period and presents examples of how higher education researchers undertake the study of campus racial climates; racial differences in access, outcomes, and attainment; and the experiences of students, faculty, and administrators of color on predominantly…

  14. Is Educational Achievement a Turning Point for Incarcerated Delinquents across Race and Sex?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Thomas G.; Bales, William D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2012-01-01

    Research has linked the role of education to delinquency, but much of the focus has been on general population samples and with little attention to demographic differences. Employing a cumulative disadvantage framework that integrates elements of informal social control and labeling theories, this article examines whether academic achievement…

  15. Critical Race Reflections: Valuing the Experiences of Teachers of Color in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Rita

    2009-01-01

    While research has demonstrated that White teachers often must be taught about the pain of racism in order to not perpetuate it, this may not apply to racial minority teachers. Through personal experience, Teachers of Color are likely aware of the trauma that racism can cause students. Within teacher education, we must create research and teaching…

  16. A Race to the Bottom: MOOCs and Higher Education Business Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, Yoram M.

    2014-01-01

    This is a critical examination of the claims that innovations such as massive open online courses (MOOCs) will disrupt the business models of the higher education sector. It describes what business models are, analyses the business model of free MOOCs offered by traditional universities and compares that model to that of paid online courses…

  17. Social Justice Education in a Diverse Classroom: Examining High School Discussions about Race, Power, and Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Anjalé D.; Harris, Tiffany Octavia; La Londe, Priya G.; Moyer, Rachel T.

    2015-01-01

    High school students who participate in social justice education have a greater awareness of inequities that impact their school, community, and society, and learn tools for taking action to address these inequities. Also, a classroom that consist of students with a diverse set of identities creates an ideal circumstance in which a teacher can…

  18. "The Standard Remains the Same": Language Standardisation, Race and Othering in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterzuk, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    As the result of global changes, government policy and university initiatives, institutions of higher education in Canada have become increasingly linguistically and racially diverse. Traditionally--through policy, curriculum, instruction and assessment--Canadian universities have promoted a subjective, monolithic and racialised…

  19. Expectations for Opportunities Following Prison Education: A Discussion of Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Patricia; Fasenfest, David

    2004-01-01

    In 2000 the Center for Urban Studies at Wayne State University received an award to evaluate the implementation and effectiveness of a mid-western state's prisoner education program in reducing the recidivism rates of respondents. As part of this evaluation, researchers held several focus groups with ex-inmates in order to determine how useful the…

  20. Disappearing in the Houdini Education: The Experience of Race and Invisibility among Latina/o Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cammarota, Julio

    2006-01-01

    This article examined Latina/o students' experiences of racism at El Centro High. Many felt that negative relationships with school personnel were deleterious to their education. These relationships had grown from teachers' and administrators' ideological assumptions of Latina/o students' racial inferiority. These assumptions had stemmed from two…

  1. Flora Cooke versus Theodore Bilbo: Progressive Educator Challenges Senator over Race Issues in 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellum, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    The end of World War II was imminent by July of 1945 when 80-year-old progressive educator Flora Cooke of Chicago criticized Senator Theodore Bilbo of Mississippi for filibustering a bill that provided oversight in the government's awarding of military contracts and in its hiring practices. He interpreted the bill as a threat to the South's…

  2. Race, Politics, and Arab American Youth: Shifting Frameworks for Conceptualizing Educational Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Haj, Thea Renda Abu

    2006-01-01

    Educators concerned with creating equitable school environments for Arab American students must focus on how contemporary global and national politics shape the lives of these youth and their families. Arab immigrants and Arab American citizens alike experience specific forms of racial oppression that hold implications for school curricula,…

  3. Race Equity in Education: The History of School Desegregation 1849-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquila, Frank D., Ed.

    This book is a compilation of articles by Linda Zook, Steven Bower, Thomas Black, Frank Aquila, Patrick Tydings, Robert Powers, and Bruce Graham on the legal and educational history of school segregation. An initial article reviews the Federal court process. Also presented is a general historical review of Supreme Court doctrine on the issue of…

  4. A Comparative Study of Educational Leadership Behavior by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sonya B.

    2010-01-01

    The philosophies and behaviors of a leader constitute his or her leadership style. Historically, studies of educational leadership have focused on the philosophies and behaviors of white males. Over the past forty years, there have been a number of studies conducted that seek to identify differences between male and female leadership styles.…

  5. The Impact of Race, Gender, and Culture in South African Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabokela, Reitumetse Obakeng; Mawila, Kaluke Felicity Ntwanano

    2004-01-01

    South Africa's government initiatives, such as the Commission on Gender Equality, the National Gender Forum, and the Office on the Status of Women, support efforts by its institutions of higher education to become more inclusive and equitable. Nevertheless, there remain fundamental obstacles to the lull participation of South African women in the…

  6. The "Others" in Sweden. Neoliberal Policies and the Politics of "Race" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulinari, Diana; Neergaard, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Migration and neo-liberal restructuring are two of the most discussed phenomena with regard to globalisation. In this article, the authors have sought links between these processes in a Swedish context and the experiences of racialised as they spoke about schooling and the role of parents in their educational situation. The aim of the article is…

  7. Rawls, Race, and Education: A Challenge to the Ideal/Nonideal Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Winston C.

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, Winston C. Thompson questions the rigidity of the boundary between ideal and nonideal theory, suggesting a porosity that allows elements of both to be brought to bear upon educational issues in singularly incisive ways. In the service of this goal, Thompson challenges and extends John Rawls's theory of justice as fairness, bringing…

  8. "The Other within": Race/Gender Disruptions to the Professional Learning of White Educational Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmore, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Leslie Roman states "white is a colour too". Yet the whiteness of educational leaders is rarely questioned, although masculinism--enduring capacity of different masculinities to remain the norm in leadership--is increasingly under scrutiny. Rarely do white men or women leaders question their whiteness, whereas indigenous and other minority groups,…

  9. Chapter 6: Equality and Justice for All? Examining Race in Education Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brayboy, Bryan McKinley Jones; Castagno, Angelina E.; Maughan, Emma

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the basic idea that having equality and justice for all in schooling cannot be achieved in the current climate where students are viewed solely as individuals. In fact, given the educational debt and achievement gaps, the ideas of equality and justice are necessarily contradictory. Achieving justice, in light of the…

  10. Invisible Asian Americans: The Intersection of Sexuality, Race, and Education among Gay Asian Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ocampo, Anthony C.; Soodjinda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Most research on Asian American education has centered on addressing and deconstructing the model minority stereotype. While recent studies have highlighted the socioeconomic and cultural heterogeneity among Asian American students, few have examined how sexual identity and masculinity mitigate their academic experiences. In this article, we draw…

  11. Globalizations and Education: Collected Essays on Class, Race, Gender, and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Spanning an extraordinary 30-year career, this book collects seminal essays by critical theorist Carlos Alberto Torres. Torres is among the foremost scholars devoted to interpreting the work of Paulo Freire and has done much over the years to raise the visibility of Freire's contribution to educational theory. In addition, he has helped to…

  12. The Legacy of Derrick Bell and Latino/a Education: A Critical Race Testimonio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrieta, Luis, Jr.; Villenas, Sofia A.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we trace Bell's influence in our lives from graduate students to teacher educators and engaged scholars, and note how we have always read Bell alongside and inseparable from Latino/a Studies and Latina/Chicana feminist thought. We highlight the powerful and fruitful tensions of these interconnections in addressing our…

  13. Critical Race Theory as an Analytical Tool: African American Male Success in Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Harlan E.; Cintron, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    While access to higher education for racial and ethnic minorities improved over the last half of the 20th century, the percentage of these populations obtaining terminal degrees does not approach their respective percentage of society at large. By interviewing five African American males who completed a doctoral program at a Majority White…

  14. The Race Is Not to the Swift: The Chanciness of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Recognizes that, although advocates of experiential learning feel that participation has a profound effect on one's life, concrete evidence to support this contention is lacking. Suggests that lack of such evidence may be due to the fact that the effects of experiential education do not become apparent until later in life. (Author/GC)

  15. Recapitulation Theory and the New Education: Race, Culture, Imperialism, and Pedagogy, 1894-1916

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallace, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this historical study the author argues that the most influential pre-World War I educational theorists subscribed to different forms of the recapitulation theory that conceptualized non-White cultures as childlike, prior steps toward the more advanced, industrialized West. The author demonstrates how the pedagogies of William Torrey Harris,…

  16. 77 FR 55436 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... Act notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73...

  17. 76 FR 27284 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the...

  18. Critical Race Theory and the Cultural Competence Dilemma in Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Moio, Jene A.

    2009-01-01

    Cultural competence is a fundamental tenet of social work education. Although cultural competence with diverse populations historically referred to individuals and groups from non-White racial origins, the term has evolved to encompass differences pertaining to sexuality, religion, ability, and others. Critics charge that the cultural competence…

  19. Race, Culture, and Autism Spectrum Disorder: Understanding the Role of Diversity in Successful Educational Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Travers, Jason; Boutot, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has increased dramatically since the 1980s. In response, researchers, educators, and policy makers have sought to develop effective technologies for assessment and intervention. A focus on evidenced-based practices is logical, given significant deficits in language, social interaction,…

  20. The Paradox of the Education Race: How to Win the Ranking Game by Sailing to Headwind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simola, Hannu; Rinne, Risto; Varjo, Janne; Kauko, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we experiment with the idea of combining path dependency, convergence and contingency in explaining Finnish distinctiveness in education policy and politics since the early 1990s. The focus of this article is on quality assurance and evaluation (QAE) in comprehensive schooling. We elaborate on and contextualise the Finnish QAE…

  1. Inclusive Education and Critical Pedagogy at the Intersections of Disability, Race, Gender and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liasidou, Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to use insights from critical pedagogy to forge and exemplify links with the movement of educational inclusion. The struggles for change, theorised in terms of the emancipatory and liberating potential of schooling, set out the conceptual and analytical backdrop against which issues of exclusion and marginalisation are discussed and…

  2. Playing the "Race" Card? Black and Minority Ethnic Students' Experiences of Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flintoff, Anne

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that explored black and minority ethnic (BME) students' experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) in England. Widening the ethnic diversity of those choosing to enter the teaching profession has been a key policy objective of the Training and Development Agency--the government agency responsible…

  3. Educational Change Takes Ages: Life, Career and Generational Factors in Teachers' Emotional Responses to Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of the emotions of teaching to teachers' age and career stages based on experiences of educational change. Drawing on an analysis of interviews with 50 Canadian elementary, middle and high school teachers it analyzes how teachers respond emotionally to educational change at different ages and stages of career,…

  4. Age and Acceptance of Euthanasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Russell A.

    1980-01-01

    Study explores relationship between age (and sex and race) and acceptance of euthanasia. Women and non-Whites were less accepting because of religiosity. Among older people less acceptance was attributable to their lesser education and greater religiosity. Results suggest that quality of life in old age affects acceptability of euthanasia. (Author)

  5. Elevating the Role of Race in Ethnographic Research: Navigating Race Relations in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.

    2011-01-01

    Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…

  6. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Jacqui

    2001-01-01

    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the notion that…

  7. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tyson H; Richardson, Liana J; Hargrove, Taylor W; Thomas, Courtney S

    2016-06-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  8. The effect of Hurricane Katrina on the prevalence of health impairments and disability among adults in New Orleans: differences by age, race, and sex.

    PubMed

    Sastry, Narayan; Gregory, Jesse

    2013-03-01

    We examined the effects of Hurricane Katrina on disability-related measures of health among adults from New Orleans, U.S.A., in the year after the hurricane, with a focus on differences by age, race, and sex. Our analysis used data from the American Community Survey to compare disability rates between the pre-Katrina population of New Orleans with the same population in the year after Katrina (individuals were interviewed for the study even if they relocated away from the city). The comparability between the pre- and post-Katrina samples was enhanced by using propensity weights. We found a significant decline in health for the adult population from New Orleans in the year after the hurricane, with the disability rate rising from 20.6% to 24.6%. This increase in disability reflected a large rise in mental impairments and, to a lesser extent, in physical impairments. These increases were, in turn, concentrated among young and middle-aged black females. Stress-related factors likely explain why young and middle-aged black women experienced worse health outcomes, including living in dwellings and communities that suffered the most damage from the hurricane, household breakup, adverse outcomes for their children, and higher susceptibility. PMID:23321678

  9. Using Multiple-hierarchy Stratification and Life Course Approaches to Understand Health Inequalities: The Intersecting Consequences of Race, Gender, SES, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Tyson H.; Richardson, Liana J.; Hargrove, Taylor W.; Thomas, Courtney S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how the intersecting consequences of race-ethnicity, gender, socioeconomics status (SES), and age influence health inequality. We draw on multiple-hierarchy stratification and life course perspectives to address two main research questions. First, does racial-ethnic stratification of health vary by gender and/or SES? More specifically, are the joint health consequences of racial-ethnic, gender, and socioeconomic stratification additive or multiplicative? Second, does this combined inequality in health decrease, remain stable, or increase between middle and late life? We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (N = 12,976) to investigate between- and within-group differences in in self-rated health among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans. Findings indicate that the effects of racial-ethnic, gender, and SES stratification are interactive, resulting in the greatest racial-ethnic inequalities in health among women and those with higher levels of SES. Furthermore, racial-ethnic/gender/SES inequalities in health tend to decline with age. These results are broadly consistent with intersectionality and aging-as-leveler hypotheses. PMID:27284076

  10. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. PMID:23726211

  11. Consumer Education in an Age of Adaptation. Educator Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sally R.

    Designed to serve as a reference and resource, this publication contains ideas and information to help teachers modify content and teaching methods to assist students in coping with the changing marketplace. Part 1 of the guide lists educational objectives for these major content areas: (1) The Consumer and the Economy, (2) Values and Goals, (3)…

  12. Trends in the age adjusted mortality from acute ST segment elevation myocardial infarction in the United States (1988-2004) based on race, gender, infarct location and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Mohammed-Reza; John, Jooby; Hashemzadeh, Mehrnoosh; Jamal, M Mazen; Hashemzadeh, Mehrtash

    2009-10-15

    Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has dramatically changed over the past 2 decades. The goal of this study was to determine trends in the mortality of patients with acute STEMIs in the United States over a 16-year period (1988 to 2004) on the basis of gender, race, infarct location, and co-morbidities. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to analyze the age-adjusted mortality rates for STEMI from 1988 to 2004 for inpatients age >40. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes consistent with acute STEMI were used. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contained a total of 1,316,216 patients who had diagnoses of acute STEMIs from 1988 to 2004. The mean age of these patients was 66.92 +/- 12.82 years. A total of 163,915 hospital deaths occurred during the study period. From 1988, the age-adjusted mortality rate decreased gradually for all acute STEMIs for the entire study period (in 1988, 406.86 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 110.25 to 703.49; in 2004, 286.02 per 100,000, 95% confidence interval 45.21 to 526.84). Furthermore, unadjusted mortality decreased from 15% in 1988 to 10% in 2004 (p <0.01). This decrease was similar between the genders, among most ethnicities, and in patients with diabetes and those with congestive heart failure. However, women and African Americans had higher rates of acute STEMI-related mortality compared to men and Caucasians over the years studied. In conclusion, age-adjusted mortality from acute STEMIs has significantly decreased over the past 16 years, with persistent higher mortality rates in women and African Americans the study period. PMID:19801019

  13. Teachers Advised to "Get Real" on Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how educators are advised on tackling race-related issues in schools in a book due to be published in June by the New Press, of New York City. Called "Everyday Antiracism: Getting Real About Race in School," the volume contains 65 essays from scholars who offer advice for educators on recognizing when everyday classroom…

  14. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  15. Study of a European male champion in 10-km road races in the age group >85 years.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Kohler, Götz; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    An 86-year-old man became a double champion in the European championship for road running in 2009. He won the 10-km road run with a time of 58:01 minutes, setting a new European record for men aged 85 and older. Two days later, he became a European champion in the same age group for the half-marathon, with a time of 2:17 hours. He started his running career at the age of 64 years and has trained for about an hour three times a week every year since. During these 22 years, he has performed several road runs each year, ranging from 2.5 to 10 km, and also completed a number of half-marathons. Although his running speeds had progressively slowed since the age of 64, there was an increased rate of decline at the age of 82. This man's outstanding performance should encourage other master runners to continue running and competing past the age of 85. PMID:20671823

  16. Using Education Technology as a Proactive Approach to Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Daragh; Spencer, Anne; Hussey, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Bone Health in the Park was created in Ireland and is an online health promotion education resource focussing on bone health, healthy ageing and falls prevention. The programme was designed by an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in collaboration with an Education Technologist and primarily uses storytelling to promote education specifically on bone health and falls risk prevention for health care professionals, clients, families and informal carers. This paper reports on core deliverables from this programme from 2010 to 2015, and provides insight into their development, in addition to details on its clinical effectiveness by using technology enhanced learning to underpin health promotion initiatives. PMID:27332189

  17. Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

  18. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  19. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  20. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  1. The Impact of Higher Education on Mature Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; And Others

    Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…

  2. Effective Parenting Education through Age-Paced Newsletters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Nelson, Pat Tanner

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Cooperative Extension University and county faculty throughout the nation have made available an unusually parent-friendly series of educational newsletters. Monthly issues of the newsletters address information by age groups. Through local and state collaborations that often feature the county Extension office, hospitals,…

  3. Another Challenge. Age 70 Retirement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.; And Others

    Changes in higher education employee benefit plans brought about by the extension of the mandatory retirement age to 70 are the focus of the monograph. Chapter one summarizes the volume and presents some major recommendations that institutions may find helpful in benefit and personnel planning. Chapter two sketches the meaning of the new law (1978…

  4. Special Education Forms. Volume 1: School-Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Sandra; And Others

    This document comprises forms (and directions for their use) used in Oregon in conjunction with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for school-aged children. Forms are identified as either required or optional and are presented in a two-page format, with one page identifying the form, explaining its purposes, and providing…

  5. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  6. The New Age of Telecommunication: Setting the Context for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…

  7. Read, Listen, and Watch: Media Resources for Conversing about Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Anthony R., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Facilitating discussions about race can be challenging for even the most experienced educator. In this article, the author provides a framework for using multimedia resources to guide student reflection and discussion on race. He suggests three types of media resources that educators can use to engage students in dialogues on race. For each of…

  8. Unequal Legacies: Race and Multiculturalism in the LIS Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawley, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Race remains poorly understood and inadequately represented in library and information science (LIS) education. Educators tend to avoid the term "race," preferring the more inclusive "multiculturalism." Yet these terms are far from equivalent: the various dimensions of multiculturalism, including race, ethnicity, class, and gender, have different…

  9. Children's Assessments of Corporal Punishment and Other Disciplinary Practices: The Role of Age, Race, SES, and Exposure to Spanking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittrup, Brigitte; Holden, George W.

    2010-01-01

    African-American and Anglo-American children's assessments of four disciplinary methods (spanking, reasoning, withdrawing privileges, and time-out) were investigated with 108 children ages 6-10 years old and one of their parents. Children watched videos depicting a child being disciplined and then rated each discipline method. Reasoning was rated…

  10. Widening Access to Tertiary Education for Women in Ghana through Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwapong, Olivia Adwoa Tiwaah Frimpong

    2007-01-01

    Distance education (DE) is seen as a tool for widening access to education at all levels. It is an educational tool that breaks most of the divides in education--age, gender, race, income, space, time etc. For the past decades, irrespective of the extensive expansion of tertiary institutions in the country, provision of tertiary education in Ghana…

  11. Race-related differences in the experiences of family members of persons with mental illness participating in the NAMI Family to Family Education Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Melissa Edmondson; Lindsey, Michael A; Williams, Crystal D; Medoff, Deborah R; Lucksted, Alicia; Fang, Li Juan; Schiffman, Jason; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Dixon, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    Families play an important role in the lives of individuals with mental illness. Coping with the strain of shifting roles and multiple challenges of caregiving can have a huge impact. Limited information exists regarding race-related differences in families' caregiving experiences, their abilities to cope with the mental illness of a loved one, or their interactions with mental health service systems. This study examined race-related differences in the experiences of adults seeking to participate in the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family-to-Family Education Program due to mental illness of a loved one. Participants were 293 White and 107 African American family members who completed measures of problem- and emotion-focused coping, knowledge about mental illness, subjective illness burden, psychological distress, and family functioning. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine race-related differences. African American caregivers reported higher levels of negative caregiving experiences, less knowledge of mental illness, and higher levels of both problem-solving coping and emotion-focused coping, than White caregivers. Mental health programs serving African American families should consider targeting specific strategies to address caregiving challenges, support their use of existing coping mechanisms and support networks, and increase their knowledge of mental illness. PMID:25213395

  12. Educating an Aging Society: The University of the Third Age in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenerall, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    The University of the Third Age in Finland has evolved from English and French models to include lectures, discussion groups, and research groups. A survey of 165 adult learners found their primary reason for participating was to acquire general education and self-knowledge. Socializing and meeting people were among the lowest ranked motivations.…

  13. Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

  14. Treatment of early-stage human epidermal growth factor 2-positive cancers among medicare enrollees: age and race strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Luis, Ines; Lin, Nancy U; Keating, Nancy L; Barry, William T; Lii, Joyce; Burstein, Harold J; Winer, Eric P; Freedman, Rachel A

    2016-08-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is highly efficacious regardless of age. Recent data suggested that many older patients with HER2-positive disease do not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. Nevertheless, some of this 'under-treatment' may be clinically appropriate. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to identify patients aged ≥ 66 with stage ≥ Ib-III, HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed during 2010-2011 (HER2 status available) who did not have a history of congestive heart failure. We described all systemic treatments received and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment patterns. Among 770 women 44.4 % did not receive trastuzumab, including 21.8 % who received endocrine therapy only, 6.3 % who received chemotherapy (±endocrine therapy) and 16.2 % who did not receive any systemic therapy. In addition to age and grade, race was strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab (64.4 % of Non-Hispanic blacks vs. 43.6 % of whites did not receive trastuzumab, adjusted ORNon-Hispanic black vs. white = 3.14, 95 %CI = 1.38-7.17), and many patients with stage III disease did not receive trastuzumab. Further, 16.2 % of patients did not receive any systemic treatment and this occurred more frequently for black patients. Over 40 % of older patients with indication to receive adjuvant trastuzumab did not receive it and nearly 20 % of these patients did not receive any other treatment. Although treatment omission may be appropriate in some cases, we observed concerning differences in trastuzumab receipt, particularly for black women. Strategies to optimize care for older patients and to eliminate treatment disparities are urgently needed. PMID:27484879

  15. The Second Educational Revolution: Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, A.; Halverson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…

  16. Attitudes Toward Victims of Rape: Effects of Gender, Race, Religion, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagel, Barbara; Matsuo, Hisako; McIntyre, Kevin P.; Morrison, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Although previous literature focusing on perceptions of victims of rape has examined how gender, race, and culture influence the attitudes one holds toward victims, these studies have yielded mixed results. This study compared perceptions of victims of rape across a wide range of ages, educational backgrounds, religions, and income levels, while…

  17. Recent High School and College Experiences of Youth: Variations by Race, Sex, and Social Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    1982-01-01

    Documents recent differences (by race, sex and age) in the educational experiences of high school and college youth. High school experiences examined include attitudes toward school, academic performance, courses taken, and dropping out; college experiences cover participation, attendance patterns, major field of study, and sources of financial…

  18. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  19. Hiding the Politically Obvious: A Critical Race Theory Preview of Diversity as Racial Neutrality in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morfin, Otoniel Jimenez; Perez, Victor H.; Parker, Laurence; Lynn, Marvin; Arrona, John

    2006-01-01

    What have colleges and universities done to increase student of color enrollment since the 2003 U.S. Supreme Court decisions in "Grutter v. Bollinger" and "Gratz v. Bollinger?" This article provides a critical race theory (CRT) snapshot of selective data and institutions since these landmark decisions. We find that even though "Grutter" gives the…

  20. Charting a Way Forward: Intersections of Race and Space in Establishing Identity as an African-Canadian Teacher Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In Canada, most universities and their classrooms are often constructed as rational and neutral spaces where interaction between professors and students is free of the influences of race, class, and gender. Implicit in such a construction is the assumption that the university is a purely White space where students from the dominant racial group…

  1. Contours of Race and Ethnicity: Institutional Context and Hmong American Students' Negotiations of Racial Formation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vue, Rican

    2013-01-01

    Hmong American students and their struggles are largely invisible yet grossly misunderstood when seen. This study reveals how Hmong Americans negotiate the contours of race and ethnicity to construct an affirming identity on their respective university campuses. A framework of campus racial climate is employed to investigate how institutional…

  2. Theological Education in Action: Adult Learning about Race in the Student Interracial Ministry of Union Theological Seminary, 1960-1968

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Kirk A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the learning experiences of participants in the Student Interracial Ministry (SIM) of Union Theological Seminary in New York. SIM provided the seminarians with an intense learning environment in which they crossed borders including race, gender, class, and culture. For many of these participants, this…

  3. Designing Inter-Organizational Networks to Implement Education Reform: An Analysis of State Race to the Top Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Meredith, Julie; Childs, Joshua; Stein, Mary Kay; Prine, Deanna Weber

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to understand the opportunities and challenges associated with the implementation of state designed Race to the Top (RttT) funded reform networks. Drawing on a conceptual framework developed from the networked governance literature, we analyzed the 12 state RttT grantees' applications. Our analysis revealed that states…

  4. The Origins of Race-Conscious Affirmative Action in Undergraduate Admissions: A Comparative Analysis of Institutional Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stulberg, Lisa M.; Chen, Anthony S.

    2014-01-01

    What explains the rise of race-conscious affirmative action policies in undergraduate admissions? The dominant theory posits that adoption of such policies was precipitated by urban and campus unrest in the North during the late 1960s. Based on primary research in a sample of 17 selective schools, we find limited support for the dominant theory.…

  5. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  6. Patterns of Antibacterial Use and Impact of Age, Race-Ethnicity, and Geographic Region on Antibacterial Use in an Outpatient Medicaid Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gahbauer, Alice M.; Gonzales, Marco L.; Guglielmo, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES To describe patterns of outpatient antibacterial use among California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) fee-for-service system beneficiaries, and to investigate the influence of demographic factors—age, race-ethnicity, state county, and population density—on those patterns. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data. DATA SOURCE Medi-Cal fee-for-service system claims database. PATIENTS All outpatient Medi-Cal fee-for-service system beneficiaries enrolled between 2006 and 2011 who had at least one systemic antibacterial claim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Rates of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of broad-spectrum antibacterial use were measured over the study period and among age, racial-ethnic and geographic (county) groups. Of the 10,018,066 systemic antibacterial claims selected for analysis, antibacterial prescribing rates decreased from 542 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2006 to 461 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2011 (r = –0.971, p = 0.0012; τ-b = –1.00, p = 0.009). Among age groups, children had the highest rate of use (605 claims/1000 beneficiaries, χ2 (2) = 320,000, p < 0.001); among racial-ethnic groups, Alaskan Natives and Native Americans had the highest rate of use (1086/1000 beneficiaries, χ2 (5) = 197,000, p < 0.001). Broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing increased from 28.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.1–28.2%) to 32.7% (95% CI 32.6–32.8%) over the study period. Senior age groups and Caucasians received the highest proportions of broad-spectrum agents (53.4% [95% CI 52.5–54.3%] and 36.6% [95% CI 36.6–36.7%], respectively). Population density was inversely related to both overall antibacterial use (ρ = –0.432, p = 0.0018) and broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing (ρ = –0.359, p < 0.001). The rate of prescribing decreased over the study period for all antibacterial classes with the exception of macrolides and sulfonamides. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed agent. CONCLUSION

  7. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites. PMID:26282484

  8. Disparities in late stage diagnosis, treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural residence among women in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Markossian, Talar W; Hines, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the outcomes of late stage breast cancer diagnosis, receiving first course treatment, and breast cancer-related death by race, age, and rural/urban residence in Georgia. The authors used cross-sectional and follow-up data (1992-2007) for Atlanta and Rural Georgia cancer registries that are part of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (N = 23,500 incident breast cancer cases in non-Hispanic whites or non-Hispanic African Americans). Multilevel modeling and Cox proportional hazard models revealed that compared to whites, African American women had significantly increased odds of late stage diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, p = 0.0001) and unknown tumor stage (OR = 1.27, p = 0.0001), decreased odds of receiving radiation (OR = 0.93, p = 0.041) or surgery (OR = 0.50, p = 0.0001), and increased risk of death following breast cancer diagnosis (hazard rate ratio [HR] = 1.50, p = 0.0001). Increased age was significantly associated with the odds of late/unknown stage at diagnosis, worse treatment, and survival. Women residing in rural areas had significantly decreased odds of receiving radiation and surgery with radiation (OR = 0.59, p = 0.0001), and for receiving breast-conserving surgery compared to mastectomy (OR = 0.73, p = 0.005). Factors affecting each level of the breast cancer continuum are distinct and should be examined separately. Efforts are needed to alleviate disparities in breast cancer outcomes in hard-to-reach populations. PMID:22591230

  9. Race to the Top: Education Could Better Support Grantees and Help Them Address Capacity Challenges. Report to the Ranking Member, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. GAO-15-295

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowicki, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Education (Education) created Race To the Top (RTT) under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. From 2010 through 2011, Education awarded $4 billion in competitive grant funds to 19 states to reform core areas of K-12 education. RTT states also committed to building capacity to implement and sustain reforms. GAO and…

  10. The Internet: Creating Equity through Continuous Education or Perpetuating a Digital Divide? Essay Review of "Race in Cyberspace," edited by Beth E. Kolko, Lisa Nakamura, and Gilbert B. Rodman; "The Internet: An Ethnographic Approach," by Daniel Miller and Don Slater; and "The Digital Divide: Standing at the Intersection of Race and Technology," by Raneta L. Mack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Beverly; Poindexter, Maria T.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews three books that address the relations between technology, race, and education, and illuminate the realistic impact that the Internet has had on persons of African descent in the United States and Trinidad. Discusses the digital divide among U.S. racial/ethnic groups and across countries and the social and political implications of the…

  11. Race concepts in medicine.

    PubMed

    Hardimon, Michael O

    2013-02-01

    Confusions about the place of race in medicine result in part from a failure to recognize the plurality of race concepts. Recognition that the ordinary concept of race is not identical to the racialist concept of race makes it possible to ask whether there might be a legitimate place for the deployment of concepts of race in medical contexts. Two technical race concepts are considered. The concept of social race is the concept of a social group that is taken to be a racialist race. It is apt for use in examining and addressing the medical effects of discrimination. The populationist concept of race represents race as a kind of biological population. It makes it possible to frame the question whether biological race is a factor in disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. It is apt for use in determining whether biological race is a medically significant category. PMID:23300217

  12. A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17 years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-α diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50 years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-α diol G levels compared to other profiles (p<0.05). Non-Hispanic Black, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (>30 kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

  13. Race to Top Draws out New Suitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The list of 61 finalists for the latest Race to the Top competition shows that the U.S. Department of Education was successful in enticing high-scoring applications from districts in rural America and in states that had not shared in the Race to the Top bounty before. But whether the ultimate winners, which will be announced this month, will be…

  14. States Press Race to Top Blueprints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2010-01-01

    States are pushing ahead with efforts to make sweeping changes to education policy through the Race to the Top program, despite some of them having seen individual schools and districts back out of the process because of concerns over the time and money required to make those plans a reality. The Obama administration has envisioned Race to the…

  15. The Impact of Education Reform on Music Education: Paradigm Shifts in Music Education Curriculum, Advocacy, and Philosophy from "Sputnik" to Race to the Top

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscome, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    President Obama recently described America's current economic, societal, educational, and technological circumstances as "our generation's 'Sputnik' moment." If history repeats itself in the twenty-first century, music educators may face a situation similar to that which developed in the 1960s concerning the impact of education reform on music…

  16. Race talk: the psychology of racial dialogues.

    PubMed

    Sue, Derald Wing

    2013-11-01

    Constructive dialogues on race have been proposed as a means to heal racial and ethnic divides, reduce prejudice and misinformation, increase racial literacy, and foster improved race relations. Studies on the psychology of racial dialogues indicate social and academic norms that dictate against race talk between White Americans and persons of color: (a) the politeness protocol, (b) the academic protocol, and (c) the color-blind protocol. These protocols discourage race talk and allow society to enter into a conspiracy of silence regarding the detrimental impact oppression plays on persons of color. Facilitating difficult dialogues on race requires educators to recognize what makes such discussions difficult. For people of color, engaging in race talk exposes them to microaggressions that invalidate and assail their racial/ethnic identities. For Whites, honest discussions are impeded by fears of appearing racist, of realizing their racism, of acknowledging White privilege, and of taking responsibility to combat racism. PMID:24320648

  17. Race and Gender Issues: Critical Race Feminism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Adrien K.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a new body of legal scholarship on race and gender: critical race feminism (CRF), examining critical legal studies, critical race theory, and feminism. Explains the term "global multiplicative identities" as it relates to CRF and concludes that CRF has the potential to benefit from more sustained interaction with human rights workers in…

  18. Confronting the Categories: Equitable Admissions without Apartheid Race Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erasmus, Z.

    2010-01-01

    South Africa's government requires information on apartheid race classification to implement and monitor racial redress. This has sparked resistance to race classification as a criterion for redress in higher education admissions. I argue that (1) jettisoning apartheid race categories now in favour of either class or "merit" would set back the few…

  19. Loca, Eco Tentokorkvtes (Terrapin Race).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Factor, Susannah

    Developed as part of the Seminole Bilingual Education Project, this story and coloring book presents the story of "The Terrapin Race" in both Seminole and English. Right-hand pages offer full-page illustrations for students to color; left-hand pages contain a brief narrative in the two languages in large type. The book uses the sounds which the…

  20. Race to Top Applications Scrutinized

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen; Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2010-01-01

    As peer reviewers for the U.S. Department of Education begin to comb through the thousands of pages of applications for $4 billion in federal Race to the Top Fund grants, they'll be under pressure to determine which are most worthy of funding: those that promise the most, or those with the best chance of delivering. In a competition whose criteria…

  1. Reflections of middle school students by gender and race/ethnicity on obtaining a successful science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalik, Bethany

    Sixty-five eighth grade students responded to a science beliefs survey during a science-inquiry lab unit in an action research project to assess whether gender has an effect on how the students perceive their science classes. The survey was given to eighth grade students during the first week of school. Student results were categorized by gender and by race/ethnicity. The middle school where the study took place is fairly diverse with 540 total students of which 48% of them are White, 42% are Black, and 10% are Hispanic. Six female science teachers are employed at the middle school, two per grade. The first unit that is taught in science is inquiry skills, the basics of all science such as graphing, laboratory tools, safety, etc. This unit is taught in 6 th, 7th, and 8th grades, as a part of our standards. Inquiry test results for 8th graders are also given in this thesis, and are categorized again by gender and race/ethnicity. The results of the surveys and the assessment show a gap in the way students think about and complete activities in science. It was exciting to see that the female students scored better overall than male students on an inquiry-based summative assessment, while white students overall scored better than Black and Hispanic students. White males tended to rank science as the class they enjoyed the most of all core classes and thought science was easier than all the other data demographics. The conclusion found was stunning, in that the true gap in student's beliefs about science lies within the different races/ethnicities, rather than just gender alone.

  2. Chronicle of Race, Sex, and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Integrated Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Discusses legal and legislative decisions, Department of Education mandates, and other events that are relevant to race and sex desegregation throughout the nation. Briefly updates desegregation news from 36 states and the District of Columbia. (MK)

  3. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Mike

    2009-01-01

    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist, David Gillborn. A…

  4. Race to Top Promises Come Home to Roost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Grant recipients risk losing millions of dollars in Race to the Top money if they fail to live up to their promises, federal education officials make clear. By threatening to revoke Hawaii's $75 million Race to the Top award for failing to make "adequate progress" on key milestones of its education reform plan, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne…

  5. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  6. The Relationship of the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children to Sex, Race, and Fluid-Crystallized Intelligence on the KAIT at Ages 11 to 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; McLean, James E.

    1994-01-01

    Four typologies assessed by the Murphy-Meisgeier Type Indicator for Children (C. Meisgeier and M. Murphy, 1987) (Extraversion-Introversion, Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling, Judging-Perceiving) were related to sex, race/ethnic group, intelligence level, and fluid/crystallized IQ discrepancy for 263 adolescents. The Thinking/Feeling index…

  7. Who Plays? Who Pays?: Education Finance Policy That Supplants Tax Burdens along Lines of Race and Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricks, Kasey

    2016-01-01

    Many Chicagoans are getting shortchanged, particularly when it comes to money exchange between the Illinois Lottery (IL) and Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE). A significant portion of lottery sales is earmarked for education in Illinois. Because these revenues are not generated equally, however, some contribute more to education via the…

  8. Race-related Disparities in Five-year Cognitive Level and Change in Untrained ACTIVE Participants

    PubMed Central

    Marsiske, Michael; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Thomas, Kelsey R.; Kasten, Linda; Jones, Rich; Johnson, Kathy; Willis, Sherry; Whitfield, Keith; Ball, Karlene; Rebok, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined five-year cognitive change in untrained African American and White participants from the ACTIVE study Methods Five year trajectories of memory, reasoning, visual processing speed/useful field of view, digit symbol substitution, and vocabulary were investigated. Education, health, gender, age and retest/practice effects were controlled for, and a missing data pattern mixture approach was used to adjust for dropout effects. Results After considering age, education health and gender, being African American uniquely explained 2% to 7% of the variance in cognitive performance. There were virtually no significant race differences in rates of change. Discussion Race-related results in the current study are consistent with previous research suggesting that social advantage factors like education have a stronger influence on level of performance than rate of change. The small remaining effects of being African American on performance levels likely reflect uncontrolled variation in factors like literacy and financial advantage. PMID:24385632

  9. Spirituality on Campus: The Emergence of a Postsecular Age in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbiondo, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age, objective…

  10. Race Equality Scheme 2005-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education (HMIE) is strongly committed to promoting race equality in the way that HMIE staff go about performing their role within Scottish education. Scottish society reflects cultural, ethnic, religious and linguistic diversity and Scottish education should be accessible to all. No-one should be disadvantaged or…

  11. Cognitive Diversity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…

  12. The Power of Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, W. Fred

    Community education is an all inclusive phenomenon functioning in the community to help people of all ages, races, religious and socioeconomic backgrounds to fulfill their learning needs and to aid in the development and improvement of the entire community. The community school can be the leading agent in the implementation of community education.…

  13. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication. PMID:21533235

  14. Kinematic and electromyographic patterns of Olympic race walkers.

    PubMed

    Murray, M P; Guten, G N; Mollinger, L A; Gardner, G M

    1983-01-01

    The performance of two Olympic race walkers was studied during free-speed, fast, and race walking. Measurements of the stride and temporal components of gait, as well as the simultaneous displacement patterns of the body segments, and the electromyographic activity of muscles of the trunk and upper and lower limbs were recorded during the three walking speeds. During the testing, the race walkers achieved an average speed of 12.5 km/hr as compared to the 8.7 km/hr average speed achieved by normal men of the same age during fast walking. Race walking was characterized by an increase in cadence and stride length beyond that of normal controls (in a prior study) during fast walking, with stride lengths averaging 125% of stature during race walking, and 115% during normal fast walking. In the two race walkers the amplitudes of most of the movement patterns of the trunk and upper and lower limbs were exaggerated during race walking as compared to normal controls' fast walking. Several mechanisms were used by the race walkers to minimize the vertical excursion of the center of gravity of the body during race walking. All of the muscles monitored in the race walkers showed an increase in the amplitude of electromyographic activity during race walking as compared to fast walking; duration of muscle activity was also usually increased during race walking. Several suggestions for prevention of injuries associated with race walking are made. PMID:6846684

  15. The Construction of "Age Difference" and the Impact of Age-Mixing within UK Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    "Age" is an important social category used to define individuals and groups within our society and, often, to structure access to power, prestige and status. However, within educational research, age has been relatively neglected when compared with other social categories such as gender, class and ethnicity. In an attempt to begin to explore the…

  16. A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…

  17. Family (Dis)Advantage and the Educational Prospects of Better Off African American Youth: How Race Still Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosa, Travis L.; Alexander, Karl L.

    2007-01-01

    While the educational difficulties of poor black students are well documented and have been discussed extensively, the academic performance of well-off African American children has received much less attention. Even with economic and educational resources in the home, well-off African American youth are not achieving at the levels of their white…

  18. Challenges to Affirmative Action Race Conscious College Admissions Policies Affecting the Affordability of Higher Education for African American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sky Lark, Taj'ullah

    2012-01-01

    The instability of the U.S. economy and its competitiveness in the global market has lead to increase request for investment in Higher Education programs. There exists a rising awareness among scholars of how inextricably education is tied to the strength of the economy, the well being of its populace, as well as the importance of a diversified…

  19. A Race against Time: The Crisis in Urban Schooling. Contemporary Studies in Social and Policy Issues in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James G., Ed.; Boyd, William Lowe, Ed.

    This collection of papers presents three approaches to urban educational reform. After "Introduction--Urban Education Reform: Competing Approaches" (James G. Cibulka and William Lowe Byrd), Part 1, "Systems Reforms of Urban School Systems," includes (1) "Accountability at the Improv: Brief Sketches of School Reform in Los Angeles" (Charles Taylor…

  20. The International Race over the Patronage of the South: Comparative and International Education in Eastern Europe and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; deJong-Lambert, William

    2006-01-01

    The authors contend that the impact of the Cold War on multilateral organizations (especially UNESCO) as well as on the academic programs in Comparative and International Education or Development Studies in Education has been largely understudied. Both world-systems (USA and its allies, Soviet Union and its allies) laid claim on the project of…